Science.gov

Sample records for cycles russian vision

  1. VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; David E. Shropshire

    2009-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a very complex system that includes considerable dynamic complexity as well as detail complexity. In the nuclear power realm, there are experts and considerable research and development in nuclear fuel development, separations technology, reactor physics and waste management. What is lacking is an overall understanding of the entire nuclear fuel cycle and how the deployment of new fuel cycle technologies affects the overall performance of the fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing and delays in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works and can transition as technologies are changed. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model and some examples of how to use VISION.

  2. VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; Gretchen Matthern; Steven Piet; David Shropshire; Tyler Schweitzer

    2010-11-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a set of complex components that work together in unison. In order to support the nuclear renaissance, it is necessary to understand the impacts of changes and timing of events in any part of the fuel cycle system. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing, and changes in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model components and some examples of how to use VISION.

  3. VISION User Guide - VISION (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert F. Jeffers; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; Benjamin A. Baker; Joseph Grimm

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R&D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating “what if” scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., “reactor types” not individual reactors and “separation types” not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several

  4. Comparison of the US and Russian Cycle Ergometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason; Bentley, Jason R.; Moore, Alan D.; Hagan, R. Donald

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the U.S. and Russian cycle ergometers focusing on the mechanical differences of the devices and the physiological differences observed while using the devices. Methods: First, the mechanical loads provided by the U.S. Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation System (CEVIS) and the Russian Veloergometer were measured using a calibration dynamometer. Results were compared and conversion equations were modeled to determine the actual load provided by each device. Second, ten male subjects (32.9 +/- 6.5 yrs, 180.6 +/- 4.4 cm; 81.9 +/- 6.9 kg) experienced with both cycling and exercise testing completed a standardized submaximal exercise test protocol on CEVIS and Veloergometer. The exercise protocol involved 8 sub-maximal workloads each lasting 3 minutes for a total of 24 minutes per session, or until the end of the stage when the subject reached 85% of peak oxygen consumption or age-predicted maximum heart rate (220 - age). The workload started at 50 Watts (W), increased to 100 W, and then increased 25 W every 3 minutes until reaching a peak workload of 250 W. Physiological variables were then compared at each workload by repeated measures ANOVA or paired t-tests (p<0.05). Results: While both CEVIS and Veloergometer produced significantly lower workloads than the displayed workload, CEVIS produced even lower loads than Veloergometer (p<0.05) at each indicated workload. Despite this fact, the only physiological variables that showed a significant difference between the ergometers were VE (125 - 250W), VO2 (175 and 250 W), and VCO2 (175 W). All other physiological data were not statistically different between CEVIS and Veloergometer. Conclusion: Although workloads were different between ergometers, relatively few physiological differences were observed. Therefore, CEVIS workloads of 87.5 - 262.5 W can be rounded to the nearest 25 W increment and performed on the Veloergometer.

  5. Software Platform Evaluation - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Jacobson; D. E. Shropshire; W. B. West

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this Software Platform Evaluation (SPE) is to document the top-level evaluation of potential software platforms on which to construct a simulation model that satisfies the requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). See the Software Requirements Specification for Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model (INEEL/EXT-05-02643, Rev. 0) for a discussion of the objective and scope of the VISION model. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies. This document will serve as a guide for selecting the most appropriate software platform for VISION. This is a “living document” that will be modified over the course of the execution of this work.

  6. Software Requirements Specification Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; W. H. West

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is to define the top-level requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). This simulation model is intended to serve a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

  7. Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION): A Tool for Analyzing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Futures

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Steven J. Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; David E. Shropshire; Robert F. Jeffers; A. M. Yacout; Tyler Schweitzer

    2010-11-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a set of complex components that are intended to work together. To support the nuclear renaissance, it is necessary to understand the impacts of changes and timing of events in any part of the fuel cycle system such as how the system would respond to each technological change, a series of which moves the fuel cycle from where it is to a postulated future state. The system analysis working group of the United States research program on advanced fuel cycles (formerly called the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative) is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing, and changes in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model components and some examples of how to use VISION. For example, VISION users can now change yearly the selection of separation or reactor technologies, the performance characteristics of those technologies, and/or the routing of material among separation and reactor types - with the model still operating on a PC in <5 min.

  8. VISION -- A Dynamic Model of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; S. J. Piet; D. E. Shropshire; G. E. Matthern

    2006-02-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s (AFCI) fundamental objective is to provide technology options that – if implemented – would enable long-term growth of nuclear power while improving sustainability and energy security. The AFCI organization structure consists of four areas; Systems Analysis, Fuels, Separations and Transmutations. The Systems Analysis Working Group is tasked with bridging the program technical areas and providing the models, tools, and analyses required to assess the feasibility of design and deploy¬ment options and inform key decision makers. An integral part of the Systems Analysis tool set is the development of a system level model that can be used to examine the implications of the different mixes of reactors, implications of fuel reprocessing, impact of deployment technologies, as well as potential “exit” or “off ramp” approaches to phase out technologies, waste management issues and long-term repository needs. The Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) is a computer-based simulation model that allows performing dynamic simulations of fuel cycles to quantify infrastructure requirements and identify key trade-offs between alternatives. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

  9. CRALBP supports the mammalian retinal visual cycle and cone vision

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yunlu; Shen, Susan Q.; Jui, Jonathan; Rupp, Alan C.; Byrne, Leah C.; Hattar, Samer; Flannery, John G.; Corbo, Joseph C.; Kefalov, Vladimir J.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the cellular retinaldehyde–binding protein (CRALBP, encoded by RLBP1) can lead to severe cone photoreceptor–mediated vision loss in patients. It is not known how CRALBP supports cone function or how altered CRALBP leads to cone dysfunction. Here, we determined that deletion of Rlbp1 in mice impairs the retinal visual cycle. Mice lacking CRALBP exhibited M-opsin mislocalization, M-cone loss, and impaired cone-driven visual behavior and light responses. Additionally, M-cone dark adaptation was largely suppressed in CRALBP-deficient animals. While rearing CRALBP-deficient mice in the dark prevented the deterioration of cone function, it did not rescue cone dark adaptation. Adeno-associated virus–mediated restoration of CRALBP expression specifically in Müller cells, but not retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, rescued the retinal visual cycle and M-cone sensitivity in knockout mice. Our results identify Müller cell CRALBP as a key component of the retinal visual cycle and demonstrate that this pathway is important for maintaining normal cone–driven vision and accelerating cone dark adaptation. PMID:25607845

  10. Geomagnetic activity during 10 - 11 solar cycles that has been observed by old Russian observatories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredyn, Tomasz; Wysokinski, Arkadiusz; Kobylinski, Zbigniew; Bialy, Jerzy

    2016-07-01

    A good knowledge of solar-terrestrial relations during past solar activity cycles could give the appropriate tools for a correct space weather forecast. The paper focuses on the analysis of the historical collections of the ground based magnetic observations and their operational indices from the period of two sunspot solar cycles 10 - 11, period 1856 - 1878 (Bartels rotations 324 - 635). We use hourly observations of H and D geomagnetic field components registered at Russian stations: St. Petersburg - Pavlovsk, Barnaul, Ekaterinburg, Nertshinsk, Sitka, and compare them to the data obtained from the Helsinki observatory. We compare directly these records and also calculated from the data of the every above mentioned station IHV indices introduced by Svalgaard (2003), which have been used for further comparisons in epochs of assumed different polarity of the heliospheric magnetic field. We used also local index C9 derived by Zosimovich (1981) from St. Petersburg - Pavlovsk data. Solar activity is represented by sunspot numbers. The correlative and continuous wavelet analyses are applied for estimation of the correctness of records from different magnetic stations. We have specially regard to magnetic storms in the investigated period and the special Carrington event of 1-2 Sep 1859. Generally studied magnetic time series correctly show variability of the geomagnetic activity. Geomagnetic activity presents some delay in relation to solar one as it is seen especially during descending and minimum phase of the even 11-year cycle. This pattern looks similarly in the case of 16 - 17 solar cycles.

  11. Vision Zero in the United States Versus Sweden: Infrastructure Improvement for Cycling Safety

    PubMed Central

    Hooshmand, Jonathan; Pomares, Bryan; Hotz, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by Swedish legislation, Vision Zero policies are being adopted in the United States with increasing frequency. Although some view the goal of eliminating serious injury and death on the road system as impractical, Sweden’s lower rates of road-related injury and death provide compelling evidence that more can be done to improve US cycling safety. We examine existing Vision Zero and cycling-related literature to highlight the central components of the Swedish policy, with the goal of providing evidence-based recommendations for successful implementation of similar policies in the United States. Ultimately, infrastructure design should remain central in US Vision Zero plans, but supplemental initiatives promoting a cycling and safety culture also can be incorporated. PMID:27736215

  12. Age-related differences in stepping performance during step cycle-related removal of vision.

    PubMed

    Chapman, G J; Hollands, M A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there are age-related changes in the ability of individuals to use vision to plan (feedforward control) and guide (on-line control) foot placement during locomotion. This aim was achieved by constraining the availability of vision and comparing the effects on the stepping performances of older and young adults during a precision stepping task. We experimentally controlled the availability of visual information such that: (1) vision was only available during each stance phase of the targeting limb, (2) vision was only available during each swing phase of the targeting limb or (3) vision was always available. Our visual manipulations had relatively little effect on younger adults' stepping performance as demonstrated by their missing the target on less than 10% of occasions. However, there were clear visual condition-related differences in older adults' stepping performance. When vision was only available during the stance phase of the targeting limb, older adults demonstrated significantly larger foot placement error and associated task failure rate (23%) than trials in which vision was always available (10%). There was an even greater increase in older adults' foot placement error and task failure rate (42%) during trials in which vision was only available in the swing phase than the other visual conditions. These findings suggest that older adults need vision at particular times during the step cycle, to effectively pre-plan future stepping movements. We discuss the evidence that these age-related changes in performance reflect decline in visual and visuomotor CNS pathways.

  13. Glories of the Soviet Past or Dim Visions of the Future: Russian Teacher Education as the Site of Historical Becoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydarova, Olena

    2015-01-01

    In the 2000s, the Russian Ministry of Education introduced educational modernization reforms built on neoliberal principles. This critical ethnographic study examines how the memories of the Soviet past are being re-narrated to assess the current educational reforms. I use Bakhtin's theory of historical becoming to analyze how the vestiges of the…

  14. Developing a data life cycle for carbon and greenhouse gas measurements: challenges, experiences and visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental research infrastructures and big data integration networks require common data policies, standardized workflows and sophisticated e-infrastructure to optimise the data life cycle. This presentation summarizes the experiences in developing the data life cycle for the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS), a European Research Infrastructure. It will also outline challenges that still exist and visions for future development. As many other environmental research infrastructures ICOS RI built on a large number of distributed observational or experimental sites. Data from these sites are transferred to Thematic Centres and quality checked, processed and integrated there. Dissemination will be managed by the ICOS Carbon Portal. This complex data life cycle has been defined in detail by developing protocols and assigning responsibilities. Since data will be shared under an open access policy there is a strong need for common data citation tracking systems that allow data providers to identify downstream usage of their data so as to prove their importance and show the impact to stakeholders and the public. More challenges arise from interoperating with other infrastructures or providing data for global integration projects as done e.g. in the framework of GEOSS or in global integration approaches such as fluxnet or SOCAt. Here, common metadata systems are the key solutions for data detection and harvesting. The metadata characterises data, services, users and ICT resources (including sensors and detectors). Risks may arise when data of high and low quality are mixed during this process or unexperienced data scientists without detailed knowledge on the data aquisition derive scientific theories through statistical analyses. The vision of fully open data availability is expressed in a recent GEO flagship initiative that will address important issues needed to build a connected and interoperable global network for carbon cycle and greenhouse gas

  15. ``White Land``...new Russian closed-cycle nuclear technology for global deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-07-01

    A Russian technology called ``White Land`` is being pursued which is based on their heavy-metal-cooled fast spectrum reactor technology developed to power their super-fast Alpha Class submarines. These reactors have important safety advantages over the more conventional sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors but preserve some of the attractive operational features of the fast spectrum systems. Perhaps chief among these advantages in the current political milieu is their ability to generate energy from any nuclide heavier than thorium including HEU, weapons plutonium, commercial plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium. While there are several scenarios for deployment of these systems, the most attractive perhaps is containment in submarine-like enclosures to be placed underwater near a coastal population center. A Russian organization named the Alphabet Company would build the reactors and maintain title to them. The company would be paid on the basis of kilowatt-hours delivered. The reactors would not require refueling for 10--15 years and no maintenance violating the radiation containment would be required or would be carried out at the deployment site. The host country need not develop any nuclear technology or accept any nuclear waste. When the fuel load has been burned, the entire unit would be towed to Archangel, Russia for refueling. The fission product would be removed from the fuel by ``dry`` molten salt technology to minimize the waste stream and the fissile material would be returned to the reactor for further burning. The fission product waste would be stored at New Land Island, their current nuclear test site in the Arctic. If concerns over fission product justify it, the long-lived species will be transmuted in an accelerator-driven system. Apparently this project is backed at the highest levels of MINATOM and the Alphabet Company has the funding to proceed.

  16. A vision for an ultra-high resolution integrated water cycle observation and prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.

    2013-05-01

    biomass would improve soil-moisture retrieval by avoiding the need for auxiliary vegetation information. This multivariable water-cycle observation system must be integrated with high-resolution, application relevant prediction systems to optimize their information content and utility is addressing critical water cycle issues. One such vision is a real-time ultra-high resolution locally-moasiced global land modeling and assimilation system, that overlays regional high-fidelity information over a baseline global land prediction system. Such a system would provide the best possible local information for use in applications, while integrating and sharing information globally for diagnosing larger water cycle variability. In a sense, this would constitute a hydrologic telecommunication system, where the best local in-situ gage, Doppler radar, and weather station can be shared internationally, and integrated in a consistent manner with global observation platforms like the multivariable water cycle mission. To realize such a vision, large issues must be addressed, such as international data sharing policy, model-observation integration approaches that maintain local extremes while achieving global consistency, and methods for establishing error estimates and uncertainty.

  17. User Guide for VISION 3.4.7 (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert F. Jeffers; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; Wendell D. Hintze

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters and options; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R&D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating 'what if' scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., 'reactor types' not individual reactors and 'separation types' not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation or disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. VISION is comprised of several Microsoft Excel input files, a Powersim Studio core, and several Microsoft Excel output files. All must be co-located in the same folder on a PC to function. You must use Powersim Studio 8 or better. We have tested VISION with the Studio 8 Expert, Executive, and Education versions. The Expert and Education

  18. Human gene therapy for RPE65 isomerase deficiency activates the retinoid cycle of vision but with slow rod kinetics.

    PubMed

    Cideciyan, Artur V; Aleman, Tomas S; Boye, Sanford L; Schwartz, Sharon B; Kaushal, Shalesh; Roman, Alejandro J; Pang, Ji-Jing; Sumaroka, Alexander; Windsor, Elizabeth A M; Wilson, James M; Flotte, Terence R; Fishman, Gerald A; Heon, Elise; Stone, Edwin M; Byrne, Barry J; Jacobson, Samuel G; Hauswirth, William W

    2008-09-30

    The RPE65 gene encodes the isomerase of the retinoid cycle, the enzymatic pathway that underlies mammalian vision. Mutations in RPE65 disrupt the retinoid cycle and cause a congenital human blindness known as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). We used adeno-associated virus-2-based RPE65 gene replacement therapy to treat three young adults with RPE65-LCA and measured their vision before and up to 90 days after the intervention. All three patients showed a statistically significant increase in visual sensitivity at 30 days after treatment localized to retinal areas that had received the vector. There were no changes in the effect between 30 and 90 days. Both cone- and rod-photoreceptor-based vision could be demonstrated in treated areas. For cones, there were increases of up to 1.7 log units (i.e., 50 fold); and for rods, there were gains of up to 4.8 log units (i.e., 63,000 fold). To assess what fraction of full vision potential was restored by gene therapy, we related the degree of light sensitivity to the level of remaining photoreceptors within the treatment area. We found that the intervention could overcome nearly all of the loss of light sensitivity resulting from the biochemical blockade. However, this reconstituted retinoid cycle was not completely normal. Resensitization kinetics of the newly treated rods were remarkably slow and required 8 h or more for the attainment of full sensitivity, compared with <1 h in normal eyes. Cone-sensitivity recovery time was rapid. These results demonstrate dramatic, albeit imperfect, recovery of rod- and cone-photoreceptor-based vision after RPE65 gene therapy.

  19. On the role of fusion neutron source with thorium blanket in forming the nuclide composition of the nuclear fuel cycle of the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmelev, A. N.; Kulikov, G. G.

    2016-12-01

    The possible role of available thorium resources of the Russian Federation in utilization of thorium in the closed (U-Pu)-fuel cycle of nuclear power is considered. The efficiency of application of fusion neutron sources with thorium blanket for economical use of available thorium resources is demonstrated. The objective of this study is the search for a solution of such major tasks of nuclear power as reduction of the amount of front-end operations in the nuclear fuel cycle and enhancement of its protection against uncontrolled proliferation of fissile materials with the smallest possible alterations in the fuel cycle. The earlier results are analyzed, new information on the amount of thorium resources of the Russian Federation is used, and additional estimates are made. The following basic results obtained on the basis of the assumption of involving fusion reactors with Th-blanket in future nuclear power for generation of the light uranium fraction 232+233+234U and 231Pa are formulated. (1) The fuel cycle would shift from fissile 235U to 233U, which is more attractive for thermal power reactors. (2) The light uranium fraction is the most "protected" in the uranium fuel component, and being mixed with regenerated uranium, it would become reduced-enrichment uranium fuel, which would relieve the problem of nonproliferation of the fissile material. (3) The addition of 231Pa into the fuel would stabilize its neutron-multiplying properties, thus making it possible to implement a long fuel residence time and, as a consequence, increase the export potential of the whole nuclear power technology. (4) The available thorium resource in the vicinity of Krasnoufimsk is sufficient for operation of the large-scale nuclear power industry of the Russian Federation with an electric power of 70 GW for more than one quarter of a century. The general conclusion is that involvement of a small number of fusion reactors with Th-blanket in the future nuclear power industry of the Russian

  20. Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... USAJobs Home > Statistics and Data > Low Vision Low Vision Low Vision Defined: Low Vision is defined as the best- ... 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Low Vision by Age, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 ...

  1. Russians as People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Wright

    This analysis of the Russian character in various aspects of Soviet society in its daily activities focuses on the cultural rather than the political. Included in the study are sections on: (1) hibernation and awakening; (2) the Russian scene; (3) being a Russian; (4) Russian society--mass and minority; (5) manners, morals, and taste; and (6)…

  2. Russian Translation.

    PubMed

    O'dette, R E

    1957-03-29

    This discussion has described the status of the large United States program for translation from the Russian. A partial description of what is being done or planned, and by whom, has been provided as a guide for those who wish to follow the subject further. The urge to pass on useful information has necessarily restricted the space which might also have been profitably devoted to the philosophic aspects of the problem. Although it is not said with any sense of pride in achievement-because much more remains to be done than has been done-it would seem fair to describe the current national translation activity, including all contributions to it, as a phenomenon. Phenomena in scientific communication are not common: a full appreciation of their significance requires more analysis than results from a simple listing of their outward characteristics. But a few observations might be made in conclusion. Most United States scientists probably feel that, as a nation, we are and should be world leaders in science, even though this feeling is neither nurtured nor expressed in a spirit of violent competition. If this assumption is allowed, the point which seems to remain is that the United States will not retain its position casually. Our scientists expect to maintain an awareness of the scientific achievements and failures of the other nations of the world. But we must especially become more aware of the advances of Soviet science, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The evidence points toward this last conclusion, regardless of whether one is concerned with the production of ideas or things, increase in man's knowledge of himself and his environment, conflict between idealisms, or simply the national security.

  3. Accelerating Ground-Test Cycle Time: The Six-Minute Model Change and Other Visions for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegelman, Jerome T.

    1998-01-01

    The advantage of managing organizations to minimize product development cycle time has been well established. This paper provides an overview of the wind tunnel testing cycle time reduction activities at Langley Research Center (LaRC) and gives the status of several improvements in the wind tunnel productivity and cost reductions that have resulted from these activities. Processes have been examined and optimized. Metric data from monitoring processes provides guidance for investments in advanced technologies. The most promising technologies under implementation today include the use of formally designed experiments, a diverse array of quick disconnect technology and the judicious use of advanced electronic and information technologies.

  4. A Teacher's Notebook: Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    Articles written by teachers of Russian for their peers in similar classroom environments are intended to aid in the development of curricular innovation. The articles, all based on practical and direct experience, include: (1) "Direct Methods for Teaching Russian," (2) "The Eclectic Approach to Teaching Russian," (3) "So-Called Linguistic…

  5. Vision problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... shade or curtain hanging across part of your visual field. Optic neuritis : inflammation of the optic nerve ... Impaired vision; Blurred vision Images Crossed eyes Eye Visual acuity test Slit-lamp exam Visual field test ...

  6. Russian Language Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serianni, Barbara; Rethwisch, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of a language analysis research project focused on the Russian Language. The study included a diverse literature review that included published materials as well as online sources in addition to an interview with a native Russian speaker residing in the United States. Areas of study include the origin and history of the…

  7. Russian Supplementary Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Ashgabat (Turkmenistan).

    This manual is designed for the Russian language training of Peace Corps volunteers serving in Turkmenistan, and focuses on daily communication skills needed in that context. It consists of nine topical lessons, each containing several brief dialogues targeting specific language competencies, and exercises. Text is entirely in Russian, except for…

  8. Russian Astronomical Data Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, O. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Kilpio, E. Yu.

    2006-08-01

    The ultimate goal of the RVO initiative is to integrate resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions, and to provide Russian data to the rest of the world. We collect information about all available Russian and some former Soviet Union (fSU) astronomical data resources, classify them and register them in the registries of other VO projects. A new version of the list of Russian and fSU astronomical resources is recently compiled and presented here. The original resources that contain astronomical data obtained by Russian and fSU astronomers are listed by kind of object they treat (Sun, Solar System, Stars, Stellar Systems, Radioastronomy, Cosmic Rays, Mixed Data Archives). This list of resources (as well as other information on RVO) can be found on the RVO web page.

  9. Low Vision Aids and Low Vision Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vision Resources Low Vision Rehabilitation and Low Vision Aids Written by: David Turbert Edited by: Robert H ... covers most services, but not devices.) Low vision aids There are many low vision aids and devices ...

  10. Research on Russian National Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Zhuo

    2008-01-01

    The special geographical location Russia lies in creates the unique character of the Russian nation. Based on the dual nature of the Russian national character, the Russian geographical environment and the analysis of its social structure, this text tries to explore the reasons of the dual nature of Russian national character.

  11. Low Vision FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... USAJobs Home > Low Vision > Low Vision FAQs Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Low Vision FAQs What is low vision? Low vision is ...

  12. Russian Contract Procurement Document

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2010-03-29

    This contract supports the enhancement of physical protection or nuclear material control and accounting systems at institutes or enterprises of the newly independent states under the material protection control and accounting (MPC&A) program. The contract is entered into pursuant to the MPC&A Program, a gratuitous technical assistance program, in accordance with the bilateral Agreements between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concerning the Safe and Secure Transportation, Storage and Destruction of Weapons and the Prevention of Weapons Proliferation of June 1992, as extended and amended by Protocol signed of June 1999, Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation regarding Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Materials Physical Protection, Control and Accounting of October 1999 and the Russian Federation law of May 1999 on the taxation exemption of gratuitous technical assistance with Russian Federation under registration No.DOE001000.

  13. Station Tour: Russian Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams concludes her tour of the International Space Station with a visit to the Russian segment, which includes Zarya, the first segment of the station launched in 1...

  14. Russian Education: Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John C.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the evaluation of Russian educational concepts through six historical periods; stresses the significance of social, philosophical, political, and psychological factors that have affected Soviet educational policies used to instill Communist values. (JD)

  15. Computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gennery, D.; Cunningham, R.; Saund, E.; High, J.; Ruoff, C.

    1981-01-01

    The field of computer vision is surveyed and assessed, key research issues are identified, and possibilities for a future vision system are discussed. The problems of descriptions of two and three dimensional worlds are discussed. The representation of such features as texture, edges, curves, and corners are detailed. Recognition methods are described in which cross correlation coefficients are maximized or numerical values for a set of features are measured. Object tracking is discussed in terms of the robust matching algorithms that must be devised. Stereo vision, camera control and calibration, and the hardware and systems architecture are discussed.

  16. The Russian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kilpio, A. A.; Kilpio, E. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sat, L. A.

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) will be an integral component of the International Virtual Observatory (IVO). The RVO has the main goal of integrating resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions (databases, archives, digitized glass libraries, bibliographic data, a remote access system to information and technical resources of telescopes etc.), and providing transparent access for scientific and educational purposes to the distributed information and data services that comprise its content. Another goal of the RVO is to provide Russian astronomers with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been, and will continue to be, produced by astronomical survey projects. Centre for Astronomical Data (CAD), among other Russian institutions, has had the greatest experience in collecting and distributing astronomical data for more than 20 years. Some hundreds of catalogs and journal tables are currently available from the CAD repository. More recently, mirrors of main astronomical data resources (VizieR, ADS, etc) are now maintained in CAD. Besides, CAD accumulates and makes available for the astronomical community information on principal Russian astronomical resources.

  17. All Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Statistics and Data > All Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is defined as the ... Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Vision Impairment by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for ...

  18. Improving Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Many people are familiar with the popular science fiction series Star Trek: The Next Generation, a show featuring a blind character named Geordi La Forge, whose visor-like glasses enable him to see. What many people do not know is that a product very similar to Geordi's glasses is available to assist people with vision conditions, and a NASA engineer's expertise contributed to its development. The JORDY(trademark) (Joint Optical Reflective Display) device, designed and manufactured by a privately-held medical device company known as Enhanced Vision, enables people with low vision to read, write, and watch television. Low vision, which includes macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, describes eyesight that is 20/70 or worse, and cannot be fully corrected with conventional glasses.

  19. Vision Underwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information regarding underwater vision. Includes a discussion of optically important interfaces, increased eye size of organisms at greater depths, visual peculiarities regarding the habitat of the coastal environment, and various pigment visual systems. (CS)

  20. [Central vision].

    PubMed

    Fahle, M

    2004-07-01

    The clinical assessment of vision by means of optotypes does by no means test just two-point resolution, since a correct naming of the letters or digits requires a preceding visual object recognition. Cortical lesions can massively deteriorate vision up to a "Seelenblindheit" in spite of intact optics and retina. There are different processing levels involved in the analysis which can be individually defective, leading to disorders from visual indiscrimination to agnosia or anomia.

  1. Studying Russian and Soviet History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Abraham, Ed.

    These essays were written to assist teachers in the task of making Russian history intelligible to young U.S. students. In "An Approach to Russian History," Edward Keenan proposes that students need to gain a better understanding of how Russians perceive themselves and their history. In "Pre-Petrine Russia," Andrzej S. Kaminski…

  2. On Lying in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondry, Henrietta; Taylor, John R.

    1992-01-01

    It is argued that any attempt to explicate the notion of lying can proceed only on a prior understanding of the notion of truth. Two Russian words for "truth" and two for "lie" are examined, and various dimensions of meanings of the pairs are discussed. (17 references) (LB)

  3. Teaching Russian Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakar, Nicholas

    1949-01-01

    Prior to World War Two, Slavic studies in America treated history, literature, and language as isolated disciplines and often neglected the study of Russian literature written after 1917. The pragmatic necessities of the war questioned the relevance of this traditional approach and specialists appeared, concentrating their efforts on the recent…

  4. English Loanwords in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Morton

    1959-01-01

    This introductory survey describes the English contribution to the vocabulary of modern Russian. The author presents an analysis of English loanwords based on the etymologies of Vasmer and Lexin, by subject classification (amusements, clothing, economics, food, nautical terminology, and technology). Separate commentary on sporting terms, where…

  5. The Overeducated Russian?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binyon, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Despite its planned, centrally directed economy, Russia has not been able to tailor its university system to its manpower needs. Peculiarities in the Russian system, including the method for planning enrollments, stiff competition for university acceptance, and application regulations, are discussed. (JMD)

  6. Russian Resource Materials Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Viveca

    This guide provides the teacher of Russian with helpful background material and activities on the geography of the Soviet Union and the history of Russia as well as its customs, traditions, literary selections, songs, foods, and festivals. In addition to these topics, the introductory chapter outlines a philosophy for teaching and learning Russian…

  7. Presidential Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallin, Alice, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the theme of university presidents and their visions of the future. It presents the inaugural addresses and speeches of 16 Catholic college and university presidents focusing on their goals, ambitions, and reasons for choosing to become higher education leaders at this particular time in the history of education in…

  8. Visions 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Victor; Norman, Michele

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the views of 18 educational leaders regarding their vision on the future of education in an information age. Topics include people's diverse needs; relationships between morality, ethics, values, and technology; leadership; parental involvement; online courses from multiple higher education institutions; teachers' role; technology…

  9. Healthy Vision Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI for Kids > Healthy Vision Tips All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Healthy Vision Tips Healthy vision starts with you! Use these ...

  10. Blindness and vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye ( chemical burns or sports injuries) Diabetes Glaucoma Macular degeneration The type of partial vision loss may differ, ... tunnel vision and missing areas of vision With macular degeneration, the side vision is normal but the central ...

  11. Present Vision--Future Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitterman, L. Jeffrey

    This paper addresses issues of current and future technology use for and by individuals with visual impairments and blindness in Florida. Present technology applications used in vision programs in Florida are individually described, including video enlarging, speech output, large inkprint, braille print, paperless braille, and tactual output…

  12. Russian expats seek research reforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Over 170 Russian researchers working abroad have signed a letter addressed to the Russian president, Dmitry Medvedev, and prime minister Vladimir Putin raising concerns about "the catastrophic state of basic science" in the country. The letter, which appeared last month in the Moscow business paper Vedomosti, warns Russian leaders that unless urgent measures are implemented by the government, then science in the country may collapse.

  13. Russian electrometallurgy: Achievements, problems, prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utochkin, Yu. I.; Semin, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    The changes in the Russian metallurgy, in particular, electric furnace steelmaking, having occurred in the recent years are analyzed. The main increase in the steelmaking output is due to putting into operation of new electric furnaces in new miniworks and enterprises equipped earlier with open-hearth furnaces. Reaching the rated capacity of a furnace in Russia substantially lags behind foreign enterprises. Only 30-35% of the Russian market of corrosion-resistant steel are provided by Russian metal.

  14. Computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses material from areas such as artificial intelligence, psychology, computer graphics, and image processing. The intent is to assemble a selection of this material in a form that will serve both as a senior/graduate-level academic text and as a useful reference to those building vision systems. This book has a strong artificial intelligence flavour, emphasising the belief that both the intrinsic image information and the internal model of the world are important in successful vision systems. The book is organised into four parts, based on descriptions of objects at four different levels of abstraction. These are: generalised images-images and image-like entities; segmented images-images organised into subimages that are likely to correspond to interesting objects; geometric structures-quantitative models of image and world structures; relational structures-complex symbolic descriptions of image and world structures. The book contains author and subject indexes.

  15. Pleiades Visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pleiades Visions (2012) is my new musical composition for organ that takes inspiration from traditional lore and music associated with the Pleiades (Seven Sisters) star cluster from Australian Aboriginal, Native American, and Native Hawaiian cultures. It is based on my doctoral dissertation research incorporating techniques from the fields of ethnomusicology and cultural astronomy; this research likely represents a new area of inquiry for both fields. This large-scale work employs the organ's vast sonic resources to evoke the majesty of the night sky and the expansive landscapes of the homelands of the above-mentioned peoples. Other important themes in Pleiades Visions are those of place, origins, cosmology, and the creation of the world.

  16. Cartesian visions.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    Few original portraits exist of René Descartes, yet his theories of vision were central to Enlightenment thought. French philosophers combined his emphasis on sight with the English approach of insisting that ideas are not innate, but must be built up from experience. In particular, Denis Diderot criticised Descartes's views by describing how Nicholas Saunderson--a blind physics professor at Cambridge--relied on touch. Diderot also made Saunderson the mouthpiece for some heretical arguments against the existence of God.

  17. Lambda Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Michael

    2014-06-01

    There is an explosion in the quantity and quality of IMINT data being captured in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) today. While automated exploitation techniques involving computer vision are arriving, only a few architectures can manage both the storage and bandwidth of large volumes of IMINT data and also present results to analysts quickly. Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has been actively researching in the area of applying Big Data cloud computing techniques to computer vision applications. This paper presents the results of this work in adopting a Lambda Architecture to process and disseminate IMINT data using computer vision algorithms. The approach embodies an end-to-end solution by processing IMINT data from sensors to serving information products quickly to analysts, independent of the size of the data. The solution lies in dividing up the architecture into a speed layer for low-latent processing and a batch layer for higher quality answers at the expense of time, but in a robust and fault-tolerant way. This approach was evaluated using a large corpus of IMINT data collected by a C-130 Shadow Harvest sensor over Afghanistan from 2010 through 2012. The evaluation data corpus included full motion video from both narrow and wide area field-of-views. The evaluation was done on a scaled-out cloud infrastructure that is similar in composition to those found in the Intelligence Community. The paper shows experimental results to prove the scalability of the architecture and precision of its results using a computer vision algorithm designed to identify man-made objects in sparse data terrain.

  18. Machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, D.

    1989-06-01

    To keep up with the speeds of modern production lines, most machine vision applications require very powerful computers (often parallel-processing machines), which process millions of points of data in real time. The human brain performs approximately 100 billion logical floating-point operations each second. That is 400 times the speed of a Cray-1 supercomputer. The right software must be developed for parallel-processing computers. The NSF has awarded Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, N.Y.) a $2 million grant for parallel- and image-processing software research. Over the last 15 years, Rensselaer has been conducting image-processing research, including work with high-definition TV (HDTV) and image coding and understanding. A similar NSF grant has been awarded to Michigan State University (East Lansing, Mich.) Neural networks are supposed to emulate human learning patterns. These networks and their hardware implementations (neurocomputers) show a great deal of promise for machine vision systems because they allow the systems to understand the use sensory data input more effectively. Neurocomputers excel at pattern-recognition tasks when input data are fuzzy or the vision algorithm is not optimal and is difficult to ascertain.

  19. Securitization of Russian Strategic Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-02

    102 i SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES MONOGRAPH APPROVAL Rank and Student Full Name Title of Monograph: The Securitization of Russian... culture of like-mindedness and the securitization of Russian strategic communications. The increasing securitization of strategic communications brings...state owned corporations at rates that bordered on gifts rather than fair monetary exchange. 15 As Russia underwent this economic struggle, the

  20. Agreement and Attraction in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorimor, Heidi; Bock, Kathryn; Zalkind, Ekaterina; Sheyman, Alina; Beard, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We assessed whether and under what conditions noncanonical agreement patterns occur in Russian, with the goal of understanding the factors involved in normal agreement. Russian is a morphosyntactically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, gender, and case. If consistent, overt specification of number and gender agreement…

  1. PLATO Sitcom Dialogs for Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Clayton; Provenzano, Nolen

    1981-01-01

    Situation comedy (sitcom) dialogs that are included in PLATO lessons for first year Russian students are described. These comprehension exercises make use of both the touch panel and the audio capabilities of PLATO. The sitcom dialogs were written by a native speaker of Russian and are based on the vocabulary in the textbook plus a small number of…

  2. Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

  3. Healthy Living, Healthy Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  4. Pregnancy and Your Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  5. Russian Orthography and Learning to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerek, Eugenia; Niemi, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    The unique structure of Russian orthography may influence the organization and acquisition of reading skills in Russian. The present review examines phonemic-graphemic correspondences in Russian orthography and discusses its grain-size units and possible difficulties for beginning readers and writers. Russian orthography is governed by a…

  6. Binocular Vision

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Randolph; Wilson, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    This essay reviews major developments –empirical and theoretical –in the field of binocular vision during the last 25 years. We limit our survey primarily to work on human stereopsis, binocular rivalry and binocular contrast summation, with discussion where relevant of single-unit neurophysiology and human brain imaging. We identify several key controversies that have stimulated important work on these problems. In the case of stereopsis those controversies include position versus phase encoding of disparity, dependence of disparity limits on spatial scale, role of occlusion in binocular depth and surface perception, and motion in 3D. In the case of binocular rivalry, controversies include eye versus stimulus rivalry, role of “top-down” influences on rivalry dynamics, and the interaction of binocular rivalry and stereopsis. Concerning binocular contrast summation, the essay focuses on two representative models that highlight the evolving complexity in this field of study. PMID:20951722

  7. Robot Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutro, L. L.; Lerman, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The operation of a system is described that is built both to model the vision of primate animals, including man, and serve as a pre-prototype of possible object recognition system. It was employed in a series of experiments to determine the practicability of matching left and right images of a scene to determine the range and form of objects. The experiments started with computer generated random-dot stereograms as inputs and progressed through random square stereograms to a real scene. The major problems were the elimination of spurious matches, between the left and right views, and the interpretation of ambiguous regions, on the left side of an object that can be viewed only by the left camera, and on the right side of an object that can be viewed only by the right camera.

  8. Artificial vision.

    PubMed

    Humayun, M S; de Juan, E

    1998-01-01

    Outer retinal degenerations such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) lead to blindness because of photoreceptor degeneration. To test whether controlled electrical stimulation of the remaining retinal neurons could provide form vision, we electrically stimulated the inner retinal surface with micro-electrodes inserted through the sclera/eye wall of 14 of these patients (12 RP and 2 AMD). This procedure was performed in the operating room under local anaesthesia and all responses were recorded via a video camera mounted on the surgical microscope. Electrical stimulation of the inner retinal surface elicited visual perception of a spot of light (phosphene) in all subjects. This perception was retinotopically correct in 13 of 14 patients. In a resolution test in a subject with no light perception, the patient could resolve phosphenes at 1.75 degrees centre-to-centre distance (i.e. visual acuity compatible with mobility; Snellen visual acuity of 4/200).

  9. Vision Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  10. Inside the Russian Soyuz Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA: Behind the Scenes, take a tour inside the Russian Soyuz, the vehicle which takes the expedition crews back and forth to the International Space Station. Astronaut Mike Finc...

  11. Russian Aviation and Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Russian Space Agency (RKA) was created on 25 February 1992 by a decree issued by the President of the Russian Federation. It was formed after the break-up of the former Soviet Union and the dissolution of the Soviet space program. The RKA uses the technology and launch sites that belonged to the former Soviet space program. This includes payment to Kazakhstan for use of the Baikonur Cosmodrom...

  12. Russian astronomical software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukashova, Marina V.; Glebova, Nina I.; Netsvetaev, Ilja N.; Netsvetaeva, Galina A.; Parijskaja, Ekaterina Ju.; Pitieva, Elena V.; Sveshnikov, Michael L.; Skripnichenko, Vladimir I.

    2012-08-01

    Institute of Applied Astronomy of RAS has published “ The Astronomical Yearbook ” ( AY) with 1921, “ The Nautical Astronomical Yearbook ” (NAY) with 1930, “ The Nautical Astronomical Almanac ”’ biennial (NAA - 2) with 2001. The new IAU2006/2000 precession - nutation models, and the FK6/HIPPARCOS stellar catalogues were used in these editions. Ephemeris editions are based on the domestic EPM2004 (IAA RAS) theory of movement of planets, Sun and Moon. The electronic versions are developed for two editions. The important stage of work is creation of “The Personal Astronomical Yearbook ”’ (PersAY). The system gives ample opportunities to the user to put and to solve tasks of calculation of ephemerides for any moment in various time scales, and for any location of the observer on a terrestrial surface. Also in PersAY it is possible to calculate by means of DE405/LE405 theory to make comparison with others ephemeris editions. The time interval of validity of the system makes 2010 - 2015. Besides system of the removed access the "Navigator" was developed. It intended to solve some the navigating tasks describe d in NAA - 2. The system is accessible on a site http://shturman.ipa.nw.ru/ (in Russian). In electronic systems as in Y the same reduce theories and the theory of movement of planets, the Sun, the Moon are used. All calculations are work out on the basis of the multifunctional software system ERA.

  13. The Russian Virtual Observatory Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.

    2005-12-01

    We describe the Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO), a prestigious international project sponsored by the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). In 2001, the RAS Scientific Council on Astronomy included this project in a list of the most important international projects of the RAS. Its main goal to create and develop the RVO, intended to provide Russian astronomers with direct and effective access to worldwide astronomical data resources. The RVO is one component of the International Virtual Observatory (IVO), a system in which vast astronomical archives and databases around the world, together with analysis tools and computational services, are linked together into an integrated facility. The IVO unites all important national and international projects to create virtual observatories, coordinated by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance. The RVO is one of the organizers and an important participant of the IVO Alliance.

  14. Russian Prime Minister Calls the Station Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin called the International Space Station from the Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia, on Jan. 11, 2011. Putin also offered his condolences to ISS ...

  15. Russian Soyuz in Launch Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle is shown in the vertical position for its launch from Baikonur, carrying the first resident crew to the International Space Station. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960s until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  16. Social and Racial Correlates of Russian Roulette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; Wasserman, Ira

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiology of a neglected form of suicidal behavior, Russian roulette, is addressed. Also tested is an explanation of racial differences based on the opportunity theory of deviant behavior related to the availability of revolvers, necessary weapons with which to play Russian roulette. Data refer to 15 cases of Russian roulette found through…

  17. Russian History; A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    This guide identifies reference sources for the study of Russian and Soviet history available in the McGill University (Montreal) McLennan Library. Russian, English, French, and German language works covering Russian history from its origins to World War II are included. The guide is arranged in two parts: general reference sources and…

  18. Processing of Contrastiveness by Heritage Russian Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Trueswell, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments in the Visual World paradigm compared how monolingual Russian (Experiment 1) and heritage Russian-English bilingual (Experiment 2) listeners process contrastiveness online in Russian. Materials were color adjective-noun phrases embedded into the split-constituent construction Krasnuju polozite zvezdovku..."Red put…

  19. Russian Loanword Adaptation in Persian; Optimal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambuziya, Aliye Kord Zafaranlu; Hashemi, Eftekhar Sadat

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed some of the phonological rules of Russian loanword adaptation in Persian, on the view of Optimal Theory (OT) (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). It is the first study of phonological process on Russian loanwords adaptation in Persian. By gathering about 50 current Russian loanwords, we selected some of them to analyze. We…

  20. Color vision test

    MedlinePlus

    ... from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Adams AJ, Verdon WA, Spivey BE. ...

  1. Chemicals Industry Vision

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  2. A Robot Vision System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    ix e ...... . . . . . . .. . - . 1 I. Introduction This project includes the design and implementation of a vision - based goal achievement system. The... vision system design base . Final Conclusions Stereo vision is useless beyond about 15 feet for the camera separation of .75 feet, a picture...model. Such monocular vision and modelling, duplicated for two cameras, would give a second source of model data for resolving ambiguities, and

  3. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  4. Reflection in Russian Educational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelissen, Jo M. C.; Tomic, Welko

    This paper discusses the cultural-historical school founded by Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as the theoretical background of Russian educational psychologists who have been studying how children learn to reflect. Two approaches to reflection are examined within the cultural-historical tradition: first, reflection--like other higher psychological…

  5. Economic Factors of Russian Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobkov, Vyacheslav N.; Vakhtina, Margarita A.; Simonova, Marina V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is connected with the high level of economic inequality in Russia. The article goal is to show that the current Russian institutional system is not directed to decrease the economic inequality but on the contrary it continues to make and deepen it. The leading approach to study of this problem is the…

  6. Atlanta Public Schools Russian Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Billie Davis; And Others

    This guide for teachers of Russian outlines course objectives and general educational goals. Contents include information on: (1) philosophy and long-range goals, (2) student recruitment, (3) program counseling, (4) English in the classroom, (5) grammar, (6) articulation, (7) independent study, (8) grouping for student-centered work, (9) reading…

  7. Launch of Russian reactor postponed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-05

    Astronomers and weapons scientists seemed heated on a collision course a few months ago over the military's plans to send a Russian nuclear reactor into space. But an agreement reached in late January has prevented a pile-up, at least for 6 months. The astronomers, led by Donald Lamb of the University of Chicago, were objecting to plans by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) to launch Topaz 2, an experimental Russian nuclear reactor, arguing that rogue particles from it might ruin sensitive gamma ray experiments. The reactor is designed to propel itself in space with a jet of xenon ions. One worry was that leaking gamma rays and positrons, which can travel in the earth's magnetic field and pop up in the darndest places, might cause false signals in gamma ray monitors (Science, 18 December 1992, p. 1878). The worry has abated now that SDI officials will postpone choosing a rocket and mission altitutde for Topaz 2 for 6 months, while experts study how its emissions at various altitudes might affect instruments aboard the Gamma Ray Observatory and other satellites. In effect, the SDIO has agreed to an environmental impact study for space, following an unusual meeting organized by former Russian space official Roald Sagdeev at the University of Maryland on 19 January. There the Russian designers of Topaz 2, its new owners at the SDIO, and critics in the astronomy community achieved common ground: that more study was needed.

  8. Russian perspectives: The past shapes the present

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, R.P.

    1994-11-01

    This document contains an outline of a speech given to a group of professionals at Pacific Northwest Laboratory which was intended to give an unbiased view of Soviet perceptions. Topics discussed include: The new mission of US and Soviet labs and institutions to develop products and dedicate research to post cold war threat, historical prospectives of Russia, Russian military roles and missions, ideology of Russian politics, evils of capitalism, Russian civil war, communism, world war II, Russian losses during the war, the cold war, reasons why America should care what happens in Russia, the internal threat against a market-based economy, the US should help, and the Russian people and their attitudes.

  9. Russians Work on Aft Portion of Zarya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this photograph, Russians are working on the aft portion of the United States-funded, Russian-built Functional Cargo Bay (FGB) also known as Zarya (Russian for sunrise). Built at Khrunichev, the FGB began pre-launch testing shortly after this photo was taken. Launched by a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonu Cosmodrome on November 20, 1998, Zarya was the first element of the International Space Station (ISS) followed by the U.S. Unity Node. The aft docking mechanism, Pirs, on the far right with ventilation ducting rurning through it, will be docked with the third Station element, the Russian Service Module, or Zvezda.

  10. Current Status of the Russian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Oleg Y.; Dluzhnevskaya, Olga B.; Kilpio, Elena Y.; Kilpio, Alexander A.; Kovaleva, Dana A.

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) has been officially recognized as one of the key projects of the Scientific Council on Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences since December 2001. The ultimate goal of the RVO initiative is to integrate resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions and to provide Russian data to the rest of the world. One of the principal goals of the project is to provide Russian researchers with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been and will continue to be produced by astronomical survey projects. RVO architecture main tasks and roadmap are discussed in the presentation.

  11. Computational approaches to vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Vision is examined in terms of a computational process, and the competence, structure, and control of computer vision systems are analyzed. Theoretical and experimental data on the formation of a computer vision system are discussed. Consideration is given to early vision, the recovery of intrinsic surface characteristics, higher levels of interpretation, and system integration and control. A computational visual processing model is proposed and its architecture and operation are described. Examples of state-of-the-art vision systems, which include some of the levels of representation and processing mechanisms, are presented.

  12. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  13. A child's vision.

    PubMed

    Nye, Christina

    2014-06-01

    Implementing standard vision screening techniques in the primary care practice is the most effective means to detect children with potential vision problems at an age when the vision loss may be treatable. A critical period of vision development occurs in the first few weeks of life; thus, it is imperative that serious problems are detected at this time. Although it is not possible to quantitate an infant's vision, evaluating ocular health appropriately can mean the difference between sight and blindness and, in the case of retinoblastoma, life or death.

  14. Vision and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Simon J; Raoof, Naz; McLean, Rebecca J; Gottlob, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis can affect vision in many ways, including optic neuritis, chronic optic neuropathy, retrochiasmal visual field defects, higher order cortical processing, double vision, nystagmus and also by related ocular conditions such as uveitis. There are also side effects from recently introduced multiple sclerosis treatments that can affect vision. This review will discuss all these aspects and how they come together to cause visual symptoms. It will then focus on practical aspects of how to recognise when there is a vision problem in a multiple sclerosis patient and on what treatments are available to improve vision.

  15. Colour vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, M P

    2010-05-01

    Colour vision deficiency is one of the commonest disorders of vision and can be divided into congenital and acquired forms. Congenital colour vision deficiency affects as many as 8% of males and 0.5% of females--the difference in prevalence reflects the fact that the commonest forms of congenital colour vision deficiency are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Until relatively recently, our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of colour vision deficiency largely rested on behavioural data; however, modern molecular genetic techniques have helped to elucidate its mechanisms. The current management of congenital colour vision deficiency lies chiefly in appropriate counselling (including career counselling). Although visual aids may be of benefit to those with colour vision deficiency when performing certain tasks, the evidence suggests that they do not enable wearers to obtain normal colour discrimination. In the future, gene therapy remains a possibility, with animal models demonstrating amelioration following treatment.

  16. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  17. Spatial Vision in Bombus terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Aravin; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Kelber, Almut

    2016-01-01

    Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg−1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana) and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens). We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.090 cycles deg−1 and 1.26 for 0.18 cycles deg−1. PMID:26912998

  18. How to assess vision.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Janet

    2016-09-21

    Rationale and key points An objective assessment of the patient's vision is important to assess variation from 'normal' vision in acute and community settings, to establish a baseline before examination and treatment in the emergency department, and to assess any changes during ophthalmic outpatient appointments. » Vision is one of the essential senses that permits people to make sense of the world. » Visual assessment does not only involve measuring central visual acuity, it also involves assessing the consequences of reduced vision. » Assessment of vision in children is crucial to identify issues that might affect vision and visual development, and to optimise lifelong vision. » Untreatable loss of vision is not an inevitable consequence of ageing. » Timely and repeated assessment of vision over life can reduce the incidence of falls, prevent injury and optimise independence. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update you practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article might change your practice when assessing people holistically. 2. How you could use this article to educate your colleagues in the assessment of vision.

  19. A Russian View on Landpower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    very distinctly Russian theme within the text is the reference to World War II (or the Great Patriotic War ) as a relevant benchmark for modern...assumption that victory can be achieved only through the joint efforts of all the services in the armed forces, ensured during the Great Patriotic War ...The Great Patriotic War is rightly considered a “ war of engines,” so the success of the land forces in the decisive battles was largely due to the

  20. Russian RBMK reactor design information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document concerns the systems, design, and operations of the graphite-moderated, boiling, water-cooled, channel-type (RBMK) reactors located in the former Soviet Union (FSU). The Russian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Safety Institute (NSI) in Moscow, Russia, researched specific technical questions that were formulated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and provided detailed technical answers to those questions. The Russian response was prepared in English by NSI in a question-and-answer format. This report presents the results of that technical exchange in the context they were received from the NSI organization. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is generating this document to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) community in responding to requests from FSU states, which are seeking Western technological and financial assistance to improve the safety systems of the Russian-designed reactors. This report expands upon information that was previously available to the United States through bilateral information exchanges, international nuclear society meetings, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reactor safety programs, and Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) reports. The response to the PNL questions have not been edited or reviewed for technical consistency or accuracy by PNL staff or other US organizations, but are provided for use by the DOE community in the form they were received.

  1. FPGA Vision Data Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Pham, Thang D.

    2013-01-01

    JPL has produced a series of FPGA (field programmable gate array) vision algorithms that were written with custom interfaces to get data in and out of each vision module. Each module has unique requirements on the data interface, and further vision modules are continually being developed, each with their own custom interfaces. Each memory module had also been designed for direct access to memory or to another memory module.

  2. Biomimetic machine vision system.

    PubMed

    Harman, William M; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Real-time application of digital imaging for use in machine vision systems has proven to be prohibitive when used within control systems that employ low-power single processors without compromising the scope of vision or resolution of captured images. Development of a real-time machine analog vision system is the focus of research taking place at the University of Wyoming. This new vision system is based upon the biological vision system of the common house fly. Development of a single sensor is accomplished, representing a single facet of the fly's eye. This new sensor is then incorporated into an array of sensors capable of detecting objects and tracking motion in 2-D space. This system "preprocesses" incoming image data resulting in minimal data processing to determine the location of a target object. Due to the nature of the sensors in the array, hyperacuity is achieved thereby eliminating resolutions issues found in digital vision systems. In this paper, we will discuss the biological traits of the fly eye and the specific traits that led to the development of this machine vision system. We will also discuss the process of developing an analog based sensor that mimics the characteristics of interest in the biological vision system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of how an array of these sensors can be applied toward solving real-world machine vision issues.

  3. Vision Changes in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    This Human Research Program 'Research to Outreach' video featuring NASA Clinical Translational Scientist Jennifer Fogarty explains the risk of vision impairment both during and after spaceflight, i...

  4. Artificial human vision camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudou, J.-F.; Maggio, S.; Fagno, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a real-time vision system modeling the human vision system. Our purpose is to inspire from human vision bio-mechanics to improve robotic capabilities for tasks such as objects detection and tracking. This work describes first the bio-mechanical discrepancies between human vision and classic cameras and the retinal processing stage that takes place in the eye, before the optic nerve. The second part describes our implementation of these principles on a 3-camera optical, mechanical and software model of the human eyes and associated bio-inspired attention model.

  5. ISS Update: Russian Spacesuits and Spacewalks

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Marc Ciupitu, EVA Flight and Increment Manager, about the Russian Orlan spacesuits that cosmonauts wear during spacewalks. Marc also discusses wha...

  6. New Term, New Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2011-01-01

    During the affluent noughties it was sometimes said of government that it had "more visions than Mystic Meg and more pilots than British Airways". In 2011, the pilots, the pathfinders, the new initiatives are largely gone--implementation is the name of the game--but the visions remain. The latest one, as it affects adult learners, is in…

  7. INSIGHT: Vision & Leadership, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Tammy, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This publication focuses on promising new and emerging technologies and what they might mean to the future of K-12 schools. Half of the volume contains articles devoted in some way to "Vision," and articles in the other half are under the heading of "Leadership." Contents in the "Vision" section include: "The…

  8. A Poet's Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Suzanne; Newman, Dan

    1997-01-01

    Describes a series of activities to help middle school students develop an artist's vision and then convey that vision through poetry. Describes how lessons progress from looking at concrete objects to observations of settings and characters, gradually adding memory and imagination to direct observation, and finishing with revision. Notes that…

  9. Why Vision 2020?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, June

    2000-01-01

    Discusses changes in technology, information, and people and the impact on music programs. The Vision 2020 project focuses on the future of music education. Addresses the events that created Vision 2020. Includes "The Housewright Declaration," a summarization of agreements from the Housewright Symposium on the Future of Music Education. (CMK)

  10. Color vision deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannorren, D.

    1982-04-01

    Congenital and acquired color vision defects are described in the context of physiological data. Light sources, photometry, color systems and test methods are described. A list of medicines is also presented. The practical social consequences of color vision deficiencies are discussed.

  11. Synthesized night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haixian

    2000-06-01

    A Synthesized Night Vision Goggle that will be described int his paper is a new type of night vision goggle with multiple functions. It consists of three parts: main observing system, picture--superimposed system (or Cathode Ray Tube system) and Charge-Coupled Device system.

  12. Near Vision Test for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  13. The potential for water savings through the control of saltcedar and russian olive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the influence of saltcedar and Russian olive on water availability, this chapter examines the relation of water availability to the hydrologic cycle and geomorphic setting in the western U.S. The importance of scale, time, natural variation in climate, and the role of human activity in...

  14. Russian-American Cooperation in EVA Area (from Russian Perspective)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsygankov, O. S.; Alexandrov, A. P.; Poleschuk, A. F.

    Russian and American extravehicular activity (EVA) specialists started cooperation after Russia entered the ISS Program. Practical work began in the framework of the Mir-NASA Program, when astronauts J. Linenger, M. Foale and D. Wolf were trained in Russia and participated in the EVA on MIR. This was the intercourse of two experiences, two equal schools each formed under specific conditions. The Report studies the peculiarities of national EVA schools, shows the experience in their integration for the ISS purposes. Organizational aspects of the ISS Program to optimize the implementation of the EVA tasks are presented. It gives examples of the cooperation and development of the hardware equally compatible both with EMU and ORLAN-M space suits, impacts of different schools on the operational methods. It presents proposals on the further integration of the Russian and American schools, considers the prerequisites and perspectives of maximally integrated EVA system for the ISS and the possibility of its incorporation in future in to the mission to Mars.

  15. Light Vision Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  16. Color vision and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wasson, W; Schuman, N

    1992-05-01

    Color vision is a critical component of restorative and esthetic dentistry, but dentists, as a group, do not have their color vision tested at any time during their careers. A study was undertaken to ascertain the color-vision status of practicing dental personnel at the University of Tennessee, College of Dentistry. One hundred fifty individuals, 75 men and 75 women, were screened. The results corroborated the existing medical data for the general population. It was found that 9.3% of the men and none of the women exhibited color-vision defect. Since most dentists are male, this study demonstrates an area of potential weakness for some practitioners. Once a color-vision problem is found, it is simple to remedy by employing a team approach to shade matching or mechanical means of matching shades (by the practitioner). No ethnic or racial distinctions were detected, although these have been reported in other studies.

  17. Panoramic stereo sphere vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.

  18. (Computer) Vision without Sight

    PubMed Central

    Manduchi, Roberto; Coughlan, James

    2012-01-01

    Computer vision holds great promise for helping persons with blindness or visual impairments (VI) to interpret and explore the visual world. To this end, it is worthwhile to assess the situation critically by understanding the actual needs of the VI population and which of these needs might be addressed by computer vision. This article reviews the types of assistive technology application areas that have already been developed for VI, and the possible roles that computer vision can play in facilitating these applications. We discuss how appropriate user interfaces are designed to translate the output of computer vision algorithms into information that the user can quickly and safely act upon, and how system-level characteristics affect the overall usability of an assistive technology. Finally, we conclude by highlighting a few novel and intriguing areas of application of computer vision to assistive technology. PMID:22815563

  19. Literature and information in vision care and vision science.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2008-11-01

    The explosion of information in vision care and vision science makes keeping up with the literature and information in the field challenging. This report examines the nature of literature and information in vision care and vision science. A variety of topics are discussed, including the general nature of scientific and clinical journals, journals in vision science and vision care, resources available for searches for literature and information, and issues involved in the evaluation of journals and other information sources. Aspects of the application of citation analysis to vision care and vision science are reviewed, and a new citation analysis of a leading textbook in vision care (Borish's Clinical Refraction) is presented. This report is directed toward anyone who wants to be more informed about the literature of vision care and vision science, whether they are students, clinicians, educators, or librarians.

  20. Legal Portion in Russian Inheritance Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inshina, Roza; Murzalimova, Lyudmila

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the right to inherit as one of the basic human rights guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The state has set rules according to which after a person's death, his or her property is inherited by other persons. The Russian civil legislation establishes the institution of legal portions that is…

  1. Syllabus for Use in Russian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernonok, Jevgenij

    This syllabus outlines a two semester course to accompany the basic textbook: THE EPIC OF RUSSIAN LITERATURE by Marc Slonim. An introduction to the guide gives a brief summary of the history of Russian literature and objectives of the course are stated, defining concepts and understandings to be developed. In addition, teaching techniques are…

  2. Russian Basic Course: Reader, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This anthology of short stories is representative of well-known 19th and 20th century Russian writers. Eleven stories, often adapted or abridged, are arranged in order of increasing difficulty and intended for use in intermediate and advanced phases of the Russian Basic Course. The selections, all in Cyrillic script, include: (1) A. S. Pushkin's…

  3. My Russian Program is Alive and Growing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Henry P.

    The decision on the part of students regarding what language to take often depends on the tradition of good teaching that has been established in a school. Three factors have been involved in establishing such a tradition in Russian at Princeton High School in Columbus, Ohio. These are: (1) accepting the students who sign up for Russian as they…

  4. Russian Literature: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    An annotated bibliography of general and specialized reference works for Russian and Soviet literature is intended for both students and researchers. English language and Russian language sources in the McGill University (Canada) libraries are included. Subject headings include guides (to the literature and to archival resources), encyclopedias,…

  5. Syllabus for Use in Imperial Russian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husum, Carol

    This syllabus is an outline of a one semester course in Imperial Russia designed to emphasize the relationship between Russia's past and her present. Course content begins with the founding of the first Russian state and continues to the fall of the Romanovs in 1917. In addition, some topics are suggested for investigation of Russian history in…

  6. Conversational Russian in Russkij Jazyk Za Rubezom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Thomas W.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews materials relating to Russian speech which have appeared in the journal "Russkij Jazyk Za Rubezom" since its first issue in 1967. The articles reviewed are divided into three categories: the stylistics of Russian speech, specific conversation expressions, and methodology. (CLK)

  7. Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    security. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cyber Security, Cyber Warfare , Estonia, Georgia, Russian Federation Cyber Strategy, Convention on Cybercrime, NATO Center...Federation ......................................................................................... 33  X.  The Future of Russian Cyber Warfare ................................................................... 39...Issue 15.09); Binoy Kampmark, Cyber Warfare Between Estonia And Russia, (Contemporary Review: Autumn, 2003), p 288-293; Jaak Aaviksoo, Address by the

  8. Russian Media Education Researches: 1950-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzed the development of Russian media education researches from 1950 to 2010 years. The list of theses of the Russian authors on the subject of Media Education is about 180 titles since 1950. Nearly 70 of them have been defended for the recent 10 years. From 1950 till 1959 six theses were defended, from 1960 till 1969--15; from…

  9. The Russian Virtual Observatory: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, O.; Dluzhnevskaya, O.; Kilpio, E.; Kovaleva, D.

    2006-04-01

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) is a collaborative effort by Russian astronomy researches and computer scientists to develop astronomical data and tools which have proved to be very useful for the international astronomical community. The paper reviews the current status of the RVO project and planned developments.

  10. Lexical Inferencing in Reading L2 Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes how intermediate-level first language English readers of Russian as a second language deploy lexical inferencing and other strategies when reading informational texts. Fifth-semester students of Russian performed think-alouds while reading two texts; one written for the general adult reader, and the other meant for school-age…

  11. Factors fragmenting the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.

    1993-10-06

    This paper examines the factors that threaten the future of the Russian Federation (RF). The observations are based on a study that focused on eight republics: Mordova, Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Mari El, Bashkortostan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Buryatia, and Altay Republic. These republics were selected for their geographic and economic significance to the RF. Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, and Mari El are located on important supply routes, such as the Volga River and the trans-Siberian railroad. Some of these republics are relatively wealthy, with natural resources such as oil (e.g., Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), and all eight republics play significant roles in the military-industrial complex. The importance of these republics to the RF contrasts to the relative insignificance of the independence-minded Northern Caucasus area. The author chose not to examine the Northern Caucasus region (except Kabardino-Balkaria) because these republics may have only a minor impact on the rest of the RF if they secede. Their impact would be minimized because they lie on the frontiers of the RF. Many Russians believe that {open_quotes}it might be best to let such a troublesome area secede.{close_quotes}

  12. The Russian/American Fuel Cell Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Sylwester, A.; Baker, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1996-12-31

    The United States and Russia discovered a mutual interest in fuel cell development during a series of workshops designed to teach entrepreneurial skills to Russian nuclear weapon scientists and engineers to aid them in converting their skill to peaceful applications. The proposal for a Russian/American Fuel Cell Consortium was initiated at the third workshop held in Livermore, CA, in May 1994. Representatives from U.S. fuel cell industries, U.S. research institutes, Russian institutes and ministries, and U.S. national laboratories attended, including those from GAZPROM, the Russian natural gas company. GASPROM needs to provide power for telemetry, cathodic corrosion protection of gas lines, and gas line pumping power in remote areas, and estimates that it needs approximately seventy thousand 1.5 to 15 KW plants to do so. Since the workshop, several direct working relationships have developed between the Russian Nuclear Weapon Institutes and the U.S. fuel cell industry.

  13. Vision and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Driving is the primary means of personal travel in many countries and is relies heavily on vision for its successful execution. Research over the past few decades has addressed the role of vision in driver safety (motor vehicle collision involvement) and in driver performance (both on-road and using interactive simulators in the laboratory). Here we critically review what is currently known about the role of various aspects of visual function in driving. We also discuss translational research issues on vision screening for licensure and re-licensure and rehabilitation of visually impaired persons who want to drive. PMID:20580907

  14. Stereo vision and strabismus.

    PubMed

    Read, J C A

    2015-02-01

    Binocular stereopsis, or stereo vision, is the ability to derive information about how far away objects are, based solely on the relative positions of the object in the two eyes. It depends on both sensory and motor abilities. In this review, I briefly outline some of the neuronal mechanisms supporting stereo vision, and discuss how these are disrupted in strabismus. I explain, in some detail, current methods of assessing stereo vision and their pros and cons. Finally, I review the evidence supporting the clinical importance of such measurements.

  15. Stereo vision and strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Read, J C A

    2015-01-01

    Binocular stereopsis, or stereo vision, is the ability to derive information about how far away objects are, based solely on the relative positions of the object in the two eyes. It depends on both sensory and motor abilities. In this review, I briefly outline some of the neuronal mechanisms supporting stereo vision, and discuss how these are disrupted in strabismus. I explain, in some detail, current methods of assessing stereo vision and their pros and cons. Finally, I review the evidence supporting the clinical importance of such measurements. PMID:25475234

  16. [Comparison study between biological vision and computer vision].

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Yuan, X G; Yang, C X; Liu, Z Q; Wang, R

    2001-08-01

    The development and bearing of biology vision in structure and mechanism were discussed, especially on the aspects including anatomical structure of biological vision, tentative classification of reception field, parallel processing of visual information, feedback and conformity effect of visual cortical, and so on. The new advance in the field was introduced through the study of the morphology of biological vision. Besides, comparison between biological vision and computer vision was made, and their similarities and differences were pointed out.

  17. Living with vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Telescopic glasses that may aid distance vision Maximize Lighting You should: Increase the overall lighting in your home. Use a table or floor ... has a gooseneck or flexible arm. Point the light directly on your reading material or task. Use ...

  18. Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... most important job. Return to Steps World-Wide Web Search Kids Health: What is Vision Impairment What ... for the Blind (AFB) created the Braille Bug web site to teach sighted children about braille, and ...

  19. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  20. Impairments to Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... scotoma" right where you're looking. Glaucoma and Retinitis Pigmentosa Ring or Donut Scotoma Left Field Homonymous Hemianopia Although very different diseases, both glaucoma and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) cause a loss of side vision, leading ...

  1. Introduction To Color Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorell, Lisa G.

    1983-08-01

    Several human cognitive studies have reported that color facilitates certain learning, memory and search tasks. Consideration of the color-opponent organization of human color vision and the spatial modulation transfer function for color suggests several simple sensory explanations.

  2. Home vision tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing. AMSLER GRID TEST This test helps detect macular degeneration . This is a disease that causes blurred vision, ... eye exam. People who are at risk of macular degeneration may be told by their ophthalmologist to perform ...

  3. Rhetorical Visions of Unmarried Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Thomas G.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the symbolic reality of unmarried mothers using Bormann's fantasy theme analysis and Q-methodology. Identifies three rhetorical visions with a dramatistic humanistic analysis produced by and about unmarried mothers: the Down and Out Vision, the Making the Best Vision, and the Yummie Vision. (MS)

  4. Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, L.J.; Kramer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    A synthetic vision system is an aircraft cockpit display technology that presents the visual environment external to the aircraft using computer-generated imagery in a manner analogous to how it would appear to the pilot if forward visibility were not restricted. The purpose of this chapter is to review the state of synthetic vision systems, and discuss selected human factors issues that should be considered when designing such displays.

  5. Biofeedback for Better Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Biofeedtrac, Inc.'s Accommotrac Vision Trainer, invented by Dr. Joseph Trachtman, is based on vision research performed by Ames Research Center and a special optometer developed for the Ames program by Stanford Research Institute. In the United States, about 150 million people are myopes (nearsighted), who tend to overfocus when they look at distant objects causing blurry distant vision, or hyperopes (farsighted), whose vision blurs when they look at close objects because they tend to underfocus. The Accommotrac system is an optical/electronic system used by a doctor as an aid in teaching a patient how to contract and relax the ciliary body, the focusing muscle. The key is biofeedback, wherein the patient learns to control a bodily process or function he is not normally aware of. Trachtman claims a 90 percent success rate for correcting, improving or stopping focusing problems. The Vision Trainer has also proved effective in treating other eye problems such as eye oscillation, cross eyes, and lazy eye and in professional sports to improve athletes' peripheral vision and reaction time.

  6. Agile automated vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fandrich, Juergen; Schmitt, Lorenz A.

    1994-11-01

    The microelectronic industry is a protagonist in driving automated vision to new paradigms. Today semiconductor manufacturers use vision systems quite frequently in their fabs in the front-end process. In fact, the process depends on reliable image processing systems. In the back-end process, where ICs are assembled and packaged, today vision systems are only partly used. But in the next years automated vision will become compulsory for the back-end process as well. Vision will be fully integrated into every IC package production machine to increase yields and reduce costs. Modem high-speed material processing requires dedicated and efficient concepts in image processing. But the integration of various equipment in a production plant leads to unifying handling of data flow and interfaces. Only agile vision systems can act with these contradictions: fast, reliable, adaptable, scalable and comprehensive. A powerful hardware platform is a unneglectable requirement for the use of advanced and reliable, but unfortunately computing intensive image processing algorithms. The massively parallel SIMD hardware product LANTERN/VME supplies a powerful platform for existing and new functionality. LANTERN/VME is used with a new optical sensor for IC package lead inspection. This is done in 3D, including horizontal and coplanarity inspection. The appropriate software is designed for lead inspection, alignment and control tasks in IC package production and handling equipment, like Trim&Form, Tape&Reel and Pick&Place machines.

  7. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  8. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  9. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  10. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  11. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  12. Using University and Community Resources in the Teaching of Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustin, Ronald W.

    Activities that have helped to make the Watervliet (New York) High School Russian language education program highly successful involve return visits by former students who are using their Russian language skills in various ways after graduation. These graduates include student teachers of Russian, college students taking Russian to satisfy a…

  13. Violence on the Russian & American Media Screen and Youth Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of the Russian and American experience regarding media violence, standards for rating Russian media programs, and a course of study on media violence for students will have a significant impact upon Russian society, will raise Russian societal and governmental attention to the infringement of the Rights of the Child on the Russian…

  14. VISION 21 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    G.S. Samuelsen; A. Rao; F. Robson; B. Washom

    2003-08-11

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into power plant systems that meet performance and emission goals of the Vision 21 program. The study efforts have narrowed down the myriad of fuel processing, power generation, and emission control technologies to selected scenarios that identify those combinations having the potential to achieve the Vision 21 program goals of high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. The technology levels considered are based on projected technical and manufacturing advances being made in industry and on advances identified in current and future government supported research. Included in these advanced systems are solid oxide fuel cells and advanced cycle gas turbines. The results of this investigation will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  15. [Eye care management in Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Neroev, V V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of Russian eye care performance indicators based on federal and sector statistics over the recent years provided by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, that is the incidence of eye diseases, eye care equipment provision, inpatient and outpatient volumes. Legal acts of the Russian Federation on health system in general and eye care in particular were taken into consideration when preparing the section on organizational matters. Problems of human resources, efficiency of specialists' time management, hospital beds use, and administrative issues in particular regions and Russia as a whole are discussed.

  16. Design Through Analysis (DTA) roadmap vision.

    SciTech Connect

    Blacker, Teddy Dean; Adams, Charles R.; Hoffman, Edward L.; White, David Roger; Sjaardema, Gregory D.

    2004-10-01

    The Design through Analysis Realization Team (DART) will provide analysts with a complete toolset that reduces the time to create, generate, analyze, and manage the data generated in a computational analysis. The toolset will be both easy to learn and easy to use. The DART Roadmap Vision provides for progressive improvements that will reduce the Design through Analysis (DTA) cycle time by 90-percent over a three-year period while improving both the quality and accountability of the analyses.

  17. Russian Fires and Pakistani Floods Linked

    NASA Video Gallery

    Beginning in mid-July and stretching through mid-August, a persistent Omega-shaped blocking high over western Russian and Kazakhstan produced abnormally warm temperatures (indicated by the yellow a...

  18. Rendering of Russian Compound Terms into English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandit, Vijay

    1979-01-01

    Presents an analysis of Russian compound word structure, dividing the compound terms into four categories based on word-formation structure and showing how these four categories may be translated into English. (AM)

  19. Comparison with Russian analyses of meteor impact

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-06-01

    The inversion model for meteor impacts is used to discuss Russian analyses and compare principal results. For common input parameters, the models produce consistent estimates of impactor parameters. Directions for future research are discussed and prioritized.

  20. CHALLENGES POSED BY RETIRED RUSSIAN NUCLEAR SUBMARINES

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, Dieter; Kroken, Ingjerd; Latyshev, Eduard; Griffith, Andrew

    2003-02-27

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges posed by retired Russian nuclear submarines, review current U.S. and International efforts and provide an assessment of the success of these efforts.

  1. [Bioethics in Russian neurology and epileptology].

    PubMed

    Mikhalovska-Karlova, E P

    2016-01-01

    Historical roots and further development of bioethics in domestic neurology and epileptology are considered. The main bioethical principles were established during the formation of the Russian clinical school and neurosciences. It is most distinctly seen in the development of bioethics in neurology and epileptology. In the author's opinion, the Russian scientist V.M. Bekhterev had played a prominent role in the field. In the time when the term "bioethics" was not coined and its principles were not formulated, V.M. Bekhterev had created the Russian league against epilepsy and established the foundations of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) as the organizations working on the problems of medical and social care to patients with epilepsy. In Russia, the Russian society of neurologists has been doing a great work in the field.

  2. Russian Tactical Lessons Learned Fighting Chechen Separatists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    capital of Moscow. On 21 August 2004, some 250 Chechen insurgents, many reportedly dressed as policemen, attacked simultaneously in twelve different...parts of the Chechen capital of Grozny. The timing of the event, a few hours before Russian President Vladimir Putin’s surprise visit to the grave... capital of the neighboring Russian republic of Ingushetia and stopped and executed police who came to, as they thought, “support” their brothers

  3. Information Hub of the Russian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Oleg; Dluzhnevskaya, Olga; Kilpio, Elena; Kilpio, Alexander; Kovaleva, Dana

    The ultimate goal of the Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) initiative is to provide every astronomer with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been and will continue to be produced by astronomical survey projects. The information hub of the RVO has a main goal of integrating resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions, and providing transparent access for scientific and educational purposes to the distributed information and data services that comprise its content.

  4. Genetic stock identification of Russian honey bees.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Lelania; Sheppard, Walter S; Sylvester, H Allen; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2010-06-01

    A genetic stock certification assay was developed to distinguish Russian honey bees from other European (Apis mellifera L.) stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. In total, 11 microsatellite and five single-nucleotide polymorphism loci were used. Loci were selected for relatively high levels of homogeneity within each group and for differences in allele frequencies between groups. A baseline sample consisted of the 18 lines of Russian honey bees released to the Russian Bee Breeders Association and bees from 34 queen breeders representing commercially produced European honey bee stocks. Suitability tests of the baseline sample pool showed high levels of accuracy. The probability of correct assignment was 94.2% for non-Russian bees and 93.3% for Russian bees. A neighbor-joining phenogram representing genetic distance data showed clear distinction of Russian and non-Russian honey bee stocks. Furthermore, a test of appropriate sample size showed a sample of eight bees per colony maximizes accuracy and consistency of the results. An additional 34 samples were tested as blind samples (origin unknown to those collecting data) to determine accuracy of individual assignment tests. Only one of these samples was incorrectly assigned. The 18 current breeding lines were represented among the 2009 blind sampling, demonstrating temporal stability of the genetic stock identification assay. The certification assay will be used through services provided by a service laboratory, by the Russian Bee Breeders Association to genetically certify their stock. The genetic certification will be used in conjunction with continued selection for favorable traits, such as honey production and varroa and tracheal mite resistance.

  5. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  6. Insect vision as model for machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, D.; Sobey, Peter J.

    1992-11-01

    The neural architecture, neurophysiology and behavioral abilities of insect vision are described, and compared with that of mammals. Insects have a hardwired neural architecture of highly differentiated neurons, quite different from the cerebral cortex, yet their behavioral abilities are in important respects similar to those of mammals. These observations challenge the view that the key to the power of biological neural computation is distributed processing by a plastic, highly interconnected, network of individually undifferentiated and unreliable neurons that has been a dominant picture of biological computation since Pitts and McCulloch's seminal work in the 1940's.

  7. Overview of sports vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  8. Artificial vision workbench.

    PubMed

    Frenger, P

    1997-01-01

    Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks.

  9. Periodontium bestows vision!!

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Minkle; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Anand, Vishal; Jain, Nikil; Pandey, Suraj

    2016-01-01

    The role of periodontium in supporting the tooth structures is well-known. However, less is known about its contribution to the field of ophthalmology. Corneal diseases are among major causes of blindness affecting millions of people worldwide, for which synthetic keratoprosthesis was considered the last resort to restore vision. Yet, these synthetic keratoprosthesis suffered from serious limitations, especially the foreign body reactions invoked by them resulting in extrusion of the whole prosthesis from the eye. To overcome these shortcomings, an autologous osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis utilizing intraoral entities was introduced that could positively restore vision even in cases of severely damaged eyes. The successful functioning of this prosthesis, however, predominantly depended on the presence of a healthy periodontium for grafting. Therefore, the following short communication aims to acknowledge this lesser-known role of the periodontium and other oral structures in bestowing vision to the blind patients. PMID:27563213

  10. Bio-inspired vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  11. Data from Russian Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A'Hearn, Michael; Zakharov, A.; Zelenyi, Lev

    The Russian Federal Space Program for 2006-2015 includes three major flight projects - Phobos- Soil, Luna-Glob, and Venus-D. Of these, only the first is in active development now, with launch planned for the 2009 Martian launch window. The primary goal of the Phobos-Soil mission, to be described in detail in session B04, is to return a sample of soil from Phobos to Earth for laboratory analysis, but the goals also include a detailed study of Phobos (its regolith, internal structure, and its dynamics) and studies of the Martian environment (dust, plasma, and fields). The overall scientific goal is to understand Phobos as representatives of primitive small bodies and to understand their role in the Martian system (how they became satellites). The spacecraft will land on the Phobos surface and take a sample of the soil. The return capsule will be launched by a return rocket from the surface of Phobos while the mother-ship remains on the surface for lengthy in situ investigations. Instrumentation on the mother-ship includes gamma and neutron spectrometers, an IR spectrometer, a seismometer, a panchromatic camera, a dust sensor, and a plasma package. This talk will describe the digital data to be returned, all of which will be archived consistent with recommendations from the IPDA and the PDS.

  12. Risk Assessment Update: Russian Segment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana; Hyde, James; Bjorkman, Michael; Hoffman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BUMPER-II version 1.95j source code was provided to RSC-E- and Khrunichev at January 2012 MMOD TIM in Moscow. MEMCxP and ORDEM 3.0 environments implemented as external data files. NASA provided a sample ORDEM 3.0 g."key" & "daf" environment file set for demonstration and benchmarking BUMPER -II v1.95j installation at the Jan-12 TIM. ORDEM 3.0 has been completed and is currently in beta testing. NASA will provide a preliminary set of ORDEM 3.0 ".key" & ".daf" environment files for the years 2012 through 2028. Bumper output files produced using the new ORDEM 3.0 data files are intended for internal use only, not for requirements verification. Output files will contain these words ORDEM FILE DESCRIPTION = PRELIMINARY VERSION: not for production. The projectile density term in many BUMPER-II ballistic limit equations will need to be updated. Cube demo scripts and output files delivered at the Jan-12 TIM have been updated for the new ORDEM 3.0 data files. Risk assessment results based on ORDEM 3.0 and MEM will be presented for the Russian Segment (RS) of ISS.

  13. Exobiological investigations on Russian spacecrafts.

    PubMed

    Kuzicheva, Evgenia A; Gontareva, Natalia B

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of prebiotic synthesis of organic molecules in open space, conditions involved irradiating nucleosides and inorganic phosphate during five Earth-orbiting Russian space missions that included Salut-7 (13- and 16-month missions), Mir, Bion-11, and Cosmos-2044. Dry films of samples were exposed from 2 weeks up to 16 months to the entire set of factors encountered in open space during Earth-orbiting missions. After each mission, products synthesized during flight and any compounds that remained undegraded were analyzed. The analyses demonstrated that increased flight duration led to the decay of both synthesized nucleotides and initial nucleosides. Corresponding laboratory experiments indicated that infrared radiation caused the greatest amount of decay to products of prebiotic reactions. Experiments revealed that 5'-mononucleotides were the main chemical products of the major derivatives synthesized of certain nucleosides. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) C(145) was more effective than UVC(254) in producing a comparatively higher yield of mononucleotides, while the energy flux of the latter was one order of magnitude less (10(-7) as compared with 10(-6) for UVC(145)). In the course of the laboratory simulation experiments the heating of solid samples yielded the greatest production amount (6.34% for adenosine derivatives).

  14. Exobiological Investigations on Russian Spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzicheva, Evgenia A.; Gontareva, Natalia B.

    2003-06-01

    To investigate the possibility of prebiotic synthesis of organic molecules in open space, conditions involved irradiating nucleosides and inorganic phosphate during five Earth-orbiting Russian space missions that included Salut-7 (13- and 16-month missions), Mir, Bion-11, and Cosmos-2044. Dry films of samples were exposed from 2 weeks up to 16 months to the entire set of factors encountered in open space during Earth-orbiting missions. After each mission, products synthesized during flight and any compounds that remained undegraded were analyzed. The analyses demonstrated that increased flight duration led to the decay of both synthesized nucleotides and initial nucleosides. Corresponding laboratory experiments indicated that infrared radiation caused the greatest amount of decay to products of prebiotic reactions. Experiments revealed that 5'-mononucleotides were the main chemical products of the major derivatives synthesized of certain nucleosides. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) C145 was more effective than UVC254 in producing a comparatively higher yield of mononucleotides, while the energy flux of the latter was one order of magnitude less (10-7 as compared with 10-6 for UVC145). In the course of the laboratory simulation experiments the heating of solid samples yielded the greatest production amount (6.34% for adenosine derivatives).

  15. Developmental disorders of vision.

    PubMed

    Galaburda, Albert M; Duchaine, Bradley C

    2003-08-01

    This review of developmental disorders of vision focuses on only a few of the many disorders that disrupt visual development. Given the enormity of the human visual system in the primate brain and complexity of visual development, however, there are likely hundreds or thousands of types of disorders affecting high-level vision. The rapid progress seen in developmental dyslexia and WMS demonstrates the possibilities and difficulties inherent in researching such disorders, and the authors hope that similar progress will be made for congenital prosopagnosia and other disorders in the near future.

  16. Night Vision Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    PixelVision, Inc. developed the Night Video NV652 Back-illuminated CCD Camera, based on the expertise of a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory employee and a former employee of Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. The camera operates without an image intensifier, using back-illuminated and thinned CCD technology to achieve extremely low light level imaging performance. The advantages of PixelVision's system over conventional cameras include greater resolution and better target identification under low light conditions, lower cost and a longer lifetime. It is used commercially for research and aviation.

  17. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  18. Is binocular vision worth considering in people with low vision?

    PubMed

    Uzdrowska, Marta; Crossland, Michael; Broniarczyk-Loba, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In someone with good vision, binocular vision provides benefits which could not be obtained by monocular viewing only. People with visual impairment often have abnormal binocularity. However, they often use both eyes simultaneously in their everyday activities. Much remains to be known about binocular vision in people with visual impairment. As the binocular status of people with low vision strongly influences their treatment and rehabilitation, it should be evaluated and considered before diagnosis and further recommendations.

  19. Reading L2 Russian: The Challenges of the Russian-English Dictionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, William J.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examines when and how students use Russian-English dictionaries while reading informational texts in Russian and what success they have with word lookup. The study uses introspective verbal protocols (i.e., think-alouds) to follow how readers construct meaning from two texts while reading them for a limited time first…

  20. Russian Advanced Course: A Short History of the Development of Russian Language and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this volume is to acquaint the student with the historical development of the Russian language and literature. Samples of the original works with English translations and lists of recommended readings are provided. Contents include a review of Russian literature by century, samples of the short story "Samizdat," and major…

  1. Revolutions in Russian Military Thought: Implications for U.S.-Russian Defense Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-18

    4. Elements of Analysis ................................ 19 5. Military Doctrine ................................... 20 6. Doctrine, Science, and Art...interpretive I lnroducdon analysis --from the Russian 2 Rfolu&rns In Russian perspective--of continuity and 3 Mendor Poe: Shapingthe Defense Relationship...moral parameters [objectives] and physical parameters [means) of the opposing sides. Lenin also introduced the dialectical method of analysis into

  2. Russian Dialect Project. Volume III: Bibliography of Russian Dialect Studies. Preliminary Version. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankiewicz, Edward; And Others

    Volume 3 of the Russian Dialect Studies is a bibliography listing Russian dialect studies published in the 19th and 20th centuries in Russia and abroad. The selection has been oriented primarily toward phonological and morphological studies of the dialects, and secondarily toward lexical, syntactic, and other studies. The bibliography is also…

  3. Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds.

    PubMed

    Boström, Jannika E; Dimitrova, Marina; Canton, Cindy; Håstad, Olle; Qvarnström, Anna; Ödeen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively), which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey.

  4. Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Boström, Jannika E.; Dimitrova, Marina; Canton, Cindy; Håstad, Olle; Qvarnström, Anna; Ödeen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively), which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey. PMID:26990087

  5. Grounding Our Vision: Brain Research and Strategic Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Mike

    2011-01-01

    While recognizing the value of "vision," it could be argued that vision alone--at least in schools--is not enough to rally the financial and emotional support required to translate an idea into reality. A compelling vision needs to reflect substantive, research-based knowledge if it is to spark the kind of strategic thinking and insight…

  6. Low Vision Training in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inde, Krister

    1978-01-01

    The article describes the team work approach used in Sweden to provide services to the four main categories of visual impairment: central scotoma, nystagmus, loss of peripheral vision while retaining central vision, and amblyopia. (Author/PHR)

  7. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  8. Contact Lenses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Glasses & Contacts Contact Lenses Sections Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Proper ... to Know About Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  9. A History of Vision Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelboom, Tina M.

    1985-01-01

    The vision screening program has a long and interesting history involving educators, pediatricians, optometrists, and ophthamologists. This historical review of vision screening in the schools includes a discussion of amblyopia and screening of preschool students. (Author/CB)

  10. Parallel architectures for vision

    SciTech Connect

    Maresca, M. ); Lavin, M.A. ); Li, H. )

    1988-08-01

    Vision computing involves the execution of a large number of operations on large sets of structured data. Sequential computers cannot achieve the speed required by most of the current applications and therefore parallel architectural solutions have to be explored. In this paper the authors examine the options that drive the design of a vision oriented computer, starting with the analysis of the basic vision computation and communication requirements. They briefly review the classical taxonomy for parallel computers, based on the multiplicity of the instruction and data stream, and apply a recently proposed criterion, the degree of autonomy of each processor, to further classify fine-grain SIMD massively parallel computers. They identify three types of processor autonomy, namely operation autonomy, addressing autonomy, and connection autonomy. For each type they give the basic definitions and show some examples. They focus on the concept of connection autonomy, which they believe is a key point in the development of massively parallel architectures for vision. They show two examples of parallel computers featuring different types of connection autonomy - the Connection Machine and the Polymorphic-Torus - and compare their cost and benefit.

  11. CONTRIBUTIONS OF VISION SCIENCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SPACHE, GEORGE D.

    THE IMPLICATIONS OF RESEARCH IN THE VISION SCIENCES FOR READING INSTRUCTION ARE DISCUSSED ON THE BASIS OF (1) STUDIES ON THE PERCEPTUAL BEHAVIOR OF CHILDREN AND THE EFFECT OF LANGUAGE DIRECTIONALITY ON PERCEPTION, (2) STUDIES ON VISUAL CHARACTERISTICS, (3) STUDIES ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COORDINATION AND READING ABILITY, (4) LONGITUDINAL…

  12. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  13. Two Visions of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Since the seventeenth century, there have been two narratives about modernity in general and America in particular. The author uses the term "narrative" to include (a) facts, (b) arguments, and most important, (c) a larger vision of how one sees the world and chooses to engage the world. The first and originalist narrative is the Lockean Liberty…

  14. Adaptive synthetic vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julier, Simon J.; Brown, Dennis; Livingston, Mark A.; Thomas, Justin

    2006-05-01

    Through their ability to safely collect video and imagery from remote and potentially dangerous locations, UAVs have already transformed the battlespace. The effectiveness of this information can be greatly enhanced through synthetic vision. Given knowledge of the extrinsic and intrinsic parameters of the camera, synthetic vision superimposes spatially-registered computer graphics over the video feed from the UAV. This technique can be used to show many types of data such as landmarks, air corridors, and the locations of friendly and enemy forces. However, the effectiveness of a synthetic vision system strongly depends on the accuracy of the registration - if the graphics are poorly aligned with the real world they can be confusing, annoying, and even misleading. In this paper, we describe an adaptive approach to synthetic vision that modifies the way in which information is displayed depending upon the registration error. We describe an integrated software architecture that has two main components. The first component automatically calculates registration error based on information about the uncertainty in the camera parameters. The second component uses this information to modify, aggregate, and label annotations to make their interpretation as clear as possible. We demonstrate the use of this approach on some sample datasets.

  15. Synthetic Vision Workshop 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The second NASA sponsored Workshop on Synthetic/Enhanced Vision (S/EV) Display Systems was conducted January 27-29, 1998 at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for interested parties to discuss topics in the Synthetic Vision (SV) element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program and to encourage those interested parties to participate in the development, prototyping, and implementation of S/EV systems that enhance aviation safety. The SV element addresses the potential safety benefits of synthetic/enhanced vision display systems for low-end general aviation aircraft, high-end general aviation aircraft (business jets), and commercial transports. Attendance at this workshop consisted of about 112 persons including representatives from industry, the FAA, and other government organizations (NOAA, NIMA, etc.). The workshop provided opportunities for interested individuals to give presentations on the state of the art in potentially applicable systems, as well as to discuss areas of research that might be considered for inclusion within the Synthetic Vision Element program to contribute to the reduction of the fatal aircraft accident rate. Panel discussions on topical areas such as databases, displays, certification issues, and sensors were conducted, with time allowed for audience participation.

  16. Computer Vision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    Food quality is of paramount consideration for all consumers, and its importance is perhaps only second to food safety. By some definition, food safety is also incorporated into the broad categorization of food quality. Hence, the need for careful and accurate evaluation of food quality is at the forefront of research and development both in the academia and industry. Among the many available methods for food quality evaluation, computer vision has proven to be the most powerful, especially for nondestructively extracting and quantifying many features that have direct relevance to food quality assessment and control. Furthermore, computer vision systems serve to rapidly evaluate the most readily observable foods quality attributes - the external characteristics such as color, shape, size, surface texture etc. In addition, it is now possible, using advanced computer vision technologies, to “see” inside a food product and/or package to examine important quality attributes ordinarily unavailable to human evaluators. With rapid advances in electronic hardware and other associated imaging technologies, the cost-effectiveness and speed of computer vision systems have greatly improved and many practical systems are already in place in the food industry.

  17. Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.

    2007-01-01

    Vision tasks include: a) Complete the International Space Station; b) Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010; c) Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle (by 2014); d) Return to the moon (by 2020); e) Sustained and affordable human and robotic program; f) Develop innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures; and g) Promote international and commercial participation.

  18. Vision: Essential Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph; Torre, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Few concepts are more noted in the leadership effects research than vision. It is a cardinal element in the school improvement equation as well. Yet, it remains one of the least well-specified components of that algorithm. Based on a comprehensive review of the research on effective leadership and school improvement from 1995 to 2012, we bring…

  19. Low Vision Bicycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, M.

    1992-01-01

    This article considers bicycling as a means of transportation, not recreation, for individuals with low vision. Considered are evaluation of capabilities, watching for child cyclists, central and peripheral field loss, necessary equipment, potential problems, seasonal and weather considerations, night riding, route planning, basic visual skills…

  20. Chapter 3: Develop a Vision

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Loretta; Meade, Barbara; Norris, Keith; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Jones, Felica; Moini, Moraya; Jones, Andrea; Koegel, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Vision stage is the development of the agreed-upon framework for the study, including identifying the issue, the community, the stakeholders, and major aspects of the approach. Achieving the Vision requires planning through a Framing Committee, agreeing on a vision by sharing perspectives and identifying commonalities or “win-wins” that hold the partnership together for community benefit, and evaluating the emergence of the Vision and the partnership. Here, we review tools and strategies. PMID:20088078

  1. What You Should Know (Low Vision)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Low Vision > What You Should Know Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... Diabetic retinopathy Glaucoma Macular degeneration What is low vision? When you have low vision, eyeglasses, contact lenses, ...

  2. Vision in water.

    PubMed

    Atchison, David A; Valentine, Emma L; Gibson, Georgina; Thomas, Hannah R; Oh, Sera; Pyo, Young Ah; Lacherez, Philippe; Mathur, Ankit

    2013-09-06

    The purpose of this study is to determine visual performance in water, including the influence of pupil size. The water environment was simulated by placing goggles filled with saline in front of the eyes with apertures placed at the front of the goggles. Correction factors were determined for the different magnification under this condition in order to estimate vision in water. Experiments were conducted on letter visual acuity (seven participants), grating resolution (eight participants), and grating contrast sensitivity (one participant). For letter acuity, mean loss of vision in water, compared to corrected vision in air, varied between 1.1 log min of arc resolution (logMAR) for a 1 mm aperture to 2.2 logMAR for a 7 mm aperture. The vision in min of arc was described well by a linear relationship with pupil size. For grating acuity, mean loss varied between 1.1 logMAR for a 2 mm aperture to 1.2 logMAR for a 6 mm aperture. Contrast sensitivity for a 2 mm aperture deteriorated as spatial frequency increased with a 2 log unit loss by 3 c/°. Superimposed on this deterioration were depressions (notches) in sensitivity with the first three notches occurring at 0.45, 0.8, and 1.3 c/° with estimates for water of 0.39, 0.70, and 1.13 c/°. In conclusion, vision in water is poor. It becomes worse as pupil size increases, but the effects are much more marked for letter targets than for grating targets.

  3. Is School Vision Screening Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yawn, Barbara P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study followed children retrospectively from kindergarten through 12th grade to examine incidence of abnormal school vision screening tests and rates of follow-up by specialists. School vision screening provided first indication of abnormal visual acuity in 76% of the children. Results support the notion that school vision screening is…

  4. Registration of Vision 45 Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vision 45’ (Reg. No. CV-1110, PI 667642), is a hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar that was developed and tested as VA07HRW-45 and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2012. Vision 45 was derived from the cross ‘Provinciale’/‘Vision 10’ using a modifie...

  5. Visions of Delight, Visions of Doubt: The Relationship Between Emotion and Cognition in Teachers' Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerness, Karen

    This paper examines the concept of teacher vision, showing how vision serves as a means for teachers to guide and measure their work. It discusses how teachers' passionate commitments do not divert them from their work but rather direct and shape their thinking and planning and their learning about their work. The paper also shows how vision, in…

  6. Market entry mode and competency building of Western oil companies in the Russian up stream oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Paul M.

    This dissertation investigated the market entry and competency building strategies within the context of the Russian oil and gas industry. The study was designed to be of interest to business practitioners and academics given the growing importance of fossil fuel in the energy balance of the global economy and the importance of Russia as a supplier and purchaser in the international market. The study's mixed methodology provides an understanding on the environmental factors that are postulated to impact foreign direct investment flow into Russia and the oil and gas sector. A case study of a fictitiously named Western-Russo oil company was conducted to provide a deep understanding of how capability is viewed by Russian and Western employees and the factors that influences the implementation of a successful competency development program. The case was centered on the development of a Well-Site supervisor group within a Western-Russian oil company. Findings of the study showed that there was no correlation between corruption and foreign direct investment inflow into the Russian economy. The findings also showed that both Russian and Western employees in the oil and gas industry are less focused on nontechnical competency development issues, that Western employees are more orientated towards the bottom-line than Russian employees, and that both groups see operational management as a core competency. In the area of financial management and technology application, there were significant differences in the viewpoint of both groups. Western employees saw a stronger need for financial management and less need for technology application when compared to their Russian counterparts. The results have implications for Western business contemplating entering the Russian oil and gas industry. Western firms need to understand the key drivers that will help them overcome the social and cultural barriers between Western and Russian employees. The role of the company leader is very

  7. Using SuperPILOT for Creating the Russian Characters Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamantova-Abbas, Vera

    1986-01-01

    Examines the possibility of creating the Russian character set using a "programerless" authoring language, SuperPILOT, which allows a teacher or a learner to produce and use the Russian alphabet with no programing skills. (Author/CB)

  8. US/Russian affirmation process of the Russian fissile material container design

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.E.; Nunley, S.M.; Chalfant, G.

    1998-05-10

    The US government agreed to provide the Russian Federation with containers to support the dismantlement of Russian nuclear weapons as part of the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction program. In February 1996, the ``affirmation`` of the Russian Fissile Material container design was completed. The ``affirmation`` process allowed a joint program between the Russian and US governments to proceed without the exchange of sensitive weapons specific information. The Russian Fissile Material container program is an integral part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction program wherein the US government provides assistance to the states of the Former Soviet Union for dismantlement of their nuclear stockpile. The Cooperative Threat Reduction program is managed by the US Defense Special Weapons Agency. Sandia National Laboratories was selected as the design agency and technical point of contact for the Russian Federation. The Department of Energy, which certifies containers for weapons shipments in the US, provided an independent assessment of the Sandia designed container to assure that it met the requirements of the August 31, 1993 AT-4OOR Container Requirements [Sandia National Laboratories, 1993] document which was agreed to by representatives of the US and Russian Federation. The ``affirmation`` process was undertaken in lieu of a certification process. This process was a formal review by the US Department of Energy of Sandia`s design and testing of the Russian Fissile Material container. The affirmation was intended to provide the Russian Federation with assurance that the container met the negotiated requirements including specific sections of IAEA Safety Series 6 [IAEA, 1985]. The process stopped short of a certification process that would have required weapons specific design information.

  9. A VISION of Advanced Nuclear System Cost Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    J'Tia Taylor; David E. Shropshire; Jacob J. Jacobson

    2008-08-01

    VISION (VerifIable fuel cycle SImulatiON) is the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s and Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Program’s nuclear fuel cycle systems code designed to simulate the US commercial reactor fleet. The code is a dynamic stock and flow model that tracks the mass of materials at the isotopic level through the entire nuclear fuel cycle. As VISION is run, it calculates the decay of 70 isotopes including uranium, plutonium, minor actinides, and fission products. VISION.ECON is a sub-model of VISION that was developed to estimate fuel cycle and reactor costs. The sub-model uses the mass flows generated by VISION for each of the fuel cycle functions (referred to as modules) and calculates the annual cost based on cost distributions provided by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report1. Costs are aggregated for each fuel cycle module, and the modules are aggregated into front end, back end, recycling, reactor, and total fuel cycle costs. The software also has the capability to perform system sensitivity analysis. This capability may be used to analyze the impacts on costs due to system uncertainty effects. This paper will provide a preliminary evaluation of the cost uncertainty affects attributable to 1) key reactor and fuel cycle system parameters and 2) scheduling variations. The evaluation will focus on the uncertainty on the total cost of electricity and fuel cycle costs. First, a single light water reactor (LWR) using mixed oxide fuel is examined to ascertain the effects of simple parameter changes. Three system parameters; burnup, capacity factor and reactor power are varied from nominal cost values and the affect on the total cost of electricity is measured. These simple parameter changes are measured in more complex scenarios 2-tier systems including LWRs with mixed fuel and fast recycling reactors using transuranic fuel. Other system parameters are evaluated and results will be presented in the paper. Secondly, the uncertainty due to

  10. Russian Soyuz Moves to Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle, which carried the first resident crew to the International Space Station, moves toward the launch pad at the Baikonur complex in Kazakhstan. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960' until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  11. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention.

  12. Advanced night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thacker, Clinton

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) program is developing integrated wide field of view (WFOV) helmet-mounted image intensifier night vision goggle systems. ANVG will provide a FOV of approximately 40° (vertical) × 100° (horizontal) and an integrated heads-up display for overlay of flight symbology and/or FLIR imagery. The added FLIR complements the I2 imagery in out of the window or ground applications. ANVG will significantly improve safety, situational awareness, and mission capabilities in differing environments. ANVG achieves the ultra wide FOV using four image intensifier tubes in a head-mounted configuration. Additional features include a miniature flat panel display and a lightweight uncooled FLIR. The integrated design will demonstrate the capability of helmet-mounted I2 and FLIR image fusion. Fusion will be accomplished optically and will offer significant opportunities for ground applications. This paper summarizes the basic technologies, lessons learned, and program status.

  13. Vision, Instruction and Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    in High-Level Vision: Reassessing the Inverse Optics Paradigm." Proceedings of the 1989 Image Understanding Workshop, 1989. [64] H. Eichenbaum and N...investigp’.on into reactive planning in complex domains." AAAI-87. [81] Martin A. Fischler, Ŕ" he Representation of Natural Scenes." In Allen R...113] Patrick J. Hayes, Naive Physics 1: Ontology for Liquids. Manuscript, University of Essex. 1978. [114] Martin Heidegger, Being and Time. Harper

  14. Bird Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Bird Vision system is a multicamera photogrammerty software application that runs on a Microsoft Windows XP platform and was developed at Kennedy Space Center by ASRC Aerospace. This software system collects data about the locations of birds within a volume centered on the Space Shuttle and transmits it in real time to the laptop computer of a test director in the Launch Control Center (LCC) Firing Room.

  15. 2015 Enterprise Strategic Vision

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    This document aligns with the Department of Energy Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 and provides a framework for integrating our missions and direction for pursuing DOE’s strategic goals. The vision is a guide to advancing world-class science and engineering, supporting our people, modernizing our infrastructure, and developing a management culture that operates a safe and secure enterprise in an efficient manner.

  16. Robotic Vision for Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Vision system for robotic welder looks at weld along axis of welding electrode. Gives robot view of most of weld area, including yet-unwelded joint, weld pool, and completed weld bead. Protected within welding-torch body, lens and fiber bundle give robot closeup view of weld in progress. Relayed to video camera on robot manipulator frame, weld image provides data for automatic control of robot motion and welding parameters.

  17. Vision without the Image

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Perona, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Novel image sensors transduce the stream of photons directly into asynchronous electrical pulses, rather than forming an image. Classical approaches to vision start from a good quality image and therefore it is tempting to consider image reconstruction as a first step to image analysis. We propose that, instead, one should focus on the task at hand (e.g., detection, tracking or control) and design algorithms that compute the relevant variables (class, position, velocity) directly from the stream of photons. We discuss three examples of such computer vision algorithms and test them on simulated data from photon-counting sensors. Such algorithms work just-in-time, i.e., they complete classification, search and tracking with high accuracy as soon as the information is sufficient, which is typically before there are enough photons to form a high-quality image. We argue that this is particularly useful when the photons are few or expensive, e.g., in astronomy, biological imaging, surveillance and night vision. PMID:27058543

  18. Russian Iconography: Russia's Contribution to the Art of Western Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Jeri Lou

    This one- to three-week high school unit on Russian iconography was developed as part of a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. The unit can be incorporated into a larger unit on Russian literature, art, religion, or history. Four reasons for studying iconography are: 1) it is a splendid Russian art…

  19. Communicative, Educational, Pedagogical Objectives and Planning in Russian Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evtyugina, Alla A.; Hasanova, Irina I.; Kotova, Svetlana S.; Sokolova, Anastasia N.; Svetkina, Irina A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem stems from the necessity to distinctly plan educational process and set the goals for successful mastering of Russian language by foreign students in Russian higher educational institutions. The article is aimed at defining the foreign students' objectives for Russian language training, allowing them to get involved…

  20. Assessing grooming behavior of Russian honey bees toward Varroa destructor.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grooming behavior of Russian bees was compared to Italian bees. Overall, Russian bees had significantly lower numbers of mites than the Italian bees with a mean of 1,937 ± 366 and 5,088 ± 733 mites, respectively. This low mite population in the Russian colonies was probably due to the increased ...

  1. Regulation of the Debt Sustainability of the Russian Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seleznev, Alexander Z.; Chapluk, Vladimir Z.; Sayrenko, Tatiana N.; Sorokina, Larisa N.; Pertovskaya, Maria V.; Alekseenko, Elena A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigating problem is caused by the need to reduce the total aggregated amount of debt in Russian economy in conditions of crisis and the strengthening of external anti-Russian sanctions. In this context, the purpose of this article is to identify measures aimed to regulate debt sustainability of the Russian economy using…

  2. Russian National Security Policy: Perceptions, Policies, and Prospects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    that policy in terms of factors influencing Russian national security policy formulation, Russia’s perceptions of the world and itself, current Russian...security and foreign policies in key regions of the world , and prospects for Russian interests and actions in the world and especially with regard to the United States.

  3. Effects of Aging on the Production of Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubarchuk, Iulia; Kemper, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Compares young and older adults' production of complex syntactic structures in Russian. Finds that content and fluency in Russian were associated with Russian vocabulary knowledge and influenced by educational level and knowledge of English and other languages and that working-memory limitations affect the use of clause and word order variations…

  4. Catastrophic Fires in Russian Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhinin, A. I.; McRae, D. J.; Stocks, B. J.; Conard, S. G.; Hao, W.; Soja, A. J.; Cahoon, D.

    2010-12-01

    . Based on NOAA and TOMS daily data, we estimated fire emissions (including CO2, CO, CH4 and other smoke aerosols) of over 70 Tg Carbon for Yakutian fires in 2002 and more than 120 Tg C for all Russian fires in 2010. We note the potential for increasing amounts of methane emissions when fires occur in permafrost zones and peat bogs. Post-fire changes in permafrost and vegetation cover are discussed in the connection changes in solar radiance balance. During the fire season of 2006 in the Eastern-Siberian, Transbaikal, and Far East regions we identified more than 15,000 fires with a total area of 120,000 km2. From 2002-2010 the annual number of fires in this area ranged from 10,000 to 16,500, and annual burned areas ranged from a low of 30 000 km2 in 2004 to a high of 145,000 km2 in 2003.

  5. The Russian Navy and the Future of Russian Power in the Western Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    3 History of the Russian Navy, Glorious Beginnings: Under the Romanovs , [paper on-line] (accessed on 21...occurred with the influx of people, which sparked the attainment of the Amur valley. The Qing dynasty regarded the “intrusion” as an infestation of...U.S. before Summit,” Wall Street Journal, 15 June 2001. History of the Russian Navy, Glorious Beginnings: Under the Romanovs , [article on-line

  6. English-Russian, Russian-English glossary of coal-cleaning terms

    SciTech Connect

    Pekar, J.

    1987-09-01

    The document is an English-Russian, Russian-English glossary of coal-cleaning terms, compiled as a joint U.S./Soviet effort. The need for the glossary resulted from the growing number of language-specific terms used during information exchanges within the framework of the U.S./U.S.S.R. Working Group on Stationary Source Air Pollution Control Technology, under the U.S./U.S.S.R. Agreement of Cooperation in the Field of Environmental Protection.

  7. Russian for Business: Typewriting and Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Thomas E.

    This textbook was designed for undergraduate students who are interested in a basic study of Russian typewriting with particular emphasis on the following business documents: the memorandum, applications, statements, declarations, business letters, receipts, calculations, agreements, inquiries, references, certificates, basic documents used for…

  8. On the Reform of Russian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mironov, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    The "modernization" of Russian education is linked to the functioning of the entire social system of Russia, and reforms are proving difficult and contradictory. The use of the Unified State Examination in Russia, plus participation in the Bologna process, is causing concern about the ability of education to meet the needs of the…

  9. Russian scientists decry savage job cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2016-09-01

    More than 100 scientists in Russia have signed an open letter to the country's president, Vladimir Putin, protesting over a lack of funding for research and reforms that they say have left Russian science mired in a chronic state of crisis.

  10. Genetic Stock Identification of Russian Honey Bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genetic stock certification assay was developed to distinguish Russian honey bees from other European stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. A total of 11 microsatellite and 5 SNP loci were used. Loci were selected for relatively high levels of homogeneity within each group an...

  11. Ethnodemographic processes in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Kaz'mina, O E; Puchkov, P I

    1995-01-01

    This is an English translation of the introduction to a textbook on the ethnic demography of the Russian Federation. It explores the intricacies of multiple language groups, ethnic group interspersions, and the existence of small yet self-identifying populations without political territorial status. The political implications of demographic developments affecting ethnic groups, including migration, are also considered.

  12. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  13. Russian Science and Education: Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebedev, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Higher education in Russia is not able to provide the science personnel and research that the country needs for its future economic well-being. Urgent changes are needed to improve the situation, not least among them being significant increases in the salaries of scientists, bringing Russian science into line with world standards of scientific…

  14. Russian Higher Education: Who Can Afford It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounko, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The article explores the issue of access and equity in the Russian higher education system by examining recent government initiatives. While recently introduced measures such as the Unified State Examination and student loan project are designed to aid students and expand participation, they alone cannot ensure equitable access to higher education…

  15. Integrating Language Lab Materials into Advanced Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allar, Gregory

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of language lab materials supplied by the pedagogical journal "Russkij Jazyk Za Rubezom" in an advanced Russian-language class. Each week students were given a relevant picture and vocabulary list prior to listening to a taped story. The story was used as the basis for conversation. (LMO)

  16. Ethical Datives in Russian and Macedonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akanova, Dana Khalelovna

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the phenomenon of ethical datives (EDs) in two Slavic languages, Russian and Macedonian. EDs are defined through a pragmatic lens as discourse licensed perspective markers in which a dative form expresses a speaker's decision to signal someone's emotional attitude--real or perceived--toward the action. Owing to…

  17. Syllabus for Use in Soviet Russian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husum, Carol

    This syllabus outlines a one semester course intended to provide a comprehensive study of the Soviet Union today, and the relationship that Russian has with the United States and the rest of the world. Content covers Russia's history beginning with the fall of the Romanovs with emphasis on the revolutionary movement in Russia. The guide presents a…

  18. Labor Migration by Russian Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man'shin, R. V.; Timoshenko, O. V.; Pis'mennaia, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    Russia's young people have become active participants in processes of migration. After the fall of the USSR, young people began to travel outside Russia in substantially greater numbers. At the present time, young Russians can be found in all kinds of regions and countries of the world. They are getting an education in foreign universities and…

  19. Russian Airpower in the Second Chechen War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    totally ignored local conditions, religion , and customs. No one planned the operation. It was started ‘Russian style’ in the off chance that it would work...The Coming Anarchy. New York, NY: Random House, 2000. Knezys, Stasys and Romanas Sedlickas. The War in Chechnya. College Station: Texas

  20. New Ideologies in Postcommunist Russian Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisovskaya, Elena; Karpov, Vyacheslav

    1999-01-01

    Explores patterns of recent ideological changes in the content of 12 Russian secondary school textbooks in the social sciences and humanities. Shows that textbook content has shifted from a consistent representation of key dogmas of Marxism-Leninism toward a contradictory combination of the ideological symbols of nationalism, Westernism, and…

  1. On the Classification of Russian Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornyn, William S.

    1948-01-01

    An introduction to the Russian phonemic system leads to a model classification of verb forms derived from the infinitive and present stems of selected verbs. Correspondences between the two sets of verb forms are listed. A brief history of attempts at verb classification concentrates on the theory of Meyer, Berneker, and Bloomfield. A complete…

  2. Russian: United States Environmental Restoration Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Russian - United States Environmental Restoration Workshop, held in Washington, D.C., and Richland, Washington, from April 5 through 18, 1993, was the first extended collaborative information exchange between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Russian scientists at the site level. In addition to the Russian scientists, workshop participants included scientists and staff from DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the US Environmental Training Institute (USETI), universities, and the private sector. The first week (April 5 through 10) of the workshop took place in Washington, D.C., where the Russian and US participants were presented with a US perspective on environmental restoration and remediation issues from representatives in DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second week (April 11 through 18) occurred in Richland, Washington, where the participants were presented with site-specific environmental restoration and remediation issues related to Hanford Site cleanup. This report is a compilation of the presentations, discussions, and experiences shared during the second week of the workshop in Richland, Washington.

  3. Development of Listening Proficiency in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Richard M.; Leaver, Betty Lou

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Listening Comprehension Exercise Network, a system that allows for the sharing of listening exercises in Russian via computer networks. The network, which could be emulated in other languages, alleviates the problem of time spent on developing essentially "throw-away" exercises. (21 references) (Author/CB)

  4. Teaching Russian Studies, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winpenny, Patricia; Cadwell, Katherine Weeks; Cadwell, Louise; Harrison, Ryan; Starbird, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    This book is for those who want to teach about the life, history, language or culture of Russia and the former Soviet Union. Students will learn about the states of the former Soviet Union and the current political structure of Russia. Information is drawn from interviews with Russian children, traditional folktales, maps, original Russian…

  5. Russian Energy Policy Toward Neighboring Countries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-22

    oil pipeline that currently runs from the oil terminal at Odesa in Ukraine to Brody, on the Polish border. This pipeline could then be extended to...Gdansk in northern Poland. At present, however, the Odesa -Brody pipeline runs in the reverse direction, pumping Russian oil to Odesa . Obstacles to

  6. Welcome Aboard Starship MIR: Mission Is Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullickson, Janice

    2009-01-01

    Six years ago Project Starship MIR, the Russian language "shuttle," launched at Turnagain Elementary, one of the Anchorage School District's 65 elementary schools. The MIR "peace" mission originated with encouragement from the local business community to prepare students for Alaska's future economic, social and political ties…

  7. Word Order in Russian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmelman, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the results of an investigation of word order in Russian Sign Language (RSL) are presented. A small corpus of narratives based on comic strips by nine native signers was analyzed and a picture-description experiment (based on Volterra et al. 1984) was conducted with six native signers. The results are the following: the most frequent…

  8. Multilingualism, Russian Language and Education in Kyrgyzstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orusbaev, Abdykadyr; Mustajoki, Arto; Protassova, Ekaterina

    2008-01-01

    The study provides an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Kyrgyzstan and the current role of Russian and Kyrgyz in the republic. We present initial results of a mass survey of language use that show that the efforts to introduce the Kyrgyz language on all levels of societal use had some effect. At the same time, Kyrgyzstan is a…

  9. A Social Portrait of the Russian Trainer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopnov, Vitaly ?.; Permyakova, ?atiana V.; Kislov, ?lexander G.; Vlasova, Olga I.; Kuimov, Vitaly S.; Dremina, Maria ?.; Blinova, Anastasia N.

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to survey Russian trainers to create a social portrait of the professional group and to identify features, which could be arranged as a foothold for transforming this group to a new level given the demands of the modern economy. This study integrates the use of quantitative and qualitative social research strategies…

  10. N-person quantum Russian roulette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraçkiewicz, Piotr; Schmidt, Alexandre G. M.

    2014-05-01

    We generalize the concept of quantum Russian roulette introduced in Schmidt and da Silva (2013). Our model coincides with the previous one in the case of the game with two players and gives the suitable quantum description for any finite number of players. As an example, we provide a detailed study of the three and four-person case.

  11. Biological Control of Russian thistle (tumbleweed)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We submitted a petition to the APHIS Technical Advisory Group (TAG) in December 2004 requesting permission to release the blister mite (Aceria salsolae) to control Russian thistle (Salsola tragus) and its close relatives. Host specificity experiments conducted in the USDA quarantine laboratory in ...

  12. Decomposition of Prefixed Words in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanina, Nina

    2011-01-01

    I examined the nature of morphological decomposition in a series of masked-priming experiments with Russian prefixed nouns. In Experiments 1A and 1B, I tested 3 types of prime-target pairs in which the prime was a morphologically simple word, and a facilitation was found when the prime and the target were truly morphologically related (e.g.,…

  13. The New Generation Russian VLBI Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkelstein, Andrey; Ipatov, Alexander; Smolentsev, Sergey; Mardyshkin, Vyacheslav; Fedotov, Leonid; Surkis, Igor; Ivanov, Dmitrij; Gayazov, Iskander

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with a new project of the Russian VLBI Network dedicated for Universal Time determinations in quasi on-line mode. The basic principles of the network design and location of antennas are explained. Variants of constructing receiving devices, digital data acquisition system, and phase calibration system are specially considered. The frequency ranges and expected values of noise temperature are given.

  14. The Impact of Globalization on Russian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinagatullin Birsk, Ilghiz M.

    2003-01-01

    The notion of globalization, which Andrutchenko (2001) defines as a "consequence of the development of human civilization," and the way it is related to the issues of education are being discussed widely today among Russian educational and scientific circles, education policymakers, scholars, educators, as well as school and university…

  15. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence and robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included pattern recognition, image processing for intelligent robotics, three-dimensional vision (depth and motion), vision modeling and shape estimation, spatial reasoning, the symbolic processing visual information, robotic sensors and applications, intelligent control architectures for robot systems, robot languages and programming, human-machine interfaces, robotics applications, and architectures of robotics.

  16. [Vision and car driving ability].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Helmut

    2011-05-01

    Visual functions relevant for car driving are: Visual acuity, contrast and twilight vision, visual field, ocular motility and alignment and colour vision. Generally accepted and standardized tests are available for visual acuity and visual field. Maximum permissible values have been defined arbitrarily and are hardly supported by studies. European standards have been published comprising also contrast and twilight vision. When examining driving ability progressive and treatable ocular disorders such as cataract and glaucoma have to be considered.

  17. Parallel Algorithms for Computer Vision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    demonstrated the Vision Machine system processing images and recognizing objects through the inte- gration of several visual cues. The first version of the...achievements. n 2.1 The Vision Machine The overall organization of tie Vision Machine systeliis ased. o parallel processing of tie images by independent...smoothed and made dense by exploiting known constraints within each process (for example., that disparity is smooth). This is the stage of approximation

  18. Vision in flying insects.

    PubMed

    Egelhaaf, Martin; Kern, Roland

    2002-12-01

    Vision guides flight behaviour in numerous insects. Despite their small brain, insects easily outperform current man-made autonomous vehicles in many respects. Examples are the virtuosic chasing manoeuvres male flies perform as part of their mating behaviour and the ability of bees to assess, on the basis of visual motion cues, the distance travelled in a novel environment. Analyses at both the behavioural and neuronal levels are beginning to unveil reasons for such extraordinary capabilities of insects. One recipe for their success is the adaptation of visual information processing to the specific requirements of the behavioural tasks and to the specific spatiotemporal properties of the natural input.

  19. The evolution of vision.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Walter J

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the evolution of vision is retraced from its putative origins in cyanobacteria to humans. Circadian oscillatory clocks, phototropism, and phototaxis require the capability to detect light. Photosensory proteins allow us to reconstruct molecular phylogenetic trees. The evolution of animal eyes leading from an ancestral prototype to highly complex image forming eyes can be deciphered on the basis of evolutionary developmental genetic experiments and comparative genomics. As all bilaterian animals share the same master control gene, Pax6, and the same retinal and pigment cell determination genes, we conclude that the different eye-types originated monophyletically and subsequently diversified by divergent, parallel, or convergent evolution.

  20. Birth and evolution of visionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Robert S.

    1992-09-01

    The success of the U.S. Army's Night Vision Program at Fort Belvoir, VA was significantly influenced by the evolution and timely culmination of Visionics technology which was initiated by Mr. John Johnson. In the late 1950's, Visionics technology started with concern for Near Infrared (NIR) and Image Intensifier (II) Night Vision developments. It resulted in the Johnson Criteria which coupled system physical characteristics to visual performance by using resolution of line pairs across the minimum dimension of a target. This led to development of image evaluation procedures and standardized laboratory testing. Later the Visionics team addressed the Far Infrared (FIR) system performance and developed a series of FLIR Performance Models. The Visionic's Static Performance Model computer code was accepted and proliferated widely by the mid-70's. Visionics moved from static viewing to address the problems of search effectiveness. Then came more work on target signatures and the consideration of the effects of fog, rain, snow, artillery barrages, and realistic battlefield conditions on system performance in order to assure the utility of fielded equipments for all theaters of interest. The general use of the various Visionics models and methodology throughout Government and Industry is recognition of the contributions made by Mr. John Johnson and his Visionics staff.

  1. The measurement of vision disability.

    PubMed

    Massof, Robert W

    2002-08-01

    The American Medical Association's (AMA) visual efficiency scale, a vision disability metric based on visual impairment measurements, was adopted in 1925. That scale was based on a 30-year history of theoretical models in vision economics, a misinterpretation of Snellen notation for visual acuity, and an erroneous application of Weber's psychophysical law. The AMA visual efficiency scale survived uncontested for 75 years. In 2001, the AMA adopted a new vision disability scale based on logarithmic transformations of visual acuity and visual field diameter. Like the earlier visual efficiency scale, the new scale is theoretical-it is not supported by any data that speak to the relationship between vision disability and visual impairments. Attempts to measure vision disability date to the early 1980s with the development of self-assessment visual function rating scale questionnaires. Nearly all of the questionnaires developed over the last 20 years use Likert scales, but use them incorrectly. The development of a vision disability metric based on Likert scaling parallels the historical development of other forms of measurement. A tutorial review of psychometrics-classical test theory, item response theory, and Rasch analysis-shows how vision disability measurement scales can be estimated from Likert-type visual function rating scales. We conclude that preliminary data relating measures of vision disability to measures of visual acuity and visual fields support the new AMA vision disability scale.

  2. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Alódia; Castro, Antônio José O; Martins, Isabelle Christine V S; Lacerda, Eliza Maria C B; Souza, Givago S; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Rosa, Alexandre Antônio M; Rodrigues, Anderson R; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test) to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test) to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to neurotoxicants.

  3. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Brasil, Alódia; Castro, Antônio José O.; Martins, Isabelle Christine V. S.; Lacerda, Eliza Maria C. B.; Souza, Givago S.; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Rosa, Alexandre Antônio M.; Rodrigues, Anderson R.; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test) to test subject’s ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test) to measure subject’s colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to neurotoxicants. PMID

  4. Benchmarking neuromorphic vision: lessons learnt from computer vision.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheston; Lallee, Stephane; Orchard, Garrick

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic Vision sensors have improved greatly since the first silicon retina was presented almost three decades ago. They have recently matured to the point where they are commercially available and can be operated by laymen. However, despite improved availability of sensors, there remains a lack of good datasets, while algorithms for processing spike-based visual data are still in their infancy. On the other hand, frame-based computer vision algorithms are far more mature, thanks in part to widely accepted datasets which allow direct comparison between algorithms and encourage competition. We are presented with a unique opportunity to shape the development of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges by leveraging what has been learnt from the use of datasets in frame-based computer vision. Taking advantage of this opportunity, in this paper we review the role that benchmarks and challenges have played in the advancement of frame-based computer vision, and suggest guidelines for the creation of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges. We also discuss the unique challenges faced when benchmarking Neuromorphic Vision algorithms, particularly when attempting to provide direct comparison with frame-based computer vision.

  5. Python and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Doak, J. E.; Prasad, Lakshman

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of Python in a computer vision (CV) project. We begin by providing background information on the specific approach to CV employed by the project. This includes a brief discussion of Constrained Delaunay Triangulation (CDT), the Chordal Axis Transform (CAT), shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalization of strings representing objects. (The terms 'object' and 'blob' are used interchangeably, both referring to an entity extracted from an image.) The rest of the paper focuses on the use of Python in three critical areas: (1) interactions with a MySQL database, (2) rapid prototyping of algorithms, and (3) gluing together all components of the project including existing C and C++ modules. For (l), we provide a schema definition and discuss how the various tables interact to represent objects in the database as tree structures. (2) focuses on an algorithm to create a hierarchical representation of an object, given its string representation, and an algorithm to match unknown objects against objects in a database. And finally, (3) discusses the use of Boost Python to interact with the pre-existing C and C++ code that creates the CDTs and CATS, performs shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalizes object strings. The paper concludes with a vision of the future use of Python for the CV project.

  6. Coherent laser vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastion, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  7. Preschool vision screening.

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, S N; Tamhne, R C; Thompson, L; Francis, P M; Anderson, J; Colver, A F

    1991-01-01

    Although a good case for preschool screening for vision defects can be made there is very little evidence that existing programmes are effective in practice. A comparative trial of three different methods of preschool vision screening is described. Some 7000 children initially aged 5 months (younger cohorts) and 30 months (older cohorts) in three matched areas entered the trial during 1987. During 18 months of follow up new visual and ocular defects among these children were ascertained through ophthalmology outpatients and from optician records. Screening at 35 months by an orthoptist based in the community is superior to conventional health visitor surveillance at 30 months and to an agreed programme of primary care screening for squint at 30-36 months as judged by screening sensitivity (100% v 50% v 50%) and the incidence of treated target conditions (17 v 3 v 5 per 1000 person years). A notable feature in the area served by the orthoptist is that 13 children received treatment for straight eyed visual acuity loss from among 1000 children whereas there were no such cases among 2500 in the comparison areas. In the younger cohorts (that is, screening at age 5-9 months) all three programmes showed equally poor results, only one of the eight treated target conditions arising from all 3500 younger children being screen detected. PMID:2025002

  8. 2020 Vision Project Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, K.W.; Scott, K.P.

    2000-11-01

    Since the 2020 Vision project began in 1996, students from participating schools have completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on US national security. This report summarizes the students' views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's five years. It also highlights the main organizational features of the project. An analysis of thematic trends among the scenarios showed interesting shifts in students' thinking, particularly in their views of computer technology, US relations with China, and globalization. In 1996, most students perceived computer technology as highly beneficial to society, but as the year 2000 approached, this technology was viewed with fear and suspicion, even personified as a malicious, uncontrollable being. Yet, after New Year's passed with little disruption, students generally again perceived computer technology as beneficial. Also in 1996, students tended to see US relations with China as potentially positive, with economic interaction proving favorable to both countries. By 2000, this view had transformed into a perception of China emerging as the US' main rival and ''enemy'' in the global geopolitical realm. Regarding globalization, students in the first two years of the project tended to perceive world events as dependent on US action. However, by the end of the project, they saw the US as having little control over world events and therefore, we Americans would need to cooperate and compromise with other nations in order to maintain our own well-being.

  9. Industrial robot's vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iureva, Radda A.; Raskin, Evgeni O.; Komarov, Igor I.; Maltseva, Nadezhda K.; Fedosovsky, Michael E.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the improved economic situation in the high technology sectors, work on the creation of industrial robots and special mobile robotic systems are resumed. Despite this, the robotic control systems mostly remained unchanged. Hence one can see all advantages and disadvantages of these systems. This is due to lack of funds, which could greatly facilitate the work of the operator, and in some cases, completely replace it. The paper is concerned with the complex machine vision of robotic system for monitoring of underground pipelines, which collects and analyzes up to 90% of the necessary information. Vision Systems are used to identify obstacles to the process of movement on a trajectory to determine their origin, dimensions and character. The object is illuminated in a structured light, TV camera records projected structure. Distortions of the structure uniquely determine the shape of the object in view of the camera. The reference illumination is synchronized with the camera. The main parameters of the system are the basic distance between the generator and the lights and the camera parallax angle (the angle between the optical axes of the projection unit and camera).

  10. Russian Planetary Program: Phobos and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galimov, E. M.; Marov, M. Ya.; Politshuk, G. M.; Zeleniy, L. M.

    2006-08-01

    Planetary exploration is a cornerstone of space science and technology development. Russia has a great legacy of the world recognized former space missions to the Moon and planets. Strategy of the Russian Federal Space Agency and the Russian Academy of Sciences planetary program for the coming decade is focused on space vehicle of new generation. The basic concept of this spacecraft development is the modern technology utilization, significant cost reduction and meeting objectives of the important science return. The bottom line is the use of middle class Soyuz-type launcher, which places the principal constraint on mass of the vehicle and mission profile. Flexibility in the design of space vehicle, including a possibility of SEP technology utilization, facilitates its adaptability for extended program of the solar system exploration. As the first step, the project is optimized around sample return mission from satellite of Mars Phobos ("Phobos-Grunt" or PSR) which is in the list of the Russian Federal Space Program for 2006 to 2015. It is to be launched in 2009 and completed in 2012. The experience gained from the former Russian "Phobos 88" serves as a clue to provide an important basis for the mission concept enabling solution of many problems of the project design and its implementation. There is a challenge to return relic matter from such small body like Phobos for the ground labs comprehensive study. The payload is also targeted for in-flight and extended remote sensing and in situ measurements using the capable instrument packages. The project is addressed as a milestone in the Russian program of the solar system study, with a potential for future ambitious missions to asteroids and comets pooling international efforts. Also endorsed by the Russian Federal Space Program is "Luna-Glob" mission to the Moon tentatively scheduled for 2011. The goal is to advance lunar science with the well instrumented orbiter, lander, and the network of penetrators. Return back

  11. Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint US/Russian Progress Report for Fiscal 1997. Volume 3 - Calculations Performed in the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This volume of the progress report provides documentation of reactor physics and criticality safety studies conducted in the Russian Federation during fiscal year 1997 and sponsored by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program of the US Department of Energy. Descriptions of computational and experimental benchmarks for the verification and validation of computer programs for neutron physics analyses are included. All benchmarks include either plutonium, uranium, or mixed uranium and plutonium fuels. Calculated physics parameters are reported for all of the contaminated benchmarks that the United States and Russia mutually agreed in November 1996 were applicable to mixed-oxide fuel cycles for light-water reactors.

  12. An overview of computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of computer vision is provided. Image understanding and scene analysis are emphasized, and pertinent aspects of pattern recognition are treated. The basic approach to computer vision systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the current existing systems and state-of-the-art issues and research requirements, who is doing it and who is funding it, and future trends and expectations are reviewed.

  13. Vision by Man and Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poggio, Tomaso

    1984-01-01

    Studies of stereo vision guide research on how animals see and how computers might accomplish this human activity. Discusses a sequence of algorithms to first extract information from visual images and then to calculate the depths of objects in the three-dimensional world, concentrating on stereopsis (stereo vision). (JN)

  14. Putting the Vision into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2010-01-01

    It's almost a year since the revolution--the "Learning Revolution," that is. This was the Government's long-term vision for the development of "informal adult learning", as laid out in the White Paper of March 2009. The vision was expansive, embracing informal learning in the workplace, promoting a "new" culture of…

  15. Vision in albinism.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, C G

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to study vision in albinism from 3 perspectives: first, to determine the characteristics of grating acuity development in children with albinism; second, to study the effect of illumination on grating acuity; and third, to define the effect of melanin pigment in the macula on visual acuity. METHODS: I. Binocular and monocular grating acuity was measured with the acuity card procedure in 40 children with albinism during the first 3 years of life. Recognition acuity was eventually measured in 27 of these patients. Ocular pigment was documented by a previously established method of grading iris transillumination and macular transparency. II. Grating acuity under standard and increased illumination levels was measured in 20 adults with albinism (group I) compared with that in 20 adults with nystagmus due to conditions other than albinism (group II) and 20 adults without ocular abnormalities (group III). Recognition acuity measured with the ETDRS charts was also recorded for each group. III. Best-corrected binocular acuity was measured in 29 patients with albinism who were identified with melanin pigment in their maculas by direct ophthalmoscopy. RESULTS: I. Both binocular and monocular grating acuity was reduced 2 to 3 octaves below the norm for ages 6 months to 3 years. Limited data available in the first 6 months of life did not show failure of vision to develop. Grating acuity measurements overestimated eventual recognition acuity. Mean recognition acuity was 20/111. A relationship between grating acuity development and presence or absence of ocular pigment was not found. II. Grating acuity was significantly better for groups I and II under the condition of increased illumination (P < .03). For patients with albinism, grating acuity under standard illumination was significantly better than recognition acuity (P < .001). For all groups, grating acuity under increased illumination was significantly better than recognition

  16. Vision Problems in the U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  17. All Russian institute for scientific and technical information (viniti) of the Russian academy of sciences.

    PubMed

    Markusova, Valentina

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to overview the leading information processing domain in Russia and Eastern Europe, namely All Russian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (VINITI ) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Russian science structure is different from that in the Western Europe and the US. The main aim of VINITI is to collect, process and disseminate scientific information on various fields of science and technology, published in 70 countries in 40 languages, selected from books, journals, conference proceedings, and patents. A special attention is given to the journal selection and depositing manuscripts (a kind of grey literature), an important source for Russian research. VINITI has created the largest database containing about 30 million records dating back to 1980. About 80,000-100,000 new records are added monthly. VINITI publishes the Journal Abstract (JA) on 19 fields of science, including medicine, containing about a million publications annually. Two thirds of these records are foreign and 36.7% - Russian sources.

  18. ALL RUSSIAN INSTITUTE FOR SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION (VINITI) OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

    PubMed Central

    Markusova, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to overview the leading information processing domain in Russia and Eastern Europe, namely All Russian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (VINITI ) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Russian science structure is different from that in the Western Europe and the US. The main aim of VINITI is to collect, process and disseminate scientific information on various fields of science and technology, published in 70 countries in 40 languages, selected from books, journals, conference proceedings, and patents. A special attention is given to the journal selection and depositing manuscripts (a kind of grey literature), an important source for Russian research. VINITI has created the largest database containing about 30 million records dating back to 1980. About 80,000-100,000 new records are added monthly. VINITI publishes the Journal Abstract (JA) on 19 fields of science, including medicine, containing about a million publications annually. Two thirds of these records are foreign and 36.7% – Russian sources. PMID:23322964

  19. Russian Political Warfare: Origin, Evolution, and Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Bereszovsky, died from acute polonium - 210 poisoning, which is a radioactive substance produced almost exclusively in one Russian laboratory. Traces...of the polonium - 210 found in a plane and the London restaurant in which he was exposed indicate that this was an act of nuclear terrorism executed by... 210   Figure 5.  Poster displayed in Ukraine’s parliament in Kiev prior to the 2010 presidential election depicting President

  20. The Russian Navy: A Historic Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    production . This entire process involves close coordination between the Defense Ministry and major scientific and industrial organizations belonging to...Commander-in-Chief, Russian Navy iv production capabilities required to advance it became ever more sophisticated and varied. In addition to production ...development, and production enabling the achievement of these goals have and will continue to be accompanied by a robust program of naval arms

  1. Russian Ballistic Missile Defense: Rhetoric and Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    objectives. The Strategic Studies Institute publishes national security and strategic research and analysis to influence policy debate and bridge the gap... and a lead- ing researcher with the Russian Institute of Strategic Studies : “The only purpose of the U.S. missile defense equipment deployed in... Studies Institute,47 Ashburn Drive,Carlilse,PA,17013-5010 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS

  2. Russian Nuclear Weapons: Past, Present, and Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    as the military infra - structure and the system of managing the military or- ganization of the state.”107 As far as “national defense” is concerned...where Russian and U.S. inter- ests and policies converge , the ruling political elite in Moscow remains deeply suspicious of American intentions and...in this worldview to expect determined and even desperate U.S. efforts aimed at prolonging its privileged position as the dominant hyper -power, so

  3. Russian Energy Policy Toward Neighboring Countries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-27

    Odesa in Ukraine to Brody, on the Polish border. This pipeline could then be extended to Gdansk in northern Poland. However, the project remains stalled...due to a lack of financing. At present, the Odesa -Brody pipeline runs in the reverse direction, pumping Russian oil to Odesa . In October 2007...Georgia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Poland signed an agreement to fund a feasibility study on the Odesa -Brody extension project. Another proposal at the

  4. Russian Energy Policy Toward Neighboring Countries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-02

    pipeline that currently runs from the oil terminal at Odesa in Ukraine to Brody, on the Polish border. This pipeline could then be extended to Gdansk in...northern Poland. At present, however, the Odesa -Brody pipeline runs in the reverse direction, pumping Russian oil to Odesa . In October 2007...Azerbaijan, Georgia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Poland signed an agreement to fund a feasibility study on the Odesa -Brody extension project. Obstacles to

  5. Russian Energy Policy Toward Neighboring Countries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-27

    runs from the oil terminal at Odesa in Ukraine to Brody, on the Polish border. This pipeline could then be extended to Gdansk in northern Poland...However, the project remains stalled due to a lack of financing. At present, the Odesa -Brody pipeline runs in the reverse direction, pumping Russian oil...to Odesa . In October 2007, representatives of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Georgia, and Azerbaijan met with EU and U.S

  6. Russian Energy Policy Toward Neighboring Countries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-17

    Europe, June 25, 2007. The United States has advocated extending an existing oil pipeline that currently runs from the oil terminal at Odesa in...lack of financing. At present, the Odesa -Brody pipeline runs in the reverse direction, pumping Russian oil to Odesa . In October 2007...Lithuania, Ukraine, and Poland signed an agreement to fund a feasibility study on the Odesa -Brody extension project. Another proposal at the conference

  7. The Iranian Space Program and Russian Assistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    research, development, and manu- facturing of satellite launch vehicles ( SLV ), satellites, manned spacecrafts, and their components.5 While the final...developed” SLV for the Mesbah or other spacecraft, albeit with substantial contributions of Russian technology. Iranian specialists considered Mesbah as a...launch vehicle ( SLV ). This 30-ton rocket could also be a wolf in sheep’s skin for testing longer-range missile strike technologies. At the beginning

  8. Debris mitigation measures of Russian launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utkin, V. F.; Chekalin, S. V.; Lukiyashchenko, V. I.

    1995-08-01

    The paper contains the statistics of SLV launches by the former USSR briefly characterising them as space pollution sources. The major principles of forming the Russian launch capability system and measures undertaken to improve SLV ecological indices, in particular, the measures to mitigate near-earth space pollution with separated elements and to prevent in-orbit used rocket stage explosions are spoken about. In conclusion, recommendations as regards novel developments and concrete proposals to arrange international cooperation in this area are given.

  9. 3D vision system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  10. Corneoplastique™: Art of vision surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gulani, Arun C

    2014-01-01

    Corneoplastique incorporates the entire spectrum of Vision corrective surgery including Lasik, premium cataract surgery, corneal surgery, ocular surface surgery and the full range of anterior segment surgery itself in manipulating the optics of every eye towards unaided emmetropia to define each and every eye surgeon as a “Vision Corrective Surgeon”. This concept of approaching each case individually and designing vision therewith enables surgeons to correct not only virgin eyes but also approach complex cases and complications with the goal of 20/20 vision. Armed with this holistic approach, eye surgeons can use minimally invasive, aesthetically pleasing and visually focused surgery in single or staged process aiming for each patient's Best Vision Potential (BVP) raising eye surgery itself then to an Art! PMID:24492495

  11. Geolocating Russian sources for Arctic black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    2014-08-01

    To design and implement an effective emission control strategy for black carbon (BC), the locations and strength of BC sources must be identified. Lack of accurate source information from the Russian Federation has created difficulty for a range of research and policy activities in the Arctic because Russia occupies the largest landmass in the Arctic Circle. A project was initiated to resolve emission sources of BC in the Russian Federation by using the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF). It used atmospheric BC data from two Arctic sampling stations at Alert Nunavut, Canada, and Tiksi Bay, Russia. The geographical regions of BC emission sources in Russia were identified and summarized as follows: (1) a region surrounding Moscow, (2) regions in Eurasia stretching along the Ural Mountains from the White Sea to the Black Sea, and (3) a number of scattered areas from western Siberia to the Russian Far East. Particulate potassium ions, non-marine sulfate, and vanadium were used to assist in resolving the source types: forest fire/biomass burning, coal-fired power plant, and oil combustion. Correlating these maps with the BC map helped to resolve source regions of BC emissions and connect them to their corresponding source types. The results imply that a region south of Moscow and another north of the Ural Mountains could be significant BC sources, but none of the grid cells in these regions could be linked to forest fires, oil combustion, or coal-fired power plants based on these three markers.

  12. Robotics Programming Competition Spheres, Russian Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovski, Andrei; Kukushkina, Natalia; Biryukova, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    Spheres" such name was done to Russian part of the Zero Robotics project which is a student competition devoted to programming of SPHERES (SPHERES - Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites are the experimental robotics devices which are capable of rotation and translation in all directions, http://ssl.mit.edu/spheres/), which perform different operations on the board of International Space Station. Competition takes place online on http://zerorobotics.mit.edu. The main goal is to develop a program for SPHERES to solve an annual challenge. The end of the tournament is the real competition in microgravity on the board of ISS with a live broadcast. The Russian part of the tournament has only two years history but the problems, organization and specific are useful for the other educational projects especially for the international ones. We introduce the history of the competition, its scientific and educational goals in Russia and describe the participation of Russian teams in 2014 and 2015 tournaments. Also we discuss the organizational problems.

  13. Possible Russian Contribution to the ERNP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Vladimir; Kent, Peter

    1998-09-01

    This paper, and the following five papers, were presented during the NAV 97 Conference held at Church House, Westminster, London on 11th and 12th November 1997. A full listing of the Conference, and how to obtain a copy of the proceedings, is shown on Page 279.The Government of the Russian Federation has made available, subject to certain conditions, the GLONASS satellite radionavigation system for civil use. Useof the system is free and there is no intention to introduce coding or to cause any deterioration to the accuracy of the signals. Discussions are currently taking place between the European Commission and the Russian Federation on cooperation concerning the implementation of a navigation satellite system for civil purposes. Discussions are also taking place between interested European Governments and the Russian Federation into the possibility of developing joint Chayka/Loran-C chains wherever this is feasible, and in particular, to cover the Barents Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. The development of a concept on integration of radionavigation systems would probably be a significant contribution to the European Radionavigation Plan.

  14. Russian eruption warning systems for aviation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, C.; Girina, O.; Senyukov, S.; Rybin, A.; Osiensky, J.; Izbekov, P.; Ferguson, G.

    2009-01-01

    More than 65 potentially active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kurile Islands pose a substantial threat to aircraft on the Northern Pacific (NOPAC), Russian Trans-East (RTE), and Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) air routes. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitors and reports on volcanic hazards to aviation for Kamchatka and the north Kuriles. KVERT scientists utilize real-time seismic data, daily satellite views of the region, real-time video, and pilot and field reports of activity to track and alert the aviation industry of hazardous activity. Most Kurile Island volcanoes are monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) based in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. SVERT uses daily moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images to look for volcanic activity along this 1,250-km chain of islands. Neither operation is staffed 24 h per day. In addition, the vast majority of Russian volcanoes are not monitored seismically in real-time. Other challenges include multiple time-zones and language differences that hamper communication among volcanologists and meteorologists in the US, Japan, and Russia who share the responsibility to issue official warnings. Rapid, consistent verification of explosive eruptions and determination of cloud heights remain significant technical challenges. Despite these difficulties, in more than a decade of frequent eruptive activity in Kamchatka and the northern Kuriles, no damaging encounters with volcanic ash from Russian eruptions have been recorded. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  15. The Russian Child Health Care System.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Alexander; Namazova-Baranova, Leyla; Albitskiy, Valeriy; Ustinova, Natalia; Terletskaya, Rimma; Komarova, Olga

    2016-10-01

    We present a historical and analytical overview of the Russian child health care system describing strengths and challenges of the system. Main indicators of social environment and children's health, general demographics, and socioeconomic factors of Russia are described. The Russian health care system has preserved positive elements of the former Soviet model of pediatric care. However, beginning in 1991, it has been altered greatly in its funding and management. The child health care system is composed of a special network of outpatient and inpatient facilities. The key element of pediatric community care is the pediatric polyclinic, staffed by district pediatricians and nurses. Undergraduate pediatric training is separate from adult medical training. From day one onward, future pediatricians are trained at separate pediatric faculties of universities. Thus, they qualify as general pediatricians after only 2 years of postgraduate training. It should be emphasized that the gap between the health status of children in developed countries and the Russian Federation is largely due to the influence of socioeconomic determinants, such as traffic accidents, poverty, pollution, and hazardous life styles, including binge drinking. Further improvements of children's health require protective measures by the state to address the underlying socioeconomic determinants.

  16. Multiparameter vision testing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, S. R., Jr.; Homkes, R. J.; Poteate, W. B.; Sturgis, A. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Compact vision testing apparatus is described for testing a large number of physiological characteristics of the eyes and visual system of a human subject. The head of the subject is inserted into a viewing port at one end of a light-tight housing containing various optical assemblies. Visual acuity and other refractive characteristics and ocular muscle balance characteristics of the eyes of the subject are tested by means of a retractable phoroptor assembly carried near the viewing port and a film cassette unit carried in the rearward portion of the housing (the latter selectively providing a variety of different visual targets which are viewed through the optical system of the phoroptor assembly). The visual dark adaptation characteristics and absolute brightness threshold of the subject are tested by means of a projector assembly which selectively projects one or both of a variable intensity fixation target and a variable intensity adaptation test field onto a viewing screen located near the top of the housing.

  17. Vision for 2020.

    PubMed

    Giles, Laura; Brewer, E Thomas; Mosqueda, Laura; Huba, George J; Melchior, Lisa A

    2010-07-01

    This article reflects the collective thoughts of the 20 projects supported by the Archstone Foundation Elder Abuse and Neglect Initiative on offering a vision for improving the response system for elder abuse and, in turn, the lives of older adults between now and the year 2020. Five key areas were identified as critically important for advancing the field in the next ten years: (a) increased public awareness and shifting public attitudes, (b) improved identification and triage of cases, (c) increased integrated service models, (d) improved justice system response, and (e) leveraging and utilizing emerging and untapped resources. The lessons learned from the experiences of these 20 projects in California can serve as demonstration models for other communities to adopt, adapt, and improve response systems for elder abuse and neglect.

  18. Vision Sensors and Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Silicon charge-coupled-device (CCD) imagers have been and are a specialty market ruled by a few companies for decades. Based on CMOS technologies, active-pixel sensors (APS) began to appear in 1990 at the 1 μm technology node. These pixels allow random access, global shutters, and they are compatible with focal-plane imaging systems combining sensing and first-level image processing. The progress towards smaller features and towards ultra-low leakage currents has provided reduced dark currents and μm-size pixels. All chips offer Mega-pixel resolution, and many have very high sensitivities equivalent to ASA 12.800. As a result, HDTV video cameras will become a commodity. Because charge-integration sensors suffer from a limited dynamic range, significant processing effort is spent on multiple exposure and piece-wise analog-digital conversion to reach ranges >10,000:1. The fundamental alternative is log-converting pixels with an eye-like response. This offers a range of almost a million to 1, constant contrast sensitivity and constant colors, important features in professional, technical and medical applications. 3D retino-morphic stacking of sensing and processing on top of each other is being revisited with sub-100 nm CMOS circuits and with TSV technology. With sensor outputs directly on top of neurons, neural focal-plane processing will regain momentum, and new levels of intelligent vision will be achieved. The industry push towards thinned wafers and TSV enables backside-illuminated and other pixels with a 100% fill-factor. 3D vision, which relies on stereo or on time-of-flight, high-speed circuitry, will also benefit from scaled-down CMOS technologies both because of their size as well as their higher speed.

  19. Autophagy supports color vision

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenqing; Vinberg, Frans; Schottler, Frank; Doggett, Teresa A; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Ferguson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Cones comprise only a small portion of the photoreceptors in mammalian retinas. However, cones are vital for color vision and visual perception, and their loss severely diminishes the quality of life for patients with retinal degenerative diseases. Cones function in bright light and have higher demand for energy than rods; yet, the mechanisms that support the energy requirements of cones are poorly understood. One such pathway that potentially could sustain cones under basal and stress conditions is macroautophagy. We addressed the role of macroautophagy in cones by examining how the genetic block of this pathway affects the structural integrity, survival, and function of these neurons. We found that macroautophagy was not detectable in cones under normal conditions but was readily observed following 24 h of fasting. Consistent with this, starvation induced phosphorylation of AMPK specifically in cones indicating cellular starvation. Inhibiting macroautophagy in cones by deleting the essential macroautophagy gene Atg5 led to reduced cone function following starvation suggesting that cones are sensitive to systemic changes in nutrients and activate macroautophagy to maintain their function. ATG5-deficiency rendered cones susceptible to light-induced damage and caused accumulation of damaged mitochondria in the inner segments, shortening of the outer segments, and degeneration of all cone types, revealing the importance of mitophagy in supporting cone metabolic needs. Our results demonstrate that macroautophagy supports the function and long-term survival of cones providing for their unique metabolic requirements and resistance to stress. Targeting macroautophagy has the potential to preserve cone-mediated vision during retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:26292183

  20. Autophagy supports color vision.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenqing; Vinberg, Frans; Schottler, Frank; Doggett, Teresa A; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Ferguson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Cones comprise only a small portion of the photoreceptors in mammalian retinas. However, cones are vital for color vision and visual perception, and their loss severely diminishes the quality of life for patients with retinal degenerative diseases. Cones function in bright light and have higher demand for energy than rods; yet, the mechanisms that support the energy requirements of cones are poorly understood. One such pathway that potentially could sustain cones under basal and stress conditions is macroautophagy. We addressed the role of macroautophagy in cones by examining how the genetic block of this pathway affects the structural integrity, survival, and function of these neurons. We found that macroautophagy was not detectable in cones under normal conditions but was readily observed following 24 h of fasting. Consistent with this, starvation induced phosphorylation of AMPK specifically in cones indicating cellular starvation. Inhibiting macroautophagy in cones by deleting the essential macroautophagy gene Atg5 led to reduced cone function following starvation suggesting that cones are sensitive to systemic changes in nutrients and activate macroautophagy to maintain their function. ATG5-deficiency rendered cones susceptible to light-induced damage and caused accumulation of damaged mitochondria in the inner segments, shortening of the outer segments, and degeneration of all cone types, revealing the importance of mitophagy in supporting cone metabolic needs. Our results demonstrate that macroautophagy supports the function and long-term survival of cones providing for their unique metabolic requirements and resistance to stress. Targeting macroautophagy has the potential to preserve cone-mediated vision during retinal degenerative diseases.

  1. (In)Complete Acquisition of Aspect in Second Language and Heritage Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhaylova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation compares the knowledge of Russian Verbal Aspect in two types of learners enrolled in college level Russian courses: foreign language learners of Russian whose native language is English and heritage language speakers of Russian whose dominant language at the time of study is English. Russian Aspect is known to be problematic both…

  2. Reading Russian-English Homographs in Sentence Contexts: Evidence from ERPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouravlev, Olessia; Jared, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated whether Russian--English bilinguals activate knowledge of Russian when reading English sentences. Russian and English share only a few letters, but there are some interlingual homographs (e.g., POT, which means "mouth" in Russian). Critical sentences were written such that the Russian meaning of the…

  3. The World Water Vision: From Developing a Vision to Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, S.; Cosgrove, W.; Rijsberman, F.; Strzepek, K.; Strzepek, K.

    2001-05-01

    The World Water Vision exercise was initiated by the World Water Commission under the auspices of the World Water Council. The goal of the World Water Vision project was to develop a widely shared vision on the actions required to achieve a common set of water-related goals and the necessary commitment to carry out these actions. The Vision should be participatory in nature, including input from both developed and developing regions, with a special focus on the needs of the poor, women, youth, children and the environment. Three overall objectives were to: (i)raise awareness of water issues among both the general population and decision-makers so as to foster the necessary political will and leadership to tackle the problems seriously and systematically; (ii) develop a vision of water management for 2025 that is shared by water sector specialists as well as international, national and regional decision-makers in government, the private sector and civil society; and (iii) provide input to a Framework for Action to be elaborated by the Global Water Partnership, with steps to go from vision to action, including recommendations to funding agencies for investment priorities. This exercise was characterized by the principles of: (i) a participatory approach with extensive consultation; (ii) Innovative thinking; (iii) central analysis to assure integration and co-ordination; and (iv) emphasis on communication with groups outside the water sector. The primary activities included, developing global water scenarios that fed into regional consultations and sectoral consultations as water for food, water for people - water supply and sanitation, and water and environment. These consultations formulated the regional and sectoral visions that were synthesized to form the World Water Vision. The findings from this exercise were reported and debated at the Second World Water Forum and the Ministerial Conference held in The Hague, The Netherlands during April 2000. This paper

  4. Western values and the Russian energy weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, Bennett K.

    This thesis explores the competition between Russia and the West for the oil and gas resources of the Caspian Sea region, an area where far more is at stake than simply acquisition of new energy supplies. Ultimately, the "winner" of the competition for Caspian Sea energy resources will determine whether Russia will become the primary energy supplier for Europe in the future, or whether there will be alternative, non-Russian energy routes from East to West. The thesis uses a qualitative approach, drawing on scholarly books and articles, current affairs publications, energy firm websites, and other sources to compare the ethical aspects of the strategies used by Russia and the West, to determine whose strategy has been more successful, and to analyze what this means for the political, economic, and security future of Europe. As this thesis demonstrates, Russia recognizes the importance of energy as both an economic and foreign policy tool. To secure access to the resources of the Caspian Sea region, Russia has used bribery and strongman tactics to secure arrangements and contracts favorable to Russian interests. When a country does not capitulate to these tactics, Russia applies other measures to influence these countries' policies. This thesis draws on two recent examples, Ukraine and Georgia, to demonstrate how Russia has used its position as a supplier of energy resources to influence countries to adopt policies complementary to Russian interests, or to punish them for failing to do so. The effectiveness of these Russian tactics is an important precedent for the countries of the Caspian Sea region to keep in mind as they make decisions that will determine their economic and political future for decades to come. In contrast, the western strategy of promoting quality products and services, while ensuring safety and conducting business according to western ethical norms, has been less successful than western firms originally envisioned. Undoubtedly western firms have

  5. A.R. Luria and the history of Russian neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Glozman, J M

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes Russian contributions to neuropsychology from the eighteenth up to the twenty-first century. Various approaches to the problem of the organization and localization of mental functions in the Pre-Lurian and Luria's periods are discussed. Comparisons with European and North American contributions and with contributions from subsequent Russian literature (post-Lurian period) are presented to demonstrate their interconnections in shaping the course of Russian neuropsychology and the main tendencies in its development.

  6. Coverage of Russian psychological contributions in American psychology textbooks.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert García for reviewing and

  7. Machine vision for digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future.

  8. Climate change and zoonotic infections in the Russian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Revich, Boris; Tokarevich, Nikolai; Parkinson, Alan J

    2012-07-23

    Climate change in the Russian Arctic is more pronounced than in any other part of the country. Between 1955 and 2000, the annual average air temperature in the Russian North increased by 1.2°C. During the same period, the mean temperature of upper layer of permafrost increased by 3°C. Climate change in Russian Arctic increases the risks of the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases. This review presents data on morbidity rates among people, domestic animals and wildlife in the Russian Arctic, focusing on the potential climate related emergence of such diseases as tick-borne encephalitis, tularemia, brucellosis, leptospirosis, rabies, and anthrax.

  9. Computer_Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Justin Doak, LANL

    2002-10-04

    The Computer_Vision software performs object recognition using a novel multi-scale characterization and matching algorithm. To understand the multi-scale characterization and matching software, it is first necessary to understand some details of the Computer Vision (CV) Project. This project has focused on providing algorithms and software that provide an end-to-end toolset for image processing applications. At a high-level, this end-to-end toolset focuses on 7 coy steps. The first steps are geometric transformations. 1) Image Segmentation. This step essentially classifies pixels in foe input image as either being of interest or not of interest. We have also used GENIE segmentation output for this Image Segmentation step. 2 Contour Extraction (patent submitted). This takes the output of Step I and extracts contours for the blobs consisting of pixels of interest. 3) Constrained Delaunay Triangulation. This is a well-known geometric transformation that creates triangles inside the contours. 4 Chordal Axis Transform (CAT) . This patented geometric transformation takes the triangulation output from Step 3 and creates a concise and accurate structural representation of a contour. From the CAT, we create a linguistic string, with associated metrical information, that provides a detailed structural representation of a contour. 5.) Normalization. This takes an attributed linguistic string output from Step 4 and balances it. This ensures that the linguistic representation accurately represents the major sections of the contour. Steps 6 and 7 are implemented by the multi-scale characterization and matching software. 6) Multi scale Characterization. This takes as input the attributed linguistic string output from Normalization. Rules from a context free grammar are applied in reverse to create a tree-like representation for each contour. For example, one of the grammar’s rules is L -> (LL ). When an (LL) is seen in a string, a parent node is created that points to the four

  10. Current Status and Prospects of Occupational Medicine in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Mazitova, Nailya N; Simonova, Nadejda I; Onyebeke, Lynn C; Moskvichev, Andrey V; Adeninskaya, Elena E; Kretov, Andrey S; Trofimova, Marina V; Sabitova, Minzilya M; Bushmanov, Andrey Yu

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth analysis conducted on the historical background and current status of occupational medicine in Russia is presented. Scientific and practical bases of occupational medicine in the Russian Federation were based on 2 of the most important principles of health service: free medical care and its preventive orientation. Our analysis of the current situation in occupational medicine in modern Russia shows a transition from the vision of zero occupation-related harm to the strategy of recognizing, assessing, and managing occupational exposures. The system of workplace monitoring is developing successfully, with the creation of a federal database for the state of working conditions and the implementation of mechanisms for occupational risk assessment and management. However, at the same time, the system of medical surveillance for workers needs substantial reform. Over the past few years, the professional community of specialists in occupational medicine has taken several steps to improve the quality of its work. Understanding of the need for reforming the system of occupational medicine has continued to grow, which will improve the quality of medical monitoring for workers and extend professional longevity. Current challenges and prospects of occupational medicine in the Russian Federation are discussed.

  11. Vision without knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Milner, A D

    1997-01-01

    A brain-damaged patient (D.F.) with visual form agnosia is described and discussed. D.F. has a profound inability to recognize objects, places and people, in large part because of her inability to make perceptual discriminations of size, shape or orientation, despite having good visual acuity. Yet she is able to perform skilled actions that depend on that very same size, shape and orientation information that is missing from her perceptual awareness. It is suggested that her intact vision can best be understood within the framework of a dual processing model, according to which there are two cortical processing streams operating on different coding principles, for perception and for action, respectively. These may be expected to have different degrees of dependence on top-down information. One possibility is that D.F.'s lack of explicit awareness of the visual cues that guide her behaviour may result from her having to rely on a processing system which is not knowledge-based in a broad sense. Conversely, it may be that the perceptual system can provide conscious awareness of its products in normal individuals by virtue of the fact that it does interact with a stored base of visual knowledge. PMID:9304691

  12. Vision as a Beachhead.

    PubMed

    Heeger, David J; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-09-29

    When neural circuits develop abnormally due to different genetic deficits and/or environmental insults, neural computations and the behaviors that rely on them are altered. Computational theories that relate neural circuits with specific quantifiable behavioral and physiological phenomena, therefore, serve as extremely useful tools for elucidating the neuropathological mechanisms that underlie different disorders. The visual system is particularly well suited for characterizing differences in neural computations; computational theories of vision are well established, and empirical protocols for measuring the parameters of those theories are well developed. In this article, we examine how psychophysical and neuroimaging measurements from human subjects are being used to test hypotheses about abnormal neural computations in autism, with an emphasis on hypotheses regarding potential excitation/inhibition imbalances. We discuss the complexity of relating specific computational abnormalities to particular underlying mechanisms given the diversity of neural circuits that can generate the same computation, and we discuss areas of research in which computational theories need to be further developed to provide useful frameworks for interpreting existing results. A final emphasis is placed on the need to extend existing ideas into developmental frameworks that take into account the dramatic developmental changes in neurophysiology (e.g., changes in excitation/inhibition balance) that take place during the first years of life, when autism initially emerges.

  13. The Earth Science Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rychekewkitsch, Michael; Andrucyk, Dennis; McConaughy, Gail; Meeson, Blanche; Hildebrand, Peter; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise's long range vision is to enable the development of a national proactive environmental predictive capability through targeted scientific research and technological innovation. Proactive environmental prediction means the prediction of environmental events and their secondary consequences. These consequences range from disasters and disease outbreak to improved food production and reduced transportation, energy and insurance costs. The economic advantage of this predictive capability will greatly outweigh the cost of development. Developing this predictive capability requires a greatly improved understanding of the earth system and the interaction of the various components of that system. It also requires a change in our approach to gathering data about the earth and a change in our current methodology in processing that data including its delivery to the customers. And, most importantly, it requires a renewed partnership between NASA and its sister agencies. We identify six application themes that summarize the potential of proactive environmental prediction. We also identify four technology themes that articulate our approach to implementing proactive environmental prediction.

  14. Spatiochromatic model of vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhead, Ian R.

    1996-04-01

    A computer model of human spatiochromatic vision, based on the scheme proposed by De Valois and De Valois has been developed. The implementation of the model enables true color 2-D images to be processed. The input consists of cone signals at each pixel. Subsequent levels of the model are represented by arrays of activity corresponding to the equivalent neural activity. The implementation allows the behavior of different stages of the model -- retinal and cortical -- to be studied with different varieties of spatial and chromatic stimuli of any complexity. In addition the model is extensible to allow different types of neural mechanisms and cortical demultiplexing processes to be incorporated. As well as providing qualitative insight into the operation of the different stages of the model the implementation also permits quantitative predictions to be made. Both increment threshold and hue naming results are predicted by the model, but the accuracy of these predictions is contingent upon an appropriate choice of adaptation state at the retinal cone and ganglion cell level.

  15. A New View of Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Christopher

    1988-01-01

    Reviews research done on the nature of vision from a neurologic perspective. Proposes a multiplex filter model to explain patterns in the signals transmitted to the brain from the retina. Describes experiments done to test the model. (CW)

  16. Do You Have Cultural Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that child care teachers can help remedy cultural tunnel vision by promoting cultural diversity and understanding as they work with children and communicate with parents about what they are doing. (BB)

  17. The Russian Way of War: Post Soviet Adaptations in the Russian Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    attritted, and then overwhelmed the Nazi Wehrmacht. The utilization of an efficiently, but minimally trained conscript force became a staple of Soviet...mines” and launched two nuclear capable Tochka-I ( SS -21) missiles.347 344Arbatov, 64. 345Thorton, “Military Modernization and the Russian Ground

  18. The Russians Are Coming, the Russians are Dead: Myth and Historical Consciousness in Two Contact Narratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppert, James

    This research paper examines hidden cultural patterns establishing the expression of historical thought in Native Alaskan narratives which describe first contact with Russians. Historical consciousness in oral contact stories is always mythic in form, as well as in content. Native American oral cultures understood new events by…

  19. 46 CFR 10.305 - Vision requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vision requirements. 10.305 Section 10.305 Shipping... CREDENTIAL Medical Certification § 10.305 Vision requirements. (a) Deck standard. (1) A mariner must have correctable vision to at least 20/40 in one eye and uncorrected vision of at least 20/200 in the same eye....

  20. [Acquired disorders of color vision].

    PubMed

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  1. Geometric Modeling for Computer Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    Vision and Artificial Intellegence could lead to robots, androids and cyborgs which will be able to see, to think and to feel conscious 10.4...the construction of computer representations of physical objects, cameras, images and light for the sake of simulating their behavior. In Artificial ...specifically, I wish to exclude the connotation that the theory is a natural theory of vision. Perhaps there can be such a thing as an artificial theory

  2. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined artificial intelligence and image processing in relation to robotics. Topics considered at the conference included feature extraction and pattern recognition for computer vision, image processing for intelligent robotics, robot sensors, image understanding and artificial intelligence, optical processing techniques in robotic applications, robot languages and programming, processor architectures for computer vision, mobile robots, multisensor fusion, three-dimensional modeling and recognition, intelligent robots applications, and intelligent robot systems.

  3. Aircraft cockpit vision: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir, J.; Singh, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the field of vision of a pilot seated in an aircraft. Given the position and orientation of the aircraft, along with the geometrical configuration of its windows, and the location of an object, the model determines whether the object would be within the pilot's external vision envelope provided by the aircraft's windows. The computer program using this model was implemented and is described.

  4. Adaptive machine vision. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, W.W.; Brill, M.H.; Bergeron, D.W.

    1988-03-08

    The mission of the Strategic Defense Initiative is to develop defenses against threatening ballistic missiles. There are four distinct phases to the SDI defense; boost, post-boost, midcourse and terminal. In each of these phases, one or more machine-vision functions are required, such as pattern recognition, stereo image fusion, clutter rejection and discrimination. The SDI missions of coarse track, stereo track and discrimination are examined here from the point of view of a machine-vision system.

  5. [Vision measurement and psychophysical tests].

    PubMed

    Kronbauer, Airton Leite; Schor, Paulo; Carvalho, Luis Alberto Vieira de

    2008-01-01

    Vision measurement is the basis for the study and standardization of visual sciences. Measurement of visual acuity has great value for research and for clinical practice. This paper (1) reviews the fundamental concepts to understand visual sense and the measuring units; (2) presents the fundamental limits to visual performance and the principles of aberration measurement of the eye; and (3) discusses methods for measuring and classifying vision with new technologies.

  6. Ecology: human role in Russian wild fires.

    PubMed

    Mollicone, Danilo; Eva, Hugh D; Achard, Frédéric

    2006-03-23

    Anomalies in temperature and precipitation in northern Russia over the past few years have been viewed as manifestations of anthropogenic climate change, prompting suggestions that this may also account for exceptional forest fires in the region. Here we examine the number of forest-fire events across the boreal Russian Federation for the period 2002 to 2005 in 'intact' forests, where human influence is limited, and in 'non-intact' forests, which have been shaped by human activity. Our results show that there were more fires in years during which the weather was anomalous, but that more than 87% of fires in boreal Russia were started by people.

  7. In Brief: Russian volcano warnings reinstated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-04-01

    The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) is again issuing warnings for aviation during periods of activity by Kamchatkan volcanoes. KVERT had stopped issuing warnings on 1 March due to a loss of funding by the Federal Unitary Enterprise State Air Traffic Management Corporation of Russia (see Eos 88(12), 2007). The funding for this work has now resumed. KVERT is a collaborative project of scientists from the Russian Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, the Kamchatka Experimental and Methodical Seismological Department, and the Alaska Volcano Observatory.

  8. Default contagion risks in Russian interbank market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonidov, A. V.; Rumyantsev, E. L.

    2016-06-01

    Systemic risks of default contagion in the Russian interbank market are investigated. The analysis is based on considering the bow-tie structure of the weighted oriented graph describing the structure of the interbank loans. A probabilistic model of interbank contagion explicitly taking into account the empirical bow-tie structure reflecting functionality of the corresponding nodes (borrowers, lenders, borrowers and lenders simultaneously), degree distributions and disassortativity of the interbank network under consideration based on empirical data is developed. The characteristics of contagion-related systemic risk calculated with this model are shown to be in agreement with those of explicit stress tests.

  9. Transformation in Russian and Soviet Military History,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    NJ: Princeton University Pi-ess, 1985. (on order) Golovin , Nikolai N. The Russian army in the World War. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1931...S45 1973) Shaskol’skii, Igor P. Bor’ba russkogo naroda za nevskie berega. Moskva: Gos. voen. izd-vo, 1940 . (DK 51.7 S53) Smith, Clarence J. The...perspective. Newport, bI: Naval War 2ol~e re, 1973. (AD-A044 938/9) 9 II. The Development of Soviet Military Doctrine (1918- 1940 ) Based upon her rich

  10. The Russian Military in the Year 2000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California AD-A261 758 1110 STA’rs 4V DTIC 2𔃺•RAID𔃺ýý ELECTE S MARL 81993 D THESIS E THE RUSSIAN MILITARY IN...Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited. 2b. DECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRADING SCHEDILE 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT Nt MBER( S 5...MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. Dt ICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Naval Postgraduate

  11. Russian vaccines against especially dangerous bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Sayapina, Lidiya V; Corbel, Michael J; Motin, Vladimir L

    2014-01-01

    In response to the epidemiological situation, live attenuated or killed vaccines against anthrax, brucellosis, cholera, glanders, plague and tularemia were developed and used for immunization of at-risk populations in the Former Soviet Union. Certain of these vaccines have been updated and currently they are used on a selective basis, mainly for high risk occupations, in the Russian Federation. Except for anthrax and cholera these vaccines currently are the only licensed products available for protection against the most dangerous bacterial pathogens. Development of improved formulations and new products is ongoing. PMID:26038506

  12. The Russian Virtual Observatory: Principles and Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkovskij, V.; Dluznevskaja, O.; Malkov, O.; Piskunov, A.

    As the basis for creation of the Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO), we consider consolidating all the available information in observational archives, data centers, and telescopes. The process of the execution of scientific research has to be regarded as a whole, from task production, to getting necessary information, and obtaining scientific results. For realization of the project, we intend to develop the next components: the Internet portal as a main RVO access point and a management system --- the information hub of CAD INASAN, and a system for remote access to information and technical resources of telescopes.

  13. Soviet/Russian-American space cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karash, Yuri Y.

    This dissertation seeks to answer two questions: (1) what are the necessary conditions for the emergence of meaningful space cooperation between Russia and the United States, and (2) might this cooperation continue developing on its own merit, contributing to the further rapprochement between the two countries, even if the conditions that originated the cooperation were to change? The study examines the entire space era up to this point, 1957 to 1997, from the first satellite launch through the joint U.S.-Russian work on the ISS project. It focuses on the analysis of three distinct periods of possible and real cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia. The first possibility for a limited Soviet-American cooperation in space emerged in the late 1950s, together with the space age, and continued until the mid-1960s. The major potential joint project of this period was a human expedition to the Moon. The global competition/confrontation between the two countries prevented actual cooperation. The second period was from the late 1960s until 1985 with consideration of experimental docking missions, including the docking of a reusable U.S. shuttle to a Soviet Salyut-type station. The global U.S.-Soviet competition still continued, but the confrontation was replaced by detente for a brief period of time lasting from the end of 1960s until mid-1970s. Detente gave the first example of U.S.-Soviet cooperation in space---the Apollo-Soyuz joint space flight (ASTP) which took place in 1975. However, the lack of interest of political leaderships in continuation of broad-scale cooperation between the two countries, and the end of detente, removed ASTP-like projects out of question at least until 1985. The third period started together with Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroika in 1985 and continues until now. It involves almost a hundred of joint space projects both at the governmental and at the private sectors levels. The mainstream of the joint activities

  14. US, Russian intelligence agencies offer proliferation assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfsthal, J.B.

    1993-03-01

    The CIA outlined for the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee (February 24, 1993) the prospects for the spread of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and ballistic missiles in the aftermath of the Cold War. The testimony came less than one month after the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service released an 118-page report that also stressed the importance of preventing proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. CIA testimony and the FIS report both provided details on several states of proliferation concern, including North Korea, Iran, India, and Pakistan.

  15. USF/Russian dosimetry on STS-57

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The major purpose of this experiment was to conduct an international comparison of passive dosimetry methods in space. Two APD's were flown in the charged particle directional spectrometer (CPDS)/tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) locker on the space shuttle during the STS-57 mission. Due to placement, the shielding and radiation environment of the APD's were nearly the same and the dosimeters distributed in the two boxes can be considered equally exposed. The dosimeter types included plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's), thermoluminescent detectors (TLD), nuclear emulsions, and thermal/resonance neutron detectors (TRND's). The USF dosimeters included PNTD's, TLD's, and TRND's, while the Russian dosimeters included PNTD's, TLD's, and nuclear emulsions.

  16. Application of artificial intelligence to robotic vision

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, P.S.; Frick, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    A brief introduction to artificial intelligence (AI) and the general vision process is provided. Two samples of AI researchers' work toward general computer vision are given. The first is a model-based vision system while the second is based on results of studies on human vision. The current state of machine vision in industrial robotics is demonstrated using a well known vision algorithm developed at SRI International. A part of a prototype robotic assembly project with vision is sketched to show the application of some AI tools to practical work. 8 references.

  17. Computer vision syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Blehm, Clayton; Vishnu, Seema; Khattak, Ashbala; Mitra, Shrabanee; Yee, Richard W

    2005-01-01

    As computers become part of our everyday life, more and more people are experiencing a variety of ocular symptoms related to computer use. These include eyestrain, tired eyes, irritation, redness, blurred vision, and double vision, collectively referred to as computer vision syndrome. This article describes both the characteristics and treatment modalities that are available at this time. Computer vision syndrome symptoms may be the cause of ocular (ocular-surface abnormalities or accommodative spasms) and/or extraocular (ergonomic) etiologies. However, the major contributor to computer vision syndrome symptoms by far appears to be dry eye. The visual effects of various display characteristics such as lighting, glare, display quality, refresh rates, and radiation are also discussed. Treatment requires a multidirectional approach combining ocular therapy with adjustment of the workstation. Proper lighting, anti-glare filters, ergonomic positioning of computer monitor and regular work breaks may help improve visual comfort. Lubricating eye drops and special computer glasses help relieve ocular surface-related symptoms. More work needs to be done to specifically define the processes that cause computer vision syndrome and to develop and improve effective treatments that successfully address these causes.

  18. Night vision by cuttlefish enables changeable camouflage.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Buresch, Kendra C; Fetchko, Thomas; Gardner, Meg; Hanlon, Roger T

    2010-12-01

    Because visual predation occurs day and night, many predators must have good night vision. Prey therefore exhibit antipredator behaviours in very dim light. In the field, the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) assumes camouflaged body patterns at night, each tailored to its immediate environment. However, the question of whether cuttlefish have the perceptual capability to change their camouflage at night (as they do in day) has not been addressed. In this study, we: (1) monitored the camouflage patterns of Sepia officinalis during the transition from daytime to night-time using a natural daylight cycle and (2) tested whether cuttlefish on a particular artificial substrate change their camouflage body patterns when the substrate is changed under dim light (down to starlight, 0.003 lux) in a controlled light field in a dark room setting. We found that cuttlefish camouflage patterns are indeed adaptable at night: animals responded to a change in their visual environment with the appropriate body pattern change. Whether to deceive their prey or predators, cuttlefish use their excellent night vision to perform adaptive camouflage in dim light.

  19. Theory underlying the peripheral vision horizon device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Money, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Peripheral Vision Horizon Device (PVHD) theory states that the likelihood of pilot disorientation in flight is reduced by providing an artificial horizon that provides orientation information to peripheral vision. In considering the validity of the theory, three areas are explored: the use of an artificial horizon device over some other flight instrument; the use of peripheral vision over foveal vision; and the evidence that peripheral vision is well suited to the processing of orientation information.

  20. The Sociocultural Factors of Russian Stagnation and Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, N. I.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the results of six Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Surveys, "The Values and Interests of the Population of Russia" (1990, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, and 2010), conducted by the Center for the Study of Sociocultural Changes at the Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences, provides evidence that two stages in the…

  1. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Russian River Valley. 9.66 Section 9.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is...

  2. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Russian River Valley. 9.66 Section 9.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is...

  3. Using the OPI to Place Heritage Speakers of Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Olga; Friedman, Debra

    2003-01-01

    This study explored the possibility of using an ACTFL oral proficiency interview (OPI) to assess the spoken proficiency of heritage language speakers of Russian for the purpose of placing them in Russian language classes. The authors also considered whether the norm of an educated native speaker could be used as a valid reference point for Russian…

  4. Personality Development and Problem Behavior in Russian Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…

  5. Ten Years in the Life of Russian Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greening, Joyce Martin

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effects of the political events of the last decade on Russian libraries. Topics include libraries in the old Soviet Union, decentralization of control and financing, relaxation of censorship, changes in the Russian publishing industry, channels of distribution, and future needs. (LRW)

  6. The war of the mushrooms: A Russian folktale revisited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are numerous versions of a Russian folktale, War of the Mushrooms. The tale is indexed in standard folkloristic references as tale type 297B. Unfortunately, it is not included in the best known collection of Russian folktales translated into English, that of Alexander Afanesiev. It was first r...

  7. The Joy of Text: A Comprehension Approach to Intermediate Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Renee; Tetrault, Emery

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the similarities between the approaches of Plank, Daugherty, McKenna, Ingram, and others to the teaching of beginning Russian and that of the natural approach advocated by Krashen. Discusses some of the ways these approaches can be applied to teaching Russian at the intermediate level. (SED)

  8. Social Mechanisms in Elaborating Russian Educational Policy: Legal Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gostev, Aleksandr N.; Turko, Tamara I.; Shchepanskiy, Sergey B.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of legal monitoring and those of a sociological research on the efficiency of social mechanisms in Russian Federation education policy. The data obtained substantiates: the need for systematic improvement of Russian legislation in the education sector; revised notions and content of social mechanisms in Russian…

  9. Silent Movies: A Digitized Video Approach to the Russian Verb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frumkes, Lisa A.

    A HyperCard stack using digitized video to provide students of Russian with meaningful exercise in the use of verbal aspect and verbs of motion and position is described. Several problems presented by the Russian verb are defined. Examples of traditional textbook exercises are presented--translations, fill-ins, and picture-based approaches, and…

  10. Teaching Sport Education to Russian Students: An Ecological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinelnikov, Oleg; Hastie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Given Russian students' general lack of group work and opportunities to develop student responsibility in their prior schooling experiences, the purpose of this study was to examine how a group of Russian high school students responds to novel demands of participation in a sport education season. Forty-two students from two ninth-grade physical…

  11. Russian for the Science Minded. Foreign Language: 7544.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course is designed to teach basic Russian terminology and structure which will allow the student, with the help of a good dictionary, to translate scientific material. Before taking the course, the student should control the Russian sound system and should be thoroughly familiar with the Cyrillic alphabet. This curriculum guide includes a…

  12. Russian studies on clouds and precipitation in 2011-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukova, N. A.; Chernokulsky, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The results obtained in Russian studies on clouds and precipitation in 2011-2014 are presented. These results are part of the Russian National Report on Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences that was prepared for the XXVI General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG).

  13. [General Characteristics of English Grammar Compared With Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poltoratzsky, M.A.

    1965-01-01

    This article, written in Russian, propounds the application of the contrastive method in teaching the morphology of Russian to English-speaking students. The presentation is based on categorization by parts of speech. Included here is a comparative analysis of nouns (gender, number, case, expression of definite and indefinite articles),…

  14. Russian: Advanced Course. Advanced Grammar, Lessons 1-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume of an advanced Russian course designed by the Defense Language Institute seeks to develop a more comprehensive knowledge of the structural features of Russian and an enlarged vocabulary. The learning accomplished orally in class is reinforced in written exercises at home. Instructional materials concentrate on morphology, syntax, and…

  15. What the Russian School Ought to Be Like.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncharov, I.

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that Russian society and Russian schools are going through a profound crisis. Maintains that the best approach to solving social and educational problems is to restore and develop national principles and group cohesion. Criticizes the United States and Japanese educational systems and calls for Russia to follow its own path. (CFR)

  16. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  17. Peculiarities of Teaching the Russian Language to Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamalova, Lera A.; Zakirova, Venera G.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this study is due to migration processes in Russia, the emergence in Russian schools of migrant children. School practice shows that the education of migrant children the Russian language has its own specifics related to the problems of bilingualism (bilingualism), ethnic identification, insufficient knowledge of the Russian…

  18. Russian Foreign Policy in Historical and Current Context: A Reassessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    of Western culture fit well with the narrative of Russian tra- ditionalism and of Russia standing up to the bullying West. As the Ukraine crisis...the key voice for all elements of Russian policy, foreign and domestic, from standing up to Western bullying to rejection of Euro-Atlantic integration

  19. Russian delegation visits NIH and NCI to discuss research collaboration

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Center for Global Health hosted a delegation from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research to discuss ongoing and future collaborations in cancer research. The delegation was accompanied by representatives from the US Embassy in Moscow and the Embassy of the Russian Federation in Washington DC.

  20. Phonotactic Constraints: Implications for Models of Oral Reading in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulicheva, Anastasia; Coltheart, Max; Saunders, Steven; Perry, Conrad

    2016-01-01

    The present article investigates how phonotactic rules constrain oral reading in the Russian language. The pronunciation of letters in Russian is regular and consistent, but it is subject to substantial phonotactic influence: the position of a phoneme and its phonological context within a word can alter its pronunciation. In Part 1 of the article,…

  1. Palatalization and Intrinsic Prosodic Vowel Features in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordin, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    The presented study is aimed at investigating the interaction of palatalization and intrinsic prosodic features of the vowel in CVC (consonant+vowel+consonant) syllables in Russian. The universal nature of intrinsic prosodic vowel features was confirmed with the data from the Russian language. It was found that palatalization of the consonants…

  2. Intimate Partner Violence among Male and Female Russian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysova, Aleksandra V.; Douglas, Emily M.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports data from three Russian sites of the International Dating Violence Study. Using a sample of 338 university students (54% female) from three Russian university sites, four different types of partner violence are examined: physical assault, physical injury, sexual coercion, and psychological aggression. High prevalence rates…

  3. Russian Pedagogical Thinking on the Eve of October 1917.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikol' skaia, A. A.

    1996-01-01

    Surveys some of the more prominent views on education during the final years of tsarist Russia. Russian pedagogical thinking was largely influenced by progressive educational theories popular in the United States and Europe. Discusses the views and efforts of major Russian educational theorists at the time. (MJP)

  4. Professional Values and Stereotypes of Russian Educational Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Lev; Bamberg, Jerry

    1998-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire completed by 282 heads of Russian schools suggest that their problems in mastering foreign models of management stem from differences in the general logic of activity of Russian and Western educational managers, differences that are caused by differences in "external orders" toward schools. (SLD)

  5. Ideas of Differentiated Instruction in Russian/Soviet Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil'bukh, Iu. Z.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a historical summary of Russian pedagogical thought concerning cognitive style and different learning strategies. As early as 1832 Russian educators were questioning the rigid standardized teaching strategies applied to all students. Identifies leading theorists in this movement and briefly discusses their contributions. (MJP)

  6. Comprehensive Russian Instructional Program, 1983-1984: OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    In 1983-84, the second and final year of funding, Project CRIP (Comprehensive Russian Instructional Program) provided career orientation and support services to 430 Russian-speaking student of limited English proficiency (LEP) at three public and four private high schools in Brooklyn and Queens, New York. All of the students were foreign-born and…

  7. Spaceborne GPS: Current Status and Future Visions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Hartman, Kate; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    1998-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), developed by the Department of Defense is quickly revolutionizing the architecture of future spacecraft and spacecraft systems. Significant savings in spacecraft life cycle cost, in power, and in mass can be realized by exploiting GPS technology in spaceborne vehicles. These savings are realized because GPS is a systems sensor--it combines the ability to sense space vehicle trajectory, attitude, time, and relative ranging between vehicles into one package. As a result, a reduced spacecraft sensor complement can be employed and significant reductions in space vehicle operations cost can be realized through enhanced on-board autonomy. This paper provides an overview of the current status of spaceborne GPS, a description of spaceborne GPS receivers available now and in the near future, a description of the 1997-2000 GPS flight experiments, and the spaceborne GPS team's vision for the future.

  8. Spaceborne GPS Current Status and Future Visions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Hartman, Kate; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    1998-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), developed by the Department of Defense, is quickly revolutionizing the architecture of future spacecraft and spacecraft systems. Significant savings in spacecraft life cycle cost, in power, and in mass can be realized by exploiting Global Positioning System (GPS) technology in spaceborne vehicles. These savings are realized because GPS is a systems sensor-it combines the ability to sense space vehicle trajectory, attitude, time, and relative ranging between vehicles into one package. As a result, a reduced spacecraft sensor complement can be employed on spacecraft and significant reductions in space vehicle operations cost can be realized through enhanced on- board autonomy. This paper provides an overview of the current status of spaceborne GPS, a description of spaceborne GPS receivers available now and in the near future, a description of the 1997-1999 GPS flight experiments and the spaceborne GPS team's vision for the future.

  9. Menstrual Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    ... receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit The menstrual cycle Day 1 starts with the first day of ... drop around Day 25 . This signals the next menstrual cycle to begin. The egg will break apart and ...

  10. Behavior Risk Factors Among Russian Students.

    PubMed

    Anischenko, Aleksander; Arhangelskaya, Anna; Klenov, Michael; Burdukova, Ekaterina; Ogarev, Valrii; Ignatov, Nikolay; Osadchenko, Irina; Gurevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the prevalence of risk factors among Russian students. Methods In this study, 834 students were included from five Federal universities which were localized in four Federal regions of Russian Federation. Future doctors, school teachers, and wellness trainers were included in this study. Students were specifically asked about smoking, physical activity International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and food preference. Waist, hip, weight, and height were measured. Results The region of study and ethnic group were not influenced with respect to age and body mass index ( p > .1), while all other factors had a significant influence ( p < .05). High levels of smoking, hypodynamia, and motivation to intake of unhealthy food were found in medical students in comparison with those in future teachers and wellness instructors ( p < .05). The indicators of central obesity (due to levels of body mass index and waist-hip ratio) were found in medical students. Perspective Special programs to prevent the most common behavior risk factors in future medical doctors have to be designed.

  11. First Russian long length HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Eduard P.; Vysotsky, Vitaly S.; Firsov, Valery P.

    2012-11-01

    The Russian R&D Program for superconducting power devices is underway, supported both by government and electric power companies. In this program R&D on HTS power cables is considered as most advanced and close to commercialization. In the framework of the program, several, heavily instrumented, 5 m cables have been tested following by the 30 m - 3 phase experimental power cable development and testing in 2008-2009. The latest achievement is development and testing of the first long length 3 × 200 m power cable with rating 1.5/2 kA-20 kV. In parallel with just the cable development the innovative cryogenic system has been developed as well for the cable cooling. The system is using neon as working substance and radial turbo-machines in refrigerator. Cooling power is up to ∼8 kW at 65 K, inter-maintenance time ∼30,000 h. The cryogenic pump with superconducting motor can be used to provide subcooled liquid nitrogen flow ∼0.1-1.5 kg/s at 0.1-2.5 MPa pressure. After extensive tests at special test facility, HTS power cable and cryogenic system are planning to be installed at some substation in Moscow utility grid. In this review some details about Russian HTS power application program, 200 m cable and cryogenic system designs and tests results are presented.

  12. Atmospheric and Climate Aspects of Russian Regions Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golitsyn, G. S.; Dubovsky, S. V.; Ginzburg, A. S.; Mokhov, I. I.; Khomyakov, P. M.

    Russia is one of the first countries created the national program of sustainable devel- opment. The Presidential Decree SOn the national strategy of the Russian Federation & cedil;in the environment protection and sustainable developmentT was issued by in 1994. Atmospheric and climate aspects play very important roles in the sustainable devel- opment at the regional level in Russia as well as at national one. Last year Russian Academy of Sciences in collaboration with some leaders of the local Russian au- thorities started the Project SSustainable development of Russia and its regionsT. In & cedil; this project the problems of Russian socio-economical development are considered together with regional atmospheric and climate changes, environmental and natural resources, population, urbanization, energetic and new technology development, and so on. The main problems of Russian regions socio-economical development related to global and local climate changes, environmental and natural resources, urbanization will be discussed.

  13. Vision Loss in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Allen L; Rojas-Roldan, Ledy; Coffin, Janis

    2016-08-01

    Vision loss affects 37 million Americans older than 50 years and one in four who are older than 80 years. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concludes that current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in adults older than 65 years. However, family physicians play a critical role in identifying persons who are at risk of vision loss, counseling patients, and referring patients for disease-specific treatment. The conditions that cause most cases of vision loss in older patients are age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, ocular complications of diabetes mellitus, and age-related cataracts. Vitamin supplements can delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor can preserve vision in the neovascular form of macular degeneration. Medicated eye drops reduce intraocular pressure and can delay the progression of vision loss in patients with glaucoma, but adherence to treatment is poor. Laser trabeculoplasty also lowers intraocular pressure and preserves vision in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, but long-term studies are needed to identify who is most likely to benefit from surgery. Tight glycemic control in adults with diabetes slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, but must be balanced against the risks of hypoglycemia and death in older adults. Fenofibrate also slows progression of diabetic retinopathy. Panretinal photocoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for diabetic retinopathy, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors slow vision loss resulting from diabetic macular edema. Preoperative testing before cataract surgery does not improve outcomes and is not recommended.

  14. Prague as the Centre of Russian Educational Emigration: Czechoslovakia's Educational Policy for Russian Emigrants (1918-1938)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mchitarjan, Irina

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at the role played by the Czechoslovakian Republic in the establishment and maintenance of the "Russian education system in exile" in Europe during the 1920s and 1930s. No other country supported the educational activities of the Russian emigrants as generously as Czechoslovakia. Thanks to this extensive and targeted…

  15. Measurement equivalence of four psychological questionnaires in native-born Germans, Russian-speaking immigrants, and native-born Russians.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Oliver; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Bachmann, Viktoria

    2013-07-01

    Psychological constructs depend on cultural context. It is therefore important to show the equivalence of measurement instruments in cross-cultural research. There is evidence that in Russian-speaking immigrants, cultural and language issues are important in health care. We examined measurement equivalence of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), the Hamburg Self-Care Questionnaire (HamSCQ), and the questionnaire on communication preferences of patients with chronic illness (KOPRA) in native-born Germans, Russian-speaking immigrants living in Germany, and native-born Russians living in the former Soviet Union (FSU). All four questionnaires fulfilled requirements of measurement equivalence in confirmatory factor analyses and analyses of differential item functioning. The Russian translations can be used in Russian-speaking immigrants and native-born Russians. This offers further possibilities for cross-cultural research and for an improvement in health care research in Russian-speaking immigrants in Germany. The most pronounced differences occurred in the KOPRA, which point to differences in German and Russian health care systems.

  16. US/Russian laboratory-to-laboratory MPC&A Program at the VNIITF Institute, Chelyabinsk-70 May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tsygankov, G.; Churikov, Y.; Teryokhin, V.

    1996-05-01

    The AR Russian Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF), also called Chelyabinsk-70, is one of two Russian federal nuclear centers established to design, test and support nuclear weapons throughout their life cycle. The site contains research facilities which use nuclear materials, two experimental plants which manufacture prototype samples for nuclear weapons, and a site for various ground tests. Chelyabinsk-70 also has cooperative relationships with the major nuclear materials production facilities in the Urals region of Russia. Chelyabinsk-70 has been participating in the US/Russian Laboratory-to-laboratory cooperative program for approximately one year. Six US Department of Energy Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with VNIITF to improve the capabilities and facilities for nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A) at VNIITF. A Safeguards Effectiveness Evaluation Workshop was conducted at VNIITF in July, 1995. Enhanced safeguards systems are being implemented, initially at a reactor test area that contains three pulse reactors. Significant improvements to physical security and access control systems are under way. C-70 is developing an extensive computerized system that integrates the physical security alarm station with elements of the nuclear material control system. The existing systems will be augmented with Russian and US technologies. This paper will describe the on-going activities and describe the cooperative effort between the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Sandia, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Brookhaven US Department of Energy National Laboratories and VNIITF.

  17. Reliable vision-guided grasping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicewarner, Keith E.; Kelley, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    Automated assembly of truss structures in space requires vision-guided servoing for grasping a strut when its position and orientation are uncertain. This paper presents a methodology for efficient and robust vision-guided robot grasping alignment. The vision-guided grasping problem is related to vision-guided 'docking' problems. It differs from other hand-in-eye visual servoing problems, such as tracking, in that the distance from the target is a relevant servo parameter. The methodology described in this paper is hierarchy of levels in which the vision/robot interface is decreasingly 'intelligent,' and increasingly fast. Speed is achieved primarily by information reduction. This reduction exploits the use of region-of-interest windows in the image plane and feature motion prediction. These reductions invariably require stringent assumptions about the image. Therefore, at a higher level, these assumptions are verified using slower, more reliable methods. This hierarchy provides for robust error recovery in that when a lower-level routine fails, the next-higher routine will be called and so on. A working system is described which visually aligns a robot to grasp a cylindrical strut. The system uses a single camera mounted on the end effector of a robot and requires only crude calibration parameters. The grasping procedure is fast and reliable, with a multi-level error recovery system.

  18. The Medawar Lecture 2001 Knowledge for vision: vision for knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    An evolutionary development of perception is suggested—from passive reception to active perception to explicit conception—earlier stages being largely retained and incorporated in later species. A key is innate and then individually learned knowledge, giving meaning to sensory signals. Inappropriate or misapplied knowledge produces rich cognitive phenomena of illusions, revealing normally hidden processes of vision, tentatively classified here in a ‘peeriodic table’. Phenomena of physiology are distinguished from phenomena of general rules and specific object knowledge. It is concluded that vision uses implicit knowledge, and provides knowledge for intelligent behaviour and for explicit conceptual understanding including science. PMID:16147519

  19. English/Russian and Russian/English glossary of physical protection terms

    SciTech Connect

    Soo Hoo, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    This glossary was prepared in fulfillment of the Glossary Preparation Task identified in the Program Plan for providing Assistance to the Russian Federation in Nuclear Material Control and Accounting and Physical Protection. The Program Plan is part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Program as provided for under House Resolution (H.R.) 3807 (Title II, as referenced under Public Law (P.L.) 102-229. The terms in this glossary were derived from physical protection training material prepared at Sandia. The training material, and thus refinements to the glossary, has undergone years of development in presentation to both domestic and international audiences. Also, Russian Colleagues and interpreters have reviewed the translations for accuracy.

  20. The unsolved mystery of vision.

    PubMed

    Masland, Richard H; Martin, Paul R

    2007-08-07

    Vision looms large in neuroscience--it is the subject of a gigantic literature and four Nobel prizes--but there is a growing realization that there are problems with the textbook explanation of how mammalian vision works. Here we will summarize the evidence behind this disquiet. In effect, we shall present a portrait of a field that is 'stuck'. Our initial focus, because it is our area of expertise, is on evidence that the early steps of mammalian vision are more diverse and more interesting than is usually imagined, so that our understanding of the later stages is in trouble right from the start. But we will also summarize problems, raised by others, with the later stages themselves.

  1. Binocular vision and refractive surgery.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Alison L

    2007-05-01

    Binocular status can have an effect on the outcome of refractive surgery. Some accommodative deviations and anisometropia can be managed effectively. Fully accommodative esotropia has been successfully treated in young patients but the outcome can be less predictable in older patients. High anisometropes are usually unaffected by the change in aniseikonia following refractive surgery but there are exceptions. Failure to recognise and appropriately classify a binocular vision anomaly pre-surgically can result in symptoms that are difficult to manage post-operatively. Refractive surgery producing a binocular vision anomaly where there was none pre-operatively is less common. I present a review of the literature discussing the relationship between binocular vision anomalies and refractive surgery, illustrating the findings with published reports of successful and unsuccessful binocular postoperative outcomes. I argue that predicting the binocular outcome should be considered pre-operatively for every refractive surgery patient.

  2. Motion vision for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrb, Matthieu

    The problem of using computer vision in mobile robots is dealt with. The datacube specialized cards and a parallel machine using a transputer network are studied. The tracking and localization of a three dimensional object in a sequence of images is examined, using first order prediction of the motion in the image plane and verification by a maximal clique search in the graph of mutually compatible matchings. A dynamic environment modeling module, using numerical fusion between trinocular stereovision and tracking of stereo matched primitives is presented. The integration of this perception system in the control architecture of a mobile robot is examined to achieve various functions, such as vision servo motion and environment modeling. The functional units implementing vision tasks and the data exchanged with other units are outlined. Experiments realized with the mobile robot Hilare 1.5 allowed the proposed algorithms and concepts to be validated.

  3. Using rats for vision research.

    PubMed

    Reinagel, P

    2015-06-18

    A wide variety of species are used for the study of visual neuroscience. This is beneficial because fundamental mechanisms and theoretical principles of vision are likely to be highly conserved, while different species exhibit different visual capacities and present different technical advantages for experiments. Eight years ago my laboratory adopted the hooded rat as our primary preparation for vision research. To some this may be surprising, as nocturnal rodents have often been presumed to have poor vision and weak visual behavior. This commentary will provide my personal perspective on how I came to work with rats; discuss an example research project for which rats have been advantageous; and comment on the opportunities and challenges of the preparation.

  4. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights) need to be developed. This enables, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in, for example, a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, nearground obstructions, and ground targets. Furthermore, curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations needs to be developed and applied. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs.

  5. Global threat reduction initiative Russian nuclear material removal progress

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, Kelly

    2008-07-15

    In December 1999 representatives from the United States, the Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started discussing a program to return to Russia Soviet- or Russian-supplied highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel stored at the Russian-designed research reactors outside Russia. Trilateral discussions among the United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have identified more than 20 research reactors in 17 countries that have Soviet- or Russian-supplied HEU fuel. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program is an important aspect of the U.S. Government's commitment to cooperate with the other nations to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and weapons-usable proliferation-attractive nuclear materials. To date, 496 kilograms of Russian-origin HEU have been shipped to Russia from Serbia, Latvia, Libya, Uzbekistan, Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Germany, and the Czech Republic. The pilot spent fuel shipment from Uzbekistan to Russia was completed in April 2006. (author)

  6. Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act Science Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Brown, Curtis A.; Merritt, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary intent of this document is to provide the science assessment called for under The Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; the Act). A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. This document synthesizes the state-of-the-science on the following topics: the distribution and abundance (extent) of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States, potential for water savings associated with controlling saltcedar and Russian olive and the associated restoration of occupied sites, considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat or restored habitats, methods to control saltcedar and Russian olive, possible utilization of dead biomass following removal of saltcedar and Russian olive, and approaches and challenges associated with revegetation or restoration following control efforts. A concluding chapter discusses possible long-term management strategies, needs for additional study, potentially useful field demonstration projects, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

  7. Phonotactic constraints: Implications for models of oral reading in Russian.

    PubMed

    Ulicheva, Anastasia; Coltheart, Max; Saunders, Steven; Perry, Conrad

    2016-04-01

    The present article investigates how phonotactic rules constrain oral reading in the Russian language. The pronunciation of letters in Russian is regular and consistent, but it is subject to substantial phonotactic influence: the position of a phoneme and its phonological context within a word can alter its pronunciation. In Part 1 of the article, we analyze the orthography-to-phonology and phonology-to-phonology (i.e., phonotactic) relationships in Russian monosyllabic words. In Part 2 of the article, we report empirical data from an oral word reading task that show an effect of phonotactic dependencies on skilled reading in Russian: humans are slower when reading words where letter-phoneme correspondences are highly constrained by phonotactic rules compared with those where there are few or no such constraints present. A further question of interest in this article is how computational models of oral reading deal with the phonotactics of the Russian language. To answer this question, in Part 3, we report simulations from the Russian dual-route cascaded model (DRC) and the Russian connectionist dual-process model (CDP++) and assess the performance of the 2 models by testing them against human data.

  8. Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris A. G. Bulakh (St Petersburg State University, Russia) So called "Schokhan porphyry" from Lake Onega, Russia, belongs surely to stones of World cultural heritage. One can see this "porphyry" at facades of a lovely palace of Pavel I and in pedestal of the monument after Nicolas I in St Petersburg. There are many other cases of using this stone in Russia. In Paris, sarcophagus of Napoleon I Bonaparte is constructed of blocks of this stone. Really, it is Proterozoic quartzite. Geology situation, petrography and mineralogical characteristic will be reported too. Comparison with antique porphyre from the Egyptian Province of the Roma Empire is given. References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p.

  9. Public health assessment--Russian Federation, 1992.

    PubMed

    1992-02-14

    On December 25, 1991, the Russian Federation became an independent republic, and on January 2, 1992, restrictions on retail prices of most commodities were removed. From January 16 through February 6, a multidisciplinary team from the U.S. Food and Humanitarian Assistance Bureau (FHA) conducted an assessment of the needs for humanitarian and technical assistance, focusing on three regions in the southern Ural Mountains-Yekaterinburg, Perm, and Cheliabinsk-and three regions in south-central Siberia-Kusbas, Tomsk, and Novosibirsk. The FHA assessment included observations of health facilities, vaccine- and drug-storage centers, and disease-control programs; review of health data at central, regional, and district epidemiology stations; and collection of food-price and income data through interviews with administrative authorities and surveys of markets and private homes. This report summarizes findings from the assessment.

  10. Russian risk assessment methods and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorack, M.A.; Carlson, D.D.; Smith, R.E.

    1996-07-01

    One of the benefits resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union is the increased dialogue currently taking place between American and Russian nuclear weapons scientists in various technical arenas. One of these arenas currently being investigated involves collaborative studies which illustrate how risk assessment is perceived and utilized in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The collaborative studies indicate that, while similarities exist with respect to some methodologies, the assumptions and approaches in performing risk assessments were, and still are, somewhat different in the FSU as opposed to that in the US. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the present knowledge of risk assessment methodologies and philosophies within the two largest nuclear weapons laboratories of the Former Soviet Union, Arzamas-16 and Chelyabinsk-70. Furthermore, This paper will address the relative progress of new risk assessment methodologies, such as Fuzzy Logic, within the framework of current risk assessment methods at these two institutes.

  11. Form factors for Russian doll droplet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilemski, G.; Obeidat, A.; Hrahsheh, F.

    2013-05-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of nanodroplets containing water and nonane show them to be nonspherical and strongly phase separated. A simple, but realistic model for these "Russian doll" structures is a spherical nonane lens that partially wets a spherical water droplet. This document contains an analytical calculation of the particle form factor P(q) needed to analyze experimental measurements of small angle neutron and x-ray scattering from aerosols of particles with this type of structure. In addition, an exact formulation of the particle form factor is developed for cylindrically symmetric droplets with otherwise arbitrary scattering length density functions. This result will be useful to calculate P(q) directly from MD simulation results. We compare results using both formulations and find excellent agreement between them.

  12. Russian astronomical ephemeris editions and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebova, N.; Lukashova, M.; Netsvetaeva, G.; Sveshnikov, M.; Skripnichenko, V.

    2015-08-01

    Institute of Applied Astronomy has published "The Astronomical Yearbook", "The Nautical Astronomical Yearbook", "The Nautical Astronomical Almanac" biennial. Ephemerides are calculated according to resolutions of GA IAU of 2000-2006. The EPM domestic theory of movement of the Solar system bodies is used in Russian astronomical ephemeris editions and software since 2009 according to the recommendations of the conference CTNS-2007. Along with printing the astronomical software are elaborated. "The Personal Astronomical Yearbook" (PersAY) allows the user to solve tasks of calculation of ephemerides for any moment in various time scales, and for any position of the observer on a terrestrial surface. System of the removed access the "Scturman" is developed also intended to solve some the navigating tasks.

  13. US/Russian Joint Film Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Richard

    1996-01-01

    A joint U.S./Russian film test was conducted during MIR Mission 18 to evaluate the effects of radiation on photographic film during long-duration space flights. Two duplicate sets of film were flown on this MIR mission: one set was processed and evaluated by the NASA/JSC Photographic Laboratory, and the other by the RKK Energia's Photographic Laboratory in Moscow. This preliminary report includes only the results of the JSC evaluation (excluding the SN-10 film which was not available for evaluation at the time this report was written). The final report will include an evaluation by JSC of the SN-10 film and an evaluation of the test data by the RKK Energia. ISC's evaluation of the test data showed the positive film flown was damaged very little when exposed to approximately 8 rads of radiation. Two of the three negative films were significantly damaged and the third film was damaged only moderately.

  14. Computer vision in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Danuser, Gaudenz

    2011-11-23

    Computer vision refers to the theory and implementation of artificial systems that extract information from images to understand their content. Although computers are widely used by cell biologists for visualization and measurement, interpretation of image content, i.e., the selection of events worth observing and the definition of what they mean in terms of cellular mechanisms, is mostly left to human intuition. This Essay attempts to outline roles computer vision may play and should play in image-based studies of cellular life.

  15. Computer vision in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Gerald

    1990-11-01

    Computervision is used to overcome the mismatch between user models and implementation models of software systems for image analysis in nuclear medicine. Computer vision in nuclear medicine results in an active support of the user by the system. This is reached by modeling of imaging equipment and schedules scenes of interest and the process of visual image interpretation. Computer vision is demonstrated especially in the low level and medium level range. Special highlights are given for the estimation of image quality an uniform approach to enhancement and restoration of images and analysis of shape and dynamics of patterns. 1.

  16. 77 FR 2512 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; U.S. Fishermen Fishing in Russian Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    .... Fishermen Fishing in Russian Waters AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ACTION... Economic Zone of the Russian Federation. Russian authorities may permit U.S. fishermen to fish for allocations of surplus stocks in the Russian Economic Zone. Permit application information is sent to...

  17. 76 FR 61342 - Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Amended Final Results of... magnesium metal from the Russian Federation. See Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Preliminary... ``Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation--...

  18. 76 FR 56396 - Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping... of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on magnesium metal from the Russian... metal from the Russian Federation. See Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Preliminary...

  19. Visions and Re-Visions of Charles Joseph Minard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friendly, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes the contributions of Charles Joseph Minard to statistical graphics, noting the time course of his work and providing background on his famous effort, the flow-map depiction of Napoleon's march on Moscow. Explores some modern re-visions of this famous graphic from an information visualization perspective. (SLD)

  20. Global Perspectives on Teaching Literature: Shared Visions and Distinctive Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Sandra Ward, Ed.; And Others

    This book is a collection of essays designed for high school and college teachers who want to introduce non-Western and other non-canonical texts into their traditional literature courses. The essays in the book explore the kinds of visions encountered when teachers cluster Western texts with those outside the dominant Western tradition. Papers in…

  1. Russian studies of atmospheric electricity in 2011-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareev, E. A.; Stasenko, V. N.; Bulatov, A. A.; Dement'eva, S. O.; Evtushenko, A. A.; Il'in, N. V.; Kuterin, F. A.; Slyunyaev, N. N.; Shatalina, M. V.

    2016-03-01

    This review contains the most significant results of Russian studies in the field of atmospheric electricity in 2011-2014. It is part of the Russian National Report on Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences to the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS). The report was presented and approved at the XXVI General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG).1 The review is followed by a list of the main published works on the studies of atmospheric electricity of Russian scientists in 2011-2014.

  2. No sleep in the deep for Russian subs

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, J.

    1993-04-01

    In the Russian Far East, dozens of nuclear-powered submarines, once a threat to Western navies, are now a threat to the environment. Between mid-1989 and 1993, over 80 Russian nuclear submarines were removed from service. Nearly 80 more will be retired by the year 2000. Most of these submarines contain two nuclear reactors. The many decommisioned submarines have overwhelmed the limited funds and processing capacity of the Russian Navy. Problems include removal of the fuel, scrapping of the submarines, and safe disposal of the radioactive reactor vessels.

  3. Quality Control by Artificial Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Edmond Y.; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Niel, Kurt S.

    2010-01-01

    Computational technology has fundamentally changed many aspects of our lives. One clear evidence is the development of artificial-vision systems, which have effectively automated many manual tasks ranging from quality inspection to quantitative assessment. In many cases, these machine-vision systems are even preferred over manual ones due to their repeatability and high precision. Such advantages come from significant research efforts in advancing sensor technology, illumination, computational hardware, and image-processing algorithms. Similar to the Special Section on Quality Control by Artificial Vision published two years ago in Volume 17, Issue 3 of the Journal of Electronic Imaging, the present one invited papers relevant to fundamental technology improvements to foster quality control by artificial vision, and fine-tuned the technology for specific applications. We aim to balance both theoretical and applied work pertinent to this special section theme. Consequently, we have seven high-quality papers resulting from the stringent peer-reviewing process in place at the Journal of Electronic Imaging. Some of the papers contain extended treatment of the authors work presented at the SPIE Image Processing: Machine Vision Applications conference and the International Conference on Quality Control by Artificial Vision. On the broad application side, Liu et al. propose an unsupervised texture image segmentation scheme. Using a multilayer data condensation spectral clustering algorithm together with wavelet transform, they demonstrate the effectiveness of their approach on both texture and synthetic aperture radar images. A problem related to image segmentation is image extraction. For this, O'Leary et al. investigate the theory of polynomial moments and show how these moments can be compared to classical filters. They also show how to use the discrete polynomial-basis functions for the extraction of 3-D embossed digits, demonstrating superiority over Fourier

  4. Availability of vision and tactile gating: vision enhances tactile sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Colino, Francisco L; Lee, Ji-Hang; Binsted, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    A multitude of events bombard our sensory systems at every moment of our lives. Thus, it is important for the sensory and motor cortices to gate unimportant events. Tactile suppression is a well-known phenomenon defined as a reduced ability to detect tactile events on the skin before and during movement. Previous experiments (Buckingham et al. in Exp Brain Res 201(3):411-419, 2010; Colino et al. in Physiol Rep 2(3):e00267, 2014) found detection rates decrease just prior to and during finger abduction and decrease according to the proximity of the moving effector. However, what effect does vision have on tactile gating? There is ample evidence (see Serino and Haggard in Neurosci Biobehav Rev 34:224-236, 2010) observing increased tactile acuity when participants see their limbs. The present study examined how tactile detection changes in response to visual condition (vision/no vision). Ten human participants used their right hand to reach and grasp a cylinder. Tactors were attached to the index finger and the forearm of both the right and left arm and vibrated at various epochs relative to a "go" tone. Results replicate previous findings from our laboratory (Colino et al. in Physiol Rep 2(3):e00267, 2014). Also, tactile acuity decreased when participants did not have vision. These results indicate that the vision affects the somatosensation via inputs from parietal areas (Konen and Haggard in Cereb Cortex 24(2):501-507, 2014) but does so in a reach-to-grasp context.

  5. Visions of Vision: An Exploratory Study of the Role College and University Presidents Play in Developing Institutional Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWade, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research explores how college and university presidents engage in the process of developing formal institutional vision. The inquiry identifies roles presidents play in vision development, which is often undertaken as part of strategic-planning initiatives. Two constructs of leadership and institutional vision are used to examine…

  6. Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye"

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Feature: Vision Understanding Your Vision: The "Imperfect Eye" Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... including an implanted set of lenses. "Keeping your eyes healthy means learning about them and the conditions ...

  7. A Clear Vision for Equity and Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Marge Christensen; Gould, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Describes undetected and uncorrected vision problems for children in poverty associated with juvenile delinquency and poor academic performance. Discusses success of a project offering vision screening and free glasses for at-risk students in Tucson, Arizona. (PKP)

  8. Warning Signs of Vision Problems in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Warning Signs of Vision Problems in Infants & Children Page Content ​Eye exams ... treated successfully. What are warning signs of a vision problem? Babies up to 1 year of age: ...

  9. Neural architectures for stereo vision

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Stereoscopic vision delivers a sense of depth based on binocular information but additionally acts as a mechanism for achieving correspondence between patterns arriving at the left and right eyes. We analyse quantitatively the cortical architecture for stereoscopic vision in two areas of macaque visual cortex. For primary visual cortex V1, the result is consistent with a module that is isotropic in cortical space with a diameter of at least 3 mm in surface extent. This implies that the module for stereo is larger than the repeat distance between ocular dominance columns in V1. By contrast, in the extrastriate cortical area V5/MT, which has a specialized architecture for stereo depth, the module for representation of stereo is about 1 mm in surface extent, so the representation of stereo in V5/MT is more compressed than V1 in terms of neural wiring of the neocortex. The surface extent estimated for stereo in V5/MT is consistent with measurements of its specialized domains for binocular disparity. Within V1, we suggest that long-range horizontal, anatomical connections form functional modules that serve both binocular and monocular pattern recognition: this common function may explain the distortion and disruption of monocular pattern vision observed in amblyopia. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269604

  10. Polarization Imaging and Insect Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Adam S.; Ohmann, Paul R.; Leininger, Nick E.; Kavanaugh, James A.

    2010-01-01

    For several years we have included discussions about insect vision in the optics units of our introductory physics courses. This topic is a natural extension of demonstrations involving Brewster's reflection and Rayleigh scattering of polarized light because many insects heavily rely on optical polarization for navigation and communication.…

  11. Vision Research for Flight Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    THOMAS M. LONGRIDGE Contract Monitor MILTON E. WOOD. Technical Director Operations Training Division RONALD W’. TERRY, Coloneli USAF Commander I! I V...13:30 Hardware Developments B. Erikson 13:30 - 14:00 Future Directions G. Buckland 14:00 - 17:00 Committee on Vision: 14:00-14:15 Introduction W

  12. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  13. Smart vision chips: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Christof

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents four working analog VLSI vision chips: (1) time-derivative retina, (2) zero-crossing chip, (3) resistive fuse, and (4) figure-ground chip; work in progress on computing motion and neuromorphic systems; and conceptual and practical lessons learned.

  14. Vision quality of elderly Oklahomans.

    PubMed

    Imes, C B; Peck, C

    1993-06-01

    The purposes of this study are to determine if age related visual changes are affecting the ability of older adults to perform everyday tasks, to identify histories of eye diseases/eye surgeries, and to document eye care practices. Our sample was obtained from the Third Age Life Center at Baptist Medical Center in Oklahoma City. The survey was mailed to 14,856 members; 848 (6%) surveys were returned. Over 84% of the respondents have never been diagnosed with dry eye syndrome, glaucoma, macular degeneration, or diabetic retinopathy. Sixty percent rated their health and vision quality as good. Females expressed more vision problems than males. Advanced age (75 years or older) did increase likelihood of experiencing eye diseases and vision difficulties. The majority of respondents in this study appear to be experiencing healthy vision with minimal age-related changes and have not been diagnosed with the eye diseases characteristic of this age group. Evidence of regular eye examinations was reported, with 33% of the respondents reporting having eye exams once a year and 33% twice a year.

  15. Unshackled by Visions and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brokenleg, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Uses a case study to demonstrate the effects of cultural conflict, alienation, anomie, and contemporary urban society on the lives of troubled Native American youth. Shows that by teaching traditional Native American values, such as visions of hope and independence, society can help these youth enjoy a promising future. (RJM)

  16. Neural architectures for stereo vision.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew J; Smith, Jackson E T; Krug, Kristine

    2016-06-19

    Stereoscopic vision delivers a sense of depth based on binocular information but additionally acts as a mechanism for achieving correspondence between patterns arriving at the left and right eyes. We analyse quantitatively the cortical architecture for stereoscopic vision in two areas of macaque visual cortex. For primary visual cortex V1, the result is consistent with a module that is isotropic in cortical space with a diameter of at least 3 mm in surface extent. This implies that the module for stereo is larger than the repeat distance between ocular dominance columns in V1. By contrast, in the extrastriate cortical area V5/MT, which has a specialized architecture for stereo depth, the module for representation of stereo is about 1 mm in surface extent, so the representation of stereo in V5/MT is more compressed than V1 in terms of neural wiring of the neocortex. The surface extent estimated for stereo in V5/MT is consistent with measurements of its specialized domains for binocular disparity. Within V1, we suggest that long-range horizontal, anatomical connections form functional modules that serve both binocular and monocular pattern recognition: this common function may explain the distortion and disruption of monocular pattern vision observed in amblyopia.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'.

  17. Vision Screening of the Aged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Howard H.

    1971-01-01

    A statewide project in South Dakota has screened the vision of 2,578 elderly persons in 90 nursing homes, finding 13 percent legally blind and referring 32 percent for services either from agencies for the blind or from physicians or optometrists. (KW)

  18. Real-time vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  19. The Physics of Colour Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Martin

    1985-01-01

    An elementary physical model of cone receptor cells is explained and applied to complexities of human color vision. One-, two-, and three-receptor systems are considered, with the later shown to be the best model for the human eye. Color blindness is also discussed. (DH)

  20. Will Retinal Implants Restore Vision?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrenner, Eberhart

    2002-02-01

    A number of research groups are developing electrical implants that can be attached directly to the retina in an attempt to restore vision to patients suffering from retinal degeneration. However, despite promising results in animal experiments, there are still several major obstacles to overcome before retinal prostheses can be used clinically.

  1. Institutionalizing a Vision for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miserandino, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    Institutionalizing a vision for diversity should include (1) commitment to serving students' perceived needs; (2) seeing through the lens of others' experiences; (3) moral leadership from teachers; (4) a sufficient pool of support and goodwill; and (5) focus on students first. (SK)

  2. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  3. Standards for vision science libraries

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    The minimum levels of staffing, services, budget, and technology that should be provided by a library specializing in vision science are presented. The scope and coverage of the collection is described as well. These standards may be used by institutions establishing libraries or by accrediting bodies reviewing existing libraries. PMID:10928708

  4. Tunnel Vision in Environmental Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alan

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problem-solving styles in environmental management and the specific deficiencies in these styles that might be grouped under the label "tunnel vision," a form of selective attention contributing to inadequate problem-formulation, partial solutions to complex problems, and generation of additional problems. Includes educational…

  5. Vision Examination Protocol for Archery Athletes Along With an Introduction to Sports Vision

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Seyed Farzad; Aghazade Amiri, Mohammad; Naderifar, Homa; Rakhshi, Elham; Vakilian, Banafsheh; Ashrafi, Elham; Behesht-Nejad, Amir-Houshang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Visual skills are one of the main pillars of intangible faculties of athletes that can influence their performance. Great number of vision tests used to assess the visual skills and it will be irrational to perform all vision tests for every sport. Objectives: The purpose of this protocol article is to present a relatively comprehensive battery of tests and assessments on static and dynamic aspects of sight which seems relevant to sports vision and introduce the most useful ones for archery. Materials and Methods: Through extensive review of the literature, visual skills and respective tests were listed; such as ‘visual acuity, ‘contrast sensitivity’, ‘stereo-acuity’, ‘ocular alignment’, and ‘eye dominance’. Athletes were defined as “elite” and “non-elite” category based on their past performance. Dominance was considered for eye and hand; binocular or monocular aiming was planned to be recorded. Illumination condition was defined as to simulate the real archery condition to the extent possible. The full cycle of examinations and their order for each athlete was sketched (and estimated to take 40 minutes). Protocol was piloted in an eye hospital. Female and male archers aged 18 - 38 years who practiced compound and recurve archery with a history of more than 6 months were included. Conclusions: We managed to select and design a customized examination protocol for archery (a sight-intensive and aiming type of sports), serving skill assessment and research purposes. Our definition for elite and non-elite athletes can help to define sports talent and devise skill development methods as we compare the performance of these two groups. In our pilot, we identified 8 “archery figures” (by hand dominance, eye dominance and binocularity) and highlighted the concept “congruence” (dominant hand and eye in the same side) in archery performance. PMID:27217923

  6. "Signs of honor" among Russian inmates in Israel's prisons.

    PubMed

    Shoham, Efrat

    2010-12-01

    The unique nature of Israeli society as an immigrant society has also affected the prison population in Israel. This article focuses on a social and cultural phenomenon that particularly characterizes the prisoners of Russian origin, the phenomenon of tattoos. Using postmodernist theories, the article examines the function of the tattoo among Russian prisoners and the role it plays in constructing the criminal self-identity of these inmates in Israeli prisons. The tattoos observed during 2005-2006 among the Russian prisoners in four major Israeli prisons reflect the values of the Russian criminal subculture from which they evolved and were imported. This subculture is characterized by a hierarchical class structure and manifestations of machismo, domination, defiance, rebellion, and open antagonism against the Establishment and its representatives.

  7. Some Remarks on Mood and Aspect in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J.

    1974-01-01

    An explanation is offered of aspect in imperative verb forms and in certain infinitive verb forms in Russian. Three presuppositions or conditions of appropriateness are postulated and their correlation to the aspect of an imperative or infinitive form discussed. (RM)

  8. Russians to seek exploration in difficult Far East basins

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Local governments and associations in Russia hope to encourage exploration interest in lightly explored, mostly nonproducing offshore basins in the Far East. Adjacent onshore areas have experienced recurring shortages of natural gas and petroleum products. Russian authorities have been attempting to license blocks in far eastern waters for much of the 1990s, but political, bureaucratic, fiscal, and tax uncertainties have frustrated most efforts. Approval of the Russian Parliament is needed for tender offers, and no one can predict when such approvals might be forthcoming. Dalwave is offering a package of more than 40,000 km of 24--48 fold regional 2D seismic data on nearly 400 lines in the Sea of Okhotsk and Bering Sea. The package is being made available to give geoscientists a head start at regional evaluation outside the Sakhalin Island area. The paper describes Russian`s Far East resources, exploration prospects, and other considerations.

  9. Approaches of Russian oil companies to optimal capital structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishuk, T.; Ulyanova, O.; Savchitz, V.

    2015-11-01

    Oil companies play a vital role in Russian economy. Demand for hydrocarbon products will be increasing for the nearest decades simultaneously with the population growth and social needs. Change of raw-material orientation of Russian economy and the transition to the innovative way of the development do not exclude the development of oil industry in future. Moreover, society believes that this sector must bring the Russian economy on to the road of innovative development due to neo-industrialization. To achieve this, the government power as well as capital management of companies are required. To make their optimal capital structure, it is necessary to minimize the capital cost, decrease definite risks under existing limits, and maximize profitability. The capital structure analysis of Russian and foreign oil companies shows different approaches, reasons, as well as conditions and, consequently, equity capital and debt capital relationship and their cost, which demands the effective capital management strategy.

  10. [Fleas of small mammals from the northeastern Russian Far East].

    PubMed

    Medvedev, S G; Dokuchaev, N E; Tret'iakov, K A; Iamborko, A V; Kiselev, S V

    2014-01-01

    Results of the study of fleas (Siphonaptera) collected from small mammals (insectivores and rodents) in the Russian Far East (Magadan Province, and Khabarovsk and Kamchatka Territories) are represented. Fourteen flea species were revealed in 17 species of small mammals.

  11. The Impact of Vision in Spatial Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the performance in coding and representing of near-space in relation to vision status (blindness vs. normal vision) and sensory modality (touch vs. vision). Forty-eight children and teenagers participated. Sixteen of the participants were totally blind or had only light perception, 16 were blindfolded sighted…

  12. Leadership: Vision & Structure. Resource Paper No. 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Warren H.

    Research indicates that leaders tend to be remarkably well-balanced people who embody four areas of competency: vision, the ability to communicate that vision, positive self-regard, and the ability to build trust with associates. The process of creating a vision of the future requires an understanding of the opportunities and threats present in…

  13. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  14. The Efficacy of Optometric Vision Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Optometric Association, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This review aims to document the efficacy and validity of vision therapy for modifying and improving vision functioning. The paper describes the essential components of the visual system and disorders which can be physiologically and clinically identified. Vision therapy is defined as a clinical approach for correcting and ameliorating the effects…

  15. Topographic Mapping of Residual Vision by Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeben, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Many persons with low vision have diseases that damage the retina only in selected areas, which can lead to scotomas (blind spots) in perception. The most frequent of these diseases is age-related macular degeneration (AMD), in which foveal vision is often impaired by a central scotoma that impairs vision of fine detail and causes problems with…

  16. School Vision of Learning: Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Tiffany A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author develops her school vision of learning. She explains the theories she used to help develop the vision. The author then goes into detail on the methods she will use to make her vision for a school that prepares urban students for a successful life after high school. She takes into account all the stakeholders and how they…

  17. The Visions of World-Class Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slyusarenko, Olena

    2015-01-01

    The visions of the top 26 world-class universities of the first 30 in the Shanghai ranking list have been evaluated and compared with the missions of the world's top 20 universities. Applying the content analysis, a group of 48 keywords, which describe the essence of these visions, has been revealed. The average amount of keywords in one vision is…

  18. Transforming a School's Culture through Shared Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stuart C.; Stolp, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    Although, theoretically, an organizational vision can unite school-community members, it can also destroy organizational culture without the consensus of those members. This publication offers guidelines for creating a collaborative vision--one that gives all members the opportunity to help create the vision. Each school should choose a strategy…

  19. What Aspects of Vision Facilitate Haptic Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Susanna; Al-Attar, Zainab

    2005-01-01

    We investigate how vision affects haptic performance when task-relevant visual cues are reduced or excluded. The task was to remember the spatial location of six landmarks that were explored by touch in a tactile map. Here, we use specially designed spectacles that simulate residual peripheral vision, tunnel vision, diffuse light perception, and…

  20. New Russian Military Doctrine: Sign of the Times

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    Thought, July 1992 Special Edition, pp.18~19. 9. The Soviet Union (3d cd.; Washington: Congressional Quarterly, 1990), p. 194; Stephen Foye ... Foye , "Rebuilding the Russian Military: Some Problems and Prospects," RFEIRL Research Report, 6 November 1992, p. 52. This failure to control...these demonstrations were picked up by the Soviet media, military status began to drop to an all-time low. 19. Stephen Foye , "Grachev On Russian

  1. Overview of contamination from US and Russian nuclear complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This paper briefly compares the United States and Russian weapons complexes and provides a perspective on the releases of radioactivity to the environment in both countries. Fortunately, the technologies, data, models, and scientific experience that have been gained over the last 50 years are being shared between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (MINATOM) which constitutes a new environmental partnership between the two countries.

  2. Thumping the Hive: Russian Neocortical Warfare in Chechnya

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Internet or international media ), insurgents gain support. Given analysis of Public Affairs between the Chechen wars, one understands the importance...amongst Russian troops. Another, Captain Dimitrii Miliutin (1839-43) advocated better understanding the local culture while promoting trade and...at least two botched attacks by the elite Russian Alpha counter-terrorism unit and a number of dead hostages. The media was present and became a

  3. The Sino-Russian Strategic Partnership: Prospects and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    Chinese and Russians, Russia’s expansion to the east, Tsarist Russia’s policy toward China, bilateral treaties, and important events in Sino-Russian...PHASE: RECOGNITION OF COMMUNIST RUSSIA In the beginning of the twentieth century important events occurred both in China and Russia. As a result... events occurred at that time: First, Russia encouraged socialist revolutions in other countries including China. For this reason, Lenin

  4. Stablization and immobilization of excess Russian weapons origin plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.J.; Borisov, G.B.; Mansourov, O.A.

    1998-04-10

    This paper summarizes a strategy, logic, and framework for the development of a capability for immobilizing excess Russian weapons origin plutonium by the year 2004. We describe the initial activities underway in Russia and a schedule to implement the strategy. These activities include engineering feasibility studies of the select facilities at the Mayak and Krasnoyarsk industrial sites, and research and development studies on plutonium glass and ceramic immobilization forms at several Russian institutes.

  5. Differentiation of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes in Russian populations.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Lunkina, Arina; Czarny, Jakub; Rychkov, Serge; Morozova, Irina; Denisova, Galina; Miścicka-Sliwka, Danuta

    2004-12-01

    The genetic composition of the Russian population was investigated by analyzing both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome loci polymorphisms that allow for the different components of a population gene pool to be studied, depending on the mode of DNA marker inheritance. mtDNA sequence variation was examined by using hypervariable segment I (HVSI) sequencing and restriction analysis of the haplogroup-specific sites in 325 individuals representing 5 Russian populations from the European part of Russia. The Y-chromosome variation was investigated in 338 individuals from 8 Russian populations (including 5 populations analyzed for mtDNA variation) using 12 binary markers. For both uniparental systems most of the observed haplogroups fell into major West Eurasian haplogroups (97.9% and 99.7% for mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups, respectively). Multidimensional scaling analysis based on pairwise F(ST) values between mtDNA HVSI sequences in Russians compared to other European populations revealed a considerable heterogeneity of Russian populations; populations from the southern and western parts of Russia are separated from eastern and northern populations. Meanwhile, the multidimensional scaling analysis based on Y-chromosome haplogroup F(ST) values demonstrates that the Russian gene pool is close to central-eastern European populations, with a much higher similarity to the Baltic and Finno-Ugric male pools from northern European Russia. This discrepancy in the depth of penetration of mtDNA and Y-chromosome lineages characteristic for the most southwestern Russian populations into the east and north of eastern Europe appears to indicate that Russian colonization of the northeastern territories might have been accomplished mainly by males rather than by females.

  6. EXPERIMENTS ON ’THE CORTICAL CORRELATE OF PATTERN VISION,’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY, VISION, CEREBRAL CORTEX, VISION, BRAIN , STIMULATION (PHYSIOLOGY), VISUAL PERCEPTION, ELECTRIC CURRENT, VOLTAGE, ILLUMINATION, CORNEA, RETINA, ELECTRODES, THRESHOLDS(PHYSIOLOGY).

  7. A NEW RUSSIAN WASTE MANAGEMENT INSTALLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Andrew; Engxy, Thor; Endregard, Monica; Schwab, Patrick; Nazarian, Ashot; Krumrine, Paul; Backe, Steinar; Gorin, Stephen; Evans, Brent

    2003-02-27

    The Polyarninsky Shipyard (sometimes called Navy Yard No. 10 or the Shkval Shipyard) has been designated as the recipient for Solid Radioactive Waste (SRW) management facilities under the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program. The existing SRW storage site at this shipyard is filled to capacity, which is forcing the shipyard to reduce its submarine dismantlement activities. The Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation is planned as a combination of several AMEC projects. It will have several elements, including a set of hydraulic metal cutting tools, containers for transport and storage, the Mobile Pretreatment Facility (MPF) for Solid Radioactive Waste, the PICASSO system for radiation monitoring, and a Waste Storage Facility. Hydraulically operated cutting tools can cut many metal items via shearing so that dusts or particulates are not generated. The AMEC Program procured a cutting tool system, consisting of a motor and hydraulic pumping unit, a 38-mm conduit-cutting tool, a 100- mm pipe-cutting tool, and a spreading tool all mounted on a wheeled cart. The vendor modified the tool system for extremely cold conditions and Russian electrical standards, then delivered the tool system to the Polyarninsky shipyard. A new container for transportation and storage of SRW and been designed and fabricated. The first 400 of these containers have been delivered to the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy for use at the Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation. These containers are cylindrical in shape and can hold seven standard 200-liter drums. They are the first containers ever certified in Russia for the offsite transport of military SRW. These containers can be transported by truck, rail, barge, or ship. The MPF will be the focal point of the Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation and a key element in meeting the nuclear submarine dismantlement and waste processing needs of the Russian Federation. It will receive raw

  8. Cycle Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.

    2012-03-20

    1. The Cycle Analysis code is an Microsoft Excel code that performs many different types of thermodynamic cycle analysis for power producing systems. The code will calculate the temperature and pressure and all other thermodynamic properties at the inlet and outlet of each component. The code also calculates the power that is produced, the efficiency, and the heat transported in the heater, gas chiller and recuperators. The code provides a schematic of the loop and provides the temperature and pressure at each location in the loop. The code also provides a T-S (temperature-entropy) diagram of the loop and often it provides an pressure enthalpy plot as well. 2. This version of the code concentrates on supercritical CO2 power cycles, but by simply changing the name of the working fluid many other types of fluids can be analyzed. The Cycle Analysis code provided here contains 18 different types of power cycles. Each cycle is contained in one worksheet or tab that the user can select. The user can change the yellow highlighted regions to perform different thermodynamic cycle analysis.

  9. Improved night vision demonstrator program status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haran, Terence L.; James, J. Christopher; Roberts, David W.; Knotts, Michael E.; Wasilewski, Anthony A.; West, Leanne L.; Robinson, William G.; Bennett, Gisele

    2007-04-01

    Although existing night vision equipment provides a significant improvement in target detection in low light conditions, there are several limitations that limit their effectiveness. Focus is a significant problem for night vision equipment due to the low f-number optics required to obtain sufficient sensitivity as well as the dynamic nature of night vision applications, which requires frequent focus adjustments. The Georgia Tech Research Institute has developed a prototype next-generation night vision device called the Improved Night Vision Demonstrator (INVD) in order to address these shortfalls. This paper will describe the design of the INVD system as well as an analysis of its performance.

  10. HLA gene and haplotype frequencies in Russians, Bashkirs and Tatars, living in the Chelyabinsk Region (Russian South Urals).

    PubMed

    Suslova, T A; Burmistrova, A L; Chernova, M S; Khromova, E B; Lupar, E I; Timofeeva, S V; Devald, I V; Vavilov, M N; Darke, C

    2012-10-01

    We have characterized the HLA-A, -B, -DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 profiles of three major ethnic groups living in Chelyabinsk Region of Russian South Urals, viz., Russians (n = 207), Bashkirs (n = 146) and Tatars (n = 135). First field level typing was performed by PCR using sequence-specific primers. Estimates included carriage and gene frequencies, linkage disequilibrium and its significance and related values. Population comparisons were made between the allele family frequencies of the three populations and between these populations and 20 others using a dendrogram. Chelyabinsk Region Russians demonstrate all the features typical of a Caucasoid population, but also have some peculiarities. Together with Tatars, Russians have high frequencies of allele families and haplotypes characteristic of Finno-Ugric populations. This presupposes a Finno-Ugric impact on Russian and Tatar ethnogenesis. However, this was not apparent in Bashkirs, the first of the three populations to live in this territory, and implies admixture with populations of a Finno-Ugric origin with precursors of Russians and Tatars before they came to the South Urals. The Bashkirs appear close to Mongoloids in allele and haplotype distribution. However, Bashkirs cannot be labelled either as typical Mongoloids or as Caucasoids. Thus, Bashkirs possess some alleles and haplotypes frequent in Mongoloids, which supports the Turkic impact on Bashkir ethnogenesis, but also possess the AH 8.1 haplotype, which could evidence an ancient Caucasoid population that took part in their ethnic formation or of recent admixture with adjacent populations (Russians and Tatars). Bashkirs showed no features of populations with a substantial Finno-Ugric component, for example Chuvashes or Russian Saami. This disputes the commonly held belief of a Finno-Ugric origin for Bashkirs. Tatars appeared close to many European populations. However, they possessed some characteristics of Asiatic populations possibly reflecting a Mongoloid

  11. Ensuring the Sustainability of Russian Federation National Nuclear Material Accounting System

    SciTech Connect

    Pitel, V; Kasumova, L; Kushnaryov, M; Babcock, R

    2006-06-07

    The Federal Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Information System (FIS) is the national information source on nuclear material accounting of the Russian Federation (RF). RF regulations mandated the creation of a national nuclear material accounting system to be managed by Federal Agency For Atomic Energy (Rosatom), and for the past decade, the FIS has been developed for all organizations required to report to Rosatom. The system represents a successful integration of U.S. financial support and consulting with Russian vision and technical expertise, creating a viable national nuclear material accounting system. This paper discusses crucial elements to ensure Sustainability of the FIS. A long-term plan for operation and maintenance of the information system is critical to a sustainable national accounting system. Plans undertaken throughout the FIS Project lifecycle have supported the necessary elements to ensure success. Through the next two years, long-term planning will be reevaluated and the successful elements and new initiatives will become part of an overall Operations Management Program. FIS resource needs will be managed through prioritization and ranking for each Program element, including: system operation; revising and implementing supporting regulations; establishing monitoring and control mechanisms to ensure validity of the data reported; maintaining and improving communication channels; and establishing regular FIS training. The results of a survey on improving FIS reporting, expected in June 2006, will be used in the prioritization and ranking process. Developing the Program and planning for long-term sustainability of the FIS will ensure a viable national nuclear material accounting system for the future.

  12. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  13. The Effect of Text Difficulty on Machine Translation Performance -- A Pilot Study with ILR-Rated Texts in Spanish, Farsi, Arabic, Russian and Korean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    siglo XVII y XVIII y, sin embargo, entretejida a estas visiones surge la cultura africana con sus músicas y sus ritos. Ref The European influence...becomes more obvious in the 17th and 18th Centuries, but nevertheless, intertwined in these visions emerges the African culture with its music and its...culture with its musics and their rites. Russian – Level 3 (Political Commentary) Src У каждой нации есть своя великая национальная идея, она

  14. Biological dosimetry in Russian and Italian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, O.; Durante, M.; Gialanella, G.; Grossi, G.; Pugliese, M.; Scampoli, P.; Snigiryova, G.; Obe, G.

    Large uncertainties are associated with estimates of equivalent dose and cancer risk for crews of longterm space missions. Biological dosimetry in astronauts is emerging as a useful technique to compare predictions based on quality factors and risk coefficients with actual measurements of biological damage in-flight. In the present study, chromosomal aberrations were analyzed in one Italian and eight Russian cosmonauts following missions of different duration on the MIR and the international space station (ISS). We used the technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to visualize translocations in chromosomes 1 and 2. In some cases, an increase in chromosome damage was observed after flight, but no correlation could be found between chromosome damage and flight history, in terms of number of flights at the time of sampling, duration in space and extra-vehicular activity. Blood samples from one of the cosmonauts were exposed in vitro to 6 MeV X-rays both before and after the flight. An enhancement in radiosensitivity induced by the spaceflight was observed.

  15. Russian atomic energy reaches critical masses

    SciTech Connect

    Ustinov, A.

    1996-07-01

    With more than 200 malfunctions recorded in the early 1990`s the outmoded nuclear reactors in the former Soviet Union are in critical condition. Unfortunatly, there may not be enough money to monitor them, much less update them, says Artiom Ustinov, an expert in the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Moscow. In on short decade, Russia`s nuclear research budget has been slashed from $1.5 billion to $250 million. That amount of money simply cannot be stretched far enough to address safety issues, Ustinov says. {open_quotes}Currently, nuclear reactors in the former Soviet Union pose a greater environmental threat than ever before,{close_quotes} ustinov says. {open_quotes}In fact, almost half the nuclear power plants operating in Russia today are Chernobyl-like.{close_quotes} and most of these facilities are located in such large industrial centers as Moscow and st. Petersburg, Ustinov says. The future of nuclear power in the Soviet Union remains cloudy, Ustinov concludes. {open_quotes}It is likely that the legacy of its development will continue to generate electricity-and controversy-in the years ahead.{close_quotes}

  16. The syntactic complexity of Russian relative clauses

    PubMed Central

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Gibson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Although syntactic complexity has been investigated across dozens of studies, the available data still greatly underdetermine relevant theories of processing difficulty. Memory-based and expectation-based theories make opposite predictions regarding fine-grained time course of processing difficulty in syntactically constrained contexts, and each class of theory receives support from results on some constructions in some languages. Here we report four self-paced reading experiments on the online comprehension of Russian relative clauses together with related corpus studies, taking advantage of Russian’s flexible word order to disentangle predictions of competing theories. We find support for key predictions of memory-based theories in reading times at RC verbs, and for key predictions of expectation-based theories in processing difficulty at RC-initial accusative noun phrase (NP) objects, which corpus data suggest should be highly unexpected. These results suggest that a complete theory of syntactic complexity must integrate insights from both expectation-based and memory-based theories. PMID:24711687

  17. [Astrobiological investigations on board Russian space crafts].

    PubMed

    Kuzicheva, E A; Gontareva, N B; Simakov, M B

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of prebiotic synthesis of nucleic acids components (nucleotides) has been demonstrated under condition of the space orbital stations and satellites under effect of all space radiation spectra. Since a lot of different nucleic acids components are known to be present within small space bodies, we have to investigate their chemical complication in respect with such components as nucleotides. The goal of this work is to review our results in the field of prebiotic synthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides on the board of Russian space crafts. The increase in the solid reaction mixtures exposure time leads to degradation of both initial components (nucleosides) and the reaction products (nucleotides). The dominating role of heat energy in the abiogenic reactions has been revealed in laboratory (ground) experiments. Similar set of natural nucleotides has been synthesized under effect of different open space energy sources in both flight and ground experiments. The formation of 5'-nucleotides is a dominating process. All the data are discussed in the context of exobiological investigations on the Earth's orbit.

  18. Pending crisis in Russian civil military relations

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.Y.

    1997-10-01

    A key issue in the study of civil-military relations has been how to create a military sufficiently strong to ensure security from external threats while simultaneously preventing the military from using its preponderance of power in the domestic arena. This dilemma arises from the fear engendered by a large armed force created to combat foreign threats, but which is also inherently a threat to the society that created it. In Russia, however, the question is not how the civilian leadership can keep the military out of politics, but how the military can keep the leadership from politicizing the armed forces. The Russian military has no interest in resolving Russia`s domestic political problems. It is a professional military that prefers to leave politics to the politicians, and to carry out its mission of defending the nation against external attack. But the lack of responsible central leadership and the poor state of the economy are driving the military toward involvement in domestic politics if for no other reason than to ensure its own survival.

  19. Biological Ice Core Analysis in Russian Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetake, J.; Nakazawa, F.; Kohshima, S.; Miyake, T.; Narita, H.; Fujita, K.; Takeuchi, N.; Nakawo, M.

    2007-12-01

    In July 2003, a 171m long ice core was excavated from top of Belukha glacier (4,200m a. s. l.) in the Russian Altai Mountains. We examined vertical distributions of microorganisms (unicellular green algae, fungal spore, yeast) and pollens for potential use of ice core dating and reconstruction of past climate. Microorganisms have no seasonal variation in pit samples, however 5 genus of pollen (Fir, Spruce, Pine, Birch tree and Mugwort) have seasonality of each dispersed season. Therefore, this ice core can be identified past seasonal layers by pollen distribution. Pollen dating analysis of ice core estimate upper 48m ice core contain 86 years snow and ice, and this dating method well correspond to the 1963 peak in Tritium. This dating analysis is more accurate than other markers (oxygen isotope, dust, chemical concentration and melt percentage). Oxygen isotope trend from 1917 and temperature record of meteorological station near the glacier slightly increased and melt percentage have some anomalies from 1950s show recent temperature rising in this region. Otherwise, microorganisms and pollen have no trend except yeast. Vertical distribution of yeast peaks are well correspond to peaks of melt percentage show that yeast cell can grow in surface snow only in the warm period when liquid water available. In 1970s and 1980s, Nitrate increased and peaked because of anthropogenic emissions. Nitrate is major nutrient of photosynthetic microorganism, however, no clear relationship nitrate between unicellular green algae.

  20. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, L.

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  1. History and current condition of Russian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Valery N; Gurovich, Isaak

    2012-08-01

    Russian psychiatry has a dramatic history, and until now has been at a transitional stage of development. It is facing problems not only common in world psychiatry, but also specific to eastern Europe, in particular Russia. Starting from the beginning of the 1990s, considerable changes have occurred in psychiatry, especially after 1992 when the law on psychiatric care and guarantees of citizens' rights in its provision was adopted. It became the ideological and legislative basis for reforms. However, there are definite obstacles to structural reforms in psychiatry. They are unfavourable technical conditions in many psychiatric clinics, hypercentralization of psychiatric services, shortage of clinical psychologists and social workers in psychiatry, some difficulties in cooperation between psychiatric and general medical institutions. Economic difficulties in the transition period of Russia's social development prevent the overcoming of these problems. They are being actively discussed and some of them are being gradually solved, e.g. the organization of team work in mental health services, the increasing number of specialists on social work, and the involvement of non-government organizations in psychosocial rehabilitation.

  2. Understanding and preventing computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Loh, Ky; Redd, Sc

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.

  3. Digital item adaptation for color vision variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jaeil; Yang, Seungji; Kim, Cheonseog; Nam, Jaeho; Hong, Jin-Woo; Ro, Yong Man

    2003-06-01

    As color is more widely used to carry visual information in the multimedia content, ability to perceive color plays a crucial role in getting visual information. Regardless of color vision variations, one should have visual information equally. This paper proposes the adaptation technique for color vision variations in the MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation (DIA). DIA is performed respectively for severe color vision deficiency (dichromats) and for mild color vision deficiency (anomalous trichromats), according to the description of user characteristics about color vision variations. Adapted images are tested by simulation program for color vision variations so as to recognize the appearance of the adapted images in the color deficient vision. Experimental result shows that proposed adaptation technique works well in the MPEG-21 framework.

  4. Evolution of colour vision in mammals.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gerald H

    2009-10-12

    Colour vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for colour vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate colour vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly conserved. Within that constraint, however, the utilization of these basic elements varies in striking ways in that they appear, disappear and emerge in altered form during the course of evolution. These changes, along with other alterations in the visual system, have led to profound variations in the nature and salience of colour vision among the vertebrates. This article concerns the evolution of colour vision among the mammals, viewing that process in the context of relevant biological mechanisms, of variations in mammalian colour vision, and of the utility of colour vision.

  5. Cycling injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    Bicycle-related injuries have increased as cycling has become more popular. Most injuries to recreational riders are associated with overuse or improper fit of the bicycle. Injuries to racers often result from high speeds, which predispose riders to muscle strains, collisions, and falls. Cyclists contact bicycles at the pedals, seat, and handlebars. Each is associated with particular cycling injuries. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8471908

  6. Computer vision in microstructural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Malur N.; Massarweh, W.; Hough, C. L.

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to be performed by advanced-high school and beginning-college students. It is hoped that this experiment will create an interest in and further understanding of materials science. The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate that the microstructure of engineered materials is affected by the processing conditions in manufacture, and that it is possible to characterize the microstructure using image analysis with a computer. The principle of computer vision will first be introduced followed by the description of the system developed at Texas A&M University. This in turn will be followed by the description of the experiment to obtain differences in microstructure and the characterization of the microstructure using computer vision.

  7. Vision Aspects of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, Keith; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Vision, being one of our most important senses, is critically important in the unique working environment of space flight. Critical evaluation of the astronauts visual system begins with pre-selection examinations resulting in an average of 65% of all medical disqualification's caused by ocular findings. With an average age of 42, approximately 60% of the astronaut corps requires vision correction. Further demands of the unique training and working environment of microgravity, variable lighting from very poor to extreme brightness of sunlight and exposure to extremes of electromagnetic energy results in unique eyewear and contact lens applications. This presentation will describe some of those unique eyewear and contact lens applications used in space flight and training environments. Additionally, ocular findings from 26 shuttle and 5 MIR mission post-flight examinations will be presented.

  8. The vision of David Marr.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Kent A

    2012-01-01

    Marr proposed a computational paradigm for studying the visual system, wherein aspects of vision would be amenable to study with what might be regarded a computational-reductionist approach. First, vision would be cleaved into separable 'computational theories', in which the visual system is characterized in terms of its computational goals and the strategies by which they are carried out. Each such computational theory could then be investigated in increasingly concrete terms, from symbols and measurements, to representations and algorithms, to processes and neural implementations. This paradigm rests on some general expectations of a symbolic information processing system, including his stated principles of explicit naming, modular design, least commitment, and graceful degradation. In retrospect, the computational framework also tacitly rests on additional assumptions about the nature of biological information processing: (1) separability of computational strategies, (2) separability of representations, (3) a pipeline nature of information processing, and that (4) the representations employ primitives of low dimensionality. These assumptions are discussed in this retrospective.

  9. Procedures for Testing Color Vision,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than...determine quantitatively whether the color-defective applicant was competent to make the color perception requirements of a particular job. The colors...reconnaissance des anomalies de la vision des couleurs. Archives des Maladies Professionnelles , de M6decine du Tray et de S~curit6 Sociale (Paris) 29:293-314

  10. Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision.

    PubMed

    Handler, Sheryl M; Fierson, Walter M; Section on Ophthalmology

    2011-03-01

    Learning disabilities constitute a diverse group of disorders in which children who generally possess at least average intelligence have problems processing information or generating output. Their etiologies are multifactorial and reflect genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Reading disability, or dyslexia, is the most common learning disability. It is a receptive language-based learning disability that is characterized by difficulties with decoding, fluent word recognition, rapid automatic naming, and/or reading-comprehension skills. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonologic component of language that makes it difficult to use the alphabetic code to decode the written word. Early recognition and referral to qualified professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments are necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Because dyslexia is a language-based disorder, treatment should be directed at this etiology. Remedial programs should include specific instruction in decoding, fluency training, vocabulary, and comprehension. Most programs include daily intensive individualized instruction that explicitly teaches phonemic awareness and the application of phonics. Vision problems can interfere with the process of reading, but children with dyslexia or related learning disabilities have the same visual function and ocular health as children without such conditions. Currently, there is inadequate scientific evidence to support the view that subtle eye or visual problems cause or increase the severity of learning disabilities. Because they are difficult for the public to understand and for educators to treat, learning disabilities have spawned a wide variety of scientifically unsupported vision-based diagnostic and treatment procedures. Scientific evidence does not support the claims that visual training, muscle exercises, ocular pursuit-and-tracking exercises, behavioral/perceptual vision therapy, "training" glasses

  11. Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA I WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square . Cambridge, MA 02139 C\\ II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME ANO0 ADDRESS...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A.I.Memo No. 1037 April, 1988 Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision Joachim Heel Abstract: In this... Artificial Intelligence L3 Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for the Laboratory’s [1 Artificial Intelligence Research is

  12. Vision Screening by Color Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R.; Richardson, J. R.; Kerr, J.; Hay, S.; Mcbride, R.

    1985-01-01

    Screening test developed for detecting a range of vision defects in eye, including common precursors to amblyopia. Test noninvasive, safe, and administered easily in field by operator with no medical training. Only minimal momentary cooperation of subject required: Thus, test shows promise for use with very young children. Test produces color-slide images of retinas of eyes under specially-controlled lighting conditions. Trained observer screens five children per minute.

  13. Retinal degeneration in animal models with a defective visual cycle

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Akiko; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Continuous generation of visual chromophore through the visual (retinoid) cycle is essential to maintain eyesight and retinal heath. Impairments in this cycle and related pathways adversely affect vision. In this review, we summarize the chemical reactions of vitamin A metabolites involved in the retinoid cycle and describe animal models of associated human diseases. Development of potential therapies for retinal disorders in these animal models is also introduced. PMID:25210527

  14. Drosophila's view on insect vision.

    PubMed

    Borst, Alexander

    2009-01-13

    Within the last 400 million years, insects have radiated into at least a million species, accounting for more than half of all known living organisms: they are the most successful group in the animal kingdom, found in almost all environments of the planet, ranging in body size from a mere 0.1 mm up to half a meter. Their eyes, together with the respective parts of the nervous system dedicated to the processing of visual information, have long been the subject of intense investigation but, with the exception of some very basic reflexes, it is still not possible to link an insect's visual input to its behavioral output. Fortunately for the field, the fruit fly Drosophila is an insect, too. This genetic workhorse holds great promise for the insect vision field, offering the possibility of recording, suppressing or stimulating any single neuron in its nervous system. Here, I shall give a brief synopsis of what we currently know about insect vision, describe the genetic toolset available in Drosophila and give some recent examples of how the application of these tools have furthered our understanding of color and motion vision in Drosophila.

  15. Vision-based aircraft guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    Early research on the development of machine vision algorithms to serve as pilot aids in aircraft flight operations is discussed. The research is useful for synthesizing new cockpit instrumentation that can enhance flight safety and efficiency. With the present work as the basis, future research will produce low-cost instrument by integrating a conventional TV camera together with off-the=shelf digitizing hardware for flight test verification. Initial focus of the research will be on developing pilot aids for clear-night operations. Latter part of the research will examine synthetic vision issues for poor visibility flight operations. Both research efforts will contribute towards the high-speed civil transport aircraft program. It is anticipated that the research reported here will also produce pilot aids for conducting helicopter flight operations during emergency search and rescue. The primary emphasis of the present research effort is on near-term, flight demonstrable technologies. This report discusses pilot aids for night landing and takeoff and synthetic vision as an aid to low visibility landing.

  16. Ames vision group research overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of the reseach group is to develop mathematical and computational models of early human vision. These models are valuable in the prediction of human performance, in the design of visual coding schemes and displays, and in robotic vision. To date researchers have models of retinal sampling, spatial processing in visual cortex, contrast sensitivity, and motion processing. Based on their models of early human vision, researchers developed several schemes for efficient coding and compression of monochrome and color images. These are pyramid schemes that decompose the image into features that vary in location, size, orientation, and phase. To determine the perceptual fidelity of these codes, researchers developed novel human testing methods that have received considerable attention in the research community. Researchers constructed models of human visual motion processing based on physiological and psychophysical data, and have tested these models through simulation and human experiments. They also explored the application of these biological algorithms to applications in automated guidance of rotorcraft and autonomous landing of spacecraft. Researchers developed networks for inhomogeneous image sampling, for pyramid coding of images, for automatic geometrical correction of disordered samples, and for removal of motion artifacts from unstable cameras.

  17. Information architecture. Volume 4: Vision

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Vision document marks the transition from definition to implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture Program. A description of the possibilities for the future, supported by actual experience with a process model and tool set, points toward implementation options. The directions for future information technology investments are discussed. Practical examples of how technology answers the business and information needs of the organization through coordinated and meshed data, applications, and technology architectures are related. This document is the fourth and final volume in the planned series for defining and exhibiting the DOE information architecture. The targeted scope of this document includes DOE Program Offices, field sites, contractor-operated facilities, and laboratories. This document paints a picture of how, over the next 7 years, technology may be implemented, dramatically improving the ways business is conducted at DOE. While technology is mentioned throughout this document, the vision is not about technology. The vision concerns the transition afforded by technology and the process steps to be completed to ensure alignment with business needs. This goal can be met if those directing the changing business and mission-support processes understand the capabilities afforded by architectural processes.

  18. Colour vision requirements of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Margrain, T H; Birch, J; Owen, C G

    1996-04-01

    To perform their job safely firefighters must be able to identify colours on industrial gas cylinders, portable fire extinguishers, road traffic signals and several pieces of firefighting equipment. Although good colour vision is necessary we believe that the existing colour vision standard, which bars entry to the fire service to applicants who fail more than two plates of the Ishihara test, is unnecessarily stringent. We have identified and quantified the colour coded information encountered by firefighters. Colours were plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram (1931) and isochromatic zones, which document the colour confusions of colour deficient observers, superimposed. This novel technique established possible colour confusions in different types of colour deficiency. Analysis of the results showed that red/green dichromats (protanopes and deuteranopes), severe deuteranomalous trichromats who fail the Farnsworth D15 test, and protanomalous trichromats are unsuitable for firefighting work. However, people with slight deuteranomalous trichromatism who pass the D15 test, are not disadvantaged and can be employed safely as firefighters. A new colour vision standard and a new testing procedure is recommended.

  19. Famous Russian brains: historical attempts to understand intelligence.

    PubMed

    Vein, Alla A; Maat-Schieman, Marion L C

    2008-02-01

    Russian scientists are certainly among those who contributed actively to the search for the neuroanatomical basis of exceptional mental capacity and talent. Research into brain anatomy was one of the topics of special interest in various Russian universities. A number of independent reports on the study of famous Russian brains appeared both in Russia and abroad. Collecting and mapping brains of elite Russians in a structured manner began in Moscow in 1924 with the brain of V. I. Lenin. In 1928, the Moscow Brain Research Institute was founded, the collection of which includes the brains of several prominent Russian neuroscientists, including V. M. Bekhterev, G. I. Rossolimo, L. S. Vygotsky and I. P. Pavlov. The fact that the brain of two of the most outstanding scholars of Russian neurology and psychiatry, A. Ya. Kozhevnikov (1836-1902) and S. S. Korsakov (1854-1900), have been studied is largely unknown. A report of the results of this study was published by A. A. Kaputsin in 1925 providing a detailed neuroanatomical assessment of the brains. A considerable weight, a predominance of the left hemisphere and a particularly complex convolution of the frontal and parietal lobes of both brains were reported, the assumption being that these brain parameters can serve as an indicator of mental capacity. The names Kozhevnikov and Korsakov are among those most cherished by Russian neuroscientists; they are also familiar to Western colleagues. The (re)discovery of the records of the brain autopsies is meaningful, maybe not so much from a neuroanatomical point of view as from a historical perspective.

  20. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision

    PubMed Central

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883

  1. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness.

  2. Prospects for U.S.-Russian Security Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    represent both a tribute to a vision of political order based upon such cooperation and a call to action to revitalize that cooperation. While the...volume represent both a tribute to a vision of political order based upon such cooperation and a call to action to revitalize that cooperation. The... vision is one that emerged out of the end of the Cold War and was based, as Jacob Kipp’s chapter indicates, on the aspiration that a new era of Russo

  3. Vapor Compression Cycle Design Program (CYCLE_D)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 49 NIST Vapor Compression Cycle Design Program (CYCLE_D) (PC database for purchase)   The CYCLE_D database package simulates the vapor compression refrigeration cycles. It is fully compatible with REFPROP 9.0 and covers the 62 single-compound refrigerants . Fluids can be used in mixtures comprising up to five components.

  4. Russian plans for lunar investiagtions. Stage 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, L.; Mitrofanov, I.; Petrukovich, A.; Khartov, V.; Martynov, M.; Lukianchikov, A.

    2014-04-01

    Lunar Race of 60-ies and 70-ies between US and Soviet Union produced outstanding results for lunar science. For many technical reasons mostly near equatorial and mid-latitude Lunar regions were investigated at this glorious time. New epoch of Lunar investigations began at the late 90-ies. It gradually shaped the image of a new wet moon at least at the vicinity of its polar regions. Strong interest to the mechanisms of the formation of a near polar volatiles deposits, their migration and their composition (including the bisotope one) became the central theme of the Russian program of lunar investigations for next 10 years. Certainly the number of other outstanding scientific topics like the properties of Lunar dust, peculiarities of regolith interaction with the supersonic solar wind flow, characteristics of the Lunar magnetic and gravitational anomalies, etc., are planned to be studied both from the orbit and from the surface. First stage of the Russian Lunar Program consists of a four missions: Lunas 25, 26, 27, 28. (The numeration follows Lunar missions of a Soviet Epoch - last successful regolith sample delivery have been accomplished by Luna 24 in 1976). Luna 25 will land to the southern polar site, which would be the most suitable for engineering reasons and also interesting for the science. Second lander Luna 27 will have more sophisticated payload with the additional instruments in comparison with Luna 25. Luna 27 should be landed to the selected landing site at the vicinity of the South Pole, which could be the most promising for installation of the future Lunar Base. It is very important that Luna 27 will be equipped by the subsurface drill to get samples from the permafrost shallow subsurface (one attractive option now is that this drill will be provided by our ESA colleagues having the experience of designing and manufacturing of a similar drill for the Exomars project). The principal difference of the drilling at Luna 27 in comparison with the early

  5. NASA in the 21st century: A vision of greatness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kathleen J.

    1992-01-01

    Notions of greatness are discussed that have guided NASA in the past, values are presented that might be delivered by NASA in the future, and the the skills required for NASA to execute a vision of greatness are examined. Three possible patterns of space development by NASA are reviewed: (1) a mission to protect the ecology of the Earth; (2) the engineering of the technologies critical to space transportation and a healthy, productive life in space; and (3) the management of a major nonterrestrial resource project. Potential sources of funds are discussed along with opportunities for sustainable collaboration, and the life cycle of NASA's funding responsibility for its space development program.

  6. Russian research capabilities: Findings of site visits

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, D.W.

    1994-02-01

    In June 1993, a proposal was presented to the International Environmental Institute (IEI) in Kennewick, Washington, to establish cooperation and coordination to further pursue the interests of the United States of America and the Republic of Russia in the application and promotion of environmental technology; characterization, treatment, handling, isolation, and disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials; conversion of defense sites to other purposes; and technology transfer, cooperative programs, joint technology development and contractual research. In response to this proposal, IEI and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) jointly provided funding to send Dr. Dennis W. Wester on a fact-finding mission to Novosibirsk, Moscow, and St. Petersburg, Russia. The trip covered a period of eight weeks, six of which were spent in Novosibirsk and adjoining or related cities and one of which was spent in each of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The general objectives of the trip were to establish a basis for cooperation between IEI and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) for future coordination of mutual interests and objectives such as technology acquisition, development, demonstration, application, and commercialization; use of capabilities and assets developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the RAS; and expediting of cooperative agreements, personnel exchanges, joint ventures and other contractual relationships. The particular objectives of this trip were to evaluate the capabilities of the RAS to satisfy the technology needs associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site and similar sites in the U.S. and to evaluate the expediency of establishing an IEI presence in Russia.

  7. Maternal mortality in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.

    PubMed Central

    Gurina, Natalia A.; Vangen, Siri; Forsén, Lisa; Sundby, Johanne

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the levels and causes of maternal mortality in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. METHODS: We collected data about all pregnancy-related deaths in St. Petersburg over the period 1992-2003 using several sources of information. An independent research group reviewed and classified all cases according to ICD-10 and the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. We tested trends of overall and cause specific ratios (deaths per 100,000 births) for four 3-year intervals using the chi2 test. FINDINGS: The maternal mortality ratio for the study period was 43 per 100,000 live births. A sharp decline of direct obstetric deaths was observed from the first to fourth 3-year interval (49.8 for 1992-94 versus 18.5 for 2001-03). Sepsis and haemorrhage were the main causes of direct obstetric deaths. Among the total deaths from sepsis, 63.8% were due to abortion. Death ratios from sepsis declined significantly from the first to second study interval. In the last study interval (2001-03), 50% of deaths due to haemorrhage were secondary to ectopic pregnancies. The death ratio from thromboembolism remained low (2.9%) and stable throughout the study period. Among indirect obstetric deaths a non-significant decrease was observed for deaths from cardiac disease. Death ratios from infectious causes and suicides increased over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mortality levels in St. Petersburg still exceed European levels by a factor of five. Improved management of abortion, emergency care for sepsis and haemorrhage, and better identification and control of infectious diseases in pregnancy, are needed. PMID:16628301

  8. Russian Scientific Project: "The Moon - 2012+"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A.; Petrova, N.

    2006-08-01

    The realization of the modern long-time programs of comprehensive investigation of the Moon in the framework: "SMART-1" (ESA, 2003+), "SELENE" (JAXA, 2007), "Chandrayaan" (India, 2007), "CHANG'E-I" (CNSA, 2007), "LRO" (NASA, 2008), and "Luna Glob" (Russia, 2012) are aimed at obtaining of broad information about lunar gravity field, precision position in the inertial coordinate system, geometrical and dynamical figure and lunar interior: qualitative parameter Q, Love number k[2], core's radius R[c], core's density etc. Russian scientific project "The Moon - 2012+" is directed on the decision of fundamental problems of celestial mechanics, selenodesy and geophysics of the Moon connected to carrying out of complex theoretical researches and computer modelling: 1. Spin-orbital long-time evolution and physical librations the multilayered Moon: ?) construction of the analytical theory of rotation of the two/ three-layer Moon and reception on its basis of physical libration tables for their application at processing precision supervisions; construction of a lunar annual book. b) The analysis of spin-orbital evolution of the early Moon, an estimation of internal energy dissipation, modelling of the long-term mechanism of maintenance free librations the Moon. 2. Geodynamics of a lunar core: the analysis of differentiation of a lunar core, detailed elaboration of plume-tectonics of a mantle and a core of the early Moon, evolution of a boundary layer a core - mantle, reconstruction of gravitational and viscous - mechanical interaction of a lunar core and a mantle, resonant dissipation of internal energy, calculation free and forced nutations a lunar core, free fluctuations of system a core - mantle. 3. Selenodesy of lunar far - side: the decision of a return problem lunar gravimetry, construction of geodynamic model of a lunar crust, a mantle and a core, border Moho, reconstruction initial mascons on the Moon, creation precision topographical and gravitational models of the

  9. Pedogenic Carbonate Concretions in the Russian Chernozem

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailova, E. A.; Post, C. J.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Castle, J. W.

    2006-12-01

    Pedogenic carbonate concretions are commonly found in grassland soils, but their origin is not fully understood. This study was conducted to determine the radiocarbon age, the stable isotope geochemistry, and chemical composition of carbonate concretions in the Russian Chernozem, one of the typical soils in grasslands. Three sites were sampled: a native grassland field (not cultivated for at least 300 years), an adjacent 50-year continuous fallow field in the V. V. Alekhin Central-Chernozem Biosphere State Reserve in the Kursk region of Russia, and a continuously cropped field in the Experimental Station of the Kursk Institute of Agronomy and Soil Erosion Control. All sampled soils were classified as fine-silty, mixed, frigid Pachic Hapludolls. The mineralogical composition of concretions varies from low-magnesium calcite to pure calcite. The concretion contains 0.05% N, 6.4% C, and has [delta]13C and [delta]18O values of -10.9[per mille sign] (the per mill symbol, parts per thousand) and -7.8[per mille sign], respectively. The outside part of the carbonate concretion is 1909 +/- 40 14C age Before Present (B.P.) compared with 1693 +/- 40 14C age B.P. for the inside part of the same concretion, even though the concretion is found in the C horizon of much older age (10,902 +/- 63 14C age B.P.). Remnants of soil organic matter in concretions are closely associated with the cropped and fallow/plowed soils by pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry.

  10. Catastrophic Fires in the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhinin, A. I.; Soja, A. J.; McRae, D. J.; Cahoon, D. R.; Stocks, B. J.; Dubrovskaya, O. A.; Ji-Zhong, J.; Flannigan, M.; DeGroot, B.; Westberg, D.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Conard, S. G.; Hao, W. M.

    2011-12-01

    Impacts of climate change on the severity of wildfires and the implications for carbon emissions in the boreal zone are globally significant because Russia contains two-thirds of the world's boreal forest and peat lands. Wildfires in Russia burn from 2 to 20 million ha annually, depending on burning conditions, yet quantification of trends in fire patterns is hampered by the lack of accurate historic fire data. Official Russian wildfire records greatly underestimate burned areas. However, satellite data for Russia have become easily available for assessing area burned since 1980, and we are in the process of analyzing these data to map historic burned area and fire patterns. Catastrophic fire refers to large, uncontrollable fires that are associated with extreme weather conditions. In Russia, major catastrophic fire events are associated with stable anticyclonic systems, which lead to severe drought that supports extreme fire behavior. These forest fires result in large areas burned and high consumption of vegetation and organic soil horizons. Additionally, thick smoke can reduce visibility, which often paralyzes suppression efforts. In recent years, there have been several large and often economically devastating fire complexes across Russia (European Russia, Tyva, Sakha, Chita and the Far East). We present evidence of the association of these large fires with very high or extreme fire weather danger. We assert that these large fire systems have increased in severity in response to current changes in weather and climate, and we argue that catastrophic fires are likely to increase in the future, as climate warms in the northern hemisphere upper latitudes of Russia.

  11. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.

    PubMed

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators.

  12. Cyclical parthenogenetic reproduction in the Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the United States: sexual reproduction and its outcome on biotypic diversity.

    PubMed

    Puterka, G J; Hammon, R W; Burd, J D; Peairs, F B; Randolph, T L; Cooper, W R

    2012-06-01

    In 1986, the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), became an invasive species of United States. Nearly 20 yr later, new biotypes appeared that were capable of overcoming most sources of resistance and became a renewed threat to wheat, Triticum aestivum L., production. Cyclical (CP) and obligate (OP) parthenogenesis enables aphids to both adapt to changing environments and exploit host resources. We documented these forms of reproduction for Russian wheat aphid in wheat and wild grasses in the Central Great Plains and Rocky Mountain regions during falls 2004-2009. Colonies from sample sites also were held under unheated greenhouse conditions and observed for the presence of sexual morphs and eggs through the winter. Russian wheat aphid populations were mainly OP and attempted to overwinter as adults, regardless of region sampled. A few populations contained oviparae but no males (gynocyclic) and were not specific to any particular region. Observation of the Russian wheat aphid colonies under greenhouse conditions failed to produce males or eggs. In spring 2007, CP was confirmed in a small population of Russian wheat aphid that eclosed from eggs (fundatricies) on wild grasses and wheat near Dove Creek, CO, in the Colorado Plateau region where other aphid species undergo CP. Lineages from ninety-three fundatricies were screened against 16 resistant and susceptible cereal entries to determine their biotypic classification. A high degree of biotypic diversity (41.4%) was detected in this population. Although CP was a rare in Russian wheat aphid populations, genetic recombination during the sexual cycle creates new biotypes and can have significant effects on population genetics.

  13. Transfer of space technologies past and present: the Russian case.

    PubMed

    Pankova, Lyudmila

    2002-12-01

    Since the end of the 1980's transfer of government sponsored high technology space goods and services to other sectors, industry, and eventually non-government use has been a growing concern of the Russian policy makers. Today the real and functional transformation of this field is on the agenda. The paper is organized as follows. The first section analyzes the evolution of the common approach to technology transfer, looks at the main obstacles to this processes as a whole, and in the space sector in particular. The second section examines the Russian space R&D sector from the point of view of its role and place in the Russian scientific and technological base. New mechanisms of technology transfer are then considered. Here, problems of conversion, commercialization, dual-use, and internationalization are examined in the context of space technology transfer. Furthermore, issues of innovation in technology transfer are discussed. The new networks that are forming through which technologies diffuse is considered. The paper then turns to legislative and regulatory problems, including the discussion of the main principles of the Russian space transfer code, which is now being drafted. It is necessary to underline, that in the Russian case, official statistics still do not help analyze the question of technology transfer.

  14. Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination.

    PubMed

    Winawer, Jonathan; Witthoft, Nathan; Frank, Michael C; Wu, Lisa; Wade, Alex R; Boroditsky, Lera

    2007-05-08

    English and Russian color terms divide the color spectrum differently. Unlike English, Russian makes an obligatory distinction between lighter blues ("goluboy") and darker blues ("siniy"). We investigated whether this linguistic difference leads to differences in color discrimination. We tested English and Russian speakers in a speeded color discrimination task using blue stimuli that spanned the siniy/goluboy border. We found that Russian speakers were faster to discriminate two colors when they fell into different linguistic categories in Russian (one siniy and the other goluboy) than when they were from the same linguistic category (both siniy or both goluboy). Moreover, this category advantage was eliminated by a verbal, but not a spatial, dual task. These effects were stronger for difficult discriminations (i.e., when the colors were perceptually close) than for easy discriminations (i.e., when the colors were further apart). English speakers tested on the identical stimuli did not show a category advantage in any of the conditions. These results demonstrate that (i) categories in language affect performance on simple perceptual color tasks and (ii) the effect of language is online (and can be disrupted by verbal interference).

  15. The distribution of alcohol among the natives of Russian America.

    PubMed

    Grinëv, Andrei V

    2010-01-01

    The study of archival materials and published historical and ethnographic sources shows that alcohol played an insignificant role in contacts with the aboriginal population during the Russian colonization of Alaska. The Russian-American Company (RAC) tried to fight alcoholism and limited access of spirits to the natives of the Russian colonies partially for moral and partially for economic reasons. The only Alaskan natives to whom agents of the RAC supplied rum in large quantities were the Tlingit and Kaigani Haida in 1830–1842, and among them excessive drinking became a widespread problem. The chief suppliers of alcohol for these Native Americans were the British and American traders at the end of the eighteenth century. In the mid-nineteenth century traders and whalers began to supply it to the Bering Sea Eskimos as well. Russian colonization was marked by efforts to limit drunkenness in the native populations. In that sense, Russian colonization was favorable in comparison with subsequent American colonization of Alaska.

  16. Evaluating Russian space nuclear reactor technology for United States applications

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, G.F.; Schmidt, G.L.; Voss, S.S.; Reynolds, E.L.

    1994-08-01

    Space nuclear power and nuclear electric propulsion are considered important technologies for planetary exploration, as well as selected earth orbit applications. The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) was intended to provide an early flight demonstration of these technologies at relatively low cost through extensive use of existing Russian technology. The key element of Russian technology employed in the program was the Topaz II reactor. Refocusing of the activities of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), combined with budgetary pressures, forced the cancellation of the NEPSTP at the end of the 1993 fiscal year. The NEPSTP was faced with many unique flight qualification issues. In general, the launch of a spacecraft employing a nuclear reactor power system complicates many spacecraft qualification activities. However, the NEPSTP activities were further complicated because the reactor power system was a Russian design. Therefore, this program considered not only the unique flight qualification issues associated with space nuclear power, but also with differences between Russian and United States flight qualification procedures. This paper presents an overview of the NEPSTP. The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is examined and the inherent difficulties of qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between United States and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described that was developed to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch.

  17. Discovery and identification of candidate sex-related genes based on transcriptome sequencing of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) gonads.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yadong; Xia, Yongtao; Shao, Changwei; Han, Lei; Chen, Xuejie; Yu, Mengjun; Sha, Zhenxia

    2016-07-01

    As the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) is an important food and is the main source of caviar, it is necessary to discover the genes associated with its sex differentiation. However, the complicated life and maturity cycles of the Russian sturgeon restrict the accurate identification of sex in early development. To generate a first look at specific sex-related genes, we sequenced the transcriptome of gonads in different development stages (1, 2, and 5 yr old stages) with next-generation RNA sequencing. We generated >60 million raw reads, and the filtered reads were assembled into 263,341 contigs, which produced 38,505 unigenes. Genes involved in signal transduction mechanisms were the most abundant, suggesting that development of sturgeon gonads is under control of signal transduction mechanisms. Differentially expressed gene analysis suggests that more genes for protein synthesis, cytochrome c oxidase subunits, and ribosomal proteins were expressed in female gonads than in male. Meanwhile, male gonads expressed more transposable element transposase, reverse transcriptase, and transposase-related genes than female. In total, 342, 782, and 7,845 genes were detected in intersex, male, and female transcriptomes, respectively. The female gonad expressed more genes than the male gonad, and more genes were involved in female gonadal development. Genes (sox9, foxl2) are differentially expressed in different sexes and may be important sex-related genes in Russian sturgeon. Sox9 genes are responsible for the development of male gonads and foxl2 for female gonads.

  18. Spatial linear navigation: is vision necessary?

    PubMed

    Israël, I; Capelli, A; Priot, A-E; Giannopulu, I

    2013-10-25

    In order to analyze spatial linear navigation through a task of self-controlled reproduction, healthy participants were passively transported on a mobile robot at constant velocity, and then had to reproduce the imposed distance of 2-8m in two conditions: "with vision" and "without vision". Our hypothesis was that the reproduction of distances would be longer with than without visual information. Indeed, with visual information the reproduction of all distances was overshot. In the "without vision" condition the reproduced distances were quite close to the imposed ones, but only for the shortest distances (2 and 4m) as the longest ones were clearly undershot. With vision the reproduction error was less than 10% for all distances; however the error could be smaller without vision at short distances, and therefore vision was not necessary.

  19. Standards for vision science libraries: 2014 revision

    PubMed Central

    Motte, Kristin; Caldwell, C. Brooke; Lamson, Karen S.; Ferimer, Suzanne; Nims, J. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This Association of Vision Science Librarians revision of the “Standards for Vision Science Libraries” aspires to provide benchmarks to address the needs for the services and resources of modern vision science libraries (academic, medical or hospital, pharmaceutical, and so on), which share a core mission, are varied by type, and are located throughout the world. Methods: Through multiple meeting discussions, member surveys, and a collaborative revision process, the standards have been updated for the first time in over a decade. Results: While the range of types of libraries supporting vision science services, education, and research is wide, all libraries, regardless of type, share core attributes, which the standards address. Conclusions: The current standards can and should be used to help develop new vision science libraries or to expand the growth of existing libraries, as well as to support vision science librarians in their work to better provide services and resources to their respective users. PMID:25349547

  20. The role of binocular vision in walking.

    PubMed

    Hayhoe, Mary; Gillam, Barbara; Chajka, Kelly; Vecellio, Elia

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive investigation of binocular and stereoscopic vision, relatively little is known about its importance in natural visually guided behavior. In this paper, we explored the role of binocular vision when walking over and around obstacles. We monitored eye position during the task as an indicator of the difference between monocular and binocular performances. We found that binocular vision clearly facilitates walking performance. Walkers were slowed by about 10% in monocular vision and raised their foot higher when stepping over obstacles. Although the location and sequence of the fixations did not change in monocular vision, the timing of the fixations relative to the actions was different. Subjects spent proportionately more time fixating the obstacles and fixated longer while guiding foot placement near an obstacle. The data are consistent with greater uncertainty in monocular vision, leading to a greater reliance on feedback in the control of the movements.