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Sample records for cyclin g-associated kinase

  1. Selective inhibitors of Cyclin-G associated kinase (GAK) as anti-HCV agents

    PubMed Central

    Kovackova, Sona; Chang, Lei; Bekerman, Elena; Neveu, Gregory; Barouch-Bentov, Rina; Chaikuad, Apirat; Heroven, Christina; Šála, Michal; De Jonghe, Steven; Knapp, Stefan; Einav, Shirit; Herdewijn, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-G associated kinase (GAK) emerged as a promising drug target for the treatment of viral infections. However, no potent and selective GAK inhibitors have been reported in the literature to date. This paper describes the discovery of isothiazolo[5,4-b]pyridines as selective GAK inhibitors, with the most potent congeners displaying low nanomolar binding affinity for GAK. Co-crystallization experiments revealed that these compounds behaved as classic type I ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors. In addition, we have demonstrated that these compounds exhibit a potent activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) by inhibiting two temporally distinct steps in the HCV lifecycle (i.e. viral entry and assembly). Hence, these GAK inhibitors represent chemical probes to study GAK function in different disease areas where GAK has been implicated (including viral infection, cancer and Parkinson's disease). PMID:25822739

  2. Cyclin-dependent kinases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are protein kinases characterized by needing a separate subunit - a cyclin - that provides domains essential for enzymatic activity. CDKs play important roles in the control of cell division and modulate transcription in response to several extra- and intracellular cues. The evolutionary expansion of the CDK family in mammals led to the division of CDKs into three cell-cycle-related subfamilies (Cdk1, Cdk4 and Cdk5) and five transcriptional subfamilies (Cdk7, Cdk8, Cdk9, Cdk11 and Cdk20). Unlike the prototypical Cdc28 kinase of budding yeast, most of these CDKs bind one or a few cyclins, consistent with functional specialization during evolution. This review summarizes how, although CDKs are traditionally separated into cell-cycle or transcriptional CDKs, these activities are frequently combined in many family members. Not surprisingly, deregulation of this family of proteins is a hallmark of several diseases, including cancer, and drug-targeted inhibition of specific members has generated very encouraging results in clinical trials. PMID:25180339

  3. Non-canonical functions of cell cycle cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases

    PubMed Central

    Hydbring, Per; Malumbres, Marcos; Sicinski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The role of cyclins and their catalytic partners, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), as core components of the machinery that drives cell cycle progression is well established. Increasing evidence indicates that mammalian cyclins and CDKs also carry out important roles in other cellular processes such as transcription, DNA damage repair, the control of cell death, differentiation, the immune response and metabolism. Some of these non-canonical functions are performed by cyclins or by CDKs, independent of their respective cell cycle partners, suggesting a substantial divergence in the function of these proteins during evolution. PMID:27033256

  4. Crystal Structure of Human Cyclin K, a Positive Regulator of Cyclin-dependent Kinase 9

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Kyuwon; Brown, Raymond S.; Birrane, Gabriel; Ladias, John A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Cyclin K and the closely related cyclins T1, T2a, and T2b interact with cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) forming multiple nuclear complexes, collectively referred to as positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). Through phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II largest subunit, distinct P-TEFb species regulate the transcriptional elongation of specific genes that play central roles in human physiology and disease development, including cardiac hypertrophy and human immunodeficiency virus-1 pathogenesis. We have determined the crystal structure of human cyclin K (residues 11-267) at 1.5 Å resolution, which represents the first atomic structure of a P-TEFb subunit. The cyclin K fold comprises two typical cyclin boxes with two short helices preceding the N-terminal box. A prominent feature of cyclin K is an additional helix (H4a) in the first cyclin box that obstructs the binding pocket for the cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1. Modeling of CDK9 bound to cyclin K provides insights into the structural determinants underlying the formation and regulation of this complex. A homology model of human cyclin T1 generated using the cyclin K as a template reveals that the two proteins have similar structures, as expected from their high sequence identity. Nevertheless, their CDK9-interacting surfaces display significant structural differences, which could potentially be exploited for the design of cyclin-targeted inhibitors of the CDK9–cyclin K and CDK9–cyclin T1 complexes. PMID:17169370

  5. Selective killing of transformed cells by cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Nan P.; Sharma, Sushil K.; Ramsey, Timothy M.; Jiang, Li; Martin, Mary S.; Baker, Kayla; Adams, Peter D.; Bair, Kenneth W.; Kaelin, William G.

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies identified a short peptide motif that serves as a docking site for cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 2 complexes. Peptides containing this motif block the phosphorylation of substrates by cyclin A/cdk2 or cyclin E/cdk2. Here we report that cell membrane-permeable forms of such peptides preferentially induced transformed cells to undergo apoptosis relative to nontransformed cells. Deregulation of E2F family transcription factors is a common event during transformation and was sufficient to sensitize cells to the cyclin/cdk2 inhibitory peptides. These results suggest that deregulation of E2F and inhibition of cdk2 are synthetically lethal and provide a rationale for the development of cdk2 antagonists as antineoplastic agents. PMID:10200261

  6. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases by p21.

    PubMed Central

    Harper, J W; Elledge, S J; Keyomarsi, K; Dynlacht, B; Tsai, L H; Zhang, P; Dobrowolski, S; Bai, C; Connell-Crowley, L; Swindell, E

    1995-01-01

    p21Cip1 is a cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor that is transcriptionally activated by p53 in response to DNA damage. We have explored the interaction of p21 with the currently known Cdks. p21 effectively inhibits Cdk2, Cdk3, Cdk4, and Cdk6 kinases (Ki 0.5-15 nM) but is much less effective toward Cdc2/cyclin B (Ki approximately 400 nM) and Cdk5/p35 (Ki > 2 microM), and does not associate with Cdk7/cyclin H. Overexpression of P21 arrests cells in G1. Thus, p21 is not a universal inhibitor of Cdks but displays selectivity for G1/S Cdk/cyclin complexes. Association of p21 with Cdks is greatly enhanced by cyclin binding. This property is shared by the structurally related inhibitor p27, suggesting a common biochemical mechanism for inhibition. With respect to Cdk2 and Cdk4 complexes, p27 shares the inhibitory potency of p21 but has slightly different kinase specificities. In normal diploid fibroblasts, the vast majority of active Cdk2 is associated with p21, but this active kinase can be fully inhibited by addition of exogenous p21. Reconstruction experiments using purified components indicate that multiple molecules of p21 can associate with Cdk/cyclin complexes and inactive complexes contain more than one molecule of p21. Together, these data suggest a model whereby p21 functions as an inhibitory buffer whose levels determine the threshold kinase activity required for cell cycle progression. Images PMID:7626805

  7. Phosphate-Activated Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Stabilizes G1 Cyclin To Trigger Cell Cycle Entry

    PubMed Central

    Menoyo, S.; Ricco, N.; Bru, S.; Hernández-Ortega, S.; Escoté, X.; Aldea, M.

    2013-01-01

    G1 cyclins, in association with a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), are universal activators of the transcriptional G1-S machinery during entry into the cell cycle. Regulation of cyclin degradation is crucial for coordinating progression through the cell cycle, but the mechanisms that modulate cyclin stability to control cell cycle entry are still unknown. Here, we show that a lack of phosphate downregulates Cln3 cyclin and leads to G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The stability of Cln3 protein is diminished in strains with low activity of Pho85, a phosphate-sensing CDK. Cln3 is an in vitro substrate of Pho85, and both proteins interact in vivo. More interestingly, cells that carry a CLN3 allele encoding aspartic acid substitutions at the sites of Pho85 phosphorylation maintain high levels of Cln3 independently of Pho85 activity. Moreover, these cells do not properly arrest in G1 in the absence of phosphate and they die prematurely. Finally, the activity of Pho85 is essential for accumulating Cln3 and for reentering the cell cycle after phosphate refeeding. Taken together, our data indicate that Cln3 is a molecular target of the Pho85 kinase that is required to modulate cell cycle entry in response to environmental changes in nutrient availability. PMID:23339867

  8. Structure of a cyclin-dependent kinase from Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Leibly, David J; Newling, Paul A; Abendroth, Jan; Guo, Wenjin; Kelley, Angela; Stewart, Lance J; Van Voorhis, Wesley

    2011-09-01

    Giardia lamblia is the etiologic agent of giardiasis, a water-borne infection that is prevalent throughout the world. The need for new therapeutics for the treatment of giardiasis is of paramount importance. Owing to the ubiquitous nature of kinases and their vital importance in organisms, they are potential drug targets. In this paper, the first structure of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) from G. lamblia (GlCDK; UniProt A8BZ95) is presented. CDKs are cell-cycle-associated kinases that are actively being pursued as targets for anticancer drugs as well as for antiparasitic chemotherapy. Generally, a CDK forms a complex with its associated cyclin. This CDK-cyclin complex is active and acts as a serine/threonine protein kinase. Typically, CDKs are responsible for the transition to the next phase of the cell cycle. Although the structure of GlCDK with its associated cyclin was not solved, the 1.85 Å resolution structure of apo GlCDK and a 2.0 Å resolution structure of GlCDK in complex with adenosine monophosphate are presented and the structural differences from the orthologous human CDK2 and CDK3 are discussed.

  9. Activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases during apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Meikrantz, W; Gisselbrecht, S; Tam, S W; Schlegel, R

    1994-01-01

    Apoptosis was induced in S-phase-arrested HeLa cells by staurosporine, caffeine, 6-dimethylaminopurine, and okadaic acid, agents that activate M-phase-promoting factor and induce premature mitosis in similarly treated hamster cell lines. Addition of these agents to asynchronously growing HeLa cells or to cells arrested in early G1 phase with lovastatin had little or no effect. S-phase arrest also promoted tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis, eliminating the normal requirement for simultaneous cycloheximide treatment. For all of the apoptosis-inducing agents tested, the appearance of condensed chromatin was accompanied by 2- to 7-fold increases in cyclin A-associated histone H1 kinase activity, levels approximating the mitotic value. Where examined, both Cdc2 and Cdk2, the catalytic subunits known to associate with cyclin A, were activated. Stable overexpression of bcl-2 suppressed the apoptosis-inducing activity of all agents tested and reduced the amount of Cdc2 and Cdk2 in the nucleus, suggesting a possible mechanism by which bcl-2 inhibits the chromatin condensation characteristic of apoptosis. These findings suggest that at least one of the biochemical steps required for mitosis, activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases, is also an important event during apoptosis. Images PMID:8170983

  10. Pharmacological cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors: Implications for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Vyas, Dinesh

    2016-02-21

    Colorectal cancer accounts for a significant proportion of cancer deaths worldwide. The need to develop more chemotherapeutic agents to combat this disease is critical. Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), along with its binding partner cyclins, serve to control the growth of cells through the cell cycle. A new class of drugs, termed CDK inhibitors, has been studied in preclinical and now clinical trials. These inhibitors are believed to act as an anti-cancer drug by blocking CDKs to block the uncontrolled cellular proliferation that is hallmark of cancers like colorectal cancer. CDK article provides overview of the emerging drug class of CDK inhibitors and provides a list of ones that are currently in clinical trials.

  11. Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 Inhibitors for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Yogesh A; Taylor, Margaret A; Napoleon, John Victor; Rana, Sandeep; Contreras, Jacob I; Natarajan, Amarnath

    2016-10-13

    Cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors have been the topic of intense research for nearly 2 decades due to their widely varied and critical functions within the cell. Recently CDK9 has emerged as a druggable target for the development of cancer therapeutics. CDK9 plays a crucial role in transcription regulation; specifically, CDK9 mediated transcriptional regulation of short-lived antiapoptotic proteins is critical for the survival of transformed cells. Focused chemical libraries based on a plethora of scaffolds have resulted in mixed success with regard to the development of selective CDK9 inhibitors. Here we review the regulation of CDK9, its cellular functions, and common core structures used to target CDK9, along with their selectivity profile and efficacy in vitro and in vivo.

  12. [Cytotoxicity of chimera peptides incorporating sequences of cyclin kinases inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Kharchenko, V P; Kulinich, V G; Lunin, V G; Filiasova, E I; Shishkin, A M; Sergeenko, O V; Riazanova, E M; Voronina, O L; Bozhenko, V K

    2007-01-01

    The study is concerned with proapoptotic properties of chimera peptides which incorporate sequences of inhibitors of cyclin kinases p161NK4a and p21CIP/WAF1 as well as internalized sequences (Antp and tat). Sequences of the p16 type appeared to be more cytotoxic than the p21 one. Cytotoxic effect proved dependent on orientation with respect to the C or N terminal point of a polypeptide chain rather than on chimera sequence extent. Although p16 endogenous synthesis did not influence chimera peptide levels, apoptosis did not take place in certain cellular lines. Due to the rather unsophisticated nature of such synthesis, it might be used in designing individually-tailored chemotherapeutic drugs.

  13. Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Ray, Ramesh M; Johnson, Leonard R

    2014-03-01

    Homeostasis of the gastrointestinal epithelium is dependent upon a balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are well known for their role in cell proliferation. Previous studies from our group have shown that polyamine-depletion of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) decreases cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity, increases p53 and p21Cip1 protein levels, induces G1 arrest, and protects cells from camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis. Although emerging evidence suggests that members of the Cdk family are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, their roles directing apoptosis of IEC-6 cells are not known. In this study, we report that inhibition of Cdk1, 2, and 9 (with the broad range Cdk inhibitor, AZD5438) in proliferating IEC-6 cells triggered DNA damage, activated p53 signaling, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis. By contrast, inhibition of Cdk2 (with NU6140) increased p53 protein and activity, inhibited proliferation, but had no effect on apoptosis. Notably, AZD5438 sensitized, whereas, NU6140 rescued proliferating IEC-6 cells from CPT-induced apoptosis. However, in colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells with mutant p53, treatment with either AZD5438 or NU6140 blocked proliferation, albeit more robustly with AZD5438. Both Cdk inhibitors induced apoptosis in Caco-2 cells in a p53-independent manner. In serum starved quiescent IEC-6 cells, both AZD5438 and NU6140 decreased TNF-α/CPT-induced activation of p53 and, consequently, rescued cells from apoptosis, indicating that sustained Cdk activity is required for apoptosis of quiescent cells. Furthermore, AZD5438 partially reversed the protective effect of polyamine depletion whereas NU6140 had no effect. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdks possess opposing roles in the control of apoptosis in quiescent and proliferating cells. In addition, Cdk inhibitors uncouple proliferation from apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner.

  14. Characterization of cyclin-dependent kinases and Cdc2/Cdc28 kinase subunits in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Amador, Erick; López-Pacheco, Karla; Morales, Nataly; Coria, Roberto; López-Villaseñor, Imelda

    2017-04-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have important roles in regulating key checkpoints between stages of the cell cycle. Their activity is tightly regulated through a variety of mechanisms, including through binding with cyclin proteins and the Cdc2/Cdc28 kinase subunit (CKS), and their phosphorylation at specific amino acids. Studies of the components involved in cell cycle control in parasitic protozoa are limited. Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis in humans and is therefore important in public health; however, some of the basic biological processes used by this organism have not been defined. Here, we characterized proteins potentially involved in cell cycle regulation in T. vaginalis. Three genes encoding protein kinases were identified in the T. vaginalis genome, and the corresponding recombinant proteins (TvCRK1, TvCRK2, TvCRK5) were studied. These proteins displayed similar sequence features to CDKs. Two genes encoding CKSs were also identified, and the corresponding recombinant proteins were found to interact with TvCRK1 and TvCRK2 by a yeast two-hybrid system. One putative cyclin B protein from T. vaginalis was found to bind to and activate the kinase activities of TvCRK1 and TvCRK5, but not TvCRK2. This work is the first characterization of proteins involved in cell cycle control in T. vaginalis.

  15. Rapamycin disrupts cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase/p21/proliferating cell nuclear antigen complexes and cyclin D1 reverses rapamycin action by stabilizing these complexes.

    PubMed

    Law, Mary; Forrester, Elizabeth; Chytil, Anna; Corsino, Patrick; Green, Gail; Davis, Bradley; Rowe, Thomas; Law, Brian

    2006-01-15

    Rapamycin and its derivatives are promising anticancer agents, but the exact mechanisms by which these drugs induce cell cycle arrest and inhibit tumor growth are unknown. A biochemical analysis of human mammary tumor cell lines indicated that rapamycin-induced antiproliferative effects correlated with down-regulation of cellular p21 levels and the levels of p21 in cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2 and 4 complexes. Cyclin D1 overexpression reversed rapamycin action and this reversal correlated with increased levels of cellular p21, higher levels of p21 associated with Cdk2, and stabilization of cyclin D1/Cdk2/p21/proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) complexes. Experiments using a novel cyclin D1-Cdk2 fusion protein or a kinase-dead mutant of the fusion protein indicated that reversal of rapamycin action required not only the formation of complexes with p21 and PCNA but also complex-associated kinase activity. Similar results were observed in vivo. The rapamycin derivative RAD001 (everolimus) inhibited the growth of mouse mammary tumors, which correlated with the disruption of cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes. The potential implications of these results with respect to the use of rapamycin derivatives in breast cancer therapy are discussed.

  16. Understanding and modulating cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor specificity: molecular modeling and biochemical evaluation of pyrazolopyrimidinones as CDK2/cyclin A and CDK4/cyclin D1 inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Karen A.; Markwalder, Jay A.; Seitz, Steven P.; Chang, Chong-Hwan; Cox, Sarah; Boisclair, Michael D.; Brizuela, Leonardo; Brenner, Stephen L.; Stouten, Pieter F. W.

    2005-02-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a key role in regulating the cell cycle. The cyclins, their activating agents, and endogenous CDK inhibitors are frequently mutated in human cancers, making CDKs interesting targets for cancer chemotherapy. Our aim is the discovery of selective CDK4/cyclin D1 inhibitors. An ATP-competitive pyrazolopyrimidinone CDK inhibitor was identified by HTS and docked into a CDK4 homology model. The resulting binding model was consistent with available SAR and was validated by a subsequent CDK2/inhibitor crystal structure. An iterative cycle of chemistry and modeling led to a 70-fold improvement in potency. Small substituent changes resulted in large CDK4/CDK2 selectivity changes. The modeling revealed that selectivity is largely due to hydrogen-bonded interactions with only two kinase residues. This demonstrates that small differences between enzymes can efficiently be exploited in the design of selective inhibitors.

  17. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 protects podocytes from apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Saurus, Pauliina; Kuusela, Sara; Dumont, Vincent; Lehtonen, Eero; Fogarty, Christopher L.; Lassenius, Mariann I.; Forsblom, Carol; Lehto, Markku; Saleem, Moin A.; Groop, Per-Henrik; Lehtonen, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Loss of podocytes is an early feature of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and predicts its progression. We found that treatment of podocytes with sera from normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetes patients with high lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity, known to predict progression of DN, downregulated CDK2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2). LPS-treatment of mice also reduced CDK2 expression. LPS-induced downregulation of CDK2 was prevented in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway using immunomodulatory agent GIT27. We also observed that CDK2 is downregulated in the glomeruli of obese Zucker rats before the onset of proteinuria. Knockdown of CDK2, or inhibiting its activity with roscovitine in podocytes increased apoptosis. CDK2 knockdown also reduced expression of PDK1, an activator of the cell survival kinase Akt, and reduced Akt phosphorylation. This suggests that CDK2 regulates the activity of the cell survival pathway via PDK1. Furthermore, PDK1 knockdown reduced the expression of CDK2 suggesting a regulatory loop between CDK2 and PDK1. Collectively, our data show that CDK2 protects podocytes from apoptosis and that reduced expression of CDK2 associates with the development of DN. Preventing downregulation of CDK2 by blocking the TLR pathway with GIT27 may provide a means to prevent podocyte apoptosis and progression of DN. PMID:26876672

  18. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates degranulation in human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Odemuyiwa, Solomon O; Ilarraza, Ramses; Davoine, Francis; Logan, Michael R; Shayeganpour, Anooshirvan; Wu, Yingqi; Majaesic, Carina; Adamko, Darryl J; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige

    2015-04-01

    Degranulation from eosinophils in response to secretagogue stimulation is a regulated process that involves exocytosis of granule proteins through specific signalling pathways. One potential pathway is dependent on cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its effector molecules, p35 and p39, which play a central role in neuronal cell exocytosis by phosphorylating Munc18, a regulator of SNARE binding. Emerging evidence suggests a role for Cdk5 in exocytosis in immune cells, although its role in eosinophils is not known. We sought to examine the expression of Cdk5 and its activators in human eosinophils, and to assess the role of Cdk5 in eosinophil degranulation. We used freshly isolated human eosinophils and analysed the expression of Cdk5, p35, p39 and Munc18c by Western blot, RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation. Cdk5 kinase activity was determined following eosinophil activation. Cdk5 inhibitors were used (roscovitine, AT7519 and small interfering RNA) to determine its role in eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) secretion. Cdk5 was expressed in association with Munc18c, p35 and p39, and phosphorylated following human eosinophil activation with eotaxin/CCL11, platelet-activating factor, and secretory IgA-Sepharose. Cdk5 inhibitors (roscovitine, AT7519) reduced EPX release when cells were stimulated by PMA or secretory IgA. In assays using small interfering RNA knock-down of Cdk5 expression in human eosinophils, we observed inhibition of EPX release. Our findings suggest that in activated eosinophils, Cdk5 is phosphorylated and binds to Munc18c, resulting in Munc18c release from syntaxin-4, allowing SNARE binding and vesicle fusion, with subsequent eosinophil degranulation. Our work identifies a novel role for Cdk5 in eosinophil mediator release by agonist-induced degranulation.

  19. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors as Anticancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Law, Mary E; Corsino, Patrick E; Narayan, Satya; Law, Brian K

    2015-11-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have been considered promising drug targets for a number of years, but most CDK inhibitors have failed rigorous clinical testing. Recent studies demonstrating clear anticancer efficacy and reduced toxicity of CDK4/6 inhibitors such as palbociclib and multi-CDK inhibitors such as dinaciclib have rejuvenated the field. Favorable results with palbociclib and its recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval demonstrate that CDK inhibitors with narrow selectivity profiles can have clinical utility for therapy based on individual tumor genetics. A brief overview of results obtained with ATP-competitive inhibitors such as palbociclib and dinaciclib is presented, followed by a compilation of new avenues that have been pursued toward the development of novel, non-ATP-competitive CDK inhibitors. These creative ways to develop CDK inhibitors are presented along with crystal structures of these agents complexed with CDK2 to highlight differences in their binding sites and mechanisms of action. The recent successes of CDK inhibitors in the clinic, combined with the potential for structure-based routes to the development of non-ATP-competitive CDK inhibitors, and evidence that CDK inhibitors may have use in suppressing chromosomal instability and in synthetic lethal drug combinations inspire optimism that CDK inhibitors will become important weapons in the fight against cancer.

  20. Emerging Drug Profile: Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Blachly, James S.; Byrd, John C.

    2013-01-01

    As the rational application of targeted therapies in cancer supplants traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy, there is an ever-greater need for a thorough understanding of the complex machinery of the cell and an application of this knowledge to the development of novel therapeutics and combinations of agents. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of the class of targeted agents known as cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, with a focus on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Flavopiridol (alvocidib) is the best studied of the CDK inhibitors, producing a dramatic cytotoxic effect in vitro and in vivo, with the principal limiting factor of acute tumor lysis. Unfortunately, flavopiridol has a narrow therapeutic window and is relatively non-selective with several off-target (i.e. non-CDK) effects, which prompted development of the second-generation CDK inhibitor dinaciclib. Dinaciclib appears to be both more potent and selective than flavopiridol, with at least an order of magnitude greater therapeutic index, and is currently in phase III clinical trials. In additional to flavopiridol and dinaciclib, we also review the current state of other members of this class, and provide commentary as to the future direction of combination therapy including CDK inhibitors. PMID:23488658

  1. Enhanced expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in aniline-induced cell proliferation in rat spleen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianling; Wang, Gangduo; Ma, Huaxian; Khan, M Firoze

    2011-01-15

    Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen leading to splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis and a variety of sarcomas of the spleen on chronic exposure. In earlier studies, we have shown that aniline exposure leads to iron overload, oxidative stress and activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors, which could regulate various genes leading to a tumorigenic response in the spleen. However, molecular mechanisms leading to aniline-induced cellular proliferation in the spleen remain largely unknown. This study was, therefore, undertaken on the regulation of G1 phase cell cycle proteins (cyclins), expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and cell proliferation in the spleen, in an experimental condition preceding a tumorigenic response. Male SD rats were treated with aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day via drinking water) for 30 days (controls received drinking water only), and splenocyte proliferation, protein expression of G1 phase cyclins, CDKs and pRB were measured. Aniline treatment resulted in significant increases in splenocyte proliferation, based on cell counts, cell proliferation markers including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), nuclear Ki67 protein (Ki67) and minichromosome maintenance (MCM), MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Western blot analysis of splenocyte proteins from aniline-treated rats showed significantly increased expression of cyclins D1, D2, D3 and E, as compared to the controls. Similarly, real-time PCR analysis showed significantly increased mRNA expression for cyclins D1, D2, D3 and E in the spleens of aniline-treated rats. The overexpression of these cyclins was associated with increases in the expression of CDK4, CDK6, CDK2 as well as phosphorylation of pRB protein. Our data suggest that increased expression of cyclins, CDKs and phosphorylation of pRB protein could be critical in cell proliferation, and may contribute to aniline-induced tumorigenic response in

  2. Enhanced expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in aniline-induced cell proliferation in rat spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jianling; Wang Gangduo; Ma Huaxian; Khan, M. Firoze

    2011-01-15

    Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen leading to splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis and a variety of sarcomas of the spleen on chronic exposure. In earlier studies, we have shown that aniline exposure leads to iron overload, oxidative stress and activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors, which could regulate various genes leading to a tumorigenic response in the spleen. However, molecular mechanisms leading to aniline-induced cellular proliferation in the spleen remain largely unknown. This study was, therefore, undertaken on the regulation of G1 phase cell cycle proteins (cyclins), expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and cell proliferation in the spleen, in an experimental condition preceding a tumorigenic response. Male SD rats were treated with aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day via drinking water) for 30 days (controls received drinking water only), and splenocyte proliferation, protein expression of G1 phase cyclins, CDKs and pRB were measured. Aniline treatment resulted in significant increases in splenocyte proliferation, based on cell counts, cell proliferation markers including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), nuclear Ki67 protein (Ki67) and minichromosome maintenance (MCM), MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Western blot analysis of splenocyte proteins from aniline-treated rats showed significantly increased expression of cyclins D1, D2, D3 and E, as compared to the controls. Similarly, real-time PCR analysis showed significantly increased mRNA expression for cyclins D1, D2, D3 and E in the spleens of aniline-treated rats. The overexpression of these cyclins was associated with increases in the expression of CDK4, CDK6, CDK2 as well as phosphorylation of pRB protein. Our data suggest that increased expression of cyclins, CDKs and phosphorylation of pRB protein could be critical in cell proliferation, and may contribute to aniline-induced tumorigenic response in

  3. Cyclin-dependent kinase complexes in developing maize endosperm: evidence for differential expression and functional specialization.

    PubMed

    Dante, Ricardo A; Sabelli, Paolo A; Nguyen, Hong N; Leiva-Neto, João T; Tao, Yumin; Lowe, Keith S; Hoerster, George J; Gordon-Kamm, William J; Jung, Rudolf; Larkins, Brian A

    2014-02-01

    Endosperm development in maize (Zea mays L.) and related cereals comprises a cell proliferation stage followed by a period of rapid growth coupled to endoreduplication. Regulation of the cell cycle in developing endosperm is poorly understood. We have characterized various subunits of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complexes, master cell cycle regulators in all eukaryotes. A-, B-, and D-type cyclins as well as A- and B-type cyclin-dependent kinases were characterized with respect to their RNA and protein expression profiles. Two main patterns were identified: one showing expression throughout endosperm development, and another characterized by a sharp down-regulation with the onset of endoreduplication. Cyclin CYCB1;3 and CYCD2;1 proteins were distributed in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells throughout the endosperm, while cyclin CYCD5 protein was localized in the cytoplasm of peripheral cells. CDKB1;1 expression was strongly associated with cell proliferation. Expression and cyclin-binding patterns suggested that CDKA;1 and CDKA;3 are at least partially redundant. The kinase activity associated with the cyclin CYCA1 was highest during the mitotic stage of development, while that associated with CYCB1;3, CYCD2;1 and CYCD5 peaked at the mitosis-to-endoreduplication transition. A-, B- and D-type cyclins were more resistant to proteasome-dependent degradation in endoreduplicating than in mitotic endosperm extracts. These results indicated that endosperm development is characterized by differential expression and activity of specific cyclins and CDKs, and suggested that endoreduplication is associated with reduced cyclin proteolysis via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

  4. Tumor suppressor protein C53 antagonizes checkpoint kinases to promote cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai; Wu, Jianchun; He, Chen; Yang, Wending; Li, Honglin

    2009-04-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 complex is the driving force for mitotic entry, and its activation is tightly regulated by the G2/M checkpoint. We originally reported that a novel protein C53 (also known as Cdk5rap3 and LZAP) potentiates DNA damage-induced cell death by modulating the G2/M checkpoint. More recently, Wang et al. (2007) found that C53/LZAP may function as a tumor suppressor by way of inhibiting NF-kappaB signaling. We report here the identification of C53 protein as a novel regulator of Cdk1 activation. We found that knockdown of C53 protein causes delayed Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry. During DNA damage response, activation of checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 (Chk1 and Chk2) is partially inhibited by C53 overexpression. Intriguingly, we found that C53 interacts with Chk1 and antagonizes its function. Moreover, a portion of C53 protein is localized at the centrosome, and centrosome-targeting C53 potently promotes local Cdk1 activation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that C53 is a novel negative regulator of checkpoint response. By counteracting Chk1, C53 promotes Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry in both unperturbed cell-cycle progression and DNA damage response.

  5. Identification of New Substrates for Breast Tumor-Specific LMW Cyclin E/CDk2 Kinase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    cyclin EL or cyclin E-LMW and CDK2 (F80A) and CDK2 (F80G) from insect cells and carried out a similar     8   Rb kinase assay to test their...Multani, A. S., Wingate , H. F., Pathak, S., Zhang, N., Tucker, S. L., Chang, S., and Keyomarsi, K. (2004). Tumor-specific low molecular weight forms of

  6. Fluorescent peptide biosensor for probing the relative abundance of cyclin-dependent kinases in living cells.

    PubMed

    Kurzawa, Laetitia; Pellerano, Morgan; Coppolani, J B; Morris, May C

    2011-01-01

    Cyclin-dependant kinases play a central role in coordinating cell growth and division, and in sustaining proliferation of cancer cells, thereby constituting attractive pharmacological targets. However, there are no direct means of assessing their relative abundance in living cells, current approaches being limited to antigenic and proteomic analysis of fixed cells. In order to probe the relative abundance of these kinases directly in living cells, we have developed a fluorescent peptide biosensor with biligand affinity for CDKs and cyclins in vitro, that retains endogenous CDK/cyclin complexes from cell extracts, and that bears an environmentally-sensitive probe, whose fluorescence increases in a sensitive fashion upon recognition of its targets. CDKSENS was introduced into living cells, through complexation with the cell-penetrating carrier CADY2 and applied to assess the relative abundance of CDK/Cyclins through fluorescence imaging and ratiometric quantification. This peptide biosensor technology affords direct and sensitive readout of CDK/cyclin complex levels, and reports on differences in complex formation when tampering with a single CDK or cyclin. CDKSENS further allows for detection of differences between different healthy and cancer cell lines, thereby enabling to distinguish cells that express high levels of these heterodimeric kinases, from cells that present decreased or defective assemblies. This fluorescent biosensor technology provides information on the overall status of CDK/Cyclin complexes which cannot be obtained through antigenic detection of individual subunits, in a non-invasive fashion which does not require cell fixation or extraction procedures. As such it provides promising perspectives for monitoring the response to therapeutics that affect CDK/Cyclin abundance, for cell-based drug discovery strategies and fluorescence-based cancer diagnostics.

  7. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β and cyclin D1 expression in cervical carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunsoo; Lee, Myunghwa; Kim, Dae Woon; Hong, Seo Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is a pluripotent protein kinase involved in the development of cancers through regulation of numerous oncogenic molecules. Cyclin D1, an important regulator of G1 to S phase transition in various cells, is one of target proteins that GSK3β regulate. Our objective was to assess the expression of GSK3β and cyclin D1 in cervical neoplasm of different histologic grades and to identify their correlation in cervical carcinogenesis. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis of GSK3β and cyclin D1 was performed in a total of 137 patients with 12 normal, 62 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (31 CIN1 and 31 CIN3) and 63 invasive cancers including 56 squamous cell carcinomas and 7 adenocarcinomas. Results The expression of GSK3β increased in parallel with the lesion grade, while that of cyclin D1 decreased with severity of the lesion (P<0.001). There was a significant inverse correlation between GSK3β and cyclin D1 expression in overall cervical neoplasia (Φ=-0.413, P<0.001). GSK3β expression was higher in squamous cell carcinoma than in adenocarcinoma (P=0.049). Conclusion These results suggest that the expressional increase in GSK3β plays a role in cervical carcinogenesis and has inverse correlation with cyclin D1 expression in this process. In addition, GSK3β expression appears to be associated with the histologic type of cervical cancer, especially squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27896249

  8. Targeting Cyclin-Dependent Kinases in Human Cancers: From Small Molecules to Peptide Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Peyressatre, Marion; Prével, Camille; Pellerano, Morgan; Morris, May C.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK/Cyclins) form a family of heterodimeric kinases that play central roles in regulation of cell cycle progression, transcription and other major biological processes including neuronal differentiation and metabolism. Constitutive or deregulated hyperactivity of these kinases due to amplification, overexpression or mutation of cyclins or CDK, contributes to proliferation of cancer cells, and aberrant activity of these kinases has been reported in a wide variety of human cancers. These kinases therefore constitute biomarkers of proliferation and attractive pharmacological targets for development of anticancer therapeutics. The structural features of several of these kinases have been elucidated and their molecular mechanisms of regulation characterized in depth, providing clues for development of drugs and inhibitors to disrupt their function. However, like most other kinases, they constitute a challenging class of therapeutic targets due to their highly conserved structural features and ATP-binding pocket. Notwithstanding, several classes of inhibitors have been discovered from natural sources, and small molecule derivatives have been synthesized through rational, structure-guided approaches or identified in high throughput screens. The larger part of these inhibitors target ATP pockets, but a growing number of peptides targeting protein/protein interfaces are being proposed, and a small number of compounds targeting allosteric sites have been reported. PMID:25625291

  9. A cotton fiber associated cyclin-dependent kinase A gene: Characterization and chromosomal location

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cotton fiber cell normally originates and elongates as a single ovular epidermal cell. The cessation of fiber cell division and ensuing elongation imply that the cell cycle is differentially regulated in fiber cells. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a central role in the regulation of cell cy...

  10. Both cyclin I and p35 are required for maximal survival benefit of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in kidney podocytes.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Hagmann, Henning; Krofft, Ronald D; Chang, Alice M; Zhang, Jiong; Terada, Yoshio; Brinkkoetter, Paul; Shankland, Stuart J

    2012-05-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-5 is activated by both cyclin I and the noncyclin activator p35 in terminally differentiated cells such as kidney podocytes and neurons. Cyclin I and p35 are restricted to podocytes in the kidney, and each limit podocyte apoptosis by activating Cdk5. To determine whether both activators are necessary, or whether they serve backup roles, a double cyclin I-p35 null mouse was generated. Experimental glomerular disease characterized by podocyte apoptosis was then induced by administering an anti-podocyte antibody. The results showed that under nonstressed conditions double mutants had normal kidney structure and function and were indistinguishable from wild-type, cyclin I(-/-), or p35(-/-) mice. In contrast, when stressed with disease, podocyte apoptosis increased fourfold compared with diseased cyclin I(-/-) or p35(-/-) mice. This resulted in a more pronounced decrease in podocyte number, proteinuria, and glomerulosclerosis. Under normal states and nephritic states, levels for the prosurvival protein Bcl-2 were lower in double cyclin I(-/-) p35(-/-) mice than the other mice. Similarly, levels of Bcl-xL, another prosurvival member, were lower in normal and nephritic double cyclin I(-/-) p35(-/-) mice but similar to single-cyclin I(-/-) mice. Moreover, levels of ERK1/2 and MEK1/2 activation were lower in nephritic double cyclin I(-/-) p35(-/-) mice but similar to single-cyclin I(-/-) mice. The results demonstrate that the activators of Cdk5, p35, and cyclin I are not required for normal kidney function. However, they play pivotal coordinated roles in maintaining podocyte survival during stress states in disease.

  11. Novel complexes of cyclin-dependent kinases and a cyclin-like protein from Arabidopsis thaliana with a function unrelated to cell division.

    PubMed

    Barrôco, R M; De Veylder, L; Magyar, Z; Engler, G; Inzé, D; Mironov, V

    2003-02-01

    Although the majority of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a key role in cell cycle progression, recent evidence has shown that CDKs are also implicated in transcription regulation. Here, we describe two Arabidopsis CDKs designated Arath;CDKC;1 and Arath; CDKC;2. These CDKs share a PITAIRE signature in the cyclin-binding domain and the structural characteristics of mammalian CDK9. Yeast two-hybrid screens and immunoprecipitation assays identified CDKC-interacting proteins with homology to the animal cyclin T/cyclin K group. We suggest that these Arabidopsis CDKCs may be part of a kinase complex similar to the animal positive transcription elongation factor b, whose activity is essential for transcription control. Expression studies showed that Arath; CDKC transcripts are mainly confined to epidermal tissues and are most abundant in flower tissues. No expression was detected in actively dividing Arabidopsis tissues, suggesting a role for the CDKC proteins in differentiated cells.

  12. Homology modeling of yeast cyclin-dependent protein kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selwyne, R. A.; Kholmurodov, Kh. T.; Koltovaya, N. A.

    2007-07-01

    The important functions that CDKs perform in cell division and cell cycle regulation made central protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 a target model for structural and functional analysis. The 3D models of CDC28 protein kinase using molecular modeling techniques will enlarge our understanding of the phosphorylation mechanism and the structural changes of mutant kinases. The structural template for S. cerevisiae CDC28 was identified from PDB (Protein Databank) using BLASTP (basic local alignment search tool for proteins). Template-target alignments were generated for homology modeling and checked manually for errors. The models were then generated using MODELLER and validated using PROCHECK followed by energy minimization and molecular dynamics calculations in AMBER force field.

  13. Identification of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 as a new interaction partner of cyclin D3

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Maoyun; Wei Yuanyan; Yao Luyang; Xie Jianhui; Chen Xiaoning; Wang Hanzhou; Jiang Jianhai; Gu Jianxin . E-mail: jxgu@shmu.edu.cn

    2006-02-03

    Cyclin D3, like cyclin D1 and D2 isoforms, is a crucial component of the core cell cycle machinery in mammalian cells. It also exhibits its unique properties in many other physiological processes. In the present study, using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified ERK3, an atypical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), as a cyclin D3 binding partner. GST pull-down assays showed that cyclin D3 interacts directly and specifically with ERK3 in vitro. The binding of cyclin D3 and ERK3 was further confirmed in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation assay and confocal microscopic analysis. Moreover, carboxy-terminal extension of ERK3 was responsible for its association with intact cyclin D3. These findings further expand distinct roles of cyclin D3 and suggest the potential activity of ERK3 in cell proliferation.

  14. Crystal structure of a human cyclin-dependent kinase 6 complexwith a flavonol inhibitor, Fisetin

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Heshu; Chang, Debbie J.; Baratte, Blandine; Meijer, Laurent; Schulze-Gahmen, Ursula

    2005-01-10

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a central role in cell cycle control, apoptosis, transcription and neuronal functions. They are important targets for the design of drugs with anti-mitotic and/or anti-neurodegenerative effects. CDK4 and CDK6 form a subfamily among the CDKs in mammalian cells, as defined by sequence similarities. Compared to CDK2 and CDK5, structural information on CDK4 and CDK6 is sparse. We describe here the crystal structure of human CDK6 in complex with a viral cyclin and a flavonol inhibitor, fisetin. Fisetin binds to the active form of CDK6, forming hydrogen bonds with the side chains of residues in the binding pocket that undergo large conformational changes during CDK activation by cyclin binding. The 4-keto group and the 3-hydroxyl group of fisetin are hydrogen bonded with the backbone in the hinge region between the N-terminal and C-terminal kinase domain, as has been observed for many CDK inhibitors. However, CDK2 and HCK kinase in complex with other flavone inhibitors such as quercetin and flavopiridol showed a different binding mode with the inhibitor rotated by about 180. The structural information of the CDK6-fisetin complex is correlated with the binding affinities of different flavone inhibitors for CDK6. This complex structure is the first description of an inhibitor complex with a kinase from the CDK4/6 subfamily and can provide a basis for selecting and designing inhibitor compounds with higher affinity and specificity.

  15. Structure-function relationships of the yeast cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85.

    PubMed Central

    Santos, R C; Waters, N C; Creasy, C L; Bergman, L W

    1995-01-01

    The PHO85 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase involved in both transcriptional regulation and cell cycle progression. Although a great deal is known concerning the structure, function, and regulation of the highly homologous Cdc28 protein kinase, little is known concerning these relationships in regard to Pho85. In this study, we constructed a series of Pho85-Cdc28 chimeras to map the region(s) of the Pho85 molecule that is critical for function of Pho85 in repression of acid phosphatase (PHO5) expression. Using a combination of site-directed and ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutagenesis, we have identified numerous residues critical for either activation of the Pho85 kinase, interaction of Pho85 with the cyclin-like molecule Pho80, or substrate recognition. Finally, analysis of mutations analogous to those previously identified in either Cdc28 or cdc2 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe suggested that the inhibition of Pho85-Pho80 activity in mechanistically different from that seen in the other cyclin-dependent kinases. PMID:7565699

  16. Correlation between Cyclin Dependent Kinases and Artemisinin-Induced Dormancy in Plasmodium falciparum In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Karen-Ann; Gresty, Karryn J.; Chen, Nanhua; Zhang, Veronica; Gutteridge, Clare E.; Peatey, Christopher L.; Chavchich, Marina; Waters, Norman C.; Cheng, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background Artemisinin-induced dormancy provides a plausible explanation for recrudescence following artemisinin monotherapy. This phenomenon shares similarities with cell cycle arrest where cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins play an important role. Methods Transcription profiles of Plasmodium falciparum CDKs and cyclins before and after dihydroartemisinin (DHA) treatment in three parasite lines, and the effect of CDK inhibitors on parasite recovery from DHA-induced dormancy were investigated. Results After DHA treatment, parasites enter a dormancy phase followed by a recovery phase. During the dormancy phase parasites up-regulate pfcrk1, pfcrk4, pfcyc2 and pfcyc4, and down-regulate pfmrk, pfpk5, pfpk6, pfcrk3, pfcyc1 and pfcyc3. When entering the recovery phase parasites immediately up-regulate all CDK and cyclin genes. Three CDK inhibitors, olomoucine, WR636638 and roscovitine, produced distinct effects on different phases of DHA-induced dormancy, blocking parasites recovery. Conclusions The up-regulation of PfCRK1 and PfCRK4, and down regulation of other CDKs and cyclins correlate with parasite survival in the dormant state. Changes in CDK expression are likely to negatively regulate parasite progression from G1 to S phase. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism of artemisinin-induced dormancy and cell cycle regulation of P. falciparum, opening new opportunities for preventing recrudescence following artemisinin treatment. PMID:27326764

  17. Characterization of a new family of cyclin-dependent kinase activators

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Progression through the cell cycle is regulated by CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases), which associate with activating partners, named cyclins, to efficiently phosphorylate substrates. We previously reported the identification of RINGO, a Xenopus protein that can activate CDK1 and CDK2 despite lack of sequence similarity to cyclins, which plays a role in the regulation of the meiotic cell cycle in oocytes. In the present study we report the characterization of four mammalian RINGO proteins, which are 53–68% identical with Xenopus RINGO in a central core of about 75 residues. We show that all RINGO family members can bind to and activate CDK1 and CDK2, albeit with different efficiencies, but they do not bind to CDK4 or CDK6. The core RINGO sequences are critical for CDK activation. We also identified key residues in CDK2 that are required for RINGO binding. All RINGO proteins can also bind the CDK inhibitor p27Kip1, but with an inverse efficiency of their ability to bind to CDK1. Our results identify a new family of mammalian proteins that can activate CDKs and therefore potentially function as cell cycle regulators. The ability of RINGO proteins to activate CDK1 and CDK2 suggest also cyclin-independent roles for these kinases. PMID:15574121

  18. Effects of BP-14, a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Allegri, Lorenzo; Baldan, Federica; Mio, Catia; Puppin, Cinzia; Russo, Diego; Kryštof, Vladimir; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an extremely aggressive human malignancy characterized by a marked degree of invasiveness, absense of features of thyroid differentiation and resistance to current medical treatment. It is well known that ATCs are characterized by deregulation of genes related to cell cycle regulation, i.e., cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and endogenous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs). Therefore, in the present study, the effect of a novel exogenous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, BP-14, was investigated in three human ATC cell lines. The ATC-derived cell lines FRO, SW1736 and 8505C were treated with BP-14 alone or in combination with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. In all ATC cell lines, treatment with BP-14 decreased cell viability and, in two of them, BP-14 modified expression of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Thus, our data indicate that BP-14 is a potential new compound effective against ATC. Combined treatment with BP-14 and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus had a strong synergistic effect on cell viability in all three cell lines, suggesting that the combined used of CDK and mTOR inhibitors may be a useful strategy for ATC treatment.

  19. Structure-guided discovery of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fischmann, Thierry O.; Hruza, Alan; Duca, Jose S.; Ramanathan, Lata; Mayhood, Todd; Windsor, William T.; Le, Hung V.; Guzi, Timothy J.; Dwyer, Michael P.; Paruch, Kamil; Doll, Ronald J.; Lees, Emma; Parry, David; Seghezzi, Wolfgang; Madison, Vincent

    2008-10-02

    CDK2 inhibitors containing the related bicyclic heterocycles pyrazolopyrimidines and imidazopyrazines were discovered through high-throughput screening. Crystal structures of inhibitors with these bicyclic cores and two more related ones show that all but one have a common binding mode featuring two hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) to the backbone of the kinase hinge region. Even though ab initio computations indicated that the imidazopyrazine core would bind more tightly to the hinge, pyrazolopyrimidines gain an advantage in potency through participation of N4 in an H-bond network involving two catalytic residues and bridging water molecules. Further insight into inhibitor/CDK2 interactions was gained from analysis of additional crystal structures. Significant gains in potency were obtained by optimizing the fit of hydrophobic substituents to the gatekeeper region of the ATP binding site. The most potent inhibitors have good selectivity.

  20. Cyclin I-like (CCNI2) is a cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) activator and is involved in cell cycle regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengcheng; Zhai, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yanfei; Xu, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to conventional cyclin-dependent kinases that are important for mitotic cell division, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is predominantly activated in post-mitotic cells and is involved in various cellular events. The kinase activity of CDK5 is tightly regulated by specific activators including p35, p39, and cyclin I (CCNI). Here we show that cyclin I-like (CCNI2), a homolog of CCNI, interacts with CDK5 and activates the kinase activity of CDK5. Different from CCNI, which colocalizes with CDK5 in the nuclei in transfected cells, CCNI2 mainly retains CDK5 in the cytoplasm as well as on the cell membrane. Furthermore, although the expression level of CCNI2 mRNA and CCNI2 protein do not change significantly during cell cycle, depletion of CCNI2 with siRNA affects cell cycle progression as well as cell proliferation. In conclusion, our data strongly suggest that CCNI2 is a novel CDK5 activator and is involved in cell cycle regulation. PMID:28112194

  1. CDK10/cyclin M is a protein kinase that controls ETS2 degradation and is deficient in STAR syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guen, Vincent J.; Gamble, Carly; Flajolet, Marc; Unger, Sheila; Thollet, Aurélie; Ferandin, Yoan; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Cohen, Pascale A.; Meijer, Laurent; Colas, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) regulate a variety of fundamental cellular processes. CDK10 stands out as one of the last orphan CDKs for which no activating cyclin has been identified and no kinase activity revealed. Previous work has shown that CDK10 silencing increases ETS2 (v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2)-driven activation of the MAPK pathway, which confers tamoxifen resistance to breast cancer cells. The precise mechanisms by which CDK10 modulates ETS2 activity, and more generally the functions of CDK10, remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that CDK10 is a cyclin-dependent kinase by identifying cyclin M as an activating cyclin. Cyclin M, an orphan cyclin, is the product of FAM58A, whose mutations cause STAR syndrome, a human developmental anomaly whose features include toe syndactyly, telecanthus, and anogenital and renal malformations. We show that STAR syndrome-associated cyclin M mutants are unable to interact with CDK10. Cyclin M silencing phenocopies CDK10 silencing in increasing c-Raf and in conferring tamoxifen resistance to breast cancer cells. CDK10/cyclin M phosphorylates ETS2 in vitro, and in cells it positively controls ETS2 degradation by the proteasome. ETS2 protein levels are increased in cells derived from a STAR patient, and this increase is attributable to decreased cyclin M levels. Altogether, our results reveal an additional regulatory mechanism for ETS2, which plays key roles in cancer and development. They also shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying STAR syndrome. PMID:24218572

  2. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in maize endosperm and their potential role in endoreduplication.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Cintia M; Dante, Ricardo A; Sabelli, Paolo A; Sun, Yuejin; Dilkes, Brian P; Gordon-Kamm, William J; Larkins, Brian A

    2005-08-01

    Two maize (Zea mays) cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, Zeama;KRP;1 and Zeama;KRP;2, were characterized and shown to be expressed in developing endosperm. Similar to the CDK inhibitors in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), the maize proteins contain a carboxy-terminal region related to the inhibitory domain of the mammalian Cip/Kip inhibitors. Zeama;KRP;1 is present in the endosperm between 7 and 21 d after pollination, a period that encompasses the onset of endoreduplication, while the Zeama;KRP;2 protein declines during this time. Nevertheless, Zeama;KRP;1 accounts for only part of the CDK inhibitory activity that peaks coincident with the endoreduplication phase of endosperm development. In vitro assays showed that Zeama;KRP;1 and Zeama;KRP;2 are able to inhibit endosperm Cdc2-related CKD activity that associates with p13(Suc1). They were also shown to specifically inhibit cyclin A1;3- and cyclin D5;1-associated CDK activities, but not cyclin B1;3/CDK. Overexpression of Zeama;KRP;1 in maize embryonic calli that ectopically expressed the wheat dwarf virus RepA protein, which counteracts retinoblastoma-related protein function, led to an additional round of DNA replication without nuclear division.

  3. Unexpected reduction of skin tumorigenesis on expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 6 in mouse epidermis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian; Sistrunk, Christopher; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L

    2011-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) 4 and 6 are important regulators of the G(1) phase of the cell cycle, share 71% amino acid identity, and are expressed ubiquitously. As a result, it was assumed that each of these kinases plays a redundant role regulating normal and neoplastic proliferation. In previous reports, we have described the effects of CDK4 expression in transgenic mice, including the development of epidermal hyperplasia and increased malignant progression to squamous cell carcinoma. To study the role of CDK6 in epithelial growth and tumorigenesis, we generated transgenic mice carrying the CDK6 gene under the keratin 5 promoter (K5CDK6). Similar to K5CDK4 mice, epidermal proliferation increased substantially in K5CDK6 mice; however, no hyperplasia was observed. CDK6 overexpression also triggered keratinocyte apoptosis in interfollicular and follicular epidermis as a compensatory mechanism to override aberrant proliferation. Unexpectedly, CDK6 overexpression results in decreased skin tumor development compared with wild-type siblings. The inhibition in skin tumorigenesis was similar to that previously reported in K5-cyclin D3 mice. Furthermore, biochemical analysis of the K5CDK6 epidermis showed preferential complex formation between CDK6 and cyclin D3, suggesting that this particular complex plays an important role in tumor restraint. These studies provide in vivo evidence that CDK4 and CDK6 play a similar role as a mediator of keratinocyte proliferation but differ in apoptosis activation and skin tumor development.

  4. A tumor suppressor C53 protein antagonizes checkpoint kinases to promote cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai; Wu, Jianchun; He, Chen; Yang, Wending; Li, Honglin

    2009-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 complex is the driving force for mitotic entry, and its activation is tightly regulated by the G2/M checkpoint. We originally reported that a novel protein C53 (also known as Cdk5rap3 and LZAP) potentiates DNA damage-induced cell death by modulating the G2/M checkpoint (1). More recently, Wang et al (2007) found that C53/LZAP may function as a tumor suppressor via inhibiting NF-κB signaling (2). We report here identification of C53 protein as a novel regulator of Cdk1 activation. We found that knockdown of C53 protein causes delayed Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry. During DNA damage response, activation of checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 (Chk1 and Chk2) is partially inhibited by C53 overexrepsssion. Intriguingly, we found that C53 interacts with checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) and antagonizes its function. Moreover, a portion of C53 protein is localized at the centrosome, and centrosome-targeting C53 potently promotes local Cdk1 activation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that C53 is a novel negative regulator of checkpoint response. By counteracting Chk1, C53 promotes Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry in both unperturbed cell cycle progression and DNA damage response. PMID:19223857

  5. A computational model of binding thermodynamics: the design of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sims, Peter A; Wong, Chung F; McCammon, J Andrew

    2003-07-17

    The cyclin-dependent protein kinases are important targets in drug discovery because of their role in cell cycle regulation. In this computational study, we have applied a continuum solvent model to study the interactions between cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and analogues of the clinically tested anticancer agent flavopiridol. The continuum solvent model uses Coulomb's law to account for direct electrostatic interactions, solves the Poisson equation to obtain the electrostatic contributions to solvation energy, and calculates scaled solvent-accessible surface area to account for hydrophobic interactions. The computed free energy of binding gauges the strength of protein-ligand interactions. Our model was first validated through a study on the binding of a number of flavopiridol derivatives to CDK2, and its ability to identify potent inhibitors was observed. The model was then used to aid in the design of novel CDK2 inhibitors with the aid of a computational sensitivity analysis. Some of these hypothetical structures could be significantly more potent than the lead compound flavopiridol. We applied two approaches to gain insights into designing selective inhibitors. One relied on the comparative analysis of the binding pocket for several hundred protein kinases to identify the parts of a lead compound whose modifications might lead to selective compounds. The other was based on building and using homology models for energy calculations. The homology models appear to be able to classify ligand potency into groups but cannot yet give reliable quantitative results.

  6. Functional Analysis of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Pho81 Identifies a Novel Inhibitory Domain

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sidong; Jeffery, Douglas A.; Anthony, Malcolm D.; O'Shea, Erin K.

    2001-01-01

    In response to phosphate limitation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces transcription of a set of genes important for survival. A phosphate-responsive signal transduction pathway mediates this response by controlling the activity of the transcription factor Pho4. Three components of this signal transduction pathway resemble those used to regulate the eukaryotic cell cycle: a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), Pho85; a cyclin, Pho80; and a CDK inhibitor (CKI), Pho81. Pho81 forms a stable complex with Pho80-Pho85 under both high- and low-phosphate conditions, but it only inhibits the kinase when cells are starved for phosphate. Pho81 contains six tandem repeats of the ankyrin consensus domain homologous to the INK4 family of mammalian CKIs. INK4 proteins inhibit kinase activity through an interaction of the ankyrin repeats and the CDK subunits. Surprisingly, we find that a region of Pho81 containing 80 amino acids C terminal to the ankyrin repeats is necessary and sufficient for Pho81's CKI function. The ankyrin repeats of Pho81 appear to have no significant role in Pho81 inhibition. Our results suggest that Pho81 inhibits Pho80-Pho85 with a novel motif. PMID:11533256

  7. Novel plant-specific cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors induced by biotic and abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Peres, Adrian; Churchman, Michelle L; Hariharan, Srivaidehirani; Himanen, Kristiina; Verkest, Aurine; Vandepoele, Klaas; Magyar, Zoltan; Hatzfeld, Yves; Van Der Schueren, Els; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Frankard, Valerie; Larkin, John C; Inzé, Dirk; De Veylder, Lieven

    2007-08-31

    The EL2 gene of rice (Oryza sativa), previously classified as early response gene against the potent biotic elicitor N-acetylchitoheptaose and encoding a short polypeptide with unknown function, was identified as a novel cell cycle regulatory gene related to the recently reported SIAMESE (SIM) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana. Iterative two-hybrid screens, in vitro pull-down assays, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses showed that Orysa; EL2 binds the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) CDKA1;1 and D-type cyclins. No interaction was observed with the plant-specific B-type CDKs. The amino acid motif ELERFL was identified to be essential for cyclin, but not for CDK binding. Orysa;EL2 impaired the ability of Orysa; CYCD5;3 to complement a budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) triple CLN mutant, whereas recombinant protein inhibited CDK activity in vitro. Moreover, Orysa;EL2 was able to rescue the multicellular trichome phenotype of sim mutants of Arabidopsis, unequivocally demonstrating that Orysa;EL2 operates as a cell cycle inhibitor. Orysa;EL2 mRNA levels were induced by cold, drought, and propionic acid. Our data suggest that Orysa;EL2 encodes a new type of plant CDK inhibitor that links cell cycle progression with biotic and abiotic stress responses.

  8. Cyclin-Dependent kinase 5 targeting prevents β-Amyloid aggregation involving glycogen synthase kinase 3β and phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Castro-Alvarez, John Fredy; Uribe-Arias, Alejandro; Cardona-Gómez, Gloria Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Inappropriate activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) resulting from proteolytic release of the activator fragment p25 from the membrane contributes to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, β-amyloid (βA) aggregation, and chronic neurodegeneration. At 18 months of age, 3× Tg-AD mice were sacrificed after either 3 weeks (short term) or 1 year (long term) of CDK5 knockdown. In short-term-treated animals, CDK5 knockdown reversed βA aggregation in the hippocampi via inhibitory phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β Ser9 and activation of phosphatase PP2A. In long-term-treated animals, CDK5 knockdown induced a persistent reduction in CDK5 and prevented βA aggregation, but the effect on amyloid precursor protein processing was reduced, suggesting that yearly booster therapy would be required. These findings further validate CDK5 as a target for preventing or blocking amyloidosis in older transgenic mice.

  9. The Yeast Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Routes Carbon Fluxes to Fuel Cell Cycle Progression.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Jennifer C; Kuehne, Andreas; Zamboni, Nicola; Skotheim, Jan M

    2016-05-19

    Cell division entails a sequence of processes whose specific demands for biosynthetic precursors and energy place dynamic requirements on metabolism. However, little is known about how metabolic fluxes are coordinated with the cell division cycle. Here, we examine budding yeast to show that more than half of all measured metabolites change significantly through the cell division cycle. Cell cycle-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism are controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1), a major cell cycle regulator, and the metabolic regulator protein kinase A. At the G1/S transition, Cdk1 phosphorylates and activates the enzyme Nth1, which funnels the storage carbohydrate trehalose into central carbon metabolism. Trehalose utilization fuels anabolic processes required to reliably complete cell division. Thus, the cell cycle entrains carbon metabolism to fuel biosynthesis. Because the oscillation of Cdk activity is a conserved feature of the eukaryotic cell cycle, we anticipate its frequent use in dynamically regulating metabolism for efficient proliferation.

  10. (R)-roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, enhances tonic GABA inhibition in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A; Tyzio, R; Zilberter, Y; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel

    2008-10-02

    Pharmacological agents that mediate a persistent GABAergic conductance are of considerable interest for treatment of epilepsy. (R)-roscovitine is a membrane permeable cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, designed to block cell division. It is currently undergoing a phase II clinical trial as an anticancer drug. We show that (R)-roscovitine increases a tonic GABA-mediated current in rat hippocampal neurons. This enhanced tonic current appears independent of synaptic GABA release and requires functional transmembrane GABA transport. The effect of (R)-roscovitine is associated with neither modification of GABAA receptors nor protein kinase activity, but is associated with a significant increase in intracellular GABA concentration in hippocampal GABAergic neurons. (R)-roscovitine-induced tonic inhibition significantly suppresses spontaneous spiking activity of hippocampal pyramidal cells. Therefore, (R)-roscovitine is a potent modulator of neuronal activity in rat hippocampus and may provide a tool for preventing paroxysmal activity.

  11. Vaccination with cyclin-dependent kinase tick antigen confers protection against Ixodes infestation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helga; Moraes, Jorge; Githaka, Naftaly; Martins, Renato; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Logullo, Carlos; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-30

    Among arthropods, ticks lead as vectors of animal diseases and rank second to mosquitoes in transmitting human pathogens. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) participate in cell cycle control in eukaryotes. CDKs are serine/threonine protein kinases and these catalytic subunits are activated or inactivated at specific stages of the cell cycle. To determine the potential of using CDKs as anti-tick vaccine antigens, hamsters were immunized with recombinant Ixodes persulcatus CDK10, followed by a homologous tick challenge. Though it was not exactly unexpected, IpCDK10 vaccination significantly impaired tick blood feeding and fecundity, which manifested as low engorgement weights, poor oviposition, and a reduction in 80% of hatching rates. These findings may underpin the development of more efficacious anti-tick vaccines based on the targeting of cell cycle control proteins.

  12. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Suppression by WEE1 Kinase Protects the Genome through Control of Replication Initiation and Nucleotide Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Halfdan; Nähse-Kumpf, Viola; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; O'Hanlon, Karen A.; Patzke, Sebastian; Holmberg, Christian; Mejlvang, Jakob; Groth, Anja; Nielsen, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Activation of oncogenes or inhibition of WEE1 kinase deregulates cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity and leads to replication stress; however, the underlying mechanism is not understood. We now show that elevation of CDK activity by inhibition of WEE1 kinase rapidly increases initiation of replication. This leads to nucleotide shortage and reduces replication fork speed, which is followed by SLX4/MUS81-mediated DNA double-strand breakage. Fork speed is normalized and DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation is suppressed when CDT1, a key factor for replication initiation, is depleted. Furthermore, addition of nucleosides counteracts the effects of unscheduled CDK activity on fork speed and DNA DSB formation. Finally, we show that WEE1 regulates the ionizing radiation (IR)-induced S-phase checkpoint, consistent with its role in control of replication initiation. In conclusion, these results suggest that deregulated CDK activity, such as that occurring following inhibition of WEE1 kinase or activation of oncogenes, induces replication stress and loss of genomic integrity through increased firing of replication origins and subsequent nucleotide shortage. PMID:22907750

  13. Novel alterations in CDK1/cyclin B1 kinase complex formation occur during the acquisition of a polyploid DNA content.

    PubMed Central

    Datta, N S; Williams, J L; Caldwell, J; Curry, A M; Ashcraft, E K; Long, M W

    1996-01-01

    The pathways that regulate the S-phase events associated with the control of DNA replication are poorly understood. The bone marrow megakaryocytes are unique in that they leave the diploid (2C) state to differentiate, synthesizing 4 to 64 times the normal DNA content within a single nucleus, a process known as endomitosis. Human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells model this process, becoming polyploid during phorbol diester-induced megakaryocyte differentiation. The mitotic arrest occurring in these polyploid cells involves novel alterations in the cdk1/cyclin B1 complex: a marked reduction in cdk1 protein levels, and an elevated and sustained expression of cyclin B1. Endomitotic cells thus lack cdk1/cyclin B1-associated H1-histone kinase activity. Constitutive over-expression of cdk1 in endomitotic cells failed to re-initiate normal mitotic events even though cdk1 was present in a 10-fold excess. This was due to an inability of cyclin-B1 to physically associate with cdk1. Nonetheless, endomitotic cyclin B1 possesses immunoprecipitable H1-histone kinase activity, and specifically translocates to the nucleus. We conclude that mitosis is abrogated during endomitosis due to the absence of cdk1 and the failure to form M-phase promoting factor, resulting in a disassociation of mitosis from the completion of S-phase. Further studies on cyclin and its interacting proteins should be informative in understanding endomitosis and cell cycle control. Images PMID:8688553

  14. Circadian variation in expression of G1 phase cyclins D1 and E and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p16 and p21 in human bowel mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Griniatsos, John; Michail, Othon P; Theocharis, Stamatios; Arvelakis, Antonios; Papaconstantinou, Ioannis; Felekouras, Evangelos; Pikoulis, Emmanouel; Karavokyros, Ioannis; Bakoyiannis, Chris; Marinos, George; Bramis, John; Michail, Panayiotis O

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether the cellular proliferation rate in the large bowel epithelial cells is characterized by circadian rhythm. METHODS: Between January 2003 and December 2004, twenty patients who were diagnosed as suffering from primary, resectable, non-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lower rectum, infiltrating the sphincter mechanism, underwent abdominoperineal resection, total mesorectal excision and permanent left iliac colostomy. In formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens obtained from the colostomy mucosa every six hours (00:00, 06:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 24:00), we studied the expression of G1 phase cyclins (D1 and E) as well as the expression of the G1 phase cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p16 and p21 as indicators of cell cycle progression in colonic epithelial cells using immunohistochemical methods. RESULTS: The expression of both cyclins showed a similar circadian fashion obtaining their lowest and highest values at 00:00 and 18:00, respectively (P< 0.001). A circadian rhythm in the expression of CDK inhibitor proteins p16 and p21 was also observed, with the lowest levels obtained at 12:00 and 18:00 (P< 0.001), respectively. When the complexes cyclins D1 - p21 and E - p21 were examined, the expression of the cyclins was adversely correlated to the p21 expression throughout the day. When the complexes the cyclins D1 - p16 and E - p16 were examined, high levels of p16 expression were correlated to low levels of cyclin expression at 00:00, 06:00 and 24:00. Meanwhile, the highest expression levels of both cyclins were correlated to high levels of p16 expression at 18:00. CONCLUSION: Colonic epithelial cells seem to enter the G1 phase of the cell cycle during afternoon (between 12:00 and 18:00) with the highest rates obtained at 18:00. From a clinical point of view, the present results suggest that G1-phase specific anticancer therapies in afternoon might maximize their anti-tumor effect while minimizing toxicity

  15. Growth arrest by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 is abrogated by c-Myc.

    PubMed Central

    Vlach, J; Hennecke, S; Alevizopoulos, K; Conti, D; Amati, B

    1996-01-01

    We show here that c-Myc antagonizes the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27Kip1. p27 expressed from recombinant retroviruses in Rat1 cells associated with and inhibited cyclin E/CDK2 complexes, induced accumulation of the pRb and p130 proteins in their hypophosphorylated forms, and arrested cells in G1. Prior expression of c-Myc prevented inactivation of cyclin E/CDK2 as well as dephosphorylation of pRb and p130, and allowed continuous cell proliferation in the presence of p27. This effect did not require ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27. Myc altered neither the susceptibility of cyclin E/CDK2 to inhibition by p27, nor the intrinsic CDK-inhibitory activity of p27, but induced sequestration of p27 in a form unable to bind cyclin E/CDK2. Neither Myc itself nor other G1-cyclin/CDK complexes were directly responsible for p27 sequestration. Retroviral expression of G1 cyclins (D1-3, E or A) or of the Cdc25A phosphatase did not overcome p27-induced arrest. Growth rescue by Myc required dimerization with Max, DNA binding and an intact transcriptional activation domain, as previously shown for cellular transformation. We propose that this activity is mediated by the product of an as yet unknown Myc-Max target gene(s) and represents an essential aspect of Myc's mitogenic and oncogenic functions. Images PMID:8978686

  16. Inhibition of cyclin dependent kinase 9 by dinaciclib suppresses cyclin B1 expression and tumor growth in triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Sandeep; Khera, Nimmish; Guo, Zhanfang; Hoog, Jeremy; Li, Shunqiang; Ma, Cynthia X.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are potential cancer therapeutic targets because of their critical role in promoting cell growth. Dinaciclib is a novel CDK inhibitor currently under clinical evaluation for the treatment of advanced malignancies. In this study, we demonstrated the anti-tumor activity of dinaciclib in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patient derived xenograft (PDX) and cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with dinaciclib induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and marked apoptosis. These changes were accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of CDK1 and retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and decreased protein levels of cyclin B1, cMYC and survivin. We further demonstrated that siRNA knockdown of CDK9, the kinase subunit of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), instead of CDK1 or CDK2, reduced the levels of cyclin B1 and MYC in TNBC cell lines. These data support the importance of CDK9, in addition to CDK1, in mediating the growth inhibitory effect of dinaciclib in TNBC. Further investigation of CDK9 as a therapeutic target in TNBC is needed. PMID:27486754

  17. Foxp3 Protein Stability Is Regulated by Cyclin-dependent Kinase 2*

    PubMed Central

    Morawski, Peter A.; Mehra, Parul; Chen, Chunxia; Bhatti, Tricia; Wells, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Foxp3 is a transcription factor required for the development of regulatory T cells (Treg). Mice and humans with a loss of Foxp3 function suffer from uncontrolled autoimmunity and inflammatory disease. Expression of Foxp3 is necessary for the anti-inflammatory capacity of Treg, but whether Foxp3 activity is further subject to regulation by extracellular signals is unclear. The primary structure of Foxp3 contains four cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) motifs (Ser/Thr-Pro) within the N-terminal repressor domain, and we show that CDK2 can partner with cyclin E to phosphorylate Foxp3 at these sites. Consistent with our previous demonstration that CDK2 negatively regulates Treg function, we find that mutation of the serine or threonine at each CDK motif to alanine (S/T→A) results in enhanced Foxp3 protein stability in CD4+ T cells. T cells expressing the S/T→A mutant of Foxp3 showed enhanced induction (e.g. CD25) and repression (e.g. IL2) of canonical Foxp3-responsive genes, exhibited an increased capacity to suppress conventional T cell proliferation in vitro, and were highly effective at ameliorating colitis in an in vivo model of inflammatory bowel disease. These results indicate that CDK2 negatively regulates the stability and activity of Foxp3 and implicate CDK-coupled receptor signal transduction in the control of regulatory T cell function and stability. PMID:23853094

  18. Development of highly potent and selective diaminothiazole inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases

    PubMed Central

    Schonbrunn, Ernst; Betzi, Stephane; Alam, Riazul; Martin, Mathew P.; Becker, Andreas; Han, Huijong; Francis, Rawle; Chakrasali, Ramappa; Jakkaraj, Sudhakar; Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Sebti, Said M.; Cubitt, Christopher L.; Gebhard, Anthony W.; Hazlehurst, Lori A.; Tash, Joseph S.; Georg, Gunda I.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are serine/threonine protein kinases that act as key regulatory elements in cell cycle progression. We describe the development of highly potent diaminothiazole inhibitors of CDK2 (IC50 = 0.0009 – 0.0015 µM) from a single hit compound with weak inhibitory activity (IC50 = 15 µM), discovered by high-throughput screening. Structure-based design was performed using 35 co-crystal structures of CDK2 liganded with distinct analogues of the parent compound. The profiling of compound 51 against a panel of 339 kinases revealed high selectivity for CDKs, with preference for CDK2 and CDK5 over CDK9, CDK1, CDK4 and CDK6. Compound 51 inhibited the proliferation of 13 out of 15 cancer cell lines with IC50 values between 0.27 and 6.9 µM, which correlated with the complete suppression of retinoblastoma phosphorylation and the onset of apoptosis. Combined, the results demonstrate the potential of this new inhibitors series for further development into CDK-specific chemical probes or therapeutics. PMID:23600925

  19. Dephosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases by type 2C protein phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Aiyang; Ross, Karen E.; Kaldis, Philipp; Solomon, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    Activating phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) is necessary for their kinase activity and cell cycle progression. This phosphorylation is carried out by the Cdk-activating kinase (CAK); in contrast, little is known about the corresponding protein phosphatase. We show that type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) are responsible for this dephosphorylation of Cdc28p, the major budding yeast CDK. Two yeast PP2Cs, Ptc2p and Ptc3p, display Cdc28p phosphatase activity in vitro and in vivo, and account for ∼90% of Cdc28p phosphatase activity in yeast extracts. Overexpression of PTC2 or PTC3 results in synthetic lethality in strains temperature-sensitive for yeast CAK1, and disruptions of PTC2 and PTC3 suppress the growth defect of a cak1 mutant. Furthermore, PP2C-like enzymes are the predominant phosphatases toward human Cdk2 in HeLa cell extracts, indicating that the substrate specificity of PP2Cs toward CDKs is evolutionarily conserved. PMID:10580002

  20. A Chrysin Derivative Suppresses Skin Cancer Growth by Inhibiting Cyclin-dependent Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haidan; Liu, Kangdong; Huang, Zunnan; Park, Chan-Mi; Thimmegowda, N. R.; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ryoo, In-Ja; He, Long; Kim, Sun-Ok; Oi, Naomi; Lee, Ki Won; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Bode, Ann M.; Yang, Yifeng; Zhou, Xinmin; Erikson, Raymond L.; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Hwang, Joonsung; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Dong, Zigang; Kim, Bo-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid widely distributed in plants, reportedly has chemopreventive properties against various cancers. However, the anticancer activity of chrysin observed in in vivo studies has been disappointing. Here, we report that a chrysin derivative, referred to as compound 69407, more strongly inhibited EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P+ cells compared with chrysin. It attenuated cell cycle progression of EGF-stimulated cells at the G1 phase and inhibited the G1/S transition. It caused loss of retinoblastoma phosphorylation at both Ser-795 and Ser-807/811, the preferred sites phosphorylated by Cdk4/6 and Cdk2, respectively. It also suppressed anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Compound 69407 reduced tumor growth in the A431 mouse xenograft model and retinoblastoma phosphorylation at Ser-795 and Ser-807/811. Immunoprecipitation kinase assay results showed that compound 69407 attenuated endogenous Cdk4 and Cdk2 kinase activities in EGF-stimulated JB6 P+ cells. Pulldown and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that compound 69407 directly binds with Cdk2 and Cdk4 in an ATP-independent manner and inhibited their kinase activities. A binding model between compound 69407 and a crystal structure of Cdk2 predicted that compound 69407 was located inside the Cdk2 allosteric binding site. The binding was further verified by a point mutation binding assay. Overall results indicated that compound 69407 is an ATP-noncompetitive cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with anti-tumor effects, which acts by binding inside the Cdk2 allosteric pocket. This study provides new insights for creating a general pharmacophore model to design and develop novel ATP-noncompetitive agents with chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic potency. PMID:23888052

  1. A chrysin derivative suppresses skin cancer growth by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haidan; Liu, Kangdong; Huang, Zunnan; Park, Chan-Mi; Thimmegowda, N R; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ryoo, In-Ja; He, Long; Kim, Sun-Ok; Oi, Naomi; Lee, Ki Won; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Bode, Ann M; Yang, Yifeng; Zhou, Xinmin; Erikson, Raymond L; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Hwang, Joonsung; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Dong, Zigang; Kim, Bo-Yeon

    2013-09-06

    Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid widely distributed in plants, reportedly has chemopreventive properties against various cancers. However, the anticancer activity of chrysin observed in in vivo studies has been disappointing. Here, we report that a chrysin derivative, referred to as compound 69407, more strongly inhibited EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P(+) cells compared with chrysin. It attenuated cell cycle progression of EGF-stimulated cells at the G1 phase and inhibited the G1/S transition. It caused loss of retinoblastoma phosphorylation at both Ser-795 and Ser-807/811, the preferred sites phosphorylated by Cdk4/6 and Cdk2, respectively. It also suppressed anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Compound 69407 reduced tumor growth in the A431 mouse xenograft model and retinoblastoma phosphorylation at Ser-795 and Ser-807/811. Immunoprecipitation kinase assay results showed that compound 69407 attenuated endogenous Cdk4 and Cdk2 kinase activities in EGF-stimulated JB6 P(+) cells. Pulldown and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that compound 69407 directly binds with Cdk2 and Cdk4 in an ATP-independent manner and inhibited their kinase activities. A binding model between compound 69407 and a crystal structure of Cdk2 predicted that compound 69407 was located inside the Cdk2 allosteric binding site. The binding was further verified by a point mutation binding assay. Overall results indicated that compound 69407 is an ATP-noncompetitive cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with anti-tumor effects, which acts by binding inside the Cdk2 allosteric pocket. This study provides new insights for creating a general pharmacophore model to design and develop novel ATP-noncompetitive agents with chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic potency.

  2. Roscovitine blocks leukocyte extravasation by inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 5 and 9

    PubMed Central

    Berberich, Nina; Uhl, Bernd; Joore, Jos; Schmerwitz, Ulrike K; Mayer, Bettina A; Reichel, Christoph A; Krombach, Fritz; Zahler, Stefan; Vollmar, Angelika M; Fürst, Robert

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that induces tumour cell death, is under evaluation as an anti-cancer drug. By triggering leukocyte apoptosis, roscovitine can also enhance the resolution of inflammation. Beyond death-inducing properties, we tested whether roscovitine affects leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction, a vital step in the onset of inflammation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions were evaluated in venules of mouse cremaster muscle, using intravital microscopy. In primary human endothelial cells, we studied the influence of roscovitine on adhesion molecules and on the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. A cellular kinome array, in vitro CDK profiling and RNAi methods were used to identify targets of roscovitine. KEY RESULTS In vivo, roscovitine attenuated the tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced leukocyte adherence to and transmigration through, the endothelium. In vitro, roscovitine strongly inhibited TNF-α-evoked expression of endothelial adhesion molecules (E-selectin, intercellular cell adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule). Roscovitine blocked NF-κB-dependent gene transcription, but not the NF-κB activation cascade [inhibitor of κB (IκB) kinase activity, IκB-α degradation, p65 translocation]. Using a cellular kinome array and an in vitro CDK panel, we found that roscovitine inhibited protein kinase A, ribosomal S6 kinase and CDKs 2, 5, 7 and 9. Experiments using kinase inhibitors and siRNA showed that the decreased endothelial activation was due solely to blockade of CDK5 and CDK9 by roscovitine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our study highlights a novel mode of action for roscovitine, preventing endothelial activation and leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction by inhibition of CDK5 and 9. This might expand its usage as a promising anti-inflammatory compound. PMID:21391976

  3. Drug Design of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 Inhibitor for Melanoma from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hsin-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    One has found an important cell cycle controller. This guard can decide the cell cycle toward proliferation or quiescence. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is a unique target among the CDK family in melanoma therapy. We attempted to find out TCM compounds from TCM Database@Taiwan that have the ability to inhibit the activity of CDK2 by systems biology. We selected Tetrahydropalmatine, Reserpiline, and (+)-Corydaline as the candidates by docking and screening results for further survey. We utilized support vector machine (SVM), multiple linear regression (MLR) models and Bayesian network for validation of predicted activity. By overall analysis of docking results, predicted activity, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, we could conclude that Tetrahydropalmatine, Reserpiline, and (+)-Corydaline had better binding affinity than the control. All of them had the ability to inhibit the activity of CDK2 and might have the opportunity to be applied in melanoma therapy. PMID:25045703

  4. Processing of meiotic DNA double strand breaks requires cyclin-dependent kinase and multiple nucleases.

    PubMed

    Manfrini, Nicola; Guerini, Ilaria; Citterio, Andrea; Lucchini, Giovanna; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2010-04-09

    Meiotic recombination requires the formation of programmed Spo11-dependent DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Sae2 protein and the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex are necessary to remove the covalently attached Spo11 protein from the DNA ends, which are then resected by so far unknown nucleases. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of Sae2 Ser-267 by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is required to initiate meiotic DSB resection by allowing Spo11 removal from DSB ends. This finding suggests that Cdk1 activity is required for the processing of Spo11-induced DSBs, thus providing a mechanism for coordinating DSB resection with progression through meiotic prophase. Furthermore, the helicase Sgs1 and the nucleases Exo1 and Dna2 participate in lengthening the 5'-3' resection tracts during meiosis by controlling a step subsequent to Spo11 removal.

  5. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21Waf1, regulates vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenichi; Kato, Seiya; Arima, Nobuyuki; Fujii, Teruhiko; Morimatsu, Minoru; Imaizumi, Tsutomu

    2004-04-01

    In the process of vascular diseases, smooth muscle cells (SMC) undergo not only hyperplasia but also hypertrophy, resulting in vascular remodeling. A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI), p21Waf1, has been shown to play an important role in SMC hyperplasia. Here we investigated a potential role of p21Waf1 in SMC hypertrophy. An exposure of cultured rat SMC to serum drove the cell cycle progression with up-regulation of various cell cycle markers and increased activities of cyclin-dependent kinases, but did not cause SMC hypertrophy. In contrast, incubation of SMC for 48 h with angiotensin II (AII, 100 nmol/l) resulted in a significant increase in the cell size measured by flowcytometric forward-angle light scatter assay, in association with an increase in the ratio of [3H]leucine/[3H]thymidine uptake, indicating SMC hypertrophy. At 48 h, p21Waf1 expression was up-regulated in SMC exposed to AII but not in those exposed to serum. These results suggest that p21Waf1 may be involved in hypertrophy. To further investigate this issue, two manipulations of the p21Waf1 gene were performed. Adenovirus-mediated over-expression of p21Waf1 not only reduced S-phasic cells but also caused hypertrophy, despite the exposure to serum. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide for p21Waf1 inhibited the hypertrophy of SMC exposed to AII. Our data suggest that p21Waf1 may play a role in SMC hypertrophy as well.

  6. Computer Molecular Dynamics Studies on Protein Structures (Visual Pigment Rhodopsin and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmurodov, Kholmirzo T.

    2007-05-01

    Based on the computer molecular dynamics (MD) calculations we have simulated for the visual pigment rhodopsin and cyclin-dependent kinase proteins the dynamical and structural properties at reliable physiological temperatures and conditions. MD simulations are carried out on the rhodopsin protein to investigate the conformational changes of the protein in relation to the inclusion of the 11-cis chromophore retinal into consideration. It was demonstrated that the adaptation of the chromophore retinal in the opsin site causes a considerable influence on its protein binding pocket, as well as on conformations of the cytoplasmic part, but the extracelluar part of the protein shows a comparably small changes. On the basis of the simulaton results we discuss some molecular mechanisms for the rhodopsin protein function as a G-protein-coupled receptor in the dark state, i.e. for the chromophore retinal as a ligand-agonist stabilizaing the inactive conformation. The central role that cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) play in the timing of cell division and repair and the high incidence of genetic alteration of CDKs or deregulation of CDK inhibitors in a number of cancers make CDC28 of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae very attractive model for studies of mechanisms of CDK regulation. The crystal structure of the human CDK2 has served as a model for the catalytic core of other CDKs, including CDC28. Nanoseconds long molecular dynamics trajectories of the CDK2/ATP complex were analyzed. The MD simulations of substitution CDK2-G16S in conserved G-loop shows an important of this amino acid and a conformational change of CDK2 structure resulting in the moving of the G-loop away from ATP and a new rearrangement of amino acids in the T-loop.

  7. Cyclin is a component of the sea urchin egg M-phase specific histone H1 kinase.

    PubMed

    Meijer, L; Arion, D; Golsteyn, R; Pines, J; Brizuela, L; Hunt, T; Beach, D

    1989-08-01

    A so-called 'growth-associated' or 'M-phase specific' histone H1 kinase (H1K) has been described in a wide variety of eukaryotic cell types; p34cdc2 has previously been shown to be a catalytic subunit of this protein kinase. In fertilized sea urchin eggs the activity of H1K oscillates during the cell division cycle and there is a striking temporal correlation between H1K activation and the accumulation of a phosphorylated form of cyclin. H1K activity declines in parallel with proteolytic cyclin destruction of the end of the first cell cycle. By virtue of the high affinity of the fission yeast p13suc1 for the p34cdc2 protein, H1K strongly binds to p13-Sepharose beads. Cyclin, p34cdc2 and H1K co-purify on this affinity reagent as well as through several conventional chromatographic procedures. Anticyclin antibodies immunoprecipitate the M-phase specific H1K in crude extracts or in purified fractions. Sea urchin eggs appear to contain much less cyclin than p34cdc2, suggesting that p34cdc2 may interact with other proteins. These results demonstrate that cyclin and p34cdc2 are major components of the M-phase specific H1K.

  8. Transgenic expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 results in epidermal hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and severe dermal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Miliani de Marval, P L; Gimenez-Conti, I B; LaCava, M; Martinez, L A; Conti, C J; Rodriguez-Puebla, M L

    2001-07-01

    In a previous report we have described the effects of expression of D-type cyclins in epithelial tissues of transgenic mice. To study the involvement of the D-type cyclin partner cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) in epithelial growth and differentiation, transgenic mice were generated carrying the CDK4 gene under the control of a keratin 5 promoter. As expected, transgenic mice showed expression of CDK4 in the epidermal basal-cell layer. Epidermal proliferation increased dramatically and basal cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy were observed. The hyperproliferative phenotype of these transgenic mice was independent of D-type cyclin expression because no overexpression of these proteins was detected. CDK4 and CDK2 kinase activities increased in transgenic animals and were associated with elevated binding of p27(Kip1) to CDK4. Expression of CDK4 in the epidermis results in an increased spinous layer compared with normal epidermis, and a mild hyperkeratosis in the cornified layer. In addition to epidermal changes, severe dermal fibrosis was observed and part of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was replaced by connective tissue. Also, abnormal expression of keratin 6 associated with the hyperproliferative phenotype was observed in transgenic epidermis. This model provides in vivo evidence for the role of CDK4 as a mediator of proliferation in epithelial cells independent of D-type cyclin expression.

  9. The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor flavopiridol inhibits glycogen phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, A; Nishi, K; Gorin, F A; Walsh, D A; Bradbury, E M; Schnier, J B

    2001-02-15

    Flavopiridol has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in various tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Using immobilized flavopiridol, we identified glycogen phosphorylases (GP) from liver and brain as flavopiridol binding proteins from HeLa cell extract. Purified rabbit muscle GP also bound to the flavopiridol affinity column. GP is the rate-limiting enzyme in intracellular glycogen breakdown. Flavopiridol significantly inhibited the AMP-activated GP-b form of the purified rabbit muscle isoenzyme (IC50 of 1 microM at 0.8 mM AMP), but was less inhibitory to the active phosphorylated form of GP, GP-a (IC50 of 2.5 microM). The AMP-bound GP-a form was poorly inhibited by flavopiridol (40% at 10 microM). Increasing concentrations of the allosteric effector AMP resulted in a linear decrease in the GP-inhibitory activity of flavopiridol suggesting interference between flavopiridol and AMP. In contrast the GP inhibitor caffeine had no effect on the relative GP inhibition by flavopiridol, suggesting an additive effect of caffeine. Flavopiridol also inhibited the phosphorylase kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of GP-b by inhibiting the kinase in vitro. Flavopiridol thus is able to interfere with both activating modifications of GP-b, AMP activation and phosphorylation. In A549 NSCLC cells flavopiridol treatment caused glycogen accumulation despite of an increase in GP activity, suggesting direct GP inhibition in vivo rather than inhibition of GP activation by phosphorylase kinase. These results suggest that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol interferes with glycogen degradation, which may be responsible for flavopiridol's cytotoxicity and explain its resistance in some cell lines.

  10. Interaction between cyclin-dependent kinases and human papillomavirus replication-initiation protein E1 is required for efficient viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tianlin; Zou, Nianxiang; Lin, Biing Yuan; Chow, Louise T.; Harper, J. Wade

    1999-01-01

    We have identified the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA replication initiation protein E1 as a tight-binding substrate of cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes by using expression cloning. E1, a DNA helicase, collaborates with the HPV E2 protein in ori-dependent replication. E1 formed complexes with cyclin E in insect and mammalian cells, independent of Cdks and E2. Additional cyclins, including A-, B-, and F-type (but not D-type), interacted with the E1/E2 complex, and A- and E-type cyclin kinases were capable of phosphorylating E1 and E2 in vitro. Association with cyclins and efficient phosphorylation of E1 required the presence of a cyclin interaction motif (the RXL motif). E1 lacking the RXL motif displayed defects in E2-dependent HPV ori replication in vivo. Consistent with a role for Cdk-mediated phosphorylation in E1 function, an E1 protein lacking all four candidate Cdk phosphorylation sites still associated with E2 and cyclin E but was impaired in HPV replication in vitro and in vivo. Our data reveal a link between cyclin/Cdk function and activation of HPV DNA replication through targeting of Cdk complexes to the E1 replication-initiation protein and suggest a functional role for E1 phosphorylation by Cdks. The use of cyclin-binding RXL motifs is now emerging as a major mechanism by which cyclins are targeted to key substrates. PMID:9892642

  11. The cyclin-dependent kinase family in the social amoebozoan Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Huber, Robert J

    2014-02-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate eukaryotic cell cycle progression. Their ability to modulate the cell cycle has made them an attractive target for anti-cancer therapies. Cdk protein function has been studied in a variety of Eukaryotes ranging from yeast to humans. In the social amoebozoan Dictyostelium discoideum, several homologues of mammalian Cdks have been identified and characterized. The life cycle of this model organism is comprised of a feeding stage where single cells grow and divide mitotically as they feed on their bacterial food source and a multicellular developmental stage that is induced by starvation. Thus it is a valuable system for studying a variety of cellular and developmental processes. In this review I summarize the current knowledge of the Cdk protein family in Dictyostelium by highlighting the research efforts focused on the characterization of Cdk1, Cdk5, and Cdk8 in this model Eukaryote. Accumulated evidence indicates that each protein performs distinct functions during the Dictyostelium life cycle with Cdk1 being required for growth and Cdk5 and Cdk8 being required for processes that occur during development. Recent studies have shown that Dictyostelium Cdk5 shares attributes with mammalian Cdk5 and that the mammalian Cdk inhibitor roscovitine can be used to inhibit Cdk5 activity in Dictyostelium. Together, these results show that Dictyostelium can be used as a model system for studying Cdk protein function.

  12. A role for cyclin-dependent kinase(s) in the modulation of fast anterograde axonal transport: effects defined by olomoucine and the APC tumor suppressor protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratner, N.; Bloom, G. S.; Brady, S. T.

    1998-01-01

    Proteins that interact with both cytoskeletal and membrane components are candidates to modulate membrane trafficking. The tumor suppressor proteins neurofibromin (NF1) and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) both bind to microtubules and interact with membrane-associated proteins. The effects of recombinant NF1 and APC fragments on vesicle motility were evaluated by measuring fast axonal transport along microtubules in axoplasm from squid giant axons. APC4 (amino acids 1034-2844) reduced only anterograde movements, whereas APC2 (aa 1034-2130) or APC3 (aa 2130-2844) reduced both anterograde and retrograde transport. NF1 had no effect on organelle movement in either direction. Because APC contains multiple cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) consensus phosphorylation motifs, the kinase inhibitor olomoucine was examined. At concentrations in which olomoucine is specific for cyclin-dependent kinases (5 microM), it reduced only anterograde transport, whereas anterograde and retrograde movement were both affected at concentrations at which other kinases are inhibited as well (50 microM). Both anterograde and retrograde transport also were inhibited by histone H1 and KSPXK peptides, substrates for proline-directed kinases, including CDKs. Our data suggest that CDK-like axonal kinases modulate fast anterograde transport and that other axonal kinases may be involved in modulating retrograde transport. The specific effect of APC4 on anterograde transport suggests a model in which the binding of APC to microtubules may limit the activity of axonal CDK kinase or kinases in restricted domains, thereby affecting organelle transport.

  13. Adapalene inhibits the activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 in colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    SHI, XI-NAN; LI, HONGJIAN; YAO, HONG; LIU, XU; LI, LING; LEUNG, KWONG-SAK; KUNG, HSIANG-FU; LIN, MARIE CHIA-MI

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) has been reported to be overexpressed in human colorectal cancer; it is responsible for the G1-to-S-phase transition in the cell cycle and its deregulation is a hallmark of cancer. The present study was the first to use idock, a free and open-source protein-ligand docking software developed by our group, to identify potential CDK2 inhibitors from 4,311 US Food and Drug Administration-approved small molecular drugs with a re-purposing strategy. Among the top compounds identified by idock score, nine were selected for further study. Among them, adapalene (ADA; CD271,6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-methoxyphenyl]-2-naphtoic acid) exhibited the highest anti-proliferative effects in LoVo and DLD1 human colon cancer cell lines. Consistent with the expected properties of CDK2 inhibitors, the present study demonstrated that ADA significantly increased the G1-phase population and decreased the expression of CDK2, cyclin E and retinoblastoma protein (Rb), as well as the phosphorylation of CDK2 (on Thr-160) and Rb (on Ser-795). Furthermore, the anti-cancer effects of ADA were examined in vivo on xenograft tumors derived from DLD1 human colorectal cancer cells subcutaneously inoculated in BALB/C nude mice. ADA (20 mg/kg orally) exhibited marked anti-tumor activity, comparable to that of oxaliplatin (40 mg/kg), and dose-dependently inhibited tumor growth (P<0.05), while combined administration of ADA and oxaliplatin produced the highest therapeutic effect. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to indicate that ADA inhibits CDK2 and is a potential candidate drug for the treatment of human colorectal cancer. PMID:26398439

  14. A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, dinaciclib in preclinical treatment models of thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-Fu; Lin, Jen-Der; Hsueh, Chuen; Chou, Ting-Chao; Wong, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Background We explored the therapeutic effects of dinaciclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, in the treatment of thyroid cancer. Materials and methods Seven cell lines originating from three pathologic types of thyroid cancer (papillary, follicular and anaplastic) were studied. The cytotoxicity of dinaciclib was measured using a lactate dehydrogenase assay. The expression of proteins associated with cell cycle and apoptosis was assessed using Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy. Cell cycle distribution was measured by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis and caspase-3 activity were measured by flow cytometry and fluorometric assay. Mice bearing flank anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) were treated with intraperitoneal injections of dinaciclib. Results Dinaciclib inhibited thyroid cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Dinaciclib had a low median-effect dose (≤ 16.0 nM) to inhibit cell proliferation in seven thyroid cancer cell lines. Dinaciclib decreased CDK1, cyclin B1, and Aurora A expression, induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and induced accumulation of prophase mitotic cells. Dinaciclib decreased Mcl-1, Bcl-xL and survivin expression, activated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis. In vivo, the growth of ATC xenograft tumors was retarded in a dose-dependent fashion with daily dinaciclib treatment. Higher-dose dinaciclib (50 mg/kg) caused slight, but significant weight loss, which was absent with lower-dose dinaciclib (40 mg/kg) treatment. Conclusions Dinaciclib inhibited thyroid cancer proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. These findings support dinaciclib as a potential drug for further studies in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with refractory thyroid cancer. PMID:28207834

  15. Regulation of a Myb transcription factor by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 in Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chao-Cheng; Su, Li-Hsin; Huang, Yu-Chang; Pan, Yu-Jiao; Sun, Chin-Hung

    2012-02-03

    The protozoan Giardia lamblia parasitizes the human small intestine to cause diseases. It undergoes differentiation into infectious cysts by responding to intestinal stimulation. How the activated signal transduction pathways relate to encystation stimulation remain largely unknown. During encystation, genes encoding cyst wall proteins (CWPs) are coordinately up-regulated by a Myb2 transcription factor. Because cell differentiation is linked to cell cycle regulation, we tried to understand the role of cell cycle regulators, cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), in encystation. We found that the recombinant Myb2 was phosphorylated by Cdk-associated complexes and the levels of phosphorylation increased significantly during encystation. We have identified a putative cdk gene (cdk2) by searching the Giardia genome database. Cdk2 was found to localize in the cytoplasm with higher expression during encystation. Interestingly, overexpression of Cdk2 resulted in a significant increase of the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. In addition, the Cdk2-associated complexes can phosphorylate Myb2 and the levels of phosphorylation increased significantly during encystation. Mutations of important catalytic residues of Cdk2 resulted in a significant decrease of kinase activity and ability of inducing cyst formation. Addition of a Cdk inhibitor, purvalanol A, significantly decreased the Cdk2 kinase activity and the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Our results suggest that the Cdk2 pathway may be involved in phosphorylation of Myb2, leading to activation of the Myb2 function and up-regulation of cwp genes during encystation. The results provide insights into the use of Cdk inhibitory drugs in disruption of Giardia differentiation into cysts.

  16. The cell cycle, cyclin-dependent kinases, and viral infections: new horizons and unexpected connections.

    PubMed

    Schang, Luis M

    2003-01-01

    The genomes of small DNA viruses such as papilloma and polyomaviruses code for few or no DNA replication proteins. Consequently, these viruses depend on cellular DNA replication proteins to replicate their genomes and replicate only when the infected cell progresses into S-phase, when these proteins are active. As a consequence of this strict dependence, the relationship between replication of the small DNA viruses and the cell cycle was obvious from the very early studies. The genomes of larger DNA viruses such as adeno- and herpes-viruses, in contrast, encode many of the proteins required for DNA replication. Some of the larger DNA viruses such as adenoviruses, however, also replicate only in S-phase because expression of viral DNA replication proteins is regulated by cellular factors that are activated in S-phase. Other large DNA viruses such as herpes simplex viruses (HSV) can replicate in arrested cells such as neurons, without inducing progression into S-phase. The relationships between cell cycle and replication of these last viruses are, thus, so subtle that their replication was long thought to be independent from cellular proteins whose activities are regulated in a cell cycle dependent manner. In contrast to this hypothesis, recent studies have shown that replication of HSV and other large DNA viruses requires cellular proteins whose activities are normally regulated in a cell cycle dependent manner, such as the cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks). Many excellent reviews on the interactions between cellular proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and smaller DNA viruses (parvo, papilloma, polyoma and adenoviruses) have been published (for example, see (1, 2)). Many reviews on cell cycle regulation also discuss the interactions between the cell cycle and the smaller DNA viruses (for example, see (3-5)). Herein, we will review these relationships only briefly, while focusing on the interactions between cell cycle proteins such as cdks and herpes-, retro

  17. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor AT7519 accelerates neutrophil apoptosis in sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Jennifer M; Robb, Calum T; Craven, Thomas; Kipari, Tiina; Walsh, Timothy S; Haslett, Christopher; Kefala, Kallirroi; Rossi, Adriano G; Lucas, Christopher D

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a neutrophil-dominant disorder with no effective pharmacological therapies. While the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor AT7519 induces neutrophil apoptosis to promote inflammation resolution in preclinical models of lung inflammation, its potential efficacy in ARDS has not been examined. Untreated peripheral blood sepsis-related ARDS neutrophils demonstrated prolonged survival after 20 hours in vitro culture. AT7519 was able to override this phenotype to induce apoptosis in ARDS neutrophils with reduced expression of the pro-survival protein Mcl-1. We demonstrate the first pharmacological compound to induce neutrophil apoptosis in sepsis-related ARDS, highlighting cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors as potential novel therapeutic agents. PMID:27965411

  18. S-nitrosylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) regulates its kinase activity and dendrite growth during neuronal development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Yu, Pei-Chun; Tsang, Anthony H K; Chen, Yu; Fu, Amy K Y; Fu, Wing-Yu; Chung, Kenny K; Ip, Nancy Y

    2010-10-27

    Precise regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, is critical for proper neuronal development and functions. Cdk5 is activated through its association with the neuron-specific activator p35 or p39. Nonetheless, how its kinase activity is regulated in neurons is not well understood. In this study, we found that Cdk5 activity is regulated by S-nitrosylation, a post-translational modification of protein that affects a plethora of neuronal functions. S-nitrosylation of Cdk5 occurs at Cys83, which is one of the critical amino acids within the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase. Upon S-nitrosylation, Cdk5 exhibits reduced kinase activity, whereas mutation of Cys83 to Ala on Cdk5 renders the kinase refractory to such inhibition. Importantly, S-nitrosylated Cdk5 can be detected in the mouse brain, and blocking the S-nitrosylation of Cdk5 in cultured hippocampal neurons enhances dendritic growth and branching. Together, our findings reveal an important role of S-nitrosylation in regulating Cdk5 kinase activity and dendrite growth in neurons during development.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of pyrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazines as selective cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Kirk L.; Reno, Michael J.; Alberti, Jennifer B.; Price, Daniel J.; Kane-Carson, Laurie S.; Knick, Victoria B.; Shewchuk, Lisa M.; Hassell, Anne M.; Veal, James M.; Davis, Stephen T.; Griffin, Robert J.; Peel, Michael R.

    2010-10-01

    A novel series of pyrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazines have been synthesized and identified as cyclin dependant kinase inhibitors potentially useful for the treatment of solid tumors. Modification of the hinge-binding amine or the C(2)- and C(6)-substitutions on the pyrazolopyridazine core provided potent inhibitors of CDK4 and demonstrated enzyme selectivity against VEGFR-2 and GSK3{beta}.

  20. Cell division cycle 6, a mitotic substrate of polo-like kinase 1, regulates chromosomal segregation mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and separase.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hyungshin; Erikson, Raymond L

    2010-11-16

    Defining the links between cell division and DNA replication is essential for understanding normal cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. In this report we explore the effect of phosphorylation of cell division cycle 6 (Cdc6), a DNA replication initiation factor, by polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) on the regulation of chromosomal segregation. In mitosis, the phosphorylation of Cdc6 was highly increased, in correlation with the level of Plk1, and conversely, Cdc6 is hypophosphorylated in Plk1-depleted cells, although cyclin A- and cyclin B1-dependent kinases are active. Binding between Cdc6 and Plk1 occurs through the polo-box domain of Plk1, and Cdc6 is phosphorylated by Plk1 on T37. Immunohistochemistry studies reveal that Cdc6 and Plk1 colocalize to the central spindle in anaphase. Expression of T37V mutant of Cdc6 (Cdc6-TV) induces binucleated cells and incompletely separated nuclei. Wild-type Cdc6 but not Cdc6-TV binds cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1). Expression of wild-type Plk1 but not kinase-defective mutant promotes the binding of Cdc6 to Cdk1. Cells expressing wild-type Cdc6 display lower Cdk1 activity and higher separase activity than cells expressing Cdc6-TV. These results suggest that Plk1-mediated phosphorylation of Cdc6 promotes the interaction of Cdc6 and Cdk1, leading to the attenuation of Cdk1 activity, release of separase, and subsequent anaphase progression.

  1. Locomotor conditioning by amphetamine requires cyclin-dependent kinase 5 signaling in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Singer, Bryan F; Neugebauer, Nichole M; Forneris, Justin; Rodvelt, Kelli R; Li, Dongdong; Bubula, Nancy; Vezina, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Intermittent systemic exposure to psychostimulants leads to several forms of long-lasting behavioral plasticity including nonassociative sensitization and associative conditioning. In the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the protein serine/threonine kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its phosphorylation target, the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor kalirin-7 (Kal7), may contribute to the neuroadaptations underlying the formation of conditioned associations. Pharmacological inhibition of Cdk5 in the NAcc prevents the increases in dendritic spine density normally observed in this site following repeated cocaine. Mice lacking the Kal7 gene display similar effects. As increases in spine density may relate to the formation of associative memories and both Cdk5 and Kal7 regulate the generation of spines following repeated drug exposure, we hypothesized that either inhibiting Cdk5 or preventing its phosphorylation of Kal7 in the NAcc may prevent the induction of drug conditioning. In the present experiments, blockade in rats of NAcc Cdk5 activity with roscovitine (40 nmol/0.5 μl/side) prior to each of 4 injections of amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg; i.p.) prevented the accrual of contextual locomotor conditioning but spared the induction of locomotor sensitization as revealed on tests conducted one week later. Similarly, transient viral expression in the NAcc exclusively during amphetamine exposure of a threonine-alanine mutant form of Kal7 [mKal7(T1590A)] that is not phosphorylated by Cdk5 also prevented the accrual of contextual conditioning and spared the induction of sensitization. These results indicate that signaling via Cdk5 and Kal7 in the NAcc is necessary for the formation of context-drug associations, potentially through the modulation of dendritic spine dynamics in this site.

  2. Lack of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibits c-myc tumorigenic activities in epithelial tissues.

    PubMed

    Miliani de Marval, Paula L; Macias, Everardo; Rounbehler, Robert; Sicinski, Piotr; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Johnson, David G; Conti, Claudio J; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L

    2004-09-01

    The proto-oncogene c-myc encodes a transcription factor that is implicated in the regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and that has also been found to be deregulated in several forms of human and experimental tumors. We have shown that forced expression of c-myc in epithelial tissues of transgenic mice (K5-Myc) resulted in keratinocyte hyperproliferation and the development of spontaneous tumors in the skin and oral cavity. Although a number of genes involved in cancer development are regulated by c-myc, the actual mechanisms leading to Myc-induced neoplasia are not known. Among the genes regulated by Myc is the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) gene. Interestingly, previous studies from our laboratory showed that the overexpression of CDK4 led to keratinocyte hyperproliferation, although no spontaneous tumor development was observed. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that CDK4 may be one of the critical downstream genes involved in Myc carcinogenesis. Our results showed that CDK4 inhibition in K5-Myc transgenic mice resulted in the complete inhibition of tumor development, suggesting that CDK4 is a critical mediator of tumor formation induced by deregulated Myc. Furthermore, a lack of CDK4 expression resulted in marked decreases in epidermal thickness and keratinocyte proliferation compared to the results obtained for K5-Myc littermates. Biochemical analysis of the K5-Myc epidermis showed that CDK4 mediates the proliferative activities of Myc by sequestering p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 and thereby indirectly activating CDK2 kinase activity. These results show that CDK4 mediates the proliferative and oncogenic activities of Myc in vivo through a mechanism that involves the sequestration of specific CDK inhibitors.

  3. Actin interaction and regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5/p35 complex activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiqing; Tsutsumi, Koji; Tokuraku, Kiyotaka; Estes, Katherine A; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2011-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) plays a critical role during neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, and neurodegeneration. Cdk5 activity depends on association with neuronal proteins p35 and p25, a proteolytic product of p35. Cdk5 regulates the actin cytoskeletal dynamics that are essential for neuronal migration, neuritic growth, and synaptogenesis. However, little is known about the interaction of actin and Cdk5 and its effect on neuronal Cdk5 activity. In a previous study, we observed that Cdk5/p35 activity is negatively correlated with co-immunoprecipitated F-actin (filamentous actin) amounts in the mouse brain, and suggested that F-actin inhibits the formation of the Cdk5/p35 complex [Journal of Neuroscience (2008) vol. 28, p. 14511]. The experiments reported here were undertaken to elucidate the relationship between actin and the formation of the Cdk5/p35 complex and its activity. Instead of an F-actin-mediated inhibition, we propose that G-actin (globular actin) in the F-actin preparations is responsible for inhibiting Cdk5/p35 and Cdk5/p25 kinase activity. We found that F-actin binds to p35 but not p25 or Cdk5. We have shown that G-actin binds directly to Cdk5 without disrupting the formation of the Cdk5/p35 or Cdk5/p25 complexes. G-actin potently suppressed Cdk5/p35 and Cdk5/p25 activity when either histone H1 or purified human tau protein were used as substrates, indicating a substrate-independent inhibitory effect of G-actin on Cdk5 activity. Finally, G-actin suppressed the activity of Cdk5 immunoprecipitated from wild type and p35-deficient mouse brain, suggesting that G-actin suppresses endogenous Cdk5 activity in a p35-independent manner. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism of actin cytoskeletal regulation of Cdk5/p35 activity.

  4. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1a (p21) Modulates Response to Cocaine and Motivated Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Scholpa, Natalie E; Briggs, Sherri B; Wagner, John J; Cummings, Brian S

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the functional role of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1a (Cdkn1a or p21) in cocaine-induced responses using a knockout mouse model. Acute locomotor activity after cocaine administration (15 mg/kg, i.p.) was decreased in p21(-/-) mice, whereas cocaine-induced place preference was enhanced. Interestingly, κ-opioid-induced place aversion was also significantly enhanced. Concentration-dependent analysis of locomotor activity in response to cocaine demonstrated a rightward shift in the p21(-/-) mice. Pretreatment with a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist did not alter the enhancement of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in p21(-/-) mice, indicating a lack of involvement of serotonergic signaling in this response. Cocaine exposure increased p21 expression exclusively in the ventral sector of the hippocampus of rodents after either contingent or noncontingent drug administration. Increased p21 expression was accompanied by increased histone acetylation of the p21 promoter region in rats. Finally, increased neurogenesis in the dorsal hippocampus of p21(-/-) mice was also observed. These results show that functional loss of p21 altered the acute locomotor response to cocaine and the conditioned responses to either rewarding or aversive stimuli. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a previously unreported involvement of p21 in modulating responses to cocaine and in motivated behaviors.

  5. Cdc14 phosphatases preferentially dephosphorylate a subset of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) sites containing phosphoserine.

    PubMed

    Bremmer, Steven C; Hall, Hana; Martinez, Juan S; Eissler, Christie L; Hinrichsen, Thomas H; Rossie, Sandra; Parker, Laurie L; Hall, Mark C; Charbonneau, Harry

    2012-01-13

    Mitotic cell division is controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), which phosphorylate hundreds of protein substrates responsible for executing the division program. Cdk inactivation and reversal of Cdk-catalyzed phosphorylation are universal requirements for completing and exiting mitosis and resetting the cell cycle machinery. Mechanisms that define the timing and order of Cdk substrate dephosphorylation remain poorly understood. Cdc14 phosphatases have been implicated in Cdk inactivation and are thought to be generally specific for Cdk-type phosphorylation sites. We show that budding yeast Cdc14 possesses a strong and unusual preference for phosphoserine over phosphothreonine at Pro-directed sites in vitro. Using serine to threonine substitutions in the Cdk consensus sites of the Cdc14 substrate Acm1, we demonstrate that phosphoserine specificity exists in vivo. Furthermore, it appears to be a conserved property of all Cdc14 family phosphatases. An invariant active site residue was identified that sterically restricts phosphothreonine binding and is largely responsible for phosphoserine selectivity. Optimal Cdc14 substrates also possessed a basic residue at the +3 position relative to the phosphoserine, whereas substrates lacking this basic residue were not effectively hydrolyzed. The intrinsic selectivity of Cdc14 may help establish the order of Cdk substrate dephosphorylation during mitotic exit and contribute to roles in other cellular processes.

  6. Identification of a novel subgroup of melanomas with KIT/cyclin-dependent kinase-4 overexpression.

    PubMed

    Smalley, Keiran S M; Contractor, Rooha; Nguyen, Thiennga K; Xiao, Min; Edwards, Robin; Muthusamy, Viswanathan; King, Alastair J; Flaherty, Keith T; Bosenberg, Marcus; Herlyn, Meenhard; Nathanson, Katherine L

    2008-07-15

    Although many melanomas harbor either activating mutations in BRAF or NRAS, there remains a substantial, yet little known, group of tumors without either mutation. Here, we used a genomic strategy to define a novel group of melanoma cell lines with co-overexpression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and KIT. Although this subgroup lacked any known KIT mutations, they had high phospho-KIT receptor expression, indicating receptor activity. Quantitative PCR confirmed the existence of a similar KIT/CDK4 subgroup in human melanoma samples. Pharmacologic studies showed the KIT/CDK4-overexpressing subgroup to be resistant to BRAF inhibitors but sensitive to imatinib in both in vitro and in vivo melanoma models. Mechanistically, imatinib treatment led to increased apoptosis and G(1) phase cell cycle arrest associated with the inhibition of phospho-ERK and increased expression of p27(KIP). Other melanoma cell lines, which retained some KIT expression but lacked phospho-KIT, were not sensitive to imatinib, suggesting that KIT expression alone is not predictive of response. We suggest that co-overexpression of KIT/CDK4 is a potential mechanism of oncogenic transformation in some BRAF/NRAS wild-type melanomas. This group of melanomas may be a subpopulation for which imatinib or other KIT inhibitors may constitute optimal therapy.

  7. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1a (p21) Modulates Response to Cocaine and Motivated Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Scholpa, Natalie E.; Briggs, Sherri B.; Wagner, John J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the functional role of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1a (Cdkn1a or p21) in cocaine-induced responses using a knockout mouse model. Acute locomotor activity after cocaine administration (15 mg/kg, i.p.) was decreased in p21−/− mice, whereas cocaine-induced place preference was enhanced. Interestingly, κ-opioid–induced place aversion was also significantly enhanced. Concentration-dependent analysis of locomotor activity in response to cocaine demonstrated a rightward shift in the p21−/− mice. Pretreatment with a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist did not alter the enhancement of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in p21−/− mice, indicating a lack of involvement of serotonergic signaling in this response. Cocaine exposure increased p21 expression exclusively in the ventral sector of the hippocampus of rodents after either contingent or noncontingent drug administration. Increased p21 expression was accompanied by increased histone acetylation of the p21 promoter region in rats. Finally, increased neurogenesis in the dorsal hippocampus of p21−/− mice was also observed. These results show that functional loss of p21 altered the acute locomotor response to cocaine and the conditioned responses to either rewarding or aversive stimuli. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a previously unreported involvement of p21 in modulating responses to cocaine and in motivated behaviors. PMID:26791604

  8. p35 and p39 are essential for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 function during neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Ko, J; Humbert, S; Bronson, R T; Takahashi, S; Kulkarni, A B; Li, E; Tsai, L H

    2001-09-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) plays a pivotal role in brain development and neuronal migration. Cdk5 is abundant in postmitotic, terminally differentiated neurons. The ability of Cdk5 to phosphorylate substrates is dependent on activation by its neuronal-specific activators p35 and p39. There exist striking differences in the phenotypic severity of Cdk5-deficient mice and p35-deficient mice. Cdk5-null mutants show a more severe disruption of lamination in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. In addition, Cdk5-null mice display perinatal lethality, whereas p35-null mice are viable. These discrepancies have been attributed to the function of other Cdk5 activators, such as p39. To understand the roles of p39 and p35, we created p39-null mice and p35/p39 compound-mutant mice. Interestingly, p39-null mice show no obvious detectable abnormalities, whereas p35(-/-)p39(-/-) double-null mutants are perinatal lethal. We show here that the p35(-/-)p39(-/-) mutants exhibit phenotypes identical to those of the Cdk5-null mutant mice. Other compound-mutant mice with intermediate phenotypes allow us to determine the distinct and redundant functions between p35 and p39. Our data strongly suggest that p35 and p39 are essential for Cdk5 activity during the development of the nervous system. Thus, p35 and p39 are likely to be the principal, if not the only, activators of Cdk5.

  9. Sp1 phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 1/cyclin B1 represses its DNA-binding activity during mitosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chuang, J-Y; Wang, S-A; Yang, W-B; Yang, H-C; Hung, C-Y; Su, T-P; Chang, W-C; Hung, J-J

    2012-11-22

    Sp1 is important for the transcription of many genes. Our previous studies have shown that Sp1 is degraded in normal cell, but it is preserved in cancer cells during mitosis and exists a priori in the daughter cells, ready to engage in gene transcription and thereby contributes to the proliferation and survival of cancer cells. The mechanism by which Sp1 is preserved in cancer cells during mitosis remains unknown. In this study, we observed that Sp1 strongly colocalized with cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)/cyclin B1 during mitosis. Moreover, we showed that Sp1 is a novel mitotic substrate of CDK1/cyclin B1 and is phosphorylated by it at Thr 739 before the onset of mitosis. Phospho-Sp1 reduced its DNA-binding ability and facilitated the chromatin condensation process during mitosis. Mutation of Thr739 to alanine resulted in Sp1 remaining in the chromosomes, delayed cell-cycle progression, and eventually led to apoptosis. Screening of Sp1-associated proteins during mitosis by using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry indicated the tethering of Sp1 to myosin/F-actin. Furthermore, phospho-Sp1 and myosin/F-actin appeared to exist as a congregated ring at the periphery of the chromosome. However, at the end of mitosis and the beginning of interphase, Sp1 was dephosphorylated by PP2A and returned to the chromatin. These results indicate that cancer cells use CDK1 and PP2A to regulate the movement of Sp1 in and out of the chromosomes during cell-cycle progression, which may benefit cancer-cell proliferation.

  10. Kinase Inhibitor Screening Identifies Cyclin-Dependent Kinases and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 as Potential Modulators of TDP-43 Cytosolic Accumulation during Cell Stress.

    PubMed

    Moujalled, Diane; James, Janine L; Parker, Sarah J; Lidgerwood, Grace E; Duncan, Clare; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Nonaka, Takashi; Hasegawa, Masato; Kanninen, Katja M; Grubman, Alexandra; Liddell, Jeffrey R; Crouch, Peter J; White, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal processing of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a major factor in neuronal degeneration during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). It is unclear how changes to TDP-43, including nuclear to cytosolic translocation and subsequent accumulation, are controlled in these diseases. TDP-43 is a member of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) RNA binding protein family and is known to associate with cytosolic RNA stress granule proteins in ALS and FTLD. hnRNP trafficking and accumulation is controlled by the action of specific kinases including members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, little is known about how kinase pathways control TDP-43 movement and accumulation. In this study, we used an in vitro model of TDP-43-positve stress granule formation to screen for the effect of kinase inhibitors on TDP-43 accumulation. We found that while a number of kinase inhibitors, particularly of the MAPK pathways modulated both TDP-43 and the global stress granule marker, human antigen R (HuR), multiple inhibitors were more specific to TDP-43 accumulation, including inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Close correlation was observed between effects of these inhibitors on TDP-43, hnRNP K and TIAR, but often with different effects on HuR accumulation. This may indicate a potential interaction between TDP-43, hnRNP K and TIAR. CDK inhibitors were also found to reverse pre-formed TDP-43-positive stress granules and both CDK and GSK3 inhibitors abrogated the accumulation of C-terminal TDP-43 (219-414) in transfected cells. Further studies are required to confirm the specific kinases involved and whether their action is through phosphorylation of the TDP-43 binding partner hnRNP K. This knowledge provides a valuable insight into the mechanisms controlling abnormal cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulation and may herald new opportunities

  11. Pho85p, a cyclin-dependent protein kinase, and the Snf1p protein kinase act antagonistically to control glycogen accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, D; Farkas, I; Roach, P J

    1996-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nutrient levels control multiple cellular processes. Cells lacking the SNF1 gene cannot express glucose-repressible genes and do not accumulate the storage polysaccharide glycogen. The impaired glycogen synthesis is due to maintenance of glycogen synthase in a hyperphosphorylated, inactive state. In a screen for second site suppressors of the glycogen storage defect of snf1 cells, we identified a mutant gene that restored glycogen accumulation and which was allelic with PHO85, which encodes a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family. In cells with disrupted PHO85 genes, we observed hyperaccumulation of glycogen, activation of glycogen synthase, and impaired glycogen synthase kinase activity. In snf1 cells, glycogen synthase kinase activity was elevated. Partial purification of glycogen synthase kinase activity from yeast extracts resulted in the separation of two fractions by phenyl-Sepharose chromatography, both of which phosphorylated and inactivated glycogen synthase. The activity of one of these, GPK2, was inhibited by olomoucine, which potently inhibits cyclin-dependent protein kinases, and contained an approximately 36-kDa species that reacted with antibodies to Pho85p. Analysis of Ser-to-Ala mutations at the three potential Gsy2p phosphorylation sites in pho85 cells implicated Ser-654 and/or Thr-667 in PHO85 control of glycogen synthase. We propose that Pho85p is a physiological glycogen synthase kinase, possibly acting downstream of Snf1p. PMID:8754836

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations on the inhibition of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases 2 and 5 in the presence of activators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing; Tan, Vincent B. C.; Lim, Kian Meng; Tay, Tong Earn

    2006-06-01

    Interests in CDK2 and CDK5 have stemmed mainly from their association with cancer and neuronal migration or differentiation related diseases and the need to design selective inhibitors for these kinases. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have not only become a viable approach to drug design because of advances in computer technology but are increasingly an integral part of drug discovery processes. It is common in MD simulations of inhibitor/CDK complexes to exclude the activator of the CDKs in the structural models to keep computational time tractable. In this paper, we present simulation results of CDK2 and CDK5 with roscovitine using models with and without their activators (cyclinA and p25). While p25 was found to induce slight changes in CDK5, the calculations support that cyclinA leads to significant conformational changes near the active site of CDK2. This suggests that detailed and structure-based inhibitor design targeted at these CDKs should employ activator-included models of the kinases. Comparisons between P/CDK2/cyclinA/roscovitine and CDK5/p25/roscovitine complexes reveal differences in the conformations of the glutamine around the active sites, which may be exploited to find highly selective inhibitors with respect to CDK2 and CDK5.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations on the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 5 in the presence of activators.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Tan, Vincent B C; Lim, Kian Meng; Tay, Tong Earn

    2006-06-01

    Interests in CDK2 and CDK5 have stemmed mainly from their association with cancer and neuronal migration or differentiation related diseases and the need to design selective inhibitors for these kinases. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have not only become a viable approach to drug design because of advances in computer technology but are increasingly an integral part of drug discovery processes. It is common in MD simulations of inhibitor/CDK complexes to exclude the activator of the CDKs in the structural models to keep computational time tractable. In this paper, we present simulation results of CDK2 and CDK5 with roscovitine using models with and without their activators (cyclinA and p25). While p25 was found to induce slight changes in CDK5, the calculations support that cyclinA leads to significant conformational changes near the active site of CDK2. This suggests that detailed and structure-based inhibitor design targeted at these CDKs should employ activator-included models of the kinases. Comparisons between P/CDK2/cyclinA/roscovitine and CDK5/p25/roscovitine complexes reveal differences in the conformations of the glutamine around the active sites, which may be exploited to find highly selective inhibitors with respect to CDK2 and CDK5.

  14. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes tumor cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Chunyang; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Zhou, Wuhua; Zhang, Wu; Ding, Songming; Wei, Bajin; Yu, Xiaobo; Su, Rong; Zheng, Shusen

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDKN3 is commonly overexpressed in HCC and is associated with poor clinical outcome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of CDKN3 could stimulate the proliferation of HCC cells by promoting G1/S transition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDKN3 could inhibit the expression of p21 in HCC cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of CDKN3 has no effect on apoptosis and invasion of HCC cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified 61 genes co-expressed with CDKN3, and BIRC5 was located at the center of the co-expression network. -- Abstract: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) belongs to the protein phosphatases family and has a dual function in cell cycling. The function of this gene has been studied in several kinds of cancers, but its role in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that CDKN3 was frequently overexpressed in both HCC cell lines and clinical samples, and this overexpression was correlated with poor tumor differentiation and advanced tumor stage. Functional studies showed that overexpression of CDKN3 could promote cell proliferation by stimulating G1-S transition but has no impact on cell apoptosis and invasion. Microarray-based co-expression analysis identified a total of 61 genes co-expressed with CDKN3, with most of them involved in cell proliferation, and BIRC5 was located at the center of CDKN3 co-expression network. These results suggest that CDKN3 acts as an oncogene in human hepatocellular carcinoma and antagonism of CDKN3 may be of interest for the treatment of HCC.

  15. Differential regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Lan; Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora; Qiao, Jingbo; Wang, Yongsheng; Chung, Dai H.

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •GRP-R signaling differentially regulated the expression of p21 and p27. •Silencing GRP/GRP-R downregulated p21, while p27 expression was upregulated. •Inhibition of GRP/GRP-R signaling enhanced PTEN expression, correlative to the increased expression of p27. •PTEN and p27 co-localized in cytoplasm and silencing PTEN decreased p27 expression. -- Abstract: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRP-R) are highly expressed in undifferentiated neuroblastoma, and they play critical roles in oncogenesis. We previously reported that GRP activates the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to promote DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression in neuroblastoma cells. Conversely, GRP-R silencing induces cell cycle arrest. Here, we speculated that GRP/GRP-R signaling induces neuroblastoma cell proliferation via regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. Surprisingly, we found that GRP/GRP-R differentially induced expressions of p21 and p27. Silencing GRP/GRP-R decreased p21, but it increased p27 expressions in neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, we found that the intracellular localization of p21 and p27 in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, respectively. In addition, we found that GRP/GRP-R silencing increased the expression and accumulation of PTEN in the cytoplasm of neuroblastoma cells where it co-localized with p27, thus suggesting that p27 promotes the function of PTEN as a tumor suppressor by stabilizing PTEN in the cytoplasm. GRP/GRP-R regulation of CDK inhibitors and tumor suppressor PTEN may be critical for tumoriogenesis of neuroblastoma.

  16. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 phosphorylation of familial prion protein mutants exacerbates conversion into amyloid structure.

    PubMed

    Rouget, Raphaël; Sharma, Gyanesh; LeBlanc, Andréa C

    2015-02-27

    Familial prion protein (PrP) mutants undergo conversion from soluble and protease-sensitive to insoluble and partially protease-resistant proteins. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) phosphorylation of wild type PrP (pPrP) at serine 43 induces a conversion of PrP into aggregates and fibrils. Here, we investigated whether familial PrP mutants are predisposed to Cdk5 phosphorylation and whether phosphorylation of familial PrP mutants increases conversion. PrP mutants representing three major familial PrP diseases and different PrP structural domains were studied. We developed a novel in vitro kinase reaction coupled with Thioflavin T binding to amyloid structure assay to monitor phosphorylation-dependent amyloid conversion. Although non-phosphorylated full-length wild type or PrP mutants did not convert into amyloid, Cdk5 phosphorylation rapidly converted these into Thioflavin T-positive structures following first order kinetics. Dephosphorylation partially reversed conversion. Phosphorylation-dependent conversion of PrP from α-helical structures into β-sheet structures was confirmed by circular dichroism. Relative to wild type pPrP, most PrP mutants showed increased rate constants of conversion. In contrast, non-phosphorylated truncated PrP Y145X (where X represents a stop codon) and Q160X mutants converted spontaneously into Thioflavin T-positive fibrils after a lag phase of over 20 h, indicating nucleation-dependent polymerization. Phosphorylation reduced the lag phase by over 50% and thus accelerated the formation of the nucleating event. Consistently, phosphorylated Y145X and phosphorylated Q160X exacerbated conversion in a homologous seeding reaction, whereas WT pPrP could not seed WT PrP. These results demonstrate an influence of both the N terminus and the C terminus of PrP on conversion. We conclude that post-translational modifications of the flexible N terminus of PrP can cause or exacerbate PrP mutant conversion.

  17. Regulation of Sox6 by cyclin dependent kinase 5 in brain.

    PubMed

    Rudrabhatla, Parvathi; Utreras, Elias; Jaffe, Howard; Kulkarni, Ashok B

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed Ser/Thr kinase involved in various biological functions during normal brain development and neurodegeneration. In brain, Cdk5 activity is specific to post-mitotic neurons, due to neuronal specific expression of its activator p35. The biological functions of Cdk5 have been ascribed to its cytoplasmic substrates, however not much is known in nucleus. Here, we show that nuclear transcription factor Sox6 is a direct nuclear target of Cdk5. Sox6 is expressed in Tuj1 positive neurons, suggesting that Sox6 is expressed in differentiating neurons. The expression of Sox6 is high in mitotic nuclei during embryonic day 12 (E12) and gradually decreases during development into adult. On the other hand, Cdk5 expression gradually increases during its development. We show that Sox6 is expressed in mitotic nuclei in embryonic day 12 (E12) and in migrating neurons of E16. Sox6 is phosphorylated in vivo. Sox6 was detected by phospho-Ser/Thr and phospho-Ser/Thr-Pro and MPM-2 (Mitotic protein #2) antibodies in brain. Furthermore, calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) digestion resulted in faster migration of Sox6 band. The GST-Sox6 was phosphorylated by Cdk5/p35. The mass spectrometry analysis revealed that Sox6 is phosphorylated at T119PER motif. We show that Sox6 steady state levels are regulated by Cdk5. Cdk5 knockout mice die in utero and Sox6 protein expression is remarkably high in Cdk5-/- brain, however, there is no change in mRNA expression, suggesting a post-translational regulation of Sox6 by Cdk5. Transfection of primary cortical neurons with WT Cdk5 reduced Sox6 levels, while dominant negative (DN) Cdk5 and p35 increased Sox6 levels. Thus, our results indicate that Cdk5 regulates Sox6 steady state protein level that has an important role in brain development and function.

  18. Fluorescent peptide biosensor for monitoring CDK4/cyclin D kinase activity in melanoma cell extracts, mouse xenografts and skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Prével, Camille; Pellerano, Morgan; González-Vera, Juan A; Henri, Pauline; Meunier, Laurent; Vollaire, Julien; Josserand, Véronique; Morris, May C

    2016-11-15

    Melanoma constitutes the most aggressive form of skin cancer, which further metastasizes into a deadly form of cancer. The p16(INK4a)-Cyclin D-CDK4/6-pRb pathway is dysregulated in 90% of melanomas. CDK4/Cyclin D kinase hyperactivation, associated with mutation of CDK4, amplification of Cyclin D or loss of p16(INK4a) leads to increased risk of developing melanoma. This kinase therefore constitutes a key biomarker in melanoma and an emerging pharmacological target, however there are no tools enabling direct detection or quantification of its activity. Here we report on the design and application of a fluorescent peptide biosensor to quantify CDK4 activity in melanoma cell extracts, skin biopsies and melanoma xenografts. This biosensor provides sensitive means of comparing CDK4 activity between different melanoma cell lines and further responds to CDK4 downregulation by siRNA or small-molecule inhibitors. By affording means of monitoring CDK4 hyperactivity consequent to cancer-associated molecular alterations in upstream signaling pathways that converge upon this kinase, this biosensor offers an alternative to immunological identification of melanoma-specific biomarkers, thereby constituting an attractive tool for diagnostic purposes, providing complementary functional information to histological analysis, of particular utility for detection of melanoma onset in precancerous lesions. This is indeed the first fluorescent peptide biosensor which has been successfully implemented to monitor kinase activity in skin samples and melanoma tumour xenografts. Moreover by enabling to monitor response to CDK4 inhibitors, this biosensor constitutes an attractive companion assay to identify compounds of therapeutic relevance for melanoma.

  19. A plant-specific cyclin-dependent kinase is involved in the control of G2/M progression in plants.

    PubMed

    Porceddu, A; Stals, H; Reichheld, J P; Segers, G; De Veylder, L; Barroco, R P; Casteels, P; Van Montagu, M; Inzé, D; Mironov, V

    2001-09-28

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) control the key transitions in the eukaryotic cell cycle. All the CDKs known to control G(2)/M progression in yeast and animals are distinguished by the characteristic PSTAIRE motif in their cyclin-binding domain and are closely related. Higher plants contain in addition a number of more divergent non-PSTAIRE CDKs with still obscure functions. We show that a plant-specific type of non-PSTAIRE CDKs is involved in the control of the G(2)/M progression. In synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells, the corresponding protein, accumulated in a cell cycle-regulated fashion, peaking at the G(2)/M transition. The associated histone H1 kinase activity reached a maximum in mitosis and required a yet unidentified subunit to be fully active. Down-regulation of the associated kinase activity in transgenic tobacco plants using a dominant-negative mutation delayed G(2)/M transition. These results provide the first evidence that non-PSTAIRE CDKs are involved in the control of the G(2)/M progression in plants.

  20. Intrinsic and cyclin-dependent kinase-dependent control of spindle pole body duplication in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Simmons Kovacs, Laura A; Nelson, Christine L; Haase, Steven B

    2008-08-01

    Centrosome duplication must be tightly controlled so that duplication occurs only once each cell cycle. Accumulation of multiple centrosomes can result in the assembly of a multipolar spindle and lead to chromosome mis-segregation and genomic instability. In metazoans, a centrosome-intrinsic mechanism prevents reduplication until centriole disengagement. Mitotic cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) prevent reduplication of the budding yeast centrosome, called a spindle pole body (SPB), in late S-phase and G2/M, but the mechanism remains unclear. How SPB reduplication is prevented early in the cell cycle is also not understood. Here we show that, similar to metazoans, an SPB-intrinsic mechanism prevents reduplication early in the cell cycle. We also show that mitotic cyclins can inhibit SPB duplication when expressed before satellite assembly in early G1, but not later in G1, after the satellite had assembled. Moreover, electron microscopy revealed that SPBs do not assemble a satellite in cells expressing Clb2 in early G1. Finally, we demonstrate that Clb2 must localize to the cytoplasm in order to inhibit SPB duplication, suggesting the possibility for direct CDK inhibition of satellite components. These two mechanisms, intrinsic and extrinsic control by CDK, evoke two-step system that prevents SPB reduplication throughout the cell cycle.

  1. Mitotic p21Cip1/CDKN1A is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kreis, Nina-Naomi; Friemel, Alexandra; Zimmer, Brigitte; Roth, Susanne; Rieger, Michael A.; Rolle, Udo; Louwen, Frank; Yuan, Juping

    2016-01-01

    The multifunctional protein p21Cip1/CDKN1A (p21) is an important and universal Cdk-interacting protein. Recently, we have reported that p21 is involved in the regulation of the mitotic kinase Cdk1/cyclin B1 and critical for successful mitosis and cytokinesis. In the present work we show that S130 of p21 is phosphorylated by Cdk1/cyclin B1 during mitosis, which reduces p21′s stability and binding affinity to Cdk1/cyclin B1. Interfering with this phosphorylation results in extended mitotic duration and defective chromosome segregation, indicating that this regulation ensures proper mitotic progression. Given that p53, the major transcriptional activator of p21, is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer and that deregulated Cdk1 associates with the development of different types of cancer, this work provides new insight into the understanding of how deregulated p21 contributes to chromosomal instability and oncogenesis. PMID:27384476

  2. A novel quantitative model of cell cycle progression based on cyclin-dependent kinases activity and population balances.

    PubMed

    Pisu, Massimo; Concas, Alessandro; Cao, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    Cell cycle regulates proliferative cell capacity under normal or pathologic conditions, and in general it governs all in vivo/in vitro cell growth and proliferation processes. Mathematical simulation by means of reliable and predictive models represents an important tool to interpret experiment results, to facilitate the definition of the optimal operating conditions for in vitro cultivation, or to predict the effect of a specific drug in normal/pathologic mammalian cells. Along these lines, a novel model of cell cycle progression is proposed in this work. Specifically, it is based on a population balance (PB) approach that allows one to quantitatively describe cell cycle progression through the different phases experienced by each cell of the entire population during its own life. The transition between two consecutive cell cycle phases is simulated by taking advantage of the biochemical kinetic model developed by Gérard and Goldbeter (2009) which involves cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) whose regulation is achieved through a variety of mechanisms that include association with cyclins and protein inhibitors, phosphorylation-dephosphorylation, and cyclin synthesis or degradation. This biochemical model properly describes the entire cell cycle of mammalian cells by maintaining a sufficient level of detail useful to identify check point for transition and to estimate phase duration required by PB. Specific examples are discussed to illustrate the ability of the proposed model to simulate the effect of drugs for in vitro trials of interest in oncology, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  3. Accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27/Kip1 and the timing of oligodendrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Durand, B; Gao, F B; Raff, M

    1997-01-01

    Many types of vertebrate precursor cells divide a limited number of times before they stop and terminally differentiate. In no case is it known what causes them to stop dividing. We have been studying this problem in the proliferating precursor cells that give rise to postmitotic oligodendrocytes, the cells that make myelin in the central nervous system. We show here that two components of the cell cycle control system, cyclin D1 and the Cdc2 kinase, are present in the proliferating precursor cells but not in differentiated oligodendrocytes, suggesting that the control system is dismantled in the oligodendrocytes. More importantly, we show that the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27 progressively accumulates in the precursor cells as they proliferate and is present at high levels in oligodendrocytes. Our findings are consistent with the possibility that the accumulation of p27 is part of both the intrinsic counting mechanism that determines when precursor cell proliferation stops and differentiation begins and the effector mechanism that arrests the cell cycle when the counting mechanism indicates it is time. The recent findings of others that p27-deficient mice have an increased number of cells in all of the organs examined suggest that this function of p27 is not restricted to the oligodendrocyte cell lineage. PMID:9029151

  4. Functional Conservation in the SIAMESE-RELATED Family of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors in Land Plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narender; Harashima, Hirofumi; Kalve, Shweta; Bramsiepe, Jonathan; Wang, Kai; Sizani, Bulelani L; Bertrand, Laura L; Johnson, Matthew C; Faulk, Christopher; Dale, Renee; Simmons, L Alice; Churchman, Michelle L; Sugimoto, Keiko; Kato, Naohiro; Dasanayake, Maheshi; Beemster, Gerrit; Schnittger, Arp; Larkin, John C

    2015-11-01

    The best-characterized members of the plant-specific SIAMESE-RELATED (SMR) family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors regulate the transition from the mitotic cell cycle to endoreplication, also known as endoreduplication, an altered version of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated without cell division. Some other family members are implicated in cell cycle responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the functions of most SMRs remain unknown, and the specific cyclin-dependent kinase complexes inhibited by SMRs are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a diverse group of SMRs, including an SMR from the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, can complement an Arabidopsis thaliana siamese (sim) mutant and that both Arabidopsis SIM and P. patens SMR can inhibit CDK activity in vitro. Furthermore, we show that Arabidopsis SIM can bind to and inhibit both CDKA;1 and CDKB1;1. Finally, we show that SMR2 acts to restrict cell proliferation during leaf growth in Arabidopsis and that SIM, SMR1/LGO, and SMR2 play overlapping roles in controlling the transition from cell division to endoreplication during leaf development. These results indicate that differences in SMR function in plant growth and development are primarily due to differences in transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation, rather than to differences in fundamental biochemical function.

  5. Functional Conservation in the SIAMESE-RELATED Family of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors in Land Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Bertrand, Laura L.; Johnson, Matthew C.; Dale, Renee; Simmons, L. Alice; Sugimoto, Keiko; Kato, Naohiro; Dassanayake, Maheshi; Schnittger, Arp

    2015-01-01

    The best-characterized members of the plant-specific SIAMESE-RELATED (SMR) family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors regulate the transition from the mitotic cell cycle to endoreplication, also known as endoreduplication, an altered version of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated without cell division. Some other family members are implicated in cell cycle responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the functions of most SMRs remain unknown, and the specific cyclin-dependent kinase complexes inhibited by SMRs are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a diverse group of SMRs, including an SMR from the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, can complement an Arabidopsis thaliana siamese (sim) mutant and that both Arabidopsis SIM and P. patens SMR can inhibit CDK activity in vitro. Furthermore, we show that Arabidopsis SIM can bind to and inhibit both CDKA;1 and CDKB1;1. Finally, we show that SMR2 acts to restrict cell proliferation during leaf growth in Arabidopsis and that SIM, SMR1/LGO, and SMR2 play overlapping roles in controlling the transition from cell division to endoreplication during leaf development. These results indicate that differences in SMR function in plant growth and development are primarily due to differences in transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation, rather than to differences in fundamental biochemical function. PMID:26546445

  6. Identification of New Substrates for Breast Tumor Specific LMW Cyclin E/CDK2 Kinase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Cyclin E/CDK2 phosphorylation of Hbo1 does not affect the HAT activity of Hbo1 CDK1 phosphorylates Hbo1 at T85/T88 to create a docking site for polo ...values first subtracted from a water control and then normalized to the positive control, which used HeLa nuclear extract as a source of HAT

  7. Establishment of an immortalized cell line derived from the prairie vole via lentivirus-mediated transduction of mutant cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin D, and telomerase reverse transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Masafumi; Kiyono, Tohru; Horie, Kengo; Hirayama, Takashi; Eitsuka, Takahiro; Kuroda, Kengo; Donai, Kenichiro; Hidema, Shizu; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Fukuda, Tomokazu

    2015-01-01

    The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) shows social behaviors such as monogamy and parenting of infants with pair bonding. These social behaviors are specific to the prairie vole and have not been observed in other types of voles, such as mountain voles. Although the prairie vole has several unique characteristics, an in vitro cell culture system has not been established for this species. Furthermore, establishment of cultured cells derived from the prairie vole may be beneficial based on the three Rs (i.e., Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) concept. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to establish an immortalized cell line derived from the prairie vole. Our previous research has shown that transduction with mutant forms of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), cyclin D, and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) could efficiently immortalize cells from multiple species, including humans, cattle, pigs, and monkeys. Here, we introduced these three genes into prairie vole-derived muscle fibroblasts. The expression of mutant CDK4 and cyclin D proteins was confirmed by western blotting, and telomerase activity was detected in immortalized vole muscle-derived fibroblasts (VMF-K4DT cells or VMFs) by stretch PCR. Population doubling analysis showed that the introduction of mutant CDK4, cyclin D, and TERT extended the lifespan of VMFs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the establishment of an immortalized cell line derived from the prairie vole through the expression of mutant CDK4, cyclin D, and human TERT. PMID:26496927

  8. The ω-3 epoxide of eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits endothelial cell proliferation by p38 MAP kinase activation and cyclin D1/CDK4 down-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Pei H; Petrovic, Nenad; Murray, Michael

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Dietary intake of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) decreases cancer risk, while arachidonic acid and other ω-6 PUFAs increase risk, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)-derived epoxides contribute to enhanced tumourigenesis due to ω-6 PUFA intake. Thus, ω-6 arachidonic acid epoxides (EETs) inhibit apoptosis and stimulate proliferation by up-regulating cyclin D1 expression in cells. The present study evaluated the corresponding ω-3 PUFA epoxides and assessed their role in the regulation of cell proliferation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Four chemically stable EPA epoxides (formed at the 8,9-, 11,12-, 14,15- and 17,18-olefinic bonds) were synthesized and tested against growth-related signalling pathways in brain microvascular endothelial bEND.3 cells. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry and cyclin gene expression by immunoblotting and real-time PCR. The role of the p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in cyclin D1 dysregulation was assessed using specific inhibitors and dominant-negative expression plasmids. KEY RESULTS The ω-3 17,18-epoxide of EPA decreased cell proliferation, interrupted the cell cycle in S-phase and down-regulated the cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-4 complex, whereas the 8,9-, 11,12- and 14,15-epoxides were either inactive or enhanced proliferation. Cyclin D1 down-regulation by 17,18-epoxy-EPA was mediated by activation of the growth-suppressing p38 MAP kinase, but the alternate EPA-epoxides were inactive. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The present findings suggest that the epoxide formed by CYP enzymes at the ω-3 olefinic bond may contribute to the beneficial effects of ω-3 PUFA by down-regulating cyclin D1 and suppressing cell proliferation. PMID:21077851

  9. Regulation of Cdc28 Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase Activity during the Cell Cycle of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Michael D.; Hodge, Amy E.

    1998-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) encoded by CDC28 is the master regulator of cell division in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By mechanisms that, for the most part, remain to be delineated, Cdc28 activity controls the timing of mitotic commitment, bud initiation, DNA replication, spindle formation, and chromosome separation. Environmental stimuli and progress through the cell cycle are monitored through checkpoint mechanisms that influence Cdc28 activity at key cell cycle stages. A vast body of information concerning how Cdc28 activity is timed and coordinated with various mitotic events has accrued. This article reviews that literature. Following an introduction to the properties of CDKs common to many eukaryotic species, the key influences on Cdc28 activity—cyclin-CKI binding and phosphorylation-dephosphorylation events—are examined. The processes controlling the abundance and activity of key Cdc28 regulators, especially transcriptional and proteolytic mechanisms, are then discussed in detail. Finally, the mechanisms by which environmental stimuli influence Cdc28 activity are summarized. PMID:9841670

  10. Dephosphorylation of human cyclin-dependent kinases by protein phosphatase type 2C alpha and beta 2 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, A; Kaldis, P; Solomon, M J

    2000-11-03

    We previously reported that the activating phosphorylation on cyclin-dependent kinases in yeast (Cdc28p) and in humans (Cdk2) is removed by type 2C protein phosphatases. In this study, we characterize this PP2C-like activity in HeLa cell extract and determine that it is due to PP2C beta 2, a novel PP2C beta isoform, and to PP2C alpha. PP2C alpha and PP2C beta 2 co-purified with Mg(2+)-dependent Cdk2/Cdk6 phosphatase activity in DEAE-Sepharose, Superdex-200, and Mono Q chromatographies. Moreover, purified recombinant PP2C alpha and PP2C beta 2 proteins efficiently dephosphorylated monomeric Cdk2/Cdk6 in vitro. The dephosphorylation of Cdk2 and Cdk6 by PP2C isoforms was inhibited by the binding of cyclins. We found that the PP2C-like activity in HeLa cell extract, partially purified HeLa PP2C alpha and PP2C beta 2 isoforms, and the recombinant PP2Cs exhibited a comparable substrate preference for a phosphothreonine containing substrate, consistent with the conservation of threonine residues at the site of activating phosphorylation in CDKs.

  11. Loss of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 from parvalbumin interneurons leads to hyperinhibition, decreased anxiety, and memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, Andrii; Seo, Jinsoo; Hu, Ji; Su, Susan C; de Anda, Froylan Calderon; Durak, Omer; Ericsson, Maria; Carlén, Marie; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2015-02-11

    Perturbations in fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) interneurons are hypothesized to be a major component of various neuropsychiatric disorders; however, the mechanisms regulating PV interneurons remain mostly unknown. Recently, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been shown to function as a major regulator of synaptic plasticity. Here, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of Cdk5 in PV interneurons in mouse brain leads to an increase in GABAergic neurotransmission and impaired synaptic plasticity. PVCre;fCdk5 mice display a range of behavioral abnormalities, including decreased anxiety and memory impairment. Our results reveal a central role of Cdk5 expressed in PV interneurons in gating inhibitory neurotransmission and underscore the importance of such regulation during behavioral tasks. Our findings suggest that Cdk5 can be considered a promising therapeutic target in a variety of conditions attributed to inhibitory interneuronal dysfunction, such as epilepsy, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia.

  12. Neurobehavioral phenotype in cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 syndrome: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Posar, Annio; Faggioli, Raffaella; Visconti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The phenotype of cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) syndrome includes Rett syndrome variant with early onset seizures, early onset epileptic encephalopathy; and severe developmental delay. Autistic features have often been reported in literature, but detailed reports of the behavior of these individuals are lacking. We describe the clinical picture of a girl aged 15 years 9 months affected by CDKL5 syndrome, with special attention to the neurobehavioral phenotype. The evaluation showed, apart from a profound intellectual disability, the presence of atypical features of behavior, mainly in relating to people, in imitation, and in verbal and nonverbal communication, thus justifying the diagnosis of comorbid autism spectrum disorder. A formal assessment of the behavior, through appropriate tools, is necessary to choose the most appropriate rehabilitative intervention and to characterize in more detail the CDKL5 syndrome phenotype. We propose a testing protocol for the neurobehavioral assessment of these patients.

  13. A new class of cyclin dependent kinase in Chlamydomonas is required for coupling cell size to cell division.

    PubMed

    Li, Yubing; Liu, Dianyi; López-Paz, Cristina; Olson, Bradley Jsc; Umen, James G

    2016-03-25

    Proliferating cells actively control their size by mechanisms that are poorly understood. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii divides by multiple fission, wherein a 'counting' mechanism couples mother cell-size to cell division number allowing production of uniform-sized daughters. We identified a sizer protein, CDKG1, that acts through the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway as a D-cyclin-dependent RB kinase to regulate mitotic counting. Loss of CDKG1 leads to fewer mitotic divisions and large daughters, while mis-expression of CDKG1 causes supernumerous mitotic divisions and small daughters. The concentration of nuclear-localized CDKG1 in pre-mitotic cells is set by mother cell size, and its progressive dilution and degradation with each round of cell division may provide a link between mother cell-size and mitotic division number. Cell-size-dependent accumulation of limiting cell cycle regulators such as CDKG1 is a potentially general mechanism for size control.

  14. Neurobehavioral phenotype in cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 syndrome: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Posar, Annio; Faggioli, Raffaella; Visconti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The phenotype of cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) syndrome includes Rett syndrome variant with early onset seizures, early onset epileptic encephalopathy; and severe developmental delay. Autistic features have often been reported in literature, but detailed reports of the behavior of these individuals are lacking. We describe the clinical picture of a girl aged 15 years 9 months affected by CDKL5 syndrome, with special attention to the neurobehavioral phenotype. The evaluation showed, apart from a profound intellectual disability, the presence of atypical features of behavior, mainly in relating to people, in imitation, and in verbal and nonverbal communication, thus justifying the diagnosis of comorbid autism spectrum disorder. A formal assessment of the behavior, through appropriate tools, is necessary to choose the most appropriate rehabilitative intervention and to characterize in more detail the CDKL5 syndrome phenotype. We propose a testing protocol for the neurobehavioral assessment of these patients. PMID:26557170

  15. B1-type cyclin-dependent kinases are essential for the formation of stomatal complexes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Boudolf, Véronique; Barrôco, Rosa; Engler, Janice de Almeida; Verkest, Aurine; Beeckman, Tom; Naudts, Mirande; Inzé, Dirk; De Veylder, Lieven

    2004-04-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulators of the cell cycle. In yeasts, only one CDK is sufficient to drive cells through the cell cycle, whereas higher eukaryotes developed a family of related CDKs. Curiously, plants contain a unique class of CDKs (B-type CDKs), whose function is still unclear. We show that the CDKB1;1 gene of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is highly expressed in guard cells and stomatal precursor cells of cotyledons, suggesting a prominent role for B-type CDKs in stomatal development. In accordance, transgenic Arabidopsis plants with reduced B-type CDK activity had a decreased stomatal index because of an early block of meristemoid division and inhibition of satellite meristemoid formation. Many aberrant stomatal cells were observed, all of them blocked in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Although division of stomatal precursors was inhibited, cells still acquired stomatal identity, illustrating that stomatal cell differentiation is independent of cellular and nuclear division.

  16. Extracellular alpha-synuclein induces calpain-dependent overactivation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Czapski, Grzegorz A; Gąssowska, Magdalena; Wilkaniec, Anna; Cieślik, Magdalena; Adamczyk, Agata

    2013-09-17

    Extracellular alpha-synuclein (ASN) could be involved in the pathomechanism of Parkinson's disease (PD) via disturbances of calcium homeostasis, activation of nitric oxide synthase and oxidative/nitrosative stress. In this study we analyzed the role of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in the molecular mechanism(s) of ASN toxicity. We found that exposure of PC12 cells to ASN increases Cdk5 activity via calpain-dependent p25 formation and by enhancement of Cdk5 phosphorylation at Tyr15. Cdk5 and calpain inhibitors prevented ASN-evoked cell death. Our findings, indicating the participation of Cdk5 in ASN toxicity, provide new insight into how extracellular ASN may trigger dopaminergic cell dysfunction in PD.

  17. Identification and Structural-Functional Analysis of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases of the Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Helga; Romeiro, Nelilma C.; Braz, Gloria R. C.; de Oliveira, Eduardo Alves Gamosa; Rodrigues, Camilla; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Githaka, Naftaly; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Logullo, Carlos; Moraes, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases essential for cell cycle progression. Herein, we describe the participation of CDKs in the physiology of Rhipicephalus microplus, the southern cattle tick and an important disease vector. Firstly, amino acid sequences homologous with CDKs of other organisms were identified from a R. microplus transcriptome database in silico. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of CDK1 and CDK10 from R. microplus showed that both have caspase-3/7 cleavage motifs despite their differences in motif position and length of encoded proteins. CDK1 has two motifs (DKRGD and SAKDA) located opposite to the ATP binding site while CDK10 has only one motif (SLLDN) for caspase 3–7 near the ATP binding site. Roscovitine (Rosco), a purine derivative that inhibits CDK/cyclin complexes by binding to the catalytic domain of the CDK molecule at the ATP binding site, which prevents the transfer of ATP's γphosphoryl group to the substrate. To determine the effect of Rosco on tick CDKs, BME26 cells derived from R. microplus embryo cells were utilized in vitro inhibition assays. Cell viability decreased in the Rosco-treated groups after 24 hours of incubation in a concentration-dependent manner and this was observed up to 48 hours following incubation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of a cell cycle protein in arachnids, and the sensitivity of BME26 tick cell line to Rosco treatment suggests that CDKs are potential targets for novel drug design to control tick infestation. PMID:24146826

  18. Apoptosis in 7-hydroxystaurosporine-treated T lymphoblasts correlates with activation of cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Worland, P J; Clark, J L; Carlson, B A; Sausville, E A

    1995-08-01

    7-Hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) is a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes alpha, beta, and gamma [Seynaeve et al., Mol. Pharmacol, 45: 1207-1214, 1994] that also has antitumor effects in vivo. To determine whether inhibition of PKC can be related to inhibition of cell growth with induction of apoptosis, we compared the effects of UCN-01 to those of the highly selective bisindolylmaleimide PKC antagonist GF 109203X in leukemic T-cell lines. Both compounds potently inhibited PKC activity when added to T-cell membrane preparations and reversed phorbol ester-induced c-fos gene expression in intact cells. However, whereas UCN-01 potently inhibited growth of Jurkat, Molt-3, Molt-4, and Hut-78 cells (IC50 = 20-65 nM, irreversible after 24 h of exposure), GF 109203X had IC50s for cell growth of 3.6-5.0 muM. Less than 3 h after addition, UCN-01 but not GF 109203X-treated cells displayed loss of cells with G2-M DNA content, appearance of a hypodiploid DNA fraction, and evidence of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Six h after treatment, cells appeared to accumulate with S-phase DNA content. These effects correlated with selective UCN-01 but not GF 109203X-induced decrease in total and tyrosine phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) 1 and 2, and with increases in the histone H1 kinase activities of cdk1 and cdk2. UCN-01 was relatively less potent in inhibition of properly activated cdk1 and cdk2 when added in vitro to H1 kinase assays (IC50 = 1000 and 600 nM, respectively). We conclude that inhibition of PKC alone is not sufficient to account for the actions of UCN-01 and are led to the hypothesis that inappropriate cdk activation either correlates with or actually mediates cell growth inhibition with apoptosis in T lymphoblasts exposed to UCN-01.

  19. Hierarchy of S-Phase-Promoting Factors: Yeast Dbf4-Cdc7 Kinase Requires Prior S-Phase Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Nougarède, Romain; Della Seta, Flavio; Zarzov, Patrick; Schwob, Etienne

    2000-01-01

    In all eukaryotes, the initiation of DNA synthesis requires the formation of prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs) on replication origins, followed by their activation by two S-T protein kinases, an S-phase cyclin-dependent kinase (S-CDK) and a homologue of yeast Dbf4-Cdc7 kinase (Dbf4p-dependent kinase [DDK]). Here, we show that yeast DDK activity is cell cycle regulated, though less tightly than that of the S-CDK Clb5-Cdk1, and peaks during S phase in correlation with Dbf4p levels. Dbf4p is short-lived throughout the cell cycle, but its instability is accentuated during G1 by the anaphase-promoting complex. Downregulating DDK activity is physiologically important, as joint Cdc7p and Dbf4p overexpression is lethal. Because pre-RC formation is a highly ordered process, we asked whether S-CDK and DDK need also to function in a specific order for the firing of origins. We found that both kinases are activated independently, but we show that DDK can perform its function for DNA replication only after S-CDKs have been activated. Cdc45p, a protein needed for initiation, binds tightly to chromatin only after S-CDK activation (L. Zou and B. Stillman, Science 280:593–596, 1998). We show that Cdc45p is phosphorylated by DDK in vitro, suggesting that it might be one of DDK's critical substrates after S-CDK activation. Linking the origin-bound DDK to the tightly regulated S-CDK in a dependent sequence of events may ensure that DNA replication initiates only at the right time and place. PMID:10805723

  20. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1 by oxindolimine ligands and corresponding copper and zinc complexes.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Rodrigo Bernardi; Petersen, Philippe Alexandre Divina; Gonzales-Zubiate, Fernando A; Oliveira, Carla Columbano; Kumar, Naresh; do Nascimento, Rafael Rodrigues; Petrilli, Helena Maria; da Costa Ferreira, Ana Maria

    2015-10-01

    Oxindolimine-copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes that previously have shown to induce apoptosis, with DNA and mitochondria as main targets, exhibit here significant inhibition of kinase CDK1/cyclin B protein. Copper species are more active than the corresponding zinc, and the free ligand shows to be less active, indicating a major influence of coordination in the process, and a further modulation by the coordinated ligand. Molecular docking and classical molecular dynamics provide a better understanding of the effectiveness and kinase inhibition mechanism by these compounds, showing that the metal complex provides a stronger interaction than the free ligand with the ATP-binding site. The metal ion introduces charge in the oxindole species, giving it a more rigid conformation that then becomes more effective in its interactions with the protein active site. Analogous experiments resulted in no significant effect regarding phosphatase inhibition. These results can explain the cytotoxicity of these metal complexes towards different tumor cells, in addition to its capability of binding to DNA, and decreasing membrane potential of mitochondria.

  1. Palbociclib can overcome mutations in cyclin dependent kinase 6 that break hydrogen bonds between the drug and the protein

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez Maganhi, Stella; Jensen, Patrizia; Caracelli, Ignez; Zukerman Schpector, Julio; Fröhling, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Inhibition of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) 4 and 6 prevent cells from entering the synthesis phase of the cell cycle. CDK4 and 6 are therefore important drug targets in various cancers. The selective CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib is approved for the treatment of breast cancer and has shown activity in a cellular model of mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL)‐rearranged acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We studied the interactions of palbociclib and CDK6 using molecular dynamics simulations. Analysis of the simulations suggested several interactions that stabilized the drug in its binding site and that were not observed in the crystal structure of the protein‐drug complex. These included a hydrogen bond to His 100 that was hitherto not reported and several hydrophobic contacts. Evolutionary‐based bioinformatic analysis was used to suggest two mutants, D163G and H100L that would potentially yield drug resistance, as they lead to loss of important protein–drug interactions without hindering the viability of the protein. One of the mutants involved a change in the glycine of the well‐conserved DFG motif of the kinase. Interestingly, CDK6‐dependent human AML cells stably expressing either mutant retained sensitivity to palbociclib, indicating that the protein‐drug interactions are not affected by these. Furthermore, the cells were proliferative in the absence of palbociclib, indicating that the Asp to Gly mutation in the DFG motif did not interfere with the catalytic activity of the protein. PMID:28168755

  2. The emerging roles and therapeutic potential of cyclin-dependent kinase 11 (CDK11) in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yubing; Shen, Jacson K.; Hornicek, Francis J.; Kan, Quancheng; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression and/or hyperactivation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are common features of most cancer types. CDKs have been shown to play important roles in tumor cell proliferation and growth by controlling cell cycle, transcription, and RNA splicing. CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib has been recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of breast cancer. CDK11 is a serine/threonine protein kinase in the CDK family and recent studies have shown that CDK11 also plays critical roles in cancer cell growth and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic events may cause universal overexpression of CDK11 in human cancers. Inhibition of CDK11 has been shown to lead to cancer cell death and apoptosis. Significant evidence has suggested that CDK11 may be a novel and promising therapeutic target for the treatment of cancers. This review will focus on the emerging roles of CDK11 in human cancers, and provide a proof-of-principle for continued efforts toward targeting CDK11 for effective cancer treatment. PMID:27049727

  3. Regulation of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels and presynaptic function by cyclin-dependent kinase 5

    PubMed Central

    Su, Susan C.; Seo, Jinsoo; Pan, Jen Q.; Samuels, Benjamin Adam; Rudenko, Andrii; Ericsson, Maria; Neve, Rachael L.; Yue, David T.; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV2.2) localize to presynaptic nerve terminals and mediate key events including synaptogenesis and neurotransmission. While several kinases have been implicated in the modulation of calcium channels, their impact on presynaptic functions remains unclear. Here we report that the N-type calcium channel is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). The pore-forming α1 subunit of the N-type calcium channel is phosphorylated in the C-terminal domain, and phosphorylation results in enhanced calcium influx due to increased channel open probability. Phosphorylation of the N-type calcium channel by Cdk5 facilitates neurotransmitter release and alters presynaptic plasticity by increasing the number of docked vesicles at the synaptic cleft. These effects are mediated by an altered interaction between N-type calcium channels and RIM1, which tethers presynaptic calcium channels to the active zone. Collectively, our results highlight a molecular mechanism by which N-type calcium channels are regulated by Cdk5 to affect presynaptic functions. PMID:22920258

  4. Phosphorylation of TRPV1 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 promotes TRPV1 surface localization, leading to inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Du, Junxie; Yang, Yanrui; Wang, Yun

    2015-11-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is an important serine/threonine kinase that plays critical roles in many physiological processes. Recently, Cdk5 has been reported to phosphorylate TRPV1 at threonine 407 (Thr-407) in humans (Thr-406 in rats), which enhances the function of TRPV1 channel and promotes thermal hyperalgesia in the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain rats. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Cdk5 phosphorylates TRPV1 at Threonine 406 and promotes the surface localization of TRPV1, leading to inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia. The mutation of Thr-406 of TRPV1 to alanine reduced the interaction of TRPV1 with the cytoskeletal elements and decreased the binding of TRPV1 with the motor protein KIF13B, which led to reduced surface distribution of TRPV1. Disrupting the phosphorylation of TRPV1 at Thr-406 dramatically reduced the surface level of TRPV1 in HEK 293 cells after transient expression and the channel function in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Notably, intrathecal administration of the interfering peptide against the phosphorylation of Thr-406 alleviated heat hyperalgesia and reduced the surface level of TRPV1 in inflammatory pain rats. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of TRPV1 at Thr-406 increases the surface level and the function of TRPV1, while the TAT-T406 peptide can effectively attenuate thermal hyperalgesia. Our studies provide a potential therapy for inflammatory pain.

  5. Expression of a TGF-{beta} regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in normal and immortalized airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, L.A.; Bloomfield, C.; Johnson, N.F.

    1995-12-01

    Tumors arising from epithelial cells, including lung cancers are frequently resistant to factors that regulate growth and differentiation in normal in normal cells. Once such factor is transforming growth factor-{Beta} (TGF-{Beta}). Escape from the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-{Beta} is thought to be a key step in the transformation of airway epithelial cells. most lung cancer cell lines require serum for growth. In contrast, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells are exquisitely sensitive to growth-inhibitory and differentiating effects of TGF-{Beta}. The recent identification of a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p15{sup INK4B}, which is regulated by TGF-{Beta}, suggests a mechanism by which TGF-{Beta} mediates growth arrest in NHBE cells. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to determine if p15{sup INK4B} is induced by TGF-{Beta} in NHBE cells or immortalized bronchial epithelial (R.1) cells and if that induction corresponds to a G1/S cell-cycle arrest; (2) to determine the temporal relationship between p15{sup INK4B} induction, cell-cycle arrest, and the phosphorylation state of the pRB because it is thought that p15{sup INK4B} acts indirectly by preventing phosphorylation of the RB gene product. In this study, expression of p15{sup INK4B} was examined in NHBE cells and R.1 cells at different time intervals following TGF-{Beta} treatment. The expression of this kinase inhibitor and its relationship to the cell and the pRb phosphorylation state were examined in cells that were both sensitive (NHBE) and resistant (R.1) to the effects of TGF-{Beta}. These results suggest that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p15{sup INK4B}, is involved in airway epithelial cell differentiation and that loss or reduction of expression plays a role in the resistance of transformed or neoplastic cells to the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-{Beta}.

  6. Phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) at Tyr-15 is inhibited by Cdk5 activators and does not contribute to the activation of Cdk5.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Saito, Taro; Sato, Ko; Furusawa, Kotaro; Hosokawa, Tomohisa; Tsutsumi, Koji; Asada, Akiko; Kamada, Shinji; Ohshima, Toshio; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi

    2014-07-11

    Cdk5 is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) family. In contrast to other Cdks that promote cell proliferation, Cdk5 plays a role in regulating various neuronal functions, including neuronal migration, synaptic activity, and neuron death. Cdks responsible for cell proliferation need phosphorylation in the activation loop for activation in addition to binding a regulatory subunit cyclin. Cdk5, however, is activated only by binding to its activator, p35 or p39. Furthermore, in contrast to Cdk1 and Cdk2, which are inhibited by phosphorylation at Tyr-15, the kinase activity of Cdk5 is reported to be stimulated when phosphorylated at Tyr-15 by Src family kinases or receptor-type tyrosine kinases. We investigated the activation mechanism of Cdk5 by phosphorylation at Tyr-15. Unexpectedly, however, it was found that Tyr-15 phosphorylation occurred only on monomeric Cdk5, and the coexpression of activators, p35/p25, p39, or Cyclin I, inhibited the phosphorylation. In neuron cultures, too, the activation of Fyn tyrosine kinase did not increase Tyr-15 phosphorylation of Cdk5. Further, phospho-Cdk5 at Tyr-15 was not detected in the p35-bound Cdk5. In contrast, expression of active Fyn increased p35 in neurons. These results indicate that phosphorylation at Tyr-15 is not an activation mechanism of Cdk5 but, rather, indicate that tyrosine kinases could activate Cdk5 by increasing the protein amount of p35. These results call for reinvestigation of how Cdk5 is regulated downstream of Src family kinases or receptor tyrosine kinases in neurons, which is an important signaling cascade in a variety of neuronal activities.

  7. FGF inhibits the activity of the cyclin B1/CDK1 kinase to induce a transient G₂arrest in RCS chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tri; Kolupaeva, Victoria; Basilico, Claudio

    2010-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) negatively regulate long bone development by inhibiting the proliferation of chondrocytes that accumulate in the G₁ phase of the cycle following FGF treatment. Here we report that FGF also causes a striking but transient delay in mitotic entry in RCS chondrocytes by inactivating the cyclin B1-associated CDK1(CDC2) kinase. As a consequence of this inactivation, cells accumulate in the G₂ phase of the cycle for the first 4-6 hours of the treatment. Cyclin B1/CDK1 activity is then restored and cells reach a G₁ arrest. The reduced cyclin B1/CDK1 activity was accompanied by increased CDK1 inhibitory phosphorylation, likely caused by increased activity and expression of the Myt1 kinase. FGF1 also caused dephosphorylation of the CDC25C phosphatase, that however appears due the inactivation of cyclin B1/CDK1 complex in the CDK1 feedback loop, and not the activation of specific phosphatases. the inactivation of the cyclin B1/CDK1 complex is a direct effect of FGF signaling, and not a consequence of the G₂ arrest as it can be observed also in cells blocked at mitosis by Nocodazole. The Chk1 and AtM/ATR kinase are known to play essential roles in the G₂ checkpoint induced by DNA damage/genotoxic stress, but inhibition of Chk1 or ATM/ATR not only did not prevent, but rather potentiated the FGF-induced G₂ arrest. Additionally our results indicate that the transient G₂ arrest is induced by FGF in RCS cell through mechanisms that are independent of the G₁ arrest, and that the G₂ block is not strictly required for the sustained G₁ arrest but may provide a pausing mechanism that allows the FGF response to be fully established.

  8. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 and cyclin D1 compose a positive feedback loop contributing to tumor growth in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Hayato; Sakamoto, Kei; Hikiba, Yohko; Kinoshita, Hiroto; Nakata, Wachiko; Takahashi, Ryota; Tateishi, Keisuke; Tada, Motohisa; Akanuma, Masao; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Takeda, Kohsuke; Ichijo, Hidenori; Omata, Masao; Maeda, Shin; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate multiple cellular functions and are highly active in many types of human cancers. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is an upstream MAPK involved in apoptosis, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. This study investigated the role of ASK1 in the development of gastric cancer. In human gastric cancer specimens, we observed increased ASK1 expression, compared to nontumor epithelium. Using a chemically induced murine gastric tumorigenesis model, we observed increased tumor ASK1 expression, and ASK1 knockout mice had both fewer and smaller tumors than wild-type (WT) mice. ASK1 siRNA inhibited cell proliferation through the accumulation of cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle, and reduced cyclin D1 expression in gastric cancer cells, whereas these effects were uncommon in other cancer cells. ASK1 overexpression induced the transcription of cyclin D1, through AP-1 activation, and ASK1 levels were regulated by cyclin D1, via the Rb–E2F pathway. Exogenous ASK1 induced cyclin D1 expression, followed by elevated expression of endogenous ASK1. These results indicate an autoregulatory mechanism of ASK1 in the development of gastric cancer. Targeting this positive feedback loop, ASK1 may present a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer. PMID:21187402

  9. Development and Use of Novel Tools to Directly Screen for Substrates of Cyclin Dependent Kinases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Cold Spring Harbor , New York 11724 REPORT DATE...Kinases 5. FUNDING NUMBERS DAMD17-97-1-7316 6. AUTHOR(S) Gavin J. Sherlock, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory... Cold Spring Harbor , New York 11724 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  10. Impact of meriolins, a new class of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, on malignant glioma proliferation and neo-angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jarry, Marie; Lecointre, Céline; Malleval, Céline; Desrues, Laurence; Schouft, Marie-Thérèse; Lejoncour, Vadim; Liger, François; Lyvinec, Gildas; Joseph, Benoît; Loaëc, Nadège; Meijer, Laurent; Honnorat, Jérôme; Gandolfo, Pierrick; Castel, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Background Glioblastomas are the most frequent and most aggressive primary brain tumors in adults. The median overall survival is limited to a few months despite surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. It is now clearly established that hyperactivity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is one of the processes underlying hyperproliferation and tumoral growth. The marine natural products meridianins and variolins, characterized as CDK inhibitors, display a kinase-inhibitory activity associated with cytotoxic effects. In order to improve selectivity and efficiency of these CDK inhibitors, a series of hybrid compounds called meriolins have been synthesized. Methods The potential antitumoral activity of meriolins was investigated in vitro on glioma cell lines (SW1088 and U87), native neural cells, and a human endothelial cell line (HUV-EC-C). The impact of intraperitoneal or intratumoral administrations of meriolin 15 was evaluated in vivo on 2 different nude mice-xenografted glioma models. Results Meriolins 3, 5, and 15 exhibited antiproliferative properties with nanomolar IC50 and induced cell-cycle arrest and CDK inhibition associated with apoptotic events in human glioma cell lines. These meriolins blocked the proliferation rate of HUV-EC-C through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In vivo, meriolin 15 provoked a robust reduction in tumor volume in spite of toxicity for highest doses, associated with inhibition of cell division, activation of caspase 3, reduction of CD133 cells, and modifications of the vascular architecture. Conclusion Meriolins, and meriolin 15 in particular, exhibit antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities on both glioma and intratumoral endothelial cells, constituting key promising therapeutic lead compounds for the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:24891448

  11. Characterization of molecular and cellular functions of the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK9 using a novel specific inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Albert, T K; Rigault, C; Eickhoff, J; Baumgart, K; Antrecht, C; Klebl, B; Mittler, G; Meisterernst, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The cyclin-dependent kinase CDK9 is an important therapeutic target but currently available inhibitors exhibit low specificity and/or narrow therapeutic windows. Here we have used a new highly specific CDK9 inhibitor, LDC000067 to interrogate gene control mechanisms mediated by CDK9. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The selectivity of LDC000067 was established in functional kinase assays. Functions of CDK9 in gene expression were assessed with in vitro transcription experiments, single gene analyses and genome-wide expression profiling. Cultures of mouse embryonic stem cells, HeLa cells, several cancer cell lines, along with cells from patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia were also used to investigate cellular responses to LDC000067. KEY RESULTS The selectivity of LDC000067 for CDK9 over other CDKs exceeded that of the known inhibitors flavopiridol and DRB. LDC000067 inhibited in vitro transcription in an ATP-competitive and dose-dependent manner. Gene expression profiling of cells treated with LDC000067 demonstrated a selective reduction of short-lived mRNAs, including important regulators of proliferation and apoptosis. Analysis of de novo RNA synthesis suggested a wide ranging positive role of CDK9. At the molecular and cellular level, LDC000067 reproduced effects characteristic of CDK9 inhibition such as enhanced pausing of RNA polymerase II on genes and, most importantly, induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our study provides a framework for the mechanistic understanding of cellular responses to CDK9 inhibition. LDC000067 represents a promising lead for the development of clinically useful, highly specific CDK9 inhibitors. PMID:24102143

  12. B1-Type Cyclin-Dependent Kinases Are Essential for the Formation of Stomatal Complexes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Boudolf, Véronique; Barrôco, Rosa; Engler, Janice de Almeida; Verkest, Aurine; Beeckman, Tom; Naudts, Mirande; Inzé, Dirk; De Veylder, Lieven

    2004-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulators of the cell cycle. In yeasts, only one CDK is sufficient to drive cells through the cell cycle, whereas higher eukaryotes developed a family of related CDKs. Curiously, plants contain a unique class of CDKs (B-type CDKs), whose function is still unclear. We show that the CDKB1;1 gene of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is highly expressed in guard cells and stomatal precursor cells of cotyledons, suggesting a prominent role for B-type CDKs in stomatal development. In accordance, transgenic Arabidopsis plants with reduced B-type CDK activity had a decreased stomatal index because of an early block of meristemoid division and inhibition of satellite meristemoid formation. Many aberrant stomatal cells were observed, all of them blocked in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Although division of stomatal precursors was inhibited, cells still acquired stomatal identity, illustrating that stomatal cell differentiation is independent of cellular and nuclear division. PMID:15031414

  13. A Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor, Dinaciclib, Impairs Homologous Recombination and Sensitizes Multiple Myeloma Cells to PARP Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Alagpulinsa, David A; Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Yaccoby, Shmuel; Shmookler Reis, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    PARP1/2 are required for single-strand break repair, and their inhibition causes DNA replication fork collapse and double-strand break (DSB) formation. These DSBs are primarily repaired via homologous recombination (HR), a high-fidelity repair pathway. Should HR be deficient, DSBs may be repaired via error-prone nonhomologous end-joining mechanisms, or may persist, ultimately resulting in cell death. The combined disruption of PARP and HR activities thus produces synthetic lethality. Multiple myeloma cells are characterized by chromosomal instability and pervasive DNA damage, implicating aberrant DNA repair. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), upstream modulators of HR, are dysregulated in multiple myeloma. Here, we show that a CDK inhibitor, dinaciclib, impairs HR repair and sensitizes multiple myeloma cells to the PARP1/2 inhibitor ABT-888. Dinaciclib abolishes ABT-888-induced BRCA1 and RAD51 foci and potentiates DNA damage, indicated by increased γH2AX foci. Dinaciclib treatment reduces expression of HR repair genes, including Rad51, and blocks BRCA1 phosphorylation, a modification required for HR repair, thus inhibiting HR repair of chromosome DSBs. Cotreatment with dinaciclib and ABT-888 in vitro resulted in synthetic lethality of multiple myeloma cells, but not normal CD19(+) B cells, and slowed growth of multiple myeloma xenografts in SCID mice almost two-fold. These findings support combining dinaciclib with PARP inhibitors for multiple myeloma therapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(2); 241-50. ©2015 AACR.

  14. Oncogenic signals of HER-2/neu in regulating the stability of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27.

    PubMed

    Yang, H Y; Zhou, B P; Hung, M C; Lee, M H

    2000-08-11

    Overexpression and activation of HER-2/neu, a proto-oncogene, play a pivotal role in cancer formation. Strong expression of HER-2/neu in cancers has been associated with poor prognosis. Reduced expression of p27(Kip1), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, correlates with poor clinical outcome in many types of carcinomas. Because many cancers with the overexpression of HER-2/neu overlap with those affected by reduced p27 expression, we studied the link between HER-2/neu oncogenic signals and p27 regulation. We found that down-regulation of p27 correlates with HER-2/neu overexpression. To address the molecular mechanism of this inverse correlation, we found that reduction of p27 is caused by enhanced ubiquitin-mediated degradation, and the HER-2/Grb2/MAPK pathway is involved in the decrease of p27 stability. Also, HER-2/neu activity causes mislocation of p27 and Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1), an exporter of p27, into the cytoplasm, thereby facilitating p27 degradation. These results reveal that HER-2/neu signals reduce p27 stability and thus present potential points for therapeutic intervention in HER-2/neu-associated cancers.

  15. Mammalian cells cycle without the D-type cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk4 and Cdk6.

    PubMed

    Malumbres, Marcos; Sotillo, Rocío; Santamaría, David; Galán, Javier; Cerezo, Ana; Ortega, Sagrario; Dubus, Pierre; Barbacid, Mariano

    2004-08-20

    Cdk4 and Cdk6 are thought to be essential for initiation of the cell cycle in response to mitogenic stimuli. Previous studies have shown that Cdk4 is dispensable for proliferation in most cell types, an observation attributed to a putative compensatory role by Cdk6. Cdk6-null mice are viable and develop normally although hematopoiesis is slightly impaired. Embryos defective for Cdk4 and Cdk6 die during the late stages of embryonic development due to severe anemia. However, these embryos display normal organogenesis and most cell types proliferate normally. In vitro, embryonic fibroblasts lacking Cdk4 and Cdk6 proliferate and become immortal upon serial passage. Moreover, quiescent Cdk4/Cdk6-null cells respond to serum stimulation and enter S phase with normal kinetics although with lower efficiency. These results indicate that D-type cyclin-dependent kinases are not essential for cell cycle entry and suggest the existence of alternative mechanisms to initiate cell proliferation upon mitogenic stimulation.

  16. A new class of cyclin dependent kinase in Chlamydomonas is required for coupling cell size to cell division

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yubing; Liu, Dianyi; López-Paz, Cristina; Olson, Bradley JSC; Umen, James G

    2016-01-01

    Proliferating cells actively control their size by mechanisms that are poorly understood. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii divides by multiple fission, wherein a ‘counting’ mechanism couples mother cell-size to cell division number allowing production of uniform-sized daughters. We identified a sizer protein, CDKG1, that acts through the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway as a D-cyclin-dependent RB kinase to regulate mitotic counting. Loss of CDKG1 leads to fewer mitotic divisions and large daughters, while mis-expression of CDKG1 causes supernumerous mitotic divisions and small daughters. The concentration of nuclear-localized CDKG1 in pre-mitotic cells is set by mother cell size, and its progressive dilution and degradation with each round of cell division may provide a link between mother cell-size and mitotic division number. Cell-size-dependent accumulation of limiting cell cycle regulators such as CDKG1 is a potentially general mechanism for size control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10767.001 PMID:27015111

  17. Aurora kinase A is not involved in CPEB1 phosphorylation and cyclin B1 mRNA polyadenylation during meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Komrskova, Pavla; Susor, Andrej; Malik, Radek; Prochazkova, Barbora; Liskova, Lucie; Supolikova, Jaroslava; Hladky, Stepan; Kubelka, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of mRNA translation by cytoplasmic polyadenylation is known to be important for oocyte maturation and further development. This process is generally controlled by phosphorylation of cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1). The aim of this study is to determine the role of Aurora kinase A in CPEB1 phosphorylation and the consequent CPEB1-dependent polyadenylation of maternal mRNAs during mammalian oocyte meiosis. For this purpose, we specifically inhibited Aurora kinase A with MLN8237 during meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes. Using poly(A)-test PCR method, we monitored the effect of Aurora kinase A inhibition on poly(A)-tail extension of long and short cyclin B1 encoding mRNAs as markers of CPEB1-dependent cytoplasmic polyadenylation. Our results show that inhibition of Aurora kinase A activity impairs neither cyclin B1 mRNA polyadenylation nor its translation and that Aurora kinase A is unlikely to be involved in CPEB1 activating phosphorylation.

  18. Cyclin A2-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 cooperates with the PLK1-SCFbeta-TrCP1-EMI1-anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome axis to promote genome reduplication in the absence of mitosis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hoi Tang; Tsang, Yiu Huen; Marxer, Miriam; Poon, Randy Y C

    2009-12-01

    Limiting genome replication to once per cell cycle is vital for maintaining genome stability. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) with the specific inhibitor RO3306 is sufficient to trigger multiple rounds of genome reduplication. We demonstrated that although anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) remained inactive during the initial G(2) arrest, it was activated upon prolonged inhibition of CDK1. Using cellular biosensors and live-cell imaging, we provide direct evidence that genome reduplication was associated with oscillation of APC/C activity and nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of CDC6 even in the absence of mitosis at the single-cell level. Genome reduplication was abolished by ectopic expression of EMI1 or depletion of CDC20 or CDH1, suggesting the critical role of the EMI1-APC/C axis. In support of this, degradation of EMI1 itself and genome reduplication were delayed after downregulation of PLK1 and beta-TrCP1. In the absence of CDK1 activity, activation of APC/C and genome reduplication was dependent on cyclin A2 and CDK2. Genome reduplication was then promoted by a combination of APC/C-dependent destruction of geminin (thus releasing CDT1), accumulation of cyclin E2-CDK2, and CDC6. Collectively, these results underscore the crucial role of cyclin A2-CDK2 in regulating the PLK1-SCF(beta-TrCP1)-EMI1-APC/C axis and CDC6 to trigger genome reduplication after the activity of CDK1 is suppressed.

  19. Novel mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene in Indian cases of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Das, Dhanjit Kumar; Mehta, Bhakti; Menon, Shyla R; Raha, Sarbani; Udani, Vrajesh

    2013-03-01

    Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, almost exclusively affecting females and characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Both the classic and atypical forms of Rett syndrome are primarily due to mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Mutations in the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene have been identified in patients with atypical Rett syndrome, X-linked infantile spasms sharing common features of generally early-onset seizures and mental retardation. CDKL5 is known as serine/threonine protein kinase 9 (STK9) and is mapped to the Xp22 region. It has a conserved serine/threonine kinase domain within its amino terminus and a large C-terminal region. Disease-causing mutations are distributed in both the amino terminal domain and in the large C-terminal domain. We have screened the CDKL5 gene in 44 patients with atypical Rett syndrome who had tested negative for MECP2 gene mutations and have identified 6 sequence variants, out of which three were novel and three known mutations. Two of these novel mutations p.V966I and p.A1011V were missense and p.H589H a silent mutation. Other known mutations identified were p.V999M, p.Q791P and p.T734A. Sequence homology for all the mutations revealed that the two mutations (p.Q791P and p.T734A) were conserved across species. This indicated the importance of these residues in structure and function of the protein. The damaging effects of these mutations were analysed in silico using PolyPhen-2 online software. The PolyPhen-2 scores of p.Q791P and p.T734A were 0.998 and 0.48, revealing that these mutations could be deleterious and might have potential functional effect. All other mutations had a low score suggesting that they might not alter the activity of CDKL5. We have also analysed the position of the mutations in the CDKL5 protein and found that all the mutations were present in the C-terminal domain of the protein. The C-terminal domain is required for

  20. Cyclin Partners Determine Pho85 Protein Kinase Substrate Specificity In Vitro and In Vivo: Control of Glycogen Biosynthesis by Pcl8 and Pcl10

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dongqing; Moffat, Jason; Wilson, Wayne A.; Moore, Lynda; Cheng, Christine; Roach, Peter J.; Andrews, Brenda

    1998-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PHO85 encodes a cyclin-dependent protein kinase (Cdk) with multiple roles in cell cycle and metabolic controls. In association with the cyclin Pho80, Pho85 controls acid phosphatase gene expression through phosphorylation of the transcription factor Pho4. Pho85 has also been implicated as a kinase that phosphorylates and negatively regulates glycogen synthase (Gsy2), and deletion of PHO85 causes glycogen overaccumulation. We report that the Pcl8/Pcl10 subgroup of cyclins directs Pho85 to phosphorylate glycogen synthase both in vivo and in vitro. Disruption of PCL8 and PCL10 caused hyperaccumulation of glycogen, activation of glycogen synthase, and a reduction in glycogen synthase kinase activity in vivo. However, unlike pho85 mutants, pcl8 pcl10 cells had normal morphologies, grew on glycerol, and showed proper regulation of acid phosphatase gene expression. In vitro, Pho80-Pho85 complexes effectively phosphorylated Pho4 but had much lower activity toward Gsy2. In contrast, Pcl10-Pho85 complexes phosphorylated Gsy2 at Ser-654 and Thr-667, two physiologically relevant sites, but only poorly phosphorylated Pho4. Thus, both the in vitro and in vivo substrate specificity of Pho85 is determined by the cyclin partner. Mutation of PHO85 suppressed the glycogen storage deficiency of snf1 or glc7-1 mutants in which glycogen synthase is locked in an inactive state. Deletion of PCL8 and PCL10 corrected the deficit in glycogen synthase activity in both the snf1 and glc7-1 mutants, but glycogen synthesis was restored only in the glc7-1 mutant strain. This genetic result suggests an additional role for Pho85 in the negative regulation of glycogen accumulation that is independent of Pcl8 and Pcl10. PMID:9584169

  1. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase CRK9, Required for Spliced Leader trans Splicing of Pre-mRNA in Trypanosomes, Functions in a Complex with a New L-Type Cyclin and a Kinetoplastid-Specific Protein.

    PubMed

    Badjatia, Nitika; Park, Sung Hee; Ambrósio, Daniela L; Kirkham, Justin K; Günzl, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In eukaryotes, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) control the cell cycle and critical steps in gene expression. The lethal parasite Trypanosoma brucei, member of the phylogenetic order Kinetoplastida, possesses eleven CDKs which, due to high sequence divergence, were generically termed CDC2-related kinases (CRKs). While several CRKs have been implied in the cell cycle, CRK9 was the first trypanosome CDK shown to control the unusual mode of gene expression found in kinetoplastids. In these organisms, protein-coding genes are arranged in tandem arrays which are transcribed polycistronically. Individual mRNAs are processed from precursor RNA by spliced leader (SL) trans splicing and polyadenylation. CRK9 ablation was lethal in cultured trypanosomes, causing a block of trans splicing before the first transesterification step. Additionally, CRK9 silencing led to dephosphorylation of RNA polymerase II and to hypomethylation of the SL cap structure. Here, we tandem affinity-purified CRK9 and, among potential CRK9 substrates and modifying enzymes, discovered an unusual tripartite complex comprising CRK9, a new L-type cyclin (CYC12) and a protein, termed CRK9-associated protein (CRK9AP), that is only conserved among kinetoplastids. Silencing of either CYC12 or CRK9AP reproduced the effects of depleting CRK9, identifying these proteins as functional partners of CRK9 in vivo. While mammalian cyclin L binds to CDK11, the CRK9 complex deviates substantially from that of CDK11, requiring CRK9AP for efficient CRK9 complex formation and autophosphorylation in vitro. Interference with this unusual CDK rescued mice from lethal trypanosome infections, validating CRK9 as a potential chemotherapeutic target.

  2. Structure-based discovery of the first allosteric inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Rastelli, Giulio; Anighoro, Andrew; Chripkova, Martina; Carrassa, Laura; Broggini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Allosteric targeting of protein kinases via displacement of the structural αC helix with type III allosteric inhibitors is currently gaining a foothold in drug discovery. Recently, the first crystal structure of CDK2 with an open allosteric pocket adjacent to the αC helix has been described, prospecting new opportunities to design more selective inhibitors, but the structure has not yet been exploited for the structure-based design of type III allosteric inhibitors. In this work we report the results of a virtual screening campaign that resulted in the discovery of the first-in-class type III allosteric ligands of CDK2. Using a combination of docking and post-docking analyses made with our tool BEAR, 7 allosteric ligands (hit rate of 20%) with micromolar affinity for CDK2 were identified, some of them inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cell lines in the micromolar range. Competition experiments performed in the presence of the ATP-competitive inhibitor staurosporine confirmed that the 7 ligands are truly allosteric, in agreement with their design. Of these, compound 2 bound CDK2 with an EC50 value of 3 μM and inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB231 and ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells with IC50 values of approximately 20 μM, while compound 4 had an EC50 value of 71 μM and IC50 values around 4 μM. Remarkably, the most potent compound 4 was able to selectively inhibit CDK2-mediated Retinoblastoma phosphorylation, confirming that its mechanism of action is fully compatible with a selective inhibition of CDK2 phosphorylation in cells. Finally, hit expansion through analog search of the most potent inhibitor 4 revealed an additional ligand 4g with similar in vitro potency on breast cancer cells.

  3. Regulation of the activation of the Fanconi anemia pathway by the p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Rego, M A; Harney, J A; Mauro, M; Shen, M; Howlett, N G

    2012-01-19

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare disease characterized by congenital defects, progressive bone marrow failure and heightened cancer susceptibility. The FA proteins, BRCA1 and FANCD1/BRCA2 function cooperatively in the FA-BRCA pathway to repair damaged DNA. Activation of the FA-BRCA pathway occurs via the monoubiquitination of the FANCD2 and FANCI proteins, targeting these proteins to discrete nuclear foci where they function in DNA repair. The cellular regulation of FANCD2/I monoubiquitination, however, remains poorly understood. In this study, we have examined the roles of the p53 tumor suppressor protein, as well as its downstream target, the p21(Cip1/Waf1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, in the regulation of the activation of the FA-BRCA pathway. We demonstrate that, in contrast to p53, p21 has a major role in the regulation of the activation of the FA-BRCA pathway: p21 promotes S-phase and DNA damage-inducible FANCD2/I monoubiquitination and nuclear foci formation. Several lines of evidence establish that this effect is not a consequence of a defective G1-S checkpoint or altered cell-cycle progression in the absence of p21. Instead, we demonstrate that p21 is required for the transcriptional repression of the USP1 deubiquitinating enzyme upon exposure to DNA-damaging agents. In the absence of p21, persistent USP1 expression precludes the DNA damage-inducible accumulation of monoubiquitinated FANCD2 and FANCI. Consequently, p21(-/-) cells exhibit increased levels of mitomycin C-inducible complex chromosomal aberrations and elevated γH2AX nuclear foci formation. Our results demonstrate that p21 has a critical role in the regulation of the activation of the FA-BRCA pathway and suggest a broader role for p21 in the orchestration of DNA repair processes following exposure to DNA crosslinking agents.

  4. Regulation of the histone deacetylase Hst3 by cyclin-dependent kinases and the ubiquitin ligase SCFCdc4.

    PubMed

    Delgoshaie, Neda; Tang, Xiaojing; Kanshin, Evgeny D; Williams, Elizabeth C; Rudner, Adam D; Thibault, Pierre; Tyers, Mike; Verreault, Alain

    2014-05-09

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac) is a modification of new H3 molecules deposited throughout the genome during S-phase. H3K56ac is removed by the sirtuins Hst3 and Hst4 at later stages of the cell cycle. Previous studies indicated that regulated degradation of Hst3 plays an important role in the genome-wide waves of H3K56 acetylation and deacetylation that occur during each cell cycle. However, little is known regarding the mechanism of cell cycle-regulated Hst3 degradation. Here, we demonstrate that Hst3 instability in vivo is dependent upon the ubiquitin ligase SCF(Cdc4) and that Hst3 is phosphorylated at two Cdk1 sites, threonine 380 and threonine 384. This creates a diphosphorylated degron that is necessary for Hst3 polyubiquitylation by SCF(Cdc4). Mutation of the Hst3 diphospho-degron does not completely stabilize Hst3 in vivo, but it nonetheless results in a significant fitness defect that is particularly severe in mutant cells treated with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate. Unexpectedly, we show that Hst3 can be degraded between G2 and anaphase, a window of the cell cycle where Hst3 normally mediates genome-wide deacetylation of H3K56. Our results suggest an intricate coordination between Hst3 synthesis, genome-wide H3K56 deacetylation by Hst3, and cell cycle-regulated degradation of Hst3 by cyclin-dependent kinases and SCF(Cdc4).

  5. Regulation of the Histone Deacetylase Hst3 by Cyclin-dependent Kinases and the Ubiquitin Ligase SCFCdc4*

    PubMed Central

    Delgoshaie, Neda; Tang, Xiaojing; Kanshin, Evgeny D.; Williams, Elizabeth C.; Rudner, Adam D.; Thibault, Pierre; Tyers, Mike; Verreault, Alain

    2014-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac) is a modification of new H3 molecules deposited throughout the genome during S-phase. H3K56ac is removed by the sirtuins Hst3 and Hst4 at later stages of the cell cycle. Previous studies indicated that regulated degradation of Hst3 plays an important role in the genome-wide waves of H3K56 acetylation and deacetylation that occur during each cell cycle. However, little is known regarding the mechanism of cell cycle-regulated Hst3 degradation. Here, we demonstrate that Hst3 instability in vivo is dependent upon the ubiquitin ligase SCFCdc4 and that Hst3 is phosphorylated at two Cdk1 sites, threonine 380 and threonine 384. This creates a diphosphorylated degron that is necessary for Hst3 polyubiquitylation by SCFCdc4. Mutation of the Hst3 diphospho-degron does not completely stabilize Hst3 in vivo, but it nonetheless results in a significant fitness defect that is particularly severe in mutant cells treated with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate. Unexpectedly, we show that Hst3 can be degraded between G2 and anaphase, a window of the cell cycle where Hst3 normally mediates genome-wide deacetylation of H3K56. Our results suggest an intricate coordination between Hst3 synthesis, genome-wide H3K56 deacetylation by Hst3, and cell cycle-regulated degradation of Hst3 by cyclin-dependent kinases and SCFCdc4. PMID:24648511

  6. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activity is required for allogeneic T-cell responses after hematopoietic cell transplantation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Tej K.; Eid, Saada; Ganguly, Sudipto; Tyler, Megan; Huang, Alex Y.; Letterio, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular intermediates in T-cell activation pathways are crucial targets for the therapy and prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We recently identified an essential role for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in T-cell activation and effector function, but the contribution of Cdk5 activity to the development of GVHD has not been explored. Using an established, preclinical, murine, GVHD model, we reveal that Cdk5 activity is increased in key target organs early after allo-HCT. We then generated chimeric mice (Cdk5+/+C or Cdk5−/−C) using hematopoietic progenitors from either embryonic day 16.5 Cdk5+/+ or Cdk5−/− embryos to enable analyses of the role of Cdk5 in GVHD, as germ line Cdk5 gene deletion is embryonically lethal. The immunophenotype of adult Cdk5−/−C mice is identical to control Cdk5+/+C mice. However, transplantation of donor Cdk5−/−C bone marrow and T cells dramatically reduced the severity of systemic and target organ GVHD. This phenotype is attributed to decreased T-cell migration to secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), reduced in vivo proliferation within these organs, and fewer cytokine-producing donor T cells during GVHD development. Moreover, these defects in Cdk5−/− T-cell function are associated with altered CCR7 signaling following ligation by CCL19, a receptor:ligand interaction critical for T-cell migration into SLOs. Although Cdk5 activity in donor T cells contributed to graft-versus-tumor effects, pharmacologic inhibition of Cdk5 preserved leukemia-free survival. Collectively, our data implicate Cdk5 in allogeneic T-cell responses after HCT and as an important new target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:28064242

  7. Non-Aggregating Tau Phosphorylation by Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Contributes to Motor Neuron Degeneration in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nimrod; Feng, Zhihua; Edens, Brittany M.; Yang, Ben; Shi, Han; Sze, Christie C.; Hong, Benjamin Taige; Su, Susan C.; Cantu, Jorge A.; Topczewski, Jacek; Crawford, Thomas O.; Ko, Chien-Ping; Sumner, Charlotte J.; Ma, Long

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading inherited cause of infant mortality, remain largely unknown. Many studies have established the importance of hyperphosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. However, tau phosphorylation in SMA pathogenesis has yet to be investigated. Here we show that tau phosphorylation on serine 202 (S202) and threonine 205 (T205) is increased significantly in SMA motor neurons using two SMA mouse models and human SMA patient spinal cord samples. Interestingly, phosphorylated tau does not form aggregates in motor neurons or neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), even at late stages of SMA disease, distinguishing it from other tauopathies. Hyperphosphorylation of tau on S202 and T205 is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in SMA disease condition, because tau phosphorylation at these sites is significantly reduced in Cdk5 knock-out mice; genetic knock-out of Cdk5 activating subunit p35 in an SMA mouse model also leads to reduced tau phosphorylation on S202 and T205 in the SMA;p35−/− compound mutant mice. In addition, expression of the phosphorylation-deficient tauS202A,T205A mutant alleviates motor neuron defects in a zebrafish SMA model in vivo and mouse motor neuron degeneration in culture, whereas expression of phosphorylation-mimetic tauS202E,T205E promotes motor neuron defects. More importantly, genetic knock-out of tau in SMA mice rescues synapse stripping on motor neurons, NMJ denervation, and motor neuron degeneration in vivo. Altogether, our findings suggest a novel mechanism for SMA pathogenesis in which hyperphosphorylation of non-aggregating tau by Cdk5 contributes to motor neuron degeneration. PMID:25878277

  8. Constitutive activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β correlates with better prognosis and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aberrant regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) has been implicated in several human cancers; however, it has not been reported in the gastric cancer tissues to date. The present study was performed to determine the expression status of active form of GSK-3β phosphorylated at Tyr216 (pGSK-3β) and its relationship with other tumor-associated proteins in human gastric cancers. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue array slides containing 281 human gastric carcinoma specimens. In addition, gastric cancer cells were cultured and treated with a GSK-3β inhibitor lithium chloride (LiCl) for immunoblot analysis. Results We found that pGSK-3β was expressed in 129 (46%) of 281 cases examined, and was higher in the early-stages of pathologic tumor-node-metastasis (P < 0.001). The expression of pGSK-3β inversely correlated with lymphatic invasion (P < 0.001) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001) and correlated with a longer patient survival (P < 0.001). In addition, pGSK-3β expression positively correlated with that of p16, p21, p27, p53, APC, PTEN, MGMT, SMAD4, or KAI1 (P < 0.05), but not with that of cyclin D1. This was confirmed by immunoblot analysis using SNU-668 gastric cancer cells treated with LiCl. Conclusions GSK-3β activation was frequently observed in early-stage gastric carcinoma and was significantly correlated with better prognosis. Thus, these findings suggest that GSK-3β activation is a useful prognostic marker for the early-stage gastric cancer. PMID:20704706

  9. Molecular cloning, expression pattern, and chromosomal localization of human CDKN2D/INK4d, an inhibitor of cyclin D-dependent kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Okuda, Tsukasa; Shurtleff, S.A.; Downing, J.R.

    1995-10-10

    Progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle is dependent on the activity of holoenzymes formed between D-type cyclins and their catalytic partners, the cyclin-dependent kinases cdk4 and cdk6. p16{sup INK4a} p15{sup INK4b}, and p18{sup INK4c}, a group of structurally related proteins, function as specific inhibitors of the cyclin D-dependent kinases and are likely to play physiologic roles as specific regulators of these kinases in vivo. A new member of the INK4 gene family, murine INK4d, has recently been identified. Here we report the isolation of human INK4d (gene symbol CDKN2D), which is 86 identical at the amino acid level to the murine clone and {approximately}44% identical to each of the other human INK4 family members. The INK4d gene is ubiquitously expressed as a single 1.4-kb mRNA with the highest levels detected in thymus, spleen, peripheral blood leukocytes, fetal liver, brain, and testes. The abundance of INK4d mRNA oscillates in a cell-cycle-dependent manner with expression lowest at mid G1 and maximal during S phase. Using a P1-phage genomic clone of INK4d for fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, the location of this gene was mapped to chromosome 19p13. No rearrangements or deletions of the INK4d gene were observed in Southern blot analysis of selected cases of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) containing a variant (1;19)(q23;p13) translocation that lacks rearrangement of either E2A or PBX1, or in ALL cases containing homozygous or hemizygous deletions of the related genes, INK4a and INK4b. 39 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Immortalization of Fetal Bovine Colon Epithelial Cells by Expression of Human Cyclin D1, Mutant Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4, and Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase: An In Vitro Model for Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Kengo; Kiyono, Tohru; Isogai, Emiko; Masuda, Mizuki; Narita, Moe; Okuno, Katsuya; Koyanagi, Yukako; Fukuda, Tomokazu

    2015-01-01

    Cattle are the economically important animals in human society. They are essential for the production of livestock products such as milk and meats. The production efficiency of livestock products is negatively impacted by infection with zoonotic pathogens. To prevent and control infectious diseases, it is important to understand the interaction between cattle tissue and pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we established an in vitro infection model of an immortalized bovine colon-derived epithelial cell line by transducing the cells with lentiviral vectors containing genes encoding cell cycle regulators cyclin D1, mutant cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). The established cell line showed continuous cell proliferation, expression of epithelial markers, and an intact karyotype, indicating that the cells maintained their original nature as colon-derived epithelium. Furthermore, we exposed the established cell line to two strains of Salmonella enterica and EHEC. Interestingly, S. Typhimurium showed higher affinity for the established cell line and invaded the cytoplasm than S. Enteritidis. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that gene expression of Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1), TLR 2 and TLR 3, whereas TLR 4, 5 and 6 were not detectable in established cells. Our established immortalized colon-derived epithelial cell should be a useful tool for studies evaluating the molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial infection. PMID:26624883

  11. TORC1 kinase and the S-phase cyclin Clb5 collaborate to promote mitotic spindle assembly and DNA replication in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Lieu T.; Wang’ondu, Ruth W.; Weng, Jessica B.; Wanjiku, Grace W.; Fong, Chi M.; Kile, Andrew C.; Koepp, Deanna M.; Hood-DeGrenier, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    The Target of Rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is a central regulator of eukaryotic cell growth that is inhibited by the drug rapamycin. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, translational defects associated with TORC1 inactivation inhibit cell cycle progression at an early stage in G1, but little is known about the possible roles for TORC1 later in the cell cycle. We investigated the rapamycin-hypersensitivity phenotype of cells lacking the S phase cyclin Clb5 (clb5Δ) as a basis for uncovering novel connections between TORC1 and the cell cycle regulatory machinery. Dosage suppression experiments suggested that the clb5Δ rapamycin hypersensitivity reflects a unique Clb5-associated cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) function that cannot be performed by mitotic cyclins and that also involves motor proteins, particularly the kinesin-like protein Kip3. Synchronized cell experiments revealed rapamycin-induced defects in pre-anaphase spindle assembly and S phase progression that were more severe in clb5Δ than in wild type cells but no apparent activation of Rad53-dependent checkpoint pathways. Some rapamycin-treated cells had aberrant spindle morphologies, but rapamycin did not cause gross defects in the microtubule cytoskeleton. We propose a model in which TORC1 and Clb5/CDK act coordinately to promote both spindle assembly via a pathway involving Kip3 and S phase progression. PMID:20697716

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of tetrahydro[1,4]diazepino[1,2-a]indol-1-ones as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Putey, Aurélien; Fournet, Guy; Lozach, Olivier; Perrin, Lionel; Meijer, Laurent; Joseph, Benoît

    2014-08-18

    New series of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro[1,4]diazepino[1,2-a]indol-1-ones and 3,4,5,10-tetrahydro-2H-diazepino[3,4-b]indol-1-ones have been synthesized through an iodolactonisation/lactone-to-lactam rearrangement sequence. These compounds were evaluated as potential protein kinase inhibitors (CDK1, CDK5 and GSK-3). 11-Iodo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro[1,4]diazepino[1,2-a]indol-1-one derivatives exhibited sub-micromolar inhibitory activity against cyclin-dependent kinases. Docking studies were realized to determine the binding mode of the inhibitors into the ATP binding domain of the CDK5 catalytic site. Our result highlighted two weak Van-der-Waals bonding interactions established between the iodine atom and both phenyl group of Phe 80 and ammonium end of Lys 33.

  13. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 represses Foxp3 gene expression and Treg development through specific phosphorylation of Stat3 at Serine 727

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Eric; Choi, Sung Hee; Pareek, Tej K.; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Letterio, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is known as a unique member of the cyclin-dependent family of serine/threonine kinases. Previously, we demonstrated Cdk5 to be an important regulator of T cell function and that disruption of Cdk5 expression ameliorates T cell mediated neuroinflammation. Here, we show a novel role of Cdk5 in the regulation of Foxp3 expression in murine CD4+ T cells. Our data indicate that disruption of Cdk5 activity in T cells abrogates the IL-6 suppression of Foxp3 expression. This effect is achieved through Cdk5 phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) specifically at Serine 727 in T cells, and we show this post-translational modification is required for proper Stat3 DNA binding to the Foxp3 gene on the enhancer II region. Taken together, our data point to an essential role for Cdk5 in the differentiation of T cells as it regulates Foxp3 gene expression through phosphorylation of Stat3. PMID:26198700

  14. Regulation of the Action of Early Mitotic Inhibitor 1 on the Anaphase-promoting Complex/Cyclosome by Cyclin-dependent Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Moshe, Yakir; Bar-On, Ortal; Ganoth, Dvora; Hershko, Avram

    2011-01-01

    Cell cycle regulation is characterized by alternating activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and of the ubiquitin ligase anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). During S-phase APC/C is inhibited by early mitotic inhibitor 1 (Emi1) to allow the accumulation of cyclins A and B and to prevent re-replication. Emi1 is degraded at prophase by a Plk1-dependent pathway. Recent studies in which the degradation pathway of Emi1 was disrupted have shown that APC/C is activated at mitotic entry despite stabilization of Emi1. These results suggested the possibility of additional mechanisms other than degradation of Emi1, which release APC/C from inhibition by Emi1 upon entry into mitosis. In this study we report one such mechanism, by which the ability of Emi1 to inhibit APC/C is negatively regulated by CDKs. We show that in Plk1-inhibited cells Emi1 is stabilized and phosphorylated, that Emi1 is phosphorylated by CDKs in mitotic but not S-phase cell extracts, and that Emi1 phosphorylation by mitotic cell extracts or purified CDKs markedly reduces the ability of Emi1 to bind and to inhibit APC/C. Finally, we show that the addition of extracts from S-phase cells to extracts from mitotic cells protects Emi1 from CDK-mediated inactivation. PMID:21454540

  15. Characterization of Human Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 12 (CDK12) and CDK13 Complexes in C-Terminal Domain Phosphorylation, Gene Transcription, and RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Kaiwei; Gao, Xin; Gilmore, Joshua M.; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Smith, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) and CDK12 have each been demonstrated to phosphorylate the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD) at serine 2 of the heptad repeat, both in vitro and in vivo. CDK9, as part of P-TEFb and the super elongation complex (SEC), is by far the best characterized of CDK9, CDK12, and CDK13. We employed both in vitro and in vivo assays to further investigate the molecular properties of CDK12 and its paralog CDK13. We isolated Flag-tagged CDK12 and CDK13 and found that they associate with numerous RNA processing factors. Although knockdown of CDK12, CDK13, or their cyclin partner CCNK did not affect the bulk CTD phosphorylation levels in HCT116 cells, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis revealed that CDK12 and CDK13 losses in HCT116 cells preferentially affect expression of DNA damage response and snoRNA genes, respectively. CDK12 and CDK13 depletion also leads to a loss of expression of RNA processing factors and to defects in RNA processing. These findings suggest that in addition to implementing CTD phosphorylation, CDK12 and CDK13 may affect RNA processing through direct physical interactions with RNA processing factors and by regulating their expression. PMID:25561469

  16. ATM/ATR-dependent Tyr15 phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases in response to hydroxyurea in Vicia faba root meristem cells.

    PubMed

    Winnicki, Konrad

    2013-10-01

    DNA damage or stalled replication forks activate cell cycle checkpoints. However, the regulation of metabolic pathways that are responsible for maintenance of genome integrity in plants is still largely unknown. Present research on Vicia faba root meristem cells indicates that inhibitory phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) at Tyr15 plays a prominent role during blockage of cell cycle in response to genotoxic stress. Phosphorylation of P-loop in Cdks takes place in ATM/ATR-dependent manner. Although, Tyr15 phosphorylation upon hydroxyurea (HU) treatment was found in most cells classified to G1 and S phase, interestingly, the number of phoshpo-Tyr15-positive cells decreases in G2 phase. Presented data confirm much similarity in regulation of Cdks functions under genotoxic stress between plants and animals; however, they may also substantiate evolutionarily developed differences especially in regulation of G2/M transition between these two kingdoms.

  17. A Cyclin Dependent Kinase Regulatory Subunit (CKS) Gene of Pigeonpea Imparts Abiotic Stress Tolerance and Regulates Plant Growth and Development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tamirisa, Srinath; Vudem, Dashavantha R; Khareedu, Venkateswara R

    2017-01-01

    Frequent climatic changes in conjunction with other extreme environmental factors are known to affect growth, development and productivity of diverse crop plants. Pigeonpea, a major grain legume of the semiarid tropics, endowed with an excellent deep-root system, is known as one of the important drought tolerant crop plants. Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) are core cell cycle regulators and play important role in different aspects of plant growth and development. The cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit gene (CKS) was isolated from the cDNA library of pigeonpea plants subjected to drought stress. Pigeonpea CKS (CcCKS) gene expression was detected in both the root and leaf tissues of pigeonpea and was upregulated by polyethylene glycol (PEG), mannitol, NaCl and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. The overexpression of CcCKS gene in Arabidopsis significantly enhanced tolerance of transgenics to drought and salt stresses as evidenced by different physiological parameters. Under stress conditions, transgenics showed higher biomass, decreased rate of water loss, decreased MDA levels, higher free proline contents, and glutathione levels. Moreover, under stress conditions transgenics exhibited lower stomatal conductance, lower transpiration, and higher photosynthetic rates. However, under normal conditions, CcCKS-transgenics displayed decreased plant growth rate, increased cell size and decreased stomatal number compared to those of wild-type plants. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that CcCKS could regulate the expression of both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent genes associated with abiotic stress tolerance as well as plant growth and development. As such, the CcCKS seems promising and might serve as a potential candidate gene for enhancing the abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants.

  18. Effect of positive feedback loops on the robustness of oscillations in the network of cyclin-dependent kinases driving the mammalian cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Claude; Gonze, Didier; Goldbeter, Albert

    2012-09-01

    The transitions between the G(1), S, G(2) and M phases of the mammalian cell cycle are driven by a network of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), whose sequential activation is regulated by intertwined negative and positive feedback loops. We previously proposed a detailed computational model for the Cdk network, and showed that this network is capable of temporal self-organization in the form of sustained oscillations, which govern ordered progression through the successive phases of the cell cycle [Gérard and Goldbeter (2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106, 21643-21648]. We subsequently proposed a skeleton model for the cell cycle that retains the core regulatory mechanisms of the detailed model [Gérard and Goldbeter (2011) Interface Focus 1, 24-35]. Here we extend this skeleton model by incorporating Cdk regulation through phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and by including the positive feedback loops that underlie the dynamics of the G(1)/S and G(2)/M transitions via phosphatase Cdc25 and via phosphatase Cdc25 and kinase Wee1, respectively. We determine the effects of these positive feedback loops and ultrasensitivity in phosphorylation/dephosphorylation on the dynamics of the Cdk network. The multiplicity of positive feedback loops as well as the existence of ultrasensitivity promote the occurrence of bistability and increase the amplitude of the oscillations in the various cyclin/Cdk complexes. By resorting to stochastic simulations, we further show that the presence of multiple, redundant positive feedback loops in the G(2)/M transition of the cell cycle markedly enhances the robustness of the Cdk oscillations with respect to molecular noise.

  19. Insight into the interactions between novel isoquinolin-1,3-dione derivatives and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 combining QSAR and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junxia; Kong, Hao; Wilson, James M; Guo, Jialiang; Chang, Yiqun; Yang, Mengjia; Xiao, Gaokeng; Sun, Pinghua

    2014-01-01

    Several small-molecule CDK inhibitors have been identified, but none have been approved for clinical use in the past few years. A new series of 4-[(3-hydroxybenzylamino)-methylene]-4H-isoquinoline-1,3-diones were reported as highly potent and selective CDK4 inhibitors. In order to find more potent CDK4 inhibitors, the interactions between these novel isoquinoline-1,3-diones and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 was explored via in silico methodologies such as 3D-QSAR and docking on eighty-one compounds displaying potent selective activities against cyclin-dependent kinase 4. Internal and external cross-validation techniques were investigated as well as region focusing, bootstraping and leave-group-out. A training set of 66 compounds gave the satisfactory CoMFA model (q2 = 0.695, r2 = 0.947) and CoMSIA model (q2 = 0.641, r2 = 0.933). The remaining 15 compounds as a test set also gave good external predictive abilities with r2pred values of 0.875 and 0.769 for CoMFA and CoMSIA, respectively. The 3D-QSAR models generated here predicted that all five parameters are important for activity toward CDK4. Surflex-dock results, coincident with CoMFA/CoMSIA contour maps, gave the path for binding mode exploration between the inhibitors and CDK4 protein. Based on the QSAR and docking models, twenty new potent molecules have been designed and predicted better than the most active compound 12 in the literatures. The QSAR, docking and interactions analysis expand the structure-activity relationships of constrained isoquinoline-1,3-diones and contribute towards the development of more active CDK4 subtype-selective inhibitors.

  20. Differential Roles of Two Homologous Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Genes in Regulating Cell Cycle and Innate Immunity in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hamdoun, Safae; Zhang, Chong; Gill, Manroop; Churchman, Michelle; Larkin, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Precise cell-cycle control is critical for plant development and responses to pathogen invasion. Two homologous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes, SIAMESE (SIM) and SIM-RELATED 1 (SMR1), were recently shown to regulate Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) defense based on phenotypes conferred by a sim smr1 double mutant. However, whether these two genes play differential roles in cell-cycle and defense control is unknown. In this report, we show that while acting synergistically to promote endoreplication, SIM and SMR1 play different roles in affecting the ploidy of trichome and leaf cells, respectively. In addition, we found that the smr1-1 mutant, but not sim-1, was more susceptible to a virulent Pseudomonas syringae strain, and this susceptibility could be rescued by activating salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defense. Consistent with these results, smr1-1 partially suppressed the dwarfism, high SA levels, and cell death phenotypes in acd6-1, a mutant used to gauge the change of defense levels. Thus, SMR1 functions partly through SA in defense control. The differential roles of SIM and SMR1 are due to differences in temporal and spatial expression of these two genes in Arabidopsis tissues and in response to P. syringae infection. In addition, flow-cytometry analysis of plants with altered SA signaling revealed that SA is necessary, but not sufficient, to change cell-cycle progression. We further found that a mutant with three CYCD3 genes disrupted also compromised disease resistance to P. syringae. Together, this study reveals differential roles of two homologous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in regulating cell-cycle progression and innate immunity in Arabidopsis and provides insights into the importance of cell-cycle control during host-pathogen interactions. PMID:26561564

  1. A Cyclin Dependent Kinase Regulatory Subunit (CKS) Gene of Pigeonpea Imparts Abiotic Stress Tolerance and Regulates Plant Growth and Development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Tamirisa, Srinath; Vudem, Dashavantha R.; Khareedu, Venkateswara R.

    2017-01-01

    Frequent climatic changes in conjunction with other extreme environmental factors are known to affect growth, development and productivity of diverse crop plants. Pigeonpea, a major grain legume of the semiarid tropics, endowed with an excellent deep-root system, is known as one of the important drought tolerant crop plants. Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) are core cell cycle regulators and play important role in different aspects of plant growth and development. The cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit gene (CKS) was isolated from the cDNA library of pigeonpea plants subjected to drought stress. Pigeonpea CKS (CcCKS) gene expression was detected in both the root and leaf tissues of pigeonpea and was upregulated by polyethylene glycol (PEG), mannitol, NaCl and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. The overexpression of CcCKS gene in Arabidopsis significantly enhanced tolerance of transgenics to drought and salt stresses as evidenced by different physiological parameters. Under stress conditions, transgenics showed higher biomass, decreased rate of water loss, decreased MDA levels, higher free proline contents, and glutathione levels. Moreover, under stress conditions transgenics exhibited lower stomatal conductance, lower transpiration, and higher photosynthetic rates. However, under normal conditions, CcCKS-transgenics displayed decreased plant growth rate, increased cell size and decreased stomatal number compared to those of wild-type plants. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that CcCKS could regulate the expression of both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent genes associated with abiotic stress tolerance as well as plant growth and development. As such, the CcCKS seems promising and might serve as a potential candidate gene for enhancing the abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants. PMID:28239388

  2. Tubulin polymerization promoting protein 1 (Tppp1) phosphorylation by Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (rock) and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) inhibits microtubule dynamics to increase cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Alice V; Gamell, Cristina; Suryadinata, Randy; Sarcevic, Boris; Bernard, Ora

    2013-03-15

    Tubulin polymerization promoting protein 1 (Tppp1) regulates microtubule (MT) dynamics via promoting MT polymerization and inhibiting histone deacetylase 6 (Hdac6) activity to increase MT acetylation. Our results reveal that as a consequence, Tppp1 inhibits cell proliferation by delaying the G1/S-phase and the mitosis to G1-phase transitions. We show that phosphorylation of Tppp1 by Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (Rock) prevents its Hdac6 inhibitory activity to enable cells to enter S-phase. Whereas, our analysis of the role of Tppp1 during mitosis revealed that inhibition of its MT polymerizing and Hdac6 regulatory activities were necessary for cells to re-enter the G1-phase. During this investigation, we also discovered that Tppp1 is a novel Cyclin B/Cdk1 (cyclin-dependent kinase) substrate and that Cdk phosphorylation of Tppp1 inhibits its MT polymerizing activity. Overall, our results show that dual Rock and Cdk phosphorylation of Tppp1 inhibits its regulation of the cell cycle to increase cell proliferation.

  3. Subcellular distribution of cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) is regulated through phosphorylation by dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A).

    PubMed

    Oi, Ami; Katayama, Syouichi; Hatano, Naoya; Sugiyama, Yasunori; Kameshita, Isamu; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki

    2017-01-08

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase primarily expressed in the central nervous system and is known to cause X-linked neurodevelopmental disorders such as Rett syndrome. However, the mechanisms regulating CDKL5 have not yet been fully clarified. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the protein kinase that directly phosphorylates CDKL5, identifying it as dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), an enzyme binding to and phosphorylating CDKL5. We showed that subcellular distribution of CDKL5 was regulated by its phosphorylation by DYRK1A. In mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells, CDKL5 was localized in both the cytosol and nucleus, whereas DYRK1A showed a typical nuclear localization. When CDKL5 and DYRK1A were co-expressed, the cytosolic localization of CDKL5 was significantly increased. Results of site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the phosphorylation site was Ser-308, in the vicinity of the nuclear localization signal. A mutation mimicking the phosphorylated serine residue by aspartate substitution (S308D) changed CDKL5 localization to the cytosol, whereas the corresponding alanine-substituted analog, CDKL5(S308A), was primarily localized to the nucleus. Taken together, these results strongly suggested that DYRK1A bound to CDKL5 and phosphorylated it on Ser-308, thus interfering with its nuclear localization.

  4. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 contributes to endoplasmic reticulum stress induced podocyte apoptosis via promoting MEKK1 phosphorylation at Ser280 in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Shuanggang; Zhao, Min; Chen, Jing; Liu, Rui; Cheng, Shengyang; Qi, Mengyuan; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been reported to be associated with podocyte apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy, but the mechanism of ER signaling in podocyte apoptosis hasn't been fully understood. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) was associated with podocyte apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy. The present study was designed to examine whether and how Cdk5 activity plays a role in ER stress induced podocyte apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy. The results showed that along with induction of Cdk5 and apoptosis, GRP78 and its two sensors as well as CHOP and cleaved caspase-12 were induced in high glucose treated podocytes. These responses were attenuated by treated salubrinal. The ER stress inducer, tunicamycin, also up-regulated the kinase activity and protein expression of Cdk5 in podocytes accompanied with the increasing of GRP78. On the other hand, Cdk5 phosphorylates MEKK1 at Ser280 in tunicamycin treated podocytes, and together, they increase the JNK phosphorylation. Moreover, disruption of this pathway can decrease the podocyte apoptosis induced by tunicamycin. Therefore, our study proved that Cdk5 may play an important role in ER stress induced podocyte apoptosis through MEKK1/JNK pathway in diabetic nephropathy.

  5. An inhibitor of yeast cyclin-dependent protein kinase plays an important role in ensuring the genomic integrity of daughter cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nugroho, T T; Mendenhall, M D

    1994-01-01

    The gene encoding a 40-kDa protein, previously studied as a substrate and inhibitor of the yeast cyclin-dependent protein kinase, Cdc28, has been cloned. The DNA sequence reveals that p40 is a highly charged protein of 32,187 Da with no significant homology to other proteins. Overexpression of the gene encoding p40, SIC1, produces cells with an elongated but morphology similar to that of cells with depleted levels of the CLB gene products, suggesting that p40 acts as an inhibitor of Cdc28-Clb complexes in vivo. A SIC1 deletion is viable and has highly increased frequencies of broken and lost chromosomes. The deletion strain segregates out many dead cells that are primarily arrested at the G2 checkpoint in an asymmetric fashion. Only daughters and young mothers display the lethal defect, while experienced mothers appear to grow normally. These results suggest that negative regulation of Cdc28 protein kinase activity by p40 is important for faithful segregation of chromosomes to daughter cells. Images PMID:8164683

  6. Germline and somatic mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes CDKN1A, CDKN2B, and CDKN2C in sporadic parathyroid adenomas.

    PubMed

    Costa-Guda, Jessica; Soong, Chen-Pang; Parekh, Vaishali I; Agarwal, Sunita K; Arnold, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of sporadic parathyroid adenomas is incompletely understood. The possible role of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) genes was raised by recognition of cyclin D1 as a parathyroid oncogene, identification of rare germline mutations in CDKI genes in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1; that in rodents, mutation in Cdkn1b caused parathyroid tumors; and subsequently through identification of rare predisposing germline sequence variants and somatic mutation of CDKN1B, encoding p27(kip1), in sporadic human parathyroid adenoma. We therefore sought to determine whether mutations/variants in the other six CDKI genes CDKN1A, CDKN1C, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN2C, and CDKN2D, encoding p21, p57, p14(ARF)/p16, p15, p18, and p19, respectively, contribute to the development of typical parathyroid adenomas. In a series of 85 sporadic parathyroid adenomas, direct DNA sequencing identified alterations in five adenomas (6 %): Two contained distinct heterozygous changes in CDKN1A, one germline and one of undetermined germline status; one had a CDKN2B germline alteration, accompanied by loss of the normal allele in the tumor (LOH); two had variants of CDKN2C, one somatic and one germline with LOH. Abnormalities of three of the mutant proteins were readily demonstrable in vitro. Thus, germline mutations/rare variants in CDKN1A, CDKN2B, and CDKN2C likely contribute to the development of a significant subgroup of common sporadic parathyroid adenomas, and somatic mutation in CDKN2C further suggests a direct role for CDKI alteration in conferring a selective growth advantage to parathyroid cells, providing novel support for the concept that multiple CDKIs can play primary roles in human neoplasia.

  7. Evidence of gene deletion of p21 (WAF1/CIP1), a cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, in thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Y.; Zou, M.; Farid, N. R.; al-Sedairy, S. T.

    1996-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell cycle progression is controlled by a host of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), that are themselves regulated by multiple factors, including a group of small cyclin-Cdk inhibitor proteins (p15, p16, p21 and p27). The involvement of Cdk inhibitors in carcinogenesis has been demonstrated by the studies of p16. p53 is frequently mutated in thyroid carcinomas and p21/Waf1 is a downstream effector of p53. It is conceivable that genetic defects of genes downstream in the p53 pathway could also be oncogenic. We, therefore, examined a series of 57 thyroid tumour specimens (eight follicular adenomas and 49 carcinomas) for deletion and point mutation of the p21/Waf1 gene. Three different kinds of deletions ranging from 349 to 450 bp were detected in five papillary carcinoma specimens by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All the deletions were involved in the second exon of the p21/Waf1 gene. RT-PCR single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of remaining samples failed to reveal any point mutations in the coding region of the gene, except for a polymorphism at codon 31 (Ser to Arg). Genomic Southern blot analysis did not demonstrate any gene deletion or rearrangement in these samples, indicating abnormal RNA splicing may be involved. Analysis of intron-exon boundary and the coding region of the second exon did not reveal any mutation except for a point mutation (C to G) located 16 bp downstream from the splice donor site of the second intron in three out of five samples with p21/Waf1 deletions. Whether the mutation plays any role in aberrant RNA splicing remains to be determined. Among the five samples with p21/Waf1 gene deletions, none of them simultaneously carried a p53 or retinoblastoma (Rb) gene mutation. No p21/Waf1 abnormality was found in the benign adenomas. Thus, 12.5% (5/40) of thyroid papillary carcinoma specimens harboured p21/Waf1 gene deletions. Our data suggest that p21/Waf1 gene deletion is involved

  8. The effect of Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 on voltage-dependent calcium channels in PC12 cells varies according to channel type and cell differentiation state.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, Kotaro; Asada, Akiko; Saito, Taro; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a Ser/Thr kinase that plays an important role in the release of neurotransmitter from pre-synaptic terminals triggered by Ca(2+) influx into the pre-synaptic cytoplasm through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs). It is reported that Cdk5 regulates L-, P/Q-, or N-type VDCC, but there is conflicting data as to the effect of Cdk5 on VDCC activity. To clarify the mechanisms involved, we examined the role of Cdk5 in regulating the Ca(2+) -channel property of VDCCs, using PC12 cells expressing endogenous, functional L-, P/Q-, and N-type VDCCs. The Ca(2+) influx, induced by membrane depolarization with high K(+) , was monitored with a fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator protein in both undifferentiated and nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells. Overall, Ca(2+) influx was increased by expression of Cdk5-p35 in undifferentiated PC12 cells but suppressed in differentiated PC12 cells. Moreover, we found that different VDCCs are distinctly regulated by Cdk5-p35 depending on the differentiation states of PC12 cells. These results indicate that Cdk5-p35 regulates L-, P/Q-, or N-type VDCCs in a cellular context-dependent manner. Calcium (Ca(2+) ) influx through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs) triggers neurotransmitter release from pre-synaptic terminal of neurons. The channel activity of VDCCs is regulated by Cdk5-p35, a neuronal Ser/Thr kinase. However, there have been debates about the regulation of VDCCs by Cdk5. Using PC12 cells, we show that Cdk5-p35 regulates VDCCs in a type (L, P/Q, and N) and differentiation-dependent manner. NGF = nerve growth factor.

  9. The Activators of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 p35 and p39 Are Essential for Oligodendrocyte Maturation, Process Formation, and Myelination

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Fucheng; Zhang, Jessie; Burke, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of oligodendrocyte development and myelin formation in the CNS is poorly defined. Multiple signals influence the rate and extent of CNS myelination, including the noncanonical cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) whose functions are regulated by its activators p35 and p39. Here we show that selective loss of either p35 or p39 perturbed specific aspects of oligodendrocyte development, whereas loss of both p35 and p39 completely inhibited the development of mature oligodendrocytes and myelination. In the absence of p35, oligodendrocyte differentiation was delayed, process outgrowth was truncated in vitro, and the patterning and extent of myelination were perturbed in the CNS of p35−/− mice. In the absence of p39, oligodendrocyte maturation was transiently affected both in vitro and in vivo. However, loss of both p35 and p39 in oligodendrocyte lineage cells completely inhibited oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation and myelination both in vitro and after transplantation into shiverer slice cultures. Loss of p35 and p39 had a more profound effect on oligodendrocyte development than simply the loss of Cdk5 and could not be rescued by Cdk5 overexpression. These data suggest p35 and p39 have specific and overlapping roles in oligodendrocyte development, some of which may be independent of Cdk5 activation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The development of oligodendrocytes and myelination is essential for normal CNS function and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) activity is critical for oligodendrocyte maturation, but how Cdk5 activity is controlled is unclear. Here we show that the coactivators of Cdk5, p35 and p39, regulate distinct stages of oligodendrocyte development and myelination. Loss of p35 perturbs oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation, whereas loss of p39 delays oligodendrocyte maturation. Loss of both completely inhibits oligodendrogenesis and myelination. Disruption of oligodendrocyte development was more pronounced in p35−/−;p39

  10. Cell cycle in the fucus zygote parallels a somatic cell cycle but displays a unique translational regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases.

    PubMed

    Corellou, F; Brownlee, C; Detivaud, L; Kloareg, B; Bouget, F Y

    2001-03-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the basic machinery of cell cycle control is highly conserved. In particular, many cellular events during cell cycle progression are controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The cell cycle in animal early embryos, however, differs substantially from that of somatic cells or yeasts. For example, cell cycle checkpoints that ensure that the sequence of cell cycle events is correct have been described in somatic cells and yeasts but are largely absent in embryonic cells. Furthermore, the regulation of CDKs is substantially different in the embryonic and somatic cells. In this study, we address the nature of the first cell cycle in the brown alga Fucus, which is evolutionarily distant from the model systems classically used for cell cycle studies in embryos. This cycle consists of well-defined G1, S, G2, and M phases. The purine derivative olomoucine inhibited CDKs activity in vivo and in vitro and induced different cell cycle arrests, including at the G1/S transition, suggesting that, as in somatic cells, CDKs tightly control cell cycle progression. The cell cycle of Fucus zygotes presented the other main features of a somatic cell cycle, such as a functional spindle assembly checkpoint that targets CDKs and the regulation of the early synthesis of two PSTAIRE CDKs, p32 and p34, and the associated histone H1 kinase activity as well as the regulation of CDKs by tyrosine phosphorylation. Surprisingly, the synthesis after fertilization of p32 and p34 was translationally regulated, a regulation not described previously for CDKs. Finally, our results suggest that the activation of mitotic CDKs relies on an autocatalytic amplification mechanism.

  11. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is a calmodulin-binding protein that associates with puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase in the nucleus of Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Huber, Robert J; Catalano, Andrew; O'Day, Danton H

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in a number of cellular processes. In Dictyostelium, Cdk5 localizes to the nucleus and cytoplasm, interacts with puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase A (PsaA), and regulates endocytosis, secretion, growth, and multicellular development. Here we show that Cdk5 is a calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein (CaMBP) in Dictyostelium. Cdk5, PsaA, and CaM were all present in isolated nuclei and Cdk5 and PsaA co-immunoprecipitated with nuclear CaM. Although nuclear CaMBPs have previously been identified in Dictyostelium, the detection of CaM in purified nuclear fractions had not previously been shown. Putative CaM-binding domains (CaMBDs) were identified in Cdk5 and PsaA. Deletion of one of the two putative CaMBDs in Cdk5 ((132)LLINRKGELKLADFGLARAFGIP(154)) prevented CaM-binding indicating that this region encompasses a functional CaMBD. This deletion also increased the nuclear distribution of Cdk5 suggesting that CaM regulates the nucleocytoplasmic transport of Cdk5. A direct binding between CaM and PsaA could not be determined since deletion of the one putative CaMBD in PsaA prevented the nuclear localization of the deletion protein. Together, this study provides the first direct evidence for nuclear CaM in Dictyostelium and the first evidence in any system for Cdk5 being a CaMBP.

  12. Phosphorylation of synapsin I by cyclin-dependent kinase-5 sets the ratio between the resting and recycling pools of synaptic vesicles at hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Verstegen, Anne M J; Tagliatti, Erica; Lignani, Gabriele; Marte, Antonella; Stolero, Tamar; Atias, Merav; Corradi, Anna; Valtorta, Flavia; Gitler, Daniel; Onofri, Franco; Fassio, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio

    2014-05-21

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5) was reported to downscale neurotransmission by sequestering synaptic vesicles (SVs) in the release-reluctant resting pool, but the molecular targets mediating this activity remain unknown. Synapsin I (SynI), a major SV phosphoprotein involved in the regulation of SV trafficking and neurotransmitter release, is one of the presynaptic substrates of Cdk5, which phosphorylates it in its C-terminal region at Ser(549) (site 6) and Ser(551) (site 7). Here we demonstrate that Cdk5 phosphorylation of SynI fine tunes the recruitment of SVs to the active recycling pool and contributes to the Cdk5-mediated homeostatic responses. Phosphorylation of SynI by Cdk5 is physiologically regulated and enhances its binding to F-actin. The effects of Cdk5 inhibition on the size and depletion kinetics of the recycling pool, as well as on SV distribution within the nerve terminal, are virtually abolished in mouse SynI knock-out (KO) neurons or in KO neurons expressing the dephosphomimetic SynI mutants at sites 6,7 or site 7 only. The observation that the single site-7 mutant phenocopies the effects of the deletion of SynI identifies this site as the central switch in mediating the synaptic effects of Cdk5 and demonstrates that SynI is necessary and sufficient for achieving the effects of the kinase on SV trafficking. The phosphorylation state of SynI by Cdk5 at site 7 is regulated during chronic modification of neuronal activity and is an essential downstream effector for the Cdk5-mediated homeostatic scaling.

  13. Acute and chronic stress differentially regulate cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in mouse brain: implications to glucocorticoid actions and major depression

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, A; Siamatras, T; Delgado-Morales, R; Amin, N D; Shukla, V; Zheng, Y-L; Pant, H C; Almeida, O F X; Kino, T

    2015-01-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which in turn increases circulating glucocorticoid concentrations and stimulates the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Chronically elevated glucocorticoids by repetitive exposure to stress are implicated in major depression and anxiety disorders. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a molecule essential for nervous system development, function and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, can modulate GR activity through phosphorylation. We examined potential contribution of CDK5 to stress response and pathophysiology of major depression. In mice, acute immobilized stress (AS) caused a biphasic effect on CDK5 activity, initially reducing but increasing afterwards in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HIPPO), whereas chronic unpredictable stress (CS) strongly increased it in these brain areas, indicating that AS and CS differentially regulate this kinase activity in a brain region-specific fashion. GR phosphorylation contemporaneously followed the observed changes of CDK5 activity after AS, thus CDK5 may in part alter GR phosphorylation upon this stress. In the postmortem brains of subjects with major depression, CDK5 activity was elevated in Brodmann's area 25, but not in entire PFC and HIPPO. Messenger RNA expression of glucocorticoid-regulated/stress-related genes showed distinct expression profiles in several brain areas of these stressed mice or depressive subjects in which CDK5-mediated changes in GR phosphorylation may have some regulatory roles. Taken together, these results indicate that CDK5 is an integral component of stress response and major depression with regulatory means specific to different stressors, brain areas and diseases in part through changing phosphorylation of GR. PMID:26057048

  14. Specific activity of cyclin-dependent kinase I is a new potential predictor of tumour recurrence in stage II colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeestraten, E C M; Maak, M; Shibayama, M; Schuster, T; Nitsche, U; Matsushima, T; Nakayama, S; Gohda, K; Friess, H; van de Velde, C J H; Ishihara, H; Rosenberg, R; Kuppen, P J K; Janssen, K-P

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are no established biomarkers to identify tumour recurrence in stage II colon cancer. As shown previously, the enzymatic activity of the cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2 (CDK1 and CDK2) predicts outcome in breast cancer. Therefore, we investigated whether CDK activity identifies tumour recurrence in colon cancer. Methods: In all, 254 patients with completely resected (R0) UICC stage II colon cancer were analysed retrospectively from two independent cohorts from Munich (Germany) and Leiden (Netherlands). None of the patients received adjuvant treatment. Development of distant metastasis was observed in 27 patients (median follow-up: 86 months). Protein expression and activity of CDKs were measured on fresh-frozen tumour samples. Results: Specific activity (SA) of CDK1 (CDK1SA), but not CDK2, significantly predicted distant metastasis (concordance index=0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55–0.79, P=0.036). Cutoff derivation by maximum log-rank statistics yielded a threshold of CDK1SA at 11 (SA units, P=0.029). Accordingly, 59% of patients were classified as high-risk (CDK1SA ⩾11). Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed CDK1SA as independent prognostic variable (hazard ratio=6.2, 95% CI: 1.44–26.9, P=0.012). Moreover, CKD1SA was significantly elevated in microsatellite-stable tumours. Conclusion: Specific activity of CDK1 is a promising biomarker for metastasis risk in stage II colon cancer. PMID:22108518

  15. The comparison of nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinases substrate (NUCKS) with Ki67 proliferation marker expression in common skin tumors.

    PubMed

    Zduniak, Krzysztof; Agrawal, Siddarth; Symonowicz, Krzysztof; Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziółkowski, Piotr

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinases substrate (NUCKS) is a chromosomal protein of unknown function. Its amino acid composition and structure of its DNA binding domain resemble those of high mobility group A (HMGA) proteins which are associated with various malignancies. Since changes in expression of HMGA are considered as a marker of tumor progression, it is possible that similar changes in expression of NUCKS could be a useful tool in diagnosis of malignant skin tumors. To investigate this assumption we used specific antibodies against NUCKS for immunohistochemistry of squamous (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) as well as keratoacanthoma (KA). We found high expression of NUCKS in nuclei of SCC and BCC cells which exceeded expression of the well-known proliferation marker Ki67. Expression of NUCKS in benign KA was much below that of malignant tumors. With the present study and based on our previous experience we would like to suggest the NUCKS protein as a novel proliferation marker for immunohistochemical evaluation of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded skin tumor specimens. We would like to emphasize that NUCKS abundance in malignant skin tumors is higher than that of the well-known proliferation marker Ki67, thus allowing more precise assessment of tumor proliferation potential.

  16. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promotes MG63 cell proliferation and is associated with increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, WEI; ZHU, YUE; CHEN, SONG; XU, RUIJUN; WANG, KUNZHENG

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common type of malignant bone tumor in adolescents and young adults. However, current understanding of osteosarcomagenesis remains limited. In the present study, the role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) in human osteosarcoma cell proliferation was investigated, and the possible pathways that contribute to FGFR1-mediated osteosarcoma cell proliferation were examined using microarray analysis. The expression of FGFR1 in osteosarcoma tissues was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that FGFR1 was markedly increased in osteosarcoma tissues, and that the overexpression of FGFR1 in MG63 cells significantly promoted cell proliferation, as observed using the cell viability assay. In addition, FGFR1-mediated cell proliferation was closely associated with cell cycle re-distribution, as determined by microarray analysis. Western blotting identified that the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) was correspondingly increased in response to the overexpression of FGFR1. These results indicated that FGFR1 contributes to cell proliferation in osteosarcoma MG63 cells, and FGFR1 mediated cell proliferation may be attributed to the regulation of the cell cycle regulator, CDK1. These findings provide evidence to support the potential use of molecule target therapy against FGFR1 as a promising strategy in osteosarcoma treatment and prevention. PMID:26648125

  17. Cell cycle-dependent control of polarised development by a cyclin-dependent kinase-like protein in the Fucus zygote.

    PubMed

    Corellou, F; Brownlee, C; Kloareg, B; Bouget, F Y

    2001-11-01

    Although iterative development can be uncoupled from morphogenesis in plant organs, the relationship between the cell cycle and developmental events is not well established in embryos. Zygotes of fucoid algae, including Fucus and Pelvetia are particularly well suited for studying the interaction(s) between cell cycle progression and the early morphogenetic events, as the establishment of polarity and its morphogenetic expression, i.e. germination, and the first cell cycle are concomitant. We have previously demonstrated that, in Fucus zygotes, various aspects of cell cycle progression are tightly controlled by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-like proteins, including two PSTAIRE CDK-like proteins, p34 and p32, which are synthesised after fertilisation. We show that specific inhibition of CDK-like proteins, either with purine derivatives such as olomoucine and amino-purvalanol or by microinjection of the CDK inhibitor p21(cip1), prevents germination and cell division. Whereas direct inhibition of DNA replication by aphidicolin did not affect polarised development, olomoucine, which has previously been shown to prevent entry in S phase, and other purine derivatives also inhibited photopolarisation. Early microinjection of a monoclonal anti-PSTAIRE antibody also prevented germination and cell division. Only p34 had affinity for amino-purvalanol, suggesting that among PSTAIRE CDKs, this protein is the main target of purine derivatives. Models to account for the simultaneous control of early cell cycle progression and polarisation are proposed.

  18. Cellular senescence in human myoblasts is overcome by human telomerase reverse transcriptase and cyclin-dependent kinase 4: consequences in aging muscle and therapeutic strategies for muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chun-Hong; Mouly, Vincent; Cooper, Racquel N; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Bigot, Anne; Shay, Jerry W; Di Santo, James P; Butler-Browne, Gillian S; Wright, Woodring E

    2007-08-01

    Cultured human myoblasts fail to immortalize following the introduction of telomerase. The availability of an immortalization protocol for normal human myoblasts would allow one to isolate cellular models from various neuromuscular diseases, thus opening the possibility to develop and test novel therapeutic strategies. The parameters limiting the efficacy of myoblast transfer therapy (MTT) could be assessed in such models. Finally, the presence of an unlimited number of cell divisions, and thus the ability to clone cells after experimental manipulations, reduces the risks of insertional mutagenesis by many orders of magnitude. This opportunity for genetic modification provides an approach for creating a universal donor that has been altered to be more therapeutically useful than its normal counterpart. It can be engineered to function under conditions of chronic damage (which are very different than the massive regeneration conditions that recapitulate normal development), and to overcome the biological problems such as cell death and failure to proliferate and migrate that limit current MTT strategies. We describe here the production and characterization of a human myogenic cell line, LHCN-M2, that has overcome replicative aging due to the expression of telomerase and cyclin-dependent kinase 4. We demonstrate that it functions as well as young myoblasts in xenotransplant experiments in immunocompromized mice under conditions of regeneration following muscle damage.

  19. Cyclin Kinase-independent role of p21CDKN1A in the promotion of nascent DNA elongation in unstressed cells

    PubMed Central

    Mansilla, Sabrina F; Bertolin, Agustina P; Bergoglio, Valérie; Pillaire, Marie-Jeanne; González Besteiro, Marina A; Luzzani, Carlos; Miriuka, Santiago G; Hoffmann, Jean-Sébastien; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    The levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 are low in S phase and insufficient to inhibit CDKs. We show here that endogenous p21, instead of being residual, it is functional and necessary to preserve the genomic stability of unstressed cells. p21depletion slows down nascent DNA elongation, triggers permanent replication defects and promotes the instability of hard-to-replicate genomic regions, namely common fragile sites (CFS). The p21’s PCNA interacting region (PIR), and not its CDK binding domain, is needed to prevent the replication defects and the genomic instability caused by p21 depletion. The alternative polymerase kappa is accountable for such defects as they were not observed after simultaneous depletion of both p21 and polymerase kappa. Hence, in CDK-independent manner, endogenous p21 prevents a type of genomic instability which is not triggered by endogenous DNA lesions but by a dysregulation in the DNA polymerase choice during genomic DNA synthesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18020.001 PMID:27740454

  20. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 modulates the transcriptional activity of the mineralocorticoid receptor and regulates expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Kino, Tomoshige; Jaffe, Howard; Amin, Niranjana D; Chakrabarti, Mayukh; Zheng, Ya-Li; Chrousos, George P; Pant, Harish C

    2010-05-01

    Glucocorticoids, major end effectors of the stress response, play an essential role in the homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) and contribute to memory consolidation and emotional control through their intracellular receptors, the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), on the other hand, plays important roles in the morphogenesis and functions of the central nervous system, and its aberrant activation has been associated with development of neurodegenerative disorders. We previously reported that CDK5 phosphorylated the glucocorticoid receptor and modulated its transcriptional activity. Here we found that CDK5 also regulated mineralocorticoid receptor-induced transcriptional activity by phosphorylating multiple serine and threonine residues located in its N-terminal domain through physical interaction. Aldosterone and dexamethasone, respectively, increased and suppressed mRNA/protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rat cortical neuronal cells, whereas the endogenous glucocorticoid corticosterone showed a biphasic effect. CDK5 enhanced the effect of aldosterone and dexamethasone on BDNF expression. Because this neurotrophic factor plays critical roles in neuronal viability, synaptic plasticity, consolidation of memory, and emotional changes, we suggest that aberrant activation of CDK5 might influence these functions through corticosteroid receptors/BDNF.

  1. Cyclin Kinase-independent role of p21(CDKN1A) in the promotion of nascent DNA elongation in unstressed cells.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, Sabrina F; Bertolin, Agustina P; Bergoglio, Valérie; Pillaire, Marie-Jeanne; González Besteiro, Marina A; Luzzani, Carlos; Miriuka, Santiago G; Cazaux, Christophe; Hoffmann, Jean-Sébastien; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2016-10-14

    The levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 are low in S phase and insufficient to inhibit CDKs. We show here that endogenous p21, instead of being residual, it is functional and necessary to preserve the genomic stability of unstressed cells. p21depletion slows down nascent DNA elongation, triggers permanent replication defects and promotes the instability of hard-to-replicate genomic regions, namely common fragile sites (CFS). The p21's PCNA interacting region (PIR), and not its CDK binding domain, is needed to prevent the replication defects and the genomic instability caused by p21 depletion. The alternative polymerase kappa is accountable for such defects as they were not observed after simultaneous depletion of both p21 and polymerase kappa. Hence, in CDK-independent manner, endogenous p21 prevents a type of genomic instability which is not triggered by endogenous DNA lesions but by a dysregulation in the DNA polymerase choice during genomic DNA synthesis.

  2. Differential p16/INK4A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor expression correlates with chemotherapy efficacy in a cohort of 88 malignant pleural mesothelioma patients

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, C J; Murer, B; O'Grady, A; Hearn, L M; Harvey, B J; Kay, E W; Thomas, W

    2015-01-01

    Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and essentially incurable malignancy most often linked with occupational exposure to asbestos fibres. In common with other malignancies, the development and progression of MPM is associated with extensive dysregulation of cell cycle checkpoint proteins that modulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair and senescence. Methods: The expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16/INK4A was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using tumour biopsy specimens from 88 MPM cases and a semi-quantitative score for p16/INK4A expression was obtained. Post-diagnosis survival and the survival benefit of chemotherapeutic intervention was correlated with p16/INK4A expression. Results: A low, intermediate and high score for p16/INK4A expression was observed for 45 (51.1%), 28 (31.8%) and 15 (17.1%) of the MPM cases, respectively. Those cases with intermediate or high p16/INK4A tumour expression had a significantly better post-diagnosis survival than those cases whose tumours lost p16 expression (log-rank P<0.001). Those patients with sustained p16/INK4A expression who received chemotherapy also had a better survival than those treated patients whose tumours had lost p16/INK4A expression (log-rank P<0.001). Conclusions: Sustained p16/INK4A expression predicts better post-diagnosis survival in MPM and also better survival following chemotherapeutic intervention. PMID:26057448

  3. Immunohistochemical study of nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1 in invasive breast carcinoma of no special type.

    PubMed

    Symonowicz, Krzysztof; Duś-Szachniewicz, Kamila; Woźniak, Marta; Murawski, Marek; Kołodziej, Paweł; Osiecka, Beata; Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziółkowski, Piotr

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinases substrate 1 (NUCKS1) in invasive breast carcinoma of no special type, in association with clinicopathological characteristics, including the tumor grade, frequency of lymph node involvement and distant metastasis. In addition, associations between NUCKS1 and other tumor subtype markers, including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), Ki-67 and cytokeratin 5/6 (CK 5/6), were investigated. NUCKS1 expression was shown to be associated with the formation of distant metastases and lymph node involvement. Furthermore, an association between the presence of NUCKS1 and histological grading was observed. The results confirmed that the expression of NUCKS1 in low grade invasive breast carcinoma of no special type was significantly less common compared with cases of high grade carcinoma. With regard to the additional tumor subtype markers, NUCKS1 expression was demonstrated to be significantly associated with Ki-67 and CK 5/6; however, no association was identified with ER, PR and HER2. Therefore, NUCKS1 may be a novel prognostic marker in the histopathological evaluation of invasive breast carcinoma of no special type.

  4. Deficiency of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} accelerates atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Akyuerek, Levent M.; Boehm, Manfred; Olive, Michelle; Zhou, Alex-Xianghua; San, Hong; Nabel, Elizabeth G.

    2010-05-28

    Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}, are upregulated during vascular cell proliferation and negatively regulate growth of vascular cells. We hypothesized that absence of either p21{sup Cip1} or p27{sup Kip1} in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficiency may increase atherosclerotic plaque formation. Compared to apoE{sup -/-} aortae, both apoE{sup -/-}/p21{sup -/-} and apoE{sup -/-}/p27{sup -/-} aortae exhibited significantly more atherosclerotic plaque following a high-cholesterol regimen. This increase was particularly observed in the abdominal aortic regions. Deficiency of p27{sup Kip1} accelerated plaque formation significantly more than p21{sup -/-} in apoE{sup -/-} mice. This increased plaque formation was in parallel with increased intima/media area ratios. Deficiency of p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} accelerates atherogenesis in apoE{sup -/-} mice. These findings have significant implications for our understanding of the molecular basis of atherosclerosis associated with excessive proliferation of vascular cells.

  5. Alternatively Spliced Isoforms of KV10.1 Potassium Channels Modulate Channel Properties and Can Activate Cyclin-dependent Kinase in Xenopus Oocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos Gomes, Fernanda; Romaniello, Vincenzo; Sánchez, Araceli; Weber, Claudia; Narayanan, Pratibha; Psol, Maryna; Pardo, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    KV10.1 is a voltage-gated potassium channel expressed selectively in the mammalian brain but also aberrantly in cancer cells. In this study we identified short splice variants of KV10.1 resulting from exon-skipping events (E65 and E70) in human brain and cancer cell lines. The presence of the variants was confirmed by Northern blot and RNase protection assays. Both variants completely lacked the transmembrane domains of the channel and produced cytoplasmic proteins without channel function. In a reconstituted system, both variants co-precipitated with the full-length channel and induced a robust down-regulation of KV10.1 current when co-expressed with the full-length form, but their effect was mechanistically different. E65 required a tetramerization domain and induced a reduction in the overall expression of full-length KV10.1, whereas E70 mainly affected its glycosylation pattern. E65 triggered the activation of cyclin-dependent kinases in Xenopus laevis oocytes, suggesting a role in cell cycle control. Our observations highlight the relevance of noncanonical functions for the oncogenicity of KV10.1, which need to be considered when ion channels are targeted for cancer therapy. PMID:26518875

  6. Autophagy and ER stress play an essential role in the mechanism of action and drug resistance of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Emilia; Byrd, John C; Johnson, Amy J

    2013-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a mature B cell malignancy and is the most prevalent type of leukemia in adults. There is no curative therapy for this disease; however, several new agents have shown very promising results. Autophagy has not been studied in CLL and in this study we first sought to determine if autophagy was functional in CLL with classic inducers, and if this contributes to direct cytotoxicity or protection from cell death. While autophagy is activated with all classic stimuli of this process, only unfolded protein endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated autophagy protects from cell death. Interestingly, select therapeutic agents (fludarabine, GS-1101, flavopiridol), which are active in CLL, also induce autophagy. Of interest, only the broad cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol has improved efficacy when autophagy is antagonized biochemically (chloroquine) or by siRNA. This promoted an investigation which demonstrated unexpectedly that flavopiridol mediates ER stress and downstream activation of MAP3K5/ASK1, which ultimately is responsible for cell death. Similarly, autophagy activated in part via ER stress and also CDK5 inhibition is protective against cell death induced by this process. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that in CLL, autophagy is induced by multiple stimuli but only acts as a mechanism of resistance against ER stress-mediating agents. Similarly, flavopiridol mediates ER stress as a primary mechanism of action in CLL, and autophagy serves as a mechanism of resistance to this agent.

  7. Some cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors-related genes are regulated by vitamin C in a model of diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Boqué, Noemí; Campión, Javier; Milagro, Fermín Ignacio; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria-Jesús; Martinez, José Alfredo

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate differential gene expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver from high-fat fed male Wistar rats with or without vitamin C (VC) supplementation (750 mg/kg of body weight). After 56 d of experimentation, animals fed on a cafeteria diet increased significantly body weights and total body fat. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies showed that cafeteria diet decreased p21 and p57 mRNA expression in subcutaneous WAT and increased p21 mRNA in liver. Overall, these data provide new information about the role of high fat intake on mRNA levels of several CKIs with implications in adipogenesis, cell metabolism and weight homeostasis. Interestingly, VC supplementation partially prevented diet-induced adiposity and increased p27 mRNA in liver without any changes in the other tissues and genes analyzed. Thus, hepatic mRNA changes induced by ascorbic acid indicate a possible role of these genes in diet-induced oxidative stress processes.

  8. The Activators of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 p35 and p39 Are Essential for Oligodendrocyte Maturation, Process Formation, and Myelination.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fucheng; Zhang, Jessie; Burke, Kathryn; Miller, Robert H; Yang, Yan

    2016-03-09

    The regulation of oligodendrocyte development and myelin formation in the CNS is poorly defined. Multiple signals influence the rate and extent of CNS myelination, including the noncanonical cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) whose functions are regulated by its activators p35 and p39. Here we show that selective loss of either p35 or p39 perturbed specific aspects of oligodendrocyte development, whereas loss of both p35 and p39 completely inhibited the development of mature oligodendrocytes and myelination. In the absence of p35, oligodendrocyte differentiation was delayed, process outgrowth was truncated in vitro, and the patterning and extent of myelination were perturbed in the CNS of p35(-/-) mice. In the absence of p39, oligodendrocyte maturation was transiently affected both in vitro and in vivo. However, loss of both p35 and p39 in oligodendrocyte lineage cells completely inhibited oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation and myelination both in vitro and after transplantation into shiverer slice cultures. Loss of p35 and p39 had a more profound effect on oligodendrocyte development than simply the loss of Cdk5 and could not be rescued by Cdk5 overexpression. These data suggest p35 and p39 have specific and overlapping roles in oligodendrocyte development, some of which may be independent of Cdk5 activation.

  9. Expression of p21(Cip1/Waf1/Sdi1) and p27(Kip1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors during human hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, T; Endo, H; Chikatsu, N; Uchimaru, K; Asano, S; Fujita, T; Nakahata, T; Motokura, T

    1999-06-15

    Expression of p21 and p27 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors is associated with induced differentiation and cell-cycle arrest in some hematopoietic cell lines. However, it is not clear how these inhibitors are expressed during normal hematopoiesis. We examined various human hematopoietic colonies derived from cord blood CD34(+) cells, bone marrow, and peripheral blood cells using a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay, immunochemistry, and/or Western blot analysis. p21 mRNA was expressed increasingly over time in all of the colonies examined (granulocytes, macrophages, megakaryocytes, and erythroblasts), whereas p27 mRNA levels remained low, except for erythroid bursts. Erythroid bursts expressed both p21 and p27 mRNAs with differentiation but expressed neither protein, whereas both proteins were expressed in megakaryocytes and peripheral blood monocytes. In bone marrow, p21 was immunostained almost exclusively in a subset of megakaryocytes and p27 protein was present in megakaryocytes, plasma cells, and endothelial cells. In megakaryocytes, reciprocal expression of p27 to Ki-67 was evident and an inverse relationship between p21 and Ki-67 positivities was also present, albeit less obvious. These observations suggest that a complex lineage-specific regulation is involved in p21 and p27 expression and that these inhibitors are involved in cell-cycle exit in megakaryocytes.

  10. The Requirement for Cyclin D Function in Tumor Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jong; Li, Xiaoyu; Hydbring, Per; Sanda, Takaomi; Stefano, Joanna; Christie, Amanda L.; Signoretti, Sabina; Look, A. Thomas; Kung, Andrew L.; von Boehmer, Harald; Sicinski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY D-cyclins represent components of cell cycle machinery. To test the efficacy of targeting D-cyclins in cancer treatment, we engineered mouse strains which allow acute and global ablation of individual D-cyclins in a living animal. Ubiquitous shutdown of cyclin D1 or inhibition of cyclin D-associated kinase activity in mice bearing ErbB2-driven mammary carcinomas triggered tumor cell senescence, without compromising the animals’ health. Ablation of cyclin D3 in mice bearing Notch1-driven T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALL) triggered tumor cell apoptosis. Such selective killing of leukemic cells can also be achieved by inhibiting cyclin D-associated kinase activity in mouse and human T-ALL models. Inhibition of cyclin D-kinase activity represents a highly-selective anti-cancer strategy that specifically targets cancer cells without significantly affecting normal tissues. PMID:23079655

  11. Two Degradation Pathways of the p35 Cdk5 (Cyclin-dependent Kinase) Activation Subunit, Dependent and Independent of Ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Takasugi, Toshiyuki; Minegishi, Seiji; Asada, Akiko; Saito, Taro; Kawahara, Hiroyuki; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi

    2016-02-26

    Cdk5 is a versatile protein kinase that is involved in various neuronal activities, such as the migration of newborn neurons, neurite outgrowth, synaptic regulation, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cdk5 requires the p35 regulatory subunit for activation. Because Cdk5 is more abundantly expressed in neurons compared with p35, the p35 protein levels determine the kinase activity of Cdk5. p35 is a protein with a short half-life that is degraded by proteasomes. Although ubiquitination of p35 has been previously reported, the degradation mechanism of p35 is not yet known. Here, we intended to identify the ubiquitination site(s) in p35. Because p35 is myristoylated at the N-terminal glycine, the possible ubiquitination sites are the lysine residues in p35. We mutated all 23 Lys residues to Arg (p35 23R), but p35 23R was still rapidly degraded by proteasomes at a rate similar to wild-type p35. The degradation of p35 23R in primary neurons and the Cdk5 activation ability of p35 23R suggested the occurrence of ubiquitin-independent degradation of p35 in physiological conditions. We found that p35 has the amino acid sequence similar to the ubiquitin-independent degron in the NKX3.1 homeodomain transcription factor. An Ala mutation at Pro-247 in the degron-like sequence made p35 stable. These results suggest that p35 can be degraded by two degradation pathways: ubiquitin-dependent and ubiquitin-independent. The rapid degradation of p35 by two different methods would be a mechanism to suppress the production of p25, which overactivates Cdk5 to induce neuronal cell death.

  12. Inhibition of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 but Not of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3-β Prevents Neurite Retraction and Tau Hyperphosphorylation Caused by Secretable Products of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type I-Infected Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Horacio; Ramírez, Eugenio; Utreras, Elias; Pando, María E.; Kettlun, Ana M.; Chiong, Mario; Kulkarni, Ashok B.; Collados, Lucía; Puente, Javier; Cartier, Luis; Valenzuela, María A.

    2012-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective loss of axons and myelin in the corticospinal tracts. This central axonopathy may originate from the impairment of anterograde axoplasmic transport. Previous work showed tau hyperphosphorylation at T181 in cerebrospinal fluid of HAM/TSP patients. Similar hyperphosphorylation occurs in SH-SY5Y cells incubated with supernatant from MT-2 cells (HTLV-I-infected lymphocytes secreting viral proteins, including Tax) that produce neurite shortening. Tau phosphorylation at T181 is attributable to glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3-β) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) activation. Here we investigate whether neurite retraction in the SH-SY5Y model associates with concurrent changes in other tau hyperphosphorylable residues. Threonine 181 turned out to be the only tau hyperphosphorylated residue. We also evaluate the role of GSK3-β and CDK5 in this process by using specific kinase inhibitors (LiCl, TDZD-8, and roscovitine). Changes in both GSK3-β active and inactive forms were followed by measuring the regulatory phosphorylable sites (S9 and Y216, inactivating and activating phosphorylation, respectively) together with changes in β-catenin protein levels. Our results showed that LiCl and TDZD-8 were unable to prevent MT-2 supernatant-mediated neurite retraction and also that neither Y216 nor S9 phosphorylations were changed in GSK3-β. Thus, GSK3-β seems not to play a role in T181 hyperphosphorylation. On the other hand, the CDK5 involvement in tau phosphorylation was confirmed by both the increase in its enzymatic activity and the absence of MT-2 neurite retraction in the presence of roscovitine or CDK5 siRNA transfection. PMID:21671254

  13. Self-Renewal and High Proliferative Colony Forming Capacity of Late-Outgrowth Endothelial Progenitors Is Regulated by Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors Driven by Notch Signaling.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jatin; Wong, Ho Yi; Wang, Weili; Alexis, Josue; Shafiee, Abbas; Stevenson, Alexander J; Gabrielli, Brian; Fisk, Nicholas M; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2016-04-01

    Since the discovery of endothelial colony forming cells (ECFC), there has been significant interest in their therapeutic potential to treat vascular injuries. ECFC cultures display significant heterogeneity and a hierarchy among cells able to give rise to high proliferative versus low proliferative colonies. Here we aimed to define molecularly this in vitro hierarchy. Based on flow cytometry, CD34 expression levels distinguished two populations. Only CD34 + ECFC had the capacity to reproduce high proliferative potential (HPP) colonies on replating, whereas CD34- ECFCs formed only small clusters. CD34 + ECFCs were the only ones to self-renew in stringent single-cell cultures and gave rise to both CD34 + and CD34- cells. Upon replating, CD34 + ECFCs were always found at the centre of HPP colonies and were more likely in G0/1 phase of cell cycling. Functionally, CD34 + ECFC were superior at restoring perfusion and better engrafted when injected into ischemic hind limbs. Transcriptomic analysis identified cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) cell cycle inhibiting genes (p16, p21, and p57), the Notch signaling pathway (dll1, dll4, hes1, and hey1), and the endothelial cytokine il33 as highly expressed in CD34 + ECFC. Blocking the Notch pathway using a γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) led to reduced expression of cell cycle inhibitors, increased cell proliferation followed by a loss of self-renewal, and HPP colony formation capacity reflecting progenitor exhaustion. Similarly shRNA knockdown of p57 strongly affected self-renewal of ECFC colonies. ECFC hierarchy is defined by Notch signalling driving cell cycle regulators, progenitor quiescence and self-renewal potential.

  14. A phase I trial of the selective oral cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor seliciclib (CYC202; R-Roscovitine), administered twice daily for 7 days every 21 days

    PubMed Central

    Benson, C; White, J; Bono, J De; O'Donnell, A; Raynaud, F; Cruickshank, C; McGrath, H; Walton, M; Workman, P; Kaye, S; Cassidy, J; Gianella-Borradori, A; Judson, I; Twelves, C

    2006-01-01

    Seliciclib (CYC202; R-roscovitine) is the first selective, orally bioavailable inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 1, 2, 7 and 9 to enter clinical trial. Preclinical studies showed antitumour activity in a broad range of human tumour xenografts. A phase I trial was performed with a 7-day b.i.d. p.o. schedule. Twenty-one patients (median age 62 years, range: 39–73 years) were treated with doses of 100, 200 and 800 b.i.d. Dose-limiting toxicities were seen at 800 mg b.i.d.; grade 3 fatigue, grade 3 skin rash, grade 3 hyponatraemia and grade 4 hypokalaemia. Other toxicities included reversible raised creatinine (grade 2), reversible grade 3 abnormal liver function and grade 2 emesis. An 800 mg portion was investigated further in 12 patients, three of whom had MAG3 renograms. One patient with a rapid increase in creatinine on day 3 had a reversible fall in renal perfusion, with full recovery by day 14, and no changes suggestive of renal tubular damage. Further dose escalation was precluded by hypokalaemia. Seliciclib reached peak plasma concentrations between 1 and 4 h and elimination half-life was 2–5 h. Inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation was not demonstrated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. No objective tumour responses were noted, but disease stabilisation was recorded in eight patients; this lasted for a total of six courses (18 weeks) in a patient with ovarian cancer. PMID:17179992

  15. MicroRNA-93-5p increases multidrug resistance in human colorectal carcinoma cells by downregulating cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Jun; Cao, Yun-Fei; Yang, Zu-Qing; Jiang, Zhi-Yuan; Cai, Bin; Guo, Jiao; Zhang, Sen; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Gao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) impedes successful chemotherapy in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRs) are involved in the development of MDR. In the present study, the role of miR-93-5p in the modulation of drug resistance in CRC was investigated using HCT-8 and MDR HCT-8/vincristine (VCR) cell lines. The results demonstrated upregulated expression of miR-93-5p and MDR protein 1 (MDR1) in HCT-8/VCR cells, compared with the parental HCT-8 cells. Furthermore, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) was identified as a potential target of miR-93-5p using miR target analysis tools, including PicTar, TargetScan and miRanda. In addition, inhibition of miR-93-5p expression in HCT-8/VCR cells markedly downregulated MDR1 gene expression, upregulated CDKN1A gene expression and induced cell cycle arrest in G1. Conversely, the overexpression of miR-93-5p in HCT-8/VCR cells upregulated MDR1 gene expression, downregulated CDKN1A gene expression and promoted G1/S transition. Furthermore, the in vitro drug sensitivity assay performed suggested that downregulation of miR-93-5p enhanced the sensitivity of HCT-8/VCR cells to VCR, while the upregulation of miR-93-5p decreased the sensitivity of HCT-8 cells to VCR. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that miR-93-5p serves a role in the development of MDR through downregulating CDKN1A gene expression in CRC.

  16. eIF4A RNA Helicase Associates with Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase A in Proliferating Cells and Is Modulated by Phosphorylation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Maxwell S.; Pierrat, Olivier; Nibau, Candida; Mikitova, Veronika; Zheng, Tao; Corke, Fiona M. K.; Mayberry, Laura K.; Browning, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) is a highly conserved RNA-stimulated ATPase and helicase involved in the initiation of messenger RNA translation. Previously, we found that eIF4A interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase A (CDKA), the plant ortholog of mammalian CDK1. Here, we show that this interaction occurs only in proliferating cells where the two proteins coassociate with 5′-cap-binding protein complexes, eIF4F or the plant-specific eIFiso4F. CDKA phosphorylates eIF4A on a conserved threonine residue (threonine-164) within the RNA-binding motif 1b TPGR. In vivo, a phospho-null (APGR) variant of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) eIF4A1 protein retains the ability to functionally complement a mutant (eif4a1) plant line lacking eIF4A1, whereas a phosphomimetic (EPGR) variant fails to complement. The phospho-null variant (APGR) rescues the slow growth rate of roots and rosettes, together with the ovule-abortion and late-flowering phenotypes. In vitro, wild-type recombinant eIF4A1 and its phospho-null variant both support translation in cell-free wheat germ extracts dependent upon eIF4A, but the phosphomimetic variant does not support translation and also was deficient in ATP hydrolysis and helicase activity. These observations suggest a mechanism whereby CDK phosphorylation has the potential to down-regulate eIF4A activity and thereby affect translation. PMID:27388680

  17. miR-107 regulates cisplatin chemosensitivity of A549 non small cell lung cancer cell line by targeting cyclin dependent kinase 8

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Lu; Yin, Zhi-Yi; Fan, Xing-Long; Hu, Bo; Wang, Lun-Qing; Zhang, Di

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the acquired drug resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was related to deregulation of miRNAs. However, the effects of miR-107 and the mechanism through which miR-107 affects the cisplatin chemoresistance in NSCLC have not been reported. TaqMan RT-PCR or Western blot assay was performed to detect the expression of mature miR-107 and cyclin dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) protein. The viabilities of treated cells were analyzed using MTT assay. We found that the expression level of miR-107 in A549 cells was significantly lower than that in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (0.45 ± 0.26 vs. 1.00 ± 0.29, P = 0.032). The MTT assay showed that the A549 cells transfected with miR-107 mimics were significantly more sensitive to the therapy of cisplatin than control cells. A549 cells transfected with miR-107 mimics showed a decreased CDK8 protein expression. Downregulation of CDK8 expression by siRNAs, A549 cells became more sensitive to the therapy of cisplatin. In addition, the enhanced growth-inhibitory effect by the miR-107 mimic transfection was enhanced after the addition of CDK8 siRNA. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence that miR-107 plays a key role in cisplatin resistance by targeting the CDK8 protein in NSCLC cell lines, suggesting that miR-107 can be used to predict a patient’s response to chemotherapy as well as serve as a novel potential maker for NSCLC therapy. PMID:25400821

  18. Gene expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and effect of heparin on their expression in mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Lunyin; Quinn, Deborah A.; Garg, Hari G.; Hales, Charles A. . E-mail: chales@partners.org

    2006-07-14

    The balance between cell proliferation and cell quiescence is regulated delicately by a variety of mediators, in which cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and CDK inhibitors (CDKI) play a very important role. Heparin which inhibits pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation increases the levels of two CDKIs, p21 and p27, although only p27 is important in inhibition of PASMC growth in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we investigated the expression profile of all the cell cycle regulating genes, including all seven CDKIs (p21, p27, p57, p15, p16, p18, and p19), in the lungs of mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. A cell cycle pathway specific gene microarray was used to profile the 96 genes involved in cell cycle regulation. We also observed the effect of heparin on gene expression. We found that (a) hypoxic exposure for two weeks significantly inhibited p27 expression and stimulated p18 activity, showing a 98% decrease in p27 and 81% increase in p18; (b) other CDKIs, p21, p57, p15, p16, and p19 were not affected significantly in response to hypoxia; (c) heparin treatment restored p27 expression, but did not influence p18; (d) ERK1/2 and p38 were mediators in heparin upregulation of p27. This study provides an expression profile of cell cycle regulating genes under hypoxia in mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and strengthens the previous finding that p27 is the only CDKI involved in heparin regulation of PASMC proliferation and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

  19. Induction of anergy in Th1 cells associated with increased levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip1.

    PubMed

    Jackson, S K; DeLoose, A; Gilbert, K M

    2001-01-15

    Th1 cells exposed to Ag and the G(1) blocker n-butyrate in primary cultures lose their ability to proliferate in Ag-stimulated secondary cultures. The ability of n-butyrate to induce anergy in Ag-stimulated, but not resting, Th1 cells was shown here to be blocked by cycloheximide. Subsequent experiments to delineate the nature of the protein apparently required for n-butyrate-induced Th1 cell anergy focused on the role of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1). Normally, entry into S phase by Th1 cells occurs around 24 h after Ag stimulation and corresponds with relatively low levels of both p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1). However, unlike control Th1 cells, anergic Th1 cells contained high levels of both p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) when examined 24 h after Ag stimulation. The increase in p21(Cip1) observed in Ag-stimulated anergic Th1 cells appeared to be initiated in primary cultures. In contrast, the increase in p27(Kip1) observed in these anergic Th1 cells appears to represent a re-expression of the protein much earlier than control cells following Ag stimulation in secondary cultures. The anergic Th1 cells contained functionally active cdk inhibitors capable of inhibiting the activity of both endogenous and exogenous cdks. Consequently, it appears that n-butyrate-induced anergy in Th1 cells correlated with the up-regulation of p21(Cip1) and perhaps the downstream failure to maintain low levels of p27(Kip1). Increased levels of both p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) at the end of G(1) could prevent cdk-mediated entry into S phase, and thus help maintain the proliferative unresponsiveness found in the anergic Th1 cells.

  20. Apoptosis, cell proliferation and modulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(cip1) in vascular remodelling during vein arterialization in the rat.

    PubMed

    Borin, Thaiz Ferraz; Miyakawa, Ayumi Aurea; Cardoso, Leandro; de Figueiredo Borges, Luciano; Gonçalves, Giovana Aparecida; Krieger, Jose Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Neo-intima development and atherosclerosis limit long-term vein graft use for revascularization of ischaemic tissues. Using a rat model, which is technically less challenging than smaller rodents, we provide evidence that the temporal morphological, cellular, and key molecular events during vein arterialization resemble the human vein graft adaptation. Right jugular vein was surgically connected to carotid artery and observed up to 90 days. Morphometry demonstrated gradual thickening of the medial layer and important formation of neo-intima with deposition of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in the subendothelial layer from day 7 onwards. Transmission electron microscopy showed that SMCs switch from the contractile to synthetic phenotype on day 3 and new elastic lamellae formation occurs from day 7 onwards. Apoptosis markedly increased on day 1, while alpha-actin immunostaining for SMC almost disappeared by day 3. On day 7, cell proliferation reached the highest level and cellular density gradually increased until day 90. The relative magnitude of cellular changes was higher in the intima vs. the media layer (100 vs. 2 times respectively). Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p27(Kip1) and p16(INKA) remained unchanged, whereas p21(Cip1) was gradually downregulated, reaching the lowest levels by day 7 until day 90. Taken together, these data indicate for the first time that p21(Cip1) is the main CDKI protein modulated during the arterialization process the rat model of vein arterialization that may be useful to identify and validate new targets and interventions to improve the long-term patency of vein grafts.

  1. c-Myc represses FOXO3a-mediated transcription of the gene encoding the p27(Kip1) cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi; Mineva, Nora D; Burke, Brian; Jeay, Sébastien; Wu, Min; Shen, Jian; Yang, William; Hann, Stephen R; Sonenshein, Gail E

    2008-08-15

    The p27(Kip1) (p27) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and c-Myc oncoprotein play essential roles in control of cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Induction of p27 (CDKN1B) gene transcription by Forkhead box O proteins such as FOXO3a leads to growth arrest and apoptosis. Previously, we observed that B cell receptor (surface IgM) engagement of WEHI 231 immature B lymphoma cells with an anti-IgM antibody results in activation of FOXO3a, growth arrest and apoptosis. As ectopic c-Myc expression in these cells prevented anti-IgM induction of p27 and cell death, we hypothesized that c-Myc represses FOXO3a-mediated transcription. Here we show that c-Myc inhibits FOXO3a-mediated activation of the p27 promoter in multiple cell lines. The mechanism of this repression was explored using a combination of co-immunoprecipitation, oligonucleotide precipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. The studies demonstrate a functional association of FOXO3a and c-Myc on a proximal Forkhead binding element in the p27 promoter. This association involves the Myc box II domain of c-Myc and the N-terminal DNA-binding portion of FOXO3a. Analysis of publicly available microarray datasets showed an inverse pattern of c-MYC and p27 RNA expression in primary acute myeloid leukemia, prostate cancer and tongue squamous cell carcinoma samples. The inhibition of FOXO3a-mediated activation of the p27 gene by the high aberrant expression of c-Myc in many tumor cells likely contributes to their uncontrolled proliferation and invasive phenotype.

  2. A first-in-human, phase 1, dose-escalation study of dinaciclib, a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, administered weekly in subjects with advanced malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dinaciclib, a small-molecule, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, inhibits cell cycle progression and proliferation in various tumor cell lines in vitro. We conducted an open-label, dose-escalation study to determine the safety, tolerability, and bioactivity of dinaciclib in adults with advanced malignancies. Methods Dinaciclib was administered starting at a dose of 0.33 mg/m2, as a 2-hour intravenous infusion once weekly for 3 weeks (on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle), to determine the maximum administered dose (MAD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D), and safety and tolerability. Pharmacodynamics of dinaciclib were assessed using an ex vivo phytohemagglutinin lymphocyte stimulation assay and immunohistochemistry staining for retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation in skin biopsies. Evidence of antitumor activity was assessed by sequential computed tomography imaging after every 2 treatment cycles. Results Forty-eight subjects with solid tumors were treated. The MAD was found to be 14 mg/m2 and the RP2D was determined to be 12 mg/m2; DLTs at the MAD included orthostatic hypotension and elevated uric acid. Forty-seven (98%) subjects reported adverse events (AEs) across all dose levels; the most common AEs were nausea, anemia, decreased appetite, and fatigue. Dinaciclib administered at the RP2D significantly inhibited lymphocyte proliferation, demonstrating a pharmacodynamic effect. Ten subjects treated at a variety of doses achieved prolonged stable disease for at least 4 treatment cycles. Conclusions Dinaciclib administered every week for 3 weeks (on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle) was generally safe and well tolerated. Initial bioactivity and observed disease stabilization support further evaluation of dinaciclib as a treatment option for patients with advanced solid malignancies. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT00871663 PMID:24131779

  3. Systematic Determination of Human Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK)-9 Interactome Identifies Novel Functions in RNA Splicing Mediated by the DEAD Box (DDX)-5/17 RNA Helicases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Zhao, Yingxin; Kalita, Mridul; Li, Xueling; Jamaluddin, Mohammad; Tian, Bing; Edeh, Chukwudi B; Wiktorowicz, John E; Kudlicki, Andrzej; Brasier, Allan R

    2015-10-01

    Inducible transcriptional elongation is a rapid, stereotypic mechanism for activating immediate early immune defense genes by the epithelium in response to viral pathogens. Here, the recruitment of a multifunctional complex containing the cyclin dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) triggers the process of transcriptional elongation activating resting RNA polymerase engaged with innate immune response (IIR) genes. To identify additional functional activity of the CDK9 complex, we conducted immunoprecipitation (IP) enrichment-stable isotope labeling LC-MS/MS of the CDK9 complex in unstimulated cells and from cells activated by a synthetic dsRNA, polyinosinic/polycytidylic acid [poly (I:C)]. 245 CDK9 interacting proteins were identified with high confidence in the basal state and 20 proteins in four functional classes were validated by IP-SRM-MS. These data identified that CDK9 interacts with DDX 5/17, a family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases, important in alternative RNA splicing of NFAT5, and mH2A1 mRNA two proteins controlling redox signaling. A direct comparison of the basal versus activated state was performed using stable isotope labeling and validated by IP-SRM-MS. Recruited into the CDK9 interactome in response to poly(I:C) stimulation are HSPB1, DNA dependent kinases, and cytoskeletal myosin proteins that exchange with 60S ribosomal structural proteins. An integrated human CDK9 interactome map was developed containing all known human CDK9- interacting proteins. These data were used to develop a probabilistic global map of CDK9-dependent target genes that predicted two functional states controlling distinct cellular functions, one important in immune and stress responses. The CDK9-DDX5/17 complex was shown to be functionally important by shRNA-mediated knockdown, where differential accumulation of alternatively spliced NFAT5 and mH2A1 transcripts and alterations in downstream redox signaling were seen. The requirement of CDK9 for DDX5 recruitment to NFAT5 and mH2A1

  4. The cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activators p35 and p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and alpha-actinin-1 in a calcium-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Dhavan, Rani; Greer, Paul L; Morabito, Maria A; Orlando, Lianna R; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2002-09-15

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a critical regulator of neuronal migration in the developing CNS, and recent studies have revealed a role for Cdk5 in synaptogenesis and regulation of synaptic transmission. Deregulation of Cdk5 has been linked to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Activation of Cdk5 requires its association with a regulatory subunit, and two Cdk5 activators, p35 and p39, have been identified. To gain further insight into the functions of Cdk5, we identified proteins that interact with p39 in a yeast two-hybrid screen. In this study we report that alpha-actinin-1 and the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIalpha), two proteins localized at the postsynaptic density, interact with Cdk5 via their association with p35 and p39. CaMKIIalpha and alpha-actinin-1 bind to distinct regions of p35 and p39 and also can interact with each other. The association of CaMKIIalpha and alpha-actinin-1 to the Cdk5 activators, as well as to each other, is stimulated by calcium. Further, the activation of glutamate receptors increases the association of p35 and p39 with CaMKIIalpha, and the inhibition of CaMKII activation diminishes this effect. The glutamate-mediated increase in association of p35 and CaMKIIalpha is mediated in large part by NMDA receptors, suggesting that cross talk between the Cdk5 and CaMKII signal transduction pathways may be a component of the complex molecular mechanisms contributing to synaptic plasticity, memory, and learning.

  5. Discovery of [4-Amino-2-(1-methanesulfonylpiperidin-4-ylamino)pyrimidin-5-yl](2,3-difluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)methanone (R547), A Potent and Selective Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor with Significiant in Vivo Antitumor Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chu,X.; DePinto, W.; Bartkovitz, D.; So, S.; Vu, B.; Packman, K.; Lukacs, C.; Ding, Q.; Jiang, N.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their cyclin partners are key regulators of the cell cycle. Since deregulation of CDKs is found with high frequency in many human cancer cells, pharmacological inhibition of CDKs with small molecules has the potential to provide an effective strategy for the treatment of cancer. The 2,4-diamino-5-ketopyrimidines 6 reported here represent a novel class of potent and ATP-competitive inhibitors that selectively target the cyclin-dependent kinase family. This diaminopyrimidine core with a substituted 4-piperidine moiety on the C2-amino position and 2-methoxybenzoyl at the C5 position has been identified as the critical structure responsible for the CDK inhibitory activity. Further optimization has led to a good number of analogues that show potent inhibitory activities against CDK1, CDK2, and CDK4 but are inactive against a large panel of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases (K{sub i} > 10 {mu}M). As one of these representative analogues, compound 39 (R547) has the best CDK inhibitory activities (K{sub i} = 0.001, 0.003, and 0.001 M for CDK1, CDK2, and CDK4, respectively) and excellent in vitro cellular potency, inhibiting the growth of various human tumor cell lines including an HCT116 cell line (IC{sub 50} = 0.08 {mu}M). An X-ray crystal structure of 39 bound to CDK2 has been determined in this study, revealing a binding mode that is consistent with our SAR. Compound 39 demonstrates significant in vivo efficacy in the HCT116 human colorectal tumor xenograft model in nude mice with up to 95% tumor growth inhibition. On the basis of its superior overall profile, 39 was chosen for further evaluation and has progressed into Phase I clinical trial for the treatment of cancer.

  6. Expression patterns of cyclins D1, E and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21waf1/cip1, p27kip1 in colorectal carcinoma: correlation with other cell cycle regulators (pRb, p53 and Ki-67 and PCNA) and clinicopathological features.

    PubMed

    Ioachim, E

    2008-11-01

    Aberrations in the cell cycle regulators are common features of many tumours and several have been shown to have prognostic significant in colorectal cancer. The expression patterns of cyclins D1 and E as well as cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21waf1/cip1 and p27kip1 and their interrelationship with other cell cycle checkpoint proteins [p53, pRb, Ki-67 and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)] were investigated in colorectal cancer in order to ascertain coregulation and influence on tumour behaviour or survival. These molecular markers were localisated immunohistochemically using the monoclonal antibodies anticyclin D1 (DCS-6), anticyclin E (13A3), anti-p21 (4D10), anti-p27 (1B4), anti-p53 (DO7), anti-Rb (AB-5), MIB1 and PC10 in colorectal cancer tissue from 97 patients. Data were analysed statistically using the spss software program. Overexpression of cyclin D1, cyclin E and p21waf1/cip1 proteins (>5% positive neoplastic cells) was observed in 5.9%, 30% and 7.2% of the cases respectively. Increased levels of cyclin D1 (p = 0.0001) and p21waf1/cip1 protein (p = 0.03) in tumours with mucous differentiation were observed. Overexpression of cyclin D1 was correlated with tumour stage (p = 0.03), the lymph node involvement (p = 0.02), as well as p21waf1/cip1 protein expression (p < 0.0001). Cyclin E was positively correlated with p21waf1/cip1 (p = 0.014), as well as with the cell proliferation as measured by PCNA-labelling index (p = 0.011) and Ki-67 score (p = 0.007). A positive relationship of p21waf1/cip1 expression with the proliferative-associated index Ki-67 was noted (p = 0.005). Downregulation of p27kip1 was observed in 47.4% of the cases and was correlated with downregulation of pRb (p = 0.002) and PCNA score (p = 0.004). The prognostic significance of cyclins D1, E and CDK inhibitors p21waf1/cip1, p27kip1 in determining the risk of recurrence and overall survival with both univariate (long-rang test) and multivariate (Cox regression) methods

  7. Long non-coding RNA colon cancer-associated transcript 1 functions as a competing endogenous RNA to regulate cyclin-dependent kinase 1 expression by sponging miR-490-3p in hepatocellular carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Dou, Chunqing; Sun, Liyuan; Jin, Xin; Han, Mingming; Zhang, Bao; Li, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm and is one of the most common human cancers. Recently, long non-coding RNAs have been demonstrated to participate in pathogenesis of many diseases including the progression in several cancers. In this study, we found that the long non-coding RNA colon cancer-associated transcript 1 was upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues (p < 0.05), and high colon cancer-associated transcript 1 expression level was positively associated with tumor volume (p < 0.05) and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage (p < 0.05) in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Luciferase reporter assays and RNA-pulldown assays showed that colon cancer-associated transcript 1 is a target of miR-490-3p. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis indicated that colon cancer-associated transcript 1 regulated cyclin-dependent kinase 1 expression as a competing endogenous RNA by sponging miR-490-3p in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Furthermore, colon cancer-associated transcript 1 silencing decreased hepatocellular carcinoma cells proliferation and invasion and overexpression promoted cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. These data demonstrated that the colon cancer-associated transcript 1/miR-490-3p/cyclin-dependent kinase 1 regulatory pathway promotes the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Inhibition of colon cancer-associated transcript 1 expression may be a novel therapeutic strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  8. Nuclear Import of Cdk/Cyclin Complexes: Identification of Distinct Mechanisms for Import of Cdk2/Cyclin E and Cdc2/Cyclin B1

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jonathan D.; Yang, Jing; Truant, Ray; Kornbluth, Sally

    1999-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of nuclear proteins is required for both DNA replication and entry into mitosis. Consequently, most cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)/cyclin complexes are localized to the nucleus when active. Although our understanding of nuclear transport processes has been greatly enhanced by the recent identification of nuclear targeting sequences and soluble nuclear import factors with which they interact, the mechanisms used to target Cdk/cyclin complexes to the nucleus remain obscure; this is in part because these proteins lack obvious nuclear localization sequences. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for Cdk/cyclin transport, we examined nuclear import of fluorescent Cdk2/cyclin E and Cdc2/cyclin B1 complexes in digitonin-permeabilized mammalian cells and also examined potential physical interactions between these Cdks, cyclins, and soluble import factors. We found that the nuclear import machinery recognizes these Cdk/cyclin complexes through direct interactions with the cyclin component. Surprisingly, cyclins E and B1 are imported into nuclei via distinct mechanisms. Cyclin E behaves like a classical basic nuclear localization sequence–containing protein, binding to the α adaptor subunit of the importin-α/β heterodimer. In contrast, cyclin B1 is imported via a direct interaction with a site in the NH2 terminus of importin-β that is distinct from that used to bind importin-α. PMID:9922449

  9. A new screening test for antimitotic compounds using the universal M phase-specific protein kinase, p34cdc2/cyclin Bcdc13, affinity-immobilized on p13suc1-coated microtitration plates.

    PubMed

    Rialet, V; Meijer, L

    1991-01-01

    A universal intracellular factor, the "M phase-Promoting Factor" (MPF), triggers the G2/M transition of the cell cycle in all organisms. This factor displays an easily assayable histone H1 kinase (H1K) activity and is composed of at least two subunits, p34cdc2 (catalytic) and cyclin Bcdc13 (regulatory). We describe here a microtitration plate assay using affinity-immobilized H1K-MPF as a cell cycle-specific target to screen for antimitotic compounds. First, meiotic starfish oocytes were selected as the most convenient and abundant source of M phase extracts containing high levels of H1K. Second, we used the strong and specific interaction between p34cdc2 and p13suc1 to affinity-immobilize H1K-MPF on p13suc1-coated microtitration plates. p13suc1-coated wells specifically retain the M phase kinase, the activity of which is assayed with histone H1 and gamma-32P-ATP. Among 10 microtitration plates, Maxisorp plates (Nunc) proved to be the most efficient at retaining H1K through p13suc1. Experimental conditions to coat the plates with p13suc1, to immobilize and to measure p34cdc2/cyclin Bcdc13 kinase activity, as well as to store p13suc1-precoated plates, have been optimized. Using this system we tested 18 currently used anticancer drugs and S or G2 inhibitors; none of them displayed any inhibitory activity. The microtitration assay has allowed the detection of two H1K inhibitors, isopentenyladenine (I50: 40 microM) and staurosporine (I50: 3.2 nM). This affinity-immobilized H1K-MPF can thus now be used as a simple screening system to detect inhibitors of a major cell cycle-regulating component. This method may prove useful to screen for antimitotic compounds of potential anticancer interest.

  10. Candida albicans Cyclin Clb4 Carries S-Phase Cyclin Activity▿†

    PubMed Central

    Ofir, Ayala; Kornitzer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulators of eukaryotic cell cycle progression. The cyclin subunit activates the CDK and also imparts to the complex, at least in some cases, substrate specificity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an organism in which the roles of individual cyclins are best studied, contains nine cyclins (three G1 cyclins and six B-type cyclins) capable of activating the main cell cycle CDK, Cdc28. Analysis of the genome of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans revealed only two sequences corresponding to B-type cyclins, C. albicans Clb2 (CaClb2) and CaClb4. Notably, no homolog of the S. cerevisiae S-phase-specific cyclins, Clb5/Clb6, could be detected. Here, we performed an in vitro analysis of the activity of CaClb2 and CaClb4 and of three G1 cyclins, as well as an analysis of the phenotype of S. cerevisiae cells expressing CaClb2 or CaClb4 instead of Clb5. Remarkably, replacement of CLB5 by CaCLB4 caused rapid diploidization of S. cerevisiae. In addition, both in vivo and in vitro analyses indicate that, in spite of the higher sequence similarity of CaClb2 to Clb5/Clb6, CaClb4 is the functional homolog of Clb5/Clb6. The activity of a CaClb2/CaClb4 cyclin hybrid suggests that the cyclin box domain of CaClb4 carries the functional specificity of the protein. These results have implications for our understanding of the evolution of specificity of the cell cycle cyclins. PMID:20639412

  11. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) acts as a novel potentiator of cyclin-dependent kinases to enhance cell proliferation independently of its hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Kabuta, Tomohiro; Mitsui, Takeshi; Takahashi, Masaki; Fujiwara, Yuuki; Kabuta, Chihana; Konya, Chiho; Tsuchiya, Yukihiro; Hatanaka, Yusuke; Uchida, Kenko; Hohjoh, Hirohiko; Wada, Keiji

    2013-05-03

    Dysregulation of cell proliferation and the cell cycle are associated with various diseases, such as cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play central roles in cell proliferation and the cell cycle. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is expressed in a restricted range of tissues, including the brain and numerous types of cancer. However, the molecular functions of UCH-L1 remain elusive. In this study, we found that UCH-L1 physically interacts with CDK1, CDK4, and CDK5, enhancing their kinase activity. Using several mutants of UCH-L1, we showed that this enhancement is dependent upon interaction levels between UCH-L1 and CDKs but is independent of the known ubiquitin-related functions of UCH-L1. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that UCH-L1 enhances proliferation of multiple cell types, including human cancer cells. Inhibition of the interaction between UCH-L1 and cell cycle-associated CDK resulted in the abolishment of UCH-L1-induced enhancement of cell proliferation. RNA interference of UCH-L1 reduced the growth of human xenograft tumors in mice. We concluded that UCH-L1 is a novel regulator of the kinase activities of CDKs. We believe that our findings from this study will significantly contribute to our understanding of cell cycle-associated diseases.

  12. Efflux Transporters at the Blood-Brain Barrier Limit Delivery and Efficacy of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/6 Inhibitor Palbociclib (PD-0332991) in an Orthotopic Brain Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Karen E.; Pokorny, Jenny; Mittapalli, Rajendar K.; Bakken, Katrina; Sarkaria, Jann N.

    2015-01-01

    6-Acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-([5-(piperazin-1-yl)pyridin-2-yl]amino)pyrido(2,3-d)pyrimidin-7(8H)-one [palbociclib (PD-0332991)] is a cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and is currently undergoing clinical trials for many solid tumors. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and has limited treatment options. The cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 pathway is commonly dysregulated in GBM and is a promising target in treating this devastating disease. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the delivery of drugs to invasive regions of GBM, where the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein can prevent treatments from reaching the tumor. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms limiting the effectiveness of palbociclib therapy in an orthotopic xenograft model. The in vitro intracellular accumulation results demonstrated that palbociclib is a substrate for both P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein. In vivo studies in transgenic mice confirmed that efflux transport is responsible for the limited brain distribution of palbociclib. There was an ∼115-fold increase in brain exposure at steady state in the transporter deficient mice when compared with wild-type mice, and the efflux inhibitor elacridar significantly increased palbociclib brain distribution. Efficacy studies demonstrated that palbociclib is an effective therapy when GBM22 tumor cells are implanted in the flank, but ineffective in an orthotopic (intracranial) model. Moreover, doses designed to mimic brain exposure were ineffective in treating flank tumors. These results demonstrate that efflux transport in the BBB is involved in limiting the brain distribution of palbociclib and this has critical implications in determining effective dosing regimens of palbociclib therapy in the treatment of brain tumors. PMID:26354993

  13. Proteomic Landscape of Tissue-Specific Cyclin E Functions in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Odajima, Junko; Jung, Piotr; Ndassa-Colday, Yasmine; Ficaro, Scott; Geng, Yan; Marco, Eugenio; Michowski, Wojciech; Wang, Yaoyu E.; DeCaprio, James A.; Litovchick, Larisa; Marto, Jarrod; Sicinski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    E-type cyclins (cyclins E1 and E2) are components of the cell cycle machinery that has been conserved from yeast to humans. The major function of E-type cyclins is to drive cell division. It is unknown whether in addition to their ‘core’ cell cycle functions, E-type cyclins also perform unique tissue-specific roles. Here, we applied high-throughput mass spectrometric analyses of mouse organs to define the repertoire of cyclin E protein partners in vivo. We found that cyclin E interacts with distinct sets of proteins in different compartments. These cyclin E interactors are highly enriched for phosphorylation targets of cyclin E and its catalytic partner, the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2). Among cyclin E interactors we identified several novel tissue-specific substrates of cyclin E-Cdk2 kinase. In proliferating compartments, cyclin E-Cdk2 phosphorylates Lin proteins within the DREAM complex. In the testes, cyclin E-Cdk2 phosphorylates Mybl1 and Dmrtc2, two meiotic transcription factors that represent key regulators of spermatogenesis. In embryonic and adult brains cyclin E interacts with proteins involved in neurogenesis, while in adult brains also with proteins regulating microtubule-based processes and microtubule cytoskeleton. We also used quantitative proteomics to demonstrate re-wiring of the cyclin E interactome upon ablation of Cdk2. This approach can be used to study how protein interactome changes during development or in any pathological state such as aging or cancer. PMID:27828963

  14. Molecular evolution of cyclin proteins in animals and fungi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The passage through the cell cycle is controlled by complexes of cyclins, the regulatory units, with cyclin-dependent kinases, the catalytic units. It is also known that cyclins form several families, which differ considerably in primary structure from one eukaryotic organism to another. Despite these lines of evidence, the relationship between the evolution of cyclins and their function is an open issue. Here we present the results of our study on the molecular evolution of A-, B-, D-, E-type cyclin proteins in animals and fungi. Results We constructed phylogenetic trees for these proteins, their ancestral sequences and analyzed patterns of amino acid replacements. The analysis of infrequently fixed atypical amino acid replacements in cyclins evidenced that accelerated evolution proceeded predominantly during paralog duplication or after it in animals and fungi and that it was related to aromorphic changes in animals. It was shown also that evolutionary flexibility of cyclin function may be provided by consequential reorganization of regions on protein surface remote from CDK binding sites in animal and fungal cyclins and by functional differentiation of paralogous cyclins formed in animal evolution. Conclusions The results suggested that changes in the number and/or nature of cyclin-binding proteins may underlie the evolutionary role of the alterations in the molecular structure of cyclins and their involvement in diverse molecular-genetic events. PMID:21798004

  15. Synergistic effects of AKAP95, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, and Cx43 in the development of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Fengjie; Yuan, Yangyang; Zhi, Xuehong; Huang, Qian; Chen, Yuexin; Zhuang, Wenxin; Zhang, Dengcheng; Teng, Bogang; Kong, Xiangyu; Zhang, Yongxing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expression of A-kinase anchor protein 95 (AKAP95), Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, and Connexin43 (Cx43) in rectal cancer tissues and assess the associations between each of the proteins and pathological parameters, as well as their inter-relationships. Methods: AKAP95, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, and Cx43 protein expression rates were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 50 rectal cancer specimens and 16 pericarcinoma tissues. Results: The positive rates of AKAP95, Cyclin E1, and Cyclin D1 proteins were 54.00 vs. 18.75%, 62.00 vs. 6.25%, and 72.00 vs. 31.25% in rectal cancer specimens and pericarcinoma tissues, respectively, representing statistically significant differences (P < 0.05). The positive rate of Cx43 protein expression in rectal cancer tissues was 44.00% and 62.50% in pericarcinoma tissues, and the difference between them was not significant (P > 0.05). No significant associations were found between protein expression of AKAP95, Cyclin E1, Cyclin D1, and Cx43, and the degree of differentiation, histological type, and lymph node metastasis of rectal cancer (P > 0.05). However, significant correlations were obtained between the expression rates of AKAP95 and Cyclin E1, Cyclin E1 and Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1 and Cx43 protein, and Cyclin D1 and Cx43, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion: AKAP95, Cyclin E1, and Cyclin D1 protein expression rates were significantly higher in rectal cancer tissues compared with pericarcinoma samples, suggesting an association between these proteins and the development and progression of rectal cancer. In addition, the significant correlations between the proteins (AKAP95 and Cyclin E1, Cyclin E1 and Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1 and Cx43 protein, and Cyclin D1 and Cx43) indicate the possible synergistic effects of these factors in the development and progression of rectal cancer. PMID:25973052

  16. Inhibition of P-TEFb (CDK9/Cyclin T) kinase and RNA polymerase II transcription by the coordinated actions of HEXIM1 and 7SK snRNA.

    PubMed

    Yik, Jasper H N; Chen, Ruichuan; Nishimura, Rieko; Jennings, Jennifer L; Link, Andrew J; Zhou, Qiang

    2003-10-01

    The positive transcriptional elongation factor b (P-TEFb), consisting of CDK9 and cyclin T, stimulates transcription by phosphorylating RNA polymerase II. It becomes inactivated when associated with the abundant 7SK snRNA. Here, we show that the 7SK binding alone was not sufficient to inhibit P-TEFb. P-TEFb was inhibited by the HEXIM1 protein in a process that specifically required 7SK for mediating the HEXIM1:P-TEFb interaction. This allowed HEXIM1 to inhibit transcription both in vivo and in vitro. P-TEFb dissociated from HEXIM1 and 7SK in cells undergoing stress response, increasing the level of active P-TEFb for stress-induced transcription. P-TEFb was the predominant HEXIM1-associated protein factor, and thus likely to be the principal target of inhibition coordinated by HEXIM1 and 7SK. Since HEXIM1 expression is induced in cells treated with hexamethylene bisacetamide, a potent inducer of cell differentiation, targeting the general transcription factor P-TEFb by HEXIM1/7SK may contribute to the global control of cell growth and differentiation.

  17. PaKRP, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor from avocado, may facilitate exit from the cell cycle during fruit growth.

    PubMed

    Sabag, Michal; Ben Ari, Giora; Zviran, Tali; Biton, Iris; Goren, Moshe; Dahan, Yardena; Sadka, Avi; Irihimovitch, Vered

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies using 'Hass' avocado cultivar showed that its small-fruit (SF) phenotype is limited by cell number. To explore the molecular components affecting avocado cell production, we isolated four cDNAs encoding: an ICK/KRP protein, known to play cell cycle-regulating roles through modulation of CDK function; two CDK proteins and a D-type cyclin, and monitored their expression patterns, comparing NF (normal fruit) versus SF profiles. The accumulation of PaKRP gradually deceased during growth in both fruit populations. Despite these similarities, SF exhibited higher levels of PaKRP accumulation at early stages of growth. Moreover, in NF, augmented PaKRP expression coincided with a decrease in CDK and PaCYCD1 levels, whereas in SF, enhanced PaKPR expression was coupled with an earlier decline of CDK and PaCYCD1 levels. For both NF and SF, enhanced mesocarp PaKRP transcript accumulation, was associated with elevated abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA catabolites content. Nevertheless, the collective ABA levels, including catabolites, were substantially higher in SF tissues, as compared with NF tissues. Finally, additional expression analysis revealed that in cultured cells, PaKRP could be induced by ABA. Together, our data links PaKRP with exit from the fruit cell cycle and suggest a role for ABA in controlling its expression.

  18. The ability of antigen, but not interleukin-2, to promote n-butyrate-induced T helper 1 cell anergy is associated with increased expression and altered association patterns of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Stephanie K; DeLoose, Annick; Gilbert, Kathleen M

    2002-01-01

    The ability of the cell cycle inhibitor n-butyrate to induce T helper 1 (Th1) cell anergy is dependent upon its ability to block the cell cycle progression of activated Th1 cells in G1. Results reported here show that although both interleukin (IL)-2 and antigen (Ag) push Th1 cells into G1 where they are blocked by n-butyrate, only the Ag-activated Th1 cells demonstrate functional anergy once the n-butyrate has been removed from the culture. Because n-butyrate-induced Th1 cell anergy has been linked to increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip1, mechanistic experiments focused on the role of these inhibitors. It was found that when Th1 cells were reincubated in Ag-stimulated secondary cultures, the Th1 cells previously exposed to Ag and n-butyrate (anergic Th1 cells) demonstrated a cumulative increase in p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 when compared with Th1 cells previously exposed to recombinant (r)IL-2 and n-butyrate (non-anergic Th1 cells). p27Kip1 in the anergic Th1 cells from the secondary cultures was associated with cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks). In contrast, p21Cip1 in the anergic Th1 cells, although present at high levels, did not associate significantly with cdks, suggesting that p21Cip1 may target some other protein in the anergic Th1 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that Th1 cell exposure to Ag and n-butyrate, rather than IL-2 and n-butyrate, is needed to induce the cumulative increase in p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 that is associated with the proliferative unresponsiveness in anergic Th1 cells. In addition, p21Cip1 may inhibit proliferation in the anergic Th1 cells by some mechanism other than suppression of cdks that is unique to the induction of Th1 cell anergy. PMID:12153511

  19. The ability of antigen, but not interleukin-2, to promote n-butyrate-induced T helper 1 cell anergy is associated with increased expression and altered association patterns of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Stephanie K; DeLoose, Annick; Gilbert, Kathleen M

    2002-08-01

    The ability of the cell cycle inhibitor n-butyrate to induce T helper 1 (Th1) cell anergy is dependent upon its ability to block the cell cycle progression of activated Th1 cells in G1. Results reported here show that although both interleukin (IL)-2 and antigen (Ag) push Th1 cells into G1 where they are blocked by n-butyrate, only the Ag-activated Th1 cells demonstrate functional anergy once the n-butyrate has been removed from the culture. Because n-butyrate-induced Th1 cell anergy has been linked to increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip1, mechanistic experiments focused on the role of these inhibitors. It was found that when Th1 cells were reincubated in Ag-stimulated secondary cultures, the Th1 cells previously exposed to Ag and n-butyrate (anergic Th1 cells) demonstrated a cumulative increase in p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 when compared with Th1 cells previously exposed to recombinant (r)IL-2 and n-butyrate (non-anergic Th1 cells). p27Kip1 in the anergic Th1 cells from the secondary cultures was associated with cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks). In contrast, p21Cip1 in the anergic Th1 cells, although present at high levels, did not associate significantly with cdks, suggesting that p21Cip1 may target some other protein in the anergic Th1 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that Th1 cell exposure to Ag and n-butyrate, rather than IL-2 and n-butyrate, is needed to induce the cumulative increase in p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 that is associated with the proliferative unresponsiveness in anergic Th1 cells. In addition, p21Cip1 may inhibit proliferation in the anergic Th1 cells by some mechanism other than suppression of cdks that is unique to the induction of Th1 cell anergy.

  20. Regulation of Exit from Quiescence by p27 and Cyclin D1-CDK4

    PubMed Central

    Ladha, Mohamed H.; Lee, Kwang Y.; Upton, Todd M.; Reed, Michael F.; Ewen, Mark E.

    1998-01-01

    The synthesis of cyclin D1 and its assembly with cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) to form an active complex is a rate-limiting step in progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Using an activated allele of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1), we show that this kinase plays a significant role in positively regulating the expression of cyclin D1. This was found both in quiescent serum-starved cells and in cells expressing dominant-negative Ras. Despite the observation that cyclin D1 is a target of MEK1, in cycling cells, activated MEK1, but not cyclin D1, is capable of overcoming a G1 arrest induced by Ras inactivation. Either wild-type or catalytically inactive CDK4 cooperates with cyclin D1 in reversing the G1 arrest induced by inhibition of Ras activity. In quiescent NIH 3T3 cells expressing either ectopic cyclin D1 or activated MEK1, cyclin D1 is able to efficiently associate with CDK4; however, the complex is inactive. A significant percentage of the cyclin D1-CDK4 complexes are associated with p27 in serum-starved activated MEK1 or cyclin D1 cell lines. Reduction of p27 levels by expression of antisense p27 allows for S-phase entry from quiescence in NIH 3T3 cells expressing ectopic cyclin D1, but not in parental cells. PMID:9774675

  1. Differential regulation of cyclins D1 and D3 in hepatocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Rickheim, David G; Nelsen, Christopher J; Fassett, John T; Timchenko, Nikolai A; Hansen, Linda K; Albrecht, Jeffrey H

    2002-07-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that cyclin D1 plays a pivotal role in the control of the hepatocyte cell cycle in response to mitogenic stimuli, whereas the closely related protein cyclin D3 has not been extensively evaluated. In the current study, we examined the regulation of cyclins D1 and D3 during hepatocyte proliferation in vivo after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH) and in culture. In contrast to cyclin D1, which was nearly undetectable in quiescent liver and substantially up-regulated after PH, cyclin D3 was constitutively expressed and induced only modestly. In the regenerating liver, the concentration of cyclin D3 was only about 10% of that of cyclin D1. Cyclin D1 formed complexes primarily with cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4), which were markedly activated in the regenerating liver and readily sequestered the cell cycle inhibitory proteins, p21 and p27. Cyclin D3 bound to both cdk4 and cdk6. Cyclin D3/cdk6 activity was readily detectable in quiescent liver and changed little after PH, and this complex appeared to play a minor role in sequestering p21 and p27. In cultured hepatocytes, epidermal growth factor or insulin had little effect, but the combination of these agents substantially induced cyclin D1 and cell cycle progression. Inhibition of Mek1 or phosphoinositide 3-kinase markedly inhibited cyclin D1 expression and replication. In contrast, cyclin D3 was expressed in the absence of mitogens and was only modestly affected by these manipulations. In addition, growth-inhibitory extracellular matrix conditions inhibited cyclin D1 but not cyclin D3 expression. In conclusion, these results support the concept that cyclin D1 is critically regulated by extracellular stimuli that control proliferation, whereas cyclin D3 is regulated through different pathways and plays a distinct role in the liver.

  2. A Novel Non-agonist Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) Ligand UHC1 Blocks PPARγ Phosphorylation by Cyclin-dependent Kinase 5 (CDK5) and Improves Insulin Sensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun-Sil; Kim, Eun Sun; Koh, Minseob; Lee, Soo-Jin; Lim, Donghyun; Yang, Yong Ryoul; Jang, Hyun-Jun; Seo, Kyung-ah; Min, Sang-Hyun; Lee, In Hee; Park, Seung Bum; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Choi, Jang Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Thiazolidinedione class of anti-diabetic drugs which are known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) ligands have been used to treat metabolic disorders, but thiazolidinediones can also cause several severe side effects, including congestive heart failure, fluid retention, and weight gain. In this study, we describe a novel synthetic PPARγ ligand UNIST HYUNDAI Compound 1 (UHC1) that binds tightly to PPARγ without the classical agonism and which blocks cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5)-mediated PPARγ phosphorylation. We modified the non-agonist PPARγ ligand SR1664 chemically to improve its solubility and then developed a novel PPARγ ligand, UHC1. According to our docking simulation, UHC1 occupied the ligand-binding site of PPARγ with a higher docking score than SR1664. In addition, UHC1 more potently blocked CDK5-mediated PPARγ phosphorylation at Ser-273. Surprisingly, UHC1 treatment effectively ameliorated the inflammatory response both in vitro and in high-fat diet-fed mice. Furthermore, UHC1 treatment dramatically improved insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed mice without causing fluid retention and weight gain. Taken together, compared with SR1664, UHC1 exhibited greater beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism by blocking CDK5-mediated PPARγ phosphorylation, and these data indicate that UHC1 could be a novel therapeutic agent for use in type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. PMID:25100724

  3. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 7 Controls mRNA Synthesis by Affecting Stability of Preinitiation Complexes, Leading to Altered Gene Expression, Cell Cycle Progression, and Survival of Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Timothy W. R.; Baumgart, Karen; Eickhoff, Jan; Albert, Thomas; Antrecht, Claudia; Lemcke, Sarah; Klebl, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) activates cell cycle CDKs and is a member of the general transcription factor TFIIH. Although there is substantial evidence for an active role of CDK7 in mRNA synthesis and associated processes, the degree of its influence on global and gene-specific transcription in mammalian species is unclear. In the current study, we utilize two novel inhibitors with high specificity for CDK7 to demonstrate a restricted but robust impact of CDK7 on gene transcription in vivo and in in vitro-reconstituted reactions. We distinguish between relative low- and high-dose responses and relate them to distinct molecular mechanisms and altered physiological responses. Low inhibitor doses cause rapid clearance of paused RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) molecules and sufficed to cause genome-wide alterations in gene expression, delays in cell cycle progression at both the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, and diminished survival of human tumor cells. Higher doses and prolonged inhibition led to strong reductions in RNAPII carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation, eventual activation of the p53 program, and increased cell death. Together, our data reason for a quantitative contribution of CDK7 to mRNA synthesis, which is critical for cellular homeostasis. PMID:25047832

  4. Transcriptional analysis of an E2F gene signature as a biomarker of activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor PHA-793887 in tumor and skin biopsies from a phase I clinical study.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Giuseppe; Bosotti, Roberta; Ciomei, Marina; Brasca, Maria G; Calogero, Raffaele; Mercurio, Ciro; Fiorentini, Francesco; Bertolotti, Matteo; Scacheri, Emanuela; Scaburri, Angela; Galvani, Arturo; Pesenti, Enrico; De Baere, Thierry; Soria, Jean-Charles; Lazar, Vladimir; Isacchi, Antonella

    2010-05-01

    A transcriptional signature of the pan-cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor PHA-793887 was evaluated as a potential pharmacodynamic and/or response biomarker in tumor and skin biopsies from patients treated in a phase I clinical study. We first analyzed the expression of a number of known E2F-dependent genes that were predicted to be modulated after Cdk2 and Cdk4 inhibition in xenograft tumor and skin samples of mice treated with the compound. This panel of 58 selected genes was then analyzed in biopsies from seven patients treated with PHA-793887 in a phase I dose escalation clinical trial in solid tumors. Quantitative real-time PCR or microarray analyses were done in paired skin and tumor biopsies obtained at baseline and at cycle 1. Analysis by quantitative real-time PCR of the signature in skin biopsies of patients treated at three different doses showed significant transcriptional downregulation with a dose-response correlation. These data show that PHA-793887 modulates genes involved in cell cycle regulation and proliferation in a clinical setting. The observed changes are consistent with its mechanism of action and correlate with target modulation in skin and with clinical benefit in tumors.

  5. Cyclin A is required at two points in the human cell cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, M; Pepperkok, R; Verde, F; Ansorge, W; Draetta, G

    1992-01-01

    Cyclins play a fundamental role in regulating cell cycle events in all eukaryotic cells. The human cyclin A gene was identified as the site of integration of hepatitis B virus in a hepatocarcinoma cell line; in addition, cyclin A is associated with the E2F transcription factor in a complex which is dissociated by the E1A oncogene product. Such findings suggest that cyclin A is a target for oncogenic signals. We have now found that DNA synthesis and entry into mitosis are inhibited in human cells microinjected with anti-cyclin A antibodies at distinct times. Cyclin A binds both cdk2 and cdc2, giving two distinct cyclin A kinase activities, one appearing in S phase, the other in G2. These results suggest that cyclin A defines novel control points of the human cell cycle. Images PMID:1312467

  6. Cyclin E Uses Cdc6 as a Chromatin-Associated Receptor Required for DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Furstenthal, Laura; Kaiser, Brett K.; Swanson, Craig; Jackson, Peter K.

    2001-01-01

    Using an in vitro chromatin assembly assay in Xenopus egg extract, we show that cyclin E binds specifically and saturably to chromatin in three phases. In the first phase, the origin recognition complex and Cdc6 prereplication proteins, but not the minichromosome maintenance complex, are necessary and biochemically sufficient for ATP-dependent binding of cyclin E–Cdk2 to DNA. We find that cyclin E binds the NH2-terminal region of Cdc6 containing Cy–Arg-X-Leu (RXL) motifs. Cyclin E proteins with mutated substrate selection (Met-Arg-Ala-Ile-Leu; MRAIL) motifs fail to bind Cdc6, fail to compete with endogenous cyclin E–Cdk2 for chromatin binding, and fail to rescue replication in cyclin E–depleted extracts. Cdc6 proteins with mutations in the three consensus RXL motifs are quantitatively deficient for cyclin E binding and for rescuing replication in Cdc6-depleted extracts. Thus, the cyclin E–Cdc6 interaction that localizes the Cdk2 complex to chromatin is important for DNA replication. During the second phase, cyclin E–Cdk2 accumulates on chromatin, dependent on polymerase activity. In the third phase, cyclin E is phosphorylated, and the cyclin E–Cdk2 complex is displaced from chromatin in mitosis. In vitro, mitogen-activated protein kinase and especially cyclin B–Cdc2, but not the polo-like kinase 1, remove cyclin E–Cdk2 from chromatin. Rebinding of hyperphosphorylated cyclin E–Cdk2 to interphase chromatin requires dephosphorylation, and the Cdk kinase–directed Cdc14 phosphatase is sufficient for this dephosphorylation in vitro. These three phases of cyclin E association with chromatin may facilitate the diverse activities of cyclin E–Cdk2 in initiating replication, blocking rereplication, and allowing resetting of origins after mitosis. PMID:11257126

  7. Phosphorylation of synaptic GTPase-activating protein (synGAP) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) alters the ratio of its GAP activity toward Ras and Rap GTPases.

    PubMed

    Walkup, Ward G; Washburn, Lorraine; Sweredoski, Michael J; Carlisle, Holly J; Graham, Robert L; Hess, Sonja; Kennedy, Mary B

    2015-02-20

    synGAP is a neuron-specific Ras and Rap GTPase-activating protein (GAP) found in high concentrations in the postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction from the mammalian forebrain. We have previously shown that, in situ in the PSD fraction or in recombinant form in Sf9 cell membranes, synGAP is phosphorylated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), another prominent component of the PSD. Here, we show that recombinant synGAP (r-synGAP), lacking 102 residues at the N terminus, can be purified in soluble form and is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) as well as by CaMKII. Phosphorylation of r-synGAP by CaMKII increases its HRas GAP activity by 25% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 76%. Conversely, phosphorylation by CDK5 increases r-synGAP's HRas GAP activity by 98% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 20%. Thus, phosphorylation by both kinases increases synGAP activity; CaMKII shifts the relative GAP activity toward inactivation of Rap1, and CDK5 shifts the relative activity toward inactivation of HRas. GAP activity toward Rap2 is not altered by phosphorylation by either kinase. CDK5 phosphorylates synGAP primarily at two sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802. Phosphorylation at Ser-773 inhibits r-synGAP activity, and phosphorylation at Ser-802 increases it. However, the net effect of concurrent phosphorylation of both sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802, is an increase in GAP activity. synGAP is phosphorylated at Ser-773 and Ser-802 in the PSD fraction, and its phosphorylation by CDK5 and CaMKII is differentially regulated by activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in cultured neurons.

  8. Phosphorylation of Synaptic GTPase-activating Protein (synGAP) by Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II (CaMKII) and Cyclin-dependent Kinase 5 (CDK5) Alters the Ratio of Its GAP Activity toward Ras and Rap GTPases*

    PubMed Central

    Walkup, Ward G.; Washburn, Lorraine; Sweredoski, Michael J.; Carlisle, Holly J.; Graham, Robert L.; Hess, Sonja; Kennedy, Mary B.

    2015-01-01

    synGAP is a neuron-specific Ras and Rap GTPase-activating protein (GAP) found in high concentrations in the postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction from the mammalian forebrain. We have previously shown that, in situ in the PSD fraction or in recombinant form in Sf9 cell membranes, synGAP is phosphorylated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), another prominent component of the PSD. Here, we show that recombinant synGAP (r-synGAP), lacking 102 residues at the N terminus, can be purified in soluble form and is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) as well as by CaMKII. Phosphorylation of r-synGAP by CaMKII increases its HRas GAP activity by 25% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 76%. Conversely, phosphorylation by CDK5 increases r-synGAP's HRas GAP activity by 98% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 20%. Thus, phosphorylation by both kinases increases synGAP activity; CaMKII shifts the relative GAP activity toward inactivation of Rap1, and CDK5 shifts the relative activity toward inactivation of HRas. GAP activity toward Rap2 is not altered by phosphorylation by either kinase. CDK5 phosphorylates synGAP primarily at two sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802. Phosphorylation at Ser-773 inhibits r-synGAP activity, and phosphorylation at Ser-802 increases it. However, the net effect of concurrent phosphorylation of both sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802, is an increase in GAP activity. synGAP is phosphorylated at Ser-773 and Ser-802 in the PSD fraction, and its phosphorylation by CDK5 and CaMKII is differentially regulated by activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in cultured neurons. PMID:25533468

  9. Artemisinin triggers a G1 cell cycle arrest of human Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells and inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase-4 promoter activity and expression by disrupting nuclear factor-κB transcriptional signaling.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kalvin Q; Tin, Antony S; Firestone, Gary L

    2014-03-01

    Relatively little is known about the antiproliferative effects of artemisinin, a naturally occurring antimalarial compound from Artemisia annua, or sweet wormwood, in human endometrial cancer cells. Artemisinin induced a G1 cell cycle arrest in cultured human Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells and downregulated cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) and CDK4 transcript and protein levels. Analysis of CDK4 promoter-luciferase reporter constructs showed that the artemisinin ablation of CDK4 gene expression was accounted for by the loss of CDK4 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that artemisinin inhibited nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) subunit p65 and p50 interactions with the endogenous Ishikawa cell CDK4 promoter. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that artemisinin disrupts endogenous p65 and p50 nuclear translocation through increased protein-protein interactions with IκB-α, an NF-κB inhibitor, and disrupts its interaction with the CDK4 promoter, leading to a loss of CDK4 gene expression. Artemisinin treatment stimulated the cellular levels of IκB-α protein without altering the level of IκB-α transcripts. Finally, expression of exogenous p65 resulted in the accumulation of this NF-κB subunit in the nucleus of artemisinin-treated and artemisinin-untreated cells, reversed the artemisinin downregulation of CDK4 protein expression and promoter activity, and prevented the artemisinin-induced G1 cell cycle arrest. Taken together, our results demonstrate that a key event in the artemisinin antiproliferative effects in endometrial cancer cells is the transcriptional downregulation of CDK4 expression by disruption of NF-κB interactions with the CDK4 promoter.

  10. Mechanisms and regulation of the degradation of cyclin B.

    PubMed Central

    Hershko, A

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of the cyclin B subunit of protein kinase Cdk1/cyclin B is required for inactivation of the kinase and exit from mitosis. Cyclin B is degraded by the ubiquitin pathway, a system involved in most selective protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. In this pathway, proteins are targeted for degradation by ligation to ubiquitin, a process carried out by the sequential action of three enzymes: the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, a ubiquitin-carrier protein E2 and a ubiquitin-protein ligase E3. In the system responsible for cyclin B degradation, the E3-like function is carried out by a large complex called cyclosome or anaphase-promoting complex (APC). In the early embryonic cell cycles, the cyclosome is inactive in the interphase, but becomes active at the end of mitosis. Activation requires phosphorylation of the cyclosome/APC by protein kinase Cdk1/cyclin B. The lag kinetics of cyclosome activation may be explained by Suc1-assisted multiple phosphorylations of partly phosphorylated complex. The presence of a Fizzy/Cdc20-like protein is necessary for maximal activity of the mitotic form of cyclosome/APC in cyclin-ubiquitin ligation. PMID:10582242

  11. Distinct and Overlapping Requirements for Cyclins A, B, and B3 in Drosophila Female Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Bourouh, Mohammed; Dhaliwal, Rajdeep; Rana, Ketki; Sinha, Sucheta; Guo, Zhihao; Swan, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis, like mitosis, depends on the activity of the cyclin dependent kinase Cdk1 and its cyclin partners. Here, we examine the specific requirements for the three mitotic cyclins, A, B, and B3 in meiosis of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that all three cyclins contribute redundantly to nuclear envelope breakdown, though cyclin A appears to make the most important individual contribution. Cyclin A is also required for biorientation of homologs in meiosis I. Cyclin B3, as previously reported, is required for anaphase progression in meiosis I and in meiosis II. We find that it also plays a redundant role, with cyclin A, in preventing DNA replication during meiosis. Cyclin B is required for maintenance of the metaphase I arrest in mature oocytes, for spindle organization, and for timely progression through the second meiotic division. It is also essential for polar body formation at the completion of meiosis. With the exception of its redundant role in meiotic maturation, cyclin B appears to function independently of cyclins A and B3 through most of meiosis. We conclude that the three mitotic cyclin-Cdk complexes have distinct and overlapping functions in Drosophila female meiosis. PMID:27652889

  12. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the evolution and diversification of cyclins in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhaowu; Wu, Yuliang; Jin, Jialu; Yan, Jun; Kuang, Shuzhen; Zhou, Mi; Zhang, Yuexuan; Guo, An-Yuan

    2013-03-01

    Cyclins are a family of diverse proteins that play fundamental roles in regulating cell cycle progression in Eukaryotes. Cyclins have been identified from protists to higher Eukaryotes, while its evolution remains vague and the findings turn out controversial. Current classification of cyclins is mainly based on their functions, which may not be appropriate for the systematic evolutionary analysis. In this work, we performed comparative and phylogenetic analysis of cyclins to investigate their classification, origin and evolution. Cyclins originated in early Eukaryotes and evolved from protists to plants, fungi and animals. Based on the phylogenetic tree, cyclins can be divided into three major groups designated as the group I, II and III with different functions and features. Group I plays key roles in cell cycle, group II varied in actions are kingdom (plant, fungi and animal) specific, and group III functions in transcription regulation. Our results showed that the dominating cyclins (group I) diverged from protists to plants, fungi and animals, while divergence of the other cyclins (groups II and III) has occurred in protists. We also discussed the evolutionary relationships between cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and found that the cyclins have undergone divergence in protists before the divergence of animal CDKs. This reclassification and evolutionary analysis of cyclins might facilitate understanding eukaryotic cell cycle control.

  13. Regulation of cyclin E stability in Xenopus laevis embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt-(Webb), Yekaterina

    Cyclin-Cdk complexes positively regulate cell cycle progression. Cyclins are regulatory subunits that bind to and activate cyclin-dependent kinases or Cdks. Cyclin E associates with Cdk2 to mediate G1/S phase transition of the cell cycle. Cyclin E is overexpressed in breast, lung, skin, gastrointestinal, cervical, and ovarian cancers. Its overexpression correlates with poor patient prognosis and is involved in the etiology of breast cancer. We have been studying how this protein is downregulated during development in order to determine if these mechanisms are disrupted during tumorigenesis, leading to its overexpression. Using Xenopus laevis embryos as a model, we have shown previously that during the first 12 embryonic cell cycles Cyclin E levels remain constant yet Cdk2 activity oscillates twice per cell cycle. Cyclin E is abruptly destabilized by an undefined mechanism after the 12th cell cycle, which corresponds to the midblastula transition (MBT). Based on work our work and work by others, we have hypothesized that differential phosphorylation and a change in localization result in Cyclin E degradation by the 26S proteasome at the MBT. To test this, we generated a series of point mutations in conserved threonine/serine residues implicated in degradation of human Cyclin E. Using Western blot analysis, we show that similarly to human Cyclin E, mutation of these residues to unphosphorylatable alanine stabilizes Cyclin E past the MBT when they are expressed in vivo. Cyclin E localization was studied by immunofluorescence analysis of endogenous and exogenous protein in pre-MBT, MBT, and post-MBT embryos. In addition, we developed a novel method of conjugating recombinant His6-tagged Cyclin E to fluorescent (CdSe)ZnS nanoparticles (quantum dots) capped with dihydrolipoic acid. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize His6Cyclin E-quantum dot complexes inside embryo cells in real time. We found that re-localization at the MBT from the cytoplasm to the nucleus

  14. Orphan kinases turn eccentric

    PubMed Central

    Mikolcevic, Petra; Rainer, Johannes; Geley, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    PCTAIRE kinases (PCTK) are a highly conserved, but poorly characterized, subgroup of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). They are characterized by a conserved catalytic domain flanked by N- and C-terminal extensions that are involved in cyclin binding. Vertebrate genomes contain three highly similar PCTAIRE kinases (PCTK1,2,3, a.k.a., CDK16,17,18), which are most abundant in post-mitotic cells in brain and testis. Consistent with this restricted expression pattern, PCTK1 (CDK16) has recently been shown to be essential for spermatogenesis. PCTAIREs are activated by cyclin Y (CCNY), a highly conserved single cyclin fold protein. By binding to N-myristoylated CCNY, CDK16 is targeted to the plasma membrane. Unlike conventional cyclin-CDK interactions, binding of CCNY to CDK16 not only requires the catalytic domain, but also domains within the N-terminal extension. Interestingly, phosphorylation within this domain blocks CCNY binding, providing a novel means of cyclin-CDK regulation. By using these functional characteristics, we analyzed “PCTAIRE” sequence containing protein kinase genes in genomes of various organisms and found that CCNY and CCNY-dependent kinases are restricted to eumetazoa and possibly evolved along with development of a central nervous system. Here, we focus on the structure and regulation of PCTAIREs and discuss their established functions. PMID:22895054

  15. Cyclin A2 is an RNA binding protein that controls Mre11 mRNA translation

    PubMed Central

    Kanakkanthara, Arun; Jeganathan, Karthik B.; Limzerwala, Jazeel F.; Baker, Darren J.; Hamada, Masakazu; Nam, Hyun-Ja; van Deursen, Willemijn H.; Hamada, Naomi; Naylor, Ryan M.; Becker, Nicole A.; Davies, Brian A.; van Ree, Janine H.; Mer, Georges; Shapiro, Virginia S.; Maher, L. James; Katzmann, David J.; van Deursen, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin A2 activates the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk1 and Cdk2 and is expressed at elevated levels from S phase until early mitosis. We found that mutant mice that cannot elevate cyclin A2 are chromosomally unstable and tumor-prone. Underlying the chromosomal instability is a failure to up-regulate the meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11) nuclease in S phase, which leads to impaired resolution of stalled replication forks, insufficient repair of double-stranded DNA breaks, and improper segregation of sister chromosomes. Unexpectedly, cyclin A2 controlled Mre11 abundance through a C-terminal RNA binding domain that selectively and directly binds Mre11 transcripts to mediate polysome loading and translation.These data reveal cyclin A2 as a mechanistically diverse regulator of DNA replication combining multifaceted kinase-dependent functions with a kinase-independent, RNA binding–dependent role that ensures adequate repair of common replication errors. PMID:27708105

  16. The PP2A-B56 phosphatase opposes cyclin E autocatalytic degradation via site-specific dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ryan J; Swanger, Jherek; Hughes, Bridget T; Clurman, Bruce E

    2017-01-30

    Cyclin E, in conjunction with its catalytic partner cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), regulates cell cycle progression as cells exit quiescence and enter S-phase. Multiple mechanisms control cyclin E periodicity during the cell cycle, including phosphorylation-dependent cyclin E ubiquitylation by the SCF(Fbw7) ubiquitin ligase. Serine 384 (S384) is the critical cyclin E phosphorylation site that stimulates Fbw7 binding and cyclin E ubiquitylation and degradation. Because S384 is autophosphorylated by bound CDK2, this presents a paradox as to how cyclin E can evade autocatalytically induced degradation in order to phosphorylate its other substrates. We found that S384 phosphorylation is dynamically regulated in cells, and that cyclin E is specifically dephosphorylated at S384 by the PP2A-B56 phosphatase, thereby uncoupling cyclin E degradation from cyclin E-CDK2 activity. Furthermore, the rate of S384 dephosphorylation is high in interphase but low in mitosis. This provides a mechanism whereby interphase cells can oppose autocatalytic cyclin E degradation and maintain cyclin E-CDK2 activity, while also enabling cyclin E destruction in mitosis, when inappropriate cyclin E expression is genotoxic.

  17. A roller coaster ride with the mitotic cyclins.

    PubMed

    Fung, Tsz Kan; Poon, Randy Y C

    2005-06-01

    Cyclins are discovered as proteins that accumulate progressively through interphase and disappear abruptly at mitosis during each cell cycle. In mammalian cells, cyclin A accumulates from late G1 phase and is destroyed before metaphase, and cyclin B is destroyed slightly later at anaphase. The abundance of the mitotic cyclins is mainly regulated at the levels of transcription and proteolysis. Transcription is stimulated and repressed by several transcription factors, including B-MYB, E2F, FOXM1, and NF-Y. Elements in the promoter, including CCRE/CDE and CHR, are in part responsible for the cell cycle oscillation of transcription. Destruction of the mitotic cyclins is carried out by the ubiquitin ligases APC/C(CDC20) and APC/C(CDH1). Central to our knowledge is the understanding of how APC/C is turned on from anaphase to early G1 phase, and turned off from late G1 till the spindle-assembly checkpoint is deactivated in metaphase. Reciprocal actions of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) on APC/C, as well as on the SCF complexes ensure that the mitotic cyclins are destroyed only at the proper time.

  18. Med13p prevents mitochondrial fission and programmed cell death in yeast through nuclear retention of cyclin C.

    PubMed

    Khakhina, Svetlana; Cooper, Katrina F; Strich, Randy

    2014-09-15

    The yeast cyclin C-Cdk8 kinase forms a complex with Med13p to repress the transcription of genes involved in the stress response and meiosis. In response to oxidative stress, cyclin C displays nuclear to cytoplasmic relocalization that triggers mitochondrial fission and promotes programmed cell death. In this report, we demonstrate that Med13p mediates cyclin C nuclear retention in unstressed cells. Deleting MED13 allows aberrant cytoplasmic cyclin C localization and extensive mitochondrial fragmentation. Loss of Med13p function resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and hypersensitivity to oxidative stress-induced programmed cell death that were dependent on cyclin C. The regulatory system controlling cyclin C-Med13p interaction is complex. First, a previous study found that cyclin C phosphorylation by the stress-activated MAP kinase Slt2p is required for nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation. This study found that cyclin C-Med13p association is impaired when the Slt2p target residue is substituted with a phosphomimetic amino acid. The second step involves Med13p destruction mediated by the 26S proteasome and cyclin C-Cdk8p kinase activity. In conclusion, Med13p maintains mitochondrial structure, function, and normal oxidative stress sensitivity through cyclin C nuclear retention. Releasing cyclin C from the nucleus involves both its phosphorylation by Slt2p coupled with Med13p destruction.

  19. Cyclin B1–Cdk1 Activation Continues after Centrosome Separation to Control Mitotic Progression

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Arne; van Zon, Wouter; Karlsson Rosenthal, Christina; Wolthuis, Rob M. F

    2007-01-01

    Activation of cyclin B1–cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), triggered by a positive feedback loop at the end of G2, is the key event that initiates mitotic entry. In metaphase, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome–dependent destruction of cyclin B1 inactivates Cdk1 again, allowing mitotic exit and cell division. Several models describe Cdk1 activation kinetics in mitosis, but experimental data on how the activation proceeds in mitotic cells have largely been lacking. We use a novel approach to determine the temporal development of cyclin B1–Cdk1 activity in single cells. By quantifying both dephosphorylation of Cdk1 and phosphorylation of the Cdk1 target anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome 3, we disclose how cyclin B1–Cdk1 continues to be activated after centrosome separation. Importantly, we discovered that cytoplasmic cyclin B1–Cdk1 activity can be maintained even when cyclin B1 translocates to the nucleus in prophase. These experimental data are fitted into a model describing cyclin B1–Cdk1 activation in human cells, revealing a striking resemblance to a bistable circuit. In line with the observed kinetics, cyclin B1–Cdk1 levels required to enter mitosis are lower than the amount of cyclin B1–Cdk1 needed for mitotic progression. We propose that gradually increasing cyclin B1–Cdk1 activity after centrosome separation is critical to coordinate mitotic progression. PMID:17472438

  20. Aberrant expression of cyclin D1 in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kazushi; Fry, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin D1 binds and activates cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6 (Cdk4/6) to phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (RB) family proteins, relieving E2F/DPs from the negative restraint of RB proteins and histone deacetylases. The cyclin D-Cdk4/6 complexes activate cyclin E/Cdk2 through titration of the Cdk inhibitors p21Cip1/p27Kip1. Cyclin E/Cdk2 further phosphorylates RBs, thereby activating E2F/DPs, and cells enter the S phase of the cell cycle. Cyclin D-Cdk4/6 also phosphorylates MEP50 subunit of the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), which cooperates with cyclin D1 to drive lymphomagenesis in vivo. Activated PRMPT5 causes arginine methylation of p53 to suppress expression of pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative target genes, explaining the molecular mechanism for tumorigenesis. Cyclin D1 physically interacts with transcription factors such as estrogen receptor, androgen receptor, and Myb family proteins to regulate gene expression in Cdk-independent fashion. Dmp1 is a Myb-like protein that quenches the oncogenic signals from activated Ras or HER2 by inducing Arf/p53-dependent cell cycle arrest. Cyclin D1 binds to Dmp1α to activate both Arf and Ink4a promoters to induce cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in non-transformed cells to prevent them from neoplastic transformation. Dmp1-deficiency significantly accelerates mouse mammary tumorigenesis with reduced apoptosis and increased metastasis. Cyclin D1 interferes with ligand activation of PPARγ involved in cellular differentiation; it also physically interacts with histone deacetylases (HDACs) and p300 to repress gene expression. It has also been shown that cyclin D1 accelerates tumorigenesis through transcriptional activation of miR-17/20 and Dicer1 which, in turn, represses cyclin D1 expression. Identification of cyclin D1-binding proteins/promoters will be essential for further clarification of its biological activities. PMID:28090171

  1. Expression of cyclins E1 and E2 during mouse development and in neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Yan; Yu, Qunyan; Whoriskey, Wendy; Dick, Fred; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Ford, Heide L.; Biswas, Debajit K.; Pardee, Arthur B.; Amati, Bruno; Jacks, Tyler; Richardson, Andrea; Dyson, Nicholas; Sicinski, Piotr

    2001-01-01

    Cyclin E1 (formerly called cyclin E) and the recently described cyclin E2 belong to the family of E-type cyclins that operate during the G1/S phase progression in mammalian cells. The two E-cyclins share a catalytic partner, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), and activate their associated kinase activities at similar times during cell cycle progression. Despite these similarities, it is unknown whether the two proteins perform distinct functions, or, alternatively, they control S-phase entry of different cell types in a tissue-specific fashion. To start addressing in vivo functions of E-cyclins, we determined the expression pattern of cyclins E1 and E2 during normal mouse development. We found that the two E-cyclins showed very similar patterns of expression; both were expressed within the proliferating compartment during embryo development. Analyses of cells and tissues lacking members of the retinoblastoma (pRB) family of proteins revealed that the expression of both cyclins is controlled in a pRB-dependent, but p107- and p130-independent fashion, likely through the pRB-dependent E2F transcription factors. We also found that cyclins E1 and E2 are expressed at high levels in mouse breast tumors driven by the Myc oncogene. Last, we found that cyclin E2 is overexpressed in ≈24% of analyzed human mammary carcinomas. Collectively these findings suggest that the expression of cyclins E1 and E2 is governed by similar molecular circuitry. PMID:11687642

  2. The structure of cyclin E1/CDK2: implications for CDK2 activation and CDK2-independent roles.

    PubMed

    Honda, Reiko; Lowe, Edward D; Dubinina, Elena; Skamnaki, Vicky; Cook, Atlanta; Brown, Nick R; Johnson, Louise N

    2005-02-09

    Cyclin E, an activator of phospho-CDK2 (pCDK2), is important for cell cycle progression in metazoans and is frequently overexpressed in cancer cells. It is essential for entry to the cell cycle from G0 quiescent phase, for the assembly of prereplication complexes and for endoreduplication in megakaryotes and giant trophoblast cells. We report the crystal structure of pCDK2 in complex with a truncated cyclin E1 (residues 81-363) at 2.25 A resolution. The N-terminal cyclin box fold of cyclin E1 is similar to that of cyclin A and promotes identical changes in pCDK2 that lead to kinase activation. The C-terminal cyclin box fold shows significant differences from cyclin A. It makes additional interactions with pCDK2, especially in the region of the activation segment, and contributes to CDK2-independent binding sites of cyclin E. Kinetic analysis with model peptide substrates show a 1.6-fold increase in kcat for pCDK2/cyclin E1 (81-363) over kcat of pCDK2/cyclin E (full length) and pCDK2/cyclin A. The structural and kinetic results indicate no inherent substrate discrimination between pCDK2/cyclin E and pCDK2/cyclin A with model substrates.

  3. Decreased cyclin B1 expression contributes to G2 delay in human brain tumor cells after treatment with camptothecin.

    PubMed Central

    Janss, A. J.; Maity, A.; Tang, C. B.; Muschel, R. J.; McKenna, W. G.; Sutton, L.; Phillips, P. C.

    2001-01-01

    DNA damage produces delayed mitosis (G2/M delay) in proliferating cells, and shortening the delay sensitizes human malignant glioma and medulloblastoma cells to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Although activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase CDC2 mediates G2/M transition in all tumor cells studied to date, regulation of CDC2 varies between tumor types. Persistent hyperphosphorylation of kinase and reduced cyclin expression have been implicated as mediators of treatment-induced G2 delay in different tumor models. To evaluate regulation of G2/M transition in human brain tumors, we studied the expression and/or activity of CDC2 kinase and cyclins A and B1 in U-251 MG and DAOY medulloblastoma cells after their treatment with camptothecin (CPT). Synchronized cells were treated during S phase, then harvested at predetermined intervals for evaluation of cell cycle kinetics, kinase activity mRNA, and protein expression. CPT produced G2 delay associated with decreased CDC2 kinase activity and cyclin B1 expression. Kinase activity was associated with CDC2 bound to cyclin B1, not cyclin A, in both cell lines. Cyclin A mRNA and protein expression were reduced after CPT treatment; however, decreased protein expression was short lived and moderate in the glioma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor/medulloblastoma cells, respectively. We conclude that G2 delay is a common response of brain tumor cells to chemotherapy with topoisomerase I inhibitors and that a mechanism of this delay may be reduced expression of cyclin B1. PMID:11305412

  4. Cytoplasmic sequestration of cyclin D1 associated with cell cycle withdrawal of neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sumrejkanchanakij, Piyamas; Eto, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Masa-Aki . E-mail: mikeda.emb@tmd.ac.jp

    2006-02-03

    The regulation of D-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity is critical for neuronal differentiation and apoptosis. We recently showed that cyclin D1 is sequestered in the cytoplasm and that its nuclear localization induces apoptosis in postmitotic primary neurons. Here, we further investigated the role of the subcellular localization of cyclin D1 in cell cycle withdrawal during the differentiation of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. We show that cyclin D1 became predominantly cytoplasmic after differentiation. Targeting cyclin D1 expression to the nucleus induced phosphorylation of Rb and cdk2 kinase activity. Furthermore, cyclin D1 nuclear localization promoted differentiated N1E-115 cells to reenter the cell cycle, a process that was inhibited by p16{sup INK4a}, a specific inhibitor of D-type cyclin activity. These results indicate that cytoplasmic sequestration of cyclin D1 plays a role in neuronal cell cycle withdrawal, and suggests that the abrogation of machinery involved in monitoring aberrant nuclear cyclin D1 activity contributes to neuronal tumorigenesis.

  5. Early events in DNA replication require cyclin E and are blocked by p21CIP1

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Using immunodepletion of cyclin E and the inhibitor protein p21WAF/CIP1, we demonstrate that the cyclin E protein, in association with Cdk2, is required for the elongation phase of replication on single-stranded substrates. Although cyclin E/Cdk2 is likely to be the major target by which p21 inhibits the initiation of sperm DNA replication, p21 can inhibit single-stranded replication through a mechanism dependent on PCNA. While the cyclin E/Cdk2 complex appears to have a role in the initiation of DNA replication, another Cdk kinase, possibly cyclin A/Cdk, may be involved in a later step controlling the switch from initiation to elongation. The provision of a large maternal pool of cyclin E protein shows that regulators of replication are constitutively present, which explains the lack of a protein synthesis requirement for replication in the early embryonic cell cycle. PMID:7642695

  6. Cell cycle regulatory effects of retinoic Acid and forskolin are mediated by the cyclin C gene.

    PubMed

    Makkonen, Katri M; Malinen, Marjo; Ropponen, Antti; Väisänen, Sami; Carlberg, Carsten

    2009-10-23

    As a partner of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 3, Cyclin C controls cellular proliferation and, together with CDK8, represses gene transcription. In this study, we showed that the highly expressed Cyclin C gene is a direct target of the nuclear hormone all-trans retinoic acid (RA) in HEK293 human embryonal kidney cells. The RA receptor (RAR) gamma associates with a Cyclin C promoter region containing two RAR binding sites. The Cyclin C gene also directly responds to the cAMP activator Forskolin via the transcription factor CREB1 (cAMP response element-binding protein 1), for which we identified four binding sites within the first 2250 bp of its promoter. RARgamma and CREB1 show functional convergence via the corepressor NCoR1, which controls in particular the Forskolin response of Cyclin C. The histone deacetylases 1, 5, 6, 7 and 11 are involved in the basal expression of Cyclin C, but in HEK293 and MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells the antiproliferative effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) are not mediated by Cyclin C. However, cell cycle progressing effects of all-trans RA and Forskolin are dependent on Cyclin C expression levels. This suggests that the primary regulation of Cyclin C by all-trans RA and Forskolin mediates some of the cell cycle control actions of these compounds.

  7. Low molecular weight cyclin E is associated with p27-resistant, high-grade, high-stage and invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin-Qiao; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Tucker, Susan L; Czerniak, P. Bogdan; Benedict, William F; Keyomarsi, Khandan

    2012-01-01

    Expression of low molecular weight (LMW) isoforms of cyclin E is a strong predictor of poor outcome in patients with breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of full-length and LMW cyclin E in bladder cancer cell lines and patient tumors. We used western blotting, immunoprecipitation and kinase assays to examine the expression and activity of key cell cycle-regulatory proteins in various human bladder cell lines, both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic. We also analyzed cyclin E expression, kinase activity and immune complex binding partners in 43 tissue samples from grade 2 and 3 transitional cell carcinomas. Cyclin E was overexpressed and LMW isoforms were present only in bladder cancer cells. Overexpression of LMW isoforms of cyclin E and increased cyclin E kinase activity were both significantly associated with tumorigenicity of the bladder cell lines (p = 0.005 and 0.022, respectively). Binding of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27 to LMW cyclin E did not inhibit the kinase activity of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 in primary tumor samples overexpressing LMW cyclin E. Full-length and LMW cyclin E were significantly overexpressed in grade 3 tumors compared with grade 2 tumors (p = 0.004). Finally, LMW cyclin E levels were significantly associated with a non-papillary growth pattern (p = 0.031) and invasiveness (p = 0.021) of the bladder tumors and poor overall survival (p = 0.06). These results suggest that LMW cyclin E can be used as a new prognostic marker for bladder cancer. PMID:22441703

  8. Cyclin A2 is required for sister chromatid segregation, but not separase control, in mouse oocyte meiosis.

    PubMed

    Touati, Sandra A; Cladière, Damien; Lister, Lisa M; Leontiou, Ioanna; Chambon, Jean-Philippe; Rattani, Ahmed; Böttger, Franziska; Stemmann, Olaf; Nasmyth, Kim; Herbert, Mary; Wassmann, Katja

    2012-11-29

    In meiosis, two specialized cell divisions allow the separation of paired chromosomes first, then of sister chromatids. Separase removes the cohesin complex holding sister chromatids together in a stepwise manner from chromosome arms in meiosis I, then from the centromere region in meiosis II. Using mouse oocytes, our study reveals that cyclin A2 promotes entry into meiosis, as well as an additional unexpected role; namely, its requirement for separase-dependent sister chromatid separation in meiosis II. Untimely cyclin A2-associated kinase activity in meiosis I leads to precocious sister separation, whereas inhibition of cyclin A2 in meiosis II prevents it. Accordingly, endogenous cyclin A is localized to kinetochores throughout meiosis II, but not in anaphase I. Additionally, we found that cyclin B1, but not cyclin A2, inhibits separase in meiosis I. These findings indicate that separase-dependent cohesin removal is differentially regulated by cyclin B1 and A2 in mammalian meiosis.

  9. Cyclin D1 is an essential mediator of apoptotic neuronal cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Kranenburg, O; van der Eb, A J; Zantema, A

    1996-01-01

    Many neurons in the developing nervous system undergo programmed cell death, or apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is largely unknown. In the present report, we present evidence that the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 is involved in the regulation of neuronal cell death. During neuronal apoptosis, cyclin D1-dependent kinase activity is stimulated, due to an increase in cyclin D1 levels. Moreover, artificial elevation of cyclin D1 levels is sufficient to induce apoptosis, even in non-neural cell types. Cyclin D1-induced apoptosis, like neuronal apoptosis, can be inhibited by 21 kDa E1B, Bcl2 and pRb, but not by 55 kDa E1B. Most importantly, however, overexpression of the cyclin D-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4 protects neurons from apoptotic cell death, demonstrating that activation of endogenous cyclin D1-dependent kinases is essential during neuronal apoptosis. These data support a model in which neuronal apoptosis results from an aborted attempt to activate the cell cycle in terminally differentiated neurons. Images PMID:8598205

  10. Cyclin D1 blocks the anti-proliferative function of RUNX3 by interfering with RUNX3-p300 interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatani, Kazunori; Fujimoto, Tetsuhiro; Ito, Takaaki

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Cyclin D1 interacts with RUNX3 and inhibits the interaction and collaboration of RUNX3 with coactivator p300. {yields} Cyclin D1 blocks the ability of RUNX3 to induce the expression of cdk inhibitor p21. {yields} Cyclin D1 releases cancer cells from the inhibition of proliferation induced by RUNX3. -- Abstract: Transcriptional function of cyclin D1, whose deregulation is frequently observed in human cancers, has been suggested to contribute to cancer formation. In the present study, we show that cyclin D1 protein inhibits RUNX3 activity by directly binding to it and interfering with its interaction with p300 interaction in lung cancer cells. Cyclin D1 inhibits p300-dependent RUNX3 acetylation and negatively regulates cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor p21 expression. These transcriptional effects of cyclin D1 do not require cdk4/6 kinase activation. We propose that cyclin D1 provides a transcriptional switch that allows the tumor suppressor activity of RUNX3 to be repressed in cancer cells. Since RUNX3 plays tumor suppressive roles in a wide range of cancers, a non-canonical cyclin D1 function may be critical for neoplastic transformation of the epithelial cells in which RUNX3 regulates proliferation.

  11. Induction of cyclin A gene expression by homocysteine in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, J C; Wang, H; Perrella, M A; Yoshizumi, M; Sibinga, N E; Tan, L C; Haber, E; Chang, T H; Schlegel, R; Lee, M E

    1996-01-01

    Homocysteine is an important and independent risk factor for arteriosclerosis. We showed previously that homocysteine stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, a hallmark of arteriosclerosis. We show here that homocysteine and serum increased DNA synthesis synergistically in both human and rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). Treatment of quiescent RASMCs with 1 mM homocysteine or 2% calf serum for 36 h increased cyclin A mRNA levels by 8- and 14-fold, respectively, whereas homocysteine plus serum increased cyclin A mRNA levels by 40-fold, indicating a synergistic induction of cyclin A mRNA. Homocysteine did not increase the half-life of cyclin A mRNA (2.9 h), but it did increase the transcriptional rate of the cyclin A gene in nuclear run-on experiments. The positive effect of homocysteine on cyclin A gene transcription was confirmed by our finding that homocysteine increased cyclin A promoter activity and ATF-binding protein levels in RASMCs. Finally, 1 mM homocysteine increased cyclin A protein levels and cyclin A-associated kinase activity by threefold. This homocysteine-induced expression lesions by promoting proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:8550827

  12. Translokin (Cep57) interacts with cyclin D1 and prevents its nuclear accumulation in quiescent fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Miró, Maria; Colomina, Neus; Fernández, Rita M H; Garí, Eloi; Gallego, Carme; Aldea, Martí

    2011-05-01

    Nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1 because of altered trafficking or degradation is thought to contribute directly to neoplastic transformation and growth. Mechanisms of cyclin D1 localization in S phase have been studied in detail, but its control during exit from the cell cycle and quiescence is poorly understood. Here we report that translokin (Tlk), a microtubule-associated protein also termed Cep57, interacts with cyclin D1 and controls its nucleocytoplasmic distribution in quiescent cells. Tlk binds to regions of cyclin D1 also involved in binding to cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), and a fraction of cyclin D1 associates to the juxtanuclear Tlk network in the cell. Downregulation of Tlk levels results in undue nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1 and increased Cdk4-dependent phosphorylation of pRB under quiescence conditions. In turn, overexpression of Tlk prevents proper cyclin D1 accumulation in the nucleus of proliferating cells in an interaction-dependent manner, inhibits Cdk4-dependent phosphorylation of pRB and hinders cell cycle progression to S phase. We propose that the Tlk acts as a key negative regulator in the pathway that drives nuclear import of cyclin D1, thus contributing to prevent pRB inactivation and to maintain cellular quiescence.

  13. Dissection of Cdk1–cyclin complexes in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ear, Po Hien; Booth, Michael J.; Abd-Rabbo, Diala; Kowarzyk Moreno, Jacqueline; Hall, Conrad; Chen, Daici; Vogel, Jackie; Michnick, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are regulatory enzymes with temporal and spatial selectivity for their protein substrates that are governed by cell cycle-regulated cyclin subunits. Specific cyclin–Cdk complexes bind to and phosphorylate target proteins, coupling their activity to cell cycle states. The identification of specific cyclin–Cdk substrates is challenging and so far, has largely been achieved through indirect correlation or use of in vitro techniques. Here, we use a protein-fragment complementation assay based on the optimized yeast cytosine deaminase to systematically identify candidate substrates of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdk1 and show dependency on one or more regulatory cyclins. We identified known and candidate cyclin dependencies for many predicted protein kinase Cdk1 targets and showed elusory Clb3–Cdk1-specific phosphorylation of γ-tubulin, thus establishing the timing of this event in controlling assembly of the mitotic spindle. Our strategy can be generally applied to identify substrates and accessory subunits of multisubunit protein complexes. PMID:24019491

  14. miR-340 inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation by suppressing CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xuesong; Gong, Xuhai; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Jinghui; Sun, Jiahang; Guo, Mian

    2015-05-08

    Glioblastoma development is often associated with alteration in the activity and expression of cell cycle regulators, such as cyclin-dependent kinases (CKDs) and cyclins, resulting in aberrant cell proliferation. Recent studies have highlighted the pivotal roles of miRNAs in controlling the development and growth of glioblastoma. Here, we provide evidence for a function of miR-340 in the inhibition of glioblastoma cell proliferation. We found that miR-340 is downregulated in human glioblastoma tissue samples and several established glioblastoma cell lines. Proliferation and neurosphere formation assays revealed that miR-340 plays an oncosuppressive role in glioblastoma, and that its ectopic expression causes significant defect in glioblastoma cell growth. Further, using bioinformatics, luciferase assay and western blot, we found that miR-340 specifically targets the 3′UTRs of CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2, leading to the arrest of glioblastoma cells in the G0/G1 cell cycle phase. Confirming these results, we found that re-introducing CDK6, cyclin-D1 or cyclin-D2 expression partially, but significantly, rescues cells from the suppression of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest mediated by miR-340. Collectively, our results demonstrate that miR-340 plays a tumor-suppressive role in glioblastoma and may be useful as a diagnostic biomarker and/or a therapeutic avenue for glioblastoma. - Highlights: • miR-340 is downregulated in glioblastoma samples and cell lines. • miR-340 inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation. • miR-340 directly targets CDK6, cyclin-D1, and cyclin-D2. • miR-340 regulates glioblastoma cell proliferation via CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2.

  15. Modulating the interaction between CDK2 and cyclin A with a quinoline-based inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yongqi; Shipps, Gerald W; Zhao, Lianyun; Siddiqui, M Arshad; Popovici-Muller, Janeta; Curran, Patrick J; Duca, Jose S; Hruza, Alan W; Fischmann, Thierry O; Madison, Vincent S; Zhang, Rumin; McNemar, Charles W; Mayhood, Todd W; Syto, Rosalinda; Annis, Allen; Kirschmeier, Paul; Lees, Emma M; Parry, David A; Windsor, William T

    2014-01-01

    A new class of quinoline-based kinase inhibitors has been discovered that both disrupt cyclin dependent 2 (CDK2) interaction with its cyclin A subunit and act as ATP competitive inhibitors. The key strategy for discovering this class of protein-protein disrupter compounds was to screen the monomer CDK2 in an affinity-selection/mass spectrometry-based technique and to perform secondary assays that identified compounds that bound only to the inactive CDK2 monomer and not the active CDK2/cyclin A heterodimer. Through a series of chemical modifications the affinity (Kd) of the original hit improved from 1 to 0.005μM.

  16. Helicobacter pylori Induced Phosphatidylinositol-3-OH Kinase/mTOR Activation Increases Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α to Promote Loss of Cyclin D1 and G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Gastric Cells

    PubMed Central

    Canales, Jimena; Valenzuela, Manuel; Bravo, Jimena; Cerda-Opazo, Paulina; Jorquera, Carla; Toledo, Héctor; Bravo, Denisse; Quest, Andrew F. G.

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a human gastric pathogen that has been linked to the development of several gastric pathologies, such as gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. In the gastric epithelium, the bacterium modifies many signaling pathways, resulting in contradictory responses that favor both proliferation and apoptosis. Consistent with such observations, H. pylori activates routes associated with cell cycle progression and cell cycle arrest. H. pylori infection also induces the hypoxia-induced factor HIF-1α, a transcription factor known to promote expression of genes that permit metabolic adaptation to the hypoxic environment in tumors and angiogenesis. Recently, however, also roles for HIF-1α in the repair of damaged DNA and inhibition of gene expression were described. Here, we investigated signaling pathways induced by H. pylori in gastric cells that favor HIF-1α expression and the consequences thereof in infected cells. Our results revealed that H. pylori promoted PI3K/mTOR-dependent HIF-1α induction, HIF-1α translocation to the nucleus, and activity as a transcription factor as evidenced using a reporter assay. Surprisingly, however, transcription of known HIF-1α effector genes evaluated by qPCR analysis, revealed either no change (LDHA and GAPDH), statistically insignificant increases SLC2A1 (GLUT-1) or greatly enhance transcription (VEGFA), but in an HIF-1α-independent manner, as quantified by PCR analysis in cells with shRNA-mediated silencing of HIF-1α. Instead, HIF-1α knockdown facilitated G1/S progression and increased Cyclin D1 protein half-life, via a post-translational pathway. Taken together, these findings link H. pylori-induced PI3K-mTOR activation to HIF-1α induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest by a Cyclin D1-dependent mechanism. Thus, HIF-1α is identified here as a mediator between survival and cell cycle arrest signaling activated by H. pylori infection.

  17. Helicobacter pylori Induced Phosphatidylinositol-3-OH Kinase/mTOR Activation Increases Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α to Promote Loss of Cyclin D1 and G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Gastric Cells.

    PubMed

    Canales, Jimena; Valenzuela, Manuel; Bravo, Jimena; Cerda-Opazo, Paulina; Jorquera, Carla; Toledo, Héctor; Bravo, Denisse; Quest, Andrew F G

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a human gastric pathogen that has been linked to the development of several gastric pathologies, such as gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. In the gastric epithelium, the bacterium modifies many signaling pathways, resulting in contradictory responses that favor both proliferation and apoptosis. Consistent with such observations, H. pylori activates routes associated with cell cycle progression and cell cycle arrest. H. pylori infection also induces the hypoxia-induced factor HIF-1α, a transcription factor known to promote expression of genes that permit metabolic adaptation to the hypoxic environment in tumors and angiogenesis. Recently, however, also roles for HIF-1α in the repair of damaged DNA and inhibition of gene expression were described. Here, we investigated signaling pathways induced by H. pylori in gastric cells that favor HIF-1α expression and the consequences thereof in infected cells. Our results revealed that H. pylori promoted PI3K/mTOR-dependent HIF-1α induction, HIF-1α translocation to the nucleus, and activity as a transcription factor as evidenced using a reporter assay. Surprisingly, however, transcription of known HIF-1α effector genes evaluated by qPCR analysis, revealed either no change (LDHA and GAPDH), statistically insignificant increases SLC2A1 (GLUT-1) or greatly enhance transcription (VEGFA), but in an HIF-1α-independent manner, as quantified by PCR analysis in cells with shRNA-mediated silencing of HIF-1α. Instead, HIF-1α knockdown facilitated G1/S progression and increased Cyclin D1 protein half-life, via a post-translational pathway. Taken together, these findings link H. pylori-induced PI3K-mTOR activation to HIF-1α induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest by a Cyclin D1-dependent mechanism. Thus, HIF-1α is identified here as a mediator between survival and cell cycle arrest signaling activated by H. pylori infection.

  18. Co-expressed Cyclin D variants cooperate to regulate proliferation of germline nuclei in a syncytium.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Gunasekaran; Campsteijn, Coen; Thompson, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    The role of the G1-phase Cyclin D-CDK 4/6 regulatory module in linking germline stem cell (GSC) proliferation to nutrition is evolutionarily variable. In invertebrate Drosophila and C. elegans GSC models, G1 is nearly absent and Cyclin E is expressed throughout the cell cycle, whereas vertebrate spermatogonial stem cells have a distinct G1 and Cyclin D1 plays an important role in GSC renewal. In the invertebrate, chordate, Oikopleura, where germline nuclei proliferate asynchronously in a syncytium, we show a distinct G1-phase in which 2 Cyclin D variants are co-expressed. Cyclin Dd, present in both somatic endocycling cells and the germline, localized to germline nuclei during G1 before declining at G1/S. Cyclin Db, restricted to the germline, remained cytoplasmic, co-localizing in foci with the Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor, CKIa. These foci showed a preferential spatial distribution adjacent to syncytial germline nuclei at G1/S. During nutrient-restricted growth arrest, upregulated CKIa accumulated in arrested somatic endoreduplicative nuclei but did not do so in germline nuclei. In the latter context, Cyclin Dd levels gradually decreased. In contrast, the Cyclin Dbβ splice variant, lacking the Rb-interaction domain and phosphodegron, was specifically upregulated and the number of cytoplasmic foci containing this variant increased. This upregulation was dependent on stress response MAPK p38 signaling. We conclude that under favorable conditions, Cyclin Dbβ-CDK6 sequesters CKIa in the cytoplasm to cooperate with Cyclin Dd-CDK6 in promoting germline nuclear proliferation. Under nutrient-restriction, this sequestration function is enhanced to permit continued, though reduced, cycling of the germline during somatic growth arrest.

  19. Study of possible changes in genes expression of mitotic cyclin under clinorotation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, Olga

    Cell cycle is regulated by cyclins, destruction and accumulation of which is the main process in cell cycle progress. In previous studies we have shown that slow horizontal clinorotation (2rpm) affects proliferative activity and cell cycle stages in inducted to grow 2-4 day old Pisum sativum seedlings. In the first cell cycle, delay in cell transition to S stage and delay in mitosis occur due to the prolongation of pre-synthetic stage. This observation is supported by accumulation of 2c DNA cells and transcripts of 3 cyclin in meristem cells. 3 cyclins are "plant" version of cyclin D, they regulate pre-synthetic stage of cell cycle. Cyclins A and B, regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases, control the beginning of S-stage and are necessary for prevention of certain delay in cell cycle progression. We suggest that delay in mitosis, observed under clinorotation, may take place not only due to prolongation of pre-synthetic stage but also due to change of cyclin genes expression under above condition. Further investigations will be aimed on establishing the level of cyclin genes expression under clinorotation.

  20. Defective in Mitotic Arrest 1 (Dma1) Ubiquitin Ligase Controls G1 Cyclin Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ortega, Sara; Bru, Samuel; Ricco, Natalia; Ramírez, Sara; Casals, Núria; Jiménez, Javier; Isasa, Marta; Crosas, Bernat; Clotet, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle is controlled by diverse cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) that might be associated to numerous cyclin isoforms. Given such complexity, regulation of cyclin degradation should be crucial for coordinating progression through the cell cycle. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SCF is the only E3 ligase known to date to be involved in G1 cyclin degradation. Here, we report the design of a genetic screening that uncovered Dma1 as another E3 ligase that targets G1 cyclins in yeast. We show that the cyclin Pcl1 is ubiquitinated in vitro and in vivo by Dma1, and accordingly, is stabilized in dma1 mutants. We demonstrate that Pcl1 must be phosphorylated by its own CDK to efficiently interact with Dma1 and undergo degradation. A nonphosphorylatable version of Pcl1 accumulates throughout the cell cycle, demonstrating the physiological relevance of the proposed mechanism. Finally, we present evidence that the levels of Pcl1 and Cln2 are independently controlled in response to nutrient availability. This new previously unknown mechanism for G1 cyclin degradation that we report here could help elucidate the specific roles of the redundant CDK-cyclin complexes in G1. PMID:23264631

  1. Cyclin E in centrosome duplication and reduplication in sea urchin zygotes.

    PubMed

    Schnackenberg, Bradley J; Marzluff, William F; Sluder, Greenfield

    2008-12-01

    When protein synthesis is completely blocked from before fertilization, the sea urchin zygote arrests in first S phase and the paternal centrosome reduplicates multiple times. However, when protein synthesis is blocked starting in prophase of first mitosis, the zygote divides and the blastomeres arrest in a G1-like state. The centrosome inherited from this mitosis duplicates only once in each blastomere for reasons that are not understood. The late G1 rise in cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activity initiates centrosome duplication in mammalian cells and its activity is needed for centrosome duplication in Xenopus egg extracts. Since the half-time for cyclin E turnover is normally approximately 1 h in sea urchin zygotes, the different behaviors of centrosomes during G1 and S phase arrests could be due to differential losses of cyclin E and its associated kinase activities at these two arrest points. To better understand the mechanisms that limit centrosome duplication, we characterize the levels of cyclin E and its associated kinase activity at the S phase and G1 arrest points. We first demonstrate that cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activity is required for centrosome duplication and reduplication in sea urchin zygotes. Next we find that cyclin E levels and cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activities are both constitutively and equivalently elevated during both the S phase and G1 arrests. This indicates that centrosome duplication during the G1 arrest is limited by a block to reduplication under conditions permissive for duplication. The cytoplasmic conditions of S phase, however, abrogate this block to reduplication.

  2. PKCeta enhances cell cycle progression, the expression of G1 cyclins and p21 in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Fima, E; Shtutman, M; Libros, P; Missel, A; Shahaf, G; Kahana, G; Livneh, E

    2001-10-11

    Protein kinase C encodes a family of enzymes implicated in cellular differentiation, growth control and tumor promotion. However, not much is known with respect to the molecular mechanisms that link protein kinase C to cell cycle control. Here we report that the expression of PKCeta in MCF-7 cells, under the control of a tetracycline-responsive inducible promoter, enhanced cell growth and affected the cell cycle at several points. The induced expression of another PKC isoform, PKCdelta, in MCF-7 cells had opposite effects and inhibited their growth. PKCeta expression activated cellular pathways in these cells that resulted in the increased expression of the G1 phase cyclins, cyclin D and cyclin E. Expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1) was also specifically elevated in PKCeta expressing cells, but its overall effects were not inhibitory. Although, the protein levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) were not altered by the induced expression of PKCeta, the cyclin E associated Cdk2 kinase activity was in correlation with the p27(KIP1) bound to the cyclin E complex and not by p21(WAF1) binding. PKCeta expression enhanced the removal of p27(KIP1) from this complex, and its re-association with the cyclin D/Cdk4 complex. Reduced binding of p27(KIP1) to the cyclin D/Cdk4 complex at early time points of the cell cycle also enhanced the activity of this complex, while at later time points the decrease in bound p21(WAF1) correlated with its increased activity in PKCeta-expressing cells. Thus, PKCeta induces altered expression of several cell cycle functions, which may contribute to its ability to affect cell growth.

  3. Complexes of D-type cyclins with CDKs during maize germination.

    PubMed

    Godínez-Palma, Silvia K; García, Elpidio; Sánchez, María de la Paz; Rosas, Fernando; Vázquez-Ramos, Jorge M

    2013-12-01

    The importance of cell proliferation in plant growth and development has been well documented. The majority of studies on basic cell cycle mechanisms in plants have been at the level of gene expression and much less knowledge has accumulated in terms of protein interactions and activation. Two key proteins, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are fundamental for cell cycle regulation and advancement. Our aim has been to understand the role of D-type cyclins and type A and B CDKs in the cell cycle taking place during a developmental process such as maize seed germination. Results indicate that three maize D-type cyclins-D2;2, D4;2, and D5;3-(G1-S cyclins by definition) bind and activate two different types of CDK-A and B1;1-in a differential way during germination. Whereas CDKA-D-type cyclin complexes are more active at early germination times than at later times, it was surprising to observe that CDKB1;1, a supposedly G2-M kinase, bound in a differential way to all D-type cyclins tested during germination. Binding to cyclin D2;2 was detectable at all germination times, forming a complex with kinase activity, whereas binding to D4;2 and D5;3 was more variable; in particular, D5;3 was only detected at late germination times. Results are discussed in terms of cell cycle advancement and its importance for seed germination.

  4. Cyclin B targets p34cdc2 for tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Meijer, L; Azzi, L; Wang, J Y

    1991-06-01

    A universal intracellular factor, the 'M phase-promoting factor' (MPF), triggers the G2/M transition of the cell cycle in all organisms. In late G2, it is present as an inactive complex of tyrosine-phosphorylated p34cdc2 and unphosphorylated cyclin Bcdc13. In M phase, its activation as an active MPF displaying histone H1 kinase (H1K) originates from the concomitant tyrosine dephosphorylation of the p34cdc2 subunit and the phosphorylation of the cylin Bcdc13 subunit. We have investigated the role of cyclin in the formation of this complex and the tyrosine phosphorylation of p34cdc2, using highly synchronous mitotic sea urchin eggs as a model. As cells leave the S phase and enter the G2 phase, a massive tyrosine phosphorylation of p34cdc2 occurs. This large p34cdc2 tyrosine phosphorylation burst does not arise from a massive increase in p34cdc2 concentration. It even appears to affect only a fraction (non-immunoprecipitable by anti-PSTAIR antibodies) of the total p34cdc2 present in the cell. Several observations point to an extremely close association between accumulation of unphosphorylated cyclin and p34cdc2 tyrosine phosphorylation: (i) both events coincide perfectly during the G2 phase; (ii) both tyrosine-phosphorylated p34cdc2 and cyclin are not immunoprecipitated by anti-PSTAIR antibodies; (iii) accumulation of unphosphorylated cyclin by aphidicolin treatment of the cells, triggers a dramatic accumulation of tyrosine-phosphorylated p34cdc2; and (iv) inhibition of cyclin synthesis by emetine inhibits p34cdc2 tyrosine phosphorylation without affecting the p34cdc2 concentration. These results show that, as it is synthesized, cyclin B binds and recruits p34cdc2 for tyrosine phosphorylation; this inactive complex then requires the completion of DNA replication before it can be turned into fully active MPF. These results fully confirm recent data obtained in vitro with exogenous cyclin added to cycloheximide-treated Xenopus egg extracts.

  5. The dual role of cyclin C connects stress regulated gene expression to mitochondrial dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Strich, Randy; Cooper, Katrina F.

    2014-01-01

    Following exposure to cytotoxic agents, cellular damage is first recognized by a variety of sensor mechanisms. Thenceforth, the damage signal is transduced to the nucleus to install the correct gene expression program including the induction of genes whose products either detoxify destructive compounds or repair the damage they cause. Next, the stress signal is disseminated throughout the cell to effect the appropriate changes at organelles including the mitochondria. The mitochondria represent an important signaling platform for the stress response. An initial stress response of the mitochondria is extensive fragmentation. If the damage is prodigious, the mitochondria fragment (fission) and lose their outer membrane integrity leading to the release of pro-apoptotic factors necessary for programmed cell death (PCD) execution. As this complex biological process contains many moving parts, it must be exquisitely coordinated as the ultimate decision is life or death. The conserved C-type cyclin plays an important role in executing this molecular Rubicon by coupling changes in gene expression to mitochondrial fission and PCD. Cyclin C, along with its cyclin dependent kinase partner Cdk8, associates with the RNA polymerase holoenzyme to regulate transcription. In particular, cyclin C-Cdk8 repress many stress responsive genes. To relieve this repression, cyclin C is destroyed in cells exposed to pro-oxidants and other stressors. However, prior to its destruction, cyclin C, but not Cdk8, is released from its nuclear anchor (Med13), translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it interacts with the fission machinery and is both necessary and sufficient to induce extensive mitochondria fragmentation. Furthermore, cytoplasmic cyclin C promotes PCD indicating that it mediates both mitochondrial fission and cell death pathways. This review will summarize the role cyclin C plays in regulating stress-responsive transcription. In addition, we will detail this new function

  6. Cyclin D1 in the Liver: Role of Noncanonical Signaling in Liver Steatosis and Hormone Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Kelley G.; Gonzalez-Rosario, Janet; Thevenot, Paul T.; Cohen, Ari J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cyclin D1 is an important protein for cell cycle progression; however, functions independent of the cell cycle have been described in the liver. Cyclin D1 is also involved in DNA repair, is overexpressed in many cancers, and functions as a proto-oncogene. The lesser-known roles of Cyclin D1, specifically in hepatocytes, impact liver steatosis and hormone regulation in the liver. Methods: A comprehensive search of PubMed was conducted using the keywords Cyclin D1, steatosis, lipogenesis, and liver transplantation. In this article, we review the results from this literature search, with a focus on the role of Cyclin D1 in hepatic lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis, as well as the impact and function of this protein in hepatic steatosis. Results: Cyclin D1 represses carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) and results in a decrease in transcription of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC). Cyclin D1 also inhibits peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) which is involved in hepatic lipogenesis. Cyclin D1 inhibits both hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α) and represses transcription of lipogenic genes FAS and liver-type pyruvate kinase (Pklr), along with the gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). Conclusion: Cyclin D1 represses multiple proteins involved in both lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Targeting Cyclin D1 to decrease hepatic steatosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or alcoholic fatty liver disease may help improve patient health and the quality of the donor liver pool. PMID:28331449

  7. CGK733-induced LC3 II formation is positively associated with the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1 through modulation of the AMPK and PERK/CHOP signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Baron, Byron; Kitagawa, Takao; Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Akada, Junko; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2015-11-24

    Microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3)-II is essential for autophagosome formation and is widely used to monitor autophagic activity. We show that CGK733 induces LC3 II and LC3-puncta accumulation, which are not involved in the activation of autophagy. The treatment of CGK733 did not alter the autophagic flux and was unrelated to p62 degradation. Treatment with CGK733 activated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase/CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (PERK/CHOP) pathways and elevated the expression of p21Waf1/Cip1. Inhibition of both AMPK and PERK/CHOP pathways by siRNA or chemical inhibitor could block CGK733-induced p21Waf1/Cip1 expression as well as caspase-3 cleavage. Knockdown of LC3 B (but not LC3 A) abolished CGK733-triggered LC3 II accumulation and consequently diminished AMPK and PERK/CHOP activity as well as p21Waf1/Cip1 expression. Our results demonstrate that CGK733-triggered LC3 II formation is an initial event upstream of the AMPK and PERK/CHOP pathways, both of which control p21Waf1/Cip1 expression.

  8. Exit from mitosis is regulated by Drosophila fizzy and the sequential destruction of cyclins A, B and B3.

    PubMed Central

    Sigrist, S; Jacobs, H; Stratmann, R; Lehner, C F

    1995-01-01

    While entry into mitosis is triggered by activation of cdc2 kinase, exit from mitosis requires inactivation of this kinase. Inactivation results from proteolytic degradation of the regulatory cyclin subunits during mitosis. At least three different cyclin types, cyclins A, B and B3, associate with cdc2 kinase in higher eukaryotes and are sequentially degraded in mitosis. We show here that mutations in the Drosophila gene fizzy (fzy) block the mitotic degradation of these cyclins. Moreover, expression of mutant cyclins (delta cyclins) lacking the destruction box motif required for mitotic degradation affects mitotic progression at distinct stages. Deltacyclin A results in a delay in metaphase, deltacyclin B in an early anaphase arrest and deltacyclin B3 in a late anaphase arrest, suggesting that mitotic progression beyond metaphase is ordered by the sequential degradation of these different cyclins. Coexpression of deltacyclins A, B and B3 allows a delayed separation of sister chromosomes, but interferes wit chromosome segregation to the poles. Mutations in fzy block both sister chromosome separation and segregation, indicating that fzy plays a crucial role in the metaphase/anaphase transition. Images PMID:7588612

  9. Cyclin A-dependent phosphorylation of the ETS-related protein, MEF, restricts its activity to the G1 phase of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Y; Boccuni, P; Mao, S; Zhang, J; Erdjument-Bromage, H; Tempst, P; Kiyokawa, H; Nimer, S D

    2001-11-02

    MEF, a recently identified member of the E74 family of ETS-related transcription factors, is a strong transcriptional activator of cytokine gene expression. Using a green fluorescent protein gene reporter plasmid regulated by an MEF-responsive promoter, we determined that the transcriptional activity of MEF is largely restricted to the G1 phase of the cell cycle. MEF-dependent transcription was suppressed by the expression of cyclin A but not by cyclin D or cyclin E. This effect was due to the kinase activity generated by cyclin A expression, as co-expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 or p27, or a dominant negative form of CDK2 (DNK2), abrogated the reduction of MEF transcriptional activity by cyclin A. Cyclin A-CDK2 phosphorylated MEF protein in vitro more efficiently than cyclin D-CDK4 or cyclin E-CDK2, and phosphorylation of MEF by cyclin A-CDK2 reduced its ability to bind DNA. We determined one site of phosphorylation by cyclin A-CDK2 at the C terminus of MEF, using mass-spectrometry; mutation of three serine or threonine residues in this region significantly reduced phosphorylation of MEF by cyclin A and reduced cyclin A-mediated suppression of its transactivating activity. These amino acid substitutions also reduced the restriction of MEF activity to G1. Phosphorylation of MEF by the cyclin A-CDK2 complex controls its transcriptional activity during the cell cycle, establishing a novel link between the ETS family of proteins and the cell cycle machinery.

  10. Cyclin B Translation Depends on mTOR Activity after Fertilization in Sea Urchin Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Boulben, Sandrine; Glippa, Virginie; Morales, Julia; Cormier, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin B/CDK1 complex is a key regulator of mitotic entry. Using PP242, a specific ATP-competitive inhibitor of mTOR kinase, we provide evidence that the mTOR signalling pathway controls cyclin B mRNA translation following fertilization in Sphaerechinus granularis and Paracentrotus lividus. We show that PP242 inhibits the degradation of the cap-dependent translation repressor 4E-BP (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-Binding Protein). PP242 inhibits global protein synthesis, delays cyclin B accumulation, cyclin B/CDK1 complex activation and consequently entry into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle triggered by fertilization. PP242 inhibits cyclin B mRNA recruitment into active polysomes triggered by fertilization. An amount of cyclin B mRNA present in active polysomes appears to be insensitive to PP242 treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that, following sea urchin egg fertilization, cyclin B mRNA translation is controlled by two independent mechanisms: a PP242-sensitive and an additional PP242-insentitive mechanism. PMID:26962866

  11. The structural protein ODV-EC27 of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus is a multifunctional viral cyclin.

    PubMed

    Belyavskyi, M; Braunagel, S C; Summers, M D

    1998-09-15

    Two major characteristics of baculovirus infection are arrest of the host cell at G2/M phase of the cell cycle with continuing viral DNA replication. We show that Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) encodes for a multifunctional cyclin that may partially explain the molecular basis of these important characteristics of AcMNPV (baculovirus) infection. Amino acids 80-110 of the viral structural protein ODV-EC27 (-EC27) demonstrate 25-30% similarity with cellular cyclins within the cyclin box. Immunoprecipitation results using antibodies to -EC27 show that -EC27 can associate with either cdc2 or cdk6 resulting in active kinase complexes that can phosphorylate histone H1 and retinoblastoma protein in vitro. The cdk6-EC27 complex also associates with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and we demonstrate that PCNA is a structural protein of both the budded virus and the occlusion-derived virus. These results suggest that -EC27 can function as a multifunctional cyclin: when associated with cdc2, it exhibits cyclin B-like activity; when associated with cdk6, the complex possesses cyclin D-like activity and binds PCNA. The possible roles of such a multifunctional cyclin during the life cycle of baculovirus are discussed, along with potential implications relative to the expression of functionally authentic recombinant proteins by using baculovirus-infected cells.

  12. Cyclin B Translation Depends on mTOR Activity after Fertilization in Sea Urchin Embryos.

    PubMed

    Chassé, Héloïse; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile; Boulben, Sandrine; Glippa, Virginie; Morales, Julia; Cormier, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin B/CDK1 complex is a key regulator of mitotic entry. Using PP242, a specific ATP-competitive inhibitor of mTOR kinase, we provide evidence that the mTOR signalling pathway controls cyclin B mRNA translation following fertilization in Sphaerechinus granularis and Paracentrotus lividus. We show that PP242 inhibits the degradation of the cap-dependent translation repressor 4E-BP (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-Binding Protein). PP242 inhibits global protein synthesis, delays cyclin B accumulation, cyclin B/CDK1 complex activation and consequently entry into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle triggered by fertilization. PP242 inhibits cyclin B mRNA recruitment into active polysomes triggered by fertilization. An amount of cyclin B mRNA present in active polysomes appears to be insensitive to PP242 treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that, following sea urchin egg fertilization, cyclin B mRNA translation is controlled by two independent mechanisms: a PP242-sensitive and an additional PP242-insentitive mechanism.

  13. SUMO2/3 modification of cyclin E contributes to the control of replication origin firing

    PubMed Central

    Bonne-Andrea, Catherine; Kahli, Malik; Mechali, Francisca; Lemaitre, Jean-Marc; Bossis, Guillaume; Coux, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) pathway is essential for the maintenance of genome stability. We investigated its possible involvement in the control of DNA replication during S phase by using the Xenopus cell-free system. Here we show that the SUMO pathway is critical to limit the number and, thus, the density of replication origins that are activated in early S phase. We identified cyclin E, which regulates cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) to trigger origin firing, as an S-phase substrate of this pathway. We show that cyclin E is dynamically and highly conjugated to SUMO2/3 on chromatin, independently of Cdk2 activity and origin activation. Moreover, cyclin E is the predominant SUMO2/3 target on chromatin in early S phase, as cyclin E depletion abolishes, while its readdition restores, the SUMO2/3 signal. Together, our data indicate that cyclin E SUMOylation is important for controlling origin firing once the cyclin E–Cdk2 complex is recruited onto replication origins. PMID:23673635

  14. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of cyclin E and CDK2 from Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C; Fu, M J; Qiu, L H

    2016-09-16

    Reduced reproductive performance of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has caused economic losses and hampered the fishing industry. Detailed investigation of the molecular mechanism by which the cell cycle is regulated in this organism is needed to understand the development and maturation of ovaries and oocytes, with a view to improving reproductive capacity. Cell cycle progression is mainly determined by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and cyclin complexes, the cyclin E/CDK2 complex playing a key role in G1/S transition. However, knowledge of the interplay between cyclin E and CDK2 in invertebrates remains limited. In this study, full-length P. monodon cyclin E (Pmcyclin E) and CDK2 (PmCDK2) sequences were cloned. The open reading frame of Pmcyclin E was 1263 bp in length and encoded a 47.9-kDa protein, while that of PmCDK2 was 921 bp, encoding a protein of 34.9 kDa. Recombinant cyclin E and CDK2 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-chelating affinity chromatography. In addition, a pull-down assay was performed to identify any interaction between Pmcyclin E and PmCDK2. This research provides a basis for the study of the functional mechanisms of the cyclin E/CDK2 complex in shrimp, further enriching our knowledge of invertebrate cell cycle regulation.

  15. Plasmodium P-Type Cyclin CYC3 Modulates Endomitotic Growth during Oocyst Development in Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Roques, Magali; Wall, Richard J; Douglass, Alexander P; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Ferguson, David J P; Kaindama, Mbinda L; Brusini, Lorenzo; Joshi, Nimitray; Rchiad, Zineb; Brady, Declan; Guttery, David S; Wheatley, Sally P; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Holder, Anthony A; Pain, Arnab; Wickstead, Bill; Tewari, Rita

    2015-11-01

    Cell-cycle progression and cell division in eukaryotes are governed in part by the cyclin family and their regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Cyclins are very well characterised in model systems such as yeast and human cells, but surprisingly little is known about their number and role in Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoan parasite that causes malaria. Malaria parasite cell division and proliferation differs from that of many eukaryotes. During its life cycle it undergoes two types of mitosis: endomitosis in asexual stages and an extremely rapid mitotic process during male gametogenesis. Both schizogony (producing merozoites) in host liver and red blood cells, and sporogony (producing sporozoites) in the mosquito vector, are endomitotic with repeated nuclear replication, without chromosome condensation, before cell division. The role of specific cyclins during Plasmodium cell proliferation was unknown. We show here that the Plasmodium genome contains only three cyclin genes, representing an unusual repertoire of cyclin classes. Expression and reverse genetic analyses of the single Plant (P)-type cyclin, CYC3, in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear location of the GFP-tagged protein throughout the lifecycle. Deletion of cyc3 resulted in defects in size, number and growth of oocysts, with abnormalities in budding and sporozoite formation. Furthermore, global transcript analysis of the cyc3-deleted and wild type parasites at gametocyte and ookinete stages identified differentially expressed genes required for signalling, invasion and oocyst development. Collectively these data suggest that cyc3 modulates oocyst endomitotic development in Plasmodium berghei.

  16. Cyclin D1 unbalances the redox status controlling cell adhesion, migration, and drug resistance in myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Bustany, Sophie; Bourgeais, Jérôme; Tchakarska, Guergana; Body, Simon; Hérault, Olivier; Gouilleux, Fabrice; Sola, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    The interactions of multiple myeloma (MM) cells with their microenvironment are crucial for pathogenesis. MM cells could interact differentially with their microenvironment depending on the type of cyclin D they express. We established several clones that constitutively express cyclin D1 from the parental RPMI8226 MM cell line and analyzed the impact of cyclin D1 expression on cell behavior. We performed a gene expression profiling study on cyclin D1-expressing vs. control cells and validated the results by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of cyclin D1 altered the transcription of genes that control adhesion and migration. We confirmed that cyclin D1 increases cell adhesion to stromal cells and fibronectin, stabilizes F-actin fibers, and enhances chemotaxis and inflammatory chemokine secretion. Both control and cyclin D1-expressing cells were more resistant to acute carfilzomib treatment when cultured on stromal cells than in suspension. However, this resistance was specifically reduced in cyclin D1-expressing cells after pomalidomide pre-treatment that modifies tumor cell/microenvironment interactions. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that cyclin D1 expression was also associated with changes in the expression of genes controlling metabolism. We also found that cyclin D1 expression disrupted the redox balance by producing reactive oxygen species. The resulting oxidative stress activated the p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (or ERK1/2) signaling pathway, increased cell adhesion to fibronectin or stromal cells, and controlled drug sensitivity. Our results have uncovered a new function for cyclin D1 in the control of redox metabolism and interactions of cyclin D1-expressing MM cells with their bone marrow microenvironment. PMID:27286258

  17. Cyclins D, phytoregulators and cell cycle onset in germinating maize.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Ramos, Jorge M; Lara-Nuñez, Aurora

    2008-08-01

    Several different D-type cyclins can be found in plants and in maize, four of these have been characterized: CycD2;1, CycD4;1, CycD5;1 and CycD5;2. These cyclins appear to form complexes with Cdks, with PCNA and also with KRP proteins and in these kinase activity can be measured. The expression of the corresponding genes during maize germination is highly stimulated by phytohormones like auxin and cytokinin, however this is not followed by an equivalent increase in the amount of the corresponding proteins; nonetheless, auxins do stimulate the associated kinase activity, particularly at early germination times. Thus, auxins appear to stimulate the cell cycle during germination at two levels, transcription and kinase activation. Both auxins and cytokinins appear to shorten the G1 phase during germination and stimulate DNA synthesis, but apparently they do it in different ways as the simultaneous addition of both to germinating maize axes eliminates DNA synthesis stimulation. Therefore, similar actions may be achieved by different paths.

  18. Cyclins D, phytoregulators and cell cycle onset in germinating maize

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Nuñez, Aurora

    2008-01-01

    Several different D-type cyclins can be found in plants and in maize, four of these have been characterized: CycD2;1, CycD4;1, CycD5;1 and CycD5;2. These cyclins appear to form complexes with Cdks, with PCNA and also with KRP proteins and in these kinase activity can be measured. The expression of the corresponding genes during maize germination is highly stimulated by phytohormones like auxin and cytokinin, however this is not followed by an equivalent increase in the amount of the corresponding proteins; nonetheless, auxins do stimulate the associated kinase activity, particularly at early germination times. Thus, auxins appear to stimulate the cell cycle during germination at two levels, transcription and kinase activation. Both auxins and cytokinins appear to shorten the G1 phase during germination and stimulate DNA synthesis, but apparently they do it in different ways as the simultaneous addition of both to germinating maize axes eliminates DNA synthesis stimulation. Therefore, similar actions may be achieved by different paths. PMID:19704474

  19. The Rho GTPase effector ROCK regulates cyclin A, cyclin D1, and p27Kip1 levels by distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Croft, Daniel R; Olson, Michael F

    2006-06-01

    The members of the Rho GTPase family are well known for their regulation of actin cytoskeletal structures. In addition, they influence progression through the cell cycle. The RhoA and RhoC proteins regulate numerous effector proteins, with a central and vital signaling role mediated by the ROCK I and ROCK II serine/threonine kinases. The requirement for ROCK function in the proliferation of numerous cell types has been revealed by studies utilizing ROCK-selective inhibitors such as Y-27632. However, the mechanisms by which ROCK signaling promotes cell cycle progression have not been thoroughly characterized. Using a conditionally activated ROCK-estrogen receptor fusion protein, we found that ROCK activation is sufficient to stimulate G1/S cell cycle progression in NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Further analysis revealed that ROCK acts via independent pathways to alter the levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins: cyclin D1 and p21(Cip1) elevation via Ras and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, increased cyclin A via LIM kinase 2, and reduction of p27(Kip1) protein levels. Therefore, the influence of ROCK on cell cycle regulatory proteins occurs by multiple independent mechanisms.

  20. Protein Kinases and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anna M.; Messing, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    Although drugs of abuse have different chemical structures and interact with different protein targets, all appear to usurp common neuronal systems that regulate reward and motivation. Addiction is a complex disease that is thought to involve drug-induced changes in synaptic plasticity due to alterations in cell signaling, gene transcription, and protein synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that drugs of abuse interact with and change a common network of signaling pathways that include a subset of specific protein kinases. The best studied of these kinases are reviewed here and include extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5, protein kinase C, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and Fyn tyrosine kinase. These kinases have been implicated in various aspects of drug addiction including acute drug effects, drug self-administration, withdrawal, reinforcement, sensitization, and tolerance. Identifying protein kinase substrates and signaling pathways that contribute to the addicted state may provide novel approaches for new pharma-cotherapies to treat drug addiction. PMID:18991950

  1. Functional Interaction between the Bovine Papillomavirus Virus Type 1 Replicative Helicase E1 and Cyclin E-Cdk2†

    PubMed Central

    Cueille, Nathalie; Nougarede, Romain; Mechali, Francisca; Philippe, Michel; Bonne-Andrea, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    We have found that the replicative helicase E1 of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) interacts with a key cell cycle regulator of S phase, the cyclin E-Cdk2 kinase. The E1 helicase, which interacts with cyclin E and not with Cdk2, presents the highest affinity for catalytically active kinase complexes. In addition, E1, cyclin E, and Cdk2 expressed in Xenopus egg extracts are quantitatively coimmunoprecipitated from crude extracts by either anti-Cdk2 or anti-E1 antibodies. E1 protein is also a substrate of the cyclin E-Cdk2 kinase in vitro. Using the viral components required for in vitro BPV-1 replication and free-membrane cytosol from Xenopus eggs, we show that efficient replication of BPV plasmids is dependent on the addition of E1-cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes. Thus, the BPV initiator of replication and cyclin E-Cdk2 are likely to function together as a protein complex which may be the key to the cell cycle regulation of papillomavirus replication. PMID:9696820

  2. Functional interaction between the bovine papillomavirus virus type 1 replicative helicase E1 and cyclin E-Cdk2.

    PubMed

    Cueille, N; Nougarede, R; Mechali, F; Philippe, M; Bonne-Andrea, C

    1998-09-01

    We have found that the replicative helicase E1 of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) interacts with a key cell cycle regulator of S phase, the cyclin E-Cdk2 kinase. The E1 helicase, which interacts with cyclin E and not with Cdk2, presents the highest affinity for catalytically active kinase complexes. In addition, E1, cyclin E, and Cdk2 expressed in Xenopus egg extracts are quantitatively coimmunoprecipitated from crude extracts by either anti-Cdk2 or anti-E1 antibodies. E1 protein is also a substrate of the cyclin E-Cdk2 kinase in vitro. Using the viral components required for in vitro BPV-1 replication and free-membrane cytosol from Xenopus eggs, we show that efficient replication of BPV plasmids is dependent on the addition of E1-cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes. Thus, the BPV initiator of replication and cyclin E-Cdk2 are likely to function together as a protein complex which may be the key to the cell cycle regulation of papillomavirus replication.

  3. Cyclin activation of p34cdc2.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M J; Glotzer, M; Lee, T H; Philippe, M; Kirschner, M W

    1990-11-30

    The gradual accumulation of cyclin in the frog egg induces an abrupt and concerted activation of p34cdc2 that initiates mitosis. Activation is delayed even after the accumulation of cyclin to a critical threshold concentration. We have reproduced these unusual kinetic properties of p34cdc2 activation in vitro using bacterially expressed cyclin proteins and extracts derived from Xenopus eggs. Abrupt activation follows a lag period, the length of which is independent of the concentration of cyclin. The threshold concentration of cyclin and the length of the lag period are regulated by INH, an inhibitor of MPF activation in oocytes recently identified as a type 2A protein phosphatase. Binding to cyclin induces both tyrosine and threonine phosphorylation of the previously unphosphorylated p34cdc2, rendering it inactivated. The concerted transition into mitosis involves both a reduction in the rate of p34cdc2 phosphorylation on tyrosine and an increase in its rate of dephosphorylation.

  4. Arabidopsis PCNAs form complexes with selected D-type cyclins

    PubMed Central

    Strzalka, Wojciech K.; Aggarwal, Chhavi; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Jakubowska, Agata; Sztatelman, Olga; Banas, Agnieszka K.

    2015-01-01

    Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is a key nuclear protein of eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to form complexes with cyclin dependent kinases, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors and the D-type cyclins which are involved in the cell cycle control. In Arabidopsis two genes coding for PCNA1 and PCNA2 proteins have been identified. In this study by analyzing Arabidopsis PCNA/CycD complexes we tested the possible functional differentiation of PCNA1/2 proteins in cell cycle control. Most out of the 10 cyclins investigated showed only nuclear localization except CycD2;1, CycD4;1, and CycD4;2 which were observed both in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Using the Y2H, BiFC and FLIM-FRET techniques we identified D-type cyclins which formed complexes with either PCNA1 or PCNA2. Among the candidates tested only CycD1;1, CycD3;1, and CycD3;3 were not detected in a complex with the PCNA proteins. Moreover, our results indicate that the formation of CycD3;2/PCNA and CycD4;1/PCNA complexes can be regulated by other as yet unidentified factor(s). Additionally, FLIM-FRET analyses suggested that in planta the distance between PCNA1/CycD4;1, PCNA1/CycD6;1, PCNA1/CycD7;1, and PCNA2/CycD4;2 proteins was shorter than that between PCNA2/CycD4;1, PCNA2/CycD6;1, PCNA2/CycD7;1, and PCNA1/CycD4;2 pairs. These data indicate that the nine amino acid differences between PCNA1 and PCNA2 have an impact on the architecture of Arabidopsis CycD/PCNA complexes. PMID:26379676

  5. Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of the human cyclin C (CCNC) and cyclin E (CCNE) genes: Deletion of the CCNC gene in human tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haimin; Lahti, J.M.; Kidd, V.J.

    1996-03-01

    The human G1-phase cyclins are important regulators of cell cycle progression that interact with various cyclin-dependent kinases and facilitate entry into S-phase. We have confirmed the localization of the human cyclin C (CCNC) gene to chromosome 6q21 and of human cyclin E (CCNE to 19q12). The CCNC gene structure was also determined, and we have shown that it is deleted in a subset of acute lymphoblastic leukemias, including a patient sample containing a t(2;6)(p21;q15), with no apparent cytogenetic deletion. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis of the remaining CCNC allele from patients with a deletion of one allele established that there were no further mutations within the exons or the flanking intronic sequences. These results suggest either that haploinsufficiency of the cyclin C protein is sufficient to promote tumorigenesis or that the important tumor suppressor gene is linked to the CCNC locus. 48 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Adenosine Attenuates Human Coronary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Inhibiting Multiple Signaling Pathways That Converge on Cyclin D.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Raghvendra K; Fingerle, Jürgen; Gillespie, Delbert G; Mi, Zaichuan; Rosselli, Marinella; Imthurn, Bruno; Jackson, Edwin K

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether and how adenosine affects the proliferation of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs). In HCASMCs, 2-chloroadenosine (stable adenosine analogue), but not N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine, CGS21680, or N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide, inhibited HCASMC proliferation (A2B receptor profile). 2-Chloroadenosine increased cAMP, reduced phosphorylation (activation) of ERK and Akt (protein kinases known to increase cyclin D expression and activity, respectively), and reduced levels of cyclin D1 (cyclin that promotes cell-cycle progression in G1). Moreover, 2-chloroadenosine inhibited expression of S-phase kinase-associated protein-2 (Skp2; promotes proteolysis of p27(Kip1)) and upregulated levels of p27(Kip1) (cell-cycle regulator that impairs cyclin D function). 2-Chloroadenosine also inhibited signaling downstream of cyclin D, including hyperphosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein and expression of cyclin A (S phase cyclin). Knockdown of A2B receptors prevented the effects of 2-chloroadenosine on ERK1/2, Akt, Skp2, p27(Kip1), cyclin D1, cyclin A, and proliferation. Likewise, inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A abrogated 2-chloroadenosine's inhibitory effects on Skp2 and stimulatory effects on p27(Kip1) and rescued HCASMCs from 2-chloroadenosine-mediated inhibition. Knockdown of p27(Kip1) also reversed the inhibitory effects of 2-chloroadenosine on HCASMC proliferation. In vivo, peri-arterial (rat carotid artery) 2-chloroadenosine (20 μmol/L for 7 days) downregulated vascular expression of Skp2, upregulated vascular expression of p27(Kip1), and reduced neointima hyperplasia by 71% (P<0.05; neointimal thickness: control, 37 424±18 371 pixels; treated, 10 352±2824 pixels). In conclusion, the adenosine/A2B receptor/cAMP/protein kinase A axis inhibits HCASMC proliferation by blocking multiple signaling pathways (ERK1/2, Akt, and Skp2) that converge at cyclin D, a key G1 cyclin

  7. Investigating the Role of Cyclin D1 in the Promotion of Genomic Instability and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    20mM Tris, 40mM MgCl2, 2.5mM EGTA). Beads containing SCFFbx4 complexes 6 were then mixed with Sf9 -produced purified cyclin D1 substrate, ATP...ubiquitylation reactions with Sf9 -purified cyclin D1/CDK4 as substrate, in the presence of E1, E2, 1 ubiquitin, and ATP. 2 3 Figure 6. Fbx4 loss drives cell...kinase/methyltrans- ferase reactions with purified recombinant PRMT5/MEP50 pro- duced in Sf9 cells. PRMT5-dependent methyltransferase activity was

  8. Cyclin D1 expression in prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R A; Ravinal, R C; Costa, R S; Lima, M S; Tucci, S; Muglia, V F; Reis, R B dos; Silva, G E B

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with prostate carcinoma. We assessed cyclin D1 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry in 85 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 10 normal prostate tissue samples retrieved from autopsies. We measured nuclear immunostaining in the entire tumor area and based the results on the percentage of positive tumor cells. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 8.68±5.16 ng/mL (mean±SD). Cyclin D1 staining was positive (cyclin D1 expression in >5% of tumor cells) in 64 cases (75.4%) and negative (cyclin D1 expression in ≤5% of tumor cells) in 21 cases (including 15 cases with no immunostaining). Normal prostate tissues were negative for cyclin D1. Among patients with a high-grade Gleason score (≥7), 86% of patients demonstrated cyclin D1 immunostaining of >5% (P<0.05). In the crude analysis of cyclin D1 expression, the high-grade Gleason score group showed a mean expression of 39.6%, compared to 26.9% in the low-grade Gleason score group (P<0.05). Perineural invasion tended to be associated with cyclin D1 expression (P=0.07), whereas cyclin D1 expression was not associated with PSA levels or other parameters. Our results suggest that high cyclin D1 expression could be a potential marker for tumor aggressiveness.

  9. Two fission yeast B-type cyclins, cig2 and Cdc13, have different functions in mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, A; Russell, P

    1993-01-01

    Cyclin B interacts with Cdc2 kinase to induce cell cycle events, particularly those of mitosis. The existence of cyclin B subtypes in several species has been known for some time, leading to speculation that key events of mitosis may be carried out by distinct functional classes of Cdc2/cyclin B. We report the discovery of cig2, a third B-type cyclin gene in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Disruption of cig2 delays the onset of mitosis, to the degree that a cig2 null allele rescues mitotic catastrophe mutants, including those that are unable to carry out the inhibitory tyrosyl phosphorylation of Cdc2 kinase. Consistent with this, a cig2 null allele exhibits synthetic lethal interactions with cdc25ts and cdc2ts mutations. Mitotic phenotypes caused by disruption of cig2 are not reversed by increased production of Cdc13, the other fission yeast B-type cyclin that functions in mitosis. Likewise, a cdc13ts mutation is not rescued by increased gene dosage of cig2+. These data indicate that Cdc13 and Cig2 interact with Cdc2 to carry out different functions in mitosis. We suggest that some cyclin B subtypes found in other species, including humans, are also likely to have distinct, nonoverlapping functions in mitosis. Images PMID:8455610

  10. Soluble hyaluronan receptor RHAMM induces mitotic arrest by suppressing Cdc2 and cyclin B1 expression

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The hyaluronan (HA) receptor RHAMM is an important regulator of cell growth. Overexpression of RHAMM is transforming and is required for H- ras transformation. The molecular mechanism underlying growth control by RHAMM and other extracellular matrix receptors remains largely unknown. We report that soluble RHAMM induces G2/M arrest by suppressing the expression of Cdc2/Cyclin B1, a protein kinase complex essential for mitosis. Down-regulation of RHAMM by use of dominant negative mutants or antisense of mRNA also decreases Cdc2 protein levels. Suppression of Cdc2 occurs as a result of an increased rate of cdc2 mRNA degradation. Moreover, tumor cells treated with soluble RHAMM are unable to form lung metastases. Thus, we show that mitosis is directly linked to RHAMM through control of Cdc2 and Cyclin B1 expression. Failure to sustain levels of Cdc2 and Cyclin B1 proteins leads to cell cycle arrest. PMID:8666924

  11. Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L10 Associates with Cyclin B1/Cdk1 Activity and Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Bo; Wang, Ruo-Xi; Jiang, Hai-Bo; Zhang, En-dong; Tan, Jie-Qiong; Xu, Hui-Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are important for mitochondrial-encoded protein synthesis and mitochondrial function. In addition to their roles in mitoribosome assembly, several mitochondrial ribosome proteins are also implicated in cellular processes like cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and mitochondrial homeostasis regulation. Here, we demonstrate that MRPL10 regulates cyclin B1/Cdk1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1) activity and mitochondrial protein synthesis in mammalian cells. In Drosophila, inactivation of mRpL10 (the Drosophila ortholog of mammalian MRPL10) in eyes results in abnormal eye development. Furthermore, expression of human cyclin B1 suppresses eye phenotypes and mitochondrial abnormality of mRpL10 knockdown Drosophila. This study identified that the physiological regulatory pathway of MRPL10 and providing new insights into the role of MRPL10 in growth control and mitochondrial function. PMID:27726420

  12. Specific overexpression of cyclin E·CDK2 in early preinvasive and primary breast tumors in female ACI rats induced by estrogen.

    PubMed

    Weroha, S John; Lingle, Wilma L; Hong, Yan; Li, Sara Antonia; Li, Jonathan J

    2010-02-01

    Overexpressed Aurora A, amplified centrosomes, and aneuploidy are salient features of estrogen-induced mammary preinvasive lesions and tumors in female August--Copenhagen Irish (ACI) rats. Intimately involved in these events are cyclins and their associated cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) partners. Cyclin E1·CDK2 overexpression plays an important dual role in late G1/S phase of the cell cycle in cancer cells. It increases DNA replication providing growth advantage to cancer cells and facilitates aberrant centrosome duplication, generating chromosomal instability and aneuploidy leading to tumor development. Presented herein, a 24.0- and 45.0-fold elevation in cyclin E1 and CDK2 was found in 17β-estradiol (E(2))-induced ACI rat mammary tumors (MTs), respectively. Cyclin E·CDK2 positive staining was confined to the large round cells found within focal dysplasias, ductal carcinomas in situ, and invasive MTs. Co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase activity of these tumors revealed that these cell cycle entities are functional. When mammary tissue derived from untreated normal, E(2)-induced hyperplasia and primary tumors were normalized to cyclin E1 levels, low molecular weight (LMW) cyclin E1 forms (33- and 45-kDa) were detected in all of these tissue groups. Moreover, increasing concentrations of protease inhibitor in tissue lysates resulted in a marked reduction of LMW forms, indicating that the presence of cyclin E1 LMW forms can be markedly reduced. Significant increases in cyclin E1 mRNA (2.1-fold) were detected in primary ACI rat E(2)-induced breast tumors, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a 20% amplification of the cyclin E1 gene (CCNE1). Collectively, these results support the involvement of cyclin E1·CDK2 in centrosome overduplication during each stage of E(2)-induced mammary tumorigenesis.

  13. Cdc25 Phosphatases Are Required for Timely Assembly of CDK1-Cyclin B at the G2/M Transition*

    PubMed Central

    Timofeev, Oleg; Cizmecioglu, Onur; Settele, Florian; Kempf, Tore; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Progression through mitosis requires the coordinated regulation of Cdk1 kinase activity. Activation of Cdk1 is a multistep process comprising binding of Cdk1 to cyclin B, relocation of cyclin-kinase complexes to the nucleus, activating phosphorylation of Cdk1 on Thr161 by the Cdk-activating kinase (CAK; Cdk7 in metazoans), and removal of inhibitory Thr14 and Tyr15 phosphorylations. This dephosphorylation is catalyzed by the dual specific Cdc25 phosphatases, which occur in three isoforms in mammalian cells, Cdc25A, -B, and -C. We find that expression of Cdc25A leads to an accelerated G2/M phase transition. In Cdc25A-overexpressing cells, Cdk1 exhibits high kinase activity despite being phosphorylated on Tyr15. In addition, Tyr15-phosphorylated Cdk1 binds more cyclin B in Cdc25A-overexpressing cells compared with control cells. Consistent with this observation, we demonstrate that in human transformed cells, Cdc25A and Cdc25B, but not Cdc25C phosphatases have an effect on timing and efficiency of cyclin-kinase complex formation. Overexpression of Cdc25A or Cdc25B promotes earlier assembly and activation of Cdk1-cyclin B complexes, whereas repression of these phosphatases by short hairpin RNA has a reverse effect, leading to a substantial decrease in amounts of cyclin B-bound Cdk1 in G2 and mitosis. Importantly, we find that Cdc25A overexpression leads to an activation of Cdk7 and increase in Thr161 phosphorylation of Cdk1. In conclusion, our data suggest that complex assembly and dephosphorylation of Cdk1 at G2/M is tightly coupled and regulated by Cdc25 phosphatases. PMID:20360007

  14. The role of MIF, cyclinD1 and ERK in the development of pulmonary hypertension in broilers.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoyun; Wang, Yanmei; Chen, Lingli; Han, Lijuan; Li, Lifang; He, Han; Li, Yuan; Huang, Nan; Ren, Hao; Pei, Fangying; Li, Guilan; Cheng, Jia; Wang, Wenkui

    2017-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a major disease in the broiler breeding industry. During PH, the pulmonary artery undergoes remodelling, which is caused by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. CyclinD1 regulates cell proliferation. This study investigated the role of cyclinD1 in the development of PH in broilers, and which bioactivators and signalling pathway are involved in the pathological process. The PH group contained 3-4-week-old broilers with clinical PH, and the healthy group broilers from the same flock without PH. Histopathology indicated pulmonary arterial walls were thicker in the PH group compared with the healthy group. Target gene expressions of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cyclinD1 detected by quantitative real-time PCR were upregulated in the PH group compared with the healthy group. Immunohistochemistry showed MIF, phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) and cyclinD1 were present on pulmonary vascular walls; MIF was present in the cytoplasm of arterial endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells; p-ERK and cyclinD1 were present in smooth muscle cell cytoplasm. Western blotting demonstrated that MIF, p-ERKand cyclinD1 levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the PH group compared with the healthy group. In summary, increased MIF in PH broiler pulmonary arteries upregulated cyclinD1 via the ERK signalling pathway to induce pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, causing pulmonary artery remodelling and hypertension.

  15. Cyclin A1 is expressed in mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongquan; Li, Yuanhong; Zhao, Chen; Jiang, Xuejun; Chen, Hongduo; Lang, Ming-Fei; Sun, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin A1 belongs to the type-A cyclins and participates in cell cycle regulation. Since its discovery, cyclin A1 has been shown mostly in testis. It plays important roles in spermatogenesis. However, there were also reports on ovary expression of cyclin A1. Therefore, we intended to revisit the expression of cyclin A1 in mouse ovary. Our study showed that cyclin A1 was expressed at the mRNA level and the protein level in mouse ovary. Tissue staining revealed that cyclin A1 was expressed in maturating oocytes. With the recent data on the functions of cyclins in somatic and stem cells, we also discussed the possibilities of further studies of cyclin A1 in mouse oocytes and perhaps in the oogonial stem cells. Our findings not only add to the supportive evidence of cyclin A1 expression in oocytes, but also may promote more interest in exploring cyclin A1 functions in ovary.

  16. c-Jun induces apoptosis of starved BM2 monoblasts by activating cyclin A-CDK2

    SciTech Connect

    Vanhara, Petr; Bryja, Vitezslav; Horvath, Viktor; Kozubik, Alois; Hampl, Ales; Smarda, Jan . E-mail: smarda@sci.muni.cz

    2007-02-02

    c-Jun is one of the major components of the activating protein-1 (AP-1), the transcription factor that participates in regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In this study, we explored functional interactions of the c-Jun protein with several regulators of the G1/S transition in serum-deprived v-myb-transformed chicken monoblasts BM2. We show that the c-Jun protein induces expression of cyclin A, thus up-regulating activity of cyclin A-associated cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), and causing massive programmed cell death of starved BM2cJUN cells. Specific inhibition of CDK2 suppresses frequency of apoptosis of BM2cJUN cells. We conclude that up-regulation of cyclin A expression and CDK2 activity can represent important link between the c-Jun protein, cell cycle machinery, and programmed cell death pathway in leukemic cells.

  17. Characterization of TcCYC6 from Trypanosoma cruzi, a gene with homology to mitotic cyclins.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, María Agostina; Laverrière, Marc; Schenkman, Sergio; Wehrendt, Diana Patricia; Tellez-Iñón, María Teresa; Potenza, Mariana

    2016-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is a protozoan parasite with a life cycle that alternates between replicative and non-replicative forms, but the components and mechanisms that regulate its cell cycle are poorly described. In higher eukaryotes, cyclins are proteins that activate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), by associating with them along the different stages of the cell cycle. These cyclin-CDK complexes exert their role as major modulators of the cell cycle by phosphorylating specific substrates. For the correct progression of the cell cycle, the mechanisms that regulate the activity of cyclins and their associated CDKs are diverse and must be controlled precisely. Different types of cyclins are involved in specific phases of the eukaryotic cell cycle, preferentially activating certain CDKs. In this work, we characterized TcCYC6, a putative coding sequence of T. cruzi which encodes a protein with homology to mitotic cyclins. The overexpression of this sequence, fused to a tag of nine amino acids from influenza virus hemagglutinin (TcCYC6-HA), showed to be detrimental for the proliferation of epimastigotes in axenic culture and affected the cell cycle progression. In silico analysis revealed an N-terminal segment similar to the consensus sequence of the destruction box, a hallmark for the degradation of several mitotic cyclins. We experimentally determined that the TcCYC6-HA turnover decreased in the presence of proteasome inhibitors, suggesting that TcCYC6 degradation occurs via ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The results obtained in this study provide first evidence that TcCYC6 expression and degradation are finely regulated in T. cruzi.

  18. Effects of Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 inhibition on zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Matrone, Gianfranco; Tucker, Carl S.; Denvir, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT CDK9 is a known regulator of cellular transcription, growth and proliferation. Small molecule inhibitors are currently being developed and assessed in clinical trials as anti-cancer drugs. The zebrafish embryo provides an ideal model to explore the effects of CDK9 inhibition in-vivo. This has not been adequately explored previously at the level of a whole organism. We have compared and contrasted the effects of pharmacological and molecular inhibition of CDK9 on somatic growth, apoptosis and cellular proliferation in zebrafish larvae between 0 to 120 hours post fertilisation (hpf) using flavopiridol, a selective CDK9 antagonist, and CDK9-targeting morpholino. We demonstrate that the inhibition of CDK9 diminishes cellular proliferation and increases apoptosis. Subsequently, it affects somatic growth and development of a number of key embryonic structures including the brain, heart, eye and blood vessels. For the first time, we have localized CDK9 at a subcellular level in whole-mounted larvae. This works shows, at a high-throughput level, that CDK9 clearly plays a fundamental role in early cellular growth and proliferation. PMID:27715402

  19. Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitors as Targets in Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    tainoxifcn-induced Tarnoxifen 1" 69 Redox regulation ofTFs activity, hepatocarcinogenesis DNA repair Rat duodenal inucosa Cysteamine - 1" N 71 Redox...isehemia (42), hypoxia/reoxygena- a mechanism, being corroborated by recent reports for a role tion in endothelial cells (21, cysteamine -itiduced

  20. Hog1 Targets Whi5 and Msa1 Transcription Factors To Downregulate Cyclin Expression upon Stress

    PubMed Central

    González-Novo, Alberto; Jiménez, Javier; Clotet, Josep; Nadal-Ribelles, Mariona; Cavero, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells have developed complex mechanisms to cope with extracellular insults. An increase in external osmolarity leads to activation of the stress-activated protein kinase Hog1, which is the main regulator of adaptive responses, such as gene expression and cell cycle progression, that are essential for cellular survival. Upon osmostress, the G1-to-S transition is regulated by Hog1 through stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 and the downregulation of G1 cyclin expression by an unclear mechanism. Here, we show that Hog1 interacts with and phosphorylates components of the core cell cycle transcriptional machinery such as Whi5 and the coregulator Msa1. Phosphorylation of these two transcriptional regulators by Hog1 is essential for inhibition of G1 cyclin expression, for control of cell morphogenesis, and for maximal cell survival upon stress. The control of both Whi5 and Msa1 by Hog1 also revealed the necessity for proper coordination of budding and DNA replication. Thus, Hog1 regulates G1 cyclin transcription upon osmostress to ensure coherent passage through Start. PMID:25733686

  1. A docking interface in the cyclin Cln2 promotes multisite phosphorylation of substrates and timely cell cycle entry

    PubMed Central

    Bhaduri, Samyabrata; Valk, Ervin; Winters, Matthew J.; Gruessner, Brian; Loog, Mart; Pryciak, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Eukaryotic cell division is driven by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Distinct cyclin-CDK complexes are specialized to drive different cell cycle events, though the molecular foundations for these specializations are only partly understood. In budding yeast, the decision to begin a new cell cycle is regulated by three G1 cyclins (Cln1–Cln3). Recent studies revealed that some CDK substrates contain a novel docking motif that is specifically recognized by Cln1 and Cln2, and not by Cln3 or later S- or M-phase cyclins, but the responsible cyclin interface was unknown. Results Here, to explore the role of this new docking mechanism in the cell cycle, we first show that it is conserved in a distinct cyclin subtype (Ccn1). Then, we exploit phylogenetic variation to identify cyclin mutations that disrupt docking. These mutations disrupt binding to multiple substrates as well as the ability to use docking sites to promote efficient, multi-site phosphorylation of substrates in vitro. In cells where the Cln2 docking function is blocked, we observed reductions in the polarized morphogenesis of daughter buds and reduced ability to fully phosphorylate the G1/S transcriptional repressor Whi5. Furthermore, disruption of Cln2 docking perturbs the coordination between cell size and division, such that the G1/S transition is delayed. Conclusions The findings point to a novel substrate interaction interface on cyclins, with patterns of conservation and divergence that relate to functional distinctions among cyclin subtypes. Furthermore, this docking function helps ensure full phosphorylation of substrates with multiple phosphorylation sites, and this contributes to punctual cell cycle entry. PMID:25619768

  2. Signal transduction pathways that contribute to CDK1/cyclin B activation during the first mitotic division in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Salaün, Patrick; Le Breton, Magali; Morales, Julia; Bellé, Robert; Boulben, Sandrine; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile; Cormier, Patrick

    2004-06-10

    In sea urchins, fertilization triggers a rapid rise in protein synthesis necessary for activation of CDK1/cyclin B, the universal cell cycle regulator. It has been shown that FRAP/mTOR is required for eIF4E release from the translational repressor 4E-BP, a process that occurs upstream of de novo cyclin B synthesis. Here, we investigate whether PI 3-kinase acts independently or upstream from FRAP/mTOR in the signal transduction pathway that links fertilization to the activation of the CDK1/cyclin B complex in sea urchin egg. We found that wortmannin, a potent inhibitor of PI 3-kinase, partially inhibited the global increase in protein synthesis triggered by fertilization. Furthermore, wortmannin treatment induced partial inhibition of cyclin B translation triggered by fertilization, in correlation with an intermediate effect of the drug on 4E-BP degradation and on the dissociation of the 4E-BP/eIF4E complex induced by fertilization. Our results presented here suggest that PI 3-kinase activity is required for completion of mitotic divisions of the sea urchin embryo. Incubation of eggs with wortmannin or microinjection of wortmannin or LY 294002 affects drastically mitotic divisions induced by fertilization. In addition, we found that wortmannin treatment inhibits dephosphorylation of the tyrosine inhibitory site of CDK1. Taken together, these data suggest that PI 3-kinase acts upstream of at least two independent targets that function in the CDK1/cyclin B activation triggered by fertilization of sea urchin oocytes. We discuss the significance of these results concerning the cascade of reactions that impinge upon the activation of the CDK1/cyclin B complex that follows sea urchin oocyte fertilization.

  3. Functional regulation of D-type cyclins by insulin-like growth factor-I and serum in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Glassford, Janet; Rabin, Neil; Lam, Eric W-F; Yong, Kwee L

    2007-10-01

    D-type cyclin genes are universally dysregulated in multiple myeloma (MM), but the functional consequences are unclear as D-type cyclin gene expression does not correlate with proliferation or disease progression. We examined the protein expression and regulation of D-type cyclins and other cell cycle regulators in human myeloma cell lines and primary CD138(+) plasma cells (PCs). Cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4, CDK6, p27(Kip1) p18(INK4C) and retinoblastoma protein (pRb) were absent in normal PCs, heterogeneously expressed in primary MM cells and positively correlated with disease activity/progression. Cyclins D1 and D2 complexed with both CDK4 and CDK6, suggesting that both phosphorylate pRb in MM. Furthermore, cyclin D2 expressed via either t(14;16) or t(4;14) IgH translocations was functionally upregulated by fetal calf serum or insulin-like growth factor-I, leading to pRb phosphorylation and cell cycle entry/progression, and in some cases inversely correlated with p27(Kip1). However, pRb phosphorylation and cell cycle progression mediated by cyclin D1 expressed via t(11;14) was less dependent on exogenous stimuli. These data suggest that the presence or absence of specific IgH translocations underlying aberrant D-type cyclin expression may influence their response to mitogens in the bone marrow microenvironment. We showed for the first time that D-type cyclins are functionally regulated in MM, differentially responsive to exogenous growth factors and upregulated with disease progression.

  4. Placental estrogen suppresses cyclin D1 expression in the nonhuman primate fetal adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Adina; Aberdeen, Graham W; Pepe, Gerald J; Albrecht, Eugene D

    2014-12-01

    We have previously shown that estrogen selectively suppresses growth of the fetal zone of the baboon fetal adrenal cortex, which produces the C19-steroid precursors, eg, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, which are aromatized to estrogen within the placenta. In the present study, we determined whether fetal adrenal expression of cell cycle regulators are altered by estrogen and thus provide a mechanism by which estrogen regulates fetal adrenocortical development. Cyclin D1 mRNA levels in the whole fetal adrenal were increased 50% (P < .05), and the number of cells in the fetal adrenal definitive zone expressing cyclin D1 protein was increased 2.5-fold (P < .05), whereas the total number of cells in the fetal zone and fetal serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were elevated 2-fold (P < .05) near term in baboons in which fetal serum estradiol levels were decreased by 95% (P < .05) after maternal administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and restored to normal by concomitant administration of letrozole plus estradiol throughout second half of gestation. However, fetal adrenocortical expression of cyclin D2, the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-2, Cdk4, and Cdk6, and Cdk regulatory proteins p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2) were not changed by letrozole or letrozole plus estradiol administration. We suggest that estrogen controls the growth of the fetal zone of the fetal adrenal by down-regulating cyclin D1 expression and thus proliferation of progenitor cells within the definitive zone that migrate to the fetal zone. We propose that estrogen restrains growth and function of the fetal zone via cyclin D1 to maintain estrogen levels in a physiological range during primate pregnancy.

  5. Placental Estrogen Suppresses Cyclin D1 Expression in the Nonhuman Primate Fetal Adrenal Cortex*

    PubMed Central

    Dumitrescu, Adina; Aberdeen, Graham W.; Pepe, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that estrogen selectively suppresses growth of the fetal zone of the baboon fetal adrenal cortex, which produces the C19-steroid precursors, eg, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, which are aromatized to estrogen within the placenta. In the present study, we determined whether fetal adrenal expression of cell cycle regulators are altered by estrogen and thus provide a mechanism by which estrogen regulates fetal adrenocortical development. Cyclin D1 mRNA levels in the whole fetal adrenal were increased 50% (P < .05), and the number of cells in the fetal adrenal definitive zone expressing cyclin D1 protein was increased 2.5-fold (P < .05), whereas the total number of cells in the fetal zone and fetal serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were elevated 2-fold (P < .05) near term in baboons in which fetal serum estradiol levels were decreased by 95% (P < .05) after maternal administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and restored to normal by concomitant administration of letrozole plus estradiol throughout second half of gestation. However, fetal adrenocortical expression of cyclin D2, the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-2, Cdk4, and Cdk6, and Cdk regulatory proteins p27Kip1 and p57Kip2 were not changed by letrozole or letrozole plus estradiol administration. We suggest that estrogen controls the growth of the fetal zone of the fetal adrenal by down-regulating cyclin D1 expression and thus proliferation of progenitor cells within the definitive zone that migrate to the fetal zone. We propose that estrogen restrains growth and function of the fetal zone via cyclin D1 to maintain estrogen levels in a physiological range during primate pregnancy. PMID:25247468

  6. Okadaic acid induced cyclin B1 expression and mitotic catastrophe in rat cortex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Cheng, Min; Hong, Dao-Jun; Sun, Feng-Yan; Zhu, Cui-Qing

    2006-10-09

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the aberrant re-entry of post-mitotic neurons into the G2/M phase of cell cycle and the resulting mitotic catastrophe may contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, the cellular event that drives the differentiated neurons to abnormally enter G2/M phase remains elusive. Similarly, whether mitotic catastrophe is indeed one of the death pathways for differentiated neurons is not clear. Previous studies revealed that okadaic acid (OA), a phosphatase inhibitor that induces AD like pathological changes, evokes mitotic changes in neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we examined the in vivo effects of OA on cyclin B1 expression, the induction of mitosis, and subsequent mitotic catastrophe. We found that cyclin B1 expression in adult neurons was significantly increased after injecting OA into rat frontal cortex, which also increased tau protein phosphorylation. Interestingly, cyclin B1 and phosphorylated tau were well co-localized around the OA injection site, but were only partially co-localized in other brain regions. Staining with toluidine blue, Giemsa dye or propidium iodide revealed typical mitotic and mitotic catastrophe-like morphological changes with irregular arrangement of condensed chromatin and chromosome fibers in a few cells. Furthermore, the strong cyclin B1 staining in these cells suggests that cyclin B1 promoted G2 to M phase transition is required for the mitotic catastrophe. The detection of neuron-specific enolase in a portion of these cells demonstrated that at least part them are neuron. All together, our results suggest that the disturbance of the protein kinase-phosphatase system caused by OA is sufficient to induce neuronal cyclin B1 expression, force neurons into the mitotic phase of cell cycle, and cause mitotic catastrophe.

  7. p53 is phosphorylated by CDK7-cyclin H in a p36MAT1-dependent manner.

    PubMed Central

    Ko, L J; Shieh, S Y; Chen, X; Jayaraman, L; Tamai, K; Taya, Y; Prives, C; Pan, Z Q

    1997-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 acts as a transcriptional activator that can mediate cellular responses to DNA damage by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. p53 is a nuclear phosphoprotein, and phosphorylation has been proposed to be a means by which the activity of p53 is regulated. The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-activating kinase (CAK) was originally identified as a cellular kinase required for the activation of a CDK-cyclin complex, and CAK is comprised of three subunits: CDK7, cyclin H, and p36MAT1. CAK is part of the transcription factor IIH multiprotein complex, which is required for RNA polymerase II transcription and nucleotide excision repair. Because of the similarities between p53 and CAK in their involvement in the cell cycle, transcription, and repair, we investigated whether p53 could act as a substrate for phosphorylation by CAK. While CDK7-cyclin H is sufficient for phosphorylation of CDK2, we show that p36MAT1 is required for efficient phosphorylation of p53 by CDK7-cyclin H, suggesting that p36MAT1 can act as a substrate specificity-determining factor for CDK7-cyclin H. We have mapped a major site of phosphorylation by CAK to Ser-33 of p53 and have demonstrated as well that p53 is phosphorylated at this site in vivo. Both wild-type and tumor-derived mutant p53 proteins are efficiently phosphorylated by CAK. Furthermore, we show that p36 and p53 can interact both in vitro and in vivo. These studies reveal a potential mechanism for coupling the regulation of p53 with DNA repair and the basal transcriptional machinery. PMID:9372954

  8. αB-crystallin is mutant B-RAF regulated and contributes to cyclin D1 turnover in melanocytic cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rong; Aplin, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The serine/threonine kinase, B-RAF, is frequently mutated in melanoma and is required for cell proliferation. Proteasomal turnover of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors via E3 ubiquitin ligases regulates cell cycle progression. We previously showed that B-RAF regulates Cks1, a co-factor for the F-box protein Skp2. Recently, a second F-box protein cofactor was identified, αB-crystallin, that binds Fbx4 and promotes cyclin D1 degradation. Here, we demonstrate that αB-crystallin is down-regulated in mutant B-RAF melanoma cells compared to melanocytes in a B-RAF and MEK-dependent manner. In a subset of lines, MEK inhibition was sufficient to up-regulate αB-crystallin protein levels; whereas in other lines combined MEK and proteasome inhibition was required. αB-crystallin knockdown partially stabilized cyclin D1 in melanocytes. Expression of αB-crystallin in mutant B-RAF melanoma cells did not promote cyclin D1 turnover under normal conditions, but did enhance turnover following etoposide-induced DNA damage. Together, these data show that αB-crystallin is highly expressed in melanocytes contributing, in part, to cyclin D1 turnover. Furthermore, αB-crystallin is down-regulated in a B-RAF-dependent manner in melanoma cells and its re-expression regulates cyclin D1 turnover after DNA damage. Significance αB-crystallin has been implicated in cellular functions as a heat shock protein and, more recently, as a cofactor for an E3 ligase ubiquitin ligase complex that degrades the cell cycle protein, cyclin D1. In this study we identify αB-crystallin as a target of aberrant B-RAF-MEK signaling that is hyper-activated in the majority of melanomas through mutation of B-RAF. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a functional role of αB-crystallin in contributing to the turnover of cyclin D1 in melanocytes and in melanoma cells following DNA damage inducing signals. These findings further our understanding of the regulation of cyclin D1 in melanocytic

  9. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin stimulates proliferation of HAPI microglia by affecting the Akt/GSK-3β/cyclin D1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangfei; Li, Yuanye; Yoshimoto, Katsuhiko; Wu, Qiyun; Chen, Gang; Iwata, Takeo; Mizusawa, Noriko; Wan, Chunhua; Nie, Xiaoke

    2014-01-30

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental toxin that induces apoptosis of neurons and a pro-inflammatory response in microglial cells. First, we found that TCDD induced proliferation of HAPI microglial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis showed that this proliferation by TCDD was due to mainly enhancing the G1 to S phase transition. Next, it was found that TCDD treatment led to up-regulation of cyclin D1, which induces cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase, in a time-dependent manner. As for molecular mechanism, we revealed that TCDD was capable of inducing Akt phosphorylation and activation, resulting in phosphorylation and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Inactivated GSK-3β attenuated proteasomal degradation of cyclin D1 by reducing Thr(286)-phosphorylated cyclin D1 levels. Moreover, inactivated GSK-3β increased cyclin D1 gene transcription by increasing its transcription factor β-catenin in the nucleus. Further, blockage of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt kinase with their specific inhibitors, LY294002 and Akt 1/2 kinase inhibitor, significantly reduced TCDD-enhanced proliferation of HAPI microglial cells. In conclusion, TCDD stimulates proliferation of HAPI microglial cells by affecting the Akt/GSK-3β/cyclin D1 signaling pathway.

  10. CDK-Dependent Hsp70 Phosphorylation Controls G1 Cyclin Abundance and Cell-Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Truman, Andrew W.; Kristjansdottir, Kolbrun; Wolfgeher, Donald; Hasin, Naushaba; Polier, Sigrun; Zhang, Hong; Perrett, Sarah; Prodromou, Chrisostomos; Jones, Gary W.; Kron, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary In budding yeast, the essential functions of Hsp70 chaperones Ssa1–4 are regulated through expression level, isoform specificity, and cochaperone activity. Suggesting a novel regulatory paradigm, we find that phosphorylation of Ssa1 T36 within a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) consensus site conserved among Hsp70 proteins alters cochaperone and client interactions. T36 phosphorylation triggers displacement of Ydj1, allowing Ssa1 to bind the G1 cyclin Cln3 and promote its degradation. The stress CDK Pho85 phosphorylates T36 upon nitrogen starvation or pheromone stimulation, destabilizing Cln3 to delay onset of S phase. In turn, the mitotic CDK Cdk1 phosphorylates T36 to block Cln3 accumulation in G2/M. Suggesting broad conservation from yeast to human, CDK-dependent phosphorylation of Hsc70 T38 similarly regulates Cyclin D1 binding and stability. These results establish an active role for Hsp70 chaperones as signal transducers mediating growth control of G1 cyclin abundance and activity. PMID:23217712

  11. Ghrelin augments murine T-cell proliferation by activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho; Patel, Kalpesh; Tae, Hyun Jin; Lustig, Ana; Kim, Jie Wan; Mattson, Mark P.; Taub, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Thymic atrophy occurs during normal aging, and is accelerated by exposure to chronic stressors that elevate glucocorticoid levelsand impair the naïve T cell output. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin was recently shown to attenuate age-associated thymic atrophy. Here, we report that ghrelin enhances the proliferation of murine CD4+ primary T cells and a CD4+ T-cell line. Ghrelin induced activation of the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways, via upstream activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and protein kinase C, to enhance T-cell proliferation. Moreover, ghrelin induced expression of the cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and retinoblastoma phosphorylation. Finally, ghrelin activated the above-mentioned signaling pathways and stimulated thymocyte proliferation in young and older mice in vivo. PMID:25447526

  12. Neuronal migration and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the six-layered structure of the mammalian cortex via the inside-out pattern of neuronal migration is fundamental to neocortical functions. Extracellular cues such as Reelin induce intracellular signaling cascades through the protein phosphorylation. Migrating neurons also have intrinsic machineries to regulate cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion properties. Protein phosphorylation regulates these processes. Moreover, the balance between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is modified by extracellular cues. Multipolar-bipolar transition, radial glia-guided locomotion and terminal translocation are critical steps of radial migration of cortical pyramidal neurons. Protein kinases such as Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) involve these steps. In this review, I shall give an overview the roles of protein kinases in neuronal migration. PMID:25628530

  13. Cyclin D3 is selectively required for proliferative expansion of germinal center B cells.

    PubMed

    Cato, Matthew H; Chintalapati, Suresh K; Yau, Irene W; Omori, Sidne A; Rickert, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    The generation of robust T-cell-dependent humoral immune responses requires the formation and expansion of germinal center structures within the follicular regions of the secondary lymphoid tissues. B-cell proliferation in the germinal center drives ongoing antigen-dependent selection and the generation of high-affinity class-switched plasma and memory B cells. However, the mechanisms regulating B-cell proliferation within this microenvironment are largely unknown. Here, we report that cyclin D3 is uniquely required for germinal center progression. Ccnd3(-/-) mice exhibit a B-cell-intrinsic defect in germinal center maturation and fail to generate an affinity-matured IgG response. We determined that the defect resulted from failed proliferative expansion of GL7(+) IgD(-) PNA(+) B cells. Mechanistically, sustained expression of cyclin D3 was found to be regulated at the level of protein stability and controlled by glycogen synthase kinase 3 in a cyclic AMP-protein kinase A-dependent manner. The specific defect in proliferative expansion of GL7(+) IgD(-) PNA(+) B cells in Ccnd3(-/-) mice defines an underappreciated step in germinal center progression and solidifies a role for cyclin D3 in the immune response, and as a potential therapeutic target for germinal center-derived B-cell malignancies.

  14. Cyclin B2 undergoes cell cycle-dependent nuclear translocation and, when expressed as a non-destructible mutant, causes mitotic arrest in HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Cyclin proteins form complexes with members of the p34cdc2 kinase family and they are essential components of the cell cycle regulatory machinery. They are thought to determine the timing of activation, the subcellular distribution, and/or the substrate specificity of cdc2- related kinases, but their precise mode of action remains to be elucidated. Here we report the cloning and sequencing of avian cyclin B2. Based on the use of monospecific antibodies raised against bacterially expressed protein, we also describe the subcellular distribution of cyclin B2 in chick embryo fibroblasts and in DU249 hepatoma cells. By indirect immunofluorescence microscopy we show that cyclin B2 is cytoplasmic during interphase of the cell cycle, but undergoes an abrupt translocation to the cell nucleus at the onset of mitotic prophase. Finally, we have examined the phenotypic consequences of expressing wild-type and mutated versions of avian cyclin B2 in HeLa cells. We found that expression of cyclin B2 carrying a mutation at arginine 32 (to serine) caused HeLa cells to arrest in a pseudomitotic state. Many of the arrested cells displayed multiple mitotic spindles, suggesting that the centrosome cycle had continued in spite of the cell cycle arrest. PMID:1532584

  15. Rb and FZR1/Cdh1 determine CDK4/6-cyclin D requirement in C. elegans and human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    The, Inge; Ruijtenberg, Suzan; Bouchet, Benjamin P; Cristobal, Alba; Prinsen, Martine B W; van Mourik, Tim; Koreth, John; Xu, Huihong; Heck, Albert J R; Akhmanova, Anna; Cuppen, Edwin; Boxem, Mike; Muñoz, Javier; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2015-01-06

    Cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) in complex with D-type cyclins promote cell cycle entry. Most human cancers contain overactive CDK4/6-cyclin D, and CDK4/6-specific inhibitors are promising anti-cancer therapeutics. Here, we investigate the critical functions of CDK4/6-cyclin D kinases, starting from an unbiased screen in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that simultaneous mutation of lin-35, a retinoblastoma (Rb)-related gene, and fzr-1, an orthologue to the APC/C co-activator Cdh1, completely eliminates the essential requirement of CDK4/6-cyclin D (CDK-4/CYD-1) in C. elegans. CDK-4/CYD-1 phosphorylates specific residues in the LIN-35 Rb spacer domain and FZR-1 amino terminus, resembling inactivating phosphorylations of the human proteins. In human breast cancer cells, simultaneous knockdown of Rb and FZR1 synergistically bypasses cell division arrest induced by the CDK4/6-specific inhibitor PD-0332991. Our data identify FZR1 as a candidate CDK4/6-cyclin D substrate and point to an APC/C(FZR1) activity as an important determinant in response to CDK4/6-inhibitors.

  16. DNA-PKcs Negatively Regulates Cyclin B1 Protein Stability through Facilitating Its Ubiquitination Mediated by Cdh1-APC/C Pathway.

    PubMed

    Shang, Zeng-Fu; Tan, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Yu, Lan; Li, Bing; Li, Ming; Song, Man; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Bei-Bei; Zhong, Cai-Gao; Guan, Hua; Zhou, Ping-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is a critical component of the non-homologous end-joining pathway of DNA double-stranded break repair. DNA-PKcs has also been shown recently functioning in mitotic regulation. Here, we report that DNA-PKcs negatively regulates the stability of Cyclin B1 protein through facilitating its ubiquitination mediated by Cdh1 / E 3 ubiquitin ligase APC/C pathway. Loss of DNA-PKcs causes abnormal accumulation of Cyclin B1 protein. Cyclin B1 degradation is delayed in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells as result of attenuated ubiquitination. The impact of DNA-PKcs on Cyclin B1 stability relies on its kinase activity. Our study further reveals that DNA-PKcs interacts with APC/C core component APC2 and its co-activator Cdh1. The destruction of Cdh1 is accelerated in the absence of DNA-PKcs. Moreover, overexpression of exogenous Cdh1 can reverse the increase of Cyclin B1 protein in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells. Thus, DNA-PKcs, in addition to its direct role in DNA damage repair, functions in mitotic progression at least partially through regulating the stability of Cyclin B1 protein.

  17. Rb and FZR1/Cdh1 determine CDK4/6-cyclin D requirement in C. elegans and human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    The, Inge; Ruijtenberg, Suzan; Bouchet, Benjamin P.; Cristobal, Alba; Prinsen, Martine B. W.; van Mourik, Tim; Koreth, John; Xu, Huihong; Heck, Albert J. R.; Akhmanova, Anna; Cuppen, Edwin; Boxem, Mike; Muñoz, Javier; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) in complex with D-type cyclins promote cell cycle entry. Most human cancers contain overactive CDK4/6-cyclin D, and CDK4/6-specific inhibitors are promising anti-cancer therapeutics. Here, we investigate the critical functions of CDK4/6-cyclin D kinases, starting from an unbiased screen in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that simultaneous mutation of lin-35, a retinoblastoma (Rb)-related gene, and fzr-1, an orthologue to the APC/C co-activator Cdh1, completely eliminates the essential requirement of CDK4/6-cyclin D (CDK-4/CYD-1) in C. elegans. CDK-4/CYD-1 phosphorylates specific residues in the LIN-35 Rb spacer domain and FZR-1 amino terminus, resembling inactivating phosphorylations of the human proteins. In human breast cancer cells, simultaneous knockdown of Rb and FZR1 synergistically bypasses cell division arrest induced by the CDK4/6-specific inhibitor PD-0332991. Our data identify FZR1 as a candidate CDK4/6-cyclin D substrate and point to an APC/CFZR1 activity as an important determinant in response to CDK4/6-inhibitors. PMID:25562820

  18. DNA-PKcs Negatively Regulates Cyclin B1 Protein Stability through Facilitating Its Ubiquitination Mediated by Cdh1-APC/C Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Zeng-Fu; Tan, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Yu, Lan; Li, Bing; Li, Ming; Song, Man; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Bei-Bei; Zhong, Cai-Gao; Guan, Hua; Zhou, Ping-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is a critical component of the non-homologous end-joining pathway of DNA double-stranded break repair. DNA-PKcs has also been shown recently functioning in mitotic regulation. Here, we report that DNA-PKcs negatively regulates the stability of Cyclin B1 protein through facilitating its ubiquitination mediated by Cdh1 / E 3 ubiquitin ligase APC/C pathway. Loss of DNA-PKcs causes abnormal accumulation of Cyclin B1 protein. Cyclin B1 degradation is delayed in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells as result of attenuated ubiquitination. The impact of DNA-PKcs on Cyclin B1 stability relies on its kinase activity. Our study further reveals that DNA-PKcs interacts with APC/C core component APC2 and its co-activator Cdh1. The destruction of Cdh1 is accelerated in the absence of DNA-PKcs. Moreover, overexpression of exogenous Cdh1 can reverse the increase of Cyclin B1 protein in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells. Thus, DNA-PKcs, in addition to its direct role in DNA damage repair, functions in mitotic progression at least partially through regulating the stability of Cyclin B1 protein. PMID:26221070

  19. Expression of NPAT, a novel substrate of cyclin E–CDK2, promotes S-phase entry

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiyong; Dynlacht, Brian; Imai, Takashi; Hori, Tada-aki; Harlow, Ed

    1998-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms by which CDKs regulate cell cycle progression, it is necessary to identify and characterize the physiological substrates of these kinases. We have developed a screening method to identify novel CDK substrates. One of the cDNAs identified in the screen is identical to the recently isolated NPAT gene. Here we show that NPAT associates with cyclin E–CDK2 in vivo and can be phosphorylated by this CDK. The protein level of NPAT peaks at the G1/S boundary. Overexpression of NPAT accelerates S-phase entry, and this effect is enhanced by coexpression of cyclin E–CDK2. These results suggest that NPAT is a substrate of cyclin E–CDK2 and plays a role in S-phase entry. PMID:9472014

  20. STAR syndrome-associated CDK10/Cyclin M regulates actin network architecture and ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guen, Vincent J; Gamble, Carly; Perez, Dahlia E; Bourassa, Sylvie; Zappel, Hildegard; Gärtner, Jutta; Lees, Jacqueline A; Colas, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    CDK10/CycM is a protein kinase deficient in STAR (toe Syndactyly, Telecanthus and Anogenital and Renal malformations) syndrome, which results from mutations in the X-linked FAM58A gene encoding Cyclin M. The biological functions of CDK10/CycM and etiology of STAR syndrome are poorly understood. Here, we report that deficiency of CDK10/Cyclin M promotes assembly and elongation of primary cilia. We establish that this reflects a key role for CDK10/Cyclin M in regulation of actin network organization, which is known to govern ciliogenesis. In an unbiased screen, we identified the RhoA-associated kinase PKN2 as a CDK10/CycM phosphorylation substrate. We establish that PKN2 is a bone fide regulator of ciliogenesis, acting in a similar manner to CDK10/CycM. We discovered that CDK10/Cyclin M binds and phosphorylates PKN2 on threonines 121 and 124, within PKN2's core RhoA-binding domain. Furthermore, we demonstrate that deficiencies in CDK10/CycM or PKN2, or expression of a non-phosphorylatable version of PKN2, destabilize both the RhoA protein and the actin network architecture. Importantly, we established that ectopic expression of RhoA is sufficient to override the induction of ciliogenesis resulting from CDK10/CycM knockdown, indicating that RhoA regulation is critical for CDK10/CycM's negative effect on ciliogenesis. Finally, we show that kidney sections from a STAR patient display dilated renal tubules and abnormal, elongated cilia. Altogether, these results reveal CDK10/CycM as a key regulator of actin dynamics and a suppressor of ciliogenesis through phosphorylation of PKN2 and promotion of RhoA signaling. Moreover, they suggest that STAR syndrome is a ciliopathy.

  1. PKCeta associates with cyclin E/Cdk2 complex in serum-starved MCF-7 and NIH-3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Shtutman, Marat; Hershko, Tzippi; Maissel, Adva; Fima, Eyal; Livneh, Etta

    2003-05-15

    Protein kinase C (PKC) encodes a family of enzymes implicated in cellular differentiation, growth control, and tumor promotion. However, very little is known with respect to the molecular mechanisms that link protein kinase C to cell cycle control. Here we report that PKCeta associates with the cyclin E/Cdk2 complex. This is shown for the ectopically overexpressed PKCeta in NIH-3T3 cells, the inducibly expressed PKCeta in MCF-7 cells (under control of the tetracycline-responsive promoter), and the endogenously expressed PKCeta in mouse mammary epithelial HC11 cells. Subcellular cell fractionation experiments revealed that the complex with cyclin E is formed mostly in the nuclear fractions, although in these cells PKCeta is predominantly expressed in the cytosolic fractions. The complex of PKCeta and cyclin E was studied at various phases of the cell cycle, in serum-starved quiescent cells and in cells stimulated with serum to reenter the cell cycle. Interestingly, the interaction between PKCeta and cyclin E was most prominent in serum-starved cells and was disintegrated when cells entered the cells cycle. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that in serum-starved cells PKCeta is concentrated at the perinuclear zone, which is also the site of its colocalization with cyclin E. Colocalization of PKCeta and cyclin E in the perinuclear region was observed in serum-starved cells, and less in proliferating cells. These experiments suggest that the interaction between PKCeta and cyclin E is carefully regulated, and is correlated with the inactivated form of the cyclin E/Cdk2 complex. Thus, our studies support an important link between PKC and cell cycle control.

  2. The G1/S Specific Cyclin D2 Is a Regulator of HIV-1 Restriction in Non-proliferating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Badia, Roger; Pujantell, Maria; Riveira-Muñoz, Eva; Puig, Teresa; Torres-Torronteras, Javier; Martí, Ramón; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ampudia, Rosa M.; Ballana, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population strongly influenced by differentiation stimuli that become susceptible to HIV-1 infection after inactivation of the restriction factor SAMHD1 by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). Here, we have used primary human monocyte-derived macrophages differentiated through different stimuli to evaluate macrophage heterogeneity on cell activation and proliferation and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Stimulation of monocytes with GM-CSF induces a non-proliferating macrophage population highly restrictive to HIV-1 infection, characterized by the upregulation of the G1/S-specific cyclin D2, known to control early steps of cell cycle progression. Knockdown of cyclin D2, enhances HIV-1 replication in GM-CSF macrophages through inactivation of SAMHD1 restriction factor by phosphorylation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that cyclin D2 forms a complex with CDK4 and p21, a factor known to restrict HIV-1 replication by affecting the function of the downstream cascade that leads to SAMHD1 deactivation. Thus, we demonstrate that cyclin D2 acts as regulator of cell cycle proteins affecting SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction in non-proliferating macrophages. PMID:27541004

  3. Cancer-associated variant expression and interaction of CIZ1 with cyclin A1 in differentiating male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Erin A; Copeland, Nikki A; Coverley, Dawn; Ainscough, Justin F X

    2012-05-15

    CIZ1 is a nuclear-matrix-associated DNA replication factor unique to higher eukaryotes, for which alternatively spliced isoforms have been associated with a range of disorders. In vitro, the CIZ1 N-terminus interacts with cyclin E and cyclin A at distinct sites, enabling functional cooperation with cyclin-A-Cdk2 to promote replication initiation. C-terminal sequences anchor CIZ1 to fixed sites on the nuclear matrix, imposing spatial constraint on cyclin-dependent kinase activity. Here we demonstrate that CIZ1 is predominantly expressed as a predicted full-length product throughout mouse development, consistent with a ubiquitous role in cell and tissue renewal. CIZ1 is expressed in proliferating stem cells of the testis, but is notably downregulated following commitment to differentiation. Significantly, CIZ1 is re-expressed at high levels in non-proliferative spermatocytes before meiotic division. Sequence analysis identifies at least seven alternatively spliced variants, including a dominant cancer-associated form and a set of novel isoforms. Furthermore, we show that in these post-replicative cells, CIZ1 interacts with germ-cell-specific cyclin A1, which has been implicated in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Consistent with this role, antibody depletion of CIZ1 reduces the capacity for testis extract to repair digested plasmid DNA in vitro. Together, the data imply post-replicative roles for CIZ1 in germ cell differentiation that might include meiotic recombination - a process intrinsic to genome stability and diversification.

  4. Targeting the AKT/GSK3{beta}/Cyclin D1/Cdk4 Survival Signaling Pathway for Eradication of Tumor Radioresistance Acquired by Fractionated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Kakuda, Satoshi; Ochiai, Yasushi; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Takai, Yoshihiro; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: Radioresistance is a major cause of treatment failure of radiotherapy (RT) in human cancer. We have recently revealed that acquired radioresistance of tumor cells induced by fractionated radiation is attributable to cyclin D1 overexpression as a consequence of the downregulation of GSK3{beta}-dependent cyclin D1 proteolysis mediated by a constitutively activated serine-threonine kinase, AKT. This prompted us to hypothesize that targeting the AKT/GSK3{beta}/cyclin D1 pathway may improve fractionated RT by suppressing acquired radioresistance of tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Two human tumor cell lines with acquired radioresistance were exposed to X-rays after incubation with either an AKT inhibitor, AKT/PKB signaling inhibitor-2 (API-2), or a Cdk4 inhibitor (Cdk4-I). Cells were then subjected to immunoblotting, clonogenic survival assay, cell growth analysis, and cell death analysis with TUNEL and annexin V staining. In vivo radiosensitivity was assessed by growth of human tumors xenografted into nude mice. Results: Treatment with API-2 resulted in downregulation of cyclin D1 expression in cells with acquired radioresistance. Cellular radioresistance disappeared completely both in vitro and in vivo with accompanying apoptosis when treated with API-2. Furthermore, inhibition of cyclin D1/Cdk4 by Cdk4-I was sufficient for abolishing radioresistance. Treatment with either API-2 or Cdk4-I was also effective in suppressing resistance to cis-platinum (II)-diamine-dichloride in the cells with acquired radioresistance. Interestingly, the radiosensitizing effect of API-2 was canceled by overexpression of cyclin D1 whereas Cdk4-I was still able to sensitize cells with cyclin D1 overexpression. Conclusion: Cyclin D1/Cdk4 is a critical target of the AKT survival signaling pathway responsible for tumor radioresistance. Targeting the AKT/GSK3{beta}/cyclin D1/Cdk4 pathway would provide a novel approach to improve fractionated RT and would have an impact on tumor

  5. D-type Cyclins are important downstream effectors of cytokine signaling that regulate the proliferation of normal and neoplastic mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Wagner, Kay-Uwe

    2014-01-25

    In response to the ligand-mediated activation of cytokine receptors, cells decide whether to proliferate or to undergo differentiation. D-type Cyclins (Cyclin D1, D2, or D3) and their associated Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4, CDK6) connect signals from cytokines to the cell cycle machinery, and they propel cells through the G1 restriction point and into the S phase, after which growth factor stimulation is no longer essential to complete cell division. D-type Cyclins are upregulated in many human malignancies including breast cancer to promote an uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells. After summarizing important aspects of the cytokine-mediated transcriptional regulation and the posttranslational modification of D-type Cyclins, this review will highlight the physiological significance of these cell cycle regulators during normal mammary gland development as well as the initiation and promotion of breast cancer. Although the vast majority of published reports focus almost exclusively on the role of Cyclin D1 in breast cancer, we summarize here previous and recent findings that demonstrate an important contribution of the remaining two members of this Cyclin family, in particular Cyclin D3, for the growth of ErbB2-associated breast cancer cells in humans and in mouse models. New data from genetically engineered models as well as the pharmacological inhibition of CDK4/6 suggest that targeting the combined functions of D-type Cyclins could be a suitable strategy for the treatment of ErbB2-positive and potentially other types of breast cancer.

  6. Myt1 inhibition of Cyclin A/Cdk1 is essential for fusome integrity and premeiotic centriole engagement in Drosophila spermatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, Ramya; Ayeni, Joseph; Jin, Zhigang; Homola, Ellen; Campbell, Shelagh D.

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of cell cycle arrest in premeiotic G2 phase coordinates germ cell maturation and meiotic cell division with hormonal and developmental signals by mechanisms that control Cyclin B synthesis and inhibitory phosphorylation of the M-phase kinase, Cdk1. In this study, we investigated how inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1 by Myt1 kinase regulates premeiotic G2 phase of Drosophila male meiosis. Immature spermatocytes lacking Myt1 activity exhibit two distinct defects: disrupted intercellular bridges (fusomes) and premature centriole disengagement. As a result, the myt1 mutant spermatocytes enter meiosis with multipolar spindles. These myt1 defects can be suppressed by depletion of Cyclin A activity or ectopic expression of Wee1 (a partially redundant Cdk1 inhibitory kinase) and phenocopied by expression of a Cdk1F mutant defective for inhibitory phosphorylation. We therefore conclude that Myt1 inhibition of Cyclin A/Cdk1 is essential for normal fusome behavior and centriole engagement during premeiotic G2 arrest of Drosophila male meiosis. The novel meiotic functions we discovered for Myt1 kinase are spatially and temporally distinct from previously described functions of Myt1 as an inhibitor of Cyclin B/Cdk1 to regulate G2/MI timing. PMID:27170181

  7. Cdk2 Phosphorylation on Threonine39 by AKT and Its Implication on Cyclin Binding, Cellular Localization, and Cell Cycle Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    34Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 is essential for meiosis but not for mitotic cell division in mice," Nat Genet 35(1), 25 (2003). Ref Type: Journal 21 M...played a role in cell cycle progression. Microinjecting the cytoplasmic content from eggs arrested in metaphase of meiosis II into G2- arrested...resumption of meiosis in Xenopus oocytes. Cell 47, 861-870 (1986). 4. Masui,Y. & Markert,C.L. Cytoplasmic control of nuclear behavior during

  8. AKAP95 promotes cell cycle progression via interactions with cyclin E and low molecular weight cyclin E

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Deng-Cheng; Zhuang, Wen-Xin; Hua, Su-Hang; Dai, Yue; Yuan, Yang-Yang; Feng, Li-Li; Huang, Qian; Teng, Bo-Gang; Yu, Xiu-Yi; Liu, Wen-Zhi; Zhang, Yong-Xing

    2016-01-01

    AKAP95 in lung cancer tissues showed higher expression than in paracancerous tissues. AKAP95 can bind with cyclin D and cyclin E during G1/S cell cycle transition, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To identify the mechanism of AKAP95 in cell cycle progression, we performed AKAP95 transfection and silencing in A549 cells, examined AKAP95, cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 expression, and the interactions of AKAP95 with cyclins E1 and E2. Results showed that over-expression of AKAP95 promoted cell growth and AKAP95 bound cyclin E1 and E2, low molecular weight cyclin E1 (LWM-E1) and LWM-E2. Additionally AKAP95 bound cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 in the nucleus during G1/S transition, bound LMW-E1 during G1, S and G2/M, and bound cyclin E2 mainly on the nuclear membrane during interphase. Cyclin E2 and LMW-E2 were also detected. AKAP95 over-expression increased cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 expression but decreased cyclin E2 levels. Unlike cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 that were nuclear located during the G1, S and G1/S phases, cyclin E2 and LMW-E1 were expressed in all cell cycle phases, with cyclin E2 present in the cytoplasm and nuclear membrane, with traces in the nucleus. LMW-E1 was present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The 20 kDa form of LMW-E1 showed only cytoplasmic expression, while the 40 kDa form was nuclear expressed. The expression of AKAP95, cyclin E1, LMW-E1 and -E2, might be regulated by cAMP. We conclude that AKAP95 might promote cell cycle progression by interacting with cyclin E1 and LMW-E2. LMW-E2, but not cyclin E2, might be involved in G1/S transition. The binding of AKAP95 and LMW-E1 was found throughout cell cycle. PMID:27158371

  9. AKAP95 promotes cell cycle progression via interactions with cyclin E and low molecular weight cyclin E.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Deng-Cheng; Zhuang, Wen-Xin; Hua, Su-Hang; Dai, Yue; Yuan, Yang-Yang; Feng, Li-Li; Huang, Qian; Teng, Bo-Gang; Yu, Xiu-Yi; Liu, Wen-Zhi; Zhang, Yong-Xing

    2016-01-01

    AKAP95 in lung cancer tissues showed higher expression than in paracancerous tissues. AKAP95 can bind with cyclin D and cyclin E during G1/S cell cycle transition, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To identify the mechanism of AKAP95 in cell cycle progression, we performed AKAP95 transfection and silencing in A549 cells, examined AKAP95, cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 expression, and the interactions of AKAP95 with cyclins E1 and E2. Results showed that over-expression of AKAP95 promoted cell growth and AKAP95 bound cyclin E1 and E2, low molecular weight cyclin E1 (LWM-E1) and LWM-E2. Additionally AKAP95 bound cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 in the nucleus during G1/S transition, bound LMW-E1 during G1, S and G2/M, and bound cyclin E2 mainly on the nuclear membrane during interphase. Cyclin E2 and LMW-E2 were also detected. AKAP95 over-expression increased cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 expression but decreased cyclin E2 levels. Unlike cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 that were nuclear located during the G1, S and G1/S phases, cyclin E2 and LMW-E1 were expressed in all cell cycle phases, with cyclin E2 present in the cytoplasm and nuclear membrane, with traces in the nucleus. LMW-E1 was present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The 20 kDa form of LMW-E1 showed only cytoplasmic expression, while the 40 kDa form was nuclear expressed. The expression of AKAP95, cyclin E1, LMW-E1 and -E2, might be regulated by cAMP. We conclude that AKAP95 might promote cell cycle progression by interacting with cyclin E1 and LMW-E2. LMW-E2, but not cyclin E2, might be involved in G1/S transition. The binding of AKAP95 and LMW-E1 was found throughout cell cycle.

  10. [Expression of cyclin B in megakaryocytes and cells of other hematopoietic lines].

    PubMed

    Gu, X F; Allain, A; Li, L; Cramer, E M; Tenza, D; Caen, J P; Han, Z C

    1993-12-01

    Megakaryocytes are normal bone marrow cells which have the unique ability to become polyploid. This phenomenon is termed endomitosis and its mechanism remains poorly understood at present. It is known that the cell cycle of eukaryotes, particularly at G2/M transition, is regulated by a complex with histone H1 kinase activity, the maturation- or M-phase promoting factor (MPF). We have therefore studied the expression of subunits of MPF, the p34cdc2 and cyclin B in normal bone marrow culture megakaryocytic cells, blood leukocytes and platelets as well as in human megakaryoblastic cell lines Dami, Meg-01, HEL and the promyelocytic cell line HL60. Using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy we have observed that cyclin B was virtually undetectable in megakaryocytes and platelets, but was abundant in granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages and HL60. Studies by RT-PCR showed the presence in large quantities of mRNA of cyclin B in all cell types studied, even in megakaryocytic-like cells. These observations suggest some important implications in the understanding of the mechanisms of megakaryocyte polyploidization and related endomitosis.

  11. Nucleophosmin phosphorylation by v-cyclin-CDK6 controls KSHV latency.

    PubMed

    Sarek, Grzegorz; Järviluoma, Annika; Moore, Henna M; Tojkander, Sari; Vartia, Salla; Biberfeld, Peter; Laiho, Marikki; Ojala, Päivi M

    2010-03-19

    Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a multifunctional nuclear phosphoprotein and a histone chaperone implicated in chromatin organization and transcription control. Oncogenic Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). In the infected host cell KSHV displays two modes of infection, the latency and productive viral replication phases, involving extensive viral DNA replication and gene expression. A sustained balance between latency and reactivation to the productive infection state is essential for viral persistence and KSHV pathogenesis. Our study demonstrates that the KSHV v-cyclin and cellular CDK6 kinase phosphorylate NPM on threonine 199 (Thr199) in de novo and naturally KSHV-infected cells and that NPM is phosphorylated to the same site in primary KS tumors. Furthermore, v-cyclin-mediated phosphorylation of NPM engages the interaction between NPM and the latency-associated nuclear antigen LANA, a KSHV-encoded repressor of viral lytic replication. Strikingly, depletion of NPM in PEL cells leads to viral reactivation, and production of new infectious virus particles. Moreover, the phosphorylation of NPM negatively correlates with the level of spontaneous viral reactivation in PEL cells. This work demonstrates that NPM is a critical regulator of KSHV latency via functional interactions with v-cyclin and LANA.

  12. Copper Uptake in Mammary Epithelial Cells Activates Cyclins and Triggers Antioxidant Response.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Nathália Villa; Matias, Andreza Cândido; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Cerchiaro, Giselle

    2015-01-01

    The toxicologic effects of copper (Cu) on tumor cells have been studied during the past decades, and it is suggested that Cu ion may trigger antiproliferative effects in vitro. However, in normal cells the toxicologic effects of high exposures of free Cu are not well understood. In this work, Cu uptake, the expression of genes associated with cell cycle regulation, and the levels of ROS production and related oxidative processes were evaluated in Cu-treated mammary epithelial MCF10A nontumoral cells. We have shown that the Cu additive is associated with the activation of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1, as well as cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). These nontumor cells respond to Cu-induced changes in the oxidative balance by increase of the levels of reduced intracellular glutathione (GSH), decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and accumulation during progression of the cell cycle, thus preventing the cell abnormal proliferation or death. Taken together, our findings revealed an effect that contributes to prevent a possible damage of normal cells exposed to chemotherapeutic effects of drugs containing the Cu ion.

  13. Cyclin/CDK Regulates the Nucleocytoplasmic Localization of the Human Papillomavirus E1 DNA Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wentao; Lin, Biing Yuan; Jin, Ge; Wheeler, Crystal G.; Ma, Tianlin; Harper, J. Wade; Broker, Thomas R.; Chow, Louise T.

    2004-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play key roles in eukaryotic DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Phosphorylation of components of the preinitiation complex activates replication and prevents reinitiation. One mechanism is mediated by nuclear export of critical proteins. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA replication requires cellular machinery in addition to the viral replicative DNA helicase E1 and origin recognition protein E2. E1 phosphorylation by cyclin/CDK is critical for efficient viral DNA replication. We now show that E1 is phosphorylated by CDKs in vivo and that phosphorylation regulates its nucleocytoplasmic localization. We identified a conserved regulatory region for localization which contains a dominant leucine-rich nuclear export sequence (NES), the previously defined cyclin binding motif, three serine residues that are CDK substrates, and a putative bipartite nuclear localization sequence. We show that E1 is exported from the nucleus by a CRM1-dependent mechanism unless the NES is inactivated by CDK phosphorylation. Replication activities of E1 phosphorylation site mutations are reduced and correlate inversely with their increased cytoplasmic localization. Nuclear localization and replication activities of most of these mutations are enhanced or restored by mutations in the NES. Collectively, our data demonstrate that CDK phosphorylation controls E1 nuclear localization to support viral DNA amplification. Thus, HPV adopts and adapts the cellular regulatory mechanism to complete its reproductive program. PMID:15564503

  14. Lack of cyclin D-Cdk complexes in Rb-negative cells correlates with high levels of p16INK4/MTS1 tumour suppressor gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Parry, D; Bates, S; Mann, D J; Peters, G

    1995-01-01

    D-type cyclins, in association with the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk4 or Cdk6, regulate events in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and may contribute to the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product (Rb). However, in cells in which the function of Rb has been compromised, either by naturally arising mutations or through binding to proteins encoded by DNA tumour viruses, Cdk4 and Cdk6 are not associated with D cyclins. Instead, both kinases form binary complexes with a stable 16 kDa protein (p16) encoded by the putative tumour suppressor gene INK4/MTS1 on human chromosome 9p21. Here we show an inverse correlation between Rb status and the expression of p16. Since Rb-negative cells express high levels of p16, we suggest that in these cells p16 competes with D cyclins for binding to Cdk4 and Cdk6 and prevents formation of active complexes. In line with these predictions, DNA tumour virus oncoproteins do not disrupt cyclin D1-Cdk4 complexes in cells lacking p16. Images PMID:7859739

  15. MicroRNA-155 inhibits proliferation and migration of human extravillous trophoblast derived HTR-8/SVneo cells via down-regulating cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Dai, Y; Qiu, Z; Diao, Z; Shen, L; Xue, P; Sun, H; Hu, Y

    2012-10-01

    MiR-155 is known to participate in various cellular processes by targeting gene expression. We previously revealed a link between miR-155 and perturbation of trophoblast invasion and differentiation. This study aimed to investigate the target molecule(s) of miR-155 on the influence on the proliferation and migration of trophoblast cells. Bioinformatics analysis showed that, at the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of cyclin D1, six bases are complementary to the seed region of miR-155. Luciferase assays and cyclin D1 3'UTR transfection assays validated that cyclin D1 3'UTR was the target of miR-155 in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Overexpression of miR-155 in HTR-8/SVneo cells reduced the level of cyclin D1 protein, decreased cell proliferation and invasion, and increased cell number at the G1 stage. Furthermore, the increased expression of miR-155 also regulated the protein levels of kinase inhibitory protein p27 and phosphorylated cytoskeletal protein filamin A. In conclusion, we found that cyclin D1 may be a target of miR-155 in HTR-8/SVneo cells, and demonstrated a negative regulatory role of miR-155 involved in cyclin D1/p27 pathway in proliferation and migration of the cells.

  16. Cyclin B1/Cdk1 Phosphorylation of Mitochondrial p53 Induces Anti-Apoptotic Response

    PubMed Central

    Nantajit, Danupon; Fan, Ming; Duru, Nadire; Wen, Yunfei; Reed, John C.; Li, Jian Jian

    2010-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic function of p53 has been well defined in preventing genomic instability and cell transformation. However, the intriguing fact that p53 contributes to a pro-survival advantage of tumor cells under DNA damage conditions raises a critical question in radiation therapy for the 50% human cancers with intact p53 function. Herein, we reveal an anti-apoptotic role of mitochondrial p53 regulated by the cell cycle complex cyclin B1/Cdk1 in irradiated human colon cancer HCT116 cells with p53+/+ status. Steady-state levels of p53 and cyclin B1/Cdk1 were identified in the mitochondria of many human and mouse cells, and their mitochondrial influx was significantly enhanced by radiation. The mitochondrial kinase activity of cyclin B1/Cdk1 was found to specifically phosphorylate p53 at Ser-315 residue, leading to enhanced mitochondrial ATP production and reduced mitochondrial apoptosis. The improved mitochondrial function can be blocked by transfection of mutant p53 Ser-315-Ala, or by siRNA knockdown of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 genes. Enforced translocation of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 into mitochondria with a mitochondrial-targeting-peptide increased levels of Ser-315 phosphorylation on mitochondrial p53, improved ATP production and decreased apoptosis by sequestering p53 from binding to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Furthermore, reconstitution of wild-type p53 in p53-deficient HCT116 p53−/− cells resulted in an increased mitochondrial ATP production and suppression of apoptosis. Such phenomena were absent in the p53-deficient HCT116 p53−/− cells reconstituted with the mutant p53. These results demonstrate a unique anti-apoptotic function of mitochondrial p53 regulated by cyclin B1/Cdk1-mediated Ser-315 phosphorylation in p53-wild-type tumor cells, which may provide insights for improving the efficacy of anti-cancer therapy, especially for tumors that retain p53. PMID:20808790

  17. Genomic Organization and Evolutionary Conservation of Plant D-Type Cyclins1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Menges, Margit; Pavesi, Giulio; Morandini, Piero; Bögre, Laszlo; Murray, James A.H.

    2007-01-01

    Plants contain more genes encoding core cell cycle regulators than other organisms but it is unclear whether these represent distinct functions. D-type cyclins (CYCD) play key roles in the G1-to-S-phase transition, and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains 10 CYCD genes in seven defined subgroups, six of which are conserved in rice (Oryza sativa). Here, we identify 22 CYCD genes in the poplar (Populus trichocarpa) genome and confirm that these six CYCD subgroups are conserved across higher plants, suggesting subgroup-specific functions. Different subgroups show gene number increases, with CYCD3 having three members in Arabidopsis, six in poplar, and a single representative in rice. All three species contain a single CYCD7 gene. Despite low overall sequence homology, we find remarkable conservation of intron/exon boundaries, because in most CYCD genes of plants and mammals, the first exon ends in the conserved cyclin signature. Only CYCD3 genes contain the complete cyclin box in a single exon, and this structure is conserved across angiosperms, again suggesting an early origin for the subgroup. The single CYCD gene of moss has a gene structure closely related to those of higher plants, sharing an identical exon/intron structure with several higher plant subgroups. However, green algae have CYCD genes structurally unrelated to higher plants. Conservation is also observed in the location of potential cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation sites within CYCD proteins. Subgroup structure is supported by conserved regulatory elements, particularly in the eudicot species, including conserved E2F regulatory sites within CYCD3 promoters. Global expression correlation analysis further supports distinct expression patterns for CYCD subgroups. PMID:17951462

  18. Cdk11-cyclinL controls the assembly of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex.

    PubMed

    Drogat, Julie; Migeot, Valérie; Mommaerts, Elise; Mullier, Caroline; Dieu, Marc; van Bakel, Harm; Hermand, Damien

    2012-11-29

    The large Mediator (L-Mediator) is a general coactivator of RNA polymerase II transcription and is formed by the reversible association of the small Mediator (S-Mediator) and the kinase-module-harboring Cdk8. It is not known how the kinase module association/dissociation is regulated. We describe the fission yeast Cdk11-L-type cyclin pombe (Lcp1) complex and show that its inactivation alters the global expression profile in a manner very similar to that of mutations of the kinase module. Cdk11 is broadly distributed onto chromatin and phosphorylates the Med27 and Med4 Mediator subunits on conserved residues. The association of the kinase module and the S-Mediator is strongly decreased by the inactivation of either Cdk11 or the mutation of its target residues on the Mediator. These results show that Cdk11-Lcp1 regulates the association of the kinase module and the S-Mediator to form the L-Mediator complex.

  19. Cyclin D1 regulates hepatic estrogen and androgen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Lisa K; Hanse, Eric A; Romano, Andrea; Blomquist, Charles H; Mason, J Ian; Delvoux, Bert; Anttila, Chelsea; Albrecht, Jeffrey H

    2010-06-01

    Cyclin D1 is a cell cycle control protein that plays an important role in regenerating liver and many types of cancer. Previous reports have shown that cyclin D1 can directly enhance estrogen receptor activity and inhibit androgen receptor activity in a ligand-independent manner and thus may play an important role in hormone-responsive malignancies. In this study, we examine a distinct mechanism by which cyclin D1 regulates sex steroid signaling, via altered metabolism of these hormones at the tissue and cellular level. In male mouse liver, ectopic expression of cyclin D1 regulated genes involved in the synthesis and degradation of sex steroid hormones in a pattern that would predict increased estrogen and decreased androgen levels. Indeed, hepatic expression of cyclin D1 led to increased serum estradiol levels, increased estrogen-responsive gene expression, and decreased androgen-responsive gene expression. Cyclin D1 also regulated the activity of several key enzymatic reactions in the liver, including increased oxidation of testosterone to androstenedione and decreased conversion of estradiol to estrone. Similar findings were seen in the setting of physiological cyclin D1 expression in regenerating liver. Knockdown of cyclin D1 in HuH7 cells produced reciprocal changes in steroid metabolism genes compared with cyclin D1 overexpression in mouse liver. In conclusion, these studies establish a novel link between the cell cycle machinery and sex steroid metabolism and provide a distinct mechanism by which cyclin D1 may regulate hormone signaling. Furthermore, these results suggest that increased cyclin D1 expression, which occurs in liver regeneration and liver diseases, may contribute to the feminization seen in these settings.

  20. G1 phase arrest induced by Wilms tumor protein WT1 is abrogated by cyclin/CDK complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Kudoh, T; Ishidate, T; Moriyama, M; Toyoshima, K; Akiyama, T

    1995-01-01

    WT1, the Wilms tumor-suppressor gene, maps to the human chromosomal region 11p13 and encodes a transcriptional repressor, WT1, implicated in controlling normal urogenital development. Microinjection of the WT1 cDNA into quiescent cells or cells in early to mid G1 phase blocked serum-induced cell cycle progression into S phase. The activity of WT1 varied significantly depending on the presence or absence of an alternatively spliced region located upstream of the zinc finger domain. The inhibitory activity of WT1 was abrogated by the overexpression of cyclin E/CDK2 as well as cyclin D1/CDK4. Furthermore, both CDK4- and CDK2-associated kinase activities were downregulated in cells overexpressing WT1, whereas the levels of CDK4, CDK2, and cyclin D1 expression were unchanged. These findings suggest that inhibition of the activity of cyclin/CDK complexes may be involved in mediating the WT1-induced cell cycle block. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7753836

  1. Opposing roles for DNA replication initiator proteins ORC1 and CDC6 in control of Cyclin E gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Manzar; Stillman, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Newly born cells either continue to proliferate or exit the cell division cycle. This decision involves delaying expression of Cyclin E that promotes DNA replication. ORC1, the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) large subunit, is inherited into newly born cells after it binds to condensing chromosomes during the preceding mitosis. We demonstrate that ORC1 represses Cyclin E gene (CCNE1) transcription, an E2F1 activated gene that is also repressed by the Retinoblastoma (RB) protein. ORC1 binds to RB, the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 and to its repressive histone H3K9me3 mark. ORC1 cooperates with SUV39H1 and RB protein to repress E2F1-dependent CCNE1 transcription. In contrast, the ORC1-related replication protein CDC6 binds Cyclin E-CDK2 kinase and in a feedback loop removes RB from ORC1, thereby hyper-activating CCNE1 transcription. The opposing effects of ORC1 and CDC6 in controlling the level of Cyclin E ensures genome stability and a mechanism for linking directly DNA replication and cell division commitment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12785.001 PMID:27458800

  2. Enrichment of Cdk1-cyclins at DNA double-strand breaks stimulates Fun30 phosphorylation and DNA end resection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuefeng; Niu, Hengyao; Yu, Yang; Wang, Jingjing; Zhu, Shuangyi; Zhou, Jianjie; Papusha, Alma; Cui, Dandan; Pan, Xuewen; Kwon, Youngho; Sung, Patrick; Ira, Grzegorz

    2016-04-07

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most cytotoxic types of DNA lesion challenging genome integrity. The activity of cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 is essential for DSB repair by homologous recombination and for DNA damage signaling. Here we identify the Fun30 chromatin remodeler as a new target of Cdk1. Fun30 is phosphorylated by Cdk1 on Serine 28 to stimulate its functions in DNA damage response including resection of DSB ends. Importantly, Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Fun30-S28 increases upon DNA damage and requires the recruitment of Fun30 to DSBs, suggesting that phosphorylation increases in situ at the DNA damage. Consistently, we find that Cdk1 and multiple cyclins become highly enriched at DSBs and that the recruitment of Cdk1 and cyclins Clb2 and Clb5 ensures optimal Fun30 phosphorylation and checkpoint activation. We propose that the enrichment of Cdk1-cyclin complexes at DSBs serves as a mechanism for enhanced targeting and modulating of the activity of DNA damage response proteins.

  3. The Cell Wall Sensors Mtl1, Wsc1, and Mid2 Are Required for Stress-Induced Nuclear to Cytoplasmic Translocation of Cyclin C and Programmed Cell Death in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chunyan; Parshin, Andrey V.; Daly, Ira; Strich, Randy; Cooper, Katrina F.

    2013-01-01

    Mtl1 is a member of a cell wall sensor family that monitors cell wall integrity in budding yeast. In response to cell wall stress, Mtl1 activates the cell wall integrity (CWI) MAP kinase pathway which transmits this signal to the nucleus to effect changes in gene expression. One target of the CWI MAP kinase is cyclin C, a negative regulator of stress response genes. CWI activation results in cyclin C relocalization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it stimulates programmed cell death (PCD) before it is destroyed. This report demonstrates that under low oxidative stress conditions, a combination of membrane sensors, Mtl1 and either Wsc1 or Mid2, are required jointly to transmit the oxidative stress signal to initiate cyclin C destruction. However, when exposed to elevated oxidative stress, additional pathways independent of these three sensor proteins are activated to destroy cyclin C. In addition, N-glycosylation is important for Mtl1 function as mutating the receptor residue (Asn42) or an enzyme required for synthesis of N-acetylglucosamine (Gfa1) reduces sensor activity. Finally, combining gfa1-1 with the cyclin C null allele induces a severe synthetic growth defect. This surprising result reveals a previously unknown genetic interaction between cyclin C and plasma membrane integrity. PMID:24260614

  4. QKI-5 suppresses cyclin D1 expression and proliferation of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells via MAPK signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Fu, X; Feng, Y

    2015-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most frequently occurring malignancies in the world. The RNA-binding protein quaking (QKI) is a newly identified tumour suppressor in multiple cancers, but its role in OSCC is currently unknown. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the relationship between QKI expression and OSCC development. We found QKI-5 expression to be significantly decreased in the oral cancer cell line CAL-27. QKI-5 overexpression also reduced the proliferation of CAL-27 cells, which correlated with cyclin D1. This regulative function of QKI-5 occurs by modulating the phosphorylation level of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Therefore this study shows that underexpression of tumour suppressor QKI-5 could activate the MAPK pathway and contribute to uncontrolled cyclin D1 expression, thus resulting in increased proliferation of oral cancer cells.

  5. Role of CDK5/cyclin complexes in ischemia-induced death and survival of renal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Tatiana; Sancho, Mónica; Pérez-Payá, Enrique; Orzáez, Mar

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion processes induce damage in renal tubules and compromise the viability of kidney transplants. Understanding the molecular events responsible for tubule damage and recovery would help to develop new strategies for organ preservation. CDK5 has been traditionally considered a neuronal kinase with dual roles in cell death and survival. Here, we demonstrate that CDK5 and their regulators p35/p25 and cyclin I are also expressed in renal tubular cells. We show that treatment with CDK inhibitors promotes the formation of pro-survival CDK5/cyclin I complexes and enhances cell survival upon an ischemia reperfusion pro-apoptotic insult. These findings support the benefit of treating with CDK inhibitors for renal preservation, assisting renal tubule protection.

  6. Myostatin induces p300 degradation to silence cyclin D1 expression through the PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ming; Zhang, Qiang; Ye, Jianwei; Wang, Xueyan; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Dahai

    2008-08-01

    Myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and affects numerous genes expression involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying myostatin-regulated genes expression remain to be elucidated. In this study, we showed that myostatin blocked the recruitment of p300 to the cyclin D1 promoter, resulting in the silence of cyclin D1 expression. Our data further demonstrated that myostatin decreased the protein level of p300 by inducing p300 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In addition, we provided experimental evidence to show that myostatin-induced p300 degradation was mediated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/PTEN/Akt signaling pathway and this could be antagonized by IGF-1 or insulin. Results presented in this study uncovered an epigenetic control of genes expression in response to myostatin.

  7. B-type cyclins regulate G1 progression in fission yeast in opposition to the p25rum1 cdk inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Castellanos, C; Labib, K; Moreno, S

    1996-01-01

    The onset of S phase in fission yeast is regulated at Start, the point of commitment to the mitotic cell cycle. The p34cdc2 kinase is essential for G1 progression past Start, but until now its regulation has been poorly understood. Here we show that the cig2/cyc17 B-type cyclin has an important role in G1 progression, and demonstrate that p34cdc2 kinase activity is periodically associated with cig2 in G1. Cells lacking cig2 are defective in G1 progression, and this is particularly clear in small cells that must regulate Start with respect to cell size. We also find that the cig1 B-type cyclin can promote G1 progression. Whilst p25rum1 can inhibit cig2/cdc2 activity in vitro, and may transiently inhibit this complex in vivo, cig1 is regulated independently of p25rum1. Since cig1/cdc2 kinase activity peaks in mitotic cells, and decreases after mitosis with similar kinetics to cdc13-associated kinase activity, we suggest that cig2 is likely to be the principal fission yeast G1 cyclin. cig2 protein levels accumulate in G1 cells, and we propose that p25rum1 may transiently inhibit cig2-associated p34cdc2 activity until the critical cell size required for Start is reached. Images PMID:8631305

  8. Polo-like kinase-activating kinases: Aurora A, Aurora B and what else?

    PubMed

    Archambault, Vincent; Carmena, Mar

    2012-04-15

    The events of cell division are regulated by a complex interplay between kinases and phosphatases. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), polo-like kinases (Plks) and Aurora kinases play central roles in this process. Polo kinase (Plk1 in humans) regulates a wide range of events in mitosis and cytokinesis. To ensure the accuracy of these processes, polo activity itself is subject to complex regulation. Phosphorylation of polo in its T loop (or activation loop) increases its kinase activity several-fold. It has been shown that Aurora A kinase, with its co-factor Bora, activates Plk1 in G(2), and that this is essential for recovery from cell cycle arrest induced by DNA damage. In a recent article published in PLoS Biology, we report that Drosophila polo is activated by Aurora B kinase at centromeres, and that this is crucial for polo function in regulating chromosome dynamics in prometaphase. Our results suggest that this regulatory pathway is conserved in humans. Here, we propose a model for the collaboration between Aurora B and polo in the regulation of kinetochore attachment to microtubules in early mitosis. Moreover, we suggest that Aurora B could also function to activate Polo/Plk1 in cytokinesis. Finally, we discuss recent findings and open questions regarding the activation of polo and polo-like kinases by different kinases in mitosis, cytokinesis and other processes.

  9. The structure and substrate specificity of human Cdk12/Cyclin K

    PubMed Central

    Bösken, Christian A.; Farnung, Lucas; Hintermair, Corinna; Merzel Schachter, Miriam; Vogel-Bachmayr, Karin; Blazek, Dalibor; Anand, Kanchan; Fisher, Robert P.; Eick, Dirk; Geyer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD) by cyclin-dependent kinases is important for productive transcription. Here we determine the crystal structure of Cdk12/CycK and analyse its requirements for substrate recognition. Active Cdk12/CycK is arranged in an open conformation similar to that of Cdk9/CycT but different from those of cell cycle kinases. Cdk12 contains a C-terminal extension that folds onto the N- and C-terminal lobes thereby contacting the ATP ribose. The interaction is mediated by an HE motif followed by a polybasic cluster that is conserved in transcriptional CDKs. Cdk12/CycK showed the highest activity on a CTD substrate prephosphorylated at position Ser7, whereas the common Lys7 substitution was not recognized. Flavopiridol is most potent towards Cdk12 but was still 10-fold more potent towards Cdk9. T-loop phosphorylation of Cdk12 required coexpression with a Cdk-activating kinase. These results suggest the regulation of Pol II elongation by a relay of transcriptionally active CTD kinases. PMID:24662513

  10. Proper cyclin B3 dosage is important for precision of metaphase-to-anaphase onset timing in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Tarailo-Graovac, Maja; Chen, Nansheng

    2012-08-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and their compulsory cofactors, the cyclins, are the two key classes of regulatory molecules that determine the eukaryotic cell's progress through the cell cycle by substrate phosphorylation. Cdk1 forms complexes with B-type cyclins and phosphorylates a number of substrates as cells prepare to enter mitosis. CYB-3 (Cyclin B3) is a B-type cyclin that has been recently shown to be required for the timely metaphase-to-anaphase transition, presumably by alleviating a spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) block. Previously, we have shown that doubling the CYB-3 dosage suppresses sterility in the absence of the essential SAC component MDF-1/Mad1. Here we demonstrate the importance of the Mos1-mediated single-copy insertion method for understanding the effects of gene dosage by generating strains that have more (two or three) copies of the cyb-3 in wild-type and mdf-1(gk2) backgrounds to investigate dosage effect of CYB-3 on mitotic progression as well as development and fertility in the absence and the presence of the MDF-1 checkpoint component. We show that tripling the dosage of CYB-3 results in a significantly variable metaphase-to-anaphase transition, both in wild-type and mdf-1(gk2) mutant backgrounds. Although a majority of embryos initiate anaphase onset normally, a significant number of embryos initiate anaphase with a delay. We also show that tripling the dosage of CYB-3 has no effect on viability in the wild-type background; however, it does reduce the sterility caused by the absence of MDF-1. Together, these data reveal that proper dosage of CYB-3 is important for precision of timely execution of anaphase onset regardless of the presence of the MDF-1 checkpoint component.

  11. Cell cycle–regulated phosphorylation of p220NPAT by cyclin E/Cdk2 in Cajal bodies promotes histone gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tianlin; Van Tine, Brian A.; Wei, Yue; Garrett, Michelle D.; Nelson, David; Adams, Peter D.; Wang, Jin; Qin, Jun; Chow, Louise T.; Harper, J. Wade

    2000-01-01

    Cyclin E/Cdk2 acts at the G1/S-phase transition to promote the E2F transcriptional program and the initiation of DNA synthesis. To explore further how cyclin E/Cdk2 controls S-phase events, we examined the subcellular localization of the cyclin E/Cdk2 interacting protein p220NPAT and its regulation by phosphorylation. p220 is localized to discrete nuclear foci. Diploid fibroblasts in Go and G1 contain two p220 foci, whereas S- and G2-phase cells contain primarily four p220 foci. Cells in metaphase and telophase have no detectable focus. p220 foci contain cyclin E and are coincident with Cajal bodies (CBs), subnuclear organelles that associate with histone gene clusters on chromosomes 1 and 6. Interestingly, p220 foci associate with chromosome 6 throughout the cell cycle and with chromosome 1 during S phase. Five cyclin E/Cdk2 phosphorylation sites in p220 were identified. Phospho-specific antibodies against two of these sites react with p220 within CBs in a cell cycle–specific manner. The timing of p220 phosphorylation correlates with the appearance of cyclin E in CBs at the G1/S boundary, and this phosphorylation is maintained until prophase. Expression of p220 activates transcription of the histone H2B promoter. Importantly, mutation of Cdk2 phosphorylation sites to alanine abrogates the ability of p220 to activate the histone H2B promoter. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that p220NPAT links cyclical cyclin E/Cdk2 kinase activity to replication-dependent histone gene transcription. PMID:10995387

  12. Akt-mediated liver growth promotes induction of cyclin E through a novel translational mechanism and a p21-mediated cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Lisa K; Nelsen, Christopher J; Hanse, Eric A; Goggin, Melissa M; Anttila, Chelsea K; Peterson, Mark; Bitterman, Peter B; Raghavan, Arvind; Crary, Gretchen S; Albrecht, Jeffrey H

    2007-07-20

    The control of hepatocyte growth is relevant to the processes of liver regeneration, development, metabolic homeostasis, and cancer. A key component of growth control is the protein kinase Akt, which acts downstream of mitogens and nutrients to affect protein translation and cell cycle progression. In this study, we found that transient transfection of activated Akt triggered a 3-4-fold increase in liver size within days but only minimal hepatocyte proliferation. Akt-induced liver growth was associated with marked up-regulation of cyclin E but not cyclin D1. Analysis of liver polyribosomes demonstrated that the post-transcriptional induction of cyclin E was associated with increased translational efficiency of this mRNA, suggesting that cell growth promotes expression of this protein through a translational mechanism that is distinct from the cyclin D-E2F pathway. Treatment of Akt-transfected mice with rapamycin only partially inhibited liver growth and did not prevent the induction of cyclin E protein, indicating that target of rapamycin activity is not necessary for this response. In the enlarged livers, cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes were present in high abundance but were inactive due to increased binding of p21 to these complexes. Akt transfection of p21(-/-) mice promoted liver growth, activation of Cdk2, and enhanced hepatocyte proliferation. In conclusion, growth promotes cyclin E expression through a novel translational mechanism in the liver, suggesting a new link between cell growth and the cell cycle machinery. Furthermore, p21 suppresses proliferation in the overgrown livers and may play a role in preventing cell cycle progression in response to organ size homeostatic mechanisms.

  13. Identification of cyclins A1, E1 and vimentin as downstream targets of heme oxygenase-1 in vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Andrea; Mylroie, Hayley; Thornton, C. Clare; Calay, Damien; Birdsey, Graeme M.; Kiprianos, Allan P.; Wilson, Garrick K.; Soares, Miguel P.; Yin, Xiaoke; Mayr, Manuel; Randi, Anna M.; Mason, Justin C.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential physiological process and an important factor in disease pathogenesis. However, its exploitation as a clinical target has achieved limited success and novel molecular targets are required. Although heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) acts downstream of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to modulate angiogenesis, knowledge of the mechanisms involved remains limited. We set out identify novel HO-1 targets involved in angiogenesis. HO-1 depletion attenuated VEGF-induced human endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and tube formation. The latter response suggested a role for HO-1 in EC migration, and indeed HO-1 siRNA negatively affected directional migration of EC towards VEGF; a phenotype reversed by HO-1 over-expression. EC from Hmox1−/− mice behaved similarly. Microarray analysis of HO-1-depleted and control EC exposed to VEGF identified cyclins A1 and E1 as HO-1 targets. Migrating HO-1-deficient EC showed increased p27, reduced cyclin A1 and attenuated cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity. In vivo, cyclin A1 siRNA inhibited VEGF-driven angiogenesis, a response reversed by Ad-HO-1. Proteomics identified structural protein vimentin as an additional VEGF-HO-1 target. HO-1 depletion inhibited VEGF-induced calpain activity and vimentin cleavage, while vimentin silencing attenuated HO-1-driven proliferation. Thus, vimentin and cyclins A1 and E1 represent VEGF-activated HO-1-dependent targets important for VEGF-driven angiogenesis. PMID:27388959

  14. Early B-cell-specific inactivation of ATM synergizes with ectopic CyclinD1 expression to promote pre-germinal center B-cell lymphomas in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Lee, B J; Li, C; Dubois, R L; Hobeika, E; Bhagat, G; Zha, S

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase is a master regulator of the DNA damage response. ATM is frequently inactivated in human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, including ~50% of mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs) characterized by ectopic expression of CyclinD1. Here we report that early and robust deletion of ATM in precursor/progenitor B cells causes cell autonomous, clonal mature B-cell lymphomas of both pre- and post-germinal center (GC) origins. Unexpectedly, naive B-cell-specific deletion of ATM is not sufficient to induce lymphomas in mice, highlighting the important tumor suppressor function of ATM in immature B cells. Although EμCyclinD1 is not sufficient to induce lymphomas, EμCyclinD1 accelerates the kinetics and increases the incidence of clonal lymphomas in ATM-deficient B-cells and skews the lymphomas toward pre-GC-derived small lymphocytic neoplasms, sharing morphological features of human MCL. This is in part due to CyclinD1-driven expansion of ATM-deficient naive B cells with genomic instability, which promotes the deletions of additional tumor suppressor genes (i.e. Trp53, Mll2, Rb1 and Cdkn2a). Together these findings define a synergistic function of ATM and CyclinD1 in pre-GC B-cell proliferation and lymphomagenesis and provide a prototypic animal model to study the pathogenesis of human MCL.

  15. Overexpression of cyclins D1 and D3 during estrogen-induced breast oncogenesis in female ACI rats.

    PubMed

    Weroha, S John; Li, Sara Antonia; Tawfik, Ossama; Li, Jonathan J

    2006-03-01

    A common feature of human breast oncogenesis is cell cycle deregulation. The expression of cyclins D1 and D3 was examined during estradiol-17beta (E(2))-induced mammary tumorigenesis in female August Copenhagen Irish (ACI) rats. Low serum E(2) levels ( approximately 60-120 pg/ml) were sufficient to induce mammary gland tumors (MGTs) that remarkably resemble human ductal breast cancer (BC) at the histopathologic and molecular levels. Western blot analysis of the E(2)-induced MGTs revealed a marked rise in cyclins D1 (24-fold), D3 (9-fold) and cdk4 (3-fold) expression compared with age-matched untreated controls. Small focal dysplasias with large, pale staining nuclei were commonly seen at 3-3.6 months, large focal dysplasias, including atypical ductal hyperplasia at 3.6-4.3 months, ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCISs) at 4.3-5.0 months, and 100% incidence of invasive ductal BC/frank tumors at 5-6 months were detected after E(2) treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis of serial sections of focal dysplasias, DCISs and invasive ductal carcinomas showed overexpression of cyclins D1, D3, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and progesterone receptor (PR). However, cyclin D3 expression, unlike D1, was confined essentially to early pre-malignant lesions (focal dysplasias and DCISs) and primary MGTs with <1-5% of resting and normal hyperplastic breast cells staining positive. The kinase activity for cyclins D1 and D3, using retinoblastoma (Rb) as a substrate, in E(2)-induced MGTs and their binding to cdk4 was significantly elevated. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of the E(2)-induced MGTs exhibited increased expression of cyclins D1 (2.9-fold) and D3 (1.4-fold) mRNA, indicating that their elevated protein expression was due in part to an increase in mRNA transcription. However, when analyzed by quantitative real-time Q-PCR, these genes were not amplified. These data indicate that in female ACI rat mammary glands, E(2)-induced pre-malignant lesions

  16. B-Cyclin/CDKs Regulate Mitotic Spindle Assembly by Phosphorylating Kinesins-5 in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Mark K.; Haase, Steven B.

    2010-01-01

    Although it has been known for many years that B-cyclin/CDK complexes regulate the assembly of the mitotic spindle and entry into mitosis, the full complement of relevant CDK targets has not been identified. It has previously been shown in a variety of model systems that B-type cyclin/CDK complexes, kinesin-5 motors, and the SCFCdc4 ubiquitin ligase are required for the separation of spindle poles and assembly of a bipolar spindle. It has been suggested that, in budding yeast, B-type cyclin/CDK (Clb/Cdc28) complexes promote spindle pole separation by inhibiting the degradation of the kinesins-5 Kip1 and Cin8 by the anaphase-promoting complex (APCCdh1). We have determined, however, that the Kip1 and Cin8 proteins are present at wild-type levels in the absence of Clb/Cdc28 kinase activity. Here, we show that Kip1 and Cin8 are in vitro targets of Clb2/Cdc28 and that the mutation of conserved CDK phosphorylation sites on Kip1 inhibits spindle pole separation without affecting the protein's in vivo localization or abundance. Mass spectrometry analysis confirms that two CDK sites in the tail domain of Kip1 are phosphorylated in vivo. In addition, we have determined that Sic1, a Clb/Cdc28-specific inhibitor, is the SCFCdc4 target that inhibits spindle pole separation in cells lacking functional Cdc4. Based on these findings, we propose that Clb/Cdc28 drives spindle pole separation by direct phosphorylation of kinesin-5 motors. PMID:20463882

  17. Cyclin D2 Protein Stability Is Regulated in Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Lu Mei; Sartori, Daniel J.; Teta, Monica; Opare-Addo, Lynn M.; Rankin, Matthew M.; Long, Simon Y.; Diehl, J. Alan; Kushner, Jake A.

    2009-01-01

    The molecular determinants of β-cell mass expansion remain poorly understood. Cyclin D2 is the major D-type cyclin expressed in β-cells, essential for adult β-cell growth. We hypothesized that cyclin D2 could be actively regulated in β-cells, which could allow mitogenic stimuli to influence β-cell expansion. Cyclin D2 protein was sharply increased after partial pancreatectomy, but cyclin D2 mRNA was unchanged, suggesting posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms influence cyclin D2 expression in β-cells. Consistent with this hypothesis, cyclin D2 protein stability is powerfully regulated in fibroblasts. Threonine 280 of cyclin D2 is phosphorylated, and this residue critically limits D2 stability. We derived transgenic (tg) mice with threonine 280 of cyclin D2 mutated to alanine (T280A) or wild-type cyclin D2 under the control of the insulin promoter. Cyclin D2 T280A protein was expressed at much higher levels than wild-type cyclin D2 protein in β-cells, despite equivalent expression of tg mRNAs. Cyclin D2 T280A tg mice exhibited a constitutively nuclear cyclin D2 localization in β-cells, and increased cyclin D2 stability in islets. Interestingly, threonine 280-mutant cyclin D2 tg mice had greatly reduced β-cell apoptosis, with suppressed expression of proapoptotic genes. Suppressed β-cell apoptosis in threonine 280-mutant cyclin D2 tg mice resulted in greatly increased β-cell area in aged mice. Taken together, these data indicate that cyclin D2 is regulated by protein stability in pancreatic β-cells, that signals that act upon threonine 280 limit cyclin D2 stability in β-cells, and that threonine 280-mutant cyclin D2 overexpression prolongs β-cell survival and augments β-cell mass expansion. PMID:19628581

  18. Cyclin B-cdk activity stimulates meiotic rereplication in budding yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Strich, Randy; Mallory, Michael J; Jarnik, Michal; Cooper, Katrina F

    2004-01-01

    Haploidization of gametes during meiosis requires a single round of premeiotic DNA replication (meiS) followed by two successive nuclear divisions. This study demonstrates that ectopic activation of cyclin B/cyclin-dependent kinase in budding yeast recruits up to 30% of meiotic cells to execute one to three additional rounds of meiS. Rereplication occurs prior to the meiotic nuclear divisions, indicating that this process is different from the postmeiotic mitoses observed in other fungi. The cells with overreplicated DNA produced asci containing up to 20 spores that were viable and haploid and demonstrated Mendelian marker segregation. Genetic tests indicated that these cells executed the meiosis I reductional division and possessed a spindle checkpoint. Finally, interfering with normal synaptonemal complex formation or recombination increased the efficiency of rereplication. These studies indicate that the block to rereplication is very different in meiotic and mitotic cells and suggest a negative role for the recombination machinery in allowing rereplication. Moreover, the production of haploids, regardless of the genome content, suggests that the cell counts replication cycles, not chromosomes, in determining the number of nuclear divisions to execute. PMID:15342503

  19. Cyclin D1 depletion induces DNA damage in mantle cell lymphoma lines.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Suchismita; Mohanty, Atish; Sandoval, Natalie; Tran, Thai; Bedell, Victoria; Wu, Jun; Scuto, Anna; Murata-Collins, Joyce; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Ngo, Vu N

    2017-03-01

    Elevated cyclin D1 (CCND1) expression levels in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) are associated with aggressive clinical manifestations related to chemoresistance, but little is known about how this important proto-oncogene contributes to the resistance of MCL. Here, we showed that RNA interference-mediated depletion of CCND1 increased caspase-3 activities and induced apoptosis in the human MCL lines UPN-1 and JEKO-1. In vitro and xenotransplant studies revealed that the toxic effect of CCND1 depletion in MCL cells was likely due to increase in histone H2AX phosphorylation, a DNA damage marker. DNA fiber analysis suggested deregulated replication initiation after CCND1 depletion as a potential cause of DNA damage. Finally, in contrast to depletion or inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 4, CCND1 depletion increased chemosensitivity of MCL cells to replication inhibitors hydroxyurea and cytarabine. Our findings have an important implication for CCND1 as a potential therapeutic target in MCL patients who are refractory to standard chemotherapy.

  20. Phosphorylation of XIAP by CDK1–cyclin-B1 controls mitotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ying; Allan, Lindsey A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regulation of cell death is crucial for the response of cancer cells to drug treatments that cause arrest in mitosis, and is likely to be important for protection against chromosome instability in normal cells. Prolonged mitotic arrest can result in cell death by activation of caspases and the induction of apoptosis. Here, we show that X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) plays a key role in the control of mitotic cell death. Ablation of XIAP expression sensitises cells to prolonged mitotic arrest caused by a microtubule poison. XIAP is stable during mitotic arrest, but its function is controlled through phosphorylation by the mitotic kinase CDK1–cyclin-B1 at S40. Mutation of S40 to a phosphomimetic residue (S40D) inhibits binding to activated effector caspases and abolishes the anti-apoptotic function of XIAP, whereas a non-phosphorylatable mutant (S40A) blocks apoptosis. By performing live-cell imaging, we show that phosphorylation of XIAP reduces the threshold for the onset of cell death in mitosis. This work illustrates that mitotic cell death is a form of apoptosis linked to the progression of mitosis through control by CDK1–cyclin-B1. PMID:27927753

  1. Loss of Cell Cycle Regulators p27Kip1 and Cyclin E in Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder Correlates with Tumor Grade and Patient Survival

    PubMed Central

    Del Pizzo, Joseph J.; Borkowski, Andrew; Jacobs, Stephen C.; Kyprianou, Natasha

    1999-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 is a powerful molecular determinant of cell cycle progression. Loss of expression of p27Kip1 has been shown to be predictive of disease progression in several human malignancies. In this study we investigated the expression of two key cell cycle regulators, p27Kip1 and cyclin E, in the progression of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. An immunohistochemical analysis was conducted in a series of 50 bladder tumor specimens, including 3 metastatic lymph nodes, and 7 normal bladder specimens, using specific antibodies against the two regulators of the cell cycle, p27Kip1 and cyclin E. The degree of immunoreactivity was correlated with the pathological tumor grade, stage, and patient survival. A uniformly intense immunoreactivity for p27Kip1 and cyclin E was observed in epithelial cells of normal bladder tissue. Malignant bladder tissue demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern of significantly reduced p27Kip1 and cyclin E immunoreactivity, compared with normal urothelium (P < 0.01). In addition, there was progressive loss of expression of both cell cycle proteins with increasing tumor grade and pathological stage. Expression of p27Kip1 was significantly lower in the poorly differentiated tumors (grades III) compared to well and moderately differentiated (grades I and II) tumors (P = 0.004). Moreover, the expression of cyclin E was lower in grade III tumors compared to grade I and II lesions, although this difference failed to reach statistical significance. Most significantly, Kaplan-Meier plots of patient survival show increased mortality risk associated with low levels of p27Kip1 (P = 0.001) and cyclin E (P = 0.002) expression. This is the first evidence that loss of expression of p27Kip1 and cyclin E in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells correlates with advancing histological aggressiveness and poor patient survival. These results have clinical importance, because they support a role for p27Kip1 and

  2. PPAR{gamma} ligands suppress the feedback loop between E2F2 and cyclin-E1

    SciTech Connect

    Komatsu, Yoko; Ito, Ichiaki; Wayama, Mitsutoshi; Fujimura, Akiko; Akaogi, Kensuke; Machida, Hikaru; Nakajima, Yuka; Kuroda, Takao; Ohmori, Kazuji; Murayama, Akiko; Kimura, Keiji; Yanagisawa, Junn

    2008-05-23

    PPAR{gamma} is a nuclear hormone receptor that plays a key role in the induction of peroxisome proliferation. A number of studies showed that PPAR{gamma} ligands suppress cell cycle progression; however, the mechanism remains to be determined. Here, we showed that PPAR{gamma} ligand troglitazone inhibited G1/S transition in colon cancer cells, LS174T. Troglitazone did not affect on either expression of CDK inhibitor (p18) or Wnt signaling pathway, indicating that these pathways were not involved in the troglitazone-dependent cell cycle arrest. GeneChip and RT-PCR analyses revealed that troglitazone decreased mRNA levels of cell cycle regulatory factors E2F2 and cyclin-E1 whose expression is activated by E2F2. Down-regulation of E2F2 by troglitazone results in decrease of cyclin-E1 transcription, which could inhibit phosphorylation of Rb protein, and consequently evoke the suppression of E2F2 transcriptional activity. Thus, we propose that troglitazone suppresses the feedback loop containing E2F2, cyclin-E1, and Rb protein.

  3. Plant D-type cyclins and the control of G1 progression.

    PubMed Central

    Oakenfull, E Ann; Riou-Khamlichi, Catherine; Murray, James A H

    2002-01-01

    The basic pattern of controls that operate during the G1 phase of the plant cell cycle shows much closer similarity to animals than to the yeasts and other fungi. The activity of D-type cyclin (CycD) kinases is induced in response to stimulatory signals, and these phosphorylate the plant homologue of the retinoblastoma tumour susceptibility (Rb) protein. It is likely that Rb phosphorylation results in the activation of genes under the control of E2F transcription factors, including those required for S phase entry. As the initial triggers of the cascade, attention has focused on the CycDs, and a family of 10 genes is present in Arabidopsis, divided into three major and three minor groups. Analysis to date suggests that these groups are functionally distinct. PMID:12079670

  4. Recruitment of Cln3 Cyclin to Promoters Controls Cell Cycle Entry via Histone Deacetylase and Other Targets

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ying; Wijnen, Herman; Futcher, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    In yeast, the G1 cyclin Cln3 promotes cell cycle entry by activating the transcription factor SBF. In mammals, there is a parallel system for cell cycle entry in which cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) activates transcription factor E2F/Dp. Here we show that Cln3 regulates SBF by at least two different pathways, one involving the repressive protein Whi5, and the second involving Stb1. The Rpd3 histone deacetylase complex is also involved. Cln3 binds to SBF at the CLN2 promoter, and removes previously bound Whi5 and histone deacetylase. Adding extra copies of the SBF binding site to the cell delays Start, possibly by titrating Cln3. Since Rpd3 is the yeast ortholog of mammalian HDAC1, there is now a virtually complete analogy between the proteins regulating cell cycle entry in yeast (SBF, Cln3, Whi5 and Stb1, Rpd3) and mammals (E2F, Cyclin D, Rb, HDAC1). The cell may titrate Cln3 molecules against the number of SBF binding sites, and this could be the underlying basis of the size-control mechanism for Start. PMID:19823669

  5. Expression of CDK7, Cyclin H, and MAT1 Is Elevated in Breast Cancer and Is Prognostic in Estrogen Receptor–Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hetal; Abduljabbar, Rezvan; Lai, Chun-Fui; Periyasamy, Manikandan; Harrod, Alison; Gemma, Carolina; Steel, Jennifer H.; Patel, Naina; Busonero, Claudia; Jerjees, Dena; Remenyi, Judit; Smith, Sally; Gomm, Jennifer J.; Magnani, Luca; Győrffy, Balázs; Jones, Louise J.; Fuller-Pace, Frances; Shousha, Sami; Buluwela, Laki; Rakha, Emad A.; Ellis, Ian O.; Coombes, R. Charles; Ali, Simak

    2017-01-01

    Purpose CDK-activating kinase (CAK) is required for the regulation of the cell cycle and is a trimeric complex consisting of cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7), Cyclin H, and the accessory protein, MAT1. CDK7 also plays a critical role in regulating transcription, primarily by phosphorylating RNA polymerase II, as well as transcription factors such as estrogen receptor-α (ER). Deregulation of cell cycle and transcriptional control are general features of tumor cells, highlighting the potential for the use of CDK7 inhibitors as novel cancer therapeutics. Experimental Design mRNA and protein expression of CDK7 and its essential cofactors cyclin H and MAT1 were evaluated in breast cancer samples to determine if their levels are altered in cancer. Immunohistochemical staining of >900 breast cancers was used to determine the association with clinicopathologic features and patient outcome. Results We show that expressions of CDK7, cyclin H, and MAT1 are all closely linked at the mRNA and protein level, and their expression is elevated in breast cancer compared with the normal breast tissue. Intriguingly, CDK7 expression was inversely proportional to tumor grade and size, and outcome analysis showed an association between CAK levels and better outcome. Moreover, CDK7 expression was positively associated with ER expression and in particular with phosphorylation of ER at serine 118, a site important for ER transcriptional activity. Conclusions Expressions of components of the CAK complex, CDK7, MAT1, and Cyclin H are elevated in breast cancer and correlate with ER. Like ER, CDK7 expression is inversely proportional to poor prognostic factors and survival. PMID:27301701

  6. Binding Activity Prediction of Cyclin-Dependent Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Saha, Indrajit; Rak, Benedykt; Bhowmick, Shib Sankar; Maulik, Ujjwal; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Koch, Uwe; Lazniewski, Michal; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2015-07-27

    The Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (CDKs) are the core components coordinating eukaryotic cell division cycle. Generally the crystal structure of CDKs provides information on possible molecular mechanisms of ligand binding. However, reliable and robust estimation of ligand binding activity has been a challenging task in drug design. In this regard, various machine learning techniques, such as Support Vector Machine, Naive Bayesian classifier, Decision Tree, and K-Nearest Neighbor classifier, have been used. The performance of these heterogeneous classification techniques depends on proper selection of features from the data set. This fact motivated us to propose an integrated classification technique using Genetic Algorithm (GA), Rotational Feature Selection (RFS) scheme, and Ensemble of Machine Learning methods, named as the Genetic Algorithm integrated Rotational Ensemble based classification technique, for the prediction of ligand binding activity of CDKs. This technique can automatically find the important features and the ensemble size. For this purpose, GA encodes the features and ensemble size in a chromosome as a binary string. Such encoded features are then used to create diverse sets of training points using RFS in order to train the machine learning method multiple times. The RFS scheme works on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to preserve the variability information of the rotational nonoverlapping subsets of original data. Thereafter, the testing points are fed to the different instances of trained machine learning method in order to produce the ensemble result. Here accuracy is computed as a final result after 10-fold cross validation, which also used as an objective function for GA to maximize. The effectiveness of the proposed classification technique has been demonstrated quantitatively and visually in comparison with different machine learning methods for 16 ligand binding CDK docking and rescoring data sets. In addition, the best possible features

  7. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 induces cyclin D1 degradation through the phosphorylation of Thr{sup 286} in squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Jun; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi . E-mail: yanaga@clipharm.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Yutaka; Hirata, Masato; Morimoto, Sachio; Shirasuna, Kanemitsu; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2005-11-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are morphogens which induce cell differentiation in Dictyostelium. We reported that DIF-1 and DIF-3 inhibit proliferation and induce differentiation in mammalian cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of DIF-1 on oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines NA and SAS, well differentiated and poorly differentiated cell lines, respectively. Although DIF-1 did not induce the expression of cell differentiation makers in these cell lines, it inhibited the proliferation of NA and SAS in a dose-dependent manner by restricting the cell cycle in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase. DIF-1 induced cyclin D1 degradation, but this effect was prevented by treatment with lithium chloride and SB216763, the inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}). Depletion of endogenous GSK-3{beta} by RNA interference also attenuated the effect of DIF-1 on cyclin D1 degradation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of DIF-1 on GSK-3{beta} and found that DIF-1 dephosphorylated GSK-3{beta} on Ser{sup 9} and induced the nuclear translocation of GSK-3{beta}, suggesting that DIF-1 activated GSK-3{beta}. Then, we examined the effect of DIF-1 on cyclin D1 mutants (Thr286Ala, Thr288Ala, and Thr286/288Ala). We revealed that Thr286Ala and Thr286/288Ala mutants were highly resistant to DIF-1-induced degradation compared with wild-type cyclin D1, indicating that the phosphorylation of Thr{sup 286} was critical for cyclin D1 degradation induced by DIF-1. These results suggest that DIF-1 induces degradation of cyclin D1 through the GSK-3{beta}-mediated phosphorylation of Thr{sup 286}.

  8. A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, M; Enders, G H; Wu, C L; Su, L K; Gorka, C; Nelson, C; Harlow, E; Tsai, L H

    1992-01-01

    The p34cdc2 protein kinase is known to regulate important transitions in the eukaryotic cell cycle. We have identified 10 human protein kinases based on their structural relation to p34cdc2. Seven of these kinases are novel and the products of five share greater than 50% amino acid sequence identity with p34cdc2. The seven novel genes are broadly expressed in human cell lines and tissues with each displaying some cell type or tissue specificity. The cdk3 gene, like cdc2 and cdk2, can complement cdc28 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that all three of these protein kinases can play roles in the regulation of the mammalian cell cycle. The identification of a large family of cdc2-related kinases opens the possibility of combinatorial regulation of the cell cycle together with the emerging large family of cyclins. Images PMID:1639063

  9. PAC exhibits potent anti-colon cancer properties through targeting cyclin D1 and suppressing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Al-Qasem, Abeer; Al-Howail, Huda A; Al-Swailem, Mashael; Al-Mazrou, Amer; Al-Otaibi, Basem; Al-Jammaz, Ibrahim; Al-Khalaf, Huda H; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although response rates and overall survival have been improved in recent years, resistance to multiple drug combinations is inevitable. Therefore, the development of more efficient drugs, with fewer side effects is urgently needed. To this end, we have investigated in the present report the effect of PAC, a novel cucumin analogue, on CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo. We have shown that PAC induces apoptosis, mainly via the internal mitochondrial route, and inhibits cell proliferation through delaying the cell cycle at G2/M phase. Interestingly, the pro-apoptotic effect was mediated through STAT3-dependent down-regulation of cyclin D1 and its downstream target survivin. Indeed, change in the expression level of cyclin D1 modulated the expression of survivin and the response of CRC cells to PAC. Furthermore, using the ChIP assay, we have shown PAC-dependent reduction in the binding of STAT3 to the cyclin D1 promoter in vivo. Additionally, PAC suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal process through down-regulating the mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin and Twist1) and inhibiting the invasion/migration abilities of the CRC cells via repressing the pro-migration/invasion protein kinases AKT and ERK1/2. In addition, PAC inhibited tumor growth and repressed the JAK2/STAT3, AKT/mTOR and MEK/ERK pathways as well as their common downstream effectors cyclin D1 and survivin in humanized CRC xenografts. Collectively, these results indicate that PAC has potent anti-CRC effects, and therefore could constitute an effective alternative chemotherapeutic agent, which may consolidate the adjuvant treatment of colon cancer.

  10. Role of Cyclin E as an Early Event in Ovarian Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    truncated cyclin E isoforms into our mouse model. OVCAR5 cells were transfected with 2 µg pRC- CMV -cyclin E, pcDNA3-cyclin E FL, pcDNA3-cyclin E...Imaging System (LI-COR Biotechnology, Lincoln, NB). The pRC- CMV -cyclin E construct was provided by B. Weinberg and the pcDNA3-cyclin E constructs...over-expressed in OVCAR5 cells by transfection. Whole cell lysates were collected and the protein analyzed by Western blot (Fig. 12). The pRC- CMV

  11. Comprehensive phenotypic analysis of knockout mice deficient in cyclin G1 and cyclin G2

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Shouichi; Ikeda, Jun-ichiro; Naito, Yoko; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Sasakura, Towa; Fukushima, Kohshiro; Nishikawa, Yukihiro; Ota, Kaori; Kato, Yorika; Wang, Mian; Torigata, Kosuke; Kasama, Takashi; Uchihashi, Toshihiro; Miura, Daisaku; Yabuta, Norikazu; Morii, Eiichi; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin G1 (CycG1) and Cyclin G2 (CycG2) play similar roles during the DNA damage response (DDR), but their detailed roles remain elusive. To investigate their distinct roles, we generated knockout mice deficient in CycG1 (G1KO) or CycG2 (G2KO), as well as double knockout mice (DKO) deficient in both proteins. All knockouts developed normally and were fertile. Generation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from these mice revealed that G2KO MEFs, but not G1KO or DKO MEFs, were resistant to DNA damage insults caused by camptothecin and ionizing radiation (IR) and underwent cell cycle arrest. CycG2, but not CycG1, co-localized with γH2AX foci in the nucleus after γ-IR, and γH2AX-mediated DNA repair and dephosphorylation of CHK2 were delayed in G2KO MEFs. H2AX associated with CycG1, CycG2, and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), suggesting that γH2AX affects the function of PP2A via direct interaction with its B’γ subunit. Furthermore, expression of CycG2, but not CycG1, was abnormal in various cancer cell lines. Kaplan–Meier curves based on TCGA data disclosed that head and neck cancer patients with reduced CycG2 expression have poorer clinical prognoses. Taken together, our data suggest that reduced CycG2 expression could be useful as a novel prognostic marker of cancer. PMID:27982046

  12. Rho family-associated kinases PAK1 and rock.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Hiroshi; Nheu, Thao V; He, Hong; Hirokawa, Yumiko

    2003-01-01

    Rho family GTPases (Rho, Rac and CDC42) share around 30% sequence identity with RAS family GTPases, and are essential for RAS-induced malignant transformation, i.e., aberrant serum/anchorage-independent growth and actin cytoskeleton-linked morphological changes. Oncogenic RAS mutants such as v-Ha-RAS trigger cell cycle entry (G0-G1 transition) mainly by up-regulating cyclin D1, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), and down-regulating p27, a CDK inhibitor. Although both Rac and CDC42 are clearly activated by RAS, there is so far no evidence that RAS activates Rho. In this chapter, we will discuss the role of these Rho family GTPases and their effectors, in particular the Ser/Thr kinases PAK1 and Rock, in RAS-induced serum/anchorage-independent cell cycling, and discuss several potential therapeutics, peptides or chemical compounds, that could block this oncogenic cell cycle signalling pathway.

  13. E2-C, a cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein required for the destruction of mitotic cyclins.

    PubMed Central

    Aristarkhov, A; Eytan, E; Moghe, A; Admon, A; Hershko, A; Ruderman, J V

    1996-01-01

    Ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of the mitotic cyclins A and B is required for the completion of mitosis and entry into the next cell cycle. This process is catalyzed by the cyclosome, an approximately 22S particle that contains a cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase activity, E3-C, that requires a cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein (UBC) E2-C. Here we report the purification and cloning of E2-C from clam oocytes. The deduced amino acid sequence of E2-C indicates that it is a new UBC family member. Bacterially expressed recombinant E2-C is active in in vitro cyclin ubiquitination assays, where it exhibits the same substrate specificities seen with native E2-C. These results demonstrate that E2-C is not a homolog of UBC4 or UBC9, proteins previously suggested to be involved in cyclin ubiquitination, but is a new UBC family member with unique properties. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8633058

  14. Selective CREB-dependent cyclin expression mediated by the PI3K and MAPK pathways supports glioma cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, P; Filiz, G; Brown, D V; Hollande, F; Gonzales, M; D'Abaco, G; Papalexis, N; Phillips, W A; Malaterre, J; Ramsay, R G; Mantamadiotis, T

    2014-01-01

    The cyclic-AMP response element binding (CREB) protein has been shown to have a pivotal role in cell survival and cell proliferation. Transgenic rodent models have revealed a role for CREB in higher-order brain functions, such as memory and drug addiction behaviors. CREB overexpression in transgenic animals imparts oncogenic properties on cells in various tissues, and aberrant CREB expression is associated with tumours. It is the central position of CREB, downstream from key developmental and growth signalling pathways, which gives CREB this ability to influence a spectrum of cellular activities, such as cell survival, growth and differentiation, in both normal and cancer cells. We show that CREB is highly expressed and constitutively activated in patient glioma tissue and that this activation closely correlates with tumour grade. The mechanism by which CREB regulates glioblastoma (GBM) tumour cell proliferation involves activities downstream from both the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways that then modulate the expression of three key cell cycle factors, cyclin B, D and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Cyclin D1 is highly CREB-dependent, whereas cyclin B1 and PCNA are co-regulated by both CREB-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The precise regulatory network involved appears to differ depending on the tumour-suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog status of the GBM cells, which in turn allows CREB to regulate the activity of the PI3K itself. Given that CREB sits at the hub of key cancer cell signalling pathways, understanding the role of glioma-specific CREB function may lead to improved novel combinatorial anti-tumour therapies, which can complement existing PI3K-specific drugs undergoing early phase clinical trials. PMID:24979279

  15. Consequence of the tumor-associated conversion to cyclin D1b

    PubMed Central

    Augello, Michael A; Berman-Booty, Lisa D; Carr, Richard; Yoshida, Akihiro; Dean, Jeffry L; Schiewer, Matthew J; Feng, Felix Y; Tomlins, Scott A; Gao, Erhe; Koch, Walter J; Benovic, Jeffrey L; Diehl, John Alan; Knudsen, Karen E

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that cyclin D1b, a variant of cyclin D1, is associated with tumor progression and poor outcome. However, the underlying molecular basis was unknown. Here, novel models were created to generate a genetic switch from cyclin D1 to cyclin D1b. Extensive analyses uncovered overlapping but non-redundant functions of cyclin D1b compared to cyclin D1 on developmental phenotypes, and illustrated the importance of the transcriptional regulatory functions of cyclin D1b in vivo. Data obtained identify cyclin D1b as an oncogene, wherein cyclin D1b expression under the endogenous promoter induced cellular transformation and further cooperated with known oncogenes to promote tumor growth in vivo. Further molecular interrogation uncovered unexpected links between cyclin D1b and the DNA damage/PARP1 regulatory networks, which could be exploited to suppress cyclin D1b-driven tumors. Collectively, these data are the first to define the consequence of cyclin D1b expression on normal cellular function, present evidence for cyclin D1b as an oncogene, and provide pre-clinical evidence of effective methods to thwart growth of cells dependent upon this oncogenic variant. PMID:25787974

  16. TARANIS Functions with Cyclin A and Cdk1 in a Novel Arousal Center to Control Sleep in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Dinis J S; Liu, Die; Machado, Daniel R; Pan, Huihui; Jepson, James E C; Rogulja, Dragana; Koh, Kyunghee

    2015-06-29

    Sleep is an essential and conserved behavior whose regulation at the molecular and anatomical level remains to be elucidated. Here, we identify TARANIS (TARA), a Drosophila homolog of the Trip-Br (SERTAD) family of transcriptional coregulators, as a molecule that is required for normal sleep patterns. Through a forward-genetic screen, we isolated tara as a novel sleep gene associated with a marked reduction in sleep amount. Targeted knockdown of tara suggests that it functions in cholinergic neurons to promote sleep. tara encodes a conserved cell-cycle protein that contains a Cyclin A (CycA)-binding homology domain. TARA regulates CycA protein levels and genetically and physically interacts with CycA to promote sleep. Furthermore, decreased levels of Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), a kinase partner of CycA, rescue the short-sleeping phenotype of tara and CycA mutants, while increased Cdk1 activity mimics the tara and CycA phenotypes, suggesting that Cdk1 mediates the role of TARA and CycA in sleep regulation. Finally, we describe a novel wake-promoting role for a cluster of ∼14 CycA-expressing neurons in the pars lateralis (PL), previously proposed to be analogous to the mammalian hypothalamus. We propose that TARANIS controls sleep amount by regulating CycA protein levels and inhibiting Cdk1 activity in a novel arousal center.

  17. Disruption of transforming growth factor-beta signaling through beta-spectrin ELF leads to hepatocellular cancer through cyclin D1 activation.

    PubMed

    Kitisin, K; Ganesan, N; Tang, Y; Jogunoori, W; Volpe, E A; Kim, S S; Katuri, V; Kallakury, B; Pishvaian, M; Albanese, C; Mendelson, J; Zasloff, M; Rashid, A; Fishbein, T; Evans, S R T; Sidawy, A; Reddy, E P; Mishra, B; Johnson, L B; Shetty, K; Mishra, L

    2007-11-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling members, TGF-beta receptor type II (TBRII), Smad2, Smad4 and Smad adaptor, embryonic liver fodrin (ELF), are prominent tumor suppressors in gastrointestinal cancers. Here, we show that 40% of elf(+/-) mice spontaneously develop hepatocellular cancer (HCC) with markedly increased cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), c-Myc and MDM2 expression. Reduced ELF but not TBRII, or Smad4 was observed in 8 of 9 human HCCs (P<0.017). ELF and TBRII are also markedly decreased in human HCC cell lines SNU-398 and SNU-475. Restoration of ELF and TBRII in SNU-398 cells markedly decreases cyclin D1 as well as hyperphosphorylated-retinoblastoma (hyperphosphorylated-pRb). Thus, we show that TGF-beta signaling and Smad adaptor ELF suppress human hepatocarcinogenesis, potentially through cyclin D1 deregulation. Loss of ELF could serve as a primary event in progression toward a fully transformed phenotype and could hold promise for new therapeutic approaches in human HCCs.

  18. AUREOCHROME1a-mediated induction of the diatom-specific cyclin dsCYC2 controls the onset of cell division in diatoms (Phaeodactylum tricornutum).

    PubMed

    Huysman, Marie J J; Fortunato, Antonio E; Matthijs, Michiel; Costa, Benjamin Schellenberger; Vanderhaeghen, Rudy; Van den Daele, Hilde; Sachse, Matthias; Inzé, Dirk; Bowler, Chris; Kroth, Peter G; Wilhelm, Christian; Falciatore, Angela; Vyverman, Wim; De Veylder, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Cell division in photosynthetic organisms is tightly regulated by light. Although the light dependency of the onset of the cell cycle has been well characterized in various phototrophs, little is known about the cellular signaling cascades connecting light perception to cell cycle activation and progression. Here, we demonstrate that diatom-specific cyclin 2 (dsCYC2) in Phaeodactylum tricornutum displays a transcriptional peak within 15 min after light exposure, long before the onset of cell division. The product of dsCYC2 binds to the cyclin-dependent kinase CDKA1 and can complement G1 cyclin-deficient yeast. Consistent with the role of dsCYC2 in controlling a G1-to-S light-dependent cell cycle checkpoint, dsCYC2 silencing decreases the rate of cell division in diatoms exposed to light-dark cycles but not to constant light. Transcriptional induction of dsCYC2 is triggered by blue light in a fluence rate-dependent manner. Consistent with this, dsCYC2 is a transcriptional target of the blue light sensor AUREOCHROME1a, which functions synergistically with the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor bZIP10 to induce dsCYC2 transcription. The functional characterization of a cyclin whose transcription is controlled by light and whose activity connects light signaling to cell cycle progression contributes significantly to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying light-dependent cell cycle onset in diatoms.

  19. S6 kinase 1 is required for rapamycin-sensitive liver proliferation after mouse hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Espeillac, Catherine; Mitchell, Claudia; Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Chauvin, Céline; Koka, Vonda; Gillet, Cynthia; Albrecht, Jeffrey H; Desdouets, Chantal; Pende, Mario

    2011-07-01

    Rapamycin is an antibiotic inhibiting eukaryotic cell growth and proliferation by acting on target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase. Mammalian TOR (mTOR) is thought to work through 2 independent complexes to regulate cell size and cell replication, and these 2 complexes show differential sensitivity to rapamycin. Here we combine functional genetics and pharmacological treatments to analyze rapamycin-sensitive mTOR substrates that are involved in cell proliferation and tissue regeneration after partial hepatectomy in mice. After hepatectomy, hepatocytes proliferated rapidly, correlating with increased S6 kinase phosphorylation, while treatment with rapamycin derivatives impaired regeneration and blocked S6 kinase activation. In addition, genetic deletion of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) caused a delay in S phase entry in hepatocytes after hepatectomy. The proliferative defect of S6K1-deficient hepatocytes was cell autonomous, as it was also observed in primary cultures and hepatic overexpression of S6K1-rescued proliferation. We found that S6K1 controlled steady-state levels of cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) mRNA in liver, and cyclin D1 expression was required to promote hepatocyte cell cycle. Notably, in vivo overexpression of cyclin D1 was sufficient to restore the proliferative capacity of S6K-null livers. The identification of an S6K1-dependent mechanism participating in cell proliferation in vivo may be relevant for cancer cells displaying high mTOR complex 1 activity and cyclin D1 accumulation.

  20. HBx-dependent cell cycle deregulation involves interaction with cyclin E/A-cdk2 complex and destabilization of p27Kip1.

    PubMed

    Mukherji, Atish; Janbandhu, Vaibhao C; Kumar, Vijay

    2007-01-01

    The HBx (X protein of hepatitis B virus) is a promiscuous transactivator implicated to play a key role in hepatocellular carcinoma. However, HBx-regulated molecular events leading to deregulation of cell cycle or establishment of a permissive environment for hepatocarcinogenesis are not fully understood. Our cell culture-based studies suggested that HBx had a profound effect on cell cycle progression even in the absence of serum. HBx presence led to an early and sustained level of cyclin-cdk2 complex during the cell cycle combined with increased protein kinase activity of cdk2 heralding an early proliferative signal. The increased cdk2 activity also led to an early proteasomal degradation of p27(Kip1) that could be reversed by HBx-specific RNA interference and blocked by a chemical inhibitor of cdk2 or the T187A mutant of p27. Further, our co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro binding studies with recombinant proteins suggested a direct interaction between HBx and the cyclin E/A-cdk2 complex. Interference with different signalling cascades known to be activated by HBx suggested a constitutive requirement of Src kinases for the association of HBx with these complexes. Notably, the HBx mutant that did not interact with cyclin E/A failed to destabilize p27(Kip1) or deregulate the cell cycle. Thus HBx appears to deregulate the cell cycle by interacting with the key cell cycle regulators independent of its well-established role in transactivation.

  1. Expression of δ-cyclins of Brassica rapa L. embryos by clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, O. A.

    Cyclins is one of the important regulators of cell cycle. There are several types of cyclins exists. They are responding for different phases of cycle and have high homology in plant's and mammalian's cells. δ -cyclins are specific for plants and controlling the presynthetic phase events. These cyclins likes to mammalian D-cyclins and have similar functions. This class consist three types of cyclins -- δ 1, δ 2 and δ 3. Cyclin δ 1 is responding for events in cell, which take place before exiting from stage of quiet (G0). Cyclin δ 1 is responding for entering and outputting from G0, and cyclin δ 3 -- for events, which happen in cell after stage of quiet, by entering to S-phase (phase of DNA's synthesis). In present research was used δ 1- and δ 3-cyclins. For determination of δ -cyclins gene's expression level was excreted RNA from embryos: 3-days (spherical stage), 6-days (heart-shaped stage) and 9-days (generated stage) seedlings of Brassica rapa L. in control and under clinorotation. For definition the cyclins gene's expression level applied Northern Blot Analysis. Obtained data testify about difference in level of gene's expression of cyclin δ 1 between control and clinorotation variants. After three days by pollination the expression of this gene in embryos was observed in control only. By clinorotation the gene's expression was detected on 6 days later, but it level was lower than in control variant. On 9 days it was gently expressed by clinorotation, where as by control it was not detected absolutely. Cyclin δ 3 gene's expression was observed during all time of the experiment. These data also confirm known one about expression δ 1- cyclin, which expressed on beginning of cell cycle only. And δ 3 --cyclin that express during whole presinthetic phase of cell cycle (Sony et al., 1995, Murray, 1994, Inze et al, 1999, Umeda, 2000).

  2. ATM is required for rapid degradation of cyclin D1 in response to {gamma}-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Dong Wan; Baek, Hye Jung; Motoyama, Noboru; Cho, Kwan Ho; Kim, Hye Sun; Kim, Sang Soo

    2009-01-23

    The cellular response to DNA damage induced by {gamma}-irradiation activates cell-cycle arrest to permit DNA repair and to prevent replication. Cyclin D1 is the key molecule for transition between the G1 and S phases of the cell-cycle, and amplification or overexpression of cyclin D1 plays pivotal roles in the development of several human cancers. To study the regulation of cyclin D1 in the DNA-damaged condition, we analyzed the proteolytic regulation of cyclin D1 expression upon {gamma}-irradiation. Upon {gamma}-irradiation, a rapid reduction in cyclin D1 levels was observed prior to p53 stabilization, indicating that the stability of cyclin D1 is controlled in a p53-independent manner. Further analysis revealed that irradiation facilitated ubiquitination of cyclin D1 and that a proteasome inhibitor blocked cyclin D1 degradation under the same conditions. Interestingly, after mutation of threonine residue 286 of cyclin D1, which is reported to be the GSK-3{beta} phosphorylation site, the mutant protein showed resistance to irradiation-induced proteolysis although inhibitors of GSK-3{beta} failed to prevent cyclin D1 degradation. Rather, ATM inhibition markedly prevented cyclin D1 degradation induced by {gamma}-irradiation. Our data indicate that communication between ATM and cyclin D1 may be required for maintenance of genomic integrity achieved by rapid arrest of the cell-cycle, and that disruption of this crosstalk may increase susceptibility to cancer.

  3. Kinase cascades regulating entry into apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P

    1997-01-01

    All cells are constantly exposed to conflicting environment cues that signal cell survival or cell death. Survival signals are delivered by autocrine or paracrine factors that actively suppress a default death pathway. In addition to survival factor withdrawal, cell death can be triggered by environmental stresses such as heat, UV light, and hyperosmolarity or by dedicated death receptors (e.g., FAS/APO-1 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF] receptors) that are counterparts of growth factor or survival receptors at the cell surface. One of the ways that cells integrate conflicting exogenous stimuli is by phosphorylation (or dephosphorylation) of cellular constituents by interacting cascades of serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases (and phosphatases). Survival factors (e.g., growth factors and mitogens) activate receptor tyrosine kinases and selected mitogen-activated, cyclin-dependent, lipid-activated, nucleic acid-dependent, and cyclic AMP-dependent kinases to promote cell survival and proliferation, whereas environmental stress (or death factors such as FAS/APO-1 ligand and TNF-alpha) activates different members of these kinase families to inhibit cell growth and, under some circumstances, promote apoptotic cell death. Because individual kinase cascades can interact with one another, they are able to integrate conflicting exogenous stimuli and provide a link between cell surface receptors and the biochemical pathways leading to cell proliferation or cell death. PMID:9106363

  4. Involvement of cyclin D1/CDK4 and pRb mediated by PI3K/AKT pathway activation in Pb{sup 2+}-induced neuronal death in cultured hippocampal neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Li Chenchen Xing Tairan Tang Mingliang Yong Wu Yan Dan Deng Hongmin Wang Huili Wang Ming Chen Jutao Ruan Diyun

    2008-06-15

    Lead (Pb) is widely recognized as a neurotoxicant. One of the suggested mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity is apoptotic cell death. And the mechanism by which Pb{sup 2+} causes neuronal death is not well understood. The present study sought to examine the obligate nature of cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), phosphorylation of its substrate retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and its select upstream signal phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway in the death of primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons evoked by Pb{sup 2+}. Our data showed that lead treatment of primary hippocampal cultures results in dose-dependent cell death. Inhibition of CDK4 prevented Pb{sup 2+}-induced neuronal death significantly but was incomplete. In addition, we demonstrated that the levels of cyclin D1 and pRb/p107 were increased during Pb{sup 2+} treatment. These elevated expression persisted up to 48 h, returning to control levels after 72 h. We also presented pharmacological and morphological evidences that cyclin D1/CDK4 and pRb/p107 were required for such kind of neuronal death. Addition of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (30 {mu}M) or wortmannin (100 nM) significantly rescued the cultured hippocampal neurons from death caused by Pb{sup 2+}. And that Pb{sup 2+}-elicited phospho-AKT (Ser473) participated in the induction of cyclin D1 and partial pRb/p107 expression. These results provide evidences that cell cycle elements play a required role in the death of neurons evoked by Pb{sup 2+} and suggest that certain signaling elements upstream of cyclin D1/CDK4 are modified and/or required for this form of neuronal death.

  5. IRE1α controls cyclin A1 expression and promotes cell proliferation through XBP-1

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Jeffery A.

    2009-01-01

    IRE1 is a conserved dual endoribonuclease/protein kinase that is indispensable for directing the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in yeast, flies, and worms. In mammalian systems, however, the precise biological activities carried out by IRE1α are unclear. Here, molecular and chemical genetic approaches were used to control IRE1 activity in a number of prostate cancer cell lines and the resulting impact on gene transcription, cell survival, and proliferation was examined. Modulating IRE1α activity had no transcriptional effect on the induction of genes classically associated with the ER stress response (Grp78 and CHOP) or cell survival when confronted with ER stress agents. Rather, IRE1α activity was positively correlated to proliferation. Since Xbp-1 mRNA is the sole known substrate for IRE1 endoribonuclease activity, the role of this transcription factor in mediating proliferation was examined. Repressing total Xbp-1 levels by siRNA techniques effectively slowed proliferation. In an effort to identify IRE1/XBP-1 targets responsible for the cell cycle response, genome-wide differential mRNA expression analysis was performed. Consistent with its ability to sense ER stress, IRE1α induction led to an enrichment of ER-Golgi, plasma membrane, and secretory gene products. An increase in cyclin A1 expression was the only differentially expressed cell cycle regulatory gene found. Greater cyclin A protein levels were consistently observed in cells with active IRE1α and were dependent on XBP-1. We conclude that IRE1α activity controls a subset of the ER stress response and mediates proliferation through tight control of Xbp-1 splicing. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12192-009-0163-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20013084

  6. Oncogene abnormalities in a series of primary melanomas of the sinonasal tract: NRAS mutations and cyclin D1 amplification are more frequent than KIT or BRAF mutations.

    PubMed

    Chraybi, Meriem; Abd Alsamad, Issam; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Baia, Maryse; André, Jocelyne; Dumaz, Nicolas; Ortonne, Nicolas

    2013-09-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of sinonasal tract is a rare but severe form of melanoma. We retrospectively analyzed 17 cases and focused on the histologic presentation and the expression of c-Kit, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclin D1/Bcl-1, PS100, and HMB45 and searched for BRAF, NRAS, and KIT mutations that are known to be associated with melanoma subtypes, together with amplifications of KIT, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, MDM2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In most cases (78%), an in situ component was evidenced. Invasive components were composed of diffuse areas of rhabdoid, epithelioid, or spindle cells and, in most cases, lacked inflammatory reaction, suggesting that an immune escape phenomenon probably develops when the disease progresses. EGFR was rarely and weakly expressed in the in situ component of 2 cases. None of the investigated case showed BRAF V600E, but 1 had a D594G mutation. NRAS mutations in exon 2 (G12D or G12A) were found in 3 cases (18%), and a KIT mutation in exon 11 (L576P), in 1, whereas c-Kit was expressed at the protein level in half of the cases. Amplifications of cyclin D1 were evidenced in 5 cases, confirmed in 3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, but this was not always correlated with protein expression, found in 8 patients (62.5%), 3 having no significant amplification. In conclusion, primary malignant melanoma of sinonasal tract is not associated with BRAF V600E mutations. Instead, NRAS or KIT mutations and cyclin D1 amplification can be found in a proportion of cases, suggesting that primary malignant melanoma of sinonasal tract is heterogeneous at the molecular level and should not be sensitive to therapeutic approaches aiming at BRAF.

  7. Cyclin G Functions as a Positive Regulator of Growth and Metabolism in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Adriana; Preiss, Anette; Nagel, Anja C.

    2015-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, growth and proliferation is adjusted to nutritional conditions by a complex signaling network. The Insulin receptor/target of rapamycin (InR/TOR) signaling cascade plays a pivotal role in nutrient dependent growth regulation in Drosophila and mammals alike. Here we identify Cyclin G (CycG) as a regulator of growth and metabolism in Drosophila. CycG mutants have a reduced body size and weight and show signs of starvation accompanied by a disturbed fat metabolism. InR/TOR signaling activity is impaired in cycG mutants, combined with a reduced phosphorylation status of the kinase Akt1 and the downstream factors S6-kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein (4E-BP). Moreover, the expression and accumulation of Drosophila insulin like peptides (dILPs) is disturbed in cycG mutant brains. Using a reporter assay, we show that the activity of one of the first effectors of InR signaling, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K92E), is unaffected in cycG mutants. However, the metabolic defects and weight loss in cycG mutants were rescued by overexpression of Akt1 specifically in the fat body and by mutants in widerborst (wdb), the B'-subunit of the phosphatase PP2A, known to downregulate Akt1 by dephosphorylation. Together, our data suggest that CycG acts at the level of Akt1 to regulate growth and metabolism via PP2A in Drosophila. PMID:26274446

  8. The cyclosome, a large complex containing cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase activity, targets cyclins for destruction at the end of mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sudakin, V; Ganoth, D; Dahan, A; Heller, H; Hershko, J; Luca, F C; Ruderman, J V; Hershko, A

    1995-01-01

    The ubiquitin-mediated degradation of mitotic cyclins is required for cells to exit from mitosis. Previous work with cell-free systems has revealed four components required for cyclin-ubiquitin ligation and proteolysis: a nonspecific ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, a soluble fraction containing a ubiquitin carrier protein activity called E2-C, a crude particulate fraction containing a ubiquitin ligase (E3) activity that is activated during M-phase, and a constitutively active 26S proteasome that degrades ubiquitinated proteins. Here, we identify a novel approximately 1500-kDa complex, termed the cyclosome, which contains a cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase activity, E3-C. E3-C is present but inactive during interphase; it can be activated in vitro by the addition of cdc2, enabling the transfer of ubiquitin from E2-C to cyclin. The kinetics of E3-C activation suggest the existence of one or more intermediates between cdc2 and E3-C. Cyclosome-associated E3-C acts on both cyclin A and B, and requires the presence of wild-type N-terminal destruction box motifs in each cyclin. Ubiquitinated cyclins are then rapidly recognized and degraded by the proteasome. These results identify the cyclosome-associated E3-C as the component of the cyclin destruction machinery whose activity is ultimately regulated by cdc2 and, as such, the element directly responsible for setting mitotic cyclin levels during early embryonic cell cycles. Images PMID:7787245

  9. Action of the p53 Effector, p21, on its Targets: Cyclin-cdk and PCNA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    Lineweaver - Burke analysis of the inhibition of cyclin E-cdk2 by intact p21 and by p21 without the cyclin binding site. Task 2: Months 24-36: Determination...the peptide sequence was the critical feature of a Cy motif. Task 1: Months 1-24: Lineweaver - Burke analysis of the inhibition of cyclin E-cdk2 by...intact p21 and by p21 without the cyclin binding site. p21 without a Cy motif was ineffective in inhibiting cyclin E-cdk2 [2]. Lineweaver - Burke analysis

  10. Cell Cycle Regulatory Proteins p27(kip), Cyclins Dl and E and Proliferative Activity in Oncocytic (Hurthle Cell) Lesions of the Thyroid.

    PubMed

    Maynes, Lincoln J.; Hutzler, Michael J.; Patwardhan, Nilima A.; Wang, Songtao; Khan, Ashraf

    2000-01-01

    Cyclins are prime cell-cycle regulators central to the control of cell proliferation in eukaryotic cells. The formation of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) complexes activates the kinases and initiates a cascade of events, which directs cells through the cell cycle. CDK inhibitors (CDKIs) such as p27(kip1) inhibit cyclln-CDK complexes and function as negative regulators of the cell cycle. Previous studies have shown that p27(kip1) is decreased In malignant relative to benign thyroid tumors, but its role and Interaction with other cell cycle regulatory proteins have not been well established In oncocytic lesions of the thyroid. We studied the expression of p27(kip1), cyclins D1 and E, and Ki67 In 20 cases of oncocytic adenoma (AD). 6 cases of oncocytic carcinoma (CA). 8 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). and 9 cases of nodular goiter with oncocytic change (NG) by Immunohistochemlstry. In the latter two lesions only oncocytic cells were evaluated. The positive staining was stratified Into four groups. Statistical analysis was done using the Kruslcal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance test, and, when significant the Dunn multiple-comparisons procedure was used to determine pairwise differences. AllI 20 AD were p27(kip1) posItive, 10 were 4+, 2 were 3+, and the remaining 8 were 1+. In contrast all 6 CA showed 4+ p27(kip1) staining, of the 8 HT 2 were 4+, two 3+, three1+, and I was negative.All 9 NG were p27 positive, 7 showed 4+, one 3+, and one 1+ staining. On pairwise comparison differences in p27(kip1) staining between AD and CA and between HT and CA were statistically significant (p=0.0243 and p=0.0142, respectively). In all but one case Ki67 expression was either very low (<3%) or negative. No significant differences were seen in the expression of cyclin D1 or cyclin E among the groups observed. In conclusion, the increased p27(kip1) expression in malignant oncocytlc tumors relative to benign oncocytic lesions is unlike any other malignant progression

  11. Upstream stimulatory factor regulates expression of the cell cycle-dependent cyclin B1 gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Cogswell, J P; Godlevski, M M; Bonham, M; Bisi, J; Babiss, L

    1995-01-01

    Progression through the somatic cell cycle requires the temporal regulation of cyclin gene expression and cyclin protein turnover. One of the best-characterized examples of this regulation is seen for the B-type cyclins. These cyclins and their catalytic component, cdc2, have been shown to mediate both the entry into and maintenance of mitosis. The cyclin B1 gene has been shown to be expressed between the late S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, while the protein is degraded specifically at interphase via ubiquitination. To understand the molecular basis for transcriptional regulation of the cyclin B1 gene, we cloned the human cyclin B1 gene promoter region. Using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter system and both stable and transient assays, we have shown that the cyclin B1 gene promoter (extending to -3800 bp relative to the cap site) can confer G2-enhanced promoter activity. Further analysis revealed that an upstream stimulatory factor (USF)-binding site and its cognate transcription factor(s) are critical for expression from the cyclin B1 promoter in cycling HeLa cells. Interestingly, USF DNA-binding activity appears to be regulated in a G2-specific fashion, supporting the idea that USF may play some role in cyclin B1 gene activation. These studies suggest an important link between USF and the cyclin B1 gene, which in part explains how maturation promoting factor complex formation is regulated. PMID:7739559

  12. Cdk5-mediated inhibition of APC/C-Cdh1 switches on the cyclin D1-Cdk4-pRb pathway causing aberrant S-phase entry of postmitotic neurons.

    PubMed

    Veas-Pérez de Tudela, Miguel; Maestre, Carolina; Delgado-Esteban, María; Bolaños, Juan P; Almeida, Angeles

    2015-12-10

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates cell cycle progression in proliferating cells. To enter the S-phase, APC/C must be inactivated by phosphorylation of its cofactor, Cdh1. In post-mitotic cells such as neurons APC/C-Cdh1 complex is highly active and responsible for the continuous degradation of mitotic cyclins. However, the specific molecular pathway that determines neuronal cell cycle blockade in post-mitotic neurons is unknown. Here, we show that activation of glutamatergic receptors in rat cortical primary neurons endogenously triggers cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5)-mediated phosphorylation of Cdh1 leading to its cytoplasmic accumulation and disassembly from the APC3 core protein, causing APC/C inactivation. Conversely, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Cdk5 promotes Cdh1 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, we show that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation and inactivation of Cdh1 leads to p27 depletion, which switches on the cyclin D1-cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (Cdk4)-retinoblastoma protein (pRb) pathway to allow the S-phase entry of neurons. However, neurons do not proceed through the cell cycle and die by apoptosis. These results indicate that APC/C-Cdh1 actively suppresses an aberrant cell cycle entry and death of neurons, highlighting its critical function in neuroprotection.

  13. Substrate specificity of the cdk-activating kinase (CAK) is altered upon association with TFIIH.

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, M; Kolb-Cheynel, I; Egly, J M

    1997-01-01

    The transcription/DNA repair factor TFIIH consists of nine subunits, several exhibiting known functions: helicase/ATPase, kinase activity and DNA binding. Three subunits of TFIIH, cdk7, cyclin H and MAT1, form a ternary complex, cdk-activating kinase (CAK), found either on its own or as part of TFIIH. In the present work, we demonstrate that purified human CAK complex (free CAK) and recombinant CAK (rCAK) produced in insect cells exhibit a strong preference for the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdk2) over a ctd oligopeptide substrate (which mimics the carboxy-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II). In contrast, TFIIH preferentially phosphorylates the ctd as well as TFIIE alpha, but not cdk2. TFIIH was resolved into four subcomplexes: the kinase complex composed of cdk7, cyclin H and MAT1; the core TFIIH which contains XPB, p62, p52, p44 and p34; and two other subcomplexes in which XPD is found associated with either the kinase complex or with the core TFIIH. Using these fractions, we demonstrate that TFIIH lacking the CAK subcomplex completely recovers its transcriptional activity in the presence of free CAK. Furthermore, studies examining the interactions between TFIIH subunits provide evidence that CAK is integrated within TFIIH via XPB and XPD. PMID:9130708

  14. Cdc37 Promotes the Stability of Protein Kinases Cdc28 and Cak1

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Alison; Morgan, David O.

    2000-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cdc37 is required for the productive formation of Cdc28-cyclin complexes. The cdc37-1 mutant arrests at Start with low levels of Cdc28 protein, which is predominantly unphosphorylated at Thr169, fails to bind cyclin, and has little protein kinase activity. We show here that Cdc28 and not cyclin is specifically defective in the cdc37-1 mutant and that Cdc37 likely does not act as an assembly factor for Cdc28-cyclin complex formation. We have also found that the levels and activity of the protein kinase Cak1 are significantly reduced in the cdc37-1 mutant. Pulse-chase analysis indicates that Cdc28 and Cak1 proteins are both destabilized when Cdc37 function is absent during but not after translation. In addition, Cdc37 promotes the production of Cak1, but not that of Cdc28, when coexpressed in insect cells. We conclude that budding yeast Cdc37, like its higher eukaryotic homologs, promotes the physical integrity of multiple protein kinases, perhaps by virtue of a cotranslational role in protein folding. PMID:10629030

  15. Mediator kinase module and human tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Alison D.; Oldenbroek, Marieke; Boyer, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Mediator is a conserved multi-subunit signal processor through which regulatory informatiosn conveyed by gene-specific transcription factors is transduced to RNA Polymerase II (Pol II). In humans, MED13, MED12, CDK8 and Cyclin C (CycC) comprise a four-subunit “kinase” module that exists in variable association with a 26-subunit Mediator core. Genetic and biochemical studies have established the Mediator kinase module as a major ingress of developmental and oncogenic signaling through Mediator, and much of its function in signal-dependent gene regulation derives from its resident CDK8 kinase activity. For example, CDK8-targeted substrate phosphorylation impacts transcription factor half-life, Pol II activity and chromatin chemistry and functional status. Recent structural and biochemical studies have revealed a precise network of physical and functional subunit interactions required for proper kinase module activity. Accordingly, pathologic change in this activity through altered expression or mutation of constituent kinase module subunits can have profound consequences for altered signaling and tumor formation. Herein, we review the structural organization, biological function and oncogenic potential of the Mediator kinase module. We focus principally on tumor-associated alterations in kinase module subunits for which mechanistic relationships as opposed to strictly correlative associations are established. These considerations point to an emerging picture of the Mediator kinase module as an oncogenic unit, one in which pathogenic activation/deactivation through component change drives tumor formation through perturbation of signal-dependent gene regulation. It follows that therapeutic strategies to combat CDK8-driven tumors will involve targeted modulation of CDK8 activity or pharmacologic manipulation of dysregulated CDK8-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:26182352

  16. PHASE II TRIAL OF THE CYCLIN-DEPEDENT KINASE INHIBITOR PD 0332991 IN PATIENTS WITH CANCER

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-24

    Adult Solid Tumor; Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Teratoma; Benign Teratoma; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Familial Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Ovarian Immature Teratoma; Ovarian Mature Teratoma; Ovarian Monodermal and Highly Specialized Teratoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Extragonadal Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Extragonadal Seminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage III Extragonadal Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Extragonadal Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage IV Melanoma; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Rectal Cancer; Testicular Immature Teratoma; Testicular Mature Teratoma

  17. Discovery and Development of Inhibitors that Selectively Interfere with Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Substrate Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    form sult suggests that loss of a replication initiation pro- pre-RCs (10). Elevated activity of CDK2 at GjS promotes tein prevents progression of...tested whether apoptosis is induced in G1 phase Sphase the ORC2-depleted cells when the CDK2 inhibition is abro- B Cycin E-CDK2 gated . Poly(ADP...S. K., Yoshida, K., Machida, Y., Khaira, P., Chaudhuri, B., Wohlschlegel, J. A., Leffak, M., Yates , J., and Dutta, A. (2001) Cell 106, 287-296 ORG

  18. Essential Role of Cyclin-G–associated Kinase (Auxilin-2) in Developing and Mature Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-won; Zhao, Xiaohong; Yim, Yang-In; Eisenberg, Evan

    2008-01-01

    Hsc70 with its cochaperone, either auxilin or GAK, not only uncoats clathrin-coated vesicles but also acts as a chaperone during clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, because synaptojanin is also involved in uncoating, it is not clear whether GAK is an essential gene. To answer this question, GAK conditional knockout mice were generated and then mated to mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the nestin, albumin, or keratin-14 promoters, all of which turn on during embryonic development. Deletion of GAK from brain, liver, or skin dramatically altered the histology of these tissues, causing the mice to die shortly after birth. Furthermore, by expressing a tamoxifen-inducible promoter to express Cre recombinase we showed that deletion of GAK caused lethality in adult mice. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts in which the GAK was disrupted showed a lack of clathrin-coated pits and a complete block in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that GAK deletion blocks development and causes lethality in adult animals by disrupting clathrin-mediated endocytosis. PMID:18434600

  19. Ancestral resurrection reveals evolutionary mechanisms of kinase plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Conor J; Hanson-Smith, Victor; Kennedy, Kristopher J; Miller, Chad J; Lou, Hua Jane; Johnson, Alexander D; Turk, Benjamin E; Holt, Liam J

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases have evolved diverse specificities to enable cellular information processing. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying kinase diversification, we studied the CMGC protein kinases using ancestral reconstruction. Within this group, the cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) require proline at the +1 position of their substrates, while Ime2 prefers arginine. The resurrected common ancestor of CDKs, MAPKs, and Ime2 could phosphorylate substrates with +1 proline or arginine, with preference for proline. This specificity changed to a strong preference for +1 arginine in the lineage leading to Ime2 via an intermediate with equal specificity for proline and arginine. Mutant analysis revealed that a variable residue within the kinase catalytic cleft, DFGx, modulates +1 specificity. Expansion of Ime2 kinase specificity by mutation of this residue did not cause dominant deleterious effects in vivo. Tolerance of cells to new specificities likely enabled the evolutionary divergence of kinases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04126.001 PMID:25310241

  20. The specificities of protein kinase inhibitors: an update.

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Jenny; McLauchlan, Hilary; Elliott, Matthew; Cohen, Philip

    2003-01-01

    We have previously examined the specificities of 28 commercially available compounds, reported to be relatively selective inhibitors of particular serine/threonine-specific protein kinases [Davies, Reddy, Caivano and Cohen (2000) Biochem. J. 351, 95-105]. In the present study, we have extended this analysis to a further 14 compounds. Of these, indirubin-3'-monoxime, SP 600125, KT 5823 and ML-9 were found to inhibit a number of protein kinases and conclusions drawn from their use in cell-based assays are likely to be erroneous. Kenpaullone, Alsterpaullone, Purvalanol, Roscovitine, pyrazolopyrimidine 1 (PP1), PP2 and ML-7 were more specific, but still inhibited two or more protein kinases with similar potency. Our results suggest that the combined use of Roscovitine and Kenpaullone may be useful for identifying substrates and physiological roles of cyclin-dependent protein kinases, whereas the combined use of Kenpaullone and LiCl may be useful for identifying substrates and physiological roles of glycogen synthase kinase 3. The combined use of SU 6656 and either PP1 or PP2 may be useful for identifying substrates of Src family members. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate, one of the main polyphenolic constituents of tea, inhibited two of the 28 protein kinases in the panel, dual-specificity, tyrosine-phosphorylated and regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A; IC(50)=0.33 microM) and p38-regulated/activated kinase (PRAK; IC(50)=1.0 microM). PMID:12534346

  1. The c-mos proto-oncogene protein kinase turns on and maintains the activity of MAP kinase, but not MPF, in cell-free extracts of Xenopus oocytes and eggs.

    PubMed Central

    Nebreda, A R; Hunt, T

    1993-01-01

    During studies of the activation and inactivation of the cyclin B-p34cdc2 protein kinase (MPF) in cell-free extracts of Xenopus oocytes and eggs, we found that a bacterially expressed fusion protein between the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein and the Xenopus c-mos protein kinase (malE-mos) activated a 42 kDa MAP kinase. The activation of MAP kinase on addition of malE-mos was consistent, whereas the activation of MPF was variable and failed to occur in some oocyte extracts in which cyclin A or okadaic acid activated both MPF and MAP kinase. In cases when MPF activation was transient, MAP kinase activity declined after MPF activity was lost, and MAP kinase, but not MPF, could be maintained at a high level by the presence of malE-mos. When intact oocytes were treated with progesterone, however, the activation of MPF and MAP kinase occurred simultaneously, in contrast to the behaviour of extracts. These observations suggest that one role of c-mos may be to maintain high MAP kinase activity in meiosis. They also imply that the activation of MPF and MAP kinase in vivo are synchronous events that normally rely on an agent that has still to be identified. Images PMID:8387916

  2. Oncoprotein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2001-02-27

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  3. The regulation of cyclin D1 degradation: roles in cancer development and the potential for therapeutic invention

    PubMed Central

    Alao, John P

    2007-01-01

    Cyclin D1 is an important regulator of cell cycle progression and can function as a transcriptionl co-regulator. The overexpression of cyclin D1 has been linked to the development and progression of cancer. Deregulated cyclin D1 degradation appears to be responsible for the increased levels of cyclin D1 in several cancers. Recent findings have identified novel mechanisms involved in the regulation of cyclin D1 stability. A number of therapeutic agents have been shown to induce cyclin D1 degradation. The therapeutic ablation of cyclin D1 may be useful for the prevention and treatment of cancer. In this review, current knowledge on the regulation of cyclin D1 degradation is discussed. Novel insights into cyclin D1 degradation are also discussed in the context of ablative therapy. A number of unresolved questions regarding the regulation of cellular cyclin D1 levels are also addressed. PMID:17407548

  4. Polycomb protein SCML2 regulates the cell cycle by binding and modulating CDK/CYCLIN/p21 complexes.

    PubMed

    Lecona, Emilio; Rojas, Luis Alejandro; Bonasio, Roberto; Johnston, Andrew; Fernández-Capetillo, Oscar; Reinberg, Danny

    2013-12-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors of genes involved in development and differentiation, and also maintain repression of key genes involved in the cell cycle, indirectly regulating cell proliferation. The human SCML2 gene, a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila PcG protein SCM, encodes two protein isoforms: SCML2A that is bound to chromatin and SCML2B that is predominantly nucleoplasmic. Here, we purified SCML2B and found that it forms a stable complex with CDK/CYCLIN/p21 and p27, enhancing the inhibitory effect of p21/p27. SCML2B participates in the G1/S checkpoint by stabilizing p21 and favoring its interaction with CDK2/CYCE, resulting in decreased kinase activity and inhibited progression through G1. In turn, CDK/CYCLIN complexes phosphorylate SCML2, and the interaction of SCML2B with CDK2 is regulated through the cell cycle. These findings highlight a direct crosstalk between the Polycomb system of cellular memory and the cell-cycle machinery in mammals.

  5. Cyclin B2 and p53 control proper timing of centrosome separation

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyun-Ja; van Deursen, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclins Bl and B2 are frequently elevated in human cancers and are associated with tumour aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome; however, whether and how B-type cyclins drive tumorigenesis is unknown. Here we show that cyclin Bl and B2 transgenic mice are highly prone to tumours, including tumour types where B-type cyclins serve as prognosticators. Cyclins Bl and B2 both induce aneuploidy when overexpressed but through distinct mechanisms, with cyclin Bl inhibiting separase activation, leading to anaphase bridges, and cyclin B2 triggering aurora-A-mediated Plkl hyperactivation, resulting in accelerated centrosome separation and lagging chromosomes. Complementary experiments revealed that cyclin B2 and p53 act antagonistically to control aurora-A-mediated centrosome splitting and accurate chromosome segregation in normal cells. These data demonstrate a causative link between B-type cyclin overexpression and tumour pathophysiology, and uncover previously unknown functions of cyclin B2 and p53 in centrosome separation that may be perturbed in many human cancers. PMID:24776885

  6. Cyclin D1 represses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and inhibits fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Hanse, Eric A.; Mashek, Douglas G.; Mashek, Mara T.; Hendrickson, Anna M.; Mullany, Lisa K.; Albrecht, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin D1 is a cell cycle protein that promotes proliferation by mediating progression through key checkpoints in G1 phase. It is also a proto-oncogene that is commonly overexpressed in human cancers. In addition to its canonical role in controlling cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 affects other aspects of cell physiology, in part through transcriptional regulation. In this study, we find that cyclin D1 inhibits the activity of a key metabolic transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a member of nuclear receptor family that induces fatty acid oxidation and may play an anti-neoplastic role. In primary hepatocytes, cyclin D1 inhibits PPARα transcriptional activity and target gene expression in a cdk4-independent manner. In liver and breast cancer cells, knockdown of cyclin D1 leads to increased PPARα transcriptional activity, expression of PPARα target genes, and fatty acid oxidation. Similarly, cyclin D1 depletion enhances binding of PPARα to target sequences by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In proliferating hepatocytes and regenerating liver in vivo, induction of endogenous cyclin D1 is associated with diminished PPARα activity. Cyclin D1 expression is both necessary and sufficient for growth factor-mediated repression of fatty acid oxidation in proliferating hepatocytes. These studies indicate that in addition to playing a pivotal role in cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 represses PPARα activity and inhibits fatty acid oxidation. Our findings establish a new link between cyclin D1 and metabolism in both tumor cells and physiologic hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:27351284

  7. Cyclin D1 represses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and inhibits fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kamarajugadda, Sushama; Becker, Jennifer R; Hanse, Eric A; Mashek, Douglas G; Mashek, Mara T; Hendrickson, Anna M; Mullany, Lisa K; Albrecht, Jeffrey H

    2016-07-26

    Cyclin D1 is a cell cycle protein that promotes proliferation by mediating progression through key checkpoints in G1 phase. It is also a proto-oncogene that is commonly overexpressed in human cancers. In addition to its canonical role in controlling cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 affects other aspects of cell physiology, in part through transcriptional regulation. In this study, we find that cyclin D1 inhibits the activity of a key metabolic transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a member of nuclear receptor family that induces fatty acid oxidation and may play an anti-neoplastic role. In primary hepatocytes, cyclin D1 inhibits PPARα transcriptional activity and target gene expression in a cdk4-independent manner. In liver and breast cancer cells, knockdown of cyclin D1 leads to increased PPARα transcriptional activity, expression of PPARα target genes, and fatty acid oxidation. Similarly, cyclin D1 depletion enhances binding of PPARα to target sequences by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In proliferating hepatocytes and regenerating liver in vivo, induction of endogenous cyclin D1 is associated with diminished PPARα activity. Cyclin D1 expression is both necessary and sufficient for growth factor-mediated repression of fatty acid oxidation in proliferating hepatocytes. These studies indicate that in addition to playing a pivotal role in cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 represses PPARα activity and inhibits fatty acid oxidation. Our findings establish a new link between cyclin D1 and metabolism in both tumor cells and physiologic hepatocyte proliferation.

  8. Distinct proliferative and transcriptional effects of the D-type cyclins in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Lisa K; White, Peter; Hanse, Eric A; Nelsen, Christopher J; Goggin, Melissa M; Mullany, Joseph E; Anttila, Chelsea K; Greenbaum, Linda E; Kaestner, Klaus H; Albrecht, Jeffrey H

    2008-07-15

    The D-type cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) are components of the cell cycle machinery and govern progression through G(1) phase in response to extracellular signals. Although these proteins are highly homologous and conserved in evolution, they contain distinct structural motifs and are differentially regulated in various cell types. Cyclin D1 appears to play a role in many different types of cancer, whereas cyclins D2 and D3 are less frequently associated with malignancy. In this study, we transiently expressed cyclin D1, D2 or D3 in hepatocytes and analyzed transcriptional networks regulated by each. All three D-type cyclins promoted robust hepatocyte proliferation and marked liver growth, although cyclin D3 stimulated less DNA synthesis than D1 or D2. Accordingly, the three D-type cyclins similarly activated genes associated with cell division. Cyclin D1 regulated transcriptional pathways involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and other substrates, whereas cyclin D2 did not regulate these pathways despite having an equivalent effect on proliferation. Comparison of transcriptional profiles following 70% partial hepatectomy and cyclin D1 transduction revealed a highly significant overlap, suggesting that cyclin D1 may regulate diverse cellular processes in the regenerating liver. In summary, these studies provide the first comparative analysis of the transcriptional networks regulated by the D-type cyclins and provide insight into novel functions of these key cell cycle proteins. Further study of the unique targets of cyclin D1 should provide further insight into its prominent role in proliferation, growth and cancer.

  9. Regulation of cyclin A localization downstream of Par-1 function is critical for the centrosome orientation checkpoint in Drosophila male germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hebao; Chiang, C-Y Ason; Cheng, Jun; Salzmann, Viktoria; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2012-01-01

    Male germline stem cells (GSCs) in Drosophila melanogaster divide asymmetrically by orienting the mitotic spindle with respect to the niche, a microenvironment that specifies stem cell identity. The spindle orientation is prepared during interphase through stereotypical positioning of the centrosomes. We recently demonstrated that GSCs possess a checkpoint ("the centrosome orientation checkpoint") that monitors correct centrosome orientation prior to mitosis to ensure an oriented spindle and thus asymmetric outcome of the division. Here, we show that Par-1, a serine/threonine kinase that regulates polarity in many systems, is involved in this checkpoint. Par-1 shows a cell cycle-dependent localization to the spectrosome, a germline-specific, endoplasmic reticulum-like organelle. Furthermore, the localization of cyclin A, which is normally localized to the spectrosome, is perturbed in par-1 mutant GSCs. Interestingly, overexpression of mutant cyclin A that does not localize to the spectrosome and mutation in hts, a core component of the spectrosome, both lead to defects in the centrosome orientation checkpoint. We propose that the regulation of cyclin A localization via Par-1 function plays a critical role in the centrosome orientation checkpoint.

  10. G2 cell cycle arrest, down-regulation of cyclin B, and induction of mitotic catastrophe by the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Robin M

    2004-10-01

    Because proliferation of eukaryotic cells requires cell cycle-regulated chromatid separation by the mitotic spindle, it is subject to regulation by mitotic checkpoints. To determine the mechanism of the antiproliferative activity of the flavoprotein-specific inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), I have examined its effect on the cell cycle and mitosis. Similar to paclitaxel, exposure to DPI causes an accumulation of cells with a 4N DNA content. However, unlike the paclitaxel-mediated mitotic block, DPI-treated cells are arrested in the cell cycle prior to mitosis. Although DPI-treated cells can arrest with fully separated centrosomes at opposite sides of the nucleus, these centrosomes fail to assemble mitotic spindle microtubules and they do not accumulate the Thr(288) phosphorylated Aurora-A kinase marker of centrosome maturation. In contrast with paclitaxel-arrested cells, DPI impairs cyclin B1 accumulation. Release from DPI permits an accumulation of cyclin B1 and progression of the cells into mitosis. Conversely, exposure of paclitaxel-arrested mitotic cells to DPI causes a precipitous drop in cyclin B and Thr(288) phosphorylated Aurora-A levels and leads to mitotic catastrophe in a range of cancerous and noncancerous cells. Hence, the antiproliferative activity of DPI reflects a novel inhibitory mechanism of cell cycle progression that can reverse spindle checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of tetraploid cells identifies cyclin D2 as a facilitator of adaptation to genome doubling in the presence of p53

    PubMed Central

    Potapova, Tamara A.; Seidel, Christopher W.; Box, Andrew C.; Rancati, Giulia; Li, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Tetraploidization, or genome doubling, is a prominent event in tumorigenesis, primarily because cell division in polyploid cells is error-prone and produces aneuploid cells. This study investigates changes in gene expression evoked in acute and adapted tetraploid cells and their effect on cell-cycle progression. Acute polyploidy was generated by knockdown of the essential regulator of cytokinesis anillin, which resulted in cytokinesis failure and formation of binucleate cells, or by chemical inhibition of Aurora kinases, causing abnormal mitotic exit with formation of single cells with aberrant nuclear morphology. Transcriptome analysis of these acute tetraploid cells revealed common signatures of activation of the tumor-suppressor protein p53. Suppression of proliferation in these cells was dependent on p53 and its transcriptional target, CDK inhibitor p21. Rare proliferating tetraploid cells can emerge from acute polyploid populations. Gene expression analysis of single cell–derived, adapted tetraploid clones showed up-regulation of several p53 target genes and cyclin D2, the activator of CDK4/6/2. Overexpression of cyclin D2 in diploid cells strongly potentiated the ability to proliferate with increased DNA content despite the presence of functional p53. These results indicate that p53-mediated suppression of proliferation of polyploid cells can be averted by increased levels of oncogenes such as cyclin D2, elucidating a possible route for tetraploidy-mediated genomic instability in carcinogenesis. PMID:27559130

  12. Preclinical Activity of Simvastatin Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in G1 via Blockade of Cyclin D-Cdk4 Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yu-Wei; Chang, Chi-Chang; Hung, Chao-Ming; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Huang, Tzuu-Yuan; Hsu, Yi-Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death. Nonetheless, a decrease in overall incidence and mortality has been observed in the last 30 years due to prevention strategies and improvements in the use of chemotherapeutic agents. In recent studies, Simvastatin (SIM) has demonstrated anti-tumor activity, as well as potent chemopreventive action. As an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA), SIM has been shown to stimulate apoptotic cell death. In this study, an MTT assay revealed the cytotoxic activity of SIM against human large cell lung cancer (Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC) cells (NCI-H460); however, induced apoptosis was not observed in NCI-H460 cells. Protein expression levels of cell cycle regulating proteins Cdk4, Cyclin D1, p16 and p27 were markedly altered by SIM. Collectively, our results indicate that SIM inhibits cell proliferation and arrests NCI-H460 cell cycle progression via inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclins and the enhancement of CDK inhibitors p16 and p27. Our findings suggest that, in addition to the known effects on hypercholesterolemia therapy, SIM may also provide antitumor activity in established NSCLC. PMID:23481641

  13. Knockdown of ILK inhibits glioma development via upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kebin; Wang, Guangyi; Li, Chunhui; Shan, Xiaosong; Liu, Haipeng

    2015-07-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a highly conserved serine-threonine protein kinase that interacts with cytoplasmic domains of integrin subunits in tumor tissues. However, the relationship between gliomas and ILK is elusive. The present study aimed to investigate the role of ILK in a human glioma cell line (U251). ILK stable expressing vector, U251ILK-PGFP-V-RS-shRNA, was established and named as U251-si. The empty-PGFP-V-RS-shRNA (U251-N) was employed as the control. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis were used to detect ILK and E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Cell cycle analysis was employed to examine the cell cycle distribution. Cell migration was detected using a wound healing assay, and cell invasion was detected using a Transwell invasion assay. Tumor size and weight were also examined. The results indicated that ILK was expressed at a lower level at both the mRNA and protein levels in the U251-si group compared with the U251-N group (p<0.01). ILK knockdown suppressed cell proliferation of the glioma cells. Knockdown of ILK reduced the migratory and invasive potentials of the glioma cells. Inhibition of ILK expression upregulated E-cadherin and downregulated cyclin D1 in the glioma cells compared to the U251-N group (p<0.05). Knockdown of ILK in the U251 cells attenuated the ability of U251 cells to form tumors in nude mice and impaired glioma cell in vivo tumorigenicity. In conclusion, knockdown of ILK inhibits glioma cell migration, invasion and proliferation through upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of cyclin D1. Our results suggest that ILK may serve as a promising therapeutic target for glioma.

  14. Cell cycle-regulatory cyclins and their deregulation in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rajakishore

    2013-06-01

    Oral cancer is a growth-related disorder, and cyclins are the prime regulators of cell division. Cyclins are associated with the pathogenesis of oral cancer and are considered valuable biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis. These important molecules are regulated in many ways to achieve a gain in function and are involved in promoting neoplastic growth. While the causes of most cyclin overexpression are varied, these cyclins may be induced by buccal mucosal insult mainly with carcinogens that alter various pathways propelling oral cancer. Substantial experimental evidences support a link between oncogenic signaling pathways and the deregulation of cyclins in oral cancer. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which cyclins are regulated and promote oral oncogenesis.

  15. Foci of cyclin A2 interact with actin and RhoA in mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Loukil, Abdelhalim; Izard, Fanny; Georgieva, Mariya; Mashayekhan, Shaereh; Blanchard, Jean-Marie; Parmeggiani, Andrea; Peter, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin A2 is a key player in the regulation of the cell cycle. Its degradation in mid-mitosis depends primarily on the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), while autophagy also contributes. However, a fraction of cyclin A2 persists beyond metaphase. In this work, we focus on cyclin A2-rich foci detected in mitosis by high resolution imaging and analyse their movements. We demonstrate that cyclin A2 interacts with actin and RhoA during mitosis, and that cyclin A2 depletion induces a dramatic decrease in active RhoA in mitosis. Our data suggest cyclin A2 participation in RhoA activation in late mitosis. PMID:27279564

  16. Transcriptional role of cyclin D1 in development revealed by a “genetic-proteomic” screen

    PubMed Central

    Bienvenu, Frédéric; Jirawatnotai, Siwanon; Elias, Joshua E.; Meyer, Clifford A.; Mizeracka, Karolina; Marson, Alexander; Frampton, Garrett M.; Cole, Megan F.; Odom, Duncan T.; Odajima, Junko; Geng, Yan; Zagozdzon, Agnieszka; Jecrois, Marie; Young, Richard A.; Liu, X. Shirley; Cepko, Constance L.; Gygi, Steven P.; Sicinski, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Cyclin D1 belongs to the core cell cycle machinery, and it is frequently overexpressed in human cancers1,2. The full repertoire of cyclin D1 functions in normal development and in oncogenesis is currently unclear. Here we developed FLAG- and HA-tagged cyclin D1 knock-in mouse strains that allowed high-throughput mass spectrometry approach to search for cyclin D1-binding proteins in different mouse organs. In addition to cell cycle partners, we observed several proteins involved in transcription. Genome-wide location (ChIP-chip) analyses revealed that during mouse development cyclin D1 occupies promoters of abundantly expressed genes. In particular, we found that in developing mouse retinas – an organ that critically requires cyclin D1 function3,4 – cyclin D1 binds the upstream regulatory region of the Notch1 gene where it serves to recruit CBP histone acetyltransferase. Genetic ablation of cyclin D1 resulted in decreased CBP recruitment, decreased histone acetylation of the Notch1 promoter region, and led to decreased levels of the Notch transcript and protein in cyclin D1-null retinas. Transduction of an activated allele of Notch1 into cyclin D1−/− retinas increased proliferation of retinal progenitor cells, indicating that upregulating Notch1 signaling alleviates the phenotype of cyclin D1-deficiency. These studies reveal that in addition to its well-established cell cycle roles, cyclin D1 plays an in vivo transcriptional function in mouse development. Our approach, which we term “genetic-proteomic” can be used to study the in vivo function of essentially any protein. PMID:20090754

  17. The Role of Cyclin D1 in Altering Stromal-Epithelial Interactions in Prostate Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    adenocarcinomas. One study of cyclin D1 expression in esophageal carcinomas indicated that cyclin D1 is strongly expressed in stromal fibroblasts. In this study...proliferate faster than controls in vivo in our tissue recombination model. Although cyclin D1 can increase BPH-1 cell motility and promote cell...Alarid ET, Turner T, Donjacour AA, Boutin EL, Foster BA. Normal and abnormal development of the male urogenital tract: role of androgens, mesenchymal

  18. Structure and inhibitor specificity of the PCTAIRE-family kinase CDK16

    PubMed Central

    Dixon-Clarke, Sarah E.; Shehata, Saifeldin N.; Krojer, Tobias; Sharpe, Timothy D.; vonDelft, Frank; Sakamoto, Kei

    2017-01-01

    CDK16 (also known as PCTAIRE1 or PCTK1) is an atypical member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family that has emerged as a key regulator of neurite outgrowth, vesicle trafficking and cancer cell proliferation. CDK16 is activated through binding to cyclin Y via a phosphorylation-dependent 14-3-3 interaction and has a unique consensus substrate phosphorylation motif compared with conventional CDKs. To elucidate the structure and inhibitor-binding properties of this atypical CDK, we screened the CDK16 kinase domain against different inhibitor libraries and determined the co-structures of identified hits. We discovered that the ATP-binding pocket of CDK16 can accommodate both type I and type II kinase inhibitors. The most potent CDK16 inhibitors revealed by cell-free and cell-based assays were the multitargeted cancer drugs dabrafenib and rebastinib. An inactive DFG-out binding conformation was confirmed by the first crystal structures of CDK16 in separate complexes with the inhibitors indirubin E804 and rebastinib, respectively. The structures revealed considerable conformational plasticity, suggesting that the isolated CDK16 kinase domain was relatively unstable in the absence of a cyclin partner. The unusual structural features and chemical scaffolds identified here hold promise for the development of more selective CDK16 inhibitors and provide opportunity to better characterise the role of CDK16 and its related CDK family members in various physiological and pathological contexts. PMID:28057719

  19. Structure and inhibitor specificity of the PCTAIRE-family kinase CDK16.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Clarke, Sarah E; Shehata, Saifeldin N; Krojer, Tobias; Sharpe, Timothy D; von Delft, Frank; Sakamoto, Kei; Bullock, Alex N

    2017-02-20

    CDK16 (also known as PCTAIRE1 or PCTK1) is an atypical member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family that has emerged as a key regulator of neurite outgrowth, vesicle trafficking and cancer cell proliferation. CDK16 is activated through binding to cyclin Y via a phosphorylation-dependent 14-3-3 interaction and has a unique consensus substrate phosphorylation motif compared with conventional CDKs. To elucidate the structure and inhibitor-binding properties of this atypical CDK, we screened the CDK16 kinase domain against different inhibitor libraries and determined the co-structures of identified hits. We discovered that the ATP-binding pocket of CDK16 can accommodate both type I and type II kinase inhibitors. The most potent CDK16 inhibitors revealed by cell-free and cell-based assays were the multitargeted cancer drugs dabrafenib and rebastinib. An inactive DFG-out binding conformation was confirmed by the first crystal structures of CDK16 in separate complexes with the inhibitors indirubin E804 and rebastinib, respectively. The structures revealed considerable conformational plasticity, suggesting that the isolated CDK16 kinase domain was relatively unstable in the absence of a cyclin partner. The unusual structural features and chemical scaffolds identified here hold promise for the development of more selective CDK16 inhibitors and provide opportunity to better characterise the role of CDK16 and its related CDK family members in various physiological and pathological contexts.

  20. Cyclin D2 is an FSH-responsive gene involved in gonadal cell proliferation and oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sicinski, P; Donaher, J L; Geng, Y; Parker, S B; Gardner, H; Park, M Y; Robker, R L; Richards, J S; McGinnis, L K; Biggers, J D; Eppig, J J; Bronson, R T; Elledge, S J; Weinberg, R A

    1996-12-05

    THE D-type cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) are critical governors of the cell-cycle clock apparatus during the G1 phase of the mammalian cell cycle. These three D-type cyclins are expressed in overlapping, apparently redundant fashion in the proliferating tissues. To investigate why mammalian cells need three distinct D-type cyclins, we have generated mice bearing a disrupted cyclin D2 gene by using gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. Cyclin D2-deficient females are sterile owing to the inability of ovarian granulosa cells to proliferate normally in response to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), whereas mutant males display hypoplastic testes. In ovarian granulosa cells, cyclin D2 is specifically induced by FSH via a cyclic-AMP-dependent pathway, indicating that expression of the various D-type cyclins is under control of distinct intracellular signalling pathways. The hypoplasia seen in cyclin D2(-/-) ovaries and testes prompted us to examine human cancers deriving from corresponding tissues. We find that some human ovarian and testicular tumours contain high levels of cyclin D2 messenger RNA.

  1. Dual activators of Protein Kinase R (PKR) and Protein Kinase R Like Kinase (PERK) Identify Common and Divergent Catalytic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Jie; Sun, Hong; Cao, Peng; Fusco, Dahlene N.; Chung, Raymond T.; Chorev, Michael; Jin, Qi; Aktas, Bertal H.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical genetics has evolved into a powerful tool for studying gene function in normal- and patho-biology. PKR and PERK, two eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) kinases, play critical roles in maintenance of cellular hemostasis, metabolic stability, and anti-viral defenses. Both kinases interact with and phosphorylate additional substrates including tumor suppressor p53 and nuclear protein 90. Loss of function of both kinases has been studied by reverse genetics and recently identified inhibitors. In contrast, activating probes for studying the role of catalytic activity of these kinases are not available. We identified a 3-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)-5,7-dihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one (DHBDC) as specific dual activator of PKR and PERK by screening a chemical library of 20,000 small molecules in a dual luciferase surrogate eIF2α phosphorylation assay. We present here extensive biological characterization and preliminary structure-activity relationship of DHBDC, which phosphorylate eIF2α by activating PKR and PERK but no other eIF2α kinases. These agents also activate downstream effectors of eIF2α phosphorylation; inducing CHOP and suppressing cyclin D1 expression and inhibiting cancer cell proliferation, all in a manner dependent on PKR and PERK. Consistent with the role of eIF2α phosphorylation in viral infection, DHBDC inhibits proliferation of human hepatitis C virus. Finally, DHBDC induces phosphorylation of Ikβα, and activates NF-κB pathway. Surprisingly, activation of NF-κB pathway is dependent on PERK but independent of PKR activity. These data indicate that DHBDC is an invaluable probe for elucidating the role of PKR and PERK in normal- and patho-biology. PMID:23784735

  2. Expression of cyclin E in postmitotic neurons during development and in the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yayoi; Matsunaga, Yuko; Takiguchi, Masahito; Ikeda, Masa-Aki

    2011-01-01

    Cyclin E, a member of the G1 cyclins, is essential for the G1/S transition of the cell cycle in cultured cells, but its roles in vivo are not fully defined. The present study characterized the spatiotemporal expression profile of cyclin E in two representative brain regions in the mouse, the cerebral and cerebellar cortices. Western blotting showed that the levels of cyclin E increased towards adulthood. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed the distributions of cyclin E mRNA and protein were comparable in the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum. Immunohistochemistry for the proliferating cell marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) revealed that cyclin E was expressed by both proliferating and non-proliferating cells in the cerebral cortex at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and in the cerebellum at postnatal day 1 (P1). Subcellular localization in neurons was examined using immunofluorescence and western blotting. Cyclin E expression was nuclear in proliferating neuronal precursor cells but cytoplasmic in postmitotic neurons during embryonic development. Nuclear cyclin E expression in neurons remained faint in newborns, increased during postnatal development and was markedly decreased in adults. In various adult brain regions, cyclin E staining was more intense in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus in most neurons. These data suggest a role for cyclin E in the development and function of the mammalian central nervous system and that its subcellular localization in neurons is important. Our report presents the first detailed analysis of cyclin E expression in postmitotic neurons during development and in the adult mouse brain.

  3. Protein-protein interactions of tandem affinity purification-tagged protein kinases in rice.

    PubMed

    Rohila, Jai S; Chen, Mei; Chen, Shuo; Chen, Johann; Cerny, Ronald; Dardick, Chris; Canlas, Patrick; Xu, Xia; Gribskov, Michael; Kanrar, Siddhartha; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Ronald, Pamela; Fromm, Michael E

    2006-04-01

    Forty-one rice cDNAs encoding protein kinases were fused to the tandem affinity purification (TAP) tag and expressed in transgenic rice plants. The TAP-tagged kinases and interacting proteins were purified from the T1 progeny of the transgenic rice plants and identified by mass spectrometry. Ninety-five percent of the TAP-tagged kinases were recovered. Fifty-six percent of the TAP-tagged kinases were found to interact with other rice proteins. A number of these interactions were consistent with known protein complexes found in other species, validating the TAP-tag method in rice plants. Phosphorylation sites were identified on four of the kinases that interacted with either 14-3-3 proteins or cyclins.

  4. Regulation of cyclin D2 gene expression by the Myc/Max/Mad network: Myc-dependent TRRAP recruitment and histone acetylation at the cyclin D2 promoter

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Caroline; Dittrich, Oliver; Kiermaier, Astrid; Dohmann, Karen; Menkel, Annette; Eilers, Martin; Lüscher, Bernhard

    2001-01-01

    Myc oncoproteins promote cell cycle progression in part through the transcriptional up-regulation of the cyclin D2 gene. We now show that Myc is bound to the cyclin D2 promoter in vivo. Binding of Myc induces cyclin D2 expression and histone acetylation at a single nucleosome in a MycBoxII/TRRAP-dependent manner. Down-regulation of cyclin D2 mRNA expression in differentiating HL60 cells is preceded by a switch of promoter occupancy from Myc/Max to Mad/Max complexes, loss of TRRAP binding, increased HDAC1 binding, and histone deacetylation. Thus, recruitment of TRRAP and regulation of histone acetylation are critical for transcriptional activation by Myc. PMID:11511535

  5. Host-cell positive transcription elongation factor b kinase activity is essential and limiting for HIV type 1 replication.

    PubMed

    Flores, O; Lee, G; Kessler, J; Miller, M; Schlief, W; Tomassini, J; Hazuda, D

    1999-06-22

    HIV-1 gene expression and viral replication require the viral transactivator protein Tat. The RNA polymerase II transcriptional elongation factor P-TEFb (cyclin-dependent kinase 9/cyclin T) is a cellular protein kinase that has recently been shown to be a key component of the Tat-transactivation process. For this report, we studied the requirement for P-TEFb in HIV-1 infection, and we now show that P-TEFb is both essential and limiting for HIV-1 replication. Attenuation of P-TEFb kinase activity either by expression of a dominant-negative cyclin-dependent kinase 9 transgene or through the use of small-molecule inhibitors suppresses HIV-1 gene expression and HIV-1 replication. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication is affected in a manner consistent with a direct and specific effect on P-TEFb and the known functional role of P-TEFb in Tat-activated transcription. Tat-activated expression of HIV-1 genes seems uniquely dependent on P-TEFb, as inhibition of P-TEFb activity and HIV-1 replication can be achieved without compromising cell viability or RNA polymerase II-dependent cellular gene transcription. Selective inhibition of the P-TEFb kinase may therefore provide a novel approach for developing chemotherapeutic agents against HIV-1.

  6. Altered expression of the cyclin D1 and retinoblastoma genes in human esophageal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, W.; Zhang, Y.J.; Kahn, S.M.; Santella, R.M.; Weinstein, I.B. ); Hollstein, M.C.; Montesano, R. ); Harris, C.C. ); Lu, S.H. )

    1993-10-01

    The authors have examined DNA from four human esophageal carcinoma cell lines and 50 primary esophageal carcinomas obtained from China, Italy, and France for amplification of the cyclin D1 gene. They also examined 36 of these 50 carcinomas for expressions of the cyclin D1 and retinoblastoma (RB) proteins by immunohistochemistry. They found a 3- to 10-fold amplification of the cyclin D1 gene in 16 of the 50 (32%) tumors and in two of the four cell lines. Cyclin D1 protein was overexpressed in 12 of 13 tumors and the two cell lines that showed gene amplification when compared to normal controls. Studies on RB protein expression indicated that 6 of the 36 (17%) tumor samples examined and one cell line did not show detectable expression of this protein. The tumors and cell lines that had cyclin D1 gene amplification and overexpression exhibited normal levels of expression of RB protein. By contrast, the tumors and cell line that did not appear to express the RB protein did not show amplification of the cyclin D1 gene and expressed only low levels of the cyclin D1 protein (P = 0.03). These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of RB on cell cycle progression can be abrogated during tumor development either by loss of expression of the RB gene or by increased expression of the cyclin D1 gene. 46 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The cyclin A centrosomal localization sequence recruits MCM5 and Orc1 to regulate centrosome reduplication.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Rebecca L; Pascreau, Gaetan; Maller, James L

    2010-08-15

    Centrosomes are the major microtubule-organizing centers in animal cells and regulate formation of a bipolar mitotic spindle. Aberrant centrosome number causes chromosome mis-segregation, and has been implicated in genomic instability and tumor development. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for the DNA replication factors MCM5 and Orc1 in preventing centrosome reduplication. Cyclin A-Cdk2 localizes on centrosomes by means of a modular centrosomal localization sequence (CLS) that is distinct from that of cyclin E. Here, we show that cyclin A interacts with both MCM5 and Orc1 in a CLS-dependent but Cdk-independent manner. Although the MRAIL hydrophobic patch is contained within the cyclin A CLS, binding of both MCM5 and Orc1 to cyclin A does not require a wild-type hydrophobic patch. The same domain in MCM5 that mediates interaction with cyclin E also binds cyclin A, resulting in centrosomal localization of MCM5. Finally, unlike its function in DNA synthesis, MCM5-mediated inhibition of centrosome reduplication in S-phase-arrested CHO cells does not require binding to other MCM family members. These results suggest that cyclins E and A sequentially prevent centrosome reduplication throughout interphase by recruitment of DNA replication factors such as MCM5 and Orc1.

  8. E-type cyclins modulate telomere integrity in mammalian male meiosis.

    PubMed

    Manterola, Marcia; Sicinski, Piotr; Wolgemuth, Debra J

    2016-06-01

    We have shown that E-type cyclins are key regulators of mammalian male meiosis. Depletion of cyclin E2 reduced fertility in male mice due to meiotic defects, involving abnormal pairing and synapsis, unrepaired DNA, and loss of telomere structure. These defects were exacerbated by additional loss of cyclin E1, and complete absence of both E-type cyclins produces a meiotic catastrophe. Here, we investigated the involvement of E-type cyclins in maintaining telomere integrity in male meiosis. Spermatocytes lacking cyclin E2 and one E1 allele (E1+/-E2-/-) displayed a high rate of telomere abnormalities but can progress to pachytene and diplotene stages. We show that their telomeres exhibited an aberrant DNA damage repair response during pachynema and that the shelterin complex proteins TRF2 and RAP2 were significantly decreased in the proximal telomeres. Moreover, the insufficient level of these proteins correlated with an increase of γ-H2AX foci in the affected telomeres and resulted in telomere associations involving TRF1 and telomere detachment in later prophase-I stages. These results suggest that E-type cyclins are key modulators of telomere integrity during meiosis by, at least in part, maintaining the balance of shelterin complex proteins, and uncover a novel role of E-type cyclins in regulating chromosome structure during male meiosis.

  9. Cyclin F suppresses B-Myb activity to promote cell cycle checkpoint control.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ditte Kjærsgaard; Hoffmann, Saskia; Ahlskog, Johanna K; O'Hanlon, Karen; Quaas, Marianne; Larsen, Brian D; Rolland, Baptiste; Rösner, Heike I; Walter, David; Kousholt, Arne Nedergaard; Menzel, Tobias; Lees, Michael; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Rappsilber, Juri; Engeland, Kurt; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2015-01-05

    Cells respond to DNA damage by activating cell cycle checkpoints to delay proliferation and facilitate DNA repair. Here, to uncover new checkpoint regulators, we perform RNA interference screening targeting genes involved in ubiquitylation processes. We show that the F-box protein cyclin F plays an important role in checkpoint control following ionizing radiation. Cyclin F-depleted cells initiate checkpoint signalling after ionizing radiation, but fail to maintain G2 phase arrest and progress into mitosis prematurely. Importantly, cyclin F suppresses the B-Myb-driven transcriptional programme that promotes accumulation of crucial mitosis-promoting proteins. Cyclin F interacts with B-Myb via the cyclin box domain. This interaction is important to suppress cyclin A-mediated phosphorylation of B-Myb, a key step in B-Myb activation. In summary, we uncover a regulatory mechanism linking the F-box protein cyclin F with suppression of the B-Myb/cyclin A pathway to ensure a DNA damage-induced checkpoint response in G2.

  10. PKC iota promotes ovarian tumor progression through deregulation of cyclin E

    PubMed Central

    Nanos-Webb, Angela; Bui, Tuyen; Karakas, Cansu; Zhang, Dong; Carey, Jason P.W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Keyomarsi, Khandan

    2016-01-01

    The high frequency of relapse of epithelial ovarian tumors treated with standard chemotherapy has highlighted the necessity to identify targeted therapies that can improve patient outcomes. The dynamic relationship between Cyclin E and PKCiota frequent overexpression in high-grade ovarian tumors poses a novel pathway for therapeutic investigation. We hypothesized that a PI3K dependent signaling pathway activating PKCiota perpetuates cyclin E deregulation during ovarian tumorigenesis. We observed a positive correlation between PKCiota and cyclin E in a panel of 19 ovarian cancer cell lines. Modulation of cyclin E had no effect on PKCiota knockdown/overexpression however PKCiota differentially regulated cyclin E expression. In the serous ovarian cancer cells (IGROV, OVCAR-3), shPKCiota decreased proliferation, caused a G1 arrest, and significantly prolonged overall survival in xenograft mouse models. In vitro shPKCiota decreased the ability of IGROV cells to grow under anchorage independent conditions and form aberrant acini, which was dependent upon Ad-cyclin E or Ad-LMW-E expression. RPPA analysis of PKCiota wild-type, catalytic active, dominant negative protein isoforms strengthened the association between phospho-PKCiota levels and PI3K pathway activation. Inhibitors of PI3K coordinately decreased phospho-PKCiota and Cyclin E protein levels. In conclusion, we have identified a PI3K/PKCiota/Cyclin E signaling pathway as a therapeutic target during ovarian tumorigenesis. PMID:26279297

  11. Gene structure, expression, and DNA methylation characteristics of sea cucumber cyclin B gene during aestivation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Aijun; Chen, Muyan; Zhang, Xiumei; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-12-05

    The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is a good model for studying environmentally-induced aestivation by a marine invertebrate. One of the central requirements of aestivation is the repression of energy-expensive cellular processes such as cell cycle progression. The present study identified the gene structure of the cell cycle regulator, cyclin B, and detected the expression levels of this gene over three stages of the annual aestivation-arousal cycle. Furthermore, the DNA methylation characteristics of cyclin B were analyzed in non-aestivation and deep-aestivation stages of sea cucumbers. We found that the cyclin B promoter contains a CpG island, three CCAAT-boxes and three cell cycle gene homology regions (CHRs). Application of qRT-PCR analysis showed significant downregulation of cyclin B transcript levels during deep-aestivation in comparison with non-aestivation in both intestine and longitudinal muscle, and these returned to basal levels after arousal from aestivation. Methylation analysis of the cyclin B core promoter revealed that its methylation level showed significant differences between non-aestivation and deep-aestivation stages (p<0.05) and interestingly, a positive correlation between Cyclin B transcripts expression and methylation levels of the core promoter was also observed. Our findings suggest that cell cycle progression may be reversibly arrested during aestivation as indicated by the changes in cyclin B expression levels and we propose that DNA methylation is one of the regulatory mechanisms involved in cyclin B transcriptional variation.

  12. Cyclin F/FBXO1 Interacts with HIV-1 Viral Infectivity Factor (Vif) and Restricts Progeny Virion Infectivity by Ubiquitination and Proteasomal Degradation of Vif Protein through SCF(cyclin F) E3 Ligase Machinery.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Tracy; Chaudhary, Priyanka; Gupta, Kailash; Islam, Sehbanul; Ghosh, Payel; Santra, Manas Kumar; Mitra, Debashis

    2017-03-31

    Cyclin F protein, also known as FBXO1, is the largest among all cyclins and oscillates in the cell cycle like other cyclins. Apart from being a G2/M cyclin, cyclin F functions as the substrate-binding subunit of SCF(cyclin F) E3 ubiquitin ligase. In a gene expression analysis performed to identify novel gene modulations associated with cell cycle dysregulation during HIV-1 infection in CD4(+) T cells, we observed down-regulation of the cyclin F gene (CCNF). Later, using gene overexpression and knockdown studies, we identified cyclin F as negatively influencing HIV-1 viral infectivity without any significant impact on virus production. Subsequently, we found that cyclin F negatively regulates the expression of viral protein Vif (viral infectivity factor) at the protein level. We also identified a novel host-pathogen interaction between cyclin F and Vif protein in T cells during HIV-1 infection. Mutational analysis of a cyclin F-specific amino acid motif in the C-terminal region of Vif indicated rescue of the protein from cyclin F-mediated down-regulation. Subsequently, we showed that Vif is a novel substrate of the SCF(cyclin F) E3 ligase, where cyclin F mediates the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of Vif through physical interaction. Finally, we showed that cyclin F augments APOBEC3G expression through degradation of Vif to regulate infectivity of progeny virions. Taken together, our results demonstrate that cyclin F is a novel F-box protein that functions as an intrinsic cellular regulator of HIV-1 Vif and has a negative regulatory effect on the maintenance of viral infectivity by restoring APOBEC3G expression.

  13. Cyclin Y-mediated transcript profiling reveals several important functional pathways regulated by Cyclin Y in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hanna; Hong, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Mirang; Park, Mikyoung

    2017-01-01

    Cyclin Y (CCNY), which is a cyclin protein known to play a role in cell division, is unexpectedly and thus interestingly expressed in non-proliferating neuronal cells. There have been only a few studies reporting the neuronal functions of CCNY in synapse remodeling and hippocampal long-term potentiation. Therefore, we here provide global and comprehensive information on the putative functions of CCNY in biological and functional pathways in neuronal systems. We adopted high-throughput RNA-sequencing technology for analyzing transcriptomes regulated by CCNY and utilized bioinformatics for identifying putative molecules, biological processes, and functional pathways that are possibly connected to CCNY functions in hippocampal neuronal cells of rats. We revealed that several enriched annotation terms and pathways associated with CCNY expression within neurons, including apoptosis, learning or memory, synaptic plasticity, actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction and chemokine signaling pathway are targeted by CCNY. In addition, the mRNA levels of some genes enriched for those annotation terms and pathways or genes reported to be altered in Alzheimer’s disease mouse model were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR in hippocampal neuronal cells. The present study provides an excellent resource for future investigations of CCNY functions in neuronal systems. PMID:28241067

  14. Identification of a novel cyclin required for the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Roig, M B; Roset, R; Ortet, L; Balsiger, N A; Anfosso, A; Cabellos, L; Garrido, M; Alameda, F; Brady, H J M; Gil-Gómez, G

    2009-02-01

    We have identified an early step common to pathways activated by different forms of intrinsic apoptosis stimuli. It requires de novo synthesis of a novel cyclin, cyclin O, that forms active complexes primarily with Cdk2 upon apoptosis induction in lymphoid cells. Cyclin O expression precedes glucocorticoid and gamma-radiation-induced apoptosis in vivo in mouse thymus and spleen, and its overexpression induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in cultured cells. Knocking down the endogenous expression of cyclin O by shRNA leads to the inhibition of glucocorticoid and DNA damage-induced apoptosis due to a failure in the activation of apical caspases while leaving CD95 death receptor-mediated apoptosis intact. Our data demonstrate that apoptosis induction in lymphoid cells is one of the physiological roles of cyclin O and it does not act by perturbing a normal cellular process such as the cell cycle, the DNA damage checkpoints or transcriptional response to glucocorticoids.

  15. Modulation of Neuronal Survival Factor MEF2 by Kinases in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yue; She, Hua; Li, Wenming; Yang, Qian; Guo, Shuzhong; Mao, Zixu

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder due to selective death of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The cause of cell death remains largely unknown. Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) is a group of transcriptional factors required to regulate neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, as well as survival. Recent studies show that MEF2 functions are regulated in multiple subcellular organelles and suggest that dysregulation of MEF2 plays essential roles in the pathogenesis of PD. Many kinases associated with transcription, translation, protein misfolding, autophagy, and cellular energy homeostasis are involved in the neurodegenerative process. Following the first demonstration that mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (p38 MAPK) directly phosphorylates and activates MEF2 to promote neuronal survival, several other kinase regulators of MEF2s have been identified. These include protein kinase A and extracellular signal regulated kinase 5 as positive MEF2 regulators, and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β as negative regulators in response to diverse toxic signals relevant to PD. It is clear that MEF2 has emerged as a key point where survival and death signals converge to exert their regulatory effects, and dysregulation of MEF2 function in multiple subcellular organelles may underlie PD pathogenesis. Moreover, several other kinases such as leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are of particular interest due to their potential interaction with MEF2. PMID:22661957

  16. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibits EGF-induced cell transformation via reduction of cyclin D1 mRNA stability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jingjie; Ouyang, Weiming; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Yu, Yonghui; Wang, York; Li, Xuejun; Huang, Chuanshu

    2012-09-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibiting cancer cell growth has been associated with its downregulation of cyclin D1 protein expression at transcription level or translation level. Here, we have demonstrated that SAHA inhibited EGF-induced Cl41 cell transformation via the decrease of cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. We found that SAHA treatment resulted in the dramatic inhibition of EGF-induced cell transformation, cyclin D1 protein expression and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. Further studies showed that SAHA downregulation of cyclin D1 was only observed with endogenous cyclin D1, but not with reconstitutionally expressed cyclin D1 in the same cells, excluding the possibility of SAHA regulating cyclin D1 at level of protein degradation. Moreover, SAHA inhibited EGF-induced cyclin d1 mRNA level, whereas it did not show any inhibitory effect on cyclin D1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter activity under the same experimental conditions, suggesting that SAHA may decrease cyclin D1 mRNA stability. This notion was supported by the results that treatment of cells with SAHA decreased the half-life of cyclin D1 mRNA from 6.95 h to 2.57 h. Consistent with downregulation of cyclin D1 mRNA stability, SAHA treatment also attenuated HuR expression, which has been well-characterized as a positive regulator of cyclin D1 mRNA stability. Thus, our study identifies a novel mechanism responsible for SAHA inhibiting cell transformation via decreasing cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest in Cl41 cells. -- Highlights: ► SAHA inhibits cell transformation in Cl41 cells. ► SAHA suppresses Cyclin D1 protein expression. ► SAHA decreases cyclin D1 mRNA stability.

  17. Dependence of Mos-induced Cdc2 activation on MAP kinase function in a cell-free system.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C Y; Ferrell, J E

    1996-01-01

    The progression of G2-arrested Xenopus laevis oocytes into meiotic M-phase is accompanied by the nearly simultaneous activation of p42 MAP kinase and Cdc2/cyclin B. This timing raises the possibility that the activation of one kinase might depend upon the other. Here we have examined whether Cdc2 activation requires p42 MAP kinase function. We have reconstituted Mos-induced Cdc2 activation in cell-free Xenopus oocyte extracts, and have found that Mos-induced Cdc2 activation requires active p42 MAP kinase, is inhibited by a MAP kinase phosphatase and is independent of protein synthesis. These findings indicate that p42 MAP kinase is an essential component of the M phase trigger in this system. Images PMID:8641282

  18. Polo kinase regulates the localization and activity of the chromosomal passenger complex in meiosis and mitosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carmena, Mar; Lombardia, Miguel Ortiz; Ogawa, Hiromi; Earnshaw, William C

    2014-11-01

    Cell cycle progression is regulated by members of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), Polo and Aurora families of protein kinases. The levels of expression and localization of the key regulatory kinases are themselves subject to very tight control. There is increasing evidence that crosstalk between the mitotic kinases provides for an additional level of regulation. We have previously shown that Aurora B activates Polo kinase at the centromere in mitosis, and that the interaction between Polo and the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) component INCENP is essential in this activation. In this report, we show that Polo kinase is required for the correct localization and activity of the CPC in meiosis and mitosis. Study of the phenotype of different polo allele combinations compared to the effect of chemical inhibition revealed significant differences in the localization and activity of the CPC in diploid tissues. Our results shed new light on the mechanisms that control the activity of Aurora B in meiosis and mitosis.

  19. Rictor regulates FBXW7-dependent c-Myc and cyclin E degradation in colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zheng; Zhou, Yuning; Evers, B. Mark; Wang, Qingding

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rictor associates with FBXW7 to form an E3 complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of rictor decreases ubiquitination of c-Myc and cylin E. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of rictor increases protein levels of c-Myc and cylin E. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of rictor induces the degradation of c-Myc and cyclin E proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rictor regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E requires FBXW7. -- Abstract: Rictor (Rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR) forms a complex with mTOR and phosphorylates and activates Akt. Activation of Akt induces expression of c-Myc and cyclin E, which are overexpressed in colorectal cancer and play an important role in colorectal cancer cell proliferation. Here, we show that rictor associates with FBXW7 to form an E3 complex participating in the regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E degradation. The Rictor-FBXW7 complex is biochemically distinct from the previously reported mTORC2 and can be immunoprecipitated independently of mTORC2. Moreover, knocking down of rictor in serum-deprived colorectal cancer cells results in the decreased ubiquitination and increased protein levels of c-Myc and cyclin E while overexpression of rictor induces the degradation of c-Myc and cyclin E proteins. Genetic knockout of FBXW7 blunts the effects of rictor, suggesting that rictor regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E requires FBXW7. Our findings identify rictor as an important component of FBXW7 E3 ligase complex participating in the regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E protein ubiquitination and degradation. Importantly, our results suggest that elevated growth factor signaling may contribute to decrease rictor/FBXW7-mediated ubiquitination of c-Myc and cyclin E, thus leading to accumulation of cyclin E and c-Myc in colorectal cancer cells.

  20. The activity and stability of the intrinsically disordered Cip/Kip protein family are regulated by non-receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Steve; Lelli, Moreno; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    The Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors includes p21Cip1, p27Kip1 and p57Kip2. Their kinase inhibitory activities are mediated by a homologous N-terminal kinase-inhibitory domain (KID). The Cdk inhibitory activity and stability of p27 have been shown to be regulated by a two-step phosphorylation mechanism involving a tyrosine residue within the KID and a threonine residue within the flexible C-terminus. We show that these residues are conserved in p21 and p57, suggesting that a similar phosphorylation cascade regulates these Cdk inhibitors. However, the presence of a cyclin binding motif within its C-terminus alters the regulatory interplay between p21 and Cdk2/cyclin A, and its responses to tyrosine phosphorylation and altered p21:Cdk2/cyclin A stoichiometry. We also show that the Cip/Kip proteins can be phosphorylated in vitro by representatives of many non-receptor tyrosine kinase (NRTK) sub-families, suggesting that NRTKs may generally regulate the activity and stability of these Cdk inhibitors. Our results further suggest that the Cip/Kip proteins integrate signals from various NRTK pathways and cell cycle regulation. PMID:25463440