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Sample records for cylindrical hall-effect thruster

  1. Performance of a Permanent-Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K. A.; Sooby, E. S.; Kimberlin, A. C.; Raites, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster, which more readily lends itself to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, was measured using a planar plasma probe and a thrust stand. The field in the cylindrical thruster was produced using permanent magnets, promising a power reduction over previous cylindrical thruster iterations that employed electromagnets to generate the required magnetic field topology. Two sets of ring-shaped permanent magnets are used, and two different field configurations can be produced by reorienting the poles of one magnet relative to the other. A plasma probe measuring ion flux in the plume is used to estimate the current utilization for the two magnetic topologies. The measurements indicate that electron transport is impeded much more effectively in one configuration, implying higher thrust efficiency. Thruster performance measurements on this configuration were obtained over a power range of 70-350 W and with the cathode orifice located at three different axial positions relative to the thruster exit plane. The thrust levels over this power range were 1.25-6.5 mN, with anode efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 4-21% and 400-1950 s, respectively. The anode efficiency of the permanent-magnet thruster compares favorable with the efficiency of the electromagnet thruster when the power consumed by the electromagnets is taken into account.

  2. Comparisons in Performance of Electromagnet and Permanent-Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K. A.; Raitses, Y.; Gayoso, J. C.; Fisch, N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Three different low-power cylindrical Hall thrusters, which more readily lend themselves to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, are compared to evaluate the propulsive performance of each. One thruster uses electromagnet coils to produce the magnetic field within the discharge channel while the others use permanent magnets, promising power reduction relative to the electromagnet thruster. A magnetic screen is added to the permanent magnet thruster to improve performance by keeping the magnetic field from expanding into space beyond the exit of the thruster. The combined dataset spans a power range from 50-350 W. The thrust levels over this range were 1.3-7.3 mN, with thruster efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 3.5-28.7% and 400-1940 s, respectively. The efficiency is generally higher for the permanent magnet thruster with the magnetic screen, while That thruster s specific impulse as a function of discharge voltage is comparable to the electromagnet thruster.

  3. Performance of a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster with Magnetic Field Generated by Permanent Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2008-01-01

    While Hall thrusters can operate at high efficiency at kW power levels, it is difficult to construct one that operates over a broad envelope down to 100W while maintaining an efficiency of 45- 55%. Scaling to low power while holding the main dimensionless parameters constant requires a decrease in the thruster channel size and an increase in the magnetic field strength. Increasing the magnetic field becomes technically challenging since the field can saturate the miniaturized inner components of the magnetic circuit and scaling down the magnetic circuit leaves very little room for magnetic pole pieces and heat shields. An alternative approach is to employ a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) geometry. Laboratory model CHTs have operated at power levels ranging from the order of 50 Watts up to 1 kW. These thrusters exhibit performance characteristics which are comparable to conventional, annular Hall thrusters of similar size. Compared to the annular Hall thruster, the CHT has a lower insulator surface area to discharge chamber volume ratio. Consequently, there is the potential for reduced wall losses in the channel of a CHT, and any reduction in wall losses should translate into lower channel heating rates and reduced erosion. This makes the CHT geometry promising for low-power applications. Recently, a CHT that uses permanent magnets to produce the magnetic field topology was tested. This thruster has the promise of reduced power consumption over previous CHT iterations that employed electromagnets. Data are presented for two purposes: to expose the effect different controllable parameters have on the discharge and to summarize performance measurements (thrust, Isp, efficiency) obtained using a thrust stand. These data are used to gain insight into the thruster's operation and to allow for quantitative comparisons between the permanent magnet CHT and the electromagnet CHT.

  4. Performance of a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster Using Permanent Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    While annular Hall thrusters can operate at high efficiency at kW power levels, it is difficult to construct one that operates over a broad envelope from 1 kW down to 100 W while maintaining an efficiency of 45-55%. Scaling to low power while holding the main dimensionless parameters constant requires a decrease in the thruster channel size and an increase in the magnetic field strength. Increasing the magnetic field becomes technically challenging since the field can saturate the miniaturized inner components of the magnetic circuit and scaling down the magnetic circuit leaves very little room for magnetic pole pieces and heat shields. In addition, the central magnetic pole piece defining the interior wall of the annular channel can experience excessive heat loads in a miniaturized Hall thruster, with the temperature eventually exceeding the Curie temperature of the material and in extreme circumstances leading to accelerated erosion of the channel wall. An alternative approach is to employ a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) geometry. Laboratory model CHTs have operated at power levels ranging from 50 W up to 1 kW. These thrusters exhibit performance characteristics that are comparable to conventional, annular Hall thrusters of similar size. Compared to the annular Hall thruster, the CHTs insulator surface area to discharge chamber volume ratio is lower. Consequently, there is the potential for reduced wall losses in the channel of a CHT, and any reduction in wall losses should translate into lower channel heating rates and reduced erosion, making the CHT geometry promising for low-power applications. This potential for high performance in the low-power regime has served as the impetus for research and development efforts aimed at understanding and improving CHT performance. Recently, a 2.6 cm channel diameter permanent magnet CHT (shown in Fig. 1) was tested. This thruster has the promise of reduced power consumption over previous CHT iterations that employed

  5. Discharge Oscillations in a Permanent Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K. A.; Sooby, E. S.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of the discharge current in a cylindrical Hall thruster are presented to quantify plasma oscillations and instabilities without introducing an intrusive probe into the plasma. The time-varying component of the discharge current is measured using a current monitor that possesses a wide frequency bandwidth and the signal is Fourier transformed to yield the frequency spectra present, allowing for the identification of plasma oscillations. The data show that the discharge current oscillations become generally greater in amplitude and complexity as the voltage is increased, and are reduced in severity with increasing flow rate. The breathing mode ionization instability is identified, with frequency as a function of discharge voltage not increasing with discharge voltage as has been observed in some traditional Hall thruster geometries, but instead following a scaling similar to a large-amplitude, nonlinear oscillation mode recently predicted in for annular Hall thrusters. A transition from lower amplitude oscillations to large relative fluctuations in the oscillating discharge current is observed at low flow rates and is suppressed as the mass flow rate is increased. A second set of peaks in the frequency spectra are observed at the highest propellant flow rate tested. Possible mechanisms that might give rise to these peaks include ionization instabilities and interactions between various oscillatory modes.

  6. Preliminary Results of Performance Measurements on a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster with Magnetic Field Generated by Permanent Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K. A.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster, which more readily lends itself to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, was measured using a planar plasma probe and a thrust stand. The field in the cylindrical thruster was produced using permanent magnets, promising a power reduction over previous cylindrical thruster iterations that employed electromagnets to generate the required magnetic field topology. Two sets of ring-shaped permanent magnets are used, and two different field configurations can be produced by reorienting the poles of one magnet relative to the other. A plasma probe measuring ion flux in the plume is used to estimate the current utilization for the two magnetic configurations. The measurements indicate that electron transport is impeded much more effectively in one configuration, implying a higher thrust efficiency. Preliminary thruster performance measurements on this configuration were obtained over a power range of 100-250 W. The thrust levels over this power range were 3.5-6.5 mN, with anode efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 14-19% and 875- 1425 s, respectively. The magnetic field in the thruster was lower for the thrust measurements than the plasma probe measurements due to heating and weakening of the permanent magnets, reducing the maximum field strength from 2 kG to roughly 750-800 G. The discharge current levels observed during thrust stand testing were anomalously high compared to those levels measured in previous experiments with this thruster.

  7. A Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ty Davis

    Electric propulsion technologies promise to revolutionize access to space, opening the door for mission concepts unfeasible by traditional propulsion methods alone. The Hall effect thruster is a relatively high thrust, moderate specific impulse electric propulsion device that belongs to the class of electrostatic thrusters. Hall effect thrusters benefit from an extensive flight history, and offer significant performance and cost advantages when compared to other forms of electric propulsion. Ongoing research on these devices includes the investigation of mechanisms that tend to decrease overall thruster efficiency, as well as the development of new techniques to extend operational lifetimes. This thesis is primarily concerned with the design and construction of a Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster (SMLHET), and its operation on argon propellant gas. Particular attention was addressed at low-cost, modular design principles, that would facilitate simple replacement and modification of key thruster parts such as the magnetic circuit and discharge channel. This capability is intended to facilitate future studies of device physics such as anomalous electron transport and magnetic shielding of the channel walls, that have an impact on thruster performance and life. Preliminary results demonstrate SMLHET running on argon in a manner characteristic of Hall effect thrusters, additionally a power balance method was utilized to estimate thruster performance. It is expected that future thruster studies utilizing heavier though more expensive gases like xenon or krypton, will observe increased efficiency and stability.

  8. Mode Transitions in Hall Effect Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Brown, Daniel L.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Mode transitions have been commonly observed in Hall Effect Thruster (HET) operation where a small change in a thruster operating parameter such as discharge voltage, magnetic field or mass flow rate causes the thruster discharge current mean value and oscillation amplitude to increase significantly. Mode transitions in a 6-kW-class HET called the H6 are induced by varying the magnetic field intensity while holding all other operating parameters constant and measurements are acquired with ion saturation probes and ultra-fast imaging. Global and local oscillation modes are identified. In the global mode, the entire discharge channel oscillates in unison and azimuthal perturbations (spokes) are either absent or negligible. Downstream azimuthally spaced probes show no signal delay between each other and are very well correlated to the discharge current signal. In the local mode, signals from the azimuthally spaced probes exhibit a clear delay indicating the passage of "spokes" and are not well correlated to the discharge current. These spokes are localized oscillations propagating in the ExB direction that are typically 10-20% of the mean value. In contrast, the oscillations in the global mode can be 100% of the mean value. The transition between global and local modes occurs at higher relative magnetic field strengths for higher mass flow rates or higher discharge voltages. The thrust is constant through mode transition but the thrust-to-power decreased by 25% due to increasing discharge current. The plume shows significant differences between modes with the global mode significantly brighter in the channel and the near-field plasma plume as well as exhibiting a luminous spike on thruster centerline. Mode transitions provide valuable insight to thruster operation and suggest improved methods for thruster performance characterization.

  9. Hall-Effect Thruster Utilizing Bismuth as Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James; Gasdaska, Charles; Hruby, Vlad; Robin, Mike

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory-model Hall-effect spacecraft thruster was developed that utilizes bismuth as the propellant. Xenon was used in most prior Hall-effect thrusters. Bismuth is an attractive alternative because it has a larger atomic mass, a larger electron-impact-ionization cross-section, and is cheaper and more plentiful.

  10. Azimuthal Spoke Propagation in Hall Effect Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Brown, Daniel L.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Spokes are azimuthally propagating perturbations in the plasma discharge of Hall Effect Thrusters (HETs) that travel in the E x B direction and have been observed in many different systems. The propagation of azimuthal spokes are investigated in a 6 kW HET known as the H6 using ultra-fast imaging and azimuthally spaced probes. A spoke surface is a 2-D plot of azimuthal light intensity evolution over time calculated from 87,500 frames/s videos. The spoke velocity has been determined using three methods with similar results: manual fitting of diagonal lines on the spoke surface, linear cross-correlation between azimuthal locations and an approximated dispersion relation. The spoke velocity for three discharge voltages (300, 400 and 450 V) and three anode mass flow rates (14.7, 19.5 and 25.2 mg/s) yielded spoke velocities between 1500 and 2200 m/s across a range of normalized magnetic field settings. The spoke velocity was inversely dependent on magnetic field strength for low B-field settings and asymptoted at B-field higher values. The velocities and frequencies are compared to standard drifts and plasma waves such as E x B drift, electrostatic ion cyclotron, magnetosonic and various drift waves. The empirically approximated dispersion relation yielded a characteristic velocity that matched the ion acoustic speed for 5 eV electrons that exist in the near-anode and near-field plume regions of the discharge channel based on internal measurements. Thruster performance has been linked to operating mode where thrust-to-power is maximized when azimuthal spokes are present so investigating the underlying mechanism of spokes will benefit thruster operation.

  11. Cylindrical geometry hall thruster

    DOEpatents

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with a cylindrical geometry, wherein ions are accelerated in substantially the axial direction. The apparatus is suitable for operation at low power. It employs small size thruster components, including a ceramic channel, with the center pole piece of the conventional annular design thruster eliminated or greatly reduced. Efficient operation is accomplished through magnetic fields with a substantial radial component. The propellant gas is ionized at an optimal location in the thruster. A further improvement is accomplished by segmented electrodes, which produce localized voltage drops within the thruster at optimally prescribed locations. The apparatus differs from a conventional Hall thruster, which has an annular geometry, not well suited to scaling to small size, because the small size for an annular design has a great deal of surface area relative to the volume.

  12. Optimization of Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Yevgeny Raitses, Artem Smirnov, Erik Granstedt, and Nathaniel J. Fi

    2007-07-24

    The cylindrical Hall thruster features high ionization efficiency, quiet operation, and ion acceleration in a large volume-to-surface ratio channel with performance comparable with the state-of-the-art annular Hall thrusters. These characteristics were demonstrated in low and medium power ranges. Optimization of miniaturized cylindrical thrusters led to performance improvements in the 50-200W input power range, including plume narrowing, increased thruster efficiency, reliable discharge initiation, and stable operation. __________________________________________________

  13. Optimization of Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Yevgeny Raitses, Artem Smirnov, Erik Granstedt, and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2007-11-27

    The cylindrical Hall thruster features high ionization efficiency, quiet operation, and ion acceleration in a large volume-to-surface ratio channel with performance comparable with the state-of-the-art annular Hall thrusters. These characteristics were demonstrated in low and medium power ranges. Optimization of miniaturized cylindrical thrusters led to performance improvements in the 50-200W input power range, including plume narrowing, increased thruster efficiency, reliable discharge initiation, and stable operation.

  14. 4.5-kW Hall Effect Thruster Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2000-01-01

    As part of an Interagency Agreement with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), a space simulation test of a Russian SPT 140 Hall Effect Thruster was completed in September 1999 at Vacuum Facility 6 at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The thruster was subjected to a three-part test sequence that included thrust and performance characterization, electromagnetic interference, and plume contamination. SPT 140 is a 4.5-kW thruster developed under a joint agreement between AFRL, Atlantic Research Corp, and Space Systems/Loral, and was manufactured by the Fakal Experimental Design Bureau of Russia. All objectives were satisfied, and the thruster performed exceptionally well during the 120-hr test program, which comprised 33 engine firings. The Glenn testing provided a critical contribution to the thruster development effort, and the large volume and high pumping speed of this vacuum facility was key to the test s success. The low background pressure (1 10 6 torr) provided a more accurate representation of space vacuum than is possible in most vacuum chambers. The facility had been upgraded recently with new cryogenic pumps and sputter shielding to support the active electric propulsion program at Glenn. The Glenn test team was responsible for all test support equipment, including the thrust stand, power supplies, data acquisition, electromagnetic interference measurement equipment, and the contamination measurement system.

  15. Krypton charge exchange cross sections for Hall effect thruster models

    SciTech Connect

    Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

    2013-04-28

    Following discharge from a Hall effect thruster, charge exchange occurs between ions and un-ionized propellant atoms. The low-energy cations produced can disturb operation of onboard instrumentation or the thruster itself. Charge-exchange cross sections for both singly and doubly charged propellant atoms are required to model these interactions. While xenon is the most common propellant currently used in Hall effect thrusters, other propellants are being considered, in particular, krypton. We present here guided-ion beam measurements and comparisons to semiclassical calculations for Kr{sup +} + Kr and Kr{sup 2+} + Kr cross sections. The measurements of symmetric Kr{sup +} + Kr charge exchange are in good agreement with both the calculations including spin-orbit effects and previous measurements. For the symmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr reaction, we present cross section measurements for center-of-mass energies between 1 eV and 300 eV, which spans energies not previously examined experimentally. These cross section measurements compare well with a simple one-electron transfer model. Finally, cross sections for the asymmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr {yields} Kr{sup +} + Kr{sup +} reaction show an onset near 12 eV, reaching cross sections near constant value of 1.6 A{sup 2} with an exception near 70-80 eV.

  16. Hall Effect Thruster Plume Contamination and Erosion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the Hall effect thruster plume contamination and erosion study was to evaluate the impact of a xenon ion plume on various samples placed in the vicinity of a Hall effect thruster for a continuous 100 hour exposure. NASA Glenn Research Center was responsible for the pre- and post-test evaluation of three sample types placed around the thruster: solar cell cover glass, RTV silicone, and Kapton(R). Mass and profilometer), were used to identify the degree of deposition and/or erosion on the solar cell cover glass, RTV silicone, and Kapton@ samples. Transmittance, reflectance, solar absorptance, and room temperature emittance were used to identify the degree of performance degradation of the solar cell cover glass samples alone. Auger spectroscopy was used to identify the chemical constituents found on the surface of the exposed solar cell cover glass samples. Chemical analysis indicated some boron nitride contamination on the samples, from boron nitride insulators used in the body of the thruster. However, erosion outweighted contamination. All samples exhibited some degree of erosion. with the most erosion occurring near the centerline of the plume and the least occurring at the +/- 90 deg positions. For the solar cell cover glass samples, erosion progressed through the antireflective coating and into the microsheet glass itself. Erosion occurred in the solar cell cover glass, RTV silicone and Kapton(R) at different rates. All optical properties changed with the degree of erosion, with solar absorptance and room temperature emittance increasing with erosion. The transmittance of some samples decreased while the reflectance of some samples increased and others decreased. All results are consistent with an energetic plume of xenon ions serving as a source for erosion.

  17. Perturbation analysis of ionization oscillations in Hall effect thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Kentaro; Sekerak, Michael J.; Boyd, Iain D.; Gallimore, Alec D.

    2014-12-01

    A perturbation analysis of ionization oscillations, which cause low frequency oscillations of the discharge plasma, in Hall effect thrusters is presented including the electron energy equation in addition to heavy-species transport. Excitation and stabilization of such oscillations, often called the breathing mode, are discussed in terms of the growth rate obtained from the linear perturbation equations of the discharge plasma. The instability induced from the ionization occurs only when the perturbation in the electron energy is included while the neutral atom flow contributes to the damping of the oscillation. Effects of the electron energy loss mechanisms such as wall heat loss, inelastic collisions, and convective heat flux are discussed. It is shown that the ionization oscillations can be damped when the electron transport is reduced and the electron temperature increases so that the energy loss to the wall stabilizes the ionization instability.

  18. Perturbation analysis of ionization oscillations in Hall effect thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Kentaro Sekerak, Michael J.; Boyd, Iain D.; Gallimore, Alec D.

    2014-12-15

    A perturbation analysis of ionization oscillations, which cause low frequency oscillations of the discharge plasma, in Hall effect thrusters is presented including the electron energy equation in addition to heavy-species transport. Excitation and stabilization of such oscillations, often called the breathing mode, are discussed in terms of the growth rate obtained from the linear perturbation equations of the discharge plasma. The instability induced from the ionization occurs only when the perturbation in the electron energy is included while the neutral atom flow contributes to the damping of the oscillation. Effects of the electron energy loss mechanisms such as wall heat loss, inelastic collisions, and convective heat flux are discussed. It is shown that the ionization oscillations can be damped when the electron transport is reduced and the electron temperature increases so that the energy loss to the wall stabilizes the ionization instability.

  19. Effects of wall electrodes on Hall effect thruster plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Langendorf, S. Walker, M.; Xu, K.

    2015-02-15

    This paper investigates the physical mechanisms that cause beneficial and detrimental performance effect observed to date in Hall effect thrusters with wall electrodes. It is determined that the wall electrode sheath can reduce ion losses to the wall if positioned near the anode (outside the dense region of the plasma) such that an ion-repelling sheath is able to form. The ability of the wall electrode to form an ion-repelling sheath is inversely proportional to the current drawn—if the wall electrode becomes the dominant sink for the thruster discharge current, increases in wall electrode bias result in increased local plasma potential rather than an ion-repelling sheath. A single-fluid electron flow model gives results that mimic the observed potential structures and the current-sharing fractions between the anode and wall electrodes, showing that potential gradients in the presheath and bulk plasma come at the expense of current draw to the wall electrodes. Secondary electron emission from the wall electrodes (or lack thereof) is inferred to have a larger effect if the electrodes are positioned near the exit plane than if positioned near the anode, due to the difference in energy deposition from the plasma.

  20. Characterization of Hall effect thruster propellant distributors with flame visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langendorf, S.; Walker, M. L. R.

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for the characterization and qualification of Hall effect thruster propellant distributors is presented. A quantitative measurement of the azimuthal number density uniformity, a metric which impacts propellant utilization, is obtained from photographs of a premixed flame anchored on the exit plane of the propellant distributor. The technique is demonstrated for three propellant distributors using a propane-air mixture at reservoir pressure of 40 psi (gauge) (377 kPa) exhausting to atmosphere, with volumetric flow rates ranging from 15-145 cfh (7.2-68 l/min) with equivalence ratios from 1.2 to 2.1. The visualization is compared with in-vacuum pressure measurements 1 mm downstream of the distributor exit plane (chamber pressure held below 2.7 × 10-5 Torr-Xe at all flow rates). Both methods indicate a non-uniformity in line with the propellant inlet, supporting the validity of the technique of flow visualization with flame luminosity for propellant distributor characterization. The technique is applied to a propellant distributor with a manufacturing defect in a known location and is able to identify the defect and characterize its impact. The technique is also applied to a distributor with numerous small orifices at the exit plane and is able to resolve the resulting non-uniformity. Luminosity data are collected with a spatial resolution of 48.2-76.1 μm (pixel width). The azimuthal uniformity is characterized in the form of standard deviation of azimuthal luminosities, normalized by the mean azimuthal luminosity. The distributors investigated achieve standard deviations of 0.346 ± 0.0212, 0.108 ± 0.0178, and 0.708 ± 0.0230 mean-normalized luminosity units respectively, where a value of 0 corresponds to perfect uniformity and a value of 1 represents a standard deviation equivalent to the mean.

  1. Power Reduction of the Air-Breathing Hall-Effect Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungrae

    Electric propulsion system is spotlighted as the next generation space propulsion system due to its benefits; one of them is specific impulse. While there are a lot of types in electric propulsion system, Hall-Effect Thruster, one of electric propulsion system, has higher thrust-to-power ratio and requires fewer power supplies for operation in comparison to other electric propulsion systems, which means it is optimal for long space voyage. The usual propellant for Hall-Effect Thruster is Xenon and it is used to be stored in the tank, which may increase the weight of the thruster. Therefore, one theory that uses the ambient air as a propellant has been proposed and it is introduced as Air-Breathing Hall-Effect Thruster. Referring to the analysis on Air-Breathing Hall-Effect Thruster, the goal of this paper is to reduce the power of the thruster so that it can be applied to real mission such as satellite orbit adjustment. To reduce the power of the thruster, two assumptions are considered. First one is changing the altitude for the operation, while another one is assuming the alpha value that is electron density to ambient air density. With assumptions above, the analysis was done and the results are represented. The power could be decreased to 10s˜1000s with the assumptions. However, some parameters that do not satisfy the expectation, which would be the question for future work, and it will be introduced at the end of the thesis.

  2. High Performance Power Module for Hall Effect Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Peterson, Peter Y.; Bowers, Glen E.

    2002-01-01

    Previous efforts to develop power electronics for Hall thruster systems have targeted the 1 to 5 kW power range and an output voltage of approximately 300 V. New Hall thrusters are being developed for higher power, higher specific impulse, and multi-mode operation. These thrusters require up to 50 kW of power and a discharge voltage in excess of 600 V. Modular power supplies can process more power with higher efficiency at the expense of complexity. A 1 kW discharge power module was designed, built and integrated with a Hall thruster. The breadboard module has a power conversion efficiency in excess of 96 percent and weighs only 0.765 kg. This module will be used to develop a kW, multi-kW, and high voltage power processors.

  3. Mode Transitions in Magnetically Shielded Hall Effect Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani; Hofer, Richard R.; Jorns, Benjamin A.; Polk, James E.

    2014-01-01

    A mode transition study is conducted in magnetically shielded thrusters where the magnetic field magnitude is varied to induce mode transitions. Three different oscillatory modes are identified with the 20-kW NASA-300MS-2 and the 6-kW H6MS: Mode 1) global mode similar to unshielded thrusters at low magnetic fields, Mode 2) cathode oscillations at nominal magnetic fields, and Mode 3) combined spoke, cathode and breathing mode oscillations at high magnetic fields. Mode 1 exhibits large amplitude, low frequency (1-10 kHz), breathing mode type oscillations where discharge current mean value and oscillation amplitude peak. The mean discharge current is minimized while thrust-to-power and anode efficiency are maximized in Mode 2, where higher frequency (50-90 kHz), low amplitude, cathode oscillations dominate. Thrust is maximized in Mode 3 and decreases by 5-6% with decreasing magnetic field strength. The presence or absence of spokes and strong cathode oscillations do not affect each other or discharge current. Similar to unshielded thrusters, mode transitions and plasma oscillations affect magnetically shielded thruster performance and should be characterized during system development.

  4. Cylindrical Hall Thrusters with Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Merino, Enrique; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2010-10-18

    The use of permanent magnets instead of electromagnet coils for low power Hall thrusters can offer a significant reduction of both the total electric power consumption and the thruster mass. Two permanent magnet versions of the miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) of different overall dimensions were operated in the power range of 50W-300 W. The discharge and plasma plume measurements revealed that the CHT thrusters with permanent magnets and electromagnet coils operate rather differently. In particular, the angular ion current density distribution from the permanent magnet thrusters has an unusual halo shape, with a majority of high energy ions flowing at large angles with respect to the thruster centerline. Differences in the magnetic field topology outside the thruster channel and in the vicinity of the channel exit are likely responsible for the differences in the plume characteristics measured for the CHTs with electromagnets and permanent magnets. It is shown that the presence of the reversing-direction or cusp-type magnetic field configuration inside the thruster channel without a strong axial magnetic field outside the thruster channel does not lead to the halo plasma plume from the CHT. __________________________________________________

  5. Cathode Effects in Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Granstedt, E.M.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2008-09-12

    Stable operation of a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) has been achieved using a hot wire cathode, which functions as a controllable electron emission source. It is shown that as the electron emission from the cathode increases with wire heating, the discharge current increases, the plasma plume angle reduces, and the ion energy distribution function shifts toward higher energies. The observed effect of cathode electron emission on thruster parameters extends and clarifies performance improvements previously obtained for the overrun discharge current regime of the same type of thruster, but using a hollow cathode-neutralizer. Once thruster discharge current saturates with wire heating, further filament heating does not affect other discharge parameters. The saturated values of thruster discharge parameters can be further enhanced by optimal placement of the cathode wire with respect to the magnetic field.

  6. Elementary scaling laws for the design of low and high power hall effect thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenmayer, K.; Mazouffre, S.

    2011-10-01

    An advanced set of scaling laws for Hall effect thrusters running with Xenon as propellant is established on the basis of the existence of an optimum atom number density that warrants a high efficiency thruster operation. A set of general relationships between macroscopic quantities, like thrust and input power, dimensions, including the channel length, the channel width and the channel mean diameter, and magnetic field strength are inferred from the main physical processes at work in a Hall thruster discharge. The "atom density constraint" of which the nature is here critically interpreted allows simplifying those relationships as it leads to a linear dependency between the channel length and mean diameter. Scaling laws which represent an essential tool for sizing up and down Hall thrusters are eventually obtained after proportionnality coefficients are determined. This last step is realized by means of a vast database that presently encompasses 33 single-stage Hall thrusters. In order to illustrate the usefulness of this new set of scaling laws, two practical applications are given and discussed. The scaling laws are first employed to calculate the dimensions and the operating parameters for a 20-kilowatt Hall thruster capable of producing 1 N of thrust. Such an electrical engine would permit orbit transfer of large communication satellites. Finally, the geometry of a Hall thruster is determined for tolerating 100 kW, an interesting power level for interplanetary trips.

  7. Where is the breathing mode? High voltage Hall effect thruster studies with EMD method

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzyna, J.; Makowski, K.; Mazouffre, S.; Peradzynski, Z.; Lazurenko, A.; Dudeck, M.

    2008-03-19

    Discharge current and local plasma oscillations are studied in a high voltage Hall effect thruster PPS registered -X000. Characteristic time scales that appear in different operating conditions are resolved with the use of Hilbert-Huang spectra (HHS) which display time dependenc of instantaneous frequency and power. Sets of intrinsic mode functions (imfs) that are used for HHS calculation result due to application of empirical mode decomposition method (EMD) to nonstationary multicomponent signals. In the experiment the signals are captured in the electric circuit of the thruster as well locally, in the vicinity of the thruster exhaust region. Classical electric probes spaced along the azimuth and/or thruster axis let us study correlations of signals which were captured in different locations. In this way azimuthal and axial propagation of disturbances is inspected. The discharge voltage is varied in the range of 200 divide 900 V while xenon mas flow rate of 5 divide 9 mg/s. LF, MF, and HF characteristic bands that are known from previous studies of PPS registered -100 thruster have been also detected here. However, expanding discharge current onto a set of intrinsic modes we can resolve MF mode more reliably than before. Moreover, for higher discharge voltages, this irregular mode turns into more regular waveform and tends to dominate in the discharge current masking almost completely the breathing mode (LF oscillations of the discharge current). In such a case triggering of HF oscillations is correlated with the phase of MF mode while in the case of PPS registered -100 thruster it was correlated with the appropriate phase of the breathing mode (LF band). Regular HF emission that can be unambiguously interpreted as azimuthal electrostatic wave now is observed only in the specific operating conditions of the thruster. However, even if irregular HF emission is observed the time delay of cross-correlated signals which are captured in different azimuthal locations

  8. Influence of oblique magnetic field on electron cross-field transport in a Hall effect thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Miedzik, Jan; Daniłko, Dariusz; Barral, Serge

    2015-04-15

    The effects of the inclination of the magnetic field with respect to the channel walls in a Hall effect thruster are numerically studied with the use of a one-dimensional quasi-neutral Particle-In-Cell model with guiding center approximation of electron motion along magnetic lines. Parametric studies suggest that the incidence angle strongly influences electron transport across the magnetic field. In ion-focusing magnetic topologies, electrons collide predominantly on the side of the magnetic flux tube closer to the anode, thus increasing the electron cross-field drift. The opposite effect is observed in ion-defocussing topology.

  9. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reese, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Arkansas Power Electronics International (APEI), Inc., is developing a high-efficiency, radiation-hardened 3.8-kW SiC power supply for the PPU of Hall effect thrusters. This project specifically targets the design of a PPU for the high-voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAC) thruster, with target specifications of 80- to 160-V input, 200- to 700-V/5A output, efficiency greater than 96 percent, and peak power density in excess of 2.5 kW/kg. The PPU under development uses SiC junction field-effect transistor power switches, components that APEI, Inc., has irradiated under total ionizing dose conditions to greater than 3 MRad with little to no change in device performance.

  10. Modeling of an advanced concept of a double stage Hall effect thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Garrigues, L.; Boniface, C.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; Boeuf, J. P.

    2008-11-15

    We present a study of the principle and operation of a two-stage Hall effect thruster, the SPT-MAG, using a two-dimensional quasineutral hybrid model coupled with a Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport. The purpose of the two-stage design is the separation of ion production and acceleration in two separate chambers, the ionization stage and the acceleration stage, with separate control of acceleration voltage and total ionization. The originality of the SPT-MAG lies in the magnetic field configuration in the ionization chamber. Electrons are confined by this magnetic field while ions are supposed to be trapped in the electric potential well supposedly resulting from the magnetic configuration, and guided toward the acceleration stage. The acceleration stage is similar to the channel of a conventional Hall effect thruster. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the physics of the SPT-MAG and to understand the formation of the positive ion trap in the ionization chamber. Using a hybrid model and a Monte Carlo simulation we show that under typical operating conditions most of the ionization in the chamber is due to high energy electrons accelerated in the channel and entering the chamber rather than to electrons accelerated by the voltage applied in the ionization chamber. We also raise the question of the possible role of an additional emissive cathode inside the ionization chamber. The model predicts that an electric potential well guiding the ions to the channel entrance forms in the chamber only if the intermediate electrode inside the chamber is an emissive cathode (which is not the case in recent configurations used for this thruster)

  11. Parametric Investigations of Miniaturized Cylindrical and Annular Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    A. Smirnov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2001-10-16

    A cylindrical geometry Hall thruster may overcome certain physical and technological limitations in scaling down of Hall thrusters to miniature sizes. The absence of the inner wall and use of the cusp magnetic field can potentially reduce heating of the thruster parts and erosion of the channel. A 2.6 cm miniaturized Hall thruster of a flexible design was built and successfully operated in the power range of 50-300 W. Comparison of preliminary results obtained for cylindrical and annular thruster configurations is presented.

  12. Hall-effect thruster--Cathode coupling: The effect of cathode position and magnetic field topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommerville, Jason D.

    2009-12-01

    Hall-effect thruster (HET) cathodes are responsible for the generation of the free electrons necessary to initiate and sustain the main plasma discharge and to neutralize the ion beam. The position of the cathode relative to the thruster strongly affects the efficiency of thrust generation. However, the mechanisms by which the position affects the efficiency are not well understood. This dissertation explores the effect of cathode position on HET efficiency. Magnetic field topology is shown to play an important role in the coupling between the cathode plasma and the main discharge plasma. The position of the cathode within the magnetic field affects the ion beam and the plasma properties of the near-field plume, which explains the changes in efficiency of the thruster. Several experiments were conducted which explored the changes of efficiency arising from changes in cathode coupling. In each experiment, the thrust, discharge current, and cathode coupling voltage were monitored while changes in the independent variables of cathode position, cathode mass flow and magnetic field topology were made. From the telemetry data, the efficiency of the HET thrust generation was calculated. Furthermore, several ion beam and plasma properties were measured including ion energy distribution, beam current density profile, near-field plasma potential, electron temperature, and electron density. The ion beam data show how the independent variables affected the quality of ion beam and therefore the efficiency of thrust generation. The measurements of near-field plasma properties partially explain how the changes in ion beam quality arise. The results of the experiments show that cathode position, mass flow, and field topology affect several aspects of the HET operation, especially beam divergence and voltage utilization efficiencies. Furthermore, the experiments show that magnetic field topology is important in the cathode coupling process. In particular, the magnetic field

  13. Compact High Current Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode for Hall Effect Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofer, Richard R. (Inventor); Goebel, Dan M. (Inventor); Watkins, Ronnie M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus and method for achieving an efficient central cathode in a Hall effect thruster is disclosed. A hollow insert disposed inside the end of a hollow conductive cathode comprises a rare-earth element and energized to emit electrons from an inner surface. The cathode employs an end opening having an area at least as large as the internal cross sectional area of the rare earth insert to enhance throughput from the cathode end. In addition, the cathode employs a high aspect ratio geometry based on the cathode length to width which mitigates heat transfer from the end. A gas flow through the cathode and insert may be impinged by the emitted electrons to yield a plasma. One or more optional auxiliary gas feeds may also be employed between the cathode and keeper wall and external to the keeper near the outlet.

  14. Theory for the anomalous electron transport in Hall effect thrusters. II. Kinetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafleur, T.; Baalrud, S. D.; Chabert, P.

    2016-05-01

    In Paper I [T. Lafleur et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 053502 (2016)], we demonstrated (using particle-in-cell simulations) the definite correlation between an anomalously high cross-field electron transport in Hall effect thrusters (HETs), and the presence of azimuthal electrostatic instabilities leading to enhanced electron scattering. Here, we present a kinetic theory that predicts the enhanced scattering rate and provides an electron cross-field mobility that is in good agreement with experiment. The large azimuthal electron drift velocity in HETs drives a strong instability that quickly saturates due to a combination of ion-wave trapping and wave-convection, leading to an enhanced mobility many orders of magnitude larger than that expected from classical diffusion theory. In addition to the magnetic field strength, B0, this enhanced mobility is a strong function of the plasma properties (such as the plasma density) and therefore does not, in general, follow simple 1 /B02 or 1 /B0 scaling laws.

  15. High Voltage Solar Array Arc Testing for a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Todd; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Vaughn, J. A.; Jongeward, G. A.; Mikellides, I. G.; Ferguson, D.; Kerslake, T. W.; Peterson, T.; Snyder, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2004-01-01

    The deleterious effects of spacecraft charging are well known, particularly when the charging leads to arc events. The damage that results from arcing can severely reduce system lifetime and even cause critical system failures. On a primary spacecraft system such as a solar array, there is very little tolerance for arcing. Motivated by these concerns, an experimental investigation was undertaken to determine arc thresholds for a high voltage (200-500 V) solar array in a plasma environment. The investigation was in support of a NASA program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster (D2HET) system. By directly coupling the solar array to a Hall-effect thruster, the D2HET program seeks to reduce mass, cost and complexity commonly associated with the power processing in conventional power systems. In the investigation, multiple solar array technologies and configurations were tested. The cell samples were biased to a negative voltage, with an applied potential difference between them, to imitate possible scenarios in solar array strings that could lead to damaging arcs. The samples were tested in an environment that emulated a low-energy, HET-induced plasma. Short duration trigger arcs as well as long duration sustained arcs were generated. Typical current and voltage waveforms associated with the arc events are presented. Arc thresholds are also defined in terms of voltage, current and power. The data will be used to propose a new, high-voltage (greater than 300 V) solar array design for which the likelihood of damage from arcing is minimal.

  16. High Voltage Solar Array ARC Testing for a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, T.; Vaughn, J.; Carruth, M. R.; Mikellides, I. G.; Jongeward, G. A.; Peterson, T.; Kerslake, T. W.; Snyder, D.; Ferguson, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2003-01-01

    The deleterious effects of spacecraft charging are well known, particularly when the charging leads to arc events. The damage that results from arcing can severely reduce system lifetime and even cause critical system failures. On a primary spacecraft system such as a solar array, there is very little tolerance for arcing. Motivated by these concerns, an experimental investigation was undertaken to determine arc thresholds for a high voltage (200-500 V) solar array in a plasma environment. The investigation was in support of a NASA program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster (112HET) system. By directly coupling the solar array to a Hall-effect thruster, the D2HET program seeks to reduce mass, cost and complexity commonly associated with the power processing in conventional power systems. In the investigation, multiple solar array technologies and configurations were tested. The cell samples were biased to a negative voltage, with an applied potential difference between them, to imitate possible scenarios in solar array strings that could lead to damaging arcs. The samples were tested in an environment that emulated a low-energy, HET-induced plasma. Short duration "trigger" arcs as well as long duration "sustained" arcs were generated. Typical current and voltage waveforms associated with the arc events are presented. Arc thresholds are also defined in terms of vo!tage, (current and power. The data will be used to propose a new, high-voltage (>300 V) solar array design for which the likelihood of damage from arcing is minimal.

  17. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in a running Hall Effect Thruster for space propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balika, L.; Focsa, C.; Gurlui, S.; Pellerin, S.; Pellerin, N.; Pagnon, D.; Dudeck, M.

    2012-08-01

    Hall Effect Thrusters (HETs) are promising electric propulsion devices for the station-keeping of geostationary satellites and for interplanetary missions. The main limiting factor of the HET lifetime is the erosion of the annular channel ceramic walls. Erosion monitoring has been performed in the laboratory using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements and data treatment based on the coronal model and the actinometric hypothesis. This study uses laser ablation of the ceramic wall in a running HET in order to introduce controlled amounts of sputtered material in the thruster plasma. The transient laser-induced breakdown plasma expands orthogonally in a steady-state plasma jet created by the HET discharge. The proposed spectroscopic method involves species from both plasmas (B, Xe, Xe+). The optical emission signal is correlated to the ablated volume (measured by profilometry) leading to the first direct validation of the actinometric hypothesis in this frame and opening the road for calibration of in-flight erosion monitoring based on the OES method.

  18. Manual modification and plasma exposure of boron nitride ceramic to study Hall effect thruster plasma channel material erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satonik, Alexander J.

    Worn Hall effect thrusters (HET) show a variety of unique microstructures and elemental compositions in the boron nitride thruster channel walls. Worn thruster channels are typically created by running test thrusters in vacuum chambers for hundreds of hours. Studies were undertaken to manually modify samples of boron nitride without the use of a hall effect thruster. Samples were manually abraded with an abrasive blaster and sandpaper, in addition to a vacuum heater. Some of these samples were further exposed to a xenon plasma in a magnetron sputter device. Sandpaper and abrasive blaster tests were used to modify surface roughness values of the samples from 10,000 A to 150,000 A, matching worn thruster values. Vacuum heat treatments were performed on samples. These treatments showed the ability to modify chemical compositions of boron nitride samples, but not in a manner matching changes seen in worn thruster channels. Plasma erosion rate was shown to depend on the grade of the BN ceramic and the preparation of the surface prior to plasma exposure. Abraded samples were shown to erode 43% more than their pristine counterparts. Unique surface features and elemental compositions on the worn thruster channel samples were overwritten by new surface features on the ceramic grains. The microscope images of the ceramic surface show that the magnetron plasma source rounded the edges of the ceramic grains to closely match the worn HET surface. This effect was not as pronounced in studies of ion beam bombardment of the surface and appears to be a result of the quasi-neutral plasma environment.

  19. Influence of residual gases on witness plate measurements during Hall-effect thruster testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, John D.; Corey, Ronald L.

    2010-04-01

    It is known that the presence of residual gases can significantly suppress the sputter erosion rate of surfaces. Concerns about the validity of witness plate measurements are raised when this happens in ground-based tests of plasma thrusters. Here we quantify the influence residual gases impose upon measurements made with witness samples placed within the energetic ion plume of a Hall-effect plasma thruster. Specifically, sputter rates of thin films composed of iron by xenon ions are presented as functions of ion energy and partial pressure of molecular oxygen and nitrogen. When gas contaminates are present, the sputter rate is determined as a function of the poisoning ratio, Rp, defined as the rate of arrival of contamination sticking to a surface divided by the removal rate of sputtered material due to ion bombardment. The iron sputter rate was measured versus poisoning ratio from 0.001 to 10. At low poisoning ratios, ion bombardment maintains a dynamically clean surface, sputtering is not suppressed and sputtering rates can be estimated from the literature or from experiments. At poisoning ratios of Rp > 0.1 however, the net sputtering rate can be attenuated. The sputter rate of iron in the presence of oxygen at Rp > 1 was found to be only 5.4% (0.054) and 11.5% (0.115) of the sputter rate at Rp < 0.01 by 300 eV and 600 eV xenon ions, respectively. Although oxygen reduced the iron sputter rate, nitrogen was not found to affect the sputter rate of iron.

  20. Spectral analysis of Hall-effect thruster plasma oscillations based on the empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzyna, J.; Mazouffre, S.; Lazurenko, A.; Albarède, L.; Bonhomme, G.; Makowski, K.; Dudeck, M.; Peradzyński, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Hall-effect thruster plasma oscillations recorded by means of probes located at the channel exit are analyzed using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method. This self-adaptive technique permits to decompose a nonstationary signal into a set of intrinsic modes, and acts as a very efficient filter allowing to separate contributions of different underlying physical mechanisms. Applying the Hilbert transform to the whole set of modes allows to identify peculiar events and to assign them a range of instantaneous frequency and power. In addition to 25kHz breathing-type oscillations which are unambiguously identified, the EMD approach confirms the existence of oscillations with instantaneous frequencies in the range of 100-500kHz typical for ion transit-time oscillations. Modeling of high-frequency modes (ν˜10MHz) resulting from EMD of measured wave forms supports the idea that high-frequency plasma oscillations originate from electron-density perturbations propagating azimuthally with the electron drift velocity.

  1. Spectral analysis of Hall-effect thruster plasma oscillations based on the empirical mode decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzyna, J.; Mazouffre, S.; Lazurenko, A.; Albarede, L.; Bonhomme, G.; Makowski, K.; Dudeck, M.; Peradzynski, Z.

    2005-12-15

    Hall-effect thruster plasma oscillations recorded by means of probes located at the channel exit are analyzed using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method. This self-adaptive technique permits to decompose a nonstationary signal into a set of intrinsic modes, and acts as a very efficient filter allowing to separate contributions of different underlying physical mechanisms. Applying the Hilbert transform to the whole set of modes allows to identify peculiar events and to assign them a range of instantaneous frequency and power. In addition to 25 kHz breathing-type oscillations which are unambiguously identified, the EMD approach confirms the existence of oscillations with instantaneous frequencies in the range of 100-500 kHz typical for ion transit-time oscillations. Modeling of high-frequency modes ({nu}{approx}10 MHz) resulting from EMD of measured wave forms supports the idea that high-frequency plasma oscillations originate from electron-density perturbations propagating azimuthally with the electron drift velocity.

  2. Numerical simulation of geometric scale effects in cylindrical self-field MPD thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, M.

    1992-01-01

    A 2-D, two-temperature, single fluid magnetohydrodynamic code which incorporates classical plasma transport coefficients and Hall effects was developed to predict steady-state, self-field magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster performance. The governing equations and numerical methods of solution are outlined and discussed. Experimental comparisons are used to validate model predictions. The model accurately predicts thrust and reproduces trends in the discharge voltage for discharge currents below experimentally measured onset values. However, because the model does not include electrode effects, the calculated voltage drops are significantly lower than experimentally measured values. Predictions of thrust and flow efficiency are made for a matrix of fifteen cylindrical thruster geometries, assuming a fully ionized argon propellant. A maximum predicted specific impulse of 1680 s is obtained for a thruster with an anode radius of 2.5 cm, a cathode radius of 0.5 cm, and equal electrode lengths of 2.5 cm. A scaling relation is developed to predict, within limits, the onset of cylindrical, self-field thruster instability as a function of geometry and operating condition.

  3. Search for the Frequency Content of Hall Effect Thruster HF Electrostatic Wave with the Hilbert-Huang Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzyna, J.; Makowski, K.; Lazurenko, A.; Mazouffre, S.; Dudeck, M.; Bonhomme, G.; Peradzynski, Z.

    2006-01-15

    Hall Effect Thruster (HET) plasma oscillations are studied. A set of antennas and an electric probe is used to pick-up the signals. All the detectors are located in the thruster channel exit plane, at its outer circumference, close to the zone of maximum magnetic barrier of SPT100-ML device. Each non-stationary signal is expanded into a finite set of intrinsic modes with the use of Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method. Characteristic bands of instantaneous frequency and power are filtered out by means of Hilbert transform. The analysis is applied to signals recorded in different operating conditions of the HET. The HF oscillations in the frequency range of {approx} 1 divide 20 MHz are identified as an electrostatic drift wave propagating along the thruster azimuth. In this band the decrease of discharge voltage results in less defined and broadened frequency spectrum when compared to nominal operating conditions.

  4. Plasma Interactions with High Voltage Solar Arrays for a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, T.; Horvater, M. A.; Vaughn, J.; Carruth, M. R.; Jongeward, G. A.; Mikellides, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Environmental Effects Group of NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is conducting research into the effects of plasma interaction with high voltage solar arrays. These high voltage solar arrays are being developed for a direct drive Hall Effect Thruster propulsion system. A direct drive system configuration will reduce power system mass by eliminating a conventional power-processing unit. The Environmental Effects Group has configured two large vacuum chambers to test different high-voltage array concepts in a plasma environment. Three types of solar arrays have so far been tested, an International Space Station (ISS) planar array, a Tecstar planar array, and a Tecstar solar concentrator array. The plasma environment was generated using a hollow cathode plasma source, which yielded densities between 10(exp 6) - 10(exp 7) per cubic centimeter and electron temperatures of 0.5-1 eV. Each array was positioned in this plasma and biased in the -500 to + 500 volt range. The current collection was monitored continuously. In addition, the characteristics of arcing, snap over, and other features, were recorded. Analysis of the array performance indicates a time dependence associated with the current collection as well as a tendency for "conditioning" over a large number of runs. Mitigation strategies, to reduce parasitic current collection, as well as arcing, include changing cover-glass geometry and layout as well as shielding the solar cell edges. High voltage performance data for each of the solar array types tested will be presented. In addition, data will be provided to indicate the effectiveness of the mitigation techniques.

  5. A study of cylindrical Hall thruster for low power space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch; K.M. Ertmer; C.A. Burlingame

    2000-07-27

    A 9 cm cylindrical thruster with a ceramic channel exhibited performance comparable to the state-of-the-art Hall thrusters at low and moderate power levels. Significantly, its operation is not accompanied by large amplitude discharge low frequency oscillations. Preliminary experiments on a 2 cm cylindrical thruster suggest the possibility of a high performance micro Hall thruster.

  6. Performance of a Low-Power Cylindrical Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Stanojev, Boris J.; Dehoyos, Amado; Raitses, Yevgeny; Smirnov, Artem; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent mission studies have shown that a Hall thruster which operates at relatively constant thrust efficiency (45-55%) over a broad power range (300W - 3kW) is enabling for deep space science missions when compared with slate-of-the-art ion thrusters. While conventional (annular) Hall thrusters can operate at high thrust efficiency at kW power levels, it is difficult to construct one that operates over a broad power envelope down to 0 (100 W) while maintaining relatively high efficiency. In this note we report the measured performance (I(sub sp), thrust and efficiency) of a cylindrical Hall thruster operating at 0 (100 W) input power.

  7. Assessment of High-Voltage Photovoltaic Technologies for the Design of a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, I. G.; Jongeward, G. A.; Schneider, T.; Carruth, M. R.; Peterson, T.; Kerslake, T. W.; Snyder, D.; Ferguson, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2004-01-01

    A three-year program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster system (D2HET) begun in 2001 as part of the NASA Advanced Cross-Enterprise Technology Development initiative. The system, which is expected to reduce significantly the power processing, complexity, weight, and cost over conventional low-voltage systems, will employ solar arrays that operate at voltages higher than (or equal to) 300 V. The lessons learned from the development of the technology also promise to become a stepping-stone for the production of the next generation of power systems employing high voltage solar arrays. This paper summarizes the results from experiments conducted mainly at the NASA Marshal Space Flight Center with two main solar array technologies. The experiments focused on electron collection and arcing studies, when the solar cells operated at high voltages. The tests utilized small coupons representative of each solar array technology. A hollow cathode was used to emulate parts of the induced environment on the solar arrays, mostly the low-energy charge-exchange plasma (1012-1013 m-3 and 0.5-1 eV). Results and conclusions from modeling of electron collection are also summarized. The observations from the total effort are used to propose a preliminary, new solar array design for 2 kW and 30-40 kW class, deep space missions that may employ a single or a cluster of Hall- Effect thrusters.

  8. Unveiling the photonic spin Hall effect of freely propagating fan-shaped cylindrical vector vortex beams.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Peng; Liu, Sheng; Zhao, Jianlin

    2015-10-01

    An intriguing photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) for a freely propagating fan-shaped cylindrical vector (CV) vortex beam in a paraxial situation is theoretically and experimentally studied. A developed model to describe this kind of photonic SHE is proposed based on angular spectrum diffraction theory. With this model, the close dependences of spin-dependent splitting on the azimuthal order of polarization, the topological charge of the spiral phase, and the propagation distance are accurately revealed. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the asymmetric spin-dependent splitting of a fan-shaped CV beam can be consciously managed, even with a constant azimuthal order of polarization. Such a controllable photonic SHE is experimentally verified by measuring the Stokes parameters.

  9. Performance and Thermal Characterization of the NASA-300MS 20 kW Hall Effect Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Shastry, Rohit; Soulas, George; Smith, Timothy; Mikellides, Ioannis; Hofer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate is sponsoring the development of a high fidelity 15 kW-class long-life high performance Hall thruster for candidate NASA technology demonstration missions. An essential element of the development process is demonstration that incorporation of magnetic shielding on a 20 kW-class Hall thruster will yield significant improvements in the throughput capability of the thruster without any significant reduction in thruster performance. As such, NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory collaborated on modifying the NASA-300M 20 kW Hall thruster to improve its propellant throughput capability. JPL and NASA Glenn researchers performed plasma numerical simulations with JPL's Hall2De and a commercially available magnetic modeling code that indicated significant enhancement in the throughput capability of the NASA-300M can be attained by modifying the thruster's magnetic circuit. This led to modifying the NASA-300M magnetic topology to a magnetically shielded topology. This paper presents performance evaluation results of the two NASA-300M magnetically shielded thruster configurations, designated 300MS and 300MS-2. The 300MS and 300MS-2 were operated at power levels between 2.5 and 20 kW at discharge voltages between 200 and 700 V. Discharge channel deposition from back-sputtered facility wall flux, and plasma potential and electron temperature measurements made on the inner and outer discharge channel surfaces confirmed that magnetic shielding was achieved. Peak total thrust efficiency of 64% and total specific impulse of 3,050 sec were demonstrated with the 300MS-2 at 20 kW. Thermal characterization results indicate that the boron nitride discharge chamber walls temperatures are approximately 100 C lower for the 300MS when compared to the NASA- 300M at the same thruster operating discharge power.

  10. Transition in Electron Transport in a Cylindrical Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Parker, Y. Raitses, and N.J. Fisch

    2010-06-02

    Through the use of high-speed camera and Langmuir probe measurements in a cylindrical Hall thruster, we report the discovery of a rotating spoke of increased plasma density and light emission which correlates with increased electron transport across the magnetic field. As cathode electron emission is increased, a sharp transition occurs where the spoke disappears and electron transport decreases. This suggests that a significant fraction of the electron current might be directed through the spoke.

  11. Transition in electron transport in a cylindrical Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J. B.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2010-08-30

    Through the use of high-speed camera and Langmuir probe measurements in a cylindrical Hall thruster, we report the discovery of a rotating spoke of increased plasma density and light emission which correlates with increased electron transport across the magnetic field. As cathode electron emission is increased, a sharp transition occurs where the spoke disappears and electron transport decreases. This suggests that a significant fraction of the electron current might be directed through the spoke.

  12. Hall-Effect Thruster Simulations with 2-D Electron Transport and Hydrodynamic Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard H.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2009-01-01

    A computational approach that has been used extensively in the last two decades for Hall thruster simulations is to solve a diffusion equation and energy conservation law for the electrons in a direction that is perpendicular to the magnetic field, and use discrete-particle methods for the heavy species. This "hybrid" approach has allowed for the capture of bulk plasma phenomena inside these thrusters within reasonable computational times. Regions of the thruster with complex magnetic field arrangements (such as those near eroded walls and magnets) and/or reduced Hall parameter (such as those near the anode and the cathode plume) challenge the validity of the quasi-one-dimensional assumption for the electrons. This paper reports on the development of a computer code that solves numerically the 2-D axisymmetric vector form of Ohm's law, with no assumptions regarding the rate of electron transport in the parallel and perpendicular directions. The numerical challenges related to the large disparity of the transport coefficients in the two directions are met by solving the equations in a computational mesh that is aligned with the magnetic field. The fully-2D approach allows for a large physical domain that extends more than five times the thruster channel length in the axial direction, and encompasses the cathode boundary. Ions are treated as an isothermal, cold (relative to the electrons) fluid, accounting for charge-exchange and multiple-ionization collisions in the momentum equations. A first series of simulations of two Hall thrusters, namely the BPT-4000 and a 6-kW laboratory thruster, quantifies the significance of ion diffusion in the anode region and the importance of the extended physical domain on studies related to the impact of the transport coefficients on the electron flow field.

  13. Performance and Facility Background Pressure Characterization Tests of NASAs 12.5-kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Shastry, Rohit; Thomas, Robert; Yim, John; Herman, Daniel; Williams, George; Myers, James; Hofer, Richard; Mikellides, Ioannis; Sekerak, Michael; Polk, James

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission (SEP/TDM) project is funding the development of a 12.5-kW Hall thruster system to support future NASA missions. The thruster designated Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) is a 12.5-kW Hall thruster with magnetic shielding incorporating a centrally mounted cathode. HERMeS was designed and modeled by a NASA GRC and JPL team and was fabricated and tested in vacuum facility 5 (VF5) at NASA GRC. Tests at NASA GRC were performed with the Technology Development Unit 1 (TDU1) thruster. TDU1's magnetic shielding topology was confirmed by measurement of anode potential and low electron temperature along the discharge chamber walls. Thermal characterization tests indicated that during full power thruster operation at peak magnetic field strength, the various thruster component temperatures were below prescribed maximum allowable limits. Performance characterization tests demonstrated the thruster's wide throttling range and found that the thruster can achieve a peak thruster efficiency of 63% at 12.5 kW 500 V and can attain a specific impulse of 3,000 s at 12.5 kW and a discharge voltage of 800 V. Facility background pressure variation tests revealed that the performance, operational characteristics, and magnetic shielding effectiveness of the TDU1 design were mostly insensitive to increases in background pressure.

  14. Theory for the anomalous electron transport in Hall effect thrusters. I. Insights from particle-in-cell simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafleur, T.; Baalrud, S. D.; Chabert, P.

    2016-05-01

    Using a 1D particle-in-cell simulation with perpendicular electric, E0, and magnetic, B0, fields, and modelling the azimuthal direction (i.e., the E0 × B0 direction), we study the cross-field electron transport in Hall effect thrusters (HETs). For low plasma densities, the electron transport is found to be well described by classical electron-neutral collision theory, but at sufficiently high densities (representative of typical HETs), a strong instability is observed to significantly enhance the electron mobility, even in the absence of electron-neutral collisions. This instability is associated with correlated high-frequency (of the order of MHz) and short-wavelength (of the order of mm) fluctuations in both the electric field and the plasma density, which are shown to be the cause of the anomalous transport. Saturation of the instability is observed to occur due to a combination of ion-wave trapping in the E0 × B0 direction, and convection in the E0 direction.

  15. Electron Cross-field Transport in a Miniaturized Cylindrical Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov Artem, Raitses Yevgeny, Fisch Nathaniel J

    2005-10-14

    Conventional annular Hall thrusters become inefficient when scaled to low power. Cylindrical Hall thrusters, which have lower surface-to-volume ratio, are more promising for scaling down. They presently exhibit performance comparable with conventional annular Hall thrusters. The present paper gives a review of the experimental and numerical investigations of electron crossfield transport in the 2.6 cm miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (100 W power level). We show that, in order to explain the discharge current observed for the typical operating conditions, the electron anomalous collision frequency {nu}{sub b} has to be on the order of the Bohm value, {nu}{sub B} {approx} {omega}{sub c}/16. The contribution of electron-wall collisions to cross-field transport is found to be insignificant. The optimal regimes of thruster operation at low background pressure (below 10{sup -5} Torr) in the vacuum tank appear to be different from those at higher pressure ({approx} 10{sup -4} Torr).

  16. Electron Cross-field Transport in a Low Power Cylindrical Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    A. Smirnov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2004-06-24

    Conventional annular Hall thrusters become inefficient when scaled to low power. Cylindrical Hall thrusters, which have lower surface-to-volume ratio, are therefore more promising for scaling down. They presently exhibit performance comparable with conventional annular Hall thrusters. Electron cross-field transport in a 2.6 cm miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (100 W power level) has been studied through the analysis of experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations of electron dynamics in the thruster channel. The numerical model takes into account elastic and inelastic electron collisions with atoms, electron-wall collisions, including secondary electron emission, and Bohm diffusion. We show that in order to explain the observed discharge current, the electron anomalous collision frequency {nu}{sub B} has to be on the order of the Bohm value, {nu}{sub B} {approx} {omega}{sub c}/16. The contribution of electron-wall collisions to cross-field transport is found to be insignificant.

  17. Electron Transport and Ion Acceleration in a Low-power Cylindrical Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    A. Smirnov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2004-06-24

    Conventional annular Hall thrusters become inefficient when scaled to low power. Cylindrical Hall thrusters, which have lower surface-to-volume ratio, are therefore more promising for scaling down. They presently exhibit performance comparable with conventional annular Hall thrusters. Electron cross-field transport in a 2.6 cm miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (100 W power level) has been studied through the analysis of experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations of electron dynamics in the thruster channel. The numerical model takes into account elastic and inelastic electron collisions with atoms, electron-wall collisions, including secondary electron emission, and Bohm diffusion. We show that in order to explain the observed discharge current, the electron anomalous collision frequency {nu}{sub B} has to be on the order of the Bohm value, {nu}{sub B} {approx} {omega}{sub c}/16. The contribution of electron-wall collisions to cross-field transport is found to be insignificant. The plasma density peak observed at the axis of the 2.6 cm cylindrical Hall thruster is likely to be due to the convergent flux of ions, which are born in the annular part of the channel and accelerated towards the thruster axis.

  18. A particle-in-cell model of the Langmuir probe immersed in Xe plasma under conditions corresponding to those of Hall effect thruster plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenian, Adam; Chernukho, Andrey; Rachubiński, Hubert; Dudeck, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Hall effect thrusters (HETs) are efficient propulsion devices for the station-keeping of geostationary satellites. However, a further efficiency increase requires better knowledge of plasma and plasma-wall interactions. Electric probes are often used for diagnosing HET plasmas but the existing semi-analytical theories, used for the interpretation of probe characteristics, could only be applied with caution. Therefore, in this work a particle-in-cell model of the Langmuir probe immersed in plasma under conditions corresponding to those of HET plasma is developed. It was found that materials with a predominant elastic contribution to secondary electron emission (SEE) will generally lead to lower power deposition on a surface. In the case of inelastic and true SEE processes, the power deposited on a wall depends on the ratio of the sum of secondary electron energies to the electron impact energy. The axial magnetic field also leads to substantial reduction of power deposition on the probe.

  19. Ion velocity and plasma potential measurements of a cylindrical cusped field thruster

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, N. A.; Young, C. V.; Cappelli, M. A.; Hargus, W. A. Jr.

    2012-05-01

    Measurements of the most probable time-averaged axial ion velocities and plasma potential within the acceleration channel and in the plume of a straight-channeled cylindrical cusped field thruster operating on xenon are presented. Ion velocities for the thruster are derived from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 5d[4]{sub 7/2}-6p[3]{sub 5/2} xenon ion excited state transition centered at {lambda}=834.72nm. Plasma potential measurements are made using a floating emissive probe with a thoriated-tungsten filament. The thruster is operated in a power matched condition with 300 V applied anode potential for comparison to previous krypton plasma potential measurements, and a low power condition with 150 V applied anode potential. Correlations are seen between the plasma potential drop outside of the thruster and kinetic energy contours of the accelerating ions.

  20. Performance characteristics according to the channel length and magnetic fields of cylindrical Hall thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongsub; Seo, Mihui; Seon, Jongho; June Lee, Hae; Choe, Wonho

    2011-09-01

    Performance characteristics of low power cylindrical Hall thrusters are investigated in terms of the length of the discharge channel. Thrust, efficiency, discharge current, and propellant utilization are evaluated for different channel lengths of 19, 22, and 25 mm. It is found that the propellant utilization and ion energy distribution function are strongly associated with the channel length. Increase of thrust and efficiency are also found with increasing channel lengths. These characteristics of the thruster are interpreted with possible generation of multi-charged ions due to increased residing time within the extended space inside the channel.

  1. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 E. and 11 W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  2. Systems and methods for cylindrical hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages

    DOEpatents

    Diamant, Kevin David; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel Joseph

    2014-05-13

    Systems and methods may be provided for cylindrical Hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages. The systems and methods may include a cylindrical channel having a center axial direction, a gas inlet for directing ionizable gas to an ionization section of the cylindrical channel, an ionization device that ionizes at least a portion of the ionizable gas within the ionization section to generate ionized gas, and an acceleration device distinct from the ionization device. The acceleration device may provide an axial electric field for an acceleration section of the cylindrical channel to accelerate the ionized gas through the acceleration section, where the axial electric field has an axial direction in relation to the center axial direction. The ionization section and the acceleration section of the cylindrical channel may be substantially non-overlapping.

  3. Cross-field electron transport induced by a rotating spoke in a cylindrical Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, C. L.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2012-01-15

    Rotating spoke phenomena have been observed in a variety of Hall thruster and other E x B devices. It has been suggested that the spoke may be associated with the enhancement of the electron cross-field transport. In this paper, the current conducted across the magnetic field via a rotating spoke has been directly measured for the first time in the E x B discharge of a cylindrical Hall thruster. The spoke current was measured using a segmented anode. Synchronized measurements with a high speed camera and a four-segment anode allow observation of the current as a function of time and azimuthal position. Upwards of 50% of the total current is conducted through the spoke, which occupies a quarter of the Hall thruster channel area. To determine the transport mechanism, emissive and Langmuir probes were installed to measure fluctuating plasma potential, electron density, and temperature. A perturbed, azimuthal electric field and density are observed to oscillate in-phase with the rotating spoke. The resulting drift current is found to enhance electron transport with a magnitude equal to the spoke current to within margins of error.

  4. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    Thruster (PMHET), developed at the Plasma Physics Laboratory of UnB. The idea of using an array of permanent magnets, instead of an electromagnet, to produce a radial magnetic field inside the cylindrical plasma drift channel of the thruster is very attractive, especially because of the possibility of developing a HET with power consumption low enough to be used in small satellites or medium-size satellites with low on board power. Hall-Effect Thrusters are now a very good option for spacecraft primary propulsion and also for station-keeping of medium and large satellites. This is because of their high specific impulse, efficient use of propellant mass and combined low and precise thrust capabilities, which are related to an economy in terms of propellant mass utilization , longer satellite lifetime and easier spacecraft maneuvering in microgravity environment. The first HETs were developed in the mid 1950’s, and they were first called Closed Drift Thrusters. Today, the successful use of electric thrusters for attitude control and orbit modification on hundreds of satellites shows the advanced stage of development of this technology. In addition to this, after the success of space missions such as Deep Space One and Dawn (NASA), Hayabusa (JAXA) and Smart-1 (ESA), the employment of electric thrusters is also consolidated for the primary propulsion of spacecraft. This success is mainly due to three factors: reliability of this technology; efficiency of propellant utilization, and therefore reduction of the initial mass of the ship; possibility of operation over long time intervals, with practically unlimited cycling and restarts. This thrusting system is designed to be used in satellite attitude control and long term space missions. One of the greatest advantage of this kind of thruster is the production of a steady state magnetic field by permanent magnets providing electron trapping and Hall current generation within a significant decrease on the electric energy supply

  5. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    Thruster (PMHET), developed at the Plasma Physics Laboratory of UnB. The idea of using an array of permanent magnets, instead of an electromagnet, to produce a radial magnetic field inside the cylindrical plasma drift channel of the thruster is very attractive, especially because of the possibility of developing a HET with power consumption low enough to be used in small satellites or medium-size satellites with low on board power. Hall-Effect Thrusters are now a very good option for spacecraft primary propulsion and also for station-keeping of medium and large satellites. This is because of their high specific impulse, efficient use of propellant mass and combined low and precise thrust capabilities, which are related to an economy in terms of propellant mass utilization , longer satellite lifetime and easier spacecraft maneuvering in microgravity environment. The first HETs were developed in the mid 1950’s, and they were first called Closed Drift Thrusters. Today, the successful use of electric thrusters for attitude control and orbit modification on hundreds of satellites shows the advanced stage of development of this technology. In addition to this, after the success of space missions such as Deep Space One and Dawn (NASA), Hayabusa (JAXA) and Smart-1 (ESA), the employment of electric thrusters is also consolidated for the primary propulsion of spacecraft. This success is mainly due to three factors: reliability of this technology; efficiency of propellant utilization, and therefore reduction of the initial mass of the ship; possibility of operation over long time intervals, with practically unlimited cycling and restarts. This thrusting system is designed to be used in satellite attitude control and long term space missions. One of the greatest advantage of this kind of thruster is the production of a steady state magnetic field by permanent magnets providing electron trapping and Hall current generation within a significant decrease on the electric energy supply

  6. Observation of a high-energy tail in ion energy distribution in the cylindrical Hall thruster plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Youbong; Kim, Holak; Choe, Wonho Lee, Seung Hun; Seon, Jongho; Lee, Hae June

    2014-10-15

    A novel method is presented to determine populations and ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) of individual ion species having different charge states in an ion beam from the measured spectrum of an E × B probe. The inversion of the problem is performed by adopting the iterative Tikhonov regularization method with the characteristic matrices obtained from the calculated ion trajectories. In a cylindrical Hall thruster plasma, an excellent agreement is observed between the IEDFs by an E × B probe and those by a retarding potential analyzer. The existence of a high-energy tail in the IEDF is found to be mainly due to singly charged Xe ions, and is interpreted in terms of non-linear ion acceleration.

  7. Observation of a high-energy tail in ion energy distribution in the cylindrical Hall thruster plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youbong; Kim, Holak; Choe, Wonho; Lee, Seung Hun; Seon, Jongho; Lee, Hae June

    2014-10-01

    A novel method is presented to determine populations and ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) of individual ion species having different charge states in an ion beam from the measured spectrum of an E × B probe. The inversion of the problem is performed by adopting the iterative Tikhonov regularization method with the characteristic matrices obtained from the calculated ion trajectories. In a cylindrical Hall thruster plasma, an excellent agreement is observed between the IEDFs by an E × B probe and those by a retarding potential analyzer. The existence of a high-energy tail in the IEDF is found to be mainly due to singly charged Xe ions, and is interpreted in terms of non-linear ion acceleration.

  8. Magnetic circuit for hall effect plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David H. (Inventor); Jacobson, David T. (Inventor); Jankovsky, Robert S. (Inventor); Hofer, Richard (Inventor); Peterson, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A Hall effect plasma accelerator includes inner and outer electromagnets, circumferentially surrounding the inner electromagnet along a thruster centerline axis and separated therefrom, inner and outer magnetic conductors, in physical connection with their respective inner and outer electromagnets, with the inner magnetic conductor having a mostly circular shape and the outer magnetic conductor having a mostly annular shape, a discharge chamber, located between the inner and outer magnetic conductors, a magnetically conducting back plate, in magnetic contact with the inner and outer magnetic conductors, and a combined anode electrode/gaseous propellant distributor, located at a bottom portion of the discharge chamber. The inner and outer electromagnets, the inner and outer magnetic conductors and the magnetically conducting back plate form a magnetic circuit that produces a magnetic field that is largely axial and radially symmetric with respect to the thruster centerline.

  9. Quantum spin Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Bernevig, B Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2006-03-17

    The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. The existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2(e/4pi). The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.

  10. Quantum Spin Hall Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-01-15

    The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2 e/4{pi}. The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.

  11. Hall Effect in a Plasma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, W. B.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an apparatus and procedure for conducting an undergraduate laboratory experiment to quantitatively study the Hall effect in a plasma. Includes background information on the Hall effect and rationale for conducting the experiment. (JN)

  12. Spin Hall effect devices.

    PubMed

    Jungwirth, Tomas; Wunderlich, Jörg; Olejník, Kamil

    2012-05-01

    The spin Hall effect is a relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomenon that can be used to electrically generate or detect spin currents in non-magnetic systems. Here we review the experimental results that, since the first experimental observation of the spin Hall effect less than 10 years ago, have established the basic physical understanding of the phenomenon, and the role that several of the spin Hall devices have had in the demonstration of spintronic functionalities and physical phenomena. We have attempted to organize the experiments in a chronological order, while simultaneously dividing the Review into sections on semiconductor or metal spin Hall devices, and on optical or electrical spin Hall experiments. The spin Hall device studies are placed in a broader context of the field of spin injection, manipulation, and detection in non-magnetic conductors.

  13. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Steven S-L; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect-the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt/YIG structures.

  14. Spin Hall effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.

    2015-10-01

    Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical

  15. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.

  16. Ion beam thruster shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An ion thruster beam shield is provided that comprises a cylindrical housing that extends downstream from the ion thruster and a plurality of annular vanes which are spaced along the length of the housing, and extend inwardly from the interior wall of the housing. The shield intercepts and stops all charge exchange and beam ions, neutral propellant, and sputter products formed due to the interaction of beam and shield emanating from the ion thruster outside of a fixed conical angle from the thruster axis. Further, the shield prevents the sputter products formed during the operation of the engine from escaping the interior volume of the shield.

  17. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data from the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 5; Acquire Express-A3 SPT?100 Based Propulsion Subsystem and Other Subsystem Flight Operation TM-Data, Task 31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80deg E. and 11deg W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3-99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  18. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 11; Express/T-160E Project Express A2 and A3 Data Agreement Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.; Dunning, John (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80deg E. and 11deg W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3-99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  19. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Acquire Express-A3 SPT 100 Based Propulsion Subsystem and Other Subsystem Flight Operation TM-Data, Task 33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 deg E and 11 deg W, respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3-99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  20. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 12; Express/T-160 Project Express A2 and A3 Sensors Operations Procedures Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, John (Technical Monitor); Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 deg. E. and 11 deg. W respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  1. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 7; Acquire Express-A3 SPT-100 Based Propulsion Subsystem and Other Subsystem Flight Operation TM-Data, Task 32

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 E. and 11 W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  2. Nonlocal anomalous Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shulei; Vignale, Giovanni

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is a distinctive transport property of ferromagnetic metals arising from spin orbit coupling (SOC) in concert with spontaneous spin polarization. Nonetheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also appears in a nonmagnetic metal in contact with a magnetic insulator. The main puzzle lies in the apparent absence of spin polarized electrons in the non-magnetic metal. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that the scattering of electrons from a rough metal-insulator interface is generally spin-dependent, which results in mutual conversion between spin and charge currents flowing in the plane of the layer. It is the current-carrying spin polarized electrons and the spin Hall effect in the bulk of the metal layer that conspire to generate the AH current. This novel AHE differs from the conventional one only in the spatial separation of the SOC and the magnetization, so we name it as nonlocal AHE. In contrast to other previously proposed mechanisms (e.g., spin Hall AHE and magnetic proximity effect (MPE)), the nonlocal AHE appears on the first order of spin Hall angle and does not rely on the induced moments in the metal layer, which make it experimentally detectable by contrasting the AH current directions of two layered structures such as Pt/Cu/YIG and β -Ta/Cu/YIG (with a thin inserted Cu layer to eliminate the MPE). We predict that the directions of the AH currents in these two trilayers would be opposite since the spin Hall angles of Pt and β -Ta are of opposite signs. Work supported by NSF Grants DMR-1406568.

  3. Magnesium Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    This Phase II project is developing a magnesium (Mg) Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for in situ resource utilization (ISRU)-based solar system exploration. Magnesium is light and easy to ionize. For a Mars- Earth transfer, the propellant mass savings with respect to a xenon Hall effect thruster (HET) system are enormous. Magnesium also can be combusted in a rocket with carbon dioxide (CO2) or water (H2O), enabling a multimode propulsion system with propellant sharing and ISRU. In the near term, CO2 and H2O would be collected in situ on Mars or the moon. In the far term, Mg itself would be collected from Martian and lunar regolith. In Phase I, an integrated, medium-power (1- to 3-kW) Mg HET system was developed and tested. Controlled, steady operation at constant voltage and power was demonstrated. Preliminary measurements indicate a specific impulse (Isp) greater than 4,000 s was achieved at a discharge potential of 400 V. The feasibility of delivering fluidized Mg powder to a medium- or high-power thruster also was demonstrated. Phase II of the project evaluated the performance of an integrated, highpower Mg Hall thruster system in a relevant space environment. Researchers improved the medium power thruster system and characterized it in detail. Researchers also designed and built a high-power (8- to 20-kW) Mg HET. A fluidized powder feed system supporting the high-power thruster was built and delivered to Busek Company, Inc.

  4. Anomalous Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaosa, Naoto; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, Shigeki; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-04-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) occurs in solids with broken time-reversal symmetry, typically in a ferromagnetic phase, as a consequence of spin-orbit coupling. Experimental and theoretical studies of the AHE are reviewed, focusing on recent developments that have provided a more complete framework for understanding this subtle phenomenon and have, in many instances, replaced controversy by clarity. Synergy between experimental and theoretical works, both playing a crucial role, has been at the heart of these advances. On the theoretical front, the adoption of the Berry-phase concepts has established a link between the AHE and the topological nature of the Hall currents. On the experimental front, new experimental studies of the AHE in transition metals, transition-metal oxides, spinels, pyrochlores, and metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors have established systematic trends. These two developments, in concert with first-principles electronic structure calculations, strongly favor the dominance of an intrinsic Berry-phase-related AHE mechanism in metallic ferromagnets with moderate conductivity. The intrinsic AHE can be expressed in terms of the Berry-phase curvatures and it is therefore an intrinsic quantum-mechanical property of a perfect crystal. An extrinsic mechanism, skew scattering from disorder, tends to dominate the AHE in highly conductive ferromagnets. The full modern semiclassical treatment of the AHE is reviewed which incorporates an anomalous contribution to wave-packet group velocity due to momentum-space Berry curvatures and correctly combines the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic (skew-scattering and side-jump) scattering-related mechanisms. In addition, more rigorous quantum-mechanical treatments based on the Kubo and Keldysh formalisms are reviewed, taking into account multiband effects, and demonstrate the equivalence of all three linear response theories in the metallic regime. Building on results from recent experiment and theory, a

  5. Hall effect in a moving liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lieto, Alberto; Giuliano, Alessia; Maccarrone, Francesco; Paffuti, Giampiero

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment, suitable for performing in an undergraduate physics laboratory, illustrates electromagnetic induction through the water entering into a cylindrical rubber tube by detecting the voltage developed across the tube in the direction transverse both to the flow velocity and to the magnetic field. The apparatus is a very simple example of an electromagnetic flowmeter, a device which is commonly used both in industrial and physiological techniques. The phenomenology observed is similar to that of the Hall effect in the absence of an electric current in the direction of motion of the carriers. The experimental results show a dependence on the intensity of the magnetic field and on the carrier velocity, in good agreement with the theory. Discussion of the system, based on classical electromagnetism, indicates that the effect depends only on the flow rate, and is independent both of the velocity profile and of the electrical conductivity of the medium.

  6. Hyperbolic supersymmetric quantum Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Hasebe, Kazuki

    2008-12-15

    Developing a noncompact version of the supersymmetric Hopf map, we formulate the quantum Hall effect on a superhyperboloid. Based on OSp(1|2) group theoretical methods, we first analyze the one-particle Landau problem, and successively explore the many-body problem where the Laughlin wave function, hard-core pseudopotential Hamiltonian, and topological excitations are derived. It is also shown that the fuzzy superhyperboloid emerges at the lowest Landau level.

  7. Optical Hall effect-model description: tutorial.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Mathias; Kühne, Philipp; Darakchieva, Vanya; Hofmann, Tino

    2016-08-01

    The optical Hall effect is a physical phenomenon that describes the occurrence of magnetic-field-induced dielectric displacement at optical wavelengths, transverse and longitudinal to the incident electric field, and analogous to the static electrical Hall effect. The electrical Hall effect and certain cases of the optical Hall effect observations can be explained by extensions of the classic Drude model for the transport of electrons in metals. The optical Hall effect is most useful for characterization of electrical properties in semiconductors. Among many advantages, while the optical Hall effect dispenses with the need of electrical contacts, electrical material properties such as effective mass and mobility parameters, including their anisotropy as well as carrier type and density, can be determined from the optical Hall effect. Measurement of the optical Hall effect can be performed within the concept of generalized ellipsometry at an oblique angle of incidence. In this paper, we review and discuss physical model equations, which can be used to calculate the optical Hall effect in single- and multiple-layered structures of semiconductor materials. We define the optical Hall effect dielectric function tensor, demonstrate diagonalization approaches, and show requirements for the optical Hall effect tensor from energy conservation. We discuss both continuum and quantum approaches, and we provide a brief description of the generalized ellipsometry concept, the Mueller matrix calculus, and a 4×4 matrix algebra to calculate data accessible by experiment. In a follow-up paper, we will discuss strategies and approaches for experimental data acquisition and analysis.

  8. Optical Hall effect-model description: tutorial.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Mathias; Kühne, Philipp; Darakchieva, Vanya; Hofmann, Tino

    2016-08-01

    The optical Hall effect is a physical phenomenon that describes the occurrence of magnetic-field-induced dielectric displacement at optical wavelengths, transverse and longitudinal to the incident electric field, and analogous to the static electrical Hall effect. The electrical Hall effect and certain cases of the optical Hall effect observations can be explained by extensions of the classic Drude model for the transport of electrons in metals. The optical Hall effect is most useful for characterization of electrical properties in semiconductors. Among many advantages, while the optical Hall effect dispenses with the need of electrical contacts, electrical material properties such as effective mass and mobility parameters, including their anisotropy as well as carrier type and density, can be determined from the optical Hall effect. Measurement of the optical Hall effect can be performed within the concept of generalized ellipsometry at an oblique angle of incidence. In this paper, we review and discuss physical model equations, which can be used to calculate the optical Hall effect in single- and multiple-layered structures of semiconductor materials. We define the optical Hall effect dielectric function tensor, demonstrate diagonalization approaches, and show requirements for the optical Hall effect tensor from energy conservation. We discuss both continuum and quantum approaches, and we provide a brief description of the generalized ellipsometry concept, the Mueller matrix calculus, and a 4×4 matrix algebra to calculate data accessible by experiment. In a follow-up paper, we will discuss strategies and approaches for experimental data acquisition and analysis. PMID:27505654

  9. Hall-effect arc protector

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, R.A.; Kotter, D.K.

    1997-05-13

    The Hall-Effect Arc Protector is used to protect sensitive electronics from high energy arcs. The apparatus detects arcs by monitoring an electrical conductor, of the instrument, for changes in the electromagnetic field surrounding the conductor which would be indicative of a possible arcing condition. When the magnitude of the monitored electromagnetic field exceeds a predetermined threshold, the potential for an instrument damaging are exists and the control system logic activates a high speed circuit breaker. The activation of the breaker shunts the energy imparted to the input signal through a dummy load to the ground. After the arc condition is terminated, the normal signal path is restored. 2 figs.

  10. Hall-effect arc protector

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, Richard A.; Kotter, Dale K.

    1997-01-01

    The Hall-Effect Arc Protector is used to protect sensitive electronics from high energy arcs. The apparatus detects arcs by monitoring an electrical conductor, of the instrument, for changes in the electromagnetic field surrounding the conductor which would be indicative of a possible arcing condition. When the magnitude of the monitored electromagnetic field exceeds a predetermined threshold, the potential for an instrument damaging are exists and the control system logic activates a high speed circuit breaker. The activation of the breaker shunts the energy imparted to the input signal through a dummy load to the ground. After the arc condition is terminated, the normal signal path is restored.

  11. Optical Emission Characterization of High-Power Hall Thruster Wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    WIlliams, George J.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2013-01-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy is employed to correlate BN insulator erosion with high-power operation of the NASA 300M Hall-effect thruster. Actinometry leveraging excited xenon states is used to normalize the emission spectra of ground state boron as a function of thruster operating condition. Trends in the strength of the boron signal are correlated with thruster power, discharge voltage, discharge current and magnetic field strength. The boron signals are shown to trend with discharge current and show weak dependence on discharge voltage. The trends are consistent with data previously collected on the NASA 300M and NASA 457M thrusters but are different from conventional wisdom.

  12. Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, A. D.; Dalslet, B. T.; Skieller, D. H.; Lee, K. H.; Okkels, F.; Hansen, M. F.

    2010-07-05

    Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can be significantly enhanced by a geometric factor. For the samples in the present study, we demonstrate an enhancement of the sensor output by a factor of about 100 compared to cross-shaped sensors. The presented construction opens a new design and application area of the planar Hall effect, which we term planar Hall effect bridge sensors.

  13. Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, A. D.; Dalslet, B. T.; Skieller, D. H.; Lee, K. H.; Okkels, F.; Hansen, M. F.

    2010-07-01

    Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can be significantly enhanced by a geometric factor. For the samples in the present study, we demonstrate an enhancement of the sensor output by a factor of about 100 compared to cross-shaped sensors. The presented construction opens a new design and application area of the planar Hall effect, which we term planar Hall effect bridge sensors.

  14. Electrostatic thrusters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Reader, P. D.

    1972-01-01

    The current status of research and development programs on electrostatic thrusters is reviewed. Current programs that utilize mercury electron-bombardment thrusters range from 5- to 30-cm in diameter. Recent progress on the 5-cm thruster has emphasized durability, with accelerator time exceeding 6300 hours and total time on the rest of the thruster exceeding 8300 hours. Recent progress on the 30-cm thruster has been outstanding in dished-grid accelerator systems. Ion beams up to 5 amperes have been obtained for short periods with 1000 volts net accelerating potential difference. The cesium electron-bombardment and cesium contact programs are also described.

  15. Parametric Investigations of Non-Conventional Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2001-01-12

    Hall thrusters might better scale to low power with non-conventional geometry. A 9 cm cylindrical, ceramic-channel, Hall thruster with a cusp-type magnetic field distribution has been investigated. It exhibits discharge characteristics similar to conventional coaxial Hall thrusters, but does not expose as much channel surface. Significantly, its operation is not accompanied by large amplitude discharge low frequency oscillations.

  16. The quantum Hall effect helicity

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, Keshav N.

    2015-04-16

    The quantum Hall effect in semiconductor heterostructures is explained by two signs in the angular momentum j=l±s and g=(2j+1)/(2l+1) along with the Landau factor (n+1/2). These modifications in the existing theories explain all of the fractional charges. The helicity which is the sign of the product of the linear momentum with the spin p.s plays an important role for the understanding of the data at high magnetic fields. In particular it is found that particles with positive sign in the spin move in one direction and those with negative sign move in another direction which explains the up and down stream motion of the particles.

  17. Plasma inside a small Hall thruster for satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabiri, Maziar; Dudeck, Michel; Claudé, Pierre; Guyot, Marcel; Denise, Stéphane; Kurzyna, Jacek

    2014-05-01

    The plasma properties inside the channel of a small Hall effect thruster (petit propulseur innovant) equipped with permanent magnets are analysed by the fluid numerical code HETMAn. The local variables of electron density, electron and ion currents, and parallel and perpendicular electron temperatures are calculated as functions of time. The time-dependent and averaged values of the thruster performance (thrust: 13 mN, specific impulse: 1328 s) are obtained. The global efficiency is 34%.

  18. Low-Cost, High-Performance Hall Thruster Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesterman, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    Colorado Power Electronics (CPE) has built an innovative modular PPU for Hall thrusters, including discharge, magnet, heater and keeper supplies, and an interface module. This high-performance PPU offers resonant circuit topologies, magnetics design, modularity, and a stable and sustained operation during severe Hall effect thruster current oscillations. Laboratory testing has demonstrated discharge module efficiency of 96 percent, which is considerably higher than current state of the art.

  19. Hall Effect Gyrators and Circulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Giovanni; DiVincenzo, David P.

    2014-04-01

    The electronic circulator and its close relative the gyrator are invaluable tools for noise management and signal routing in the current generation of low-temperature microwave systems for the implementation of new quantum technologies. The current implementation of these devices using the Faraday effect is satisfactory but requires a bulky structure whose physical dimension is close to the microwave wavelength employed. The Hall effect is an alternative nonreciprocal effect that can also be used to produce desired device functionality. We review earlier efforts to use an Ohmically contacted four-terminal Hall bar, explaining why this approach leads to unacceptably high device loss. We find that capacitive coupling to such a Hall conductor has much greater promise for achieving good circulator and gyrator functionality. We formulate a classical Ohm-Hall analysis for calculating the properties of such a device, and show how this classical theory simplifies remarkably in the limiting case of the Hall angle approaching 90°. In this limit, we find that either a four-terminal or a three-terminal capacitive device can give excellent circulator behavior, with device dimensions far smaller than the ac wavelength. An experiment is proposed to achieve GHz-band gyration in millimeter (and smaller) scale structures employing either semiconductor heterostructure or graphene Hall conductors. An inductively coupled scheme for realizing a Hall gyrator is also analyzed.

  20. The quantum Hall effects: Philosophical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, P.

    2015-05-01

    The Quantum Hall Effects offer a rich variety of theoretical and experimental advances. They provide interesting insights on such topics as gauge invariance, strong interactions in Condensed Matter physics, emergence of new paradigms. This paper focuses on some related philosophical questions. Various brands of positivism or agnosticism are confronted with the physics of the Quantum Hall Effects. Hacking's views on Scientific Realism, Chalmers' on Non-Figurative Realism are discussed. It is argued that the difficulties with those versions of realism may be resolved within a dialectical materialist approach. The latter is argued to provide a rational approach to the phenomena, theory and ontology of the Quantum Hall Effects.

  1. Quantum Hall effect in momentum space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Tomoki; Price, Hannah M.; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically discuss a momentum-space analog of the quantum Hall effect, which could be observed in topologically nontrivial lattice models subject to an external harmonic trapping potential. In our proposal, the Niu-Thouless-Wu formulation of the quantum Hall effect on a torus is realized in the toroidally shaped Brillouin zone. In this analogy, the position of the trap center in real space controls the magnetic fluxes that are inserted through the holes of the torus in momentum space. We illustrate the momentum-space quantum Hall effect with the noninteracting trapped Harper-Hofstadter model, for which we numerically demonstrate how this effect manifests itself in experimental observables. Extension to the interacting trapped Harper-Hofstadter model is also briefly considered. We finally discuss possible experimental platforms where our proposal for the momentum-space quantum Hall effect could be realized.

  2. Multilayer thin film Hall effect device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N. (Inventor); Sisk, R. Charles (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A Hall effect device and a method of obtaining a magnetic field map of a magnetic body with the Hall effect device are presented. The device comprises: (1) a substrate, (2) a first layer having a first Hall coefficient deposited over the substrate, and (3) a second layer having a second Hall coefficient deposited over the first layer, the first and second layers cooperating to create, in the Hall effect device, a third Hall coefficient different from the first and second Hall coefficients. Creation of the third Hall coefficient by cooperation of the first and second layers allows use of materials for the first and second layers that were previously unavailable for Hall effect devices due to their relatively weak Hall coefficient.

  3. Quantum hall effect at low magnetic fields

    PubMed

    Huckestein

    2000-04-01

    The temperature and scale dependence of resistivities in the standard scaling theory of the integer quantum Hall effect is discussed. It is shown that recent experiments, claiming to observe a discrepancy with the global phase diagram of the quantum Hall effect, are in fact in agreement with the standard theory. The apparent low-field transition observed in the experiments is identified as a crossover due to weak localization and a strong reduction of the conductivity when Landau quantization becomes dominant.

  4. Sheath oscillation characteristics and effect on near-wall conduction in a krypton Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fengkui Kong, Lingyi; Li, Chenliang; Yang, Haiwei; Li, Wei

    2014-11-15

    Despite its affordability, the krypton Hall-effect thruster in applications always had problems in regard to performance. The reason for this degradation is studied from the perspective of the near-wall conductivity of electrons. Using the particle-in-cell method, the sheath oscillation characteristics and its effect on near-wall conduction are compared in the krypton and xenon Hall-effect thrusters both with wall material composed of BNSiO{sub 2}. Comparing these two thrusters, the sheath in the krypton-plasma thruster will oscillate at low electron temperatures. The near-wall conduction current is only produced by collisions between electrons and wall, thereby causing a deficiency in the channel current. The sheath displays spatial oscillations only at high electron temperature; electrons are then reflected to produce the non-oscillation conduction current needed for the krypton-plasma thruster. However, it is accompanied with intensified oscillations.

  5. Extrinsic spin Hall effect from first principles.

    PubMed

    Gradhand, Martin; Fedorov, Dmitry V; Zahn, Peter; Mertig, Ingrid

    2010-05-01

    We present an ab initio description of the spin Hall effect in metals. Our approach is based on density functional theory in the framework of a fully relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method and the solution of a linearized Boltzmann equation including the scattering-in term (vertex corrections). The skew scattering mechanism at substitutional impurities is considered. Spin-orbit coupling in the host as well as at the impurity atom and the influence of spin-flip processes are fully taken into account. A sign change of the spin Hall effect in Cu and Au hosts is obtained as a function of the impurity atom, and even light elements like Li can cause a strong effect. It is shown that the gigantic spin Hall effect in Au can be caused by skew scattering at C and N impurities which are typical contaminations in a vacuum chamber.

  6. Extrinsic Spin Hall Effect from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradhand, Martin; Fedorov, Dmitry V.; Zahn, Peter; Mertig, Ingrid

    2010-05-01

    We present an ab initio description of the spin Hall effect in metals. Our approach is based on density functional theory in the framework of a fully relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method and the solution of a linearized Boltzmann equation including the scattering-in term (vertex corrections). The skew scattering mechanism at substitutional impurities is considered. Spin-orbit coupling in the host as well as at the impurity atom and the influence of spin-flip processes are fully taken into account. A sign change of the spin Hall effect in Cu and Au hosts is obtained as a function of the impurity atom, and even light elements like Li can cause a strong effect. It is shown that the gigantic spin Hall effect in Au can be caused by skew scattering at C and N impurities which are typical contaminations in a vacuum chamber.

  7. Observation of intrinsic inverse spin Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Werake, Lalani K; Ruzicka, Brian A; Zhao, Hui

    2011-03-11

    We report observation of intrinsic inverse spin Hall effect in undoped GaAs multiple quantum wells with a sample temperature of 10 K. A transient ballistic pure spin current is injected by a pair of laser pulses through quantum interference. By time resolving the dynamics of the pure spin current, the momentum relaxation time is deduced, which sets the lower limit of the scattering time between electrons and holes. The transverse charge current generated by the pure spin current via the inverse spin Hall effect is simultaneously resolved. We find that the charge current is generated well before the first electron-hole scattering event. Generation of the transverse current in the scattering-free ballistic transport regime provides unambiguous evidence for the intrinsic inverse spin Hall effect. PMID:21469830

  8. Hall effect degradation of rail gun performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witalis, E. A.; Gunnarsson, Patrik

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the Hall effect and shows it to be significant in the low-density and high-field trailing part of a plasma armature. Without the Hall effect a simple armature model is derived. It exhibits properties expected from classical MHD theory and shows that the purely relativistic electric charge buildup on the rails is a fundamental gun property, leading to V(breech) = 1.5 V(muzzle). The mathematics involved in accounting for Hall effect phenomena is described. These are of two types: the Hall-skewing of the armature current and the superimposed plasma flow rotation. For decreasing gun current the two effects efficiently combine to eject armature plasma rearwards, thus creating conditions for arc separation and parasitic arcs.

  9. The Other Hall Effect: College Board Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Keith; Gunning, Amanda M.

    2013-09-01

    Edwin Herbert Hall (1855-1938), discoverer of the Hall effect, was one of the first winners of the AAPT Oersted Medal for his contributions to the teaching of physics. While Hall's role in establishing laboratory work in high schools is widely acknowledged, his position as chair of the physics section of the Committee on College Entrance Requirements was contentious and his involvement in launching College Board Physics, what we call the "other Hall effect," has largely been overlooked. This article details Hall's role in the development of College Board Physics.

  10. Anomalous Hall effect in localization regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lin; Zhu, Kai; Yue, Di; Tian, Yuan; Jin, Xiaofeng

    2016-06-01

    The anomalous Hall effect in the ultrathin film regime is investigated in Fe(001)(1-3 nm) films epitaxial on MgO(001). The logarithmic localization correction to longitudinal resistivity and anomalous Hall resistivity are observed at low temperature. We identify that the coefficient of skew scattering has a reduction from metallic to localized regime, while the contribution of side jump has inconspicuous change except for a small drop below 10 K. Furthermore, we discover that the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity decreases with the reduction of thickness below 2 nm. Our results provide unambiguous experimental evidence to clarify the problem of localization correction to the anomalous Hall effect.

  11. Anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Jungwirth, T; Niu, Qian; MacDonald, A H

    2002-05-20

    We present a theory of the anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic (III, Mn)V semiconductors. Our theory relates the anomalous Hall conductance of a homogeneous ferromagnet to the Berry phase acquired by a quasiparticle wave function upon traversing closed paths on the spin-split Fermi surface. The quantitative agreement between our theory and experimental data in both (In, Mn)As and (Ga, Mn)As systems suggests that this disorder independent contribution to the anomalous Hall conductivity dominates in diluted magnetic semiconductors. The success of this model for (III, Mn)V materials is unprecedented in the longstanding effort to understand origins of the anomalous Hall effect in itinerant ferromagnets.

  12. Pulsed Plasma Thruster Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Pencil, Eric J.; Carter, Justin; Heminger, Jason; Gatsonis, Nicolas

    1996-01-01

    Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPT's) are currently baselined for the Air Force Mightysat II.1 flight in 1999 and are under consideration for a number of other missions for primary propulsion, precision positioning, and attitude control functions. In this work, PPT plumes were characterized to assess their contamination characteristics. Diagnostics included planar and cylindrical Langmuir probes and a large number of collimated quartz contamination sensors. Measurements were made using a LES 8/9 flight PPT at 0.24, 0.39, 0.55, and 1.2 m from the thruster, as well as in the backflow region behind the thruster. Plasma measurements revealed a peak centerline ion density and velocity of approx. 6 x 10(exp 12) cm(exp -3) and 42,000 m/s, respectively. Optical transmittance measurements of the quartz sensors after 2 x 10(exp 5) pulses showed a rapid decrease in plume contamination with increasing angle from the plume axis, with a barely measurable transmittance decrease in the ultraviolet at 90 deg. No change in optical properties was detected for sensors in the backflow region.

  13. The Other Hall Effect: College Board Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Keith; Gunning, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    Edwin Herbert Hall (1855-1938), discoverer of the Hall effect, was one of the first winners of the AAPT Oersted Medal for his contributions to the teaching of physics. While Hall's role in establishing laboratory work in high schools is widely acknowledged, his position as chair of the physics section of the Committee on College Entrance…

  14. Fractional Quantization of the Hall Effect

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1984-02-27

    The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect is caused by the condensation of a two-dimensional electron gas in a strong magnetic field into a new type of macroscopic ground state, the elementary excitations of which are fermions of charge 1/m, where m is an odd integer. A mathematical description is presented.

  15. Metal-Film Hall-Effect Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.

    1994-01-01

    Large positive and negative Hall coefficients achievable. Family of Hall-effect devices made from multilayer metal films instead of semiconductor materials. Metal films easier to fabricate; formed by deposition on variety of substrates, and leads readily attached to them. Fabricated with larger areas, potentially more reliable, and less affected by impurities. Also used to measure magnetic fields. Devices especially useful at low temperatures.

  16. Observation of a superfluid Hall effect.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Lindsay J; Jiménez-García, Karina; Williams, Ross A; Beeler, Matthew C; Perry, Abigail R; Phillips, William D; Spielman, Ian B

    2012-07-01

    Measurement techniques based upon the Hall effect are invaluable tools in condensed-matter physics. When an electric current flows perpendicular to a magnetic field, a Hall voltage develops in the direction transverse to both the current and the field. In semiconductors, this behavior is routinely used to measure the density and charge of the current carriers (electrons in conduction bands or holes in valence bands)--internal properties of the system that are not accessible from measurements of the conventional resistance. For strongly interacting electron systems, whose behavior can be very different from the free electron gas, the Hall effect's sensitivity to internal properties makes it a powerful tool; indeed, the quantum Hall effects are named after the tool by which they are most distinctly measured instead of the physics from which the phenomena originate. Here we report the first observation of a Hall effect in an ultracold gas of neutral atoms, revealed by measuring a Bose-Einstein condensate's transport properties perpendicular to a synthetic magnetic field. Our observations in this vortex-free superfluid are in good agreement with hydrodynamic predictions, demonstrating that the system's global irrotationality influences this superfluid Hall signal.

  17. Multivariable scaling for the anomalous Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dazhi; Su, Gang; Tian, Yuan; Jin, Xiaofeng; Yang, Shengyuan A; Niu, Qian

    2015-05-29

    We derive a general scaling relation for the anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic metals involving multiple competing scattering mechanisms, described by a quadratic hypersurface in the space spanned by the partial resistivities. We also present experimental findings, which show strong deviation from previously found scaling forms when different scattering mechanisms compete in strength but can be nicely explained by our theory.

  18. Extrinsic spin Hall effect in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappoport, Tatiana

    The intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in graphene is extremely weak, making it a promising spin conductor for spintronic devices. In addition, many applications also require the generation of spin currents in graphene. Theoretical predictions and recent experimental results suggest one can engineer the spin Hall effect in graphene by greatly enhancing the spin-orbit coupling in the vicinity of an impurity. The extrinsic spin Hall effect then results from the spin-dependent skew scattering of electrons by impurities in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. This effect can be used to efficiently convert charge currents into spin-polarized currents. I will discuss recent experimental results on spin Hall effect in graphene decorated with adatoms and metallic cluster and show that a large spin Hall effect can appear due to skew scattering. While this spin-orbit coupling is small if compared with what it is found in metals, the effect is strongly enhanced in the presence of resonant scattering, giving rise to robust spin Hall angles. I will present our single impurity scattering calculations done with exact partial-wave expansions and complement the analysis with numerical results from a novel real-space implementation of the Kubo formalism for tight-binding Hamiltonians. The author acknowledges the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ and INCT de Nanoestruturas de Carbono for financial support.

  19. Is The Intrinsic Spin Hall Effect Measurable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaoyang

    2005-03-01

    Despite of the large intrinsic spin Hall conductivity in a spin- orbit coupled material predicted theoretically, we show that the intrinsic spin Hall effect in any diffusive sample is not measurable via conventional transport methods, thus the research on the intrinsic spin Hall effect is limited at the pure theoretical content. After generally defining the intrinsic and extrinsic transport coefficients, we show that the intrinsic magnetization Hall current, which is the sum of the intrinsic spin and intrinsic orbit-angular-momentum Hall currents, is identically zero. More importantly, we demonstrate that the equation of motion for the spin density does not depend on the intrinsic spin Hall current, therefore the transverse spin accumulation is solely determined by the extrinsic spin Hall current. The zero intrinsic magnetization Hall current and the independence of the spin accumulation on the intrinsic spin Hall effect lead us to conclude that the intrinsic spin Hall effect can not be assessed by conventional spin transport experiments based on the measurement of the magnetization current and the spin accumulation at the edge of the sample.

  20. Quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Penin, Alexander A.

    2009-03-15

    We consider the quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics and find a deviation from the quantum-mechanical prediction for the Hall conductivity due to radiative antiscreening of electric charge in an external magnetic field. A weak dependence of the universal von Klitzing constant on the magnetic field strength, which can possibly be observed in a dedicated experiment, is predicted.

  1. Ion thruster charge-exchange plasma flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Gabriel, S. B.; Kitamura, S.

    1982-01-01

    The electron bombardment ion thruster has been under development for a number of years and during this time, studies of the plasmas produced by the thrusters and their interactions with spacecraft have been evaluated, based on available data. Due to diagnostic techniques used and facility effects, there is uncertainty as to the reliability of data from these early studies. This paper presents data on the flow of the charge-exchange plasma produced just downstream of the thruster's ion optics. The 'end-effect' of a cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to determine ion density and directed ion velocity. Results are compared with data obtained from a retarding potential analyzer-Faraday cup.

  2. The Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Effects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, Alan

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis reports investigations of the electrical conductivity of two-dimensional electron systems in high magnetic fields. Studies of the activated longitudinal conductivity associated with the integer quantum Hall effect reveal a large enhancement of the electronic g-factor, caused by the electron-electron interaction. A similar enhancement is observed in the Landau level separation. The magnetic field dependences of both effects are influenced by sample disorder. The activation data are analysed using three models for the shape of the extended state regions of disorder -broadened Landau levels. Only a small fraction of the electrons are found to occupy extended states. Values of the minimum metallic conductivity of electrons in broadened Landau levels are sample- and electron concentration-dependent. The fractional quantum Hall effect is a property of electrons in an incompressible quantum fluid state. The highest quality samples with low electron concentrations exhibit the effect in the manner predicted by simple theories involving spinless electrons. However, the influence of spin becomes apparent at higher electron concentrations, and in tilted field experiments. The effects of disorder are evident in measurements of the quasiparticle energy gap associated with the fractional quantum Hall effect. The experimental gap energies reported in this thesis are considerably smaller than those of theoretical studies, and they tend to zero at a non-zero magnetic field threshold. Simple theories predict that the fractional quantum Hall effect occurs only at odd denominator fractional occupancies. This thesis reports the first observations of the even denominator fractional quantum Hall effect. Persistent photoconductivity is a useful tool for increasing the concentration of two-dimensional electrons in GaAs-AlGaAs heterojunctions. A new photodeexcitation effect is reported, and possible

  3. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data from the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 8; Acquire TM-Data for Type A and Type B Sensors for "Express A" Number 3 Satellite for the Period of January 1, 2001 to and Including March 31, 2001, Task 27C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, John (Technical Monitor); Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80deg E. and 11deg W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  4. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 10; Acquire TM-Data for Type A and Type B Sensors for "Express-A" Number 3 Satellite for the Period of July 1, 2001 to and Including September 30, 2001, Task 27D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, John (Technical Monitor); Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 E. and 11 W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  5. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 3; Acquire Express-A3 SPT-100 Based Propulsion Subsystem and Other Subsystem Flight Operation TM-Data for the Period of June 24, 2000 to and Including September 30, 2000, Task 30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 E. and 11 W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  6. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 2; Acquire TM Date for Type B Sensors for "Express-A" Number 2 Satellite for the Period of March 12, 2000 to and Including June 15, 2000, Task 25

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, John (Technical Monitor); Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 E. and 11 W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  7. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data from the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 4; Acquire TM-Data for Type A and Type B Sensors for "Express-A" Number 3 Satellite, Task 27A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80deg E., and 11deg W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3-99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  8. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Acquire Express-A2 SPT-100 Based Propulsion Subsystem and Other Subsystem Flight Operation TM-Data for the Period of March 12, 2000 to and Including June 15, 2000, Task 29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 E. and 11 W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney s Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  9. Improved Hall-Effect Sensors For Magnetic Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.; Chen, Y. C.; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.

    1993-01-01

    High-electron-mobility sensor films deposited on superlattice buffer (strain) layers. Improved Hall-effect sensors offer combination of adequate response and high speed needed for use in micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access memories. Hall-effect material chosen for use in sensors is InAs.

  10. The phonon Hall effect: theory and application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifa; Ren, Jie; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen

    2011-08-01

    We present a systematic theory of the phonon Hall effect in a ballistic crystal lattice system, and apply it on the kagome lattice which is ubiquitous in various real materials. By proposing a proper second quantization for the non-Hermitian in the polarization-vector space, we obtain a new heat current density operator with two separate contributions: the normal velocity responsible for the longitudinal phonon transport, and the anomalous velocity manifesting itself as the Hall effect of transverse phonon transport. As exemplified in kagome lattices, our theory predicts that the direction of Hall conductivity at low magnetic field can be reversed by tuning the temperatures, which we hope can be verified by experiments in the future. Three phonon-Hall-conductivity singularities induced by phonon-band-topology change are discovered as well, which correspond to the degeneracies at three different symmetric center points, Γ, K, X, in the wavevector space of the kagome lattice.

  11. Observation of a superfluid Hall effect

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-García, Karina; Williams, Ross A.; Beeler, Matthew C.; Perry, Abigail R.; Phillips, William D.; Spielman, Ian B.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement techniques based upon the Hall effect are invaluable tools in condensed-matter physics. When an electric current flows perpendicular to a magnetic field, a Hall voltage develops in the direction transverse to both the current and the field. In semiconductors, this behavior is routinely used to measure the density and charge of the current carriers (electrons in conduction bands or holes in valence bands)—internal properties of the system that are not accessible from measurements of the conventional resistance. For strongly interacting electron systems, whose behavior can be very different from the free electron gas, the Hall effect’s sensitivity to internal properties makes it a powerful tool; indeed, the quantum Hall effects are named after the tool by which they are most distinctly measured instead of the physics from which the phenomena originate. Here we report the first observation of a Hall effect in an ultracold gas of neutral atoms, revealed by measuring a Bose–Einstein condensate’s transport properties perpendicular to a synthetic magnetic field. Our observations in this vortex-free superfluid are in good agreement with hydrodynamic predictions, demonstrating that the system’s global irrotationality influences this superfluid Hall signal. PMID:22699494

  12. NEXT Ion Thruster Thermal Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanNoord, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    As the NEXT ion thruster progresses towards higher technology readiness, it is necessary to develop the tools that will support its implementation into flight programs. An ion thruster thermal model has been developed for the latest prototype model design to aid in predicting thruster temperatures for various missions. This model is comprised of two parts. The first part predicts the heating from the discharge plasma for various throttling points based on a discharge chamber plasma model. This model shows, as expected, that the internal heating is strongly correlated with the discharge power. Typically, the internal plasma heating increases with beam current and decreases slightly with beam voltage. The second is a model based on a finite difference thermal code used to predict the thruster temperatures. Both parts of the model will be described in this paper. This model has been correlated with a thermal development test on the NEXT Prototype Model 1 thruster with most predicted component temperatures within 5 to 10 C of test temperatures. The model indicates that heating, and hence current collection, is not based purely on the footprint of the magnet rings, but follows a 0.1:1:2:1 ratio for the cathode-to-conical-to-cylindrical-to-front magnet rings. This thermal model has also been used to predict the temperatures during the worst case mission profile that is anticipated for the thruster. The model predicts ample thermal margin for all of its components except the external cable harness under the hottest anticipated mission scenario. The external cable harness will be re-rated or replaced to meet the predicted environment.

  13. Global model of an iodine gridded plasma thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grondein, P.; Lafleur, T.; Chabert, P.; Aanesland, A.

    2016-03-01

    Most state-of-the-art electric space propulsion systems such as gridded and Hall effect thrusters use xenon as the propellant gas. However, xenon is very rare, expensive to produce, and used in a number of competing industrial applications. Alternatives to xenon are currently being investigated, and iodine has emerged as a potential candidate. Its lower cost and larger availability, its solid state at standard temperature and pressure, its low vapour pressure and its low ionization potential make it an attractive option. In this work, we compare the performances of a gridded ion thruster operating separately with iodine and xenon, under otherwise identical conditions using a global model. The thruster discharge properties such as neutral, ion, and electron densities and electron temperature are calculated, as well as the thruster performance parameters such as thrust, specific impulse, and system efficiencies. For similar operating conditions, representative of realistic thrusters, the model predicts similar thrust levels and performances for both iodine and xenon. The thruster efficiency is however slightly higher for iodine compared with xenon, due to its lower ionization potential. This demonstrates that iodine could be a viable alternative propellant for gridded plasma thrusters.

  14. Realization of tunable spin-dependent splitting in intrinsic photonic spin Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Xiaohui; Yi, Xunong; Zhou, Xinxing; Liu, Yachao; Shu, Weixing; Wen, Shuangchun; Luo, Hailu

    2014-10-13

    We report the realization of tunable spin-dependent splitting in intrinsic photonic spin Hall effect. By breaking the rotational symmetry of a cylindrical vector beam, the intrinsic vortex phases that the two spin components of the vector beam carries, which is similar to the geometric Pancharatnam-Berry phase, are no longer continuous in the azimuthal direction, and leads to observation of spin accumulation at the opposite edge of the beam. Due to the inherent nature of the phase and independency of light-matter interaction, the observed photonic spin Hall effect is intrinsic. Modulating the topological charge of the vector beam, the spin-dependent splitting can be enhanced and the direction of spin accumulation is switchable. Our findings may provide a possible route for generation and manipulation of spin-polarized photons, and enables spin-based photonics applications.

  15. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K. W.; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-01

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  16. Excitons in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1984-09-01

    Quasiparticles of charge 1/m in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect form excitons, which are collective excitations physically similar to the transverse magnetoplasma oscillations of a Wigner crystal. A variational exciton wavefunction which shows explicitly that the magnetic length is effectively longer for quasiparticles than for electrons is proposed. This wavefunction is used to estimate the dispersion relation of these excitons and the matrix elements to generate them optically out of the ground state. These quantities are then used to describe a type of nonlinear conductivity which may occur in these systems when they are relatively clean.

  17. Anomalous Hall effect in disordered multiband metals.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, Alexey A; Sinova, Jairo; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2010-07-16

    We present a microscopic theory of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in metallic multiband ferromagnets, which accounts for all scattering-independent contributions, i.e., both the intrinsic and the so-called side jump. For a model of Gaussian disorder, the AHE is expressed solely in terms of the material's electronic band structure. Our theory handles systematically the interband-scattering coherence effects. We demonstrate the method in the 2D Rashba and 3D ferromagnetic (III,Mn)V semiconductor models. Our formalism is directly amenable to ab initio treatments for a wide range of ferromagnetic metals.

  18. Anomalous Hall effect in Weyl metals.

    PubMed

    Burkov, A A

    2014-10-31

    We present a theory of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in a doped Weyl semimetal, or Weyl metal, including both intrinsic and extrinsic (impurity scattering) contributions. We demonstrate that a Weyl metal is distinguished from an ordinary ferromagnetic metal by the absence of the extrinsic and the Fermi surface part of the intrinsic contributions to the AHE, as long as the Fermi energy is sufficiently close to the Weyl nodes. The AHE in a Weyl metal is thus shown to be a purely intrinsic, universal property, fully determined by the location of the Weyl nodes in the first Brillouin zone.

  19. Unconventional integer quantum Hall effect in graphene.

    PubMed

    Gusynin, V P; Sharapov, S G

    2005-09-30

    Monolayer graphite films, or graphene, have quasiparticle excitations that can be described by (2+1)-dimensional Dirac theory. We demonstrate that this produces an unconventional form of the quantized Hall conductivity sigma(xy) = -(2e2/h)(2n+1) with n = 0, 1, ..., which notably distinguishes graphene from other materials where the integer quantum Hall effect was observed. This unconventional quantization is caused by the quantum anomaly of the n=0 Landau level and was discovered in recent experiments on ultrathin graphite films.

  20. Anomalous Hall Effect in a Kagome Ferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Linda; Wicker, Christina; Suzuki, Takehito; Checkelsky, Joseph; Joseph Checkelsky Team

    The ferromagnetic kagome lattice is theoretically known to possess topological band structures. We have synthesized large single crystals of a kagome ferromagnet Fe3Sn2 which orders ferromagnetically well above room temperature. We have studied the electrical and magnetic properties of these crystals over a broad temperature and magnetic field range. Both the scaling relation of anomalous Hall effect and anisotropic magnetic susceptibility show that the ferromagnetism of Fe3Sn2 is unconventional. We discuss these results in the context of magnetism in kagome systems and relevance to the predicted topological properties in this class of compounds. This research is supported by DMR-1231319.

  1. Inverse spin Hall effect by spin injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. Y.; Horing, Norman J. M.; Lei, X. L.

    2007-09-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment [S. O. Valenzuela and M. Tinkham, Nature (London) 442, 176 (2006)], the authors present a quantitative microscopic theory to investigate the inverse spin-Hall effect with spin injection into aluminum considering both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit couplings using the orthogonalized-plane-wave method. Their theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also clear that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall resistivity is mainly due to contributions from extrinsic skew scattering.

  2. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  3. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-01-01

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor. PMID:27025354

  4. Generic superweak chaos induced by Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Ben-Harush, Moti; Dana, Itzhack

    2016-05-01

    We introduce and study the "kicked Hall system" (KHS), i.e., charged particles periodically kicked in the presence of uniform magnetic (B) and electric (E) fields that are perpendicular to each other and to the kicking direction. We show that for resonant values of B and E and in the weak-chaos regime of sufficiently small nonintegrability parameter κ (the kicking strength), there exists a generic family of periodic kicking potentials for which the Hall effect from B and E significantly suppresses the weak chaos, replacing it by "superweak" chaos (SWC). This means that the system behaves as if the kicking strength were κ^{2} rather than κ. For E=0, SWC is known to be a classical fingerprint of quantum antiresonance, but it occurs under much less generic conditions, in particular only for very special kicking potentials. Manifestations of SWC are a decrease in the instability of periodic orbits and a narrowing of the chaotic layers, relative to the ordinary weak-chaos case. Also, for global SWC, taking place on an infinite "stochastic web" in phase space, the chaotic diffusion on the web is much slower than the weak-chaos one. Thus, the Hall effect can be relatively stabilizing for small κ. In some special cases, the effect is shown to cause ballistic motion for almost all parameter values. The generic global SWC on stochastic webs in the KHS appears to be the two-dimensional closest analog to the Arnol'd web in higher dimensional systems. PMID:27300880

  5. Generic superweak chaos induced by Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Harush, Moti; Dana, Itzhack

    2016-05-01

    We introduce and study the "kicked Hall system" (KHS), i.e., charged particles periodically kicked in the presence of uniform magnetic (B ) and electric (E ) fields that are perpendicular to each other and to the kicking direction. We show that for resonant values of B and E and in the weak-chaos regime of sufficiently small nonintegrability parameter κ (the kicking strength), there exists a generic family of periodic kicking potentials for which the Hall effect from B and E significantly suppresses the weak chaos, replacing it by "superweak" chaos (SWC). This means that the system behaves as if the kicking strength were κ2 rather than κ . For E =0 , SWC is known to be a classical fingerprint of quantum antiresonance, but it occurs under much less generic conditions, in particular only for very special kicking potentials. Manifestations of SWC are a decrease in the instability of periodic orbits and a narrowing of the chaotic layers, relative to the ordinary weak-chaos case. Also, for global SWC, taking place on an infinite "stochastic web" in phase space, the chaotic diffusion on the web is much slower than the weak-chaos one. Thus, the Hall effect can be relatively stabilizing for small κ . In some special cases, the effect is shown to cause ballistic motion for almost all parameter values. The generic global SWC on stochastic webs in the KHS appears to be the two-dimensional closest analog to the Arnol'd web in higher dimensional systems.

  6. Effect of nozzle geometry on the performance of laser ablative propulsion thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long; Jiao, Long; Tang, Zhiping; Hu, Xiaojun; Peng, Jie

    2016-05-01

    The performance of "ablation mode" laser propulsion thrusters can be improved obviously by nozzle constraint. The nozzle geometry of "ablation mode" laser propulsion thrusters has been studied experimentally with CO2 lasers. Experimental results indicate that the propulsion performance of cylindrical nozzle thrusters is better than expansionary nozzle thrusters at the same lengths. The cylindrical nozzle thrusters were optimized by different laser energies. The results show that two important factors, the length-to-diameter ratio α and the thruster diameter to laser-spot diameter ratio β, affect the propulsion performance of the thruster obviously. The momentum coupling coefficient C m increases with the increase of α, while C m increases at first and then decreases with the increase of β.

  7. Faster Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Johnson, Daniel D.; Walker, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Current-measuring circuit operates on Hall-effect-sensing and magnetic-field-nulling principles similar to those described in article, "Nulling Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit" (LEW-15023), but simpler and responds faster. Designed without feedback loop, and analog pulse-width-modulated output indicates measured current. Circuit measures current at frequency higher than bandwidth of its Hall-effect sensor.

  8. High-Power Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Michael R.

    2001-01-01

    High-power electromagnetic thrusters have been proposed as primary in-space propulsion options for several of the bold new interplanetary and deep space missions envisioned by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Strategic Enterprise. As the lead center for electric propulsion, the NASA Glenn Research Center is actively involved in the design, development, and testing of high-power electromagnetic technologies to meet these demanding mission requirements. One concept of particular interest is the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster, shown schematically in the preceding figure. In its basic form, the MPD thruster consists of a central cathode surrounded by a concentric cylindrical anode. A high-current arc is struck between the anode and cathode, which ionizes and accelerates a gas (plasma) propellant. In the self-field version of the thruster, an azimuthal magnetic field generated by the current returning through the cathode interacts with the radial discharge current flowing through the plasma to produce an axial electromagnetic body force, providing thrust. In applied field-versions of the thruster, a magnetic field coil surrounding the anode is used to provide additional radial and axial magnetic fields that can help stabilize and accelerate the plasma propellant. The following figure shows an experimental megawatt-class MPD thruster developed at Glenn. The MPD thruster is fitted inside a magnetic field coil, which in turn is mounted on a thrust stand supported by thin metal flexures. A calibrated position transducer is used to determine the force provided by the thruster as a function of thrust stand displacement. Power to the thruster is supplied by a 250-kJ capacitor bank, which provides up to 30- MW to the thruster for a period of 2 msec. This short period of time is sufficient to establish thruster performance similar to steady-state operation, and it allows a number of thruster designs to be quickly and economically evaluated. In concert

  9. Theory of the phonon Hall effect in paramagnetic dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Sheng, L; Sheng, D N; Ting, C S

    2006-04-21

    Based upon Raman spin-lattice interaction, we propose a theoretical model for the phonon Hall effect in paramagnetic dielectrics, which was discovered recently in an experiment [C. Strohm, G. L. J. A. Rikken, and P. Wyder, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 155901 (2005).]. The phonon Hall effect is revealed to be a phonon analogue to the anomalous Hall effect in electron systems. The thermal Hall conductivity is calculated by using the Kubo formula. Our theory reproduces the essential experimental features of the phonon Hall effect, including the sign, magnitude, and linear magnetic field dependence of the thermal Hall conductivity.

  10. Gauge Physics of Spin Hall Effect

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.; Ho, Cong Son; Siu, Zhuobin; Murakami, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Spin Hall effect (SHE) has been discussed in the context of Kubo formulation, geometric physics, spin orbit force, and numerous semi-classical treatments. It can be confusing if the different pictures have partial or overlapping claims of contribution to the SHE. In this article, we present a gauge-theoretic, time-momentum elucidation, which provides a general SHE equation of motion, that unifies under one theoretical framework, all contributions of SHE conductivity due to the kinetic, the spin orbit force (Yang-Mills), and the geometric (Murakami-Fujita) effects. Our work puts right an ambiguity surrounding previously partial treatments involving the Kubo, semiclassical, Berry curvatures, or the spin orbit force. Our full treatment shows the Rashba 2DEG SHE conductivity to be instead of −, and Rashba heavy hole instead of −. This renewed treatment suggests a need to re-derive and re-calculate previously studied SHE conductivity. PMID:26689260

  11. Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaobo; Ye, Ziliang; Rho, Junsuk; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2013-03-22

    The spin Hall effect (SHE) of light is very weak because of the extremely small photon momentum and spin-orbit interaction. Here, we report a strong photonic SHE resulting in a measured large splitting of polarized light at metasurfaces. The rapidly varying phase discontinuities along a metasurface, breaking the axial symmetry of the system, enable the direct observation of large transverse motion of circularly polarized light, even at normal incidence. The strong spin-orbit interaction deviates the polarized light from the trajectory prescribed by the ordinary Fermat principle. Such a strong and broadband photonic SHE may provide a route for exploiting the spin and orbit angular momentum of light for information processing and communication.

  12. Gauge Physics of Spin Hall Effect.

    PubMed

    Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B A; Ho, Cong Son; Siu, Zhuobin; Murakami, Shuichi

    2015-12-22

    Spin Hall effect (SHE) has been discussed in the context of Kubo formulation, geometric physics, spin orbit force, and numerous semi-classical treatments. It can be confusing if the different pictures have partial or overlapping claims of contribution to the SHE. In this article, we present a gauge-theoretic, time-momentum elucidation, which provides a general SHE equation of motion, that unifies under one theoretical framework, all contributions of SHE conductivity due to the kinetic, the spin orbit force (Yang-Mills), and the geometric (Murakami-Fujita) effects. Our work puts right an ambiguity surrounding previously partial treatments involving the Kubo, semiclassical, Berry curvatures, or the spin orbit force. Our full treatment shows the Rashba 2DEG SHE conductivity to be [formula in text] instead of [formula in text], and Rashba heavy hole [formula in text] instead of [formula in text]. This renewed treatment suggests a need to re-derive and re-calculate previously studied SHE conductivity.

  13. Gauge Physics of Spin Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.; Ho, Cong Son; Siu, Zhuobin; Murakami, Shuichi

    2015-12-01

    Spin Hall effect (SHE) has been discussed in the context of Kubo formulation, geometric physics, spin orbit force, and numerous semi-classical treatments. It can be confusing if the different pictures have partial or overlapping claims of contribution to the SHE. In this article, we present a gauge-theoretic, time-momentum elucidation, which provides a general SHE equation of motion, that unifies under one theoretical framework, all contributions of SHE conductivity due to the kinetic, the spin orbit force (Yang-Mills), and the geometric (Murakami-Fujita) effects. Our work puts right an ambiguity surrounding previously partial treatments involving the Kubo, semiclassical, Berry curvatures, or the spin orbit force. Our full treatment shows the Rashba 2DEG SHE conductivity to be instead of -, and Rashba heavy hole instead of -. This renewed treatment suggests a need to re-derive and re-calculate previously studied SHE conductivity.

  14. Anomalous Hall effect in Weyl superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednik, G.; Zyuzin, A. A.; Burkov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We present a theory of the anomalous Hall effect in a topological Weyl superconductor with broken time reversal symmetry. Specifically, we consider a ferromagnetic Weyl metal with two Weyl nodes of opposite chirality near the Fermi energy. In the presence of inversion symmetry, such a metal experiences a weak-coupling Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer instability, with pairing of parity-related eigenstates. Due to the nonzero topological charge, carried by the Weyl nodes, such a superconductor is necessarily topologically nontrivial, with Majorana surface states coexisting with the Fermi arcs of the normal Weyl metal. We demonstrate that, surprisingly, the anomalous Hall conductivity of such a superconducting Weyl metal coincides with that of a nonsuperconducting one, under certain conditions, in spite of the nonconservation of charge in a superconductor. We relate this to the existence of an extra (nearly) conserved quantity in a Weyl metal, the chiral charge.

  15. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K. W.; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-01-01

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials. PMID:27329068

  16. Quantum anomalous Hall effect with higher plateaus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Haijun; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2013-09-27

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in magnetic topological insulators is driven by the combination of spontaneous magnetic moments and spin-orbit coupling. Its recent experimental discovery raises the question if higher plateaus can also be realized. Here, we present a general theory for a QAH effect with higher Chern numbers and show by first-principles calculations that a thin film magnetic topological insulator of Cr-doped Bi2(Se,Te)3 is a candidate for the C=2 QAH insulator. Remarkably, whereas a higher magnetic field leads to lower Hall conductance plateaus in the integer quantum Hall effect, a higher magnetic moment leads to higher Hall conductance plateaus in the QAH effect.

  17. Developments in the quantum Hall effect.

    PubMed

    von Klitzing, Klaus

    2005-09-15

    The most important applications of the quantum Hall effect (QHE) are in the field of metrology. The observed quantization of the resistance is primarily used for the reproduction of the SI unit ohm, but is also important for high precision measurements of both the fine structure constant and the Planck constant. Some current QHE research areas include the analysis of new electron-electron correlation phenomena and the development of a more complete microscopic picture of this quantum effect. Recently, scanning force microscopy (SFM) of the potential distribution in QHE devices has been used to enhance the microscopic understanding of current flow in quantum Hall systems. This confirms the importance of the theoretically predicted stripes of compressible and incompressible electronic states close to the boundary of the QHE devices.

  18. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-01-01

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials. PMID:27329068

  19. Spin Hall effect in doped semiconductor structures.

    PubMed

    Tse, Wang-Kong; Das Sarma, S

    2006-02-10

    In this Letter we present a microscopic theory of the extrinsic spin Hall effect based on the diagrammatic perturbation theory. Side-jump and skew-scattering contributions are explicitly taken into account to calculate the spin Hall conductivity, and we show that their effects scale as sigma(xy)SJ/sigma(xy)SS approximately (h/tau)/epsilonF, with tau being the transport relaxation time. Motivated by recent experimental work we apply our theory to n- and p-doped 3D and 2D GaAs structures, obtaining sigma(s)/sigma(c) approximately 10(-3)-10(-4), where sigma(s(c)) is the spin Hall (charge) conductivity, which is in reasonable agreement with the recent experimental results of Kato et al. [Science 306, 1910 (2004)] in n-doped 3D GaAs system.

  20. Spin Hall Effect in Doped Semiconductor Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Wang-Kong; Das Sarma, Sankar

    2006-03-01

    We present a microscopic theory of the extrinsic spin Hall effect based on the diagrammatic perturbation theory. Side-jump (SJ) and skew-scattering (SS) contributions are explicitly taken into account to calculate the spin Hall conductivity, and we show their effects scale as σxy^SJ/σxy^SS ˜(/τ)/ɛF, where τ being the transport relaxation time. Motivated by recent experimental work we apply our theory to n-doped and p-doped 3D and 2D GaAs structures, obtaining analytical formulas for the SJ and SS contributions. Moreover, the ratio of the spin Hall conductivity to longitudinal conductivity is found as σs/σc˜10-3-10-4, in reasonable agreement with the recent experimental results of Kato et al. [Science 306, 1910 (2004)] in n-doped 3D GaAs system.

  1. Spin Hall Effect in Doped Semiconductor Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Wang-Kong; Das Sarma, S.

    2006-02-01

    In this Letter we present a microscopic theory of the extrinsic spin Hall effect based on the diagrammatic perturbation theory. Side-jump and skew-scattering contributions are explicitly taken into account to calculate the spin Hall conductivity, and we show that their effects scale as σxySJ/σxySS˜(ℏ/τ)/ɛF, with τ being the transport relaxation time. Motivated by recent experimental work we apply our theory to n- and p-doped 3D and 2D GaAs structures, obtaining σs/σc˜10-3-10-4, where σs(c) is the spin Hall (charge) conductivity, which is in reasonable agreement with the recent experimental results of Kato et al. [Science 306, 1910 (2004)]SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1105514 in n-doped 3D GaAs system.

  2. Quantized topological Hall effect in skyrmion crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, Keita; Ezawa, Motohiko; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2015-09-01

    We theoretically study the quantized topological Hall effect (QTHE) in skyrmion crystal (SkX) without external magnetic field. The emergent magnetic field in SkX could be gigantic, as much as 4000 T , when its lattice constant is 1 nm . The band structure is not flat but has a finite gap in the low electron-density regime. We also study the conditions to realize the QTHE for the skyrmion size, carrier density, disorder strength, and temperature. Comparing the SkX and the system under the corresponding uniform magnetic field, the former is more fragile against the temperature compared with the latter since the gap is reduced by a factor of 1/5, while they are almost equally robust against the disorder. Therefore, it is expected that the QTHE of the SkX system is realized even with strong disorder at room temperature when the electron density is of the order of 1 per skyrmion.

  3. Characteristics of the XHT-100 Low Power Hall Thruster Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrenucci, M.; Berti, M.; Biagioni, L.; Cesari, U.; Saverdi, M.

    2004-10-01

    Several space applications indicate the possibility to adopt Mini Hall Thrusters, with discharge power in the range 50 to 200 W, among existing electric thruster propulsion technologies, to match mission propulsion requirements. A nominally 100W Hall Effect Thruster prototype (with an alumina acceleration chamber diameter slightly larger than 29 mm) has been recently designed and manufactured by Alta and Centrospazio, with the purpose of performing a wide range parametric exploration of the main engineering and physical aspects relevant to these devices at low power. During 2004 a preliminary experimental characterization has been performed in Alta's IV-4 test facility (in Pisa, Italy), a 2 m dia. 4 m length AISI 316 L vacuum chamber, equipped with a set of 6 tailored cryopumping surfaces with a total pumping speed on Xe in the order of 70000 l/s. Additional tests will be performed at ESA- ESTEC Electric Propulsion Laboratory (in the Netherlands).

  4. Stacking order dependence of inverse spin Hall effect and anomalous Hall effect in spin pumping experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Il; Kim, Dong-Jun; Seo, Min-Su; Park, Byong-Guk; Park, Seung-Young

    2015-05-01

    The dependence of the measured DC voltage on the non-magnetic material (NM) in NM/CoFeB and CoFeB/NM bilayers is studied under ferromagnetic resonance conditions in a TE011 resonant cavity. The directional change of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) voltage VISHE for the stacking order of the bilayer can separate the pure VISHE and the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) voltage VAHE utilizing the method of addition and subtraction. The Ta and Ti NMs show a broad deviation of the spin Hall angle θISH, which originates from the AHE in accordance with the high resistivity of NMs. However, the Pt and Pd NMs show that the kinds of NMs with low resistivity are consistent with the previously reported θISH values. Therefore, the characteristics that NM should simultaneously satisfy to obtain a reasonable VISHE value in bilayer systems are large θISH and low resistivity.

  5. Quantized anomalous Hall effect in two-dimensional ferromagnets: quantum Hall effect in metals.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Masaru; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2003-05-23

    We study the effect of disorder on the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in two-dimensional ferromagnets. The topological nature of the AHE leads to the integer quantum Hall effect from a metal, i.e., the quantization of sigma(xy) induced by the localization except for the few extended states carrying Chern numbers. Extensive numerical study on a model reveals that Pruisken's two-parameter scaling theory holds even when the system has no gap with the overlapping multibands and without the uniform magnetic field. Therefore, the condition for the quantized AHE is given only by the Hall conductivity sigma(xy) without the quantum correction, i.e., /sigma(xy)/>e(2)/(2h).

  6. Useful Pedagogical Applications of the Classical Hall Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    One of the most known phenomena in physics is the Hall effect. This is mainly due to its simplicity and to the wide range of its theoretical and practical applications. To complete the pedagogical utility of the Hall effect in physics teaching, I will apply it here to determine the Faraday constant as a fundamental physical number and the number…

  7. Destruction of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect by Disorder

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1985-07-01

    It is suggested that Hall steps in the fractional quantum Hall effect are physically similar to those in the ordinary quantum Hall effect. This proposition leads to a simple scaling diagram containing a new type of fixed point, which is identified with the destruction of the fractional states by disorder. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Cusped magnetic field mercury ion thruster. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of a uniform current density profile in the exhaust beam of an electrostatic ion thruster is discussed in terms of thrust level and accelerator system lifetime. A residence time approach is used to explain the nonuniform beam current density profile of the divergent magnetic field thruster. Mathematical expressions are derived which relate the thruster discharge power loss, propellant utilization, and double to single ion density ratio to the geometry and plasma properties of the discharge chamber. These relationships are applied to a cylindrical discharge chamber model of the thruster. Experimental results are presented for a wide range of the discharge chamber length. The thruster designed for this investigation was operated with a cusped magnetic field as well as a divergent field geometry, and the cusped field geometry is shown to be superior from the standpoint of beam profile uniformity, performance, and double ion population.

  9. Second Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The meeting focused on progress made in establishing performance and lifetime expectations of magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters as functions of power, propellant, and design; models for the plasma flow and electrode components; viability and transportability of quasi-steady thruster testing; engineering requirements for high power, long life thrusters; and facilities and their requirements for performance and life testing.

  10. Hall Effect in a Moving Liquid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Lieto, Alberto; Giuliano, Alessia; Maccarrone, Francesco; Paffuti, Giampiero

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment, suitable for performing in an undergraduate physics laboratory, illustrates electromagnetic induction through the water entering into a cylindrical rubber tube by detecting the voltage developed across the tube in the direction transverse both to the flow velocity and to the magnetic field. The apparatus is a very simple…

  11. Hall Effect Measured Using a Waveguide Tee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppock, Joyce; Anderson, James; Johnson, William

    2013-03-01

    We describe a simple microwave apparatus to measure the Hall effect in semiconductor wafers. The advantage of this technique is that it does not require contacts on the sample, unlike the Van der Pauw method.[1] Our method consists of placing the semiconductor wafer into a slot cut in an X-band waveguide tee and placing the tee in the center of an electromagnet. The next step is to inject power into two arms of the tee and to balance the output so that no power comes out of the third arm of the tee at zero magnetic field. Application of a nonzero magnetic field gives a Hall signal that is linear in the magnetic field and which reverses phase when the magnetic field is reversed. We use a network analyzer to measure the ratio of the Hall signal to the input power. This method yields the semiconductor mobility in the wafer, which we can compare for calibration purposes with mobility data from our Van der Pauw measurements. This talk presents data for silicon and germanium samples doped with boron or phosphorus. Preliminary measurements on doped III-V semiconductor samples will also be presented.

  12. Hall Effect Measured Using a Waveguide Tee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppock, Joyce; Anderson, James; Johnson, William

    2014-03-01

    We describe a simple microwave apparatus to measure the Hall effect in semiconductor wafers. The advantage of this technique is that it does not require contacts on the sample or the use of a resonant cavity. Our method consists of placing the semiconductor wafer into a slot cut in an X-band waveguide tee, which lies in the center of an electromagnet, injecting power into the two opposing arms of the tee, and measuring the output at the third arm. Application of a magnetic field gives a Hall signal that is linear in the magnetic field and which reverses phase when the magnetic field is reversed. This method yields the semiconductor mobility, which we can compare for calibration purposes with mobility data from direct-current (Van der Pauw1) measurements. We are in the process of modeling the system using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation to better understand the behavior of the electric fields inside the sample. Resistivity data is obtained by measuring the microwave reflection coefficient of the sample. This talk presents data for silicon and germanium samples doped with boron or phosphorus. Measured mobilities ranged from 270-3000 cm2/V.s . 1L. J. van der Pauw, PhilipsResearchReports 13, 1 (1958)

  13. Gauge Physics of Spin Hall Effect.

    PubMed

    Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B A; Ho, Cong Son; Siu, Zhuobin; Murakami, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Spin Hall effect (SHE) has been discussed in the context of Kubo formulation, geometric physics, spin orbit force, and numerous semi-classical treatments. It can be confusing if the different pictures have partial or overlapping claims of contribution to the SHE. In this article, we present a gauge-theoretic, time-momentum elucidation, which provides a general SHE equation of motion, that unifies under one theoretical framework, all contributions of SHE conductivity due to the kinetic, the spin orbit force (Yang-Mills), and the geometric (Murakami-Fujita) effects. Our work puts right an ambiguity surrounding previously partial treatments involving the Kubo, semiclassical, Berry curvatures, or the spin orbit force. Our full treatment shows the Rashba 2DEG SHE conductivity to be [formula in text] instead of [formula in text], and Rashba heavy hole [formula in text] instead of [formula in text]. This renewed treatment suggests a need to re-derive and re-calculate previously studied SHE conductivity. PMID:26689260

  14. Integer quantum Hall effect and correlated disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Greshnov, A. A. Zegrya, G. G.

    2007-11-15

    The effect of the form of the random potential of impurities and defects on the longitudinal {sigma}{sub xx} and Hall {sigma}{sub xy} components of conductivity in the mode of the integer quantum Hall effect is theoretically investigated. It is shown that the width of the Hall conductivity plateau as well as the peak values of the longitudinal conductivity heavily depend on the ratio {lambda}/a{sub H} between the random potential correlation length and the magnetic length. For the first time, it is established that in the case of the short-wavelength potential {lambda} << a{sub H}, the peak values of {sigma}{sub xx}{sup (N)} are directly proportional to the Landau level number N {>=} 1, {sigma}{sub xx} = 0.5Ne{sup 2}/h, whereas the peak values of {sigma}{sub xx}{sup (N)} are independent of the Landau level number in the case of the long-wavelength potential {lambda} >> a{sub H}, and their magnitude is much lower than 0.5e{sup 2}/h. The obtained results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  15. Hall Effect and Magneto Optical MFL Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallouli, Wissem

    The need for a reliable sensing tool has stimulated countless researchers to develop techniques trying to extract maximum information. In the field of nondestructive testing (NDT), various sensors have been established to fulfill that function. Examples include the ultrasonic, eddy current, and magnetic flux leakage (MFL) based techniques. Because they are extremely reliable, MFL based techniques represent one of the best inspection technologies. These technologies have numerous applications in diverse domains, including petroleum pipeline and tank inspections, airplane inspections, and production quality control. In this work, we will present two technologies based on MFL technique. The first is the Hall Effect sensor. This device has been extensively developed during the last century, especially after the use of integrated circuit technology. Its reliable results even under extreme conditions made it an extremely useful tool. The second technology is Magneto Optical Imaging. This technique rose very recently, and scientists hold high expectations about its performance once proper techniques are developed. The study of these two sensing devices gives a better understanding of the MFL technique by allowing us to investigate the potential of each technology, experience each in studied conditions to derive its characteristics, and discuss its performance.

  16. Hierarchical nature of the quantum Hall effects.

    PubMed

    Bonderson, Parsa

    2012-02-10

    I demonstrate that the wave function for a ν=n+ν[over ˜] quantum Hall state with Landau levels 0,1,…,n-1 filled and a filling fraction ν[over ˜] quantum Hall state with 0<ν[over ˜]≤1 in the nth Landau level can be obtained hierarchically from the ν=n state by introducing quasielectrons which are then projected into the (conjugate of the) ν[over ˜] state. In particular, the ν[over ˜]=1 case produces the filled Landau level wave functions hierarchically, thus establishing the hierarchical nature of the integer quantum Hall states. It follows that the composite fermion description of fractional quantum Hall states fits within the hierarchy theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect. I also demonstrate this directly by generating the composite fermion ground-state wave functions via application of the hierarchy construction to fractional quantum Hall states, starting from the ν=1/m Laughlin states.

  17. Spin Hall effect on a noncommutative space

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Kai; Dulat, Sayipjamal

    2011-07-15

    We study the spin-orbital interaction and the spin Hall effect of an electron moving on a noncommutative space under the influence of a vector potential A(vector sign). On a noncommutative space, we find that the commutator between the vector potential A(vector sign) and the electric potential V{sub 1}(r(vector sign)) of the lattice induces a new term, which can be treated as an effective electric field, and the spin Hall conductivity obtains some correction. On a noncommutative space, the spin current and spin Hall conductivity have distinct values in different directions, and depend explicitly on the noncommutative parameter. Once this spin Hall conductivity in different directions can be measured experimentally with a high level of accuracy, the data can then be used to impose bounds on the value of the space noncommutativity parameter. We have also defined a new parameter, {sigma}={rho}{theta} ({rho} is the electron concentration, {theta} is the noncommutativity parameter), which can be measured experimentally. Our approach is based on the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, which gives a general Hamiltonian of a nonrelativistic electron moving on a noncommutative space.

  18. The Theory of the Quantum Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Keshav N.

    2008-05-01

    Laughlin's theory of fractional charges is worked out in detail for small charges from 1/3 till 1/101. There is a small deviation between computed values and those obtained from the closed form expression. The ground state energy crosses that of the charge-density waves. We develop a theory of fractional charges by using the quantum mechanics of angular momentum. We find that fractional charges can be expressed in terms of spin and the values of charges 0, 1, 1/3, 2/3, 2/5, 3/5, …, are produced. The angular momenta eigen values when subjected to flux quantization, yield plateaus of energies which are independent of the magnetic field. In this way we are able to predict that charges of ±2e, ±6e, ±10e, ±14e, …, are produced. The higher order term in the flux quantization also produces quasiparticles of charges of ±4e. These calculated values of the charges are the same as those found in the experimental data of quantum Hall effect in graphene, which is a mono-atomic layer of carbon. Since the charge of the quasiparticles appears in the resistivity and there is a strong need of the electron spin to predict these charges, spin-charge coupling occurs in a natural way.

  19. Topological Hall effect and Berry phase in magnetic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Bruno, P; Dugaev, V K; Taillefumier, M

    2004-08-27

    We discuss the anomalous Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas subject to a spatially varying magnetization. This topological Hall effect does not require any spin-orbit coupling and arises solely from Berry phase acquired by an electron moving in a smoothly varying magnetization. We propose an experiment with a structure containing 2D electrons or holes of diluted magnetic semiconductor subject to the stray field of a lattice of magnetic nanocylinders. The striking behavior predicted for such a system (of which all relevant parameters are well known) allows one to observe unambiguously the topological Hall effect and to distinguish it from other mechanisms. PMID:15447127

  20. Magnet/Hall-Effect Random-Access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.

    1991-01-01

    In proposed magnet/Hall-effect random-access memory (MHRAM), bits of data stored magnetically in Perm-alloy (or equivalent)-film memory elements and read out by using Hall-effect sensors to detect magnetization. Value of each bit represented by polarity of magnetization. Retains data for indefinite time or until data rewritten. Speed of Hall-effect sensors in MHRAM results in readout times of about 100 nanoseconds. Other characteristics include high immunity to ionizing radiation and storage densities of order 10(Sup6)bits/cm(Sup 2) or more.

  1. Extrinsic spin Hall effect induced by iridium impurities in copper.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Y; Morota, M; Wei, D H; Deranlot, C; Basletic, M; Hamzic, A; Fert, A; Otani, Y

    2011-03-25

    We study the extrinsic spin Hall effect induced by Ir impurities in Cu by injecting a pure spin current into a CuIr wire from a lateral spin valve structure. While no spin Hall effect is observed without Ir impurity, the spin Hall resistivity of CuIr increases linearly with the impurity concentration. The spin Hall angle of CuIr, (2.1±0.6)% throughout the concentration range between 1% and 12%, is practically independent of temperature. These results represent a clear example of predominant skew scattering extrinsic contribution to the spin Hall effect in a nonmagnetic alloy.

  2. Extrinsic Spin Hall Effect Induced by Iridium Impurities in Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimi, Y.; Morota, M.; Wei, D. H.; Deranlot, C.; Basletic, M.; Hamzic, A.; Fert, A.; Otani, Y.

    2011-03-01

    We study the extrinsic spin Hall effect induced by Ir impurities in Cu by injecting a pure spin current into a CuIr wire from a lateral spin valve structure. While no spin Hall effect is observed without Ir impurity, the spin Hall resistivity of CuIr increases linearly with the impurity concentration. The spin Hall angle of CuIr, (2.1±0.6)% throughout the concentration range between 1% and 12%, is practically independent of temperature. These results represent a clear example of predominant skew scattering extrinsic contribution to the spin Hall effect in a nonmagnetic alloy.

  3. Anomalous Hall effect in YIG|Pt bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Sibylle Schlitz, Richard; Geprägs, Stephan; Opel, Matthias; Huebl, Hans; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Gross, Rudolf

    2015-03-30

    We measure the ordinary and the anomalous Hall effect in a set of yttrium iron garnet|platinum (YIG|Pt) bilayers via magnetization orientation dependent magnetoresistance experiments. Our data show that the presence of the ferrimagnetic insulator YIG leads to an anomalous Hall effect like voltage in Pt, which is sensitive to both Pt thickness and temperature. Interpretation of the experimental findings in terms of the spin Hall anomalous Hall effect indicates that the imaginary part of the spin mixing conductance G{sub i} plays a crucial role in YIG|Pt bilayers. In particular, our data suggest a sign change in G{sub i} between 10 K and 300 K. Additionally, we report a higher order Hall effect contribution, which appears in thin Pt films on YIG at low temperatures.

  4. Improved Readout For Micromagnet/Hall-Effect Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.

    1993-01-01

    Two improved readout circuits for micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access memories designed to eliminate current shunts introducing errors into outputs of older readout circuits. Incorporate additional switching transistors to isolate Hall sensors as needed.

  5. Fractional quantum Hall effect in the absence of Landau levels.

    PubMed

    Sheng, D N; Gu, Zheng-Cheng; Sun, Kai; Sheng, L

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the topological phenomena with fractional excitations, the fractional quantum Hall effect, will emerge when electrons move in Landau levels. Here we show the theoretical discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect in the absence of Landau levels in an interacting fermion model. The non-interacting part of our Hamiltonian is the recently proposed topologically non-trivial flat-band model on a checkerboard lattice. In the presence of nearest-neighbouring repulsion, we find that at 1/3 filling, the Fermi-liquid state is unstable towards the fractional quantum Hall effect. At 1/5 filling, however, a next-nearest-neighbouring repulsion is needed for the occurrence of the 1/5 fractional quantum Hall effect when nearest-neighbouring repulsion is not too strong. We demonstrate the characteristic features of these novel states and determine the corresponding phase diagram.

  6. Stacking order dependence of inverse spin Hall effect and anomalous Hall effect in spin pumping experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-Il; Seo, Min-Su; Park, Seung-Young; Kim, Dong-Jun; Park, Byong-Guk

    2015-05-07

    The dependence of the measured DC voltage on the non-magnetic material (NM) in NM/CoFeB and CoFeB/NM bilayers is studied under ferromagnetic resonance conditions in a TE{sub 011} resonant cavity. The directional change of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) voltage V{sub ISHE} for the stacking order of the bilayer can separate the pure V{sub ISHE} and the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) voltage V{sub AHE} utilizing the method of addition and subtraction. The Ta and Ti NMs show a broad deviation of the spin Hall angle θ{sub ISH}, which originates from the AHE in accordance with the high resistivity of NMs. However, the Pt and Pd NMs show that the kinds of NMs with low resistivity are consistent with the previously reported θ{sub ISH} values. Therefore, the characteristics that NM should simultaneously satisfy to obtain a reasonable V{sub ISHE} value in bilayer systems are large θ{sub ISH} and low resistivity.

  7. Nulling Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Vazquez, Juan M.; Berru, Robert I.

    1993-01-01

    Circuit measures electrical current via combination of Hall-effect-sensing and magnetic-field-nulling techniques. Known current generated by feedback circuit adjusted until it causes cancellation or near cancellation of magnetic field produced in toroidal ferrite core by current measured. Remaining magnetic field measured by Hall-effect sensor. Circuit puts out analog signal and digital signal proportional to current measured. Accuracy of measurement does not depend on linearity of sensing components.

  8. Hall-Effect Current Sensors For Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1989-01-01

    Built-in devices measure direct or alternating currents. Hall-effect sensors placed near constriction in conductor strip. Differential configuration reduces effects of stray magnetic fields, nonlinearities, and changes in temperature. Preliminary design studies and experiments with macroscopic commercial Hall-effect sensors conducted to assess feasibility, limitations, and need for further research and development of this concept. Potential applications include programmable power supplies and protective circuitry.

  9. 15 cm multipole gas ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaacson, G. C.; Kaufman, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    A 15-cm multipole thruster was operated on argon and xenon. The multipole approach used has been shown capable of low discharge losses and flat ion beam profiles with a minimum of redesign. This approach employs low magnetic field strengths and flat or cylindrical sheet-metal parts, hence is suited to rapid optimization and scaling. Only refractory metal cathodes were used in this investigation.

  10. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force actingmore » on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Lastly, our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.« less

  11. Pulsed hall thruster system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, Vladimir J. (Inventor); Pote, Bruce M. (Inventor); Gamero-Castano, Manuel (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A pulsed Hall thruster system includes a Hall thruster having an electron source, a magnetic circuit, and a discharge chamber; a power processing unit for firing the Hall thruster to generate a discharge; a propellant storage and delivery system for providing propellant to the discharge chamber and a control unit for defining a pulse duration .tau.<0.1d.sup.3.rho./m, where d is the characteristic size of the thruster, .rho. is the propellant density at standard conditions, and m is the propellant mass flow rate for operating either the power processing unit to provide to the Hall thruster a power pulse of a pre-selected duration, .tau., or operating the propellant storage and delivery system to provide a propellant flow pulse of duration, .tau., or providing both as pulses, synchronized to arrive coincidentally at the discharge chamber to enable the Hall thruster to produce a discreet output impulse.

  12. High Power Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert; Tverdokhlebov, Sergery; Manzella, David

    1999-01-01

    The development of Hall thrusters with powers ranging from tens of kilowatts to in excess of one hundred kilowatts is considered based on renewed interest in high power. high thrust electric propulsion applications. An approach to develop such thrusters based on previous experience is discussed. It is shown that the previous experimental data taken with thrusters of 10 kW input power and less can be used. Potential mass savings due to the design of high power Hall thrusters are discussed. Both xenon and alternate thruster propellant are considered, as are technological issues that will challenge the design of high power Hall thrusters. Finally, the implications of such a development effort with regard to ground testing and spacecraft intecrati'on issues are discussed.

  13. MPD thruster technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1991-01-01

    Inhouse magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology is discussed. The study focussed on steady state thrusters at powers of less than 1 MW. Performance measurement and diagnostics technologies were developed for high power thrusters. Also developed was a MPD computer code. The stated goals of the program are to establish: performance and life limitation; influence of applied fields; propellant effects; and scaling laws. The presentation is mostly through graphs and charts.

  14. Oxygen-Methane Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickens, Tim

    2012-01-01

    An oxygen-methane thruster was conceived with integrated igniter/injector capable of nominal operation on either gaseous or liquid propellants. The thruster was designed to develop 100 lbf (approximately 445 N) thrust at vacuum conditions and use oxygen and methane as propellants. This continued development included refining the design of the thruster to minimize part count and manufacturing difficulties/cost, refining the modeling tools and capabilities that support system design and analysis, demonstrating the performance of the igniter and full thruster assembly with both gaseous and liquid propellants, and acquiring data from this testing in order to verify the design and operational parameters of the thruster. Thruster testing was conducted with gaseous propellants used for the igniter and thruster. The thruster was demonstrated to work with all types of propellant conditions, and provided the desired performance. Both the thruster and igniter were tested, as well as gaseous propellants, and found to provide the desired performance using the various propellant conditions. The engine also served as an injector testbed for MSFC-designed refractory combustion chambers made of rhenium.

  15. Mesoscopic spin Hall effect in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarbo, Liviu

    The spin Hall effect (SHE) is a name given to a collection of diverse phenomena which share two principal features: (i) longitudinal electric current flowing through a paramagnetic semiconductor or metallic sample leads to transverse spin current and spin accumulation of opposite sign at opposing lateral edges; (ii) SHE does not require externally applied magnetic field or magnetic ordering in the equilibrium state of the sample, instead it relies on the presence of spin-orbit (SO) couplings within the sample. This thesis elaborates on a new type of phenomenon within the SHE family, predicted in our recent studies [Phys. Rev. B 72, 075361 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046601 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 72, 075335 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 73 , 075303 (2006); and Europhys. Lett. 77, 47004 (2007)], where pure spin current flows through the transverse electrodes attached to a clean finitesize two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) due to unpolarized charge current injected through its longitudinal leads. If transverse leads are removed, the effect manifests as nonequilibrium spin Hall accumulation at the lateral edges of 2DEG wires. The SO coupling driving this SHE effect is of the Rashba type, which arises due to structural inversion asymmetry of semiconductor heterostructure hosting the 2DEG. We term the effect "mesoscopic" because the spin Hall currents and accumulations reach optimal value in samples of the size of the spin precession length---the distance over which the spin of an electron precesses by an angle pi. In strongly SO-coupled structures this scale is of the order of ˜100 nm, and, therefore, mesoscopic in the sense of being much larger than the characteristic microscopic scales (such as the Fermi wavelength, screening length, or the mean free path in disordered systems), but still much smaller than the macroscopic ones. Although the first theoretical proposal for SHE, driven by asymmetry in SO-dependent scattering of spin-up and spin-down electrons off impurities

  16. Iodine Hall Thruster Propellant Feed System for a CubeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Peeples, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The components required for an in-space iodine vapor-fed Hall effect thruster propellant management system are described. A laboratory apparatus was assembled and used to produce iodine vapor and control the flow through the application of heating to the propellant reservoir and through the adjustment of the opening in a proportional flow control valve. Changing of the reservoir temperature altered the flowrate on the timescale of minutes while adjustment of the proportional flow control valve changed the flowrate immediately without an overshoot or undershoot in flowrate with the requisite recovery time associated with thermal control systems. The flowrates tested spanned a range from 0-1.5 mg/s of iodine, which is sufficient to feed a 200-W Hall effect thruster.

  17. The BMDO Thruster-on-a-Pallet Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caveny, Leonard H.; Curran, Francis M.; Sankovic, John M.; Allen, Douglas M.; Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles

    1995-01-01

    The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization sponsors an aggressive program to develop and demonstrate electric propulsion and space power technologies for future missions. This program supports a focused effort to design, fabricate, and space qualify a Russian Hall thruster system-on-a-pallet ready to take advantage of a near-term flight opportunity. The Russian Hall Effect Thruster Technology (RHETT) program will demonstrate an integrated pallet design in late FY95. The program also includes a parallel effort to develop advanced Solar Concentrator Arrays with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET). This synergistic technology will be demonstrated in a flight experiment this summer on the Comet satellite. This paper provides an overview of the RHETT and SCARLET programs with an emphasis on electric propulsion, recent progress, and near-term program plans.

  18. Vacuum arc plasma thrusters with inductive energy storage driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A plasma thruster with a cylindrical inner and cylindrical outer electrode generates plasma particles from the application of energy stored in an inductor to a surface suitable for the formation of a plasma and expansion of plasma particles. The plasma production results in the generation of charged particles suitable for generating a reaction force, and the charged particles are guided by a magnetic field produced by the same inductor used to store the energy used to form the plasma.

  19. Enigmatic 12/5 fractional quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakrouski, Kiryl; Troyer, Matthias; Wu, Yang-Le; Das Sarma, Sankar; Peterson, Michael R.

    2016-08-01

    We numerically study the fractional quantum Hall effect at filling factors ν =12 /5 and 13/5 (the particle-hole conjugate of 12/5) in high-quality two-dimensional GaAs heterostructures via exact diagonalization including finite well width and Landau-level mixing. We find that Landau-level mixing suppresses the ν =13 /5 fractional quantum Hall effect relative to ν =12 /5 . By contrast, we find both ν =2 /5 and (its particle-hole conjugate) ν =3 /5 fractional quantum Hall effects in the lowest Landau level to be robust under Landau-level mixing and finite well-width corrections. Our results provide a possible explanation for the experimental absence of the 13/5 fractional quantum Hall state as caused by Landau-level mixing effects.

  20. Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, Vladislav; Roy, Debangsu; Schultz, Moty; Klein, Lior

    2016-02-01

    We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a) an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b) an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.

  1. NASA's Hall Thruster Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Jacobson, David T.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Mason, Lee S.; Mantenieks, Maris A.; Manzella, David H.; Hofer, Richard R.; Peterson, Peter Y.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Hall thruster program has base research and focused development efforts in support of the Advanced Space Transportation Program, Space-Based Program, and various other programs. The objective of the base research is to gain an improved understanding of the physical processes and engineering constraints of Hall thrusters to enable development of advanced Hall thruster designs. Specific technical questions that are current priorities of the base effort are: (1) How does thruster life vary with operating point? (2) How can thruster lifetime and wear rate be most efficiently evaluated? (3) What are the practical limitations for discharge voltage as it pertains to high specific impulse operation (high discharge voltage) and high thrust operation (low discharge voltage)? (4) What are the practical limits for extending Hall thrusters to very high input powers? and (5) What can be done during thruster design to reduce cost and integration concerns? The objective of the focused development effort is to develop a 50 kW-class Hall propulsion system, with a milestone of a 50 kW engineering model thruster/system by the end of program year 2006. Specific program wear 2001 efforts, along with the corporate and academic participation, are described.

  2. Thruster endurance test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C.

    1976-01-01

    A test system was built and several short term tests were completed. The test system included, in addition to the 30-cm ion thruster, a console for powering the thruster and monitoring performance, a vacuum facility for simulating a space environment, and a storage and feed system for the thruster propellant. This system was used to perform three short term tests (one 100-hour and two 500-hour tests), an 1108-hour endurance test which was aborted by a vacuum facility failure, and finally the 10,000-hour endurance test. In addition to the two 400 series thrusters which were used in the short term and 1100-hour tests, four more 400 series thrusters were fabricated, checked out, and delivered to NASA. Three consoles similar to the one used in the test program were also fabricated and delivered.

  3. Anomalous Hall Effect in a Feromagnetic Rare-Earth Cobalite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoilov, A. V.; Yeh, N. C.; Vasquez, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    Rare-Earth manganites and cobalites with the perovskite structure have been a subject of great recent interest because their electrical resistance changes significantly when a magnetic field is applied...we have studied the Hall effect in thin film La(sub 0.5)Ca(sub 0.5)CoO(sub 3) material and have obtained convincing evidence fo the so called anomalous Hall effect, typical for magnetic metals...Our results suggest that near the ferromagnetic ordering temperature, the dominant electron scattering mechanism is the spin fluctuation.

  4. Properties of the photonic Hall effect in cold atomic clouds.

    PubMed

    Grémaud, Benoît; Delande, Dominique; Sigwarth, Olivier; Miniatura, Christian

    2009-05-29

    On the basis of exact numerical simulations and analytical calculations, we describe qualitatively and quantitatively the interference processes at the origin of the photonic Hall effect for resonant Rayleigh (point-dipole) scatterers in a magnetic field. For resonant incoming light, the induced giant magneto-optical effects result, even for magnetic field strength as low as a few mT, in relative Hall currents in the percent range. This suggests that the observation of the photonic Hall effect in cold atomic vapors is within experimental reach.

  5. Spin-Drag Hall Effect in a Rotating Bose Mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Driel, H. J. van; Duine, R. A.; Stoof, H. T. C.

    2010-10-08

    We show that in a rotating two-component Bose mixture, the spin drag between the two different spin species shows a Hall effect. This spin-drag Hall effect can be observed experimentally by studying the out-of-phase dipole mode of the mixture. We determine the damping of this mode due to spin drag as a function of temperature. We find that due to Bose stimulation there is a strong enhancement of the damping for temperatures close to the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation.

  6. Linear magnetization dependence of the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Changgan; Yao, Yugui; Niu, Qian; Weitering, Hanno H

    2006-01-27

    The anomalous Hall effect is investigated experimentally and theoretically for ferromagnetic thin films of Mn5Ge3. We have separated the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the experimental anomalous Hall effect and calculated the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity from the Berry curvature of the Bloch states using first-principles methods. The intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity depends linearly on the magnetization, which can be understood from the long-wavelength fluctuations of the spin orientation at finite temperatures. The quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is remarkably good, not only near 0 K but also at finite temperatures, up to about approximately 240 K (0.8TC).

  7. Combinatorial measurements of Hall effect and resistivity in oxide films.

    PubMed

    Clayhold, J A; Kerns, B M; Schroer, M D; Rench, D W; Logvenov, G; Bollinger, A T; Bozovic, I

    2008-03-01

    A system for the simultaneous measurement of the Hall effect in 31 different locations as well as the measurement of the resistivity in 30 different locations on a single oxide thin film grown with a composition gradient is described. Considerations for designing and operating a high-throughput system for characterizing highly conductive oxides with Hall coefficients as small as 10(-10) m3/C are discussed. Results from measurements on films grown using combinatorial molecular beam epitaxy show the usefulness of characterizing combinatorial libraries via both the resistivity and the Hall effect. PMID:18377026

  8. Spin accumulation in the extrinsic spin Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Wang-Kong; Fabian, J.; Žutić, I.; Das Sarma, S.

    2005-12-01

    The drift-diffusion formalism for spin-polarized carrier transport in semiconductors is generalized to include spin-orbit coupling. The theory is applied to treat the extrinsic spin Hall effect using realistic boundary conditions. It is shown that carrier and spin-diffusion lengths are modified by the presence of spin-orbit coupling and that spin accumulation due to the extrinsic spin Hall effect is strongly and qualitatively influenced by boundary conditions. Analytical formulas for the spin-dependent carrier recombination rates and inhomogeneous spin densities and currents are presented.

  9. Observation of the Spin Hall Effect in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Y. K.; Myers, R. C.; Gossard, A. C.; Awschalom, D. D.

    2004-12-01

    Electrically induced electron-spin polarization near the edges of a semiconductor channel was detected and imaged with the use of Kerr rotation microscopy. The polarization is out-of-plane and has opposite sign for the two edges, consistent with the predictions of the spin Hall effect. Measurements of unstrained gallium arsenide and strained indium gallium arsenide samples reveal that strain modifies spin accumulation at zero magnetic field. A weak dependence on crystal orientation for the strained samples suggests that the mechanism is the extrinsic spin Hall effect.

  10. Observation of the spin Hall effect in semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Kato, Y K; Myers, R C; Gossard, A C; Awschalom, D D

    2004-12-10

    Electrically induced electron-spin polarization near the edges of a semiconductor channel was detected and imaged with the use of Kerr rotation microscopy. The polarization is out-of-plane and has opposite sign for the two edges, consistent with the predictions of the spin Hall effect. Measurements of unstrained gallium arsenide and strained indium gallium arsenide samples reveal that strain modifies spin accumulation at zero magnetic field. A weak dependence on crystal orientation for the strained samples suggests that the mechanism is the extrinsic spin Hall effect.

  11. Tunable spin Hall effect by Stern-Gerlach diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun-Qiang; Zhang, X.-G.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2006-12-01

    We propose an effect based on simultaneous real- and reciprocal-space magnetic inhomogeneities, combining features of the Stern-Gerlach and both the intrinsic and extrinsic spin Hall effects. The known difficulties of directly observing the spin Hall effect are circumvented as spin currents generated from the effect are well-defined, dissipative, and detectable. Simulations of a specific system are used to illustrate wide tunability, allowing formation of a periodic “spin lattice” distinct from the “charge lattice,” selective polarization flipping, or spin current detection. Similar effects can be produced by photons and neutrons.

  12. Multi-Thruster Propulsion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An electric propulsion machine includes an ion thruster having a discharge chamber housing a large surface area anode. The ion thruster includes flat annular ion optics with a small span to gap ratio. Optionally, at least a second thruster may be disposed radially offset from the ion thruster.

  13. Mercury ion thruster technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Matossian, J. N.

    1989-01-01

    The Mercury Ion Thruster Technology program was an investigation for improving the understanding of state-of-the-art mercury ion thrusters. Emphasis was placed on optimizing the performance and simplifying the design of the 30 cm diameter ring-cusp discharge chamber. Thruster performance was improved considerably; the baseline beam-ion production cost of the optimized configuration was reduced to Epsilon (sub i) perspective to 130 eV/ion. At a discharge propellant-utilization efficiency of 95 percent, the beam-ion production cost was reduced to about 155 eV/ion, representing a reduction of about 40 eV/ion over the corresponding value for the 30 cm diameter J-series thruster. Comprehensive Langmuir-probe surveys were obtained and compared with similar measurements for a J-series thruster. A successful volume-averaging scheme was developed to correlate thruster performance with the dominant plasma processes that prevail in the two thruster designs. The average Maxwellian electron temperature in the optimized ring-cusp design is as much as 1 eV higher than it is in the J-series thruster. Advances in ion-extraction electrode fabrication technology were made by improving materials selection criteria, hydroforming and stress-relieving tooling, and fabrications procedures. An ion-extraction performance study was conducted to assess the effect of screen aperture size on ion-optics performance and to verify the effectiveness of a beam-vectoring model for three-grid ion optics. An assessment of the technology readiness of the J-series thruster was completed, and operation of an 8 cm IAPS thruster using a simplified power processor was demonstrated.

  14. Gimballing Spacecraft Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickens, Tim; Bossard, John

    2010-01-01

    A gimballing spacecraft reaction-control-system thruster was developed that consists of a small hydrogen/oxygen-burning rocket engine integrated with a Canfield joint. (Named after its inventor, a Canfield joint is a special gimbal mount that is strong and stable yet allows a wide range of motion.) One especially notable aspect of the design of this thruster is integration, into both the stationary legs and the moving arms of the Canfield joint, of the passages through which the hydrogen and oxygen flow to the engine. The thruster was assembled and subjected to tests in which the engine was successfully fired both with and without motion in the Canfield joint.

  15. Integrated Stirling Convertor and Hall Thruster Test Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2002-01-01

    An important aspect of implementing Stirling Radioisotope Generators on future NASA missions is the integration of the generator and controller with potential spacecraft loads. Some recent studies have indicated that the combination of Stirling Radioisotope Generators and electric propulsion devices offer significant trip time and payload fraction benefits for deep space missions. A test was devised to begin to understand the interactions between Stirling generators and electric thrusters. An electrically heated RG- 350 (350-W output) Stirling convertor, designed and built by Stirling Technology Company of Kennewick, Washington, under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research agreement, was coupled to a 300-W SPT-50 Hall-effect thruster built for NASA by the Moscow Aviation Institute (RIAME). The RG-350 and the SPT-50 shown, were installed in adjacent vacuum chamber ports at NASA Glenn Research Center's Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Vacuum Facility 8. The Stirling electrical controller interfaced directly with the Hall thruster power-processing unit, both of which were located outside of the vacuum chamber. The power-processing unit accepted the 48 Vdc output from the Stirling controller and distributed the power to all the loads of the SPT-50, including the magnets, keeper, heater, and discharge. On February 28, 2001, the Glenn test team successfully operated the Hall-effect thruster with the Stirling convertor. This is the world's first known test of a dynamic power source with electric propulsion. The RG-350 successfully managed the transition from the purely resistive load bank within the Stirling controller to the highly capacitive power-processing unit load. At the time of the demonstration, the Stirling convertor was operating at a hot temperature of 530 C and a cold temperature of -6 C. The linear alternator was producing approximately 250 W at 109 Vac, while the power-processing unit was drawing 175 W at 48 Vdc. The majority of power was delivered to the

  16. Integrated thruster assembly program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The program is reported which has provided technology for a long life, high performing, integrated ACPS thruster assembly suitable for use in 100 typical flights of a space shuttle vehicle over a ten year period. The four integrated thruster assemblies (ITA) fabricated consisted of: propellant injector; a capacitive discharge, air gap torch type igniter assembly; fast response igniter and main propellant valves; and a combined regen-dump film cooled chamber. These flightweight 6672 N (1500 lb) thruster assemblies employed GH2/GO2 as propellants at a chamber pressure of 207 N/sq cm (300 psia). Test data were obtained on thrusted performance, thermal and hydraulic characteristics, dynamic response in pulsing, and cycle life. One thruster was fired in excess of 42,000 times.

  17. MPD thruster technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Mantenieks, Maris A.; Lapointe, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    MPD (MagnetoPlasmaDynamic) thrusters demonstrated between 2000 and 7000 seconds specific impulse at efficiencies approaching 40 percent, and were operated continuously at power levels over 500 kW. These demonstrated capabilities, combined with the simplicity and robustness of the thruster, make them attractive candidates for application to both unmanned and manned orbit raising, lunar, and planetary missions. To date, however, only a limited number of thruster configurations, propellants, and operating conditions were studied. The present status of MPD research is reviewed, including developments in the measured performance levels and electrode erosion rates. Theoretical studies of the thruster dynamics are also described. Significant progress was made in establishing empirical scaling laws, performance and lifetime limitations and in the development of numerical codes to simulate the flow field and electrode processes.

  18. Metallic Wall Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan Michael (Inventor); Hofer, Richard Robert (Inventor); Mikellides, Ioannis G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A Hall thruster apparatus having walls constructed from a conductive material, such as graphite, and having magnetic shielding of the walls from the ionized plasma has been demonstrated to operate with nearly the same efficiency as a conventional non-magnetically shielded design using insulators as wall components. The new design is believed to provide the potential of higher power and uniform operation over the operating life of a thruster device.

  19. Ion thruster design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kami, S.; Schnelker, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Questions concerning the mechanical design of a thruster are considered, taking into account differences in the design of an 8-cm and a 30-cm model. The components of a thruster include the thruster shell assembly, the ion extraction electrode assembly, the cathode isolator vaporizer assembly, the neutralizer isolator vaporizer assembly, ground screen and mask, and the main isolator vaporizer assembly. Attention is given to the materials used in thruster fabrication, the advanced manufacturing methods used, details of thruster performance, an evaluation of thruster life, structural and thermal design considerations, and questions of reliability and quality assurance.

  20. Ion thruster performance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    A model of ion thruster performance is developed for high flux density, cusped magnetic field thruster designs. This model is formulated in terms of the average energy required to produce an ion in the discharge chamber plasma and the fraction of these ions that are extracted to form the beam. The direct loss of high energy (primary) electrons from the plasma to the anode is shown to have a major effect on thruster performance. The model provides simple algebraic equations enabling one to calculate the beam ion energy cost, the average discharge chamber plasma ion energy cost, the primary electron density, the primary-to-Maxwellian electron density ratio and the Maxwellian electron temperature. Experiments indicate that the model correctly predicts the variation in plasma ion energy cost for changes in propellant gas (Ar, Kr and Xe), grid transparency to neutral atoms, beam extraction area, discharge voltage, and discharge chamber wall temperature. The model and experiments indicate that thruster performance may be described in terms of only four thruster configuration dependent parameters and two operating parameters. The model also suggests that improved performance should be exhibited by thruster designs which extract a large fraction of the ions produced in the discharge chamber, which have good primary electron and neutral atom containment and which operate at high propellant flow rates.

  1. 43. Bow thruster room. Bow thruster engine not used for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Bow thruster room. Bow thruster engine not used for powering hydraulics to boom as in some other tenders in same class. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter BRAMBLE, Waterfront at Lincoln Avenue, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  2. O the Generalized Hall Effect as a Modification of Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Michael Lee

    The generalized Hall effect (GHE) in the generalized Hall model (GHM) is studied as a correction to ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in the context of how it affects the linear stability of cylindrically symmetric equilibria and how it changes helically symmetric equilibria. The GHM differs from what is usually called the Hall model by including the electron pressure in the electron momentum equation. This gives the GHM some aspects of a two fluid model whereas the Hall model is a one fluid model. In both cases of cyclindrical and helical symmetry the presence of the electron pressure gradient as part of the GHE gives rise to an electric field tangent to the boundary of the plasma. This introduces an additional boundary condition in the case of a perfectly conducting plasma boundary. In the case of helical symmetry the equilibrium equations are a generalization of the Grad-Schafranov equation to equilibria with flow and GHE. The classification of these partial differential equations is independent of the component of the ion fluid velocity parallel to the helical direction which may allow for transonic or supersonic flows which are governed by elliptic equations. In the case of cylindrical symmetry a class of Alfven wave solutions that do not exist in ideal MHD is obtained and the accumulation point, with respect to large radial wavenumber, of the slow magnetoacoustic wave is shown to be changed from a finite nonzero value in ideal MHD to infinity by the GHE.

  3. Note: An advanced in situ diagnostic system for characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundesmann, C.; Tartz, M.; Scholze, F.; Leiter, H. J.; Scortecci, F.; Gnizdor, R. Y.; Neumann, H.

    2010-04-01

    We present an advanced diagnostic system for in situ characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources. The system uses a high-precision five-axis positioning system with a modular setup and the following diagnostic tools: a telemicroscopy head for optical imaging, a triangular laser head for surface profile scanning, a pyrometer for temperature scanning, a Faraday probe for current density mapping, and an energy-selective mass spectrometer for beam characterization (energy and mass distribution, composition). The capabilities of our diagnostic system are demonstrated with a Hall effect thruster SPT-100D EM1.

  4. Note: An advanced in situ diagnostic system for characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources.

    PubMed

    Bundesmann, C; Tartz, M; Scholze, F; Leiter, H J; Scortecci, F; Gnizdor, R Y; Neumann, H

    2010-04-01

    We present an advanced diagnostic system for in situ characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources. The system uses a high-precision five-axis positioning system with a modular setup and the following diagnostic tools: a telemicroscopy head for optical imaging, a triangular laser head for surface profile scanning, a pyrometer for temperature scanning, a Faraday probe for current density mapping, and an energy-selective mass spectrometer for beam characterization (energy and mass distribution, composition). The capabilities of our diagnostic system are demonstrated with a Hall effect thruster SPT-100D EM1. PMID:20441379

  5. Microwave Hall effect measurements on biological and organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Zoubi, A. Y.; Hasan, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    Microwave Hall effect measurements have been performed by improved 10 GHz bimodal cavity resonators with hybrid end walls used to avoid the background signal that obscures the measurements on low mobility materials. Hall mobility results on copper phthalocyanines CuPc and other organic semiconductors, in the range of 8 cm2/V s to 60 cm2/V s, provide evidence of acoustic phonon scattering as the dominant conduction mechanism. Presently, the microwave Hall effect seems to represent the only means available for quantitative measurements on biological substances like DNA and proteins, which yield mobility values lower than 10 cm2/V s, and are therefore consistent with conduction mechanism involving hopping of charge carriers between localized energy sites.

  6. Thermal Hall Effect of Spin Excitations in a Kagome Magnet.

    PubMed

    Hirschberger, Max; Chisnell, Robin; Lee, Young S; Ong, N P

    2015-09-01

    At low temperatures, the thermal conductivity of spin excitations in a magnetic insulator can exceed that of phonons. However, because they are charge neutral, the spin waves are not expected to display a thermal Hall effect. However, in the kagome lattice, theory predicts that the Berry curvature leads to a thermal Hall conductivity κ(xy). Here we report observation of a large κ(xy) in the kagome magnet Cu(1-3, bdc) which orders magnetically at 1.8 K. The observed κ(xy) undergoes a remarkable sign reversal with changes in temperature or magnetic field, associated with sign alternation of the Chern flux between magnon bands. The close correlation between κ(xy) and κ(xx) firmly precludes a phonon origin for the thermal Hall effect. PMID:26382691

  7. Strong spin Hall effect in the antiferromagnet PtMn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Yongxi; Shi, Shengjie; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, R. A.

    2016-06-01

    Effectively manipulating magnetism in ferromagnet (FM) thin-film nanostructures with an in-plane current has become feasible since the determination of a "giant" spin Hall effect (SHE) in certain heavy metal/FM systems. Recently, both theoretical and experimental reports indicate that metallic antiferromagnet materials can have both a large anomalous Hall effect and a strong SHE. Here we report a systematic study of the SHE in PtMn with several PtMn/FM systems. By using interface engineering to reduce the "spin memory loss" we obtain, in the best instance, a spin-torque efficiency ξDLPtMn≡TintθSHPtMn≃0.24 , where Tint is the effective interface spin transparency. This is more than twice the previously reported spin-torque efficiency for PtMn. We also find that the apparent spin diffusion length in PtMn is surprisingly long, λsPtMn≈2.3 nm .

  8. Theory of the thermal Hall effect in quantum magnets.

    PubMed

    Katsura, Hosho; Nagaosa, Naoto; Lee, Patrick A

    2010-02-12

    We present a theory of the thermal Hall effect in insulating quantum magnets, where the heat current is totally carried by charge-neutral objects such as magnons and spinons. Two distinct types of thermal Hall responses are identified. For ordered magnets, the intrinsic thermal Hall effect for magnons arises when certain conditions are satisfied for the lattice geometry and the underlying magnetic order. The other type is allowed in a spin liquid which is a novel quantum state since there is no order even at zero temperature. For this case, the deconfined spinons contribute to the thermal Hall response due to Lorentz force. These results offer a clear experimental method to prove the existence of the deconfined spinons via a thermal transport phenomenon.

  9. Charge fractionalization in the integer quantum Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Grivnin, Anna; Ofek, Nissim; Neder, Izhar; Heiblum, Moty; Umansky, Vladimir; Mahalu, Diana

    2014-04-25

    We report an observation, via sensitive shot noise measurements, of charge fractionalization of chiral edge electrons in the integer quantum Hall effect regime. Such fractionalization results solely from interchannel Coulomb interaction, leading electrons to decompose to excitations carrying fractional charges. The experiment was performed by guiding a partitioned current carrying edge channel in proximity to another unbiased edge channel, leading to shot noise in the unbiased edge channel without net current, which exhibited an unconventional dependence on the partitioning. The determination of the fractional excitations, as well as the relative velocities of the two original (prior to the interaction) channels, relied on a recent theory pertaining to this measurement. Our result exemplifies the correlated nature of multiple chiral edge channels in the integer quantum Hall effect regime.

  10. Thermal Hall Effect of Spin Excitations in a Kagome Magnet.

    PubMed

    Hirschberger, Max; Chisnell, Robin; Lee, Young S; Ong, N P

    2015-09-01

    At low temperatures, the thermal conductivity of spin excitations in a magnetic insulator can exceed that of phonons. However, because they are charge neutral, the spin waves are not expected to display a thermal Hall effect. However, in the kagome lattice, theory predicts that the Berry curvature leads to a thermal Hall conductivity κ(xy). Here we report observation of a large κ(xy) in the kagome magnet Cu(1-3, bdc) which orders magnetically at 1.8 K. The observed κ(xy) undergoes a remarkable sign reversal with changes in temperature or magnetic field, associated with sign alternation of the Chern flux between magnon bands. The close correlation between κ(xy) and κ(xx) firmly precludes a phonon origin for the thermal Hall effect.

  11. Semiconductor spintronics: Tuning the spin Hall effect in Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetlow, Holly; Gradhand, Martin

    2013-02-01

    A large spin Hall effect is calculated in doped silicon. The effect is determined using first principle calculations for the extrinsic spin Hall effect due to skew scattering at substitutional impurities. It is shown that the applied method accounts accurately for experimental results on B-doped Si. Here, the effect is weak but can be tuned significantly with heavy impurities. In the case of Si(Pt) and Si(Bi) a spin Hall angle is calculated comparable to those found in metals. Furthermore, the calculated spin relaxation times give physical insight to the different effect of electron and hole doping in Si. Experimentally, spin relaxation times for the electron-doped regime were found three orders of magnitude larger than for the hole-doped systems. Our calculations reproduce this finding which can be understood in terms of the electronic band structure of bulk Si.

  12. Extrinsic Spin Hall Effect Due to Transition-Metal Impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.; Kontani, H.

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the extrinsic spin Hall effect in the electron gas model due to transition-metal impurities based on the single-impurity Anderson model with orbital degrees of freedom. Both the skew scattering and side jump mechanisms are analyzed in a unified way, and the significant role of orbital degrees of freedom are clarified. The obtained spin Hall conductivities are in proportion to the spin-orbit polarization at the Fermi level < {l} . {s} >_{μ} as is the case with the intrinsic spin Hall effect: skew scattering term {SH}^{ss} ∝ < {l} . {s} >_{μ} δ_1 σ_{xx}, and side jump term σ_{SH}^{sj} ∝ < {l} . {s} >_{μ}, where δ_1 is the phase shift for p (l = 1) partial wave. Furthermore, the present study indicates the existence of a nontrivial close relationship between the intrinsic term σ_{SH}^{int} and the extrinsic side jump term σ_{SH}^{sj}.

  13. Anomalous spin Hall effects in Dresselhaus (110) quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming-Hao; Chang, Ching-Ray

    2010-10-01

    Anomalous spin Hall effects that belong to the intrinsic type in Dresselhaus (110) quantum wells are discussed. For the out-of-plane spin component, antisymmetric current-induced spin polarization induces opposite spin Hall accumulation, even though there is no spin-orbit force due to Dresselhaus (110) coupling. A surprising feature of this spin Hall induction is that the spin accumulation sign does not change upon bias reversal. Contribution to the spin Hall accumulation from the spin Hall induction and the spin deviation due to intrinsic spin-orbit force as well as extrinsic spin scattering can be straightforwardly distinguished simply by reversing the bias. For the in-plane component, inclusion of a weak Rashba coupling leads to a new type of Sy intrinsic spin Hall effect solely due to spin-orbit-force-driven spin separation.

  14. Linear Magnetization Dependence of the Intrinsic Anomalous Hall Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, C.; Yao, Y.; Niu, Q.; Weitering, Harm H

    2006-01-01

    The anomalous Hall effect is investigated experimentally and theoretically for ferromagnetic thin films of Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}. We have separated the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the experimental anomalous Hall effect and calculated the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity from the Berry curvature of the Bloch states using first-principles methods. The intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity depends linearly on the magnetization, which can be understood from the long-wavelength fluctuations of the spin orientation at finite temperatures. The quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is remarkably good, not only near 0 K but also at finite temperatures, up to about -240 K (0.8T{sub c}).

  15. Hall effect measurements on InAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemers, Ch.; Grap, T.; Lepsa, M. I.; Moers, J.; Gruetzmacher, D.; Lueth, H.; Trellenkamp, St.; Schaepers, Th.

    2012-10-08

    We have processed Hall contacts on InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy using an electron beam lithography process with an extremely high alignment accuracy. The carrier concentrations determined from the Hall effect measurements on these nanowires are lower by a factor of about 4 in comparison with those measured by the common field-effect technique. The results are used to evaluate quantitatively the charging effect of the interface and surface states.

  16. Another Nulling Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibodeau, Phillip E.; Sullender, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Lightweight, low-power circuit provides noncontact measurement of alternating or direct current of many ampheres in main conductor. Advantages of circuit over other nulling Hall-effect current-measuring circuits is stability and accuracy increased by putting both analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters in nulling feedback loop. Converters and rest of circuit designed for operation at sampling rate of 100 kHz, but rate changed to alter time or frequency response of circuit.

  17. A toy model for quantum spin Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.; Nsofini, J.

    2015-09-01

    In this communication, we investigate a toy model of three-dimensional topological insulator surface, coupled homogeneously to a fictitious pseudospin-1/2 particle. We show that this toy model captures the interesting features of topological insulator surface states, which include topological quantum phase transition and quantum spin Hall effect. We further incorporate an out-of-plane magnetic field and obtain the Landau levels.

  18. Quantum Hall effect in bilayer system with array of antidots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnossin, I. R.; Gusev, G. M.; Sotomayor, N. M.; Seabra, A. C.; Quivy, A. A.; Lamas, T. E.; Portal, J. C.

    2007-04-01

    We have studied the Quantum Hall effect in a bilayer system modulated by gate-controlled antidot lattice potential. The Hall resistance shows plateaus which are quantized to anomalous multiplies of h/e2. We suggest that this complex behavior is due to the nature of the edge-states in double quantum well (DQW) structures coupled to an array of antidots: these plateaus may be originated from the coexistence of normal and counter-rotating edge-states in different layers.

  19. Spin Hall effects in mesoscopic Pt films with high resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Chuan; Luo, Yongming; Zhou, Chao; Cai, Yunjiao; Jia, Mengwen; Chen, Shuhan; Wu, Yizheng; Ji, Yi

    2016-10-01

    The energy efficiency of the spin Hall effects (SHE) can be enhanced if the electrical conductivity is decreased without sacrificing the spin Hall conductivity. The resistivity of Pt films can be increased to 150-300 µΩ · cm by mesoscopic lateral confinement, thereby decreasing the conductivity. The SHE and inverse spin Hall effects (ISHE) in these mesoscopic Pt films are explored at 10 K by using the nonlocal spin injection/detection method. All relevant physical quantities are determined in situ on the same substrate, and a quantitative approach is developed to characterize all processes effectively. Extensive measurements with various Pt thickness values reveal an upper limit for the Pt spin diffusion length: {λ\\text{pt}}   ⩽  0.8 nm. The average product of {λ\\text{pt}} and the Pt spin Hall angle {α\\text{H}} is substantial: {α\\text{H}}{λ\\text{pt}}   =  (0.142  ±  0.040) nm for 4 nm thick Pt, though a gradual decrease is observed at larger Pt thickness. The results suggest enhanced spin Hall effects in resistive mesoscopic Pt films.

  20. The microscopic nature of localization in the quantum Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Ilani, S; Martin, J; Teitelbaum, E; Smet, J H; Mahalu, D; Umansky, V; Yacoby, A

    2004-01-22

    The quantum Hall effect arises from the interplay between localized and extended states that form when electrons, confined to two dimensions, are subject to a perpendicular magnetic field. The effect involves exact quantization of all the electronic transport properties owing to particle localization. In the conventional theory of the quantum Hall effect, strong-field localization is associated with a single-particle drift motion of electrons along contours of constant disorder potential. Transport experiments that probe the extended states in the transition regions between quantum Hall phases have been used to test both the theory and its implications for quantum Hall phase transitions. Although several experiments on highly disordered samples have affirmed the validity of the single-particle picture, other experiments and some recent theories have found deviations from the predicted universal behaviour. Here we use a scanning single-electron transistor to probe the individual localized states, which we find to be strikingly different from the predictions of single-particle theory. The states are mainly determined by Coulomb interactions, and appear only when quantization of kinetic energy limits the screening ability of electrons. We conclude that the quantum Hall effect has a greater diversity of regimes and phase transitions than predicted by the single-particle framework. Our experiments suggest a unified picture of localization in which the single-particle model is valid only in the limit of strong disorder.

  1. Critical current destabilizing perpendicular magnetization by the spin Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Mitani, Seiji; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2015-07-01

    The critical current needed to destabilize the magnetization of a perpendicular ferromagnet via the spin Hall effect is studied. Both the dampinglike and fieldlike torques associated with the spin current generated by the spin Hall effect are included in the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation to model the system. In the absence of the fieldlike torque, the critical current is independent of the damping constant and is much larger than that of conventional spin torque switching of collinear magnetic systems, as in magnetic tunnel junctions. With the fieldlike torque included, we find that the critical current scales with the damping constant as α0 (i.e., damping independent), α , and α1 /2 depending on the sign of the fieldlike torque and other parameters such as the external field. Numerical and analytical results show that the critical current can be significantly reduced when the fieldlike torque possesses the appropriate sign, i.e., when the effective field associated with the fieldlike torque is pointing opposite to the spin direction of the incoming electrons. These results provide a pathway to reducing the current needed to switch magnetization using the spin Hall effect.

  2. Proximity-Induced Anomalous Hall Effect in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiyong; Tang, Chi; Sachs, Raymond; Barlas, Yafis; Shi, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Pre-patterned graphene devices are transferred from SiO2/Si to atomically flat magnetic insulator thin films, yttrium iron garnet (YIG) deposited by a laser molecular beam epitaxial system on gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) substrate. Room temperature Raman spectroscopy reveals both single-layer graphene and YIG characteristic peaks. In addition to the ordinary Hall effect, there is a clear non-linear Hall component correlated with the magnetization of the YIG films, which we attribute to the anomalous Hall effect (AHE). The magnitude of AHE in graphene/YIG devices decreases as temperature increases. With device-to-device variations, in some devices, AHE persists to room temperature, indicating a strong proximity-induced exchange interaction. By sweeping top gate voltages, one can tune the carrier density across the Dirac point. We also find that the carrier mobility is not significantly different in graphene/YIG. As the graphene is tuned from the electron- to hole-type, the ordinary Hall changes the sign as expected, but the sign of the AHE contribution remains the same. It suggests that AHE does not simply originate from the carrier density change which is responsible for the ordinary Hall effect, but is related to the spin-orbit interaction in the system. This work was supported in part by DOE and NSF.

  3. Optical detection of spin Hall effect in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Erve, O. M. J. van ‘t Hanbicki, A. T.; McCreary, K. M.; Li, C. H.; Jonker, B. T.

    2014-04-28

    Optical techniques have been widely used to probe the spin Hall effect in semiconductors. In metals, however, only electrical methods such as nonlocal spin valve transport, ferromagnetic resonance, or spin torque transfer experiments have been successful. These methods require complex processing techniques and measuring setups. We show here that the spin Hall effect can be observed in non-magnetic metals such as Pt and β-W, using a standard bench top magneto-optical Kerr system with very little sample preparation. Applying a square wave current and using Fourier analysis significantly improve our detection level. One can readily determine the angular dependence of the induced polarization on the bias current direction (very difficult to do with voltage detection), the orientation of the spin Hall induced polarization, and the sign of the spin Hall angle. This optical approach is free from the complications of various resistive effects, which can compromise voltage measurements. This opens up the study of spin Hall effect in metals to a variety of spin dynamic and spatial imaging experiments.

  4. Enhanced Spin Hall Effect by Single Antidot Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Mikio; Yokoyama, Tomohiro

    2009-03-01

    We theoretically investigate an extrinsic spin Hall effect in semiconductor heterostructures due to the scattering by an artificial potential created by a single antidot, STM tip, etc. The strength of the potential is electrically tunable. First, we formulate the spin Hall effect in terms of phase shifts in the partial wave expansion for two-dimensional electron gas. For scattered electrons in θ direction, we obtain a spin polarization P(θ) perpendicular to the two-dimensional plane [P(-θ)=-P (θ)]. The spin polarization P(θ) is significantly enhanced by an attractive potential when the resonant condition of a partial wave is satisfied by tuning the potential strength. Second, we study the spin Hall effect in a three-terminal device with an antidot at the junction. The conductance and spin polarization are evaluated numerically.ootnotetextM. Yamamoto and B. Kramer, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123703 (2008), for repulsive potential. We obtain a spin polarization of more than 50% due to the resonant scattering when the attractive potential is properly tuned.

  5. Collective Spin-Hall Effect for Electron-Hole Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignale, Giovanni; Shen, Ka

    2014-03-01

    We study the coupled spin-density transport in a periodically modulated electron gas in a GaAs quantum well. We show that an electric field parallel to the wavefronts of an electron-hole grating generates, via the electronic spin Hall effect, a spin grating of the same wave vector. We refer to this phenomenon as ``collective spin Hall effect''. In our calculation, we include not only the intrinsic but also the extrinsic spin Hall mechanisms. In the extrinsic mechanism we include both skew scattering and side jump. A detailed study of the coupled-spin charge dynamics for quantum wells grown in different directions reveals rich features in the time evolution of the induced spin density. For example, in the symmetric (110) quantum well the amplitude of the induced spin density is controlled solely by skew scattering and can be as large as 1% of that of the initial density modulation.Similarly, the collective spin Hall effect in (001) QWs with identical Rashba and Dresselhaus SOC strengths is also entirely controlled by skew scattering. In this case, the skew scattering generates a spiral spin density wave when the wave vector of the initial grating matches the wave vector of the spin-orbit coupling. Ref: Ka Shen and G. Vignale, PRL 111, 136602 (2013). NSF Grant No. DMR-1104788.

  6. Iodine Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  7. NASA's Hall Thruster Program 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Jacobson, David T.; Pinero, Luis R.; Manzella, David H.; Hofer, Richard R.; Peterson, Peter Y.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Hall thruster program currently supports a number of tasks related to high power thruster development for a number of customers including the Energetics Program (formerly called the Space-based Program), the Space Solar Power Program, and the In-space Propulsion Program. In program year 2002, two tasks were central to the NASA Hall thruster program: 1) the development of a laboratory Hall thruster capable of providing high thrust at high power-, and 2) investigations into operation of Hall thrusters at high specific impulse. In addition to these two primary thruster development activities, there are a number of other on-going activities supported by the NASA Hall thruster program. These additional activities are related to issues such as high-power power processor architecture, thruster lifetime, and spacecraft integration.

  8. Electric thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    It has been customary to assume that ions flow nearly equally in all directions from the ion production region within an electron-bombardment discharge chamber. In general, the electron current through a magnetic field can alter the electron density, and hence the ion density, in such a way that ions tend to be directed away from the region bounded by the magnetic field. When this mechanism is understood, it becomes evident that many past discharge chamber designs have operated with a preferentially directed flow of ions. Thermal losses were calculated for an oxide-free hollow cathode. At low electron emissions, the total of the radiation and conduction losses agreed with the total discharge power. At higher emissions, though, the plasma collisions external to the cathode constituted an increasingly greater fraction of the discharge power. Experimental performance of a Hall-current thruster was adversely affected by nonuniformities in the magnetic field, produced by the cathode heating current. The technology of closed-drift thrusters was reviewed. The experimental electron diffusion in the acceleration channel was found to be within about a factor of 3 of the Bohm value for the better thruster designs at most operating conditions. Thruster efficiencies of about 0.5 appear practical for the 1000 to 2000 s range of specific impulse. Lifetime information is limited, but values of several thousands of hours should be possible with anode layer thrusters operated or = to 2000 s.

  9. Inert gas thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Some advances in component technology for inert gas thrusters are described. The maximum electron emission of a hollow cathode with Ar was increased 60-70% by the use of an enclosed keeper configuration. Operation with Ar, but without emissive oxide, was also obtained. A 30 cm thruster operated with Ar at moderate discharge voltages give double-ion measurements consistent with a double ion correlation developed previously using 15 cm thruster data. An attempt was made to reduce discharge losses by biasing anodes positive of the discharge plasma. The reason this attempt was unsuccessful is not yet clear. The performance of a single-grid ion-optics configuration was evaluated. The ion impingement on the single grid accelerator was found to approach the value expected from the projected blockage when the sheath thickness next to the accelerator was 2-3 times the aperture diameter.

  10. Krypton ion thruster performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Williams, George J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary data were obtained from a 30 cm ion thruster operating on krypton propellant over the input power range of 0.4-5.5 kW. The data are presented, and compared and contrasted to those obtained with xenon propellant over the same input power envelope. Typical krypton thruster efficiency was 70 percent at a specific impulse of approximately 5000 s, with a maximum demonstrated thrust-to-power ratio of approximately 42 mN/kW at 2090 s specific impulse and 1580 watts input power. Critical thruster performance and component lifetime issues were evaluated. Order-of-magnitude power throttling was demonstrated using a simplified power-throttling strategy.

  11. Krypton Ion Thruster Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Williams, George J.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary data were obtained from a 30 cm ion thruster operating on krypton propellant over the input power range of 0.4 to 5.5 kW. The data presented are compared and contrasted to the data obtained with xenon propellant over the same input power envelope. Typical krypton thruster efficiency was 70 percent at a specific impulse of approximately 5000 s, with a maximum demonstrated thrust to power ratio of approximately 42 mN/kW at 2090 s specific impulse and 1580 watts input power. Critical thruster performance and component lifetime issues were evaluated. Order of magnitude power throttling was demonstrated using a simplified power-throttling strategy.

  12. NASA's 2004 Hall Thruster Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David T.; Manzella, David H.; Hofer, Richard R.; Peterson, Peter Y.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of NASA's Hall thruster research and development tasks conducted during fiscal year 2004 is presented. These tasks focus on: raising the technology readiness level of high power Hall thrusters, developing a moderate-power/ moderate specific impulse Hall thruster, demonstrating high-power/high specific impulse Hall thruster operation, and addressing the fundamental technical challenges of emerging Hall thruster concepts. Programmatic background information, technical accomplishments and out year plans for each program element performed under the sponsorship of the In-Space Transportation Program, Project Prometheus, and the Energetics Project are provided.

  13. Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    On May 16, 1991, the NASA Headquarters Propulsion, Power, and Energy Division and the NASA Lewis Research Center Low Thrust Propulsion Branch hosted a workshop attended by key experts in magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters and associated sciences. The scope was limited to high power MPD thrusters suitable for major NASA space exploration missions, and its purpose was to initiate the process of increasing the expectations and prospects for MPD research, primarily by increasing the level of cooperation, interaction, and communication between parties within the MPD community.

  14. Numerical simulations of Hall-effect plasma accelerators on a magnetic-field-aligned mesh.

    PubMed

    Mikellides, Ioannis G; Katz, Ira

    2012-10-01

    The ionized gas in Hall-effect plasma accelerators spans a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and exhibits diverse physics some of which remain elusive even after decades of research. Inside the acceleration channel a quasiradial applied magnetic field impedes the current of electrons perpendicular to it in favor of a significant component in the E×B direction. Ions are unmagnetized and, arguably, of wide collisional mean free paths. Collisions between the atomic species are rare. This paper reports on a computational approach that solves numerically the 2D axisymmetric vector form of Ohm's law with no assumptions regarding the resistance to classical electron transport in the parallel relative to the perpendicular direction. The numerical challenges related to the large disparity of the transport coefficients in the two directions are met by solving the equations on a computational mesh that is aligned with the applied magnetic field. This approach allows for a large physical domain that extends more than five times the thruster channel length in the axial direction and encompasses the cathode boundary where the lines of force can become nonisothermal. It also allows for the self-consistent solution of the plasma conservation laws near the anode boundary, and for simulations in accelerators with complex magnetic field topologies. Ions are treated as an isothermal, cold (relative to the electrons) fluid, accounting for the ion drag in the momentum equation due to ion-neutral (charge-exchange) and ion-ion collisions. The density of the atomic species is determined using an algorithm that eliminates the statistical noise associated with discrete-particle methods. Numerical simulations are presented that illustrate the impact of the above-mentioned features on our understanding of the plasma in these accelerators.

  15. Numerical simulations of Hall-effect plasma accelerators on a magnetic-field-aligned mesh.

    PubMed

    Mikellides, Ioannis G; Katz, Ira

    2012-10-01

    The ionized gas in Hall-effect plasma accelerators spans a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and exhibits diverse physics some of which remain elusive even after decades of research. Inside the acceleration channel a quasiradial applied magnetic field impedes the current of electrons perpendicular to it in favor of a significant component in the E×B direction. Ions are unmagnetized and, arguably, of wide collisional mean free paths. Collisions between the atomic species are rare. This paper reports on a computational approach that solves numerically the 2D axisymmetric vector form of Ohm's law with no assumptions regarding the resistance to classical electron transport in the parallel relative to the perpendicular direction. The numerical challenges related to the large disparity of the transport coefficients in the two directions are met by solving the equations on a computational mesh that is aligned with the applied magnetic field. This approach allows for a large physical domain that extends more than five times the thruster channel length in the axial direction and encompasses the cathode boundary where the lines of force can become nonisothermal. It also allows for the self-consistent solution of the plasma conservation laws near the anode boundary, and for simulations in accelerators with complex magnetic field topologies. Ions are treated as an isothermal, cold (relative to the electrons) fluid, accounting for the ion drag in the momentum equation due to ion-neutral (charge-exchange) and ion-ion collisions. The density of the atomic species is determined using an algorithm that eliminates the statistical noise associated with discrete-particle methods. Numerical simulations are presented that illustrate the impact of the above-mentioned features on our understanding of the plasma in these accelerators. PMID:23214706

  16. Inert gas ion thruster development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    Two 12 cm magneto-electrostatic containment (MESC) ion thrusters were performance mapped with argon and xenon. The first, hexagonal, thruster produced optimized performance of 48.5to 79 percent argon mass utilization efficiencies at discharge energies of 240 to 425 eV/ion, respectively, Xenon mass utilization efficiencies of 78 to 95 percent were observed at discharge energies of 220 to 290 eV/ion with the same optimized hexagonal thruster. Changes to the cathode baffle reduced the discharge anode potential during xenon operation from approximately 40 volts to about 30 volts. Preliminary tests conducted with the second, hemispherical, MESC thruster showed a nonuniform anode magnetic field adversely affected thruster performance. This performance degradation was partially overcome by changes in the boundary anode placement. Conclusions drawn the hemispherical thruster tests gave insights into the plasma processes in the MESC discharge that will aid in the design of future thrusters.

  17. Development And Testing Of The Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Diffusion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becnel, Mark D.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2013-01-01

    The Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) diffusion thruster is an experiment in active development that takes advantage of physical phenomenon that occurs during operation of an IEC device. The IEC device has been proposed as a fusion reactor design that relies on traditional electrostatic ion acceleration and is typically arranged in a spherical geometry. The design incorporates two radially-symmetric spherical electrodes. Often the inner electrode utilizes a grid of wire shaped in a sphere with a radius 15 to 50 percent of the radius of the outer electrode. The inner electrode traditionally has 90 percent or more transparency to allow particles (ions) to pass to the center of the spheres and collide/recombine in the dense plasma core at r=0. When operating the IEC, an unsteady plasma leak is typically observed passing out one of the gaps in the lattice grid of the inner electrode. The IED diffusion thruster is based upon the idea that this plasma leak can be used for propulsive purposes. The IEC diffusion thruster utilizes the radial symmetry found in the IEC device. A cylindrical configuration is employed here as it will produce a dense core of plasma the length of the cylindrical grid while promoting the plasma leak to exhaust through an electromagnetic nozzle at one end of the apparatus. A proof-of-concept IEC diffusion thruster is operational and under testing using argon as propellant (Figure 1).

  18. Modeling Neutral Densities Downstream of a Gridded Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    2010-01-01

    The details of a model for determining the neutral density downstream of a gridded ion thruster are presented. An investigation of the possible sources of neutrals emanating from and surrounding a NEXT ion thruster determined that the most significant contributors to the downstream neutral density include discharge chamber neutrals escaping through the perforated grids, neutrals escaping from the neutralizer, and vacuum facility background neutrals. For the neutral flux through the grids, near- and far-field equations are presented for rigorously determining the neutral density downstream of a cylindrical aperture. These equations are integrated into a spherically-domed convex grid geometry with a hexagonal array of apertures for determining neutral densities downstream of the ion thruster grids. The neutrals escaping from an off-center neutralizer are also modeled assuming diffuse neutral emission from the neutralizer keeper orifice. Finally, the effect of the surrounding vacuum facility neutrals is included and assumed to be constant. The model is used to predict the neutral density downstream of a NEXT ion thruster with and without neutralizer flow and a vacuum facility background pressure. The impacts of past simplifying assumptions for predicting downstream neutral densities are also examined for a NEXT ion thruster.

  19. Particle-in-cell simulations of Hall plasma thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Hall plasma thrusters can be modelled using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. In these simulations, the plasma is described by a set of equations which represent a coupled system of charged particles and electromagnetic fields. The fields are computed using a spatial grid (i.e., a discretization in space), whereas the particles can move continuously in space. Briefly, the particle and fields dynamics are computed as follows. First, forces due to electric and magnetic fields are employed to calculate the velocities and positions of particles. Next, the velocities and positions of particles are used to compute the charge and current densities at discrete positions in space. Finally, these densities are used to solve the electromagnetic field equations in the grid, which are interpolated at the position of the particles to obtain the acting forces, and restart this cycle. We will present numerical simulations using software for PIC simulations to study turbulence, wave and instabilities that arise in Hall plasma thrusters. We have sucessfully reproduced a numerical simulation of a SPT-100 Hall thruster using a two-dimensional (2D) model. In addition, we are developing a 2D model of a cylindrical Hall thruster. The results of these simulations will contribute to improve the performance of plasma thrusters to be used in Cubesats satellites currenty in development at the Plasma Laboratory at University of Brasília.

  20. Depletion effect of oxide semiconductor analyzed by Hall effects.

    PubMed

    Oh, Teresa

    2014-12-01

    This letter discusses the tunneling behavior of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) analyzed through the observation of its Hall effects. The properties of the a-IGZO changed from those of a majority carrier to those of a minority carrier after the annealing process as a result of the electron-hole recombination due to the thermal activation energy and the formation of a depletion layer with a high-potential Schottky barrier. Therefore, the diffusion current of these minority charge carriers caused ambipolar transfer characteristics, a tunneling behavior, in the metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistor. PMID:25971008

  1. Sign change of the flux flow Hall effect in HTSC

    SciTech Connect

    Feigel`man, M.V.; Geshkenbein, V.B.; Larkin, A.I.; Vinokur, V.M.

    1996-11-01

    A novel mechanism for the sign change of the Hall effect in the flux flow region is proposed. The difference {delta}{ital n} between the electron density at the center of the vortex core and that far outside the vortex causes the additional contribution to the Hall conductivity {delta}{sigma}{sub xy} = -{delta}{ital nec}/{ital B}. This contribution can be larger than the conventional one in the dirty case {Delta}{ital T}{tau} {lt} 1. If the electron density inside the core exceeds the electron density far outside, a double sign change may occur as a function of temperature.

  2. Fractional quantum Hall effect in a tilted magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papić, Z.

    2013-06-01

    We discuss the orbital effect of a tilted magnetic field on the quantum Hall effect in parabolic quantum wells. Many-body states realized at the fractional (1)/(3) and (1)/(2) filling of the second electronic subband are studied using finite-size exact diagonalization. In both cases, we obtain the phase diagram consisting of a fractional quantum Hall fluid phase that persists for moderate tilts, and eventually undergoes a direct transition to the stripe phase. It is shown that tilting of the field probes the geometrical degree of freedom of fractional quantum Hall fluids, and can be partly related to the effect of band-mass anisotropy.

  3. Vortex equations governing the fractional quantum Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Luciano

    2015-09-15

    An existence theory is established for a coupled non-linear elliptic system, known as “vortex equations,” describing the fractional quantum Hall effect in 2-dimensional double-layered electron systems. Via variational methods, we prove the existence and uniqueness of multiple vortices over a doubly periodic domain and the full plane. In the doubly periodic situation, explicit sufficient and necessary conditions are obtained that relate the size of the domain and the vortex numbers. For the full plane case, existence is established for all finite-energy solutions and exponential decay estimates are proved. Quantization phenomena of the magnetic flux are found in both cases.

  4. Quantum anomalous Hall effect in topological insulator memory

    SciTech Connect

    Jalil, Mansoor B. A.; Tan, S. G.; Siu, Z. B.

    2015-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in a magnetically coupled three-dimensional-topological insulator (3D-TI) system. We apply the generalized spin-orbit coupling Hamiltonian to obtain the Hall conductivity σ{sup xy} of the system. The underlying topology of the QAHE phenomenon is then analyzed to show the quantization of σ{sup xy} and its relation to the Berry phase of the system. Finally, we analyze the feasibility of utilizing σ{sup xy} as a memory read-out in a 3D-TI based memory at finite temperatures, with comparison to known magnetically doped 3D-TIs.

  5. Is the quantum Hall effect influenced by the gravitational field?

    PubMed

    Hehl, Friedrich W; Obukhov, Yuri N; Rosenow, Bernd

    2004-08-27

    Most of the experiments on the quantum Hall effect (QHE) were made at approximately the same height above sea level. A future international comparison will determine whether the gravitational field g(x) influences the QHE. In the realm of (1+2)-dimensional phenomenological macroscopic electrodynamics, the Ohm-Hall law is metric independent ("topological"). This suggests that it does not couple to g(x). We corroborate this result by a microscopic calculation of the Hall conductance in the presence of a post-Newtonian gravitational field. PMID:15447125

  6. Intrinsic versus extrinsic anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Shigeki; Sugimoto, Naoyuki; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2006-09-22

    A unified theory of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is presented for multiband ferromagnetic metals with dilute impurities. In the clean limit, the AHE is mostly due to extrinsic skew scattering. When the Fermi level is located around anticrossing of band dispersions split by spin-orbit interaction, the intrinsic AHE to be calculated ab initio is resonantly enhanced by its nonperturbative nature, revealing the extrinsic-to-intrinsic crossover which occurs when the relaxation rate is comparable to the spin-orbit coupling.

  7. Chirality-Dependent Hall Effect in Weyl Semimetals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengyuan A; Pan, Hui; Zhang, Fan

    2015-10-01

    We generalize a semiclassical theory and use the argument of angular momentum conservation to examine the ballistic transport in lightly doped Weyl semimetals, taking into account various phase-space Berry curvatures. We predict universal transverse shifts of the wave-packet center in transmission and reflection, perpendicular to the direction in which the Fermi energy or velocities change adiabatically. The anomalous shifts are opposite for electrons with different chirality, and they can be made imbalanced by breaking inversion symmetry. We discuss how to utilize local gates, strain effects, and circularly polarized lights to generate and probe such a chirality-dependent Hall effect.

  8. Anomalous Hall Effect in a 2D Rashba Ferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ado, I. A.; Dmitriev, I. A.; Ostrovsky, P. M.; Titov, M.

    2016-07-01

    Skew scattering on rare impurity configurations is shown to dominate the anomalous Hall effect in a 2D Rashba ferromagnet. The mechanism originates in scattering on rare impurity pairs separated by distances of the order of the Fermi wavelength. The corresponding theoretical description goes beyond the conventional noncrossing approximation. The mechanism provides the only contribution to the anomalous Hall conductivity in the most relevant metallic regime and strongly modifies previously obtained results for lower energies in the leading order with respect to impurity strength.

  9. Inverse spin Hall effect in Pt/(Ga,Mn)As

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, H.; Chen, L.; Chang, H. W.; Ohno, H.; Matsukura, F.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate dc voltages under ferromagnetic resonance in a Pt/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer structure. A part of the observed dc voltage is shown to originate from the inverse spin Hall effect. The sign of the inverse spin Hall voltage is the same as that in Py/Pt bilayer structure, even though the stacking order of ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers is opposite to each other. The spin mixing conductance at the Pt/(Ga,Mn)As interface is determined to be of the order of 10{sup 19 }m{sup −2}, which is about ten times greater than that of (Ga,Mn)As/p-GaAs.

  10. Inverse spin Hall effect in a closed loop circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Omori, Y.; Auvray, F.; Wakamura, T.; Niimi, Y.; Fert, A.

    2014-06-16

    We present measurements of inverse spin Hall effects (ISHEs), in which the conversion of a spin current into a charge current via the ISHE is detected not as a voltage in a standard open circuit but directly as the charge current generated in a closed loop. The method is applied to the ISHEs of Bi-doped Cu and Pt. The derived expression of ISHE for the loop structure can relate the charge current flowing into the loop to the spin Hall angle of the SHE material and the resistance of the loop.

  11. Enhanced Spin Hall Effect in Semiconductor Heterostructures with Artificial Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Mikio; Yokoyama, Tomohiro

    2009-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the extrinsic spin Hall effect (SHE) in semiconductor heterostructures, caused by scattering at an artificial potential created by an antidot, STM tip, etc. The potential is electrically tunable. First, we formulate the SHE in terms of phase shifts in the partial wave expansion for a two-dimensional electron gas. The effect is significantly enhanced by resonant scattering when the attractive potential is properly tuned. Second, we examine a three-terminal device including an antidot, which possibly produces a spin current with a polarization of more than 50%.

  12. Spin Hall Effects Due to Phonon Skew Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorini, Cosimo; Eckern, Ulrich; Raimondi, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    A diversity of spin Hall effects in metallic systems is known to rely on Mott skew scattering. In this work its high-temperature counterpart, phonon skew scattering, which is expected to be of foremost experimental relevance, is investigated. In particular, the phonon skew scattering spin Hall conductivity is found to be practically T independent for temperatures above the Debye temperature TD. As a consequence, in Rashba-like systems a high-T linear behavior of the spin Hall angle demonstrates the dominance of extrinsic spin-orbit scattering only if the intrinsic spin splitting is smaller than the temperature.

  13. Redundant speed control for brushless Hall effect motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A speed control system for a brushless Hall effect device equipped direct current (D.C.) motor is described. Separate windings of the motor are powered by separate speed responsive power sources. A change in speed, upward or downward, because of the failure of a component of one of the power sources results in a corrective signal being generated in the other power source to supply an appropriate power level and polarity to one winding to cause the motor to be corrected in speed.

  14. Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dr. Tom Markusic, a propulsion research engineer at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), adjusts a diagnostic laser while a pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) fires in a vacuum chamber in the background. NASA/MSFC's Propulsion Research Center (PRC) is presently investigating plasma propulsion for potential use on future nuclear-powered spacecraft missions, such as human exploration of Mars.

  15. Inert gas thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Inert gas thrusters considered for space propulsion systems were investigated. Electron diffusion across a magnetic field was examined utilizing a basic model. The production of doubly charged ions was correlated using only overall performance parameters. The use of this correlation is therefore possible in the design stage of large gas thrusters, where detailed plasma properties are not available. Argon hollow cathode performance was investigated over a range of emission currents, with the positions of the inert, keeper, and anode varied. A general trend observed was that the maximum ratio of emission to flow rate increased at higher propellant flow rates. It was also found that an enclosed keeper enhances maximum cathode emission at high flow rates. The maximum cathode emission at a given flow rate was associated with a noisy high voltage mode. Although this mode has some similarities to the plume mode found at low flows and emissions, it is encountered by being initially in the spot mode and increasing emission. A detailed analysis of large, inert-gas thruster performance was carried out. For maximum thruster efficiency, the optimum beam diameter increases from less than a meter at under 2000 sec specific impulse to several meters at 10,000 sec. The corresponding range in input power ranges from several kilowatts to megawatts.

  16. Plasma thrusters from Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, E.J.

    1992-09-01

    A report on the Russian stationary plasma thrusters having plasma accelerated to high velocities by electrical and magnetic forces is described. For specific impulses of 15-20 km/sec, optimal for such applications as satellite station keeping and orbital transfer, a unit supplying 0.05 N from a 2-kW input has a 30-cm-diameter nozzle.

  17. Anomalous Hall effect in NiPt thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golod, T.; Rydh, A.; Krasnov, V. M.

    2011-08-01

    We have studied the Hall effect in sputtered NixPt1-x thin films with different Ni concentrations. Temperature, magnetic field, and angular dependencies are analyzed and the phase diagram of NiPt thin films is obtained. It is found that films with sub-critical Ni concentration exhibit cluster-glass behavior at low temperatures with a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy below the freezing temperature. Films with super-critical Ni concentration are ferromagnetic with parallel anisotropy. At the critical concentration the state of the film is strongly frustrated. Such films demonstrate canted magnetization with the easy axis rotating as a function of temperature. The magnetism appears via consecutive paramagnetic-cluster glass-ferromagnetic transitions, rather than a single second-order phase transition. But most remarkably, the extraordinary Hall effect changes sign at the critical concentration. We suggest that this is associated with a reconstruction of the electronic structure of the alloy at the normal metal-ferromagnet quantum phase transition.

  18. Non-collinear antiferromagnets and the anomalous Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kübler, J.; Felser, C.

    2014-12-01

    The anomalous Hall effect is investigated theoretically by employing density functional calculations for the non-collinear antiferromagnetic order of the hexagonal compounds Mn3Ge and Mn3Sn using various planar triangular magnetic configurations as well as unexpected non-planar configurations. The former give rise to anomalous Hall conductivities (AHC) that are found to be extremely anisotropic. For the planar cases the AHC is connected with Weyl points in the energy-band structure. If this case were observable in Mn3Ge, a large AHC of about σzx≈ 900 (Ω \\text{cm})-1 should be expected. However, in Mn3Ge it is the non-planar configuration that is energetically favored, in which case it gives rise to an AHC of σxy≈ 100 (Ω \\text{cm})-1 . The non-planar configuration allows a quantitative evaluation of the topological Hall effect that is seen to determine this value of σxy to a large extent. For Mn3Sn it is the planar configurations that are predicted to be observable. In this case the AHC can be as large as σyz≈250 (Ω \\text{cm})-1 .

  19. Spin current swapping and spin hall effect in disordered metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidaoui, Hamed; Pauyac, Christian; Manchon, Aurelien

    2015-03-01

    The conversion of charge currents into spin currents via the spin Hall effect has attracted intense experimental and theoretical efforts lately, providing an efficient means to generate electric signals and manipulate the magnetization of single layers. More recently, it was proposed that spin-dependent scattering induced by spin-orbit coupled impurities also produces a so-called spin swapping, i.e. an exchange between the spin angular momentum and linear momentum of itinerant electrons. In this work, we investigate the nature of spin swapping and its interplay with extrinsic spin Hall effect and spin relaxation in finite size normal metals. We use two complementary methods based on non-equilibrium Green's function technique. The first method consists in rigorously deriving the drift-diffusion equation of the spin accumulation in the presence of spin-orbit coupled impurities from quantum kinetics using Wigner expansion. The second method is the real-space tight binding modeling of a finite system in the presence of spin-orbit coupled disorder.

  20. Anyons and the quantum Hall effect-A pedagogical review

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Ady

    2008-01-15

    The dichotomy between fermions and bosons is at the root of many physical phenomena, from metallic conduction of electricity to super-fluidity, and from the periodic table to coherent propagation of light. The dichotomy originates from the symmetry of the quantum mechanical wave function to the interchange of two identical particles. In systems that are confined to two spatial dimensions particles that are neither fermions nor bosons, coined 'anyons', may exist. The fractional quantum Hall effect offers an experimental system where this possibility is realized. In this paper we present the concept of anyons, we explain why the observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect almost forces the notion of anyons upon us, and we review several possible ways for a direct observation of the physics of anyons. Furthermore, we devote a large part of the paper to non-abelian anyons, motivating their existence from the point of view of trial wave functions, giving a simple exposition of their relation to conformal field theories, and reviewing several proposals for their direct observation.

  1. Quantum Anomalous Hall Effects and Topological Phase Transitions in Silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezawa, Motohiko

    2013-03-01

    Silicene is a monolayer of silicon atoms forming a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, which is experimentally manufactured this year. The low energy theory is described by Dirac electrons, but they are massive due to a relatively large spin-orbit interaction. I will explain the following properties of silicene: 1) The band structure is controllable by applying an electric field. Silicene undergoes a phase transition from a topological insulator to a band insulator by applying external electric field. 2) The topological phase transition can be detected experimentally by way of diamagnetism. 3) There is a novel circular dichroism and spinvalley selection rules by way of photon absorption. 4) Silicene shows a quantum anomalous Hall effects when ferromagnet is attached onto silicone. 5) Silicene shows a photo-induced quantum Hall effects when we apply strong laser onto silicene. 6) Single Dirac cone state emerges when we apply photo-irradiation and electric field, where the gap is open at the K point and closed at the K' point.

  2. Strong Spin Hall effect in PtMn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Yongxi; Shi, Shengjie; Ralph, Daniel; Buhrman, Robert

    Recent reports indicate that certain metallic antiferromagnets (AFM) can exhibit a significant spin Hall effect. Here we report a large damping-like spin torque efficiency (ξDL) in PtMn/ferromagnet(FM) bilayer structures, determined from both FM-thickness-dependent spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR), and harmonic response (HR) measurements of layers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). We find that ξDL can vary from <0.1 to >0.15, depending on the thickness of PtMn, the stacking order of the samples, and the choice of the FM material. The field-like spin torque efficiency (ξFL) is also quite variable, 0<|ξFL|<0.5. The large broadening of the ST-FMR linewidth suggests extra spin attenuation at the AFM/FM interface that is possibly due to intermixing. The PtMn/FeCoB/MgO structures that exhibit PMA have a comparatively low switching current density and an unusual asymmetric switching phase diagram. These results indicate that AFM PtMn has significant potential both for advancing the understanding the physics of the spin Hall effect in Pt alloys, and for enabling new spintronics functionality.

  3. Nonlinear dynamics induced anomalous Hall effect in topological insulators

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanglei; Xu, Hongya; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We uncover an alternative mechanism for anomalous Hall effect. In particular, we investigate the magnetisation dynamics of an insulating ferromagnet (FM) deposited on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), subject to an external voltage. The spin-polarised current on the TI surface induces a spin-transfer torque on the magnetisation of the top FM while its dynamics can change the transmission probability of the surface electrons through the exchange coupling and hence the current. We find a host of nonlinear dynamical behaviors including multistability, chaos, and phase synchronisation. Strikingly, a dynamics mediated Hall-like current can arise, which exhibits a nontrivial dependence on the channel conductance. We develop a physical understanding of the mechanism that leads to the anomalous Hall effect. The nonlinear dynamical origin of the effect stipulates that a rich variety of final states exist, implying that the associated Hall current can be controlled to yield desirable behaviors. The phenomenon can find applications in Dirac-material based spintronics. PMID:26819223

  4. High temperature hall effect measurement system design, measurement and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkun, Isil

    A reliable knowledge of the transport properties of semiconductor materials is essential for the development and understanding of a number of electronic devices. In this thesis, the work on developing a Hall Effect measurement system with software based data acqui- sition and control for a temperature range of 300K-700K will be described. A system was developed for high temperature measurements of materials including single crystal diamond, poly-crystalline diamond, and thermoelectric compounds. An added capability for monitor- ing the current versus voltage behavior of the contacts was used for studying the influence of ohmic and non-ohmic contacts on Hall Effect measurements. The system has been primar- ily used for testing the transport properties of boron-doped single crystal diamond (SCD) deposited in a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor [1]. Diamond has several outstanding properties that are of high interest for its development as an electronic material. These include a relatively wide band gap of 5.5 (eV), high thermal conductivity, high mobility, high saturation velocity, and a high breakdown voltage. For a temperature range of 300K-700K, IV curves, Hall mobilities and carrier concentrations are shown. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements have shown carrier concentrations from below 1017cm --3 to approximately 1021 cm--3 with mobilities ranging from 763( cm2/V s) to 0.15(cm 2/V s) respectively. Simulation results have shown the effects of single and mixed carrier models, activation energies, effective mass and doping concentrations. These studies have been helpful in the development of single crystal diamond for diode applications. Reference materials of Ge and GaAs were used to test the Hall Effect system. The system was also used to characterize polycrystalline diamond deposited on glass for electrochemical applications, and Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds which are promising candidates of low-cost, light weight and non

  5. A bibliography of electrothermal thruster technology, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.; Hardy, T. L.; Englehart, M.

    1986-01-01

    Electrothermal propulsion concepts are briefly discussed as an introduction to a bibliography and author index. Nearly 700 citations are given for resistojets, thermal arcjets, pulsed electrothermal thrusters, microwave heated devices, solar thermal thrusters, and laser thermal thrusters.

  6. Orbitronics: the Intrinsic Orbital Hall Effect in p-Doped Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Bernevig, B.Andrei; Hughes, Taylor L.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-01-15

    The spin Hall effect depends crucially on the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling of the energy band. Because of the smaller spin-orbit coupling in silicon, the spin Hall effect is expected to be much reduced. We show that the electric field in p-doped silicon can induce a dissipationless orbital current in a fashion reminiscent of the spin Hall effect. The vertex correction due to impurity scattering vanishes and the effect is therefore robust against disorder. The orbital Hall effect can lead to the accumulation of local orbital momentum at the edge of the sample, and can be detected by the Kerr effect.

  7. The Plasmoid Thruster Experiment (PTX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskridge, R.; Martin, Adam; Lee, Michael; Smith, James; Koelfgen, Syri

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the overall Plasma Thruster Experiment (PTX), it's purpose and design, compact toroid propulsion, advantages and requirements of a plasmoid thruster, the projected efficiency, theta-pinch formation, a simulation of the PTX Coil/Bank Circuit using SPICE, the test firing of the PTX Capacitor Bank, PTX diagnostics, the excluded flux array, thruster simulations using MOQUI, and future work on the PTX.

  8. Quantum spin Hall effect in nanostructures based on cadmium fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Bagraev, N. T.; Guimbitskaya, O. N.; Klyachkin, L. E.; Koudryavtsev, A. A.; Malyarenko, A. M.; Romanov, V. V.; Ryskin, A. I.; Shcheulin, A. S.

    2010-10-15

    Tunneling current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and temperature dependences of static magnetic susceptibility and specific heat of the CdB{sub x}F{sub 2-x}/p-CdF{sub 2}-QW/CdB{sub x}F{sub 2-x} planar sandwich structures formed on the surface of an n-CdF{sub 2} crystal have been studied in order to identify superconducting properties of the CdB{sub x}F{sub 2-x} {delta} barriers confining the p-type CdF{sub 2} ultranarrow quantum well. Comparative analysis of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and conductance-voltage dependences (measured at the temperatures, respectively, below and above the critical temperature of superconducting transition) indicates that there is an interrelation between quantization of supercurrent and dimensional quantization of holes in the p-CdF{sub 2} ultranarrow quantum well. It is noteworthy that detection of the Josephson peak of current in each hole subband is accompanied by the appearance of the spectrum of the multiple Andreev reflection (MAR). A high degree of spin polarization of holes in the edge channels along the perimeter of the p-CdF{sub 2} ultranarrow quantum well appears as a result of MAR and makes it possible to identify the quantum spin Hall effect I-V characteristics; this effect becomes pronounced in the case of detection of nonzero conductance at the zero voltage applied to the vertical gate in the Hall geometry of the experiment. Within the energy range of superconducting gap, the I-V characteristics of the spin transistor and quantum spin Hall effect are controlled by the MAR spectrum appearing as the voltage applied to the vertical gate is varied. Beyond the range of the superconducting gap, the observed I-V characteristic of the quantum spin Hall effect is represented by a quantum conductance staircase with a height of the steps equal to e{sub 2}/h; this height is interrelated with the Aharonov-Casher oscillations of longitudinal and depends on the voltage applied to the vertical gate.

  9. Thruster sealing system and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A thruster nozzle sealing system and apparatus is provided for protection of spacecraft thruster motors. The system includes a sealing plug, a sealing plug insertion tool, an outer cover, an outer cover attachment, and a ferry flight attachment. The sealing plug prevents moisture from entering the thruster engine so as to prevent valve failure. The attachments are interchangeably connectable with the sealing plug. The ferry flight attachment is used during air transportation of the spacecraft, and the outer cover attachment is used during storage and service of the spacecraft. The outer cover provides protection to the thruster nozzle from mechanical damage.

  10. Deflagration plasma thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y.; Chang, C. N.

    1984-01-01

    This paper introduces the application of the magnetized plasma deflagration process to space propulsion. The deflagration process has the unique capability of efficiently converting input energy into kinetic energy in the accelerating direction. To illustrate the totally divergent characters of 'snowplow' detonation and deflagration discharges, examples of the differences between deflagration and detonation 'snowplow' discharges are expressed in terms of current densities, temperature, and particle velocities. Magnetic field profiles of the deflagration mode of discharges are measured. Typical attainable plasma characteristics are described in terms of velocity, electron temperature, and density, as well as measurement techniques. Specific impulses measured by piezo-electric probe and pendulum methods are presented. The influence of the transmission line in the discharge circuits on plasma velocity is measured by means of a microwave time-of-flight method. The results for the deflagration thruster are compared with other space thrusters. Further research areas are identified.

  11. Helical plasma thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Beklemishev, A. D.

    2015-10-15

    A new scheme of plasma thruster is proposed. It is based on axial acceleration of rotating magnetized plasmas in magnetic field with helical corrugation. The idea is that the propellant ionization zone can be placed into the local magnetic well, so that initially the ions are trapped. The E × B rotation is provided by an applied radial electric field that makes the setup similar to a magnetron discharge. Then, from the rotating plasma viewpoint, the magnetic wells of the helically corrugated field look like axially moving mirror traps. Specific shaping of the corrugation can allow continuous acceleration of trapped plasma ions along the magnetic field by diamagnetic forces. The accelerated propellant is expelled through the expanding field of magnetic nozzle. By features of the acceleration principle, the helical plasma thruster may operate at high energy densities but requires a rather high axial magnetic field, which places it in the same class as the VASIMR{sup ®} rocket engine.

  12. Helical plasma thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beklemishev, A. D.

    2015-10-01

    A new scheme of plasma thruster is proposed. It is based on axial acceleration of rotating magnetized plasmas in magnetic field with helical corrugation. The idea is that the propellant ionization zone can be placed into the local magnetic well, so that initially the ions are trapped. The E × B rotation is provided by an applied radial electric field that makes the setup similar to a magnetron discharge. Then, from the rotating plasma viewpoint, the magnetic wells of the helically corrugated field look like axially moving mirror traps. Specific shaping of the corrugation can allow continuous acceleration of trapped plasma ions along the magnetic field by diamagnetic forces. The accelerated propellant is expelled through the expanding field of magnetic nozzle. By features of the acceleration principle, the helical plasma thruster may operate at high energy densities but requires a rather high axial magnetic field, which places it in the same class as the VASIMR® rocket engine.

  13. Green Liquid Monopropellant Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Prakash B.

    2015-01-01

    Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSI), and Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) are developing a unique chemical propulsion system for next-generation NASA science spacecraft and missions. The system is compact, lightweight, and can operate with high reliability over extended periods of time and under a wide range of thermal environments. The system uses a new storable, low-toxicity liquid monopropellant as its working fluid. In Phase I, the team demonstrated experimentally the critical ignition and combustion processes for the propellant and used the data to develop thruster design concepts. In Phase II, the team developed and demonstrated in the laboratory a proof-of-concept prototype thruster. A Phase III project is envisioned to develop a full-scale protoflight propulsion system applicable to a class of NASA missions.

  14. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.

  15. Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Tahir, M; Vasilopoulos, P; Schwingenschlögl, U

    2016-09-28

    We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the light's polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity [Formula: see text] at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with [Formula: see text]. These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at [Formula: see text].

  16. A Hall effect angle detector for solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamone, Salvatore; Dorsch, André; Johannessen, Ole G.; Naik, Manoj V.; Madhu, P. K.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new method for independent monitoring of the angle between the spinning axis and the magnetic field in solid-state NMR. A Hall effect magnetic flux sensor is fixed to the spinning housing, so that a change in the stator orientation leads to a change in the angle between the Hall plane and the static magnetic field. This leads to a change in the Hall voltage generated by the sensor when an electric current is passed through it. The Hall voltage may be measured externally by a precision voltmeter, allowing the spinning angle to be measured non-mechanically and independent of the NMR experiment. If the Hall sensor is mounted so that the magnetic field is approximately parallel to the Hall plane, the Hall voltage becomes highly sensitive to the stator orientation. The current angular accuracy is around 10 millidegrees. The precautions needed to achieve higher angular accuracy are described.

  17. Inverse spin Hall effect in a complex ferromagnetic oxide heterostructure

    PubMed Central

    Wahler, Martin; Homonnay, Nico; Richter, Tim; Müller, Alexander; Eisenschmidt, Christian; Fuhrmann, Bodo; Schmidt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We present spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in an epitaxial complex oxide heterostructure. Ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) is used as a source of spin pumping while the spin sink exhibiting the ISHE consists of SrRuO3 (SRO). SRO is a ferromagnetic oxide with metallic conductivity, however, with a Curie temperature (TC) of 155 K, thus well below room temperature. This choice allows to perform the experiment above and below TC of the SRO and to demonstrate that SRO not only shows an ISHE of a magnitude comparable to Pt (though with opposite sign) in its non magnetic state but also exhibits a finite ISHE even 50 K below TC. PMID:27346793

  18. Microbeads detection using spin-valve planar Hall effect sensors.

    PubMed

    Volmer, M; Avram, M

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we present a micromagnetic approach to describe the detection of magnetic nanobeads using planar Hall effect sensors. The magnetic beads polarized by a dc magnetic field generate a field, which can affect the magnetization state of spin-valve sensor, leading in principle, to a detectable signal. For magnetic nanobeads we assumed a superparamagnetic behaviour. Three detection geometries are discussed and some specific behaviours were highlighted by micromagnetic simulations. We found that when the polarising field is applied parallel with the sensor surface a very weak signal can be obtained. This is because at working fields, for which the magnetic nanobeads are magnetised, the sensor saturates. We identified other setups that can overcome this shortcoming and deliver a net signal.

  19. A Hall effect angle detector for solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Mamone, Salvatore; Dorsch, André; Johannessen, Ole G; Naik, Manoj V; Madhu, P K; Levitt, Malcolm H

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new method for independent monitoring of the angle between the spinning axis and the magnetic field in solid-state NMR. A Hall effect magnetic flux sensor is fixed to the spinning housing, so that a change in the stator orientation leads to a change in the angle between the Hall plane and the static magnetic field. This leads to a change in the Hall voltage generated by the sensor when an electric current is passed through it. The Hall voltage may be measured externally by a precision voltmeter, allowing the spinning angle to be measured non-mechanically and independent of the NMR experiment. If the Hall sensor is mounted so that the magnetic field is approximately parallel to the Hall plane, the Hall voltage becomes highly sensitive to the stator orientation. The current angular accuracy is around 10 millidegrees. The precautions needed to achieve higher angular accuracy are described.

  20. Planar Hall effect sensor for magnetic micro- and nanobead detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejsing, L.; Hansen, M. F.; Menon, A. K.; Ferreira, H. A.; Graham, D. L.; Freitas, P. P.

    2004-06-01

    Magnetic bead sensors based on the planar Hall effect in thin films of exchange-biased permalloy have been fabricated and characterized. Typical sensitivities are 3 μV/Oe mA. The sensor response to an applied magnetic field has been measured without and with coatings of commercially available 2 μm and 250 nm magnetic beads used for bioapplications (Micromer-M and Nanomag-D, Micromod, Germany). Detection of both types of beads and single bead detection of 2 μm beads is demonstrated, i.e., the technique is feasible for magnetic biosensors. Single 2 μm beads yield 300 nV signals at 10 mA and 15 Oe applied field.

  1. Quantifying of magnetically separated particles using Hall-effect sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehasni, R.; Latreche, M. E.; Feliachi, M.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we present a modeling of a captured ferromagnetic particles quantifying method based on the detection and evaluation of the magnetic field variation caused by the particle static buildup. The detecting element is a Hall-effect sensor (probe) associated to the particle capture element which is an electromagnet with iron core. From a known value of the magnetic field measured at the particle static buildup locality, we predict the particle global concentration in the treated material sample (powder or liquid). This prediction is achieved by solving the inverse problem for the captured particles magnetic field variation. Such a resolution is based on an iterative resolution of the forward problem until obtaining the global particle concentration related to the measured value of the field variation. Because an exact value can not be obtained we retain the value that minimizes an error function. To minimize such a function we have used the Tabu searching method.

  2. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Balram, Ajit C; Wurstbauer, U; Wójs, A; Pinczuk, A; Jain, J K

    2015-01-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region. PMID:26608906

  3. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    PubMed Central

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region. PMID:26608906

  4. Determination of Avogadro's number via the Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houari, Ahmed

    2007-03-01

    Many researchers and lecturers have reported that the concept of the mole and Avogadro's number are frequently misunderstood by first-year science students. For this reason, it is highly recommended to introduce this fundamental number to high school and freshman science students as clearly as possible. Therefore, it is pedagogically very useful to diversify the methods of determination of Avogadro's number which are based on basic physics phenomena accessible to those classes of students. Along these lines, I will describe here an unusual method based on the classical Hall effect for determining Avogadro's number. The present method is not relevant for its accuracy but mainly for its simplicity and its 'cleanness' compared to the usual electrochemical method used at this instruction level. In addition, this method provides an extra useful test for the validity of the free electron model.

  5. Quasiparticle Aggregation in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1984-10-10

    Quasiparticles in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect behave qualitatively like electrons confined to the lowest landau level, and can do everything electrons can do, including condense into second generation Fractional Quantum Hall ground states. I review in this paper the reasoning leading to variational wavefunctions for ground state and quasiparticles in the 1/3 effect. I then show how two-quasiparticle eigenstates are uniquely determined from symmetry, and how this leads in a natural way to variational wavefunctions for composite states which have the correct densities (2/5, 2/7, ...). I show in the process that the boson, anyon and fermion representations for the quasiparticles used by Haldane, Halperin, and me are all equivalent. I demonstrate a simple way to derive Halperin`s multiple-valued quasiparticle wavefunction from the correct single-valued electron wavefunction. (auth)

  6. Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Tahir, M; Vasilopoulos, P; Schwingenschlögl, U

    2016-09-28

    We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the light's polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity [Formula: see text] at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with [Formula: see text]. These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at [Formula: see text]. PMID:27460419

  7. Domain wall assisted GMR head with spin-Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun, R.; Sabareesan, P.; Daniel, M.

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically study the dynamics of a field induced domain wall in the Py/Pt bi-layer structure in the presence of spin-Hall effect (SHE) by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation along with the adiabatic, nonadiabatic and SHE spin-transfer torques (STTs). It is observed that a weak magnetic field moves the domain wall with high velocity in the presence of SHE and the direction of the velocity is changed by changing the direction of the weak field. The numerical results show that the magnetization of the ferromagnetic layer can be reversed quickly through domain wall motion by changing the direction of a weak external field in the presence of SHE while the direction of current is fixed. The SHE reduces the magnetization reversal time of 1000 nm length strip by 14.7 ns. This study is extended to model a domain wall based GMR (Giant Magnetoresistance) read head with SHE.

  8. Electronic simulation of a multiterminal quantum Hall effect device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosso, A.; Capra, P. P.

    1999-04-01

    A circuit with only resistors and unity gain amplifiers can be proven to be equivalent to the Ricketts and Kemeny electrical model of multiterminal quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices. By means of the new equivalent circuit, commercial software for electronic circuit analysis can be used to study a QHE measurement system. Moreover, it can be easily implemented, and we were able to build a circuit that simulates the electrical behavior of a QHE device. Particular care was taken in the design to reduce the effect of parasitic capacitances, which act as loads connected to the device terminals. Bootstrap buffers have been adopted to significantly reduce the capacitance of input stage. The small residual loading effect can be calculated and eliminated, allowing simulation of a QHE device with good accuracy.

  9. Matrix method analysis of quantum Hall effect device connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortolano, M.; Callegaro, L.

    2012-02-01

    The modelling of electrical connections of single, or several, multiterminal quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices is relevant for electrical metrology: it is known, in fact, that certain particular connections allow (i) the realization of multiples or fractions of the quantized resistance, or (ii) the rejection of stray impedances, so that the configuration maintains the status of quantum standard. Ricketts-Kemeny and Delahaye equivalent circuits are known to be accurate models of the QHE: however, the numerical or analytical solution of electrical networks including these equivalent circuits can be difficult. In this paper, we introduce a method of analysis based on the representation of a QHE device by means of the indefinite admittance matrix: external connections are then represented with another matrix, easily written by inspection. Some examples, including the solution of double- and triple-series connections, are shown.

  10. Quantum Hall effect in a system with an electron reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorozhkin, S. I.

    2016-04-01

    Precise measurements of the magnetic-field and gate-voltage dependences of the capacitance of a field-effect transistor with an electron system in a wide GaAs quantum well have been carried out. It has been found that the capacitance minima caused by the gaps in the Landau spectrum of the electron system become anomalously wide when two size-quantization subbands are occupied. The effect is explained by retention of the chemical potential in the gap between the Landau levels of one of the subbands owing to redistribution of electrons between the subbands under a change in the magnetic field. The calculation taking into account this redistribution has been performed in a model of the electron system formed by two two-dimensional electron layers. The calculation results describe both the wide capacitance features and the observed disappearance of certain quantum Hall effect states.

  11. Vortices in superconducting films: Statistics and fractional quantum Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Dziarmaga, J.

    1996-03-01

    We present a derivation of the Berry phase picked up during exchange of parallel vortices. This derivation is based on the Bogolubov{endash}de Gennes formalism. The origin of the Magnus force is also critically reanalyzed. The Magnus force can be interpreted as an interaction with the effective magnetic field. The effective magnetic field may be even of the order 10{sup 6}{ital T}/A. We discuss a possibility of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) in vortex systems. As the real magnetic field is varied to drive changes in vortex density, the vortex density will prefer to stay at some quantized values. The mere existence of the FQHE does not depend on vortex quantum statistics, although the pattern of the plateaux does. We also discuss how the density of anyonic vortices can lower the effective strengh of the Magnus force, what might be observable in measurements of Hall resistivity. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  12. Magnetic bilayer-skyrmions without skyrmion Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Ezawa, Motohiko

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmions might be used as information carriers in future advanced memories, logic gates and computing devices. However, there exists an obstacle known as the skyrmion Hall effect (SkHE), that is, the skyrmion trajectories bend away from the driving current direction due to the Magnus force. Consequently, the skyrmions in constricted geometries may be destroyed by touching the sample edges. Here we theoretically propose that the SkHE can be suppressed in the antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled bilayer system, since the Magnus forces in the top and bottom layers are exactly cancelled. We show that such a pair of SkHE-free magnetic skyrmions can be nucleated and be driven by the current-induced torque. Our proposal provides a promising means to move magnetic skyrmions in a perfectly straight trajectory in ultra-dense devices with ultra-fast processing speed. PMID:26782905

  13. Magnetic bilayer-skyrmions without skyrmion Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Ezawa, Motohiko

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmions might be used as information carriers in future advanced memories, logic gates and computing devices. However, there exists an obstacle known as the skyrmion Hall effect (SkHE), that is, the skyrmion trajectories bend away from the driving current direction due to the Magnus force. Consequently, the skyrmions in constricted geometries may be destroyed by touching the sample edges. Here we theoretically propose that the SkHE can be suppressed in the antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled bilayer system, since the Magnus forces in the top and bottom layers are exactly cancelled. We show that such a pair of SkHE-free magnetic skyrmions can be nucleated and be driven by the current-induced torque. Our proposal provides a promising means to move magnetic skyrmions in a perfectly straight trajectory in ultra-dense devices with ultra-fast processing speed.

  14. Scaling of the anomalous Hall effect in lower conductivity regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karel, J.; Bordel, C.; Bouma, D. S.; de Lorimier-Farmer, A.; Lee, H. J.; Hellman, F.

    2016-06-01

    The scaling of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) was investigated using amorphous and epitaxial Fe x Si1-x (0.43 < x < 0.71) magnetic thin films by varying the longitudinal conductivity (σxx) using two different approaches: modifying the carrier mean free path (l) with chemical or structural disorder while holding the carrier concentration (nh) constant or varying n h and keeping l constant. The anomalous Hall conductivity (σxy) , when suitably normalized by magnetization and n h , is shown to be independent of σxx for all samples. This observation suggests a primary dependence on an intrinsic mechanism, unsurprising for the epitaxial high conductivity films where the Berry phase curvature mechanism is expected, but remarkable for the amorphous samples. That the amorphous samples show this scaling indicates a local atomic level description of a Berry phase, resulting in an intrinsic AHE in a system that lacks lattice periodicity.

  15. Anomalous resistance overshoot in the integer quantum Hall effect

    PubMed Central

    Kendirlik, E. M.; Sirt, S.; Kalkan, S. B.; Dietsche, W.; Wegscheider, W.; Ludwig, S.; Siddiki, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report on experiments performed on smooth edge-narrow Hall bars. The magneto-transport properties of intermediate mobility two-dimensional electron systems are investigated and analyzed within the screening theory of the integer quantized Hall effect. We observe a non-monotonic increase of Hall resistance at the low magnetic field ends of the quantized plateaus, known as the overshoot effect. Unexpectedly, for Hall bars that are defined by shallow chemical etching the overshoot effect becomes more pronounced at elevated temperatures. We observe the overshoot effect at odd and even integer plateaus, which favor a spin independent explanation, in contrast to discussion in the literature. In a second set of the experiments, we investigate the overshoot effect in gate defined Hall bar and explicitly show that the amplitude of the overshoot effect can be directly controlled by gate voltages. We offer a comprehensive explanation based on scattering between evanescent incompressible channels. PMID:24190162

  16. Interaction driven quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Siddique, Salma; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood; Nam, Jungtae; Kim, Keun Soo; Eom, Jonghwa

    2016-01-01

    The honeycomb lattice structure of graphene gives rise to its exceptional electronic properties of linear dispersion relation and its chiral nature of charge carriers. The exceptional electronic properties of graphene stem from linear dispersion relation and chiral nature of charge carries, originating from its honeycomb lattice structure. Here, we address the quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers and single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. The quantum Hall plateaus started to appear more than 3 T and became clearer at higher magnetic fields up to 9 T. Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations were manifestly observed in graphene bilayers texture. These unusual plateaus may have been due to the layers interaction in artificially stacked graphene bilayers. Our study initiates the understanding of interactions between artificially stacked graphene layers. PMID:27098387

  17. Spin Hall effect of light measured by interferometry.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Chandravati; Ranganathan, D; Joseph, Joby

    2013-07-15

    We demonstrate a experimental method to measure the spin Hall effect of light (SHEL), which is based on the interference between two orthogonal circularly polarized beams with the help of a polarizer. Our method can measure the SHEL across the entire exit pupil, not only at the centroid as is the case with earlier methods, and hence one can scan the transverse section of the beam. We measured the SHEL of an aluminium mirror and a glass plate using a He-Ne laser at wavelength 633 nm, for incidence angles varying from 22° to 70°. The experimental results are in good agreement with theory. We also measured the shift across the transverse section of a Gaussian beam using same method.

  18. Anomalous resistance overshoot in the integer quantum Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Kendirlik, E M; Sirt, S; Kalkan, S B; Dietsche, W; Wegscheider, W; Ludwig, S; Siddiki, A

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report on experiments performed on smooth edge-narrow Hall bars. The magneto-transport properties of intermediate mobility two-dimensional electron systems are investigated and analyzed within the screening theory of the integer quantized Hall effect. We observe a non-monotonic increase of Hall resistance at the low magnetic field ends of the quantized plateaus, known as the overshoot effect. Unexpectedly, for Hall bars that are defined by shallow chemical etching the overshoot effect becomes more pronounced at elevated temperatures. We observe the overshoot effect at odd and even integer plateaus, which favor a spin independent explanation, in contrast to discussion in the literature. In a second set of the experiments, we investigate the overshoot effect in gate defined Hall bar and explicitly show that the amplitude of the overshoot effect can be directly controlled by gate voltages. We offer a comprehensive explanation based on scattering between evanescent incompressible channels.

  19. Photonic hall effect in ferrofluids: theory and experiments

    PubMed

    Lacoste; Donatini; Neveu; Serughetti; Van Tiggelen BA

    2000-09-01

    An experimental and theoretical study on the photonic Hall effect (PHE) in liquid and gelled samples of ferrofluids is presented. The ferrofluids are aqueous colloidal suspensions of Fe2CoO4 particles, which can be considered as anisotropic and absorbing Rayleigh scatterers. The PHE is found to be produced by the orientation of the magnetic moments of the particles, as is also the case for the Faraday effect. The dependence of the PHE with respect to the concentration of the scatterers, the magnetic field, and the polarization of the incident light is measured in liquid and in gelled samples, and is compared to a simple model based on the use of a scattering matrix and the single scattering approximation.

  20. Hall effect in quantum critical charge-cluster glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T.; Sun, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Upon doping, cuprates undergo a quantum phase transition from an insulator to a d-wave superconductor. The nature of this transition and of the insulating state is vividly debated. Here, we study the Hall effect in La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) samples doped near the quantum critical point at x ˜ 0.06. Dramatic fluctuations in the Hall resistance appear below TCG ˜ 1.5 K and increase as the sample is cooled down further, signaling quantum critical behavior. We explore the doping dependence of this effect in detail, by studying a combinatorial LSCO library in which the Sr content is varied in extremely fine steps, Δx ˜ 0.00008. We observe that quantum charge fluctuations wash out when superconductivity emerges but can be restored when the latter is suppressed by applying a magnetic field, showing that the two instabilities compete for the ground state.

  1. Hall effect in quantum critical charge-cluster glass.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T; Sun, Yujie; Božović, Ivan

    2016-04-19

    Upon doping, cuprates undergo a quantum phase transition from an insulator to a d-wave superconductor. The nature of this transition and of the insulating state is vividly debated. Here, we study the Hall effect in La2-xSrxCuO4(LSCO) samples doped near the quantum critical point atx∼ 0.06. Dramatic fluctuations in the Hall resistance appear belowTCG∼ 1.5 K and increase as the sample is cooled down further, signaling quantum critical behavior. We explore the doping dependence of this effect in detail, by studying a combinatorial LSCO library in which the Sr content is varied in extremely fine steps,Δx∼ 0.00008. We observe that quantum charge fluctuations wash out when superconductivity emerges but can be restored when the latter is suppressed by applying a magnetic field, showing that the two instabilities compete for the ground state. PMID:27044081

  2. Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M.; Vasilopoulos, P.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-09-01

    We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the light’s polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity {σyx}=0 at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with {σyx}={{e}2}/2h . These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at (+/- 1/2,+/- 3/2,+/- 5/2,...){{e}2}/h .

  3. Spin Hall effect of light in photon tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Hailu; Wen Shuangchun; Shu Weixing; Fan Dianyuan

    2010-10-15

    We resolve the breakdown of angular momentum conservation on two-dimensional photon tunneling by considering the spin Hall effect (SHE) of light. This effect manifests itself as polarization-dependent transverse shifts of the field centroid when a classic wave packet tunnels through a prism-air-prism barrier. For the left or the right circularly polarized component, the transverse shift can be modulated by altering the refractive index gradient associated with the two prisms. We find that the SHE in conventional beam refraction can be evidently enhanced via photon tunneling mechanism. The transverse spatial shift is governed by the total angular momentum conservation law, while the transverse angular shift is governed by the total linear momentum conservation law. These findings open the possibility for developing new nanophotonic devices and can be extrapolated to other physical systems.

  4. Quantum spin Hall effect induced by electric field in silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xing-Tao; Zhang, Yan-Yang; Liu, Jian-Jun; Li, Shu-Shen

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties in a zigzag silicene nanoribbon in the presence of an external electric field. The staggered sublattice potential and two kinds of Rashba spin-orbit couplings can be induced by the external electric field due to the buckled structure of the silicene. A bulk gap is opened by the staggered potential and gapless edge states appear in the gap by tuning the two kinds of Rashba spin-orbit couplings properly. Furthermore, the gapless edge states are spin-filtered and are insensitive to the non-magnetic disorder. These results prove that the quantum spin Hall effect can be induced by an external electric field in silicene, which may have certain practical significance in applications for future spintronics device.

  5. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Balram, Ajit C; Wurstbauer, U; Wójs, A; Pinczuk, A; Jain, J K

    2015-11-26

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.

  6. Extrinsic Spin Hall effect of AuW alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laczkowski, Piotr; Rojas-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Savero-Torres, Williams; Reyren, Nicolas; Deranlot, Cyril; George, Jean-Marie; Jaffres, Henri; Beigné, Cyril; Notin, Lucien; Collin, Sophie; Marty, Alain; Attané, Jean-Philippe; Vila, Laurent; Petroff, Frederic; Fert, Albert; UMPhy CNRS-Thales Palaiseau Team; CEA-SP2M-INAC Grenoble Team

    The spin Hall effect (SHE) allows a reciprocal conversion between charge and spin currents using spin orbit interactions. Large Spin Hall angle have been reported in transition metals (Pt, W, Beta-Ta) and in alloys made of heavy metals. We will report on SHA in AuW alloys exhibiting a non-monotonic relation with W content. In this regime, it suggests a skew-scattering to side-jump dominant contribution to the spin Hall resistivity, thus allowing precise tuning of SHA vs. W content. We will present experiments by using Lateral Spin Valves with refined spin-absorption model adapted to strong spin-orbit interactions. By using complementary FMR/Spin-Pumping techniques, we demonstrate very large SHA of the order of 15 % at rather high W concentration in rather good agreement with the previous method

  7. Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bestwick, A. J.; Fox, E. J.; Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang L.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.

    2015-05-04

    In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.

  8. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-11-26

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.

  9. Inverse spin Hall effect in a complex ferromagnetic oxide heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Wahler, Martin; Homonnay, Nico; Richter, Tim; Müller, Alexander; Eisenschmidt, Christian; Fuhrmann, Bodo; Schmidt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We present spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in an epitaxial complex oxide heterostructure. Ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) is used as a source of spin pumping while the spin sink exhibiting the ISHE consists of SrRuO3 (SRO). SRO is a ferromagnetic oxide with metallic conductivity, however, with a Curie temperature (TC) of 155 K, thus well below room temperature. This choice allows to perform the experiment above and below TC of the SRO and to demonstrate that SRO not only shows an ISHE of a magnitude comparable to Pt (though with opposite sign) in its non magnetic state but also exhibits a finite ISHE even 50 K below TC. PMID:27346793

  10. Inverse spin Hall effect in a complex ferromagnetic oxide heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahler, Martin; Homonnay, Nico; Richter, Tim; Müller, Alexander; Eisenschmidt, Christian; Fuhrmann, Bodo; Schmidt, Georg

    2016-06-01

    We present spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in an epitaxial complex oxide heterostructure. Ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) is used as a source of spin pumping while the spin sink exhibiting the ISHE consists of SrRuO3 (SRO). SRO is a ferromagnetic oxide with metallic conductivity, however, with a Curie temperature (TC) of 155 K, thus well below room temperature. This choice allows to perform the experiment above and below TC of the SRO and to demonstrate that SRO not only shows an ISHE of a magnitude comparable to Pt (though with opposite sign) in its non magnetic state but also exhibits a finite ISHE even 50 K below TC.

  11. Magnetic bilayer-skyrmions without skyrmion Hall effect

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Ezawa, Motohiko

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmions might be used as information carriers in future advanced memories, logic gates and computing devices. However, there exists an obstacle known as the skyrmion Hall effect (SkHE), that is, the skyrmion trajectories bend away from the driving current direction due to the Magnus force. Consequently, the skyrmions in constricted geometries may be destroyed by touching the sample edges. Here we theoretically propose that the SkHE can be suppressed in the antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled bilayer system, since the Magnus forces in the top and bottom layers are exactly cancelled. We show that such a pair of SkHE-free magnetic skyrmions can be nucleated and be driven by the current-induced torque. Our proposal provides a promising means to move magnetic skyrmions in a perfectly straight trajectory in ultra-dense devices with ultra-fast processing speed. PMID:26782905

  12. Hall effect in quantum critical charge-cluster glass

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T.; Sun, Yujie; Božović, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Upon doping, cuprates undergo a quantum phase transition from an insulator to a d-wave superconductor. The nature of this transition and of the insulating state is vividly debated. Here, we study the Hall effect in La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) samples doped near the quantum critical point at x ∼ 0.06. Dramatic fluctuations in the Hall resistance appear below TCG ∼ 1.5 K and increase as the sample is cooled down further, signaling quantum critical behavior. We explore the doping dependence of this effect in detail, by studying a combinatorial LSCO library in which the Sr content is varied in extremely fine steps, Δx ∼ 0.00008. We observe that quantum charge fluctuations wash out when superconductivity emerges but can be restored when the latter is suppressed by applying a magnetic field, showing that the two instabilities compete for the ground state. PMID:27044081

  13. Hall effect in quantum critical charge-cluster glass.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T; Sun, Yujie; Božović, Ivan

    2016-04-19

    Upon doping, cuprates undergo a quantum phase transition from an insulator to a d-wave superconductor. The nature of this transition and of the insulating state is vividly debated. Here, we study the Hall effect in La2-xSrxCuO4(LSCO) samples doped near the quantum critical point atx∼ 0.06. Dramatic fluctuations in the Hall resistance appear belowTCG∼ 1.5 K and increase as the sample is cooled down further, signaling quantum critical behavior. We explore the doping dependence of this effect in detail, by studying a combinatorial LSCO library in which the Sr content is varied in extremely fine steps,Δx∼ 0.00008. We observe that quantum charge fluctuations wash out when superconductivity emerges but can be restored when the latter is suppressed by applying a magnetic field, showing that the two instabilities compete for the ground state.

  14. Interaction driven quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Siddique, Salma; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood; Nam, Jungtae; Kim, Keun Soo; Eom, Jonghwa

    2016-01-01

    The honeycomb lattice structure of graphene gives rise to its exceptional electronic properties of linear dispersion relation and its chiral nature of charge carriers. The exceptional electronic properties of graphene stem from linear dispersion relation and chiral nature of charge carries, originating from its honeycomb lattice structure. Here, we address the quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers and single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. The quantum Hall plateaus started to appear more than 3 T and became clearer at higher magnetic fields up to 9 T. Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations were manifestly observed in graphene bilayers texture. These unusual plateaus may have been due to the layers interaction in artificially stacked graphene bilayers. Our study initiates the understanding of interactions between artificially stacked graphene layers. PMID:27098387

  15. Role of electrical field in quantum Hall effect of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ji

    2013-01-01

    The ballistic motion of carriers of graphene in an orthogonal electromagnetic field is investigated to explain quantum Hall effect of graphene under experimental conditions. With the electrical field, all electronic eigen-states have the same expectation value of the velocity operator, or classically, all carriers move in cycloid-like curves with the same average velocity. This velocity is the origin of the Hall conductance and its magnitude is just appropriate so that the quantized Hall conductance is exactly independent of the external field. Electrical field changes each Landau level into a bundle of energies. Hall conductance plateaus occur in small fields as bundle gaps exist and are destroyed in intermediate fields as bundles overlap. As the electrical field tends to the critical point, all bundles have the same width, and bundle gaps increase to infinity rapidly. As a result, saturation of the Hall conductance may be observed. Electrical field thus demonstrates nonlinear effects on the Hall conductance.

  16. Cylindrical wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Bronnikov, K. A.; Lemos, Jose P. S.

    2009-05-15

    It is shown that the existence of static, cylindrically symmetric wormholes does not require violation of the weak or null energy conditions near the throat, and cylindrically symmetric wormhole geometries can appear with less exotic sources than wormholes whose throats have a spherical topology. Examples of exact wormhole solutions are given with scalar, spinor and electromagnetic fields as sources, and these fields are not necessarily phantom. In particular, there are wormhole solutions for a massless, minimally coupled scalar field in the presence of a negative cosmological constant, and for an azimuthal Maxwell electromagnetic field. All these solutions are not asymptotically flat. A no-go theorem is proved, according to which a flat (or string) asymptotic behavior on both sides of a cylindrical wormhole throat is impossible if the energy density of matter is everywhere nonnegative.

  17. Theory of Spin Hall Effect in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Hans-Andreas

    2006-03-01

    In the spin Hall effect, an electric current in a system with spin-orbit coupling induces a transverse spin current which leads to non-equilibrium spin accumulation near sample boundaries. Generating and manipulating non-equilibrium spin magnetization by electric fields is one of the most desirable goals of semiconductor spintronics, because electric fields have potentialities for accessing individual spins at nanometer scales. In this talk, I review the different spin-orbit coupling mechanisms in direct gap semiconductors and the implications of these mechanisms for the spin Hall effect. In particular, we recently developed a theory that accounts for spin-orbit coupling at charged impurities. This coupling leads to extrinsic spin currents that contain skew scattering and side jump contribution [1]. Applying our theory to bulk n-GaAs, without any free parameters, we find spin currents that are in reasonable agreement with recent experiments by Kato et al. [2]. Also, such contributions are important for p-doped GaAs. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the presence of anisotropic impurity scattering, and found that, somewhat surprisingly, an electrical field can lead to a bulk magnetization component perpendicular to both the spin-orbit field and an external magnetic field. These works have been done in collaboration with B.I. Halperin, E.I. Rashba, and A.A. Burkov. [1] H.-A. Engel, B.I. Halperin, and E.I. Rashba, Phys. Rev.Lett. 95, 166605 (2005). [2] Y.K. Kato, R.C. Myers, A.C. Gossard, and D.D. Awschalom, Science 306, 1910 (2004).

  18. Experimental Verification of the Hall Effect during Magnetic Reconnection in a Laboratory Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Ren; Masaaki Yamada; Stefan Gerhardt; Hantao Ji; Russell Kulsrud; Aleksey Kuritsyn

    2005-06-16

    In this letter we report a clear and unambiguous observation of the out-of-plane quadrupole magnetic field suggested by numerical simulations in the reconnecting current sheet in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX). Measurements show that the Hall effect is large in collisionless regime and becomes small as the collisionality increases, indicating that the Hall effect plays an important role in collisionless reconnection.

  19. Electron Transport in Hall Thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael Sean

    Despite high technological maturity and a long flight heritage, computer models of Hall thrusters remain dependent on empirical inputs and a large part of thruster development to date has been heavily experimental in nature. This empirical approach will become increasingly unsustainable as new high-power thrusters tax existing ground test facilities and more exotic thruster designs stretch and strain the boundaries of existing design experience. The fundamental obstacle preventing predictive modeling of Hall thruster plasma properties and channel erosion is the lack of a first-principles description of electron transport across the strong magnetic fields between the cathode and anode. In spite of an abundance of proposed transport mechanisms, accurate assessments of the magnitude of electron current due to any one mechanism are scarce, and comparative studies of their relative influence on a single thruster platform simply do not exist. Lacking a clear idea of what mechanism(s) are primarily responsible for transport, it is understandably difficult for the electric propulsion scientist to focus his or her theoretical and computational tools on the right targets. This work presents a primarily experimental investigation of collisional and turbulent Hall thruster electron transport mechanisms. High-speed imaging of the thruster discharge channel at tens of thousands of frames per second reveals omnipresent rotating regions of elevated light emission, identified with a rotating spoke instability. This turbulent instability has been shown through construction of an azimuthally segmented anode to drive significant cross-field electron current in the discharge channel, and suggestive evidence points to its spatial extent into the thruster near-field plume as well. Electron trajectory simulations in experimentally measured thruster electromagnetic fields indicate that binary collisional transport mechanisms are not significant in the thruster plume, and experiments

  20. Anode power deposition in applied-field MPD thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Soulas, George C.

    1992-01-01

    Anode power deposition is the principal performance limiter of magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. Current thrusters lose between 50 and 70 percent of the input power to the anode. In this work, anode power deposition was studied for three cylindrical applied magnetic field thrusters for a range of argon propellant flow rates, discharge currents, and applied-field strengths. Between 60 and 95 percent of the anode power depositions resulted from electron current conduction into the anode, with cathode radiation depositing between 5 and 35 percent of the anode power, and convective heat transfer from the hot plasma accounting for less than 5 percent. While the fractional anode power loss decreased with increasing applied-field strength and anode size, the magnitude of the anode power increased. The rise in anode power resulted from a linear rise in the anode fall voltage with applied-field strength and anode radius. The anode fall voltage also rose with decreasing propellant flow rate. The trends indicate that the anode fall region is magnetized, and suggest techniques for reducing the anode power loss in MPD thrusters.

  1. Anode power deposition in applied-field MPD thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Soulas, George C.

    1992-01-01

    Anode power deposition is the principle performance limiter of magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. Current thrusters lose between 50 and 70 percent of the input power to the anode. In this work, anode power deposition was studied for three cylindrical applied magnetic field thrusters for a range of argon propellant flow rates, discharge currents, and applied-field strengths. Between 60 and 95 percent of the anode power deposition resulted from electron current conduction into the anode, with cathode radiation depositing between 5 and 35 percent of the anode power, and convective heat transfer from the hot plasma accounting for less than 5 percent. While the fractional anode power loss decreased with increasing applied-field strength and anode size, the magnitude of the anode power increased. The rise in anode power resulted from a linear rise in the anode fall voltage with applied-field strength and anode radius. The anode fall voltage also rose with decreasing propellant flow rate. The trends indicate that the anode fall region is magnetized, and suggest techniques for reducing the anode power loss in MPD thrusters.

  2. Design of an ICRF plasma thruster antenna by TOPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchi, Giuseppe; Lancellotti, Vito; Maggiora, Riccardo

    2006-10-01

    A typical RF plasma thruster is comprised of an RF plasma source, an open-ended magnetic confinement device, an RF acceleration unit and a magnetic nozzle. The usual choice for the acceleration is to employ the Ion-Cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF), a well established technology in fusion experiments for transferring large RF powers to magnetized plasmas. To help design RF thruster ICRF antennas, TOPICA (Torino Polytechnic Ion Cyclotron Antenna) code [1] has been recently extended to handle cylindrically symmetric plasmas. The latter entailed developing a wholly new module of TOPICA charged with the task of solving Maxwell's equations in cylindrical magnetized warm plasmas and yielding the Green's functionY (m,kz), i.e. the relationship at the air-plasma interface between the transverse magnetic and electric fields in the spectral (wavenumber) domain. The approach to the problem of determining the antenna input impedance relies on an integral-equation formulation for the self-consistent evaluation of the current distribution on the conductors. This work reports on TOPICA evolution and presents the design of an RF thruster ICRF antenna. *V. Lancellotti et al., Nucl. Fusion, 46 (2006) S476-S499

  3. Optical Characterization of Component Wear and Near-Field Plasma of the Hermes Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, George J., Jr.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2015-01-01

    Optical emission spectral (OES) data are presented which correlate trends in sputtered species and the near-field plasma with the Hall-Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) thruster operating condition. The relative density of singly-ionized xenon (Xe II) is estimated using a collisional-radiative model. OES data were collected at three radial and several axial locations downstream of the thruster's exit plane. These data were deconvolved to show the structure for the near-field plasma as a function of thruster operating condition. The magnetic field is shown to have a much greater affect on plasma structure than the discharge voltage with the primary ionization/acceleration zone boundary being similar for all nominal operating voltages at constant power. OES measurement of sputtered boron shows that the HERMeS thruster is magnetically shielded across its operating envelope. Preliminary assessment of carbon sputtered from the keeper face suggest it increases significantly with operating voltage, but the uncertainty associated with these measurements is very high.

  4. Pulsed Plasma Thruster Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The continuing emphasis on reducing costs and downsizing spacecraft is forcing increased emphasis on reducing the subsystem mass and integration costs. For many commercial, scientific, and Department of Defense space missions, onboard propulsion is either the predominant spacecraft mass or it limits the spacecraft lifetime. Electromagnetic-pulsed-plasma thrusters (PPT's) offer the combined benefits of extremely low average electric power requirements (1 to 150 W), high specific impulse (approx. 1000 sec), and system simplicity derived from the use of an inert solid propellant. Potential applications range from orbit insertion and maintenance of small satellites to attitude control for large geostationary communications satellites.

  5. Electrodeless Experimental Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Brainerd, Jerome J.; Reisz, Al

    2009-03-16

    An electrodeless experimental electric thruster has been built and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The plasma is formed by Electron-Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) absorption of RF waves (microwaves). The RF source operates in the 1 to 2 kW range. The plasma is overdense and is confined radially by an applied axial dc magnetic field. The field is shaped by a strong magnetic mirror on the upstream end and a magnetic nozzle on the downstream end. Argon is used as the propellant. The velocity profile in the exhaust plume has been measured with Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). An unusual bimodal velocity profile has been measured.

  6. Hall effect in quantum critical charge-cluster glass

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bozovic, Ivan; Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T.; Sun, Yujie

    2016-04-04

    Upon doping, cuprates undergo a quantum phase transition from an insulator to a d-wave superconductor. The nature of this transition and of the insulating state is vividly debated. Here, we study the Hall effect in La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) samples doped near the quantum critical point at x ≈ 0.06. Dramatic fluctuations in the Hall resistance appear below TCG ≈ 1.5 K and increase as the sample is cooled down further, signaling quantum critical behavior. We explore the doping dependence of this effect in detail, by studying a combinatorial LSCO library in which the Sr content is varied in extremely fine steps,more » Δx ≈ 0.00008. Furthermore, we observe that quantum charge fluctuations wash out when superconductivity emerges but can be restored when the latter is suppressed by applying a magnetic field, showing that the two instabilities compete for the ground state.« less

  7. The microwave Hall effect measured using a waveguide tee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppock, J. E.; Anderson, J. R.; Johnson, W. B.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a simple microwave apparatus to measure the Hall effect in semiconductor wafers. The advantage of this technique is that it does not require contacts on the sample or the use of a resonant cavity. Our method consists of placing the semiconductor wafer into a slot cut in an X-band (8-12 GHz) waveguide series tee, injecting microwave power into the two opposite arms of the tee, and measuring the microwave output at the third arm. A magnetic field applied perpendicular to the wafer gives a microwave Hall signal that is linear in the magnetic field and which reverses phase when the magnetic field is reversed. The microwave Hall signal is proportional to the semiconductor mobility, which we compare for calibration purposes with d.c. mobility measurements obtained using the van der Pauw method. We obtain the resistivity by measuring the microwave reflection coefficient of the sample. This paper presents data for silicon and germanium samples doped with boron or phosphorus. The measured mobilities ranged from 270 to 3000 cm2/(V s).

  8. The Microwave Hall Effect Measured Using a Waveguide Tee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William; Coppock, Joyce; Anderson, J. Robert

    We describe a simple microwave apparatus to measure the Hall effect in semiconductor wafers. This technique does not require contacts on the sample or the use of a resonant cavity. Our method consists of placing a semiconductor wafer into a slot in an X-band (8 - 12 GHz) waveguide series tee, injecting microwave power into the two opposite arms of the tee, and measuring the microwave output at the third arm. A magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the wafer and produces a microwave Hall signal that is linear in the magnetic field and which reverses phase when the magnetic field is reversed. The microwave Hall signal is proportional to the semiconductor mobility, which we compare for calibration purposes with d. c. mobility measurements obtained using the van der Pauw method. We obtain the resistivity by measuring the microwave reflection coefficient of the sample. We determine a calibration constant as a function of the ratio of thickness to skin depth for two and three inch silicon and germanium samples doped with boron or phosphorus. The measured mobilities ranged from 270 to 3000 cm2 / (Vsec)

  9. Topological superconductivity, topological confinement, and the vortex quantum Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Diamantini, M. Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A.

    2011-09-01

    Topological matter is characterized by the presence of a topological BF term in its long-distance effective action. Topological defects due to the compactness of the U(1) gauge fields induce quantum phase transitions between topological insulators, topological superconductors, and topological confinement. In conventional superconductivity, because of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the photon acquires a mass due to the Anderson-Higgs mechanism. In this paper we derive the corresponding effective actions for the electromagnetic field in topological superconductors and topological confinement phases. In topological superconductors magnetic flux is confined and the photon acquires a topological mass through the BF mechanism: no symmetry breaking is involved, the ground state has topological order, and the transition is induced by quantum fluctuations. In topological confinement, instead, electric charge is linearly confined and the photon becomes a massive antisymmetric tensor via the Stueckelberg mechanism. Oblique confinement phases arise when the string condensate carries both magnetic and electric flux (dyonic strings). Such phases are characterized by a vortex quantum Hall effect potentially relevant for the dissipationless transport of information stored on vortices.

  10. Application of the quantum Hall effect to resistance metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Wilfrid; Schopfer, Félicien; Guignard, Jérémie; Thévenot, Olivier; Gournay, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    The quantum Hall effect (QHE) discovery has revolutionized metrology by providing with a representation of the unit of resistance, R, that can be reproduced within a relative uncertainty of one part in 10 9 and is theoretically only linked to Planck's constant h and the electron charge e. This breakthrough also results from the development of resistance comparison bridges using cryogenic current comparator (CCC). The QHE experimental know-how now allows the realization of perfectly quantized Quantum Hall Array Resistance Standards (QHARS) by combining a large number of single Hall bars. In the context of an evolution of the Système International (SI) of units by fixing some fundamental constants of physics, the determination of the von Klitzing constant R through the use of the so-called Thompson-Lampard calculable capacitor and the realization of refined universality tests of the QHE are of prime importance. Finally, the fascinating graphene material might be a new turning point in resistance metrology.

  11. Anomalous Hall effect in Fe/Au multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Li, P.; Wen, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, J. W.; Manchon, A.; Mi, W. B.; Peng, Y.; Zhang, X. X.

    2016-07-01

    To understand the interfacial scattering effect on the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), we prepared multilayers of (Fe(36/n)nm/A u(12 /n )nm ) n using an e-beam evaporator. This structure design allowed us to investigate the effect of interfacial scattering on the AHE, while keeping the samples' thickness and composition unchanged. We measured the (magneto)transport properties of the samples in a wide temperature range (10-310 K) with magnetic fields up to 50 kOe. We found that the scaling between the anomalous Hall resistivity (ρAHE) and longitudinal resistivity (ρx x) can be roughly described by ρAHE˜ρxx γ with γ =2.65 ±0.10 and 1.90 ± 0.04 for samples from n =1 to n =4 and samples from n =4 to n =12 , respectively. Our quantitative analysis results showed that the interfacial scattering suppresses the contribution of the intrinsic mechanism and gives rise to a side-jump contribution.

  12. Observation of room-temperature skyrmion Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W.; Zhang, X.; Upadhyaya, P.; Zhang, W.; Yu, G.; Jungfleisch, M.; Fradin, F.; Pearson, J.; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Wang, K.; Heinonen, O.; Zhou, Y.; Te Velthuis, Suzanne; Hoffmann, A.

    The realization of room-temperature magnetic skyrmions is key to enabling the implementation of skyrmion-based spintronics. In this work, we present the efficient conversion of chiral stripe domains into Néel skyrmions through a geometrical constriction patterned in a Ta/CoFeB/TaOx trilayer film at room temperature. This is enabled by an interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and laterally divergent current-induced spin-orbit torques. We further show the generation of magnetic skyrmions solely by the divergent spin-orbit torques through a nonmagnetic point contact. By increasing the current density, we observe the skyrmion Hall effect - that is the accumulation of skyrmions at one side of the device. The related Hall angle for skyrmion motion is also revealed under an ac driving current. Financial support for the work at Argonne came from Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, work at UCLA was supported by TANMS.

  13. Extrinsic spin Hall effects measured with lateral spin valve structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimi, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Kawanishi, Y.; Omori, Y.; Valet, T.; Fert, A.; Otani, Y.

    2014-02-01

    The spin Hall effect (SHE), induced by spin-orbit interaction in nonmagnetic materials, is one of the promising phenomena for conversion between charge and spin currents in spintronic devices. The spin Hall (SH) angle is the characteristic parameter of this conversion. We have performed experiments of the conversion from spin into charge currents by the SHE in lateral spin valve structures. We present experimental results on the extrinsic SHEs induced by doping nonmagnetic metals, Cu or Ag, with impurities having a large spin-orbit coupling, Bi or Pb, as well as results on the intrinsic SHE of Au. The SH angle induced by Bi in Cu or Ag is negative and particularly large for Bi in Cu, 10 times larger than the intrinsic SH angle in Au. We also observed a large SH angle for CuPb, but the SHE signal disappeared in a few days. Such an aging effect could be related to a fast mobility of Pb in Cu and has not been observed in CuBi alloys.

  14. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-11-26

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeemanmore » energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.« less

  15. Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou -Cheng

    2015-08-25

    The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Here, we give a theoretical introduction to the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect based on magnetic topological insulators in two-dimensions (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). In 2D topological insulators, magnetic order breaks the symmetry between the counter-propagating helical edge states, and as a result, the quantum spin Hall effect can evolve into the QAH effect. In 3D, magnetic order opens up a gap for the topological surface states, and chiral edge state has been predicted to exist on the magnetic domain walls. We presentmore » the phase diagram in thin films of a magnetic topological insulator and review the basic mechanism of ferromagnetic order in magnetically doped topological insulators. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QAH effect. Furthermore, we discuss more recent theoretical work on the coexistence of the helical and chiral edge states, multi-channel chiral edge states, the theory of the plateau transition, and the thickness dependence in the QAH effect.« less

  16. Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou -Cheng

    2015-08-25

    The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Here, we give a theoretical introduction to the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect based on magnetic topological insulators in two-dimensions (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). In 2D topological insulators, magnetic order breaks the symmetry between the counter-propagating helical edge states, and as a result, the quantum spin Hall effect can evolve into the QAH effect. In 3D, magnetic order opens up a gap for the topological surface states, and chiral edge state has been predicted to exist on the magnetic domain walls. We present the phase diagram in thin films of a magnetic topological insulator and review the basic mechanism of ferromagnetic order in magnetically doped topological insulators. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QAH effect. Furthermore, we discuss more recent theoretical work on the coexistence of the helical and chiral edge states, multi-channel chiral edge states, the theory of the plateau transition, and the thickness dependence in the QAH effect.

  17. Does the Hall Effect Solve the Flux Pileup Saturation Problem?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorelli, John C.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that magnetic flux pileup can significantly speed up the rate of magnetic reconnection in high Lundquist number resistive MHD,allowing reconnection to proceed at a rate which is insensitive to the plasma resistivity over a wide range of Lundquist number. Hence, pileup is a possible solution to the Sweet-Parker time scale problem. Unfortunately, pileup tends to saturate above a critical value of the Lundquist number, S_c, where the value ofS_c depends on initial and boundary conditions, with Sweet-Parker scaling returning above S_c. It has been argued (see Dorelli and Bim [2003] and Dorelli [2003]) that the Hall effect can allow flux pileup to saturate (when the scale of the current sheet approaches ion inertial scale, di) before the reconnection rate begins to stall. However, the resulting saturated reconnection rate, while insensitive to the plasma resistivity, was found to depend strongly on the di. In this presentation, we revisit the problem of magnetic island coalescence (which is a well known example of flux pileup reconnection), addressing the dependence of the maximum coalescence rate on the ratio of di in the "large island" limit in which the following inequality is always satisfied: l_eta di lambda, where I_eta is the resistive diffusion length and lambda is the island wavelength.

  18. Electric thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The multipole discharge chamber of an electrostatic ion thruster is discussed. No reductions in discharge losses were obtained, despite repeated demonstration of anode potentials more positive than the bulk of the discharge plasma. The penalty associated with biased anode operation was reduced as the magnetic integral above the biased anodes was increased. The hollow cathode is discussed. The experimental configuration of the Hall current thruster had a uniform field throughout the ion generation and acceleration regions. To obtain reliable ion generation, it was necessary to reduce the magnetic field strength, to the point where excessive electron backflow was required to establish ion acceleration. The theoretical study of ion acceleration with closed electron drift paths resulted in two classes of solutions. One class has the continuous potential variation in the acceleration region that is normally associated with a Hall current accelerator. The other class has an almost discontinuous potential step near the anode end of the acceleration region. This step includes a significant fraction of the total acceleration potential difference.

  19. Inert gas thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    Inert gas thrusters have continued to be of interest for space propulsion applications. Xenon is of interest in that its physical characteristics are well suited to propulsion. High atomic weight and low tankage fraction were major factors in this choice. If a large amount of propellant was required, so that cryogenic storage was practical, argon is a more economical alternative. Argon was also the preferred propellant for ground applications of thruster technology, such as sputter etching and deposition. Additional magnetic field measurements are reported. These measurements should be of use in magnetic field design. The diffusion of electrons through the magnetic field above multipole anodes was studied in detail. The data were consistent with Bohm diffusion across a magnetic field. The theory based on Bohm diffusion was simple and easily used for diffusion calculations. Limited startup data were obtained for multipole discharge chambers. These data were obtained with refractory cathodes, but should be useful in predicting the upper limits for starting with hollow cathodes.

  20. Temperature Gradient in Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    D. Staack; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2003-11-24

    Plasma potentials and electron temperatures were deduced from emissive and cold floating probe measurements in a 2 kW Hall thruster, operated in the discharge voltage range of 200-400 V. An almost linear dependence of the electron temperature on the plasma potential was observed in the acceleration region of the thruster both inside and outside the thruster. This result calls into question whether secondary electron emission from the ceramic channel walls plays a significant role in electron energy balance. The proportionality factor between the axial electron temperature gradient and the electric field is significantly smaller than might be expected by models employing Ohmic heating of electrons.

  1. Anomalous Hall effect in the noncollinear antiferromagnet Mn5Si3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sürgers, Christoph; Kittler, Wolfram; Wolf, Thomas; Löhneysen, Hilbert v.

    2016-05-01

    Metallic antiferromagnets with noncollinear orientation of magnetic moments provide a playground for investigating spin-dependent transport properties by analysis of the anomalous Hall effect. The intermetallic compound Mn5Si3 is an intinerant antiferromagnet with collinear and noncollinear magnetic structures due to Mn atoms on two inequivalent lattice sites. Here, magnetotransport measurements on polycrstalline thin films and a single crystal are reported. In all samples, an additional contribution to the anomalous Hall effect attributed to the noncollinear arrangment of magnetic moments is observed. Furthermore, an additional magnetic phase between the noncollinear and collinear regimes above a metamagnetic transition is resolved in the single crystal by the anomalous Hall effect.

  2. All electrical manipulation of magnetization dynamics in a ferromagnet by antiferromagnets with anisotropic spin Hall effects.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Freimuth, Frank; Jiang, Wanjun; Sklenar, Joseph; Pearson, John E.; Ketterson, John B.; Mokrousov, Yuri; Hoffmann, Axel

    2015-10-06

    We investigate spin-orbit torques of metallic CuAu-I-type antiferromagnets using spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance tuned by a dc-bias current. The observed spin torques predominantly arise from diffusive transport of spin current generated by the spin Hall effect. We find a growth-orientation dependence of the spin torques by studying epitaxial samples, which may be correlated to the anisotropy of the spin Hall effect. The observed anisotropy is consistent with first-principles calculations on the intrinsic spin Hall effect. Our work suggests large tunable spin-orbit effects in magnetically-ordered materials.

  3. Intrinsic Spin Hall Effect Induced by Quantum Phase Transition in HgCdTe Quantum Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wen; Chang, Kai; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-19

    Spin Hall effect can be induced both by the extrinsic impurity scattering and by the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the electronic structure. The HgTe/CdTe quantum well has a quantum phase transition where the electronic structure changes from normal to inverted. We show that the intrinsic spin Hall effect of the conduction band vanishes on the normal side, while it is finite on the inverted side. This difference gives a direct mechanism to experimentally distinguish the intrinsic spin Hall effect from the extrinsic one.

  4. Extrinsic spin Hall effect induced by resonant skew scattering in graphene.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Aires; Rappoport, Tatiana G; Cazalilla, Miguel A; Castro Neto, A H

    2014-02-14

    We show that the extrinsic spin Hall effect can be engineered in monolayer graphene by decoration with small doses of adatoms, molecules, or nanoparticles originating local spin-orbit perturbations. The analysis of the single impurity scattering problem shows that intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit local couplings enhance the spin Hall effect via skew scattering of charge carriers in the resonant regime. The solution of the transport equations for a random ensemble of spin-orbit impurities reveals that giant spin Hall currents are within the reach of the current state of the art in device fabrication. The spin Hall effect is robust with respect to thermal fluctuations and disorder averaging.

  5. Extrinsic Spin Hall Effect Induced by Resonant Skew Scattering in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Aires; Rappoport, Tatiana G.; Cazalilla, Miguel A.; Castro Neto, A. H.

    2014-02-01

    We show that the extrinsic spin Hall effect can be engineered in monolayer graphene by decoration with small doses of adatoms, molecules, or nanoparticles originating local spin-orbit perturbations. The analysis of the single impurity scattering problem shows that intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit local couplings enhance the spin Hall effect via skew scattering of charge carriers in the resonant regime. The solution of the transport equations for a random ensemble of spin-orbit impurities reveals that giant spin Hall currents are within the reach of the current state of the art in device fabrication. The spin Hall effect is robust with respect to thermal fluctuations and disorder averaging.

  6. Derated ion thruster design issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary activities to develop and refine a lightweight 30 cm engineering model ion thruster are discussed. The approach is to develop a 'derated' ion thruster capable of performing both auxiliary and primary propulsion roles over an input power range of at least 0.5 to 5.0 kilo-W. Design modifications to a baseline thruster to reduce mass and volume are discussed. Performance data over an order of magnitude input power range are presented, with emphasis on the performance impact of engine throttling. Thruster design modifications to optimize performance over specific power envelopes are discussed. Additionally, lifetime estimates based on wear test measurements are made for the operation envelope of the engine.

  7. Domain-wall depinning dominated by the Spin Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swagten, Henk

    2013-03-01

    Current induced domain wall motion (CIDWM) in perpendicular materials is believed to be very efficient. We will show that the Spin Hall effect (SHE) provides a radically new mechanism for CIDWM in these systems. Using focused-ion-beam irradiation we are able to stabilize and pin two DWs in a Pt/Co/Pt nanowire. By depinning the DWs under the application of a perpendicular field as well as an injected charge current and in-plane magnetic field, we are able to disentangle the contributions to DW motion originating from (1) conventional spin transfer torques that act on magnetization gradients and (2) from the hitherto unexplored SHE torques. The fact the perpendicular depinning field H as a function of charge current J for the two DWs has equal slope dH/dJ, as well as a sign change of the slope when we change the polarity of the DWs, directly proves the dominance of the SHE contribution. To further proof that the SHE is governing the depinning process, we have tuned the internal spin structure of the DW from Bloch to Néel, by varying the in-plane field parallel to the current, and find that the influence of current on the depinning is highest when the DW has the Néel structure. This behavior is verified by macrospin simulations, which can quantitatively explain our data. As a final compelling evidence, we have varied the thickness of the bottom and top Pt, showing that we are able to tune the spin Hall currents originating from the nonmagnetic Pt layers. The work is part of the research programme of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).

  8. Emergence of integer quantum Hall effect from chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Chushun; Chen, Yu; Wang, Jiao

    2016-02-01

    We present an analytic microscopic theory showing that in a large class of spin-1/2 quasiperiodic quantum kicked rotors, a dynamical analog of the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) emerges from an intrinsic chaotic structure. Specifically, the inverse of the Planck's quantum (he) and the rotor's energy growth rate mimic the "filling fraction" and the "longitudinal conductivity" in conventional IQHE, respectively, and a hidden quantum number is found to mimic the "quantized Hall conductivity." We show that for an infinite discrete set of critical values of he, the long-time energy growth rate is universal and of order of unity ("metallic" phase), but otherwise vanishes ("insulating" phase). Moreover, the rotor insulating phases are topological, each of which is characterized by a hidden quantum number. This number exhibits universal behavior for small he, i.e., it jumps by unity whenever he decreases, passing through each critical value. This intriguing phenomenon is not triggered by the likes of Landau band filling, well known to be the mechanism for conventional IQHE, and far beyond the canonical Thouless-Kohmoto-Nightingale-Nijs paradigm for quantum Hall transitions. Instead, this dynamical phenomenon is of strong chaos origin; it does not occur when the dynamics is (partially) regular. More precisely, we find that a topological object, similar to the topological theta angle in quantum chromodynamics, emerges from strongly chaotic motion at microscopic scales, and its renormalization gives the hidden quantum number. Our analytic results are confirmed by numerical simulations. Our findings indicate that rich topological quantum phenomena can emerge from chaos and might point to a new direction of study in the interdisciplinary area straddling chaotic dynamics and condensed matter physics. This work is a substantial extension of a short paper published earlier by two of us [Y. Chen and C. Tian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 216802 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.216802].

  9. Cylindrical Brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt

    1998-03-01

    Homopolymerization of macromonomers, i.e. polymerizable oligomers, yields macromolecules of cylindrical shape, because the main chain is considerably stretched due to the steric overcrowding of the side chains.(M. Wintermantel et al., Macromolecules 1996, 29,978.) Irrespective of the chemical nature of the macromonomer (styrene, methylmethacrylate, vinylpyridine, propylene) the chain stiffness in terms of the Kuhn statistical segment length lk lies in the range of 50 nm < lk < 200 nm. In accordance to the high degree of stiffness polymacromonomers form lyotropic liquid crystalline phases in solution and in the bulk.(M. Wintermantel et. al, Angew. Chemie 1995, 107, 1606.) Upon drying a dilute solution on mica or silicon wafer ordered monolayers are formed.(S.S. Sheiko et al., Langmuir 1997, 13, 5368.)^, (P. Dziezok et al., Angew. Chemie 1997, 00, 000.) Recently, stable monolayers of polyvinylpyridine macromonomers were successfully prepared on a Langmuir-Blodgett trough. Up to 15 monolayers were transferred onto a planar silicon wafer and characterized by x-ray reflection. The individual brush molecules within the monolayer could be visualized by atomic force microscopy. Frequently occurring hairpin formations by one molecule could not yet be explained. AFM on isolated, single molecules, however, have confirmed the cylindrical structure of polymacromonomers.

  10. Scaling of 100 kW class applied-field MPD thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1992-01-01

    Three cylindrical applied-field magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters were tested with argon propellant over a broad range of operating conditions to establish empirical scaling laws for thruster performance. Argon flow rates, discharge currents, and applied-field strengths were varied between 0.025 and 0.14 g/s, 750 to 2000 A, and 0.034 to 0.20T, respectively. The results showed that the thrust reached over five times the self-field value, and that thrust increased linearly with the product of discharge current and applied-field strength and quadratically with the anode radius. While increasing the propellant flow rate increased the thrust, it did not affect the rate of thrust increase with applied-field strength, and at low propellant flow rates the self-field thrust approached 30 percent of the measured thrust. The voltage increased linearly with applied-field strength but was insensitive to the discharge current. The rate of voltage increase with applied-field strength dependent on anode radius. Thruster efficiency increased monotonically with applied-field strength and propellant flow rate. Peak thruster efficiencies were insensitive to changes in anode radius. Electrode power loss and thruster efficiency measurements showed that while the electrode losses decreased with increasing anode radius the plasma losses increased. The opposite behaviors of electrode and plasma losses demonstrates the need to identify ways of independently controlling the thruster loss mechanisms.

  11. Laser-heated thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, N. H.; Lewis, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a computer program for the design of the thrust chamber for a CW laser heated thruster was examined. Hydrodgen was employed as the propellant gas and high temperature absorber. The laser absorption coefficient of the mixture/laser radiation combination is given in temperature and species densities. Radiative and absorptive properties are given to determine radiation from such gas mixtures. A computer code for calculating the axisymmetric channel flow of a gas mixture in chemical equilibrium, and laser energy absorption and convective and radiative heating is described. It is concluded that: (1) small amounts of cesium seed substantially increase the absorption coefficient of hydrogen; (2) cesium is a strong radiator and contributes greatly to radiation of cesium seeded hydrogen; (3) water vapor is a poor absorber; and (4) for 5.3mcm radiation, both H2O/CO and NO/CO seeded hydrogen mixtures are good absorbers.

  12. Laser-heated thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, N. H.; Krech, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    The development of computer codes for the thrust chamber of a rocket of which the propellant gas is heated by a CW laser beam was investigated. The following results are presented: (1) simplified models of laser heated thrusters for approximate parametric studies and performance mapping; (3) computer programs for thrust chamber design; and (3) shock tube experiment to measure absorption coefficients. Two thrust chamber design programs are outlined: (1) for seeded hydrogen, with both low temperature and high temperature seeds, which absorbs the laser radiation continuously, starting at the inlet gas temperature; and (2) for hydrogen seeded with cesium, in which a laser supported combustion wave stands near the gas inlet, and heats the gas up to a temperature at which the gas can absorb the laser energy.

  13. Hall Thruster Technology for NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David; Oh, David; Aadland, Randall

    2005-01-01

    The performance of a prototype Hall thruster designed for Discovery-class NASA science mission applications was evaluated at input powers ranging from 0.2 to 2.9 kilowatts. These data were used to construct a throttle profile for a projected Hall thruster system based on this prototype thruster. The suitability of such a Hall thruster system to perform robotic exploration missions was evaluated through the analysis of a near Earth asteroid sample return mission. This analysis demonstrated that a propulsion system based on the prototype Hall thruster offers mission benefits compared to a propulsion system based on an existing ion thruster.

  14. Large anomalous Hall effect in a non-collinear antiferromagnet at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuji, Satoru; Kiyohara, Naoki; Higo, Tomoya

    2015-11-12

    In ferromagnetic conductors, an electric current may induce a transverse voltage drop in zero applied magnetic field: this anomalous Hall effect is observed to be proportional to magnetization, and thus is not usually seen in antiferromagnets in zero field. Recent developments in theory and experiment have provided a framework for understanding the anomalous Hall effect using Berry-phase concepts, and this perspective has led to predictions that, under certain conditions, a large anomalous Hall effect may appear in spin liquids and antiferromagnets without net spin magnetization. Although such a spontaneous Hall effect has now been observed in a spin liquid state, a zero-field anomalous Hall effect has hitherto not been reported for antiferromagnets. Here we report empirical evidence for a large anomalous Hall effect in an antiferromagnet that has vanishingly small magnetization. In particular, we find that Mn3Sn, an antiferromagnet that has a non-collinear 120-degree spin order, exhibits a large anomalous Hall conductivity of around 20 per ohm per centimetre at room temperature and more than 100 per ohm per centimetre at low temperatures, reaching the same order of magnitude as in ferromagnetic metals. Notably, the chiral antiferromagnetic state has a very weak and soft ferromagnetic moment of about 0.002 Bohr magnetons per Mn atom (refs 10, 12), allowing us to switch the sign of the Hall effect with a small magnetic field of around a few hundred oersted. This soft response of the large anomalous Hall effect could be useful for various applications including spintronics--for example, to develop a memory device that produces almost no perturbing stray fields.

  15. Spin-Hall effect and spin-Coulomb drag in doped semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Hankiewicz, E M; Vignale, G

    2009-06-24

    In this review, we describe in detail two important spin-transport phenomena: the extrinsic spin-Hall effect (coming from spin-orbit interactions between electrons and impurities) and the spin-Coulomb drag. The interplay of these two phenomena is analyzed. In particular, we discuss the influence of scattering between electrons with opposite spins on the spin current and the spin accumulation produced by the spin-Hall effect. Future challenges and open questions are briefly discussed.

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Spin-Hall effect and spin-Coulomb drag in doped semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankiewicz, E. M.; Vignale, G.

    2009-06-01

    In this review, we describe in detail two important spin-transport phenomena: the extrinsic spin-Hall effect (coming from spin-orbit interactions between electrons and impurities) and the spin-Coulomb drag. The interplay of these two phenomena is analyzed. In particular, we discuss the influence of scattering between electrons with opposite spins on the spin current and the spin accumulation produced by the spin-Hall effect. Future challenges and open questions are briefly discussed.

  17. Hall effect sensors embedded within two-pole toothless stator assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denk, Joseph (Inventor); Grant, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A two-pole toothless PM machine employs Hall effect sensors to indicate the position of the machine's rotor relative to power windings in the machine's stator. The Hall effect sensors are located in the main magnetic air gap underneath the power windings. The main magnetic air gap is defined by an outer magnetic surface of the rotor and an inner surface of the stator's flux collector ring.

  18. Ring-cusp ion thruster with shell anode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.; Rawlin, V. K.; Roman, R. F. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An improved ion thruster for low specific impulse operation in the 1500 sec to 6000 sec range has a multicusp boundary field provided by high strength magnets on an iron anode shell which lengthens the paths of electrons from a hollow cathode assembly. A downstream anode pole piece in the form of an iron ring supports a ring of magnets to provide a more uniform beam profile. A cylindrical cathode magnet can be moved selectively in an axial direction along a feed tube to produce the desired magnetic field at the cathode tip.

  19. Ion Thruster Support and Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for supporting and selectively positioning an ion thruster relative to a surface of a spacecraft includes three angularly spaced thruster support assemblies. Each thruster support assembly includes a frame which has a rotary actuator mounted thereon. The rotary actuator is connected to an actuator member which is rotatably connected to a thruster attachment member connected to a body of the thruster. A stabilizer member is rotatably mounted to the frame and to the thruster attachment member. The thruster is selectively movable in the pitch and yaw directions responsive to movement of the actuator members by the actuators on the thruster support assemblies. A failure of any one actuator on a thruster support assembly will generally still enable limited thruster positioning capability in two directions. In a retracted position the thruster attachment members are held in nested relation in saddles supported on the frames of the thruster support assemblies. The thruster is securely held in the retracted position during periods of high loading such as during launch of the spacecraft.

  20. High-Energy Two-Stage Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, Tom

    2003-01-01

    A high-energy (28 kJ per pulse) two-stage pulsed plasma thruster (MSFC PPT-1) has been constructed and tested. The motivation of this project is to develop a high power (approximately 500 kW), high specific impulse (approximately 10000 s), highly efficient (greater than 50%) thruster for use as primary propulsion in a high power nuclear electric propulsion system. PPT-1 was designed to overcome four negative characteristics which have detracted from the utility of pulsed plasma thrusters: poor electrical efficiency, poor propellant utilization efficiency, electrode erosion, and reliability issues associated with the use of high speed gas valves and high current switches. Traditional PPTs have been plagued with poor efficiency because they have not been operated in a plasma regime that fully exploits the potential benefits of pulsed plasma acceleration by electromagnetic forces. PPTs have generally been used to accelerate low-density plasmas with long current pulses. Operation of thrusters in this plasma regime allows for the development of certain undesirable particle-kinetic effects, such as Hall effect-induced current sheet canting. PPT-1 was designed to propel a highly collisional, dense plasma that has more fluid-like properties and, hence, is more effectively pushed by a magnetic field. The high-density plasma loading into the second stage of the accelerator is achieved through the use of a dense plasma injector (first stage). The injector produces a thermal plasma, derived from a molten lithium propellant feed system, which is subsequently accelerated by the second stage using mega-amp level currents, which eject the plasma at a speed on the order of 100 kilometers per second. Traditional PPTs also suffer from dynamic efficiency losses associated with snowplow loading of distributed neutral propellant. The twostage scheme used in PPT-I allows the propellant to be loaded in a manner which more closely approximates the optimal slug loading. Lithium propellant

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic MACH Code Used to Simulate Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Pavlos G.; LaPointe, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    The On-Board Propulsion program at the NASA Glenn Research Center is utilizing a state of-the-art numerical simulation to model the performance of high-power electromagnetic plasma thrusters. Such thrusters are envisioned for use in lunar and Mars cargo transport, piloted interplanetary expeditions, and deep-space robotic exploration of the solar system. The experimental portion of this program is described in reference 1. This article describes the numerical modeling program used to guide the experimental research. The synergistic use of numerical simulations and experimental research has spurred the rapid advancement of high-power thruster technologies for a variety of bold new NASA missions. From its inception as a U.S. Department of Defense code in the mid-1980's, the Multiblock Arbitrary Coordinate Hydromagnetic (MACH) simulation tool has been used by the plasma physics community to model a diverse range of plasma problems--including plasma opening switches, inertial confinement fusion concepts, compact toroid formation and acceleration, z-pinch implosion physics, laser-target interactions, and a variety of plasma thrusters. The MACH2 code used at Glenn is a time-dependent, two-dimensional, axisymmetric, multimaterial code with a multiblock structure. MACH3, a more recent three-dimensional version of the code, is currently undergoing beta tests. The MACH computational mesh moves in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) fashion that allows the simulation of diffusive-dominated and dispersive-dominated problems, and the mesh can be refined via a variety of adaptive schemes to capture regions of varying characteristic scale. The mass continuity and momentum equations model a compressible viscous fluid, and three energy equations are used to simulate nonthermal equilibrium between electrons, ions, and the radiation field. Magnetic fields are modeled by an induction equation that includes resistive diffusion, the Hall effect, and a thermal source for magnetic

  2. Cylindrical Scanner

    1999-04-29

    The CS system is designed to provide a very fast imaging system in order to search for weapons on persons in an airport environment. The Cylindrical Scanner moves a vertical transceiver array rapidly around a person standing stationary. The software can be segmented in to three specific tasks. The first task is data acquisition and scanner control. At the operator's request, this task commands the scanner to move and the radar transceiver array to sendmore » data to the computer system in a known and well-ordered manner. The array is moved over the complete aperture in 10 to 12 seconds. At the completion of the array movement the second software task automatically reconstructs the high-resolution image from the radar data utilizing the integrated DSP boards. The third task displays the resulting images, as they become available, to the computer screen for user review and analysis.« less

  3. Investigation of the Anomalous Hall Effect in Three Unusual Ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, Brian

    2007-03-01

    The Hall resistivity (ρxy), resistivity (ρxx), and magnetization of three metallic ferromagnets are investigated as a function of magnetic field and temperature [1]. The three ferromagnets, EuFe4Sb12 (Tc 84 K), Yb14MnSb11 (Tc 53 K), and Eu8Ga16Ge30 (Tc 36 K) are Zintl compounds with carrier concentrations between 1 x 10^21cm-3 and 3.5 x 10^21 cm-3. The relative decrease in ρxx below Tc [ρxx(Tc)/ρxx(2 K)] is 28, 6.5, and 1.3 for EuFe4Sb12, Yb14MnSb11, and Eu8Ga16Ge30 respectively. The low carrier concentrations coupled with low magnetic anisotropies allow a relatively clean separation between the anomalous (&'circ;xy), and normal contributions to the measured Hall resistivity. For each compound the anomalous contribution in the zero field limit is fit to aρxx+σxyρxx^2 for temperatures T Hall effect that suggest that even for stochiometric ferromagnetic crystals, such as those studied in this work, the intrinsic Hall conductivity is finite at T = 0, and is a ground state property that can be calculated from the electronic structure. New measurements on single crystals of the tetragonal compound Yb14MnSb11, however, indicate that the intrinsic Hall conductivity can change sign, depending on the direction of the current and magnetic field with respect to the crystallographic axes. These new results will also be discussed within the context of recent theories. Research was done in collaboration with Rongying Jin, David Mandrus and Peter Khalifah. [1] B. C. Sales et al. Phys. Rev. B 73 (2006) 224435.

  4. Fast Camera Imaging of Hall Thruster Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    C.L. Ellison, Y. Raitses and N.J. Fisch

    2011-02-24

    Hall thrusters provide efficient space propulsion by electrostatic acceleration of ions. Rotating electron clouds in the thruster overcome the space charge limitations of other methods. Images of the thruster startup, taken with a fast camera, reveal a bright ionization period which settles into steady state operation over 50 μs. The cathode introduces azimuthal asymmetry, which persists for about 30 μs into the ignition. Plasma thrusters are used on satellites for repositioning, orbit correction and drag compensation. The advantage of plasma thrusters over conventional chemical thrusters is that the exhaust energies are not limited by chemical energy to about an electron volt. For xenon Hall thrusters, the ion exhaust velocity can be 15-20 km/s, compared to 5 km/s for a typical chemical thruster

  5. Potential contour shaping and sheath behavior with wall electrodes and near-wall magnetic fields in Hall thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, K. G.; Dao, H.; Walker, M. L. R.

    2012-10-15

    Graphite electrodes are embedded within the discharge channel of a Hall effect thruster to focus ions for improved performance. Cusp-shaped magnetic fields are added around the electrodes to shield the electrodes from high electron current. Internal plasma potential measurements inside the discharge channel show that the presence of floating graphite does not significantly affect the potential contours at 150 V anode potential. Creation of closed contour pockets are observed with the electrodes biased 10 and 30 V above the anode potential. The electrodes also cause a compression of the acceleration region in the thruster. The cause of the changes in the potential contours is attributed to a shifting of discharge electrode from the anode to the electrodes and an expansion of the near-wall plasma sheath. The presence of the cusp magnetic fields is shown to affect the current collected by the electrodes, a behavior associated with modification of the plasma sheath properties due to magnetization of electrons.

  6. High-Power Electromagnetic Thruster Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Mikellides, Pavlos G.

    2001-01-01

    High-power electromagnetic thrusters have been proposed as primary in-space propulsion options for several bold new interplanetary and deep-space missions. As the lead center for electric propulsion, the NASA Glenn Research Center designs, develops, and tests high-power electromagnetic technologies to meet these demanding mission requirements. Two high-power thruster concepts currently under investigation by Glenn are the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster and the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT).

  7. Characterization of 8-cm engineering model thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    Development of 8 cm ion thruster technology which was conducted in support of the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) flight contract (Contract NAS3-21055) is discussed. The work included characterization of thruster performance, stability, and control; a study of the effects of cathode aging; environmental qualification testing; and cyclic lifetesting of especially critical thruster components.

  8. Mercury ion thruster research, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of 8 cm thruster main and neutralizer cathode operating conditions on cathode orifice plate temperatures were studied. The effects of cathode operating conditions on insert temperature profiles and keeper voltages are presented for three different types of inserts. The bulk of the emission current is generally observed to come from the downstream end of the insert rather than from the cathode orifice plate. Results of a test in which the screen grid plasma sheath of a thruster was probed as the beam current was varied are shown. Grid performance obtained with a grid machined from glass ceramic is discussed. The effects of copper and nitrogen impurities on the sputtering rates of thruster materials are measured experimentally and a model describing the rate of nitrogen chemisorption on materials in either the beam or the discharge chamber is presented. The results of optimization of a radial field thruster design are presented. Performance of this device is shown to be comparable to that of a divergent field thruster and efficient operation with the screen grid biased to floating potential, where its susceptibility to sputter erosion damage is reduced, is demonstrated.

  9. Stationary Plasma Thruster Plume Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Manzella, David H.

    1994-01-01

    Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPT's) are being investigated for application to a variety of near-term missions. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study of the thruster plume characteristics which are needed to assess spacecraft integration requirements. Langmuir probes, planar probes, Faraday cups, and a retarding potential analyzer were used to measure plume properties. For the design operating voltage of 300 V the centerline electron density was found to decrease from approximately 1.8 x 10 exp 17 cubic meters at a distance of 0.3 m to 1.8 X 10 exp 14 cubic meters at a distance of 4 m from the thruster. The electron temperature over the same region was between 1.7 and 3.5 eV. Ion current density measurements showed that the plume was sharply peaked, dropping by a factor of 2.6 within 22 degrees of centerline. The ion energy 4 m from the thruster and 15 degrees off-centerline was approximately 270 V. The thruster cathode flow rate and facility pressure were found to strongly affect the plume properties. In addition to the plume measurements, the data from the various probe types were used to assess the impact of probe design criteria

  10. Non-Contact Thermal Characterization of NASA's HERMeS Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani; Myers, James L.; Yim, John T.; Neff, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The thermal characterization test of NASA's 12.5-kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding has been completed. This thruster was developed to support a number of potential Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission concepts, including the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission concept. As a part of the preparation for this characterization test, an infrared-based, non-contact thermal imaging system was developed to measure the temperature of various thruster surfaces that are exposed to high voltage or plasma. An in-situ calibration array was incorporated into the setup to improve the accuracy of the temperature measurement. The key design parameters for the calibration array were determined in a separate pilot test. The raw data from the characterization test was analyzed though further work is needed to obtain accurate anode temperatures. Examination of the front pole and discharge channel temperatures showed that the thruster temperature was driven more by discharge voltage than by discharge power. Operation at lower discharge voltages also yielded more uniform temperature distributions than at higher discharge voltages. When operating at high discharge voltage, increasing the magnetic field strength appeared to have made the thermal loading azimuthally more uniform.

  11. Advanced ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    A series of experiments conducted on a ring cusp magnetic field ion thruster; in which the anode, cathode and discharge chamber backplate were moved relative to the magnetic cusp; are described. Optimum locations for the anode, cathode and backplate which yield the lowest energy cost per plasma ion and highest extracted ion fraction are identified. The results are discussed in terms of simple physical models. The results of preliminary experiments into the operation of hollow cathodes on nitrogen and xenon over a large pressure range (0.1 to 100 Torr) are presented. They show that the cathode discharge transfers from the cathode insert to the exterior edge of the orifice plate as the interelectrode pressure is increased. Experimental evidence showing that a new ion extractor grid concept can be used to stabilize the plasma sheath at the screen grid is presented. This concept, identified by the term constrained sheath optics, is shown to hold ion beamlet divergence and impingement characteristics to stable values as the beamlet current and the net and total accelerating voltages are changed. The current status of a study of beamlet vectoring induced by displacing the accelerator and/or decelerator grids of a three grid ion extraction system relative to the screen grid is discussed.

  12. Advanced ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    A simple model describing the discharge chamber performance of high strength, cusped magnetic field ion thrusters is developed. The model is formulated in terms of the energy cost of producing ions in the discharge chamber and the fraction of ions produced in the discharge chamber that are extracted to form the ion beam. The accuracy of the model is verified experimentally in a series of tests wherein the discharge voltage, propellant, grid transparency to neutral atoms, beam diameter and discharge chamber wall temperature are varied. The model is exercised to demonstrate what variations in performance might be expected by varying discharge chamber parameters. The results of a study of xenon and argon orificed hollow cathodes are reported. These results suggest that a hollow cathode model developed from research conducted on mercury cathodes can also be applied to xenon and argon. Primary electron mean free paths observed in argon and xenon cathodes that are larger than those found in mercury cathodes are identified as a cause of performance differences between mercury and inert gas cathodes. Data required as inputs to the inert gas cathode model are presented so it can be used as an aid in cathode design.

  13. Electron dynamics in Hall thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, Samuel; Pakter, Renato

    2015-11-01

    Hall thrusters are plasma engines those use an electromagnetic fields combination to confine electrons, generate and accelerate ions. Widely used by aerospace industries those thrusters stand out for its simple geometry, high specific impulse and low demand for electric power. Propulsion generated by those systems is due to acceleration of ions produced in an acceleration channel. The ions are generated by collision of electrons with propellant gas atoms. In this context, we can realize how important is characterizing the electronic dynamics. Using Hamiltonian formalism, we derive the electron motion equation in a simplified electromagnetic fields configuration observed in hall thrusters. We found conditions those must be satisfied by electromagnetic fields to have electronic confinement in acceleration channel. We present configurations of electromagnetic fields those maximize propellant gas ionization and thus make propulsion more efficient. This work was supported by CNPq.

  14. Near-Surface Plasma Characterization of the 12.5-kW NASA TDU1 Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastry, Rohit; Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani

    2015-01-01

    To advance the state-of-the-art in Hall thruster technology, NASA is developing a 12.5-kW, high-specific-impulse, high-throughput thruster for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission. In order to meet the demanding lifetime requirements of potential missions such as the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission, magnetic shielding was incorporated into the thruster design. Two units of the resulting thruster, called the Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS), were fabricated and are presently being characterized. The first of these units, designated the Technology Development Unit 1 (TDU1), has undergone extensive performance and thermal characterization at NASA Glenn Research Center. A preliminary lifetime assessment was conducted by characterizing the degree of magnetic shielding within the thruster. This characterization was accomplished by placing eight flush-mounted Langmuir probes within each discharge channel wall and measuring the local plasma potential and electron temperature at various axial locations. Measured properties indicate a high degree of magnetic shielding across the throttle table, with plasma potential variations along each channel wall being less than or equal to 5 eV and electron temperatures being maintained at less than or equal to 5 eV, even at 800 V discharge voltage near the thruster exit plane. These properties indicate that ion impact energies within the HERMeS will not exceed 26 eV, which is below the expected sputtering threshold energy for boron nitride. Parametric studies that varied the facility backpressure and magnetic field strength at 300 V, 9.4 kW, illustrate that the plasma potential and electron temperature are insensitive to these parameters, with shielding being maintained at facility pressures 3X higher and magnetic field strengths 2.5X higher than nominal conditions. Overall, the preliminary lifetime assessment indicates a high degree of shielding within the HERMeS TDU1, effectively

  15. NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic Thruster Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Pensil, Eric J.

    2004-01-01

    High-power electromagnetic thrusters have been proposed as primary in-space propulsion options for several bold new interplanetary and deep-space missions. As the lead center for electric propulsion, the NASA Glenn Research Center designs, develops, and tests high-power electromagnetic technologies to meet these demanding mission requirements. Two high-power thruster concepts currently under investigation by Glenn are the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster and the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT). This paper describes the MPD thruster and the test facility.

  16. Extended Performance 8-cm Mercury Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    A slightly modified 8-cm Hg ion thruster demonstrated significant increase in performance. Thrust was increased by almost a factor of five over that of the baseline thruster. Thruster operation with various three grid ion optics configurations; thruster performance as a function of accelerator grid open area, cathode baffle, and cathode orifice size; and a life test of 614 hours at a beam current of 250 mA (17.5 mN thrust) are discussed. Highest thruster efficiency was obtained with the smallest open area accelerator grid. The benefits in efficiency from the low neutral loss grids were mitigated, however, by the limitation such grids place on attainable ion beam current densities. The thruster components suffered negligible weight losses during a life test, which indicated that operation of the 8-cm thruster at extended levels of thrust and power is possible with no significant loss of lifetime.

  17. A novel NO2 gas sensor based on Hall effect operating at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J. Y.; Xie, W. M.; He, X. L.; Wang, H. C.

    2016-09-01

    Tungsten trioxide nanoparticles were obtained by a simple thermal oxidation approach. The structural and morphological properties of these nanoparticles are investigated using XRD, SEM and TEM. A WO3 thick film was deposited on the four Au electrodes to be a WO3 Hall effect sensor. The sensor was tested between magnetic field in a plastic test chamber. Room-temperature nitrogen dioxide sensing characteristics of Hall effect sensor were studied for various concentration levels of nitrogen dioxide at dry air and humidity conditions. A typical room-temperature response of 3.27 was achieved at 40 ppm of NO2 with a response and recovery times of 36 and 45 s, respectively. NO2 gas sensing mechanism of Hall effect sensor was also studied. The room-temperature operation, with the low deposition cost of the sensor, suggests suitability for developing a low-power cost-effective nitrogen dioxide sensor.

  18. Quantum anomalous Hall effect and tunable topological states in 3d transition metals doped silicene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Long; Liu, Lan-Feng; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Silicene is an intriguing 2D topological material which is closely analogous to graphene but with stronger spin orbit coupling effect and natural compatibility with current silicon-based electronics industry. Here we demonstrate that silicene decorated with certain 3d transition metals (Vanadium) can sustain a stable quantum anomalous Hall effect using both analytical model and first-principles Wannier interpolation. We also predict the quantum valley Hall effect and electrically tunable topological states could be realized in certain transition metal doped silicene where the energy band inversion occurs. Our findings provide new scheme for the realization of quantum anomalous Hall effect and platform for electrically controllable topological states which are highly desirable for future nanoelectronics and spintronics application. PMID:24105063

  19. Split-quaternionic Hopf map, quantum Hall effect, and twistor theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hasebe, Kazuki

    2010-02-15

    Introducing a noncompact version of the Hopf map, we demonstrate remarkable close relations between quantum Hall effect and twistor theory. We first construct quantum Hall effect on a hyperboloid based on the noncompact 2nd Hopf map of split-quaternions. We analyze a hyperbolic one-particle mechanics, and explore many-body problem, where a many-body ground state wave function and membrane-like excitations are derived explicitly. In the lowest Landau level, the symmetry is enhanced from SO(3,2) to the SU(2,2) conformal symmetry. We point out that the quantum Hall effect naturally realizes the philosophy of twistor theory. In particular, emergence mechanism of fuzzy space-time is discussed somehow in detail.

  20. Anomalous Hall effect in granular ferromagnetic metals and effects of weak localization.

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, H.; Kharitonov, M. Yu.; Efetov, K. B.; Materials Science Division; Ruhr-Univ. Bochum

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the anomalous Hall effect in a system of dense-packed ferromagnetic grains in the metallic regime. Using the formalism recently developed for the conventional Hall effect in granular metals, we calculate the residual anomalous Hall conductivity {sigma}{sub xy} and resistivity {rho}{sub xy} and weak localization corrections to them for both skew-scattering and side-jump mechanisms. We find that the scaling relation between {rho}{sub xy} and the longitudinal resistivity {rho}{sub xx} of the array does not hold, regardless of whether it is satisfied for the specific resistivities of the grain material or not. The weak localization corrections, however, are found to be in agreement with those for homogeneous metals. We discuss recent experimental data on the anomalous Hall effect in polycrystalline iron films in view of the obtained results.

  1. Topological Hubbard model and its high-temperature quantum Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Neupert, Titus; Santos, Luiz; Ryu, Shinsei; Chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher

    2012-01-27

    The quintessential two-dimensional lattice model that describes the competition between the kinetic energy of electrons and their short-range repulsive interactions is the repulsive Hubbard model. We study a time-reversal symmetric variant of the repulsive Hubbard model defined on a planar lattice: Whereas the interaction is unchanged, any fully occupied band supports a quantized spin Hall effect. We show that at 1/2 filling of this band, the ground state develops spontaneously and simultaneously Ising ferromagnetic long-range order and a quantized charge Hall effect when the interaction is sufficiently strong. We ponder on the possible practical applications, beyond metrology, that the quantized charge Hall effect might have if it could be realized at high temperatures and without external magnetic fields in strongly correlated materials.

  2. Tuning the spin Hall effect of Pt from the moderately dirty to the superclean regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagasta, Edurne; Omori, Yasutomo; Isasa, Miren; Gradhand, Martin; Hueso, Luis E.; Niimi, Yasuhiro; Otani, YoshiChika; Casanova, Fèlix

    2016-08-01

    We systematically measure and analyze the spin diffusion length and the spin Hall effect in Pt with a wide range of conductivities using the spin absorption method in lateral spin valve devices. We observe a linear relation between the spin diffusion length and the conductivity, evidencing that the spin relaxation in Pt is governed by the Elliott-Yafet mechanism. We find a single intrinsic spin Hall conductivity (σSHint=1600 ±150 Ω-1c m-1) for Pt in the full range studied which is in good agreement with theory. We have obtained the crossover between the moderately dirty and the superclean scaling regimes of the spin Hall effect by tuning the conductivity. This is equivalent to that obtained for the anomalous Hall effect. Our results explain the spread of the spin Hall angle values in the literature and find a route to maximize this important parameter.

  3. Extrinsic Spin Hall Effect Induced by Resonant Skew Scattering in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Aires; Rappoport, Tatiana G.; Cazalilla, Miguel A.; Castro Neto, A. H.

    2015-03-01

    We show that the extrinsic spin Hall effect can be engineered in monolayer graphene by decoration with small doses of adatoms, molecules, or nanoparticles originating local spin-orbit perturbations. The analysis of the single impurity scattering problem shows that intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit local couplings enhance the spin Hall effect via skew scattering of charge carriers in the resonant regime. The solution of the transport equations for a random ensemble of spin-orbit impurities reveals that giant spin Hall currents are within the reach of the current state of the art in device fabrication. The spin Hall effect is robust with respect to thermal fluctuations and disorder averaging. The author acknowledges support from the National Research Foundation-Competitive Research Programme through Grant No. R-144-000-295-281.

  4. Quantum Hall effect in semiconductor systems with quantum dots and antidots

    SciTech Connect

    Beltukov, Ya. M.; Greshnov, A. A.

    2015-04-15

    The integer quantum Hall effect in systems of semiconductor quantum dots and antidots is studied theoretically as a factor of temperature. It is established that the conditions for carrier localization in quantum-dot systems favor the observation of the quantum Hall effect at higher temperatures than in quantum-well systems. The obtained numerical results show that the fundamental plateau corresponding to the transition between the ground and first excited Landau levels can be retained up to a temperature of T ∼ 50 K, which is an order of magnitude higher than in the case of quantum wells. Implementation of the quantum Hall effect at such temperatures requires quantum-dot systems with controllable characteristics, including the optimal size and concentration and moderate geometrical and composition fluctuations. In addition, ordered arrangement is desirable, hence quantum antidots are preferable.

  5. High-Pressure Lightweight Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Timothy; Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Returning samples of Martian soil and rock to Earth is of great interest to scientists. There were numerous studies to evaluate Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission architectures, technology needs, development plans, and requirements. The largest propulsion risk element of the MSR mission is the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). Along with the baseline solid-propellant vehicle, liquid propellants have been considered. Similar requirements apply to other lander ascent engines and reaction control systems. The performance of current state-ofthe- art liquid propellant engines can be significantly improved by increasing both combustion temperature and pressure. Pump-fed propulsion is suggested for a single-stage bipropellant MAV. Achieving a 90-percent stage propellant fraction is thought to be possible on a 100-kg scale, including sufficient thrust for lifting off Mars. To increase the performance of storable bipropellant rocket engines, a high-pressure, lightweight combustion chamber was designed. Iridium liner electrodeposition was investigated on complex-shaped thrust chamber mandrels. Dense, uniform iridium liners were produced on chamber and cylindrical mandrels. Carbon/carbon composite (C/C) structures were braided over iridium-lined mandrels and densified by chemical vapor infiltration. Niobium deposition was evaluated for forming a metallic attachment flange on the carbon/ carbon structure. The new thrust chamber was designed to exceed state-of-the-art performance, and was manufactured with an 83-percent weight savings. High-performance C/Cs possess a unique set of properties that make them desirable materials for high-temperature structures used in rocket propulsion components, hypersonic vehicles, and aircraft brakes. In particular, more attention is focused on 3D braided C/Cs due to their mesh-work structure. Research on the properties of C/Cs has shown that the strength of composites is strongly affected by the fiber-matrix interfacial bonding, and that weakening

  6. Signal asymmetries in the anomalous Hall effect of bilayer magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, R. A.; Nutter, P. W.; Neumann, A.; Thönnißen, C.; Wilhelm, E.-S.; Thomson, T.

    2016-09-01

    We propose an interpretation for the signal asymmetry observed in anomalous Hall effect (AHE) transport measurements of magnetic nanostructures patterned from bilayer magnetic thin films. Experimental data and simulations demonstrate that the signal asymmetry observed in hysteresis loops arises due to a combination of the anomalous Hall effect together with a contribution from longitudinal giant magnetoresistance (GMR). The effect shows a high-sensitivity to nanoscale misalignments in Hall cross geometry. Consequently, the complex nature of the origin of electrical signals should be taken into account when undertaking any transport measurements on magnetic bilayer nanostructures, such as GMR or spintronic devices.

  7. Dependence of spin-pumping spin Hall effect measurements on layer thicknesses and stacking order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlaminck, V.; Pearson, J. E.; Bader, S. D.; Hoffmann, A.

    2013-08-01

    Voltages generated from inverse spin Hall and anisotropic magnetoresistance effects via spin pumping in ferromagnetic (F)/nonmagnetic (N) bilayers are investigated by means of a broadband ferromagnetic resonance approach. Varying the nonmagnetic layer thickness enables the determination of the spin diffusion length in Pd of 5.5 ± 0.5 nm. We also observe a systematic change of the voltage line shape when reversing the stacking order of the F/N bilayer, which is qualitatively consistent with expectations from spin Hall effects. However, even after independent calibration of the precession angle, systematic quantitative discrepancies in analyzing the data with spin Hall effects remain.

  8. Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Hg_1-yMn_yTe Quantum Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chao-Xing; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-19

    The quantum Hall effect is usually observed when the two-dimensional electron gas is subjected to an external magnetic field, so that their quantum states form Landau levels. In this work we predict that a new phenomenon, the quantum anomalous Hall effect, can be realized in Hg{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}Te quantum wells, without the external magnetic field and the associated Landau levels. This effect arises purely from the spin polarization of the Mn atoms, and the quantized Hall conductance is predicted for a range of quantum well thickness and the concentration of the Mn atoms. This effect enables dissipationless charge current in spintronics devices.

  9. Role of the spin connection in quantum Hall effect: A perspective from geometric quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabali, Dimitra; Nair, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    The topological terms of the bulk effective action for the integer quantum Hall effect, capturing the dynamics of gauge and gravitational fluctuations, reveal a curiosity, namely, the Abelian potential for the magnetic field appears in a particular combination with the Abelian spin connection. This seems to hold for the quantum Hall effect on complex projective spaces of arbitrary dimensions. An interpretation of this in terms of the algebra of symplectic transformations is given. This can also be viewed in terms of the metaplectic correction in geometric quantization.

  10. A free-trailing vane flow direction indicator employing a linear output Hall effect transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, Peter T.; Mcmahon, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    The Hall effect vane (HEV) was developed to measure flow angularity in the NASA 40-by-80-foot and 80-by-120-foot wind tunnels. This indicator is capable of sensing flow direction at air speeds from 5 to 300 knots and over a + or - 40 deg angle range with a resolution of 0.1 deg. A free-trailing vane configuration employing a linear output Hall effect transducer as a shaft angle resolver was used. The current configuration of the HEV is designed primarily for wind tunnel calibration testing; however, other potential applications include atmospheric, flight or ground research testing. The HEV met initial design requirements.

  11. High power ion thruster performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    The ion thruster is one of several forms of space electric propulsion being considered for use on future SP-100-based missions. One possible major mission ground rule is the use of a single Space Shuttle launch. Thus, the mass in orbit at the reactor activation altitude would be limited by the Shuttle mass constraints. When the spacecraft subsystem masses are subtracted from this available mass limit, a maximum propellant mass may be calculated. Knowing the characteristics of each type of electric thruster allows maximum values of total impulse, mission velocity increment, and thrusting time to be calculated. Because ion thrusters easily operate at high values of efficiency (60 to 70%) and specific impulse (3000 to 5000 sec), they can impart large values of total impulse to a spacecraft. They also can be operated with separate control of the propellant flow rate and exhaust velocity. This paper presents values of demonstrated and projected performance of high power ion thrusters used in an analysis of electric propulsion for an SP-100 based mission.

  12. Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure presents a concept of a bipolar miniature electrostatic ion thruster for maneuvering a small spacecraft. The ionization device in the proposed thruster would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several mega-volts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. In a thruster-based on this concept, one or more propellant gases would be introduced into such a membrane ionizer. Unlike in larger prior ion thrusters, all of the propellant molecules would be ionized. This thruster would be capable of bipolar operation. There would be two accelerator grids - one located forward and one located aft of the membrane ionizer. In one mode of operation, which one could denote the forward mode, positive ions leaving the ionizer on the backside would be accelerated to high momentum by an electric field between the ionizer and an accelerator grid. Electrons leaving the ionizer on the front side would be ejected into free space by a smaller accelerating field. The equality of the ion and electron currents would eliminate the need for an additional electron- or ion-emitting device to keep the spacecraft charge-neutral. In another mode of operation, which could denote the reverse mode, the polarities of the voltages applied to the accelerator grids and to the electrodes of the membrane ionizer would be the reverse of those of the forward mode. The reversal of electric fields would cause the ion and electrons to be ejected in the reverse of their forward mode directions, thereby giving rise to thrust in the direction opposite that of the forward mode.

  13. Probing the thermal Hall effect using miniature capacitive strontium titanate thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsman, Colin; Li, Gang; Su, Caroline; Asaba, Tomoya; Lawson, Benjamin; Yu, Fan; Li, Lu

    2016-06-01

    The thermal Hall effect is the thermal analog of the electrical Hall effect. Rarely observed in normal metals, thermal Hall signals have been argued to be a key property for a number of strongly correlated materials, such as high temperature superconductors, correlated topological insulators, and quantum magnets. The observation of the thermal Hall effect requires precise measurement of temperature in intense magnetic fields. Particularly at low temperature, resistive thermometers have a strong dependence on field, which makes them unsuitable for this purpose. We have created capacitive thermometers which instead measure the dielectric constant of strontium titanate (SrTiO3). SrTiO3 approaches a ferroelectric transition, causing its dielectric constant to increase by a few orders of magnitude at low temperature. As a result, these thermometers are very sensitive at low temperature while having very little dependence on the applied magnetic field, making them ideal for thermal Hall measurements. We demonstrate this method by making measurements of the thermal Hall effect in Bismuth in magnetic fields of up to 10 T.

  14. Observation of topological Hall effect in Mn2RhSn films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, K. G.; Meshcheriakova, O.; Kübler, J.; Ernst, B.; Karel, J.; Hillebrand, R.; Pippel, E.; Werner, P.; Nayak, A. K.; Felser, C.; Parkin, S. S. P.

    2016-08-01

    Recently non-collinear magnetic structures have attracted renewed attention due to the novel Hall effects that they display. In earlier work evidence for a non-collinear magnetic structure has been reported for the ferromagnetic Heusler compound Mn2RhSn. Using sputtering techniques we have prepared high quality epitaxial thin films of Mn2RhSn by high temperature growth on MgO (001) substrates. The films are tetragonally distorted with an easy magnetization axis along the c-axis. Moreover, we find evidence for an anomalous Hall effect whose magnitude increases strongly below the Curie temperature that is near room temperature. Consistent with theoretical calculations of the anomalous Hall conductivity that we have carried out by deriving the Berry curvature from the electronic structure of perfectly ordered Mn2RhSn, the sign of the anomalous Hall conductivity is negative, although the measured value is considerably smaller than the calculated value. We attribute this difference to small deviations in stoichiometry and chemical ordering. We also find evidence for a topological Hall resistivity of about 50 nΩ cm, which is ∼5% of the anomalous Hall effect, for temperatures below 100 K. The topological Hall effect signifies the presence of a chiral magnetic structure that evolves from the non-collinear magnetic structure that Mn2RhSn is known to exhibit.

  15. Higgs mechanism, phase transitions, and anomalous Hall effect in three-dimensional topological superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Flavio S.; Sudbø, Asle; Eremin, Ilya

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that the Higgs mechanism in three-dimensional topological superconductors exhibits unique features with experimentally observable consequences. The Higgs model we discuss has two superconducting components and an axionlike magnetoelectric term with the phase difference of the superconducting order parameters playing the role of the axion field. Due to this additional term, quantum electromagnetic and phase fluctuations lead to a robust topologically nontrivial state that holds also in the presence of interactions. In this sense, we show that the renormalization flow of the topologically nontrivial phase cannot be continuously deformed into a topologically nontrivial one. One consequence of our analysis of quantum critical fluctuations is the possibility of having a first-order phase transition in the bulk and a second-order phase transition on the surface. We also explore another consequence of the axionic Higgs electrodynamics, namely, the anomalous Hall effect. In the low-frequency London regime an anomalous Hall effect is induced in the presence of an applied electric field parallel to the surface. This anomalous Hall current is induced by a Lorentz-like force arising from the axion term, and it involves the relative superfluid velocity of the superconducting components. The anomalous Hall current has a negative sign, a situation reminiscent of but quite distinct in physical origin from the anomalous Hall effect observed in high-Tc superconductors. In contrast to the latter, the anomalous Hall effect in topological superconductors is nondissipative and occurs in the absence of vortices.

  16. Fractional quantum Hall effect on the two-sphere: A matrix model proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Morariu, Bogdan; Polychronakos, Alexios P.

    2005-12-15

    We present a Chern-Simons matrix model describing the fractional quantum Hall effect on the two sphere. We demonstrate the equivalence of our proposal to particular restrictions of the Calogero-Sutherland model, reproduce the quantum states and filling fraction and show the compatibility of our result with the Haldane spherical wave functions.

  17. What is intrinsic and what is extrinsic in the spin Hall effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankiewicz, Ewelina; Vignale, Giovanni; Flatté, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Two different forms of the spin Hall effect, intrinsic and extrinsic, have been recently proposed and observed in experiments. The intrinsic effect is caused by spin-orbit coupling in the band structure of the semiconductor and survives in the limit of zero disorder, whereas the extrinsic effect is caused by spin-orbit coupling between Bloch electrons and impurities. We treat both effects on equal footing within the framework of the exact Kubo linear response formalism. We show that the ``side-jump" term, which is usually considered part of the extrinsic spin Hall effect, is really intrinsic, because it is independent of disorder. Furthermore, it is the only non-zero intrinsic contribution to the spin-Hall effect for the linear Rashba (or Dresselhaus) spin-orbit coupling model. On the other hand, the skew scattering term is the only extrinsic contribution to the spin-Hall effect within this model. The proof based on gauge invariance holds at all orders in disorder and electron-electron interactions and to first order in spin-orbit coupling, but does not apply to more complex spin-orbit coupled bands (e.g the Luttinger model). We also study many-body effects and predict that the spin Coulomb drag will reduce the spin Hall conductivity.

  18. The evolutionary development of high specific impulse electric thruster technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Hamley, John A.; Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Myers, Roger M.

    1992-01-01

    Electric propulsion flight and technology demonstrations conducted in the USA, Europe, Japan, China, and USSR are reviewed with reference to the major flight qualified electric propulsion systems. These include resistojets, ion thrusters, ablative pulsed plasma thrusters, stationary plasma thrusters, pulsed magnetoplasmic thrusters, and arcjets. Evolutionary mission applications are presented for high specific impulse electric thruster systems. The current status of arcjet, ion, and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters and their associated power processor technologies are summarized.

  19. A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Chiravalle, Vincent P

    2012-07-23

    This presentation describes how a microwave thruster can be used for spacecraft propulsion. A microwave thruster is part of a larger class of electric propulsion devices that have higher specific impulse and lower thrust than conventional chemical rocket engines. Examples of electric propulsion devices are given in this presentation and it is shown how these devices have been used to accomplish two recent space missions. The microwave thruster is then described and it is explained how the thrust and specific impulse of the thruster can be measured. Calculations of the gas temperature and plasma properties in the microwave thruster are discussed. In addition a potential mission for the microwave thruster involving the orbit raising of a space station is explored.

  20. NASA 30 Cm Ion Thruster Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Haag, Thomas W.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster is under development at NASA to provide an ion propulsion option for missions of national interest and it is an element of the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness (NSTAR) program established to validate ion propulsion for space flight applications. The thruster has been developed to an engineering model level and it incorporates innovations in design, materials, and fabrication techniques compared to those employed to conventional ion thrusters. The performance of both functional and engineering model thrusters has been assessed including thrust stand measurements, over an input power range of 0.5-2.3 kW. Attributes of the engineering model thruster include an overall mass of 6.4 kg, and an efficiency of 65 percent and thrust of 93 mN at 2.3 kW input power. This paper discusses the design, performance, and lifetime expectations of the functional and engineering model thrusters under development at NASA.

  1. Detection of a History Dependent Topological Hall Effect Due to Skyrmion Formation in FeGe Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, James; Page, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya; Brangham, Jack; Meng, Keng Yuan; Esser, Bryan; Wang, Hailong; McComb, Dave; Hammel, Chris; Yang, Fengyuan

    B20 phase crystal structures, such as FeGe and MnSi, have been of interest because they enable magnetic skyrmion phases, which can potentially lead to low energy cost spintronic device applications. We report the synthesis of pure phase FeGe epitaxial thin films grown on Si (111) substrates by ultra-high vacuum off-axis magnetron sputtering. The FeGe films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and Hall effect measurements. The topological Hall effect (THE) signals were extracted by subtracting out the anomalous Hall effect and ordinary Hall effect, demonstrating the existence of the skyrmion phase in FeGe films between 5 and 275 K. Topological hall effect was observed at zero field at all temperatures below the Curie temperature, showing the possibility of metastable skymion particles at zero field and high temperatures. We will also discuss the study of dynamics of the ferromagnetic phases using ferromagnetic resonance.

  2. Understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum hall effect state.

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei; Crawford, Matthew; Tallakulam, Madhu; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III

    2010-10-01

    We wish to present in this report experimental results from a one-year Senior Council Tier-1 LDRD project that focused on understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall effect state. We first give a general introduction to the quantum Hall effect, and then present the experimental results on the edge-state transport in a special fractional quantum Hall effect state at Landau level filling {nu} = 5/2 - a possible non-Abelian quantum Hall state. This state has been at the center of current basic research due to its potential applications in fault-resistant topological quantum computation. We will also describe the semiconductor 'Hall-bar' devices we used in this project. Electron physics in low dimensional systems has been one of the most exciting fields in condensed matter physics for many years. This is especially true of quantum Hall effect (QHE) physics, which has seen its intellectual wealth applied in and has influenced many seemingly unrelated fields, such as the black hole physics, where a fractional QHE-like phase has been identified. Two Nobel prizes have been awarded for discoveries of quantum Hall effects: in 1985 to von Klitzing for the discovery of integer QHE, and in 1998 to Tsui, Stormer, and Laughlin for the discovery of fractional QHE. Today, QH physics remains one of the most vibrant research fields, and many unexpected novel quantum states continue to be discovered and to surprise us, such as utilizing an exotic, non-Abelian FQHE state at {nu} = 5/2 for fault resistant topological computation. Below we give a briefly introduction of the quantum Hall physics.

  3. Characteristics of 30-centimeter mercury ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloy, J. E.; Poeschel, R. L.; Dugeroff, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    The technology development of the 30 centimeter J series mercury ion thruster for prime propulsion application in solar electric propulsion systems is described. Thruster design is reviewed. A standardized set of test and data recording procedures formulated to allow for the characterization of the J series thruster is described. Characteristics measured are the magnetic baffle characterization, the neutralizer characterization, perveance, the minimum eV/ion measurement, and the electrical and propellant utilization efficiency measurements. Test results are presented.

  4. Miniature Electrostatic Ion Thruster With Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    A miniature electrostatic ion thruster is proposed that, with one exception, would be based on the same principles as those of the device described in the previous article, "Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster". The exceptional feature of this thruster would be that, in addition to using electric fields for linear acceleration of ions and electrons, it would use a magnetic field to rotationally accelerate slow electrons into the ion stream to neutralize the ions.

  5. Eight-cm mercury ion thruster system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The technology status of 8 cm diameter electron bombardment ion thrusters is presented. Much of the technology resulting from the 5 cm diameter thruster has been adapted and improved upon to increase the reliability, durability, and efficiency of the 8 cm thruster. Technology discussed includes: dependence of neutralizer tip erosion upon neutralizer flow rate; impregnated and rolled-foil insert cathode performance and life testing; neutralizer position studies; thruster ion beam profile measurements; high voltage pulse ignition; high utilization ion machined accelerator grids; deposition internal and external to the thruster; thruster vectoring systems; thruster cycling life testing and thruster system weights for typical mission applications.

  6. High Power MPD Thruster Performance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Strzempkowski, Eugene; Pencil, Eric

    2004-01-01

    High power magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters are being developed as cost effective propulsion systems for cargo transport to lunar and Mars bases, crewed missions to Mars and the outer planets, and robotic deep space exploration missions. Electromagnetic MPD thrusters have demonstrated, at the laboratory level, the ability to process megawatts of electrical power while providing significantly higher thrust densities than electrostatic electric propulsion systems. The ability to generate higher thrust densities permits a reduction in the number of thrusters required to perform a given mission, and alleviates the system complexity associated with multiple thruster arrays. The specific impulse of an MPD thruster can be optimized to meet given mission requirements, from a few thousand seconds with heavier gas propellants up to 10,000 seconds with hydrogen propellant. In support of programs envisioned by the NASA Office of Exploration Systems, Glenn Research Center is developing and testing quasi-steady MW-class MPD thrusters as a prelude to steady state high power thruster tests. This paper provides an overview of the GRC high power pulsed thruster test facility, and presents preliminary performance data for a quasi-steady baseline MPD thruster geometry.

  7. An engineering model 30 cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; King, H. J.; Schnelker, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    Thruster development at Hughes Research Laboratories and NASA Lewis Research Center has brought the 30-cm mercury bombardment ion thruster to the state of an engineering model. This thruster has been designed to have sufficient internal strength for direct mounting on gimbals, to weigh 7.3 kg, to operate with a corrected overall efficiency of 71%, and to have 10,000 hours lifetime. Subassemblies, such as the ion optical system, isolators, etc., have been upgraded to meet launch qualification standards. This paper presents a summary of the design specifications and performance characteristics which define the interface between the thruster module and the remainder of the propulsion system.

  8. Investigation of mercury thruster isolators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Mercury ion thruster isolator lifetime tests were performed using different isolator materials and geometries. Tests were performed with and without the flow of mercury through the isolators in an oil diffusion pumped vacuum facility and cryogenically pumped bell jar. The onset of leakage current in isolators occurred in time intervals ranging from a few hours to many hundreds of hours. In all cases, surface contamination was responsible for the onset of leakage current and subsequent isolator failure. Rate of increase of leakage current and the leakage current level increased approximately exponentially with isolator temperature. Careful attention to shielding techniques and the elimination of sources of metal oxides appear to have eliminated isolator failures as a thruster life limiting mechanism.

  9. Predicting Hall Thruster Operational Lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David; Yim, John; Boyd, Iain

    2004-01-01

    A simple analytic model predicted Hall thruster channel erosion based on thruster geometry, operating conditions, and magnetic field configuration. This model relied on a one-dimensional representation of the plasma with a fixed ionization fraction and variable ion energies based on the magnetic field distribution. Sputtering was modeled as the result of elastic scattering of ions by neutrals within the channel. Not all scattered ions and neutrals were assumed to reach the channel walls as a result of additional subsequent scattering events. Incorporating this phenomenon resulted in a greater predicted decrease in erosion rate with time than predicted based only on geometric effects. Results from this model were compared to SPT 100 experimental erosion data.

  10. Laser-heated rocket thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A space vehicle application using 5,000-kw input laser power was conceptually evaluated. A detailed design evaluation of a 10-kw experimental thruster including plasma size, chamber size, cooling, and performance analyses, was performed for 50 psia chamber pressure and using hydrogen as a propellant. The 10-kw hardware fabricated included a water cooled chamber, an uncooled copper chamber, an injector, igniters, and a thrust stand. A 10-kw optical train was designed.

  11. Titanium Optics for Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.; Haag, Thomas W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1999-01-01

    Ion thruster total impulse capability is limited, in part, by accelerator grid sputter erosion. A development effort was initiated to identify a material with a lower accelerator grid volumetric sputter erosion rate than molybdenum, but that could utilize the present NSTAR thruster grid design and fabrication techniques to keep development costs low, and perform as well as molybdenum optics. After comparing the sputter erosion rates of several atomic materials to that of molybdenum at accelerator voltages, titanium was found to offer a 45% reduction in volumetric erosion rates. To ensure that screen grid sputter erosion rates are not higher at discharge chamber potentials, titanium and molybdenum sputter erosion rates were measured at these potentials. Preliminary results showed only a slightly higher volumetric erosion rate for titanium, so that screen grid erosion is insignificant. A number of material, thermal, and mechanical properties were also examined to identify any fabrication, launch environment, and thruster operation issues. Several titanium grid sets were successfully fabricated. A titanium grid set was mounted onto an NSTAR 30 cm engineering model ion thruster and tested to determine optics performance. The titanium optics operated successfully over the entire NSTAR power range of 0.5 to 2.3 kW. Differences in impingement-limited perveances and electron backstreaming limits were found to be due to a larger cold gap for the titanium optics. Discharge losses for titanium grids were lower than those for molybdenum, likely due to a slightly larger titanium screen grid open area fraction. Radial distributions of beam current density with titanium optics were very similar to those with molybdenum optics at all power levels. Temporal electron backstreaming limit measurements showed that titanium optics achieved thermal equilibrium faster than molybdenum optics.

  12. Arcjet thruster research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makel, Darby B.; Cann, Gordon L.

    1988-01-01

    The design, analysis, and performance testing of an advanced lower power arcjet is described. A high impedance, vortex stabilized 1-kw class arcjet has been studied. A baseline research thruster has been built and endurance and performance tested. This advanced arcjet has demonstrated long lifetime characteristics, but lower than expected performance. Analysis of the specific design has identified modifications which should improve performance and maintain the long life time shown by the arcjet.

  13. Plasma thrusters development in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfo, André; Cadiou, Anne; Secheresse, O.; Dumazert, P.; Gounot, V.; Ragot, X.; Mattei, N.; Grassin, T.; Garnero, P.

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the FRENCH plasma propulsion activities. The main existing and future projects are described. The field of application of plasma propulsion is the station keeping and the orbit raising of geostationary telecommunication satellites (STENTOR) and the transfer of interplanetary vehicles such as Mars Sample Return. The works done in the frame of the preparation of the first commercial spacecraft as well as the preparation of the future and the associated Research and Technology program are described. The scientific activity supporting the development of Hall thrusters is on-going in the frame of the GDR (Groupement de Recherche) CNRS/CNES/Snecma Moteurs /ONERA on Plasma Propulsion. Several Russian entities are also involved: the MIREA (Moscow Institute of Radioelectronics and Automatics), of the RIAME MAI (Research Institute of Applied Mechanics and Electrodynamics - Moscow Aviation Institute) and of the SPT « father å Professor MOROZOV The industrial development activities are jointly conducted by Snecma Moteurs and Russian manufacturer FAKEL. The future developments are mainly dedicated to the use of electric propulsion for the orbit raising of telecommunications satellites which leads to the development of thrusters with higher thrust than those existing today. Works are also performed to develop and improve the tools necessary to evaluate the plume effects of plasma thrusters.

  14. Stationary Plasma Thruster Plume Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The emission spectrum from a xenon plasma produced by a Stationary Plasma Thruster provided by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) was measured. Approximately 270 individual Xe I, Xe II, and XE III transitions were identified. A total of 250 mW of radiated optical emission was estimated from measurements taken at the thruster exit plane. There was no evidence of erosion products in the emission signature. Ingestion and ionization of background gas at elevated background pressure was detected. The distribution of excited states could be described by temperatures ranging from fractions of 1 eV to 4 eV with a high degree of uncertainty due to the nonequilibrium nature of this plasma. The plasma was over 95 percent ionized at the thruster exit plane. Between 10 and 20 percent of the ions were doubly charged. Two modes of operation were identified. The intensity of plasma emission increased by a factor of two during operation in an oscillatory mode. The transfer between the two modes of operation was likely related to unidentified phenomena occurring on a time scale of minutes.

  15. Lifetime Assessment of the NEXT Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanNoord, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    Ion thrusters are low thrust, high specific impulse devices with required operational lifetimes on the order of 10,000 to 100,000 hr. The NEXT ion thruster is the latest generation of ion thrusters under development. The NEXT ion thruster currently has a qualification level propellant throughput requirement of 450 kg of xenon, which corresponds to roughly 22,000 hr of operation at the highest throttling point. Currently, a NEXT engineering model ion thruster with prototype model ion optics is undergoing a long duration test to determine wear characteristics and establish propellant throughput capability. The NEXT thruster includes many improvements over previous generations of ion thrusters, but two of its component improvements have a larger effect on thruster lifetime. These include the ion optics with tighter tolerances, a masked region and better gap control, and the discharge cathode keeper material change to graphite. Data from the NEXT 2000 hr wear test, the NEXT long duration test, and further analysis is used to determine the expected lifetime of the NEXT ion thruster. This paper will review the predictions for all of the anticipated failure mechanisms. The mechanisms will include wear of the ion optics and cathode s orifice plate and keeper from the plasma, depletion of low work function material in each cathode s insert, and spalling of material in the discharge chamber leading to arcing. Based on the analysis of the NEXT ion thruster, the first failure mode for operation above a specific impulse of 2000 sec is expected to be the structural failure of the ion optics at 750 kg of propellant throughput, 1.7 times the qualification requirement. An assessment based on mission analyses for operation below a specific impulse of 2000 sec indicates that the NEXT thruster is capable of double the propellant throughput required by these missions.

  16. Stationary plasma thruster evaluation in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.

    1992-01-01

    A team of electric propulsion specialists from U.S. government laboratories experimentally evaluated the performance of a 1.35-kW Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT) at the Scientific Research Institute of Thermal Processes in Moscow and at 'Fakel' Enterprise in Kaliningrad, Russia. The evaluation was performed using a combination of U.S. and Russian instrumentation and indicated that the actual performance of the thruster appears to be close to the claimed performance. The claimed performance was a specific impulse of 16,000 m/s, an overall efficiency of 50 percent, and an input power of 1.35 kW, and is superior to the performance of western electric thrusters at this specific impulse. The unique performance capabilities of the stationary plasma thruster, along with claims that more than fifty of the 660-W thrusters have been flown in space on Russian spacecraft, attracted the interest of western spacecraft propulsion specialists. A two-phase program was initiated to evaluate the stationary plasma thruster performance and technology. The first phase of this program, to experimentally evaluate the performance of the thruster with U.S. instrumentation in Russia, is described in this report. The second phase objective is to determine the suitability of the stationary plasma thruster technology for use on western spacecraft. This will be accomplished by bringing stationary plasma thrusters to the U.S. for quantification of thruster erosion rates, measurements of the performance variation as a function of long-duration operation, quantification of the exhaust beam divergence angle, and determination of the non-propellant efflux from the thruster. These issues require quantification in order to maximize the probability for user application of the SPT technology and significantly increase the propulsion capabilities of U.S. spacecraft.

  17. Large anomalous Hall effect driven by a nonvanishing Berry curvature in the noncolinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Ajaya K; Fischer, Julia Erika; Sun, Yan; Yan, Binghai; Karel, Julie; Komarek, Alexander C; Shekhar, Chandra; Kumar, Nitesh; Schnelle, Walter; Kübler, Jürgen; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that the anomalous Hall effect displayed by a ferromagnet scales with its magnetization. Therefore, an antiferromagnet that has no net magnetization should exhibit no anomalous Hall effect. We show that the noncolinear triangular antiferromagnet Mn3Ge exhibits a large anomalous Hall effect comparable to that of ferromagnetic metals; the magnitude of the anomalous conductivity is ~500 (ohm·cm)(-1) at 2 K and ~50 (ohm·cm)(-1) at room temperature. The angular dependence of the anomalous Hall effect measurements confirms that the small residual in-plane magnetic moment has no role in the observed effect except to control the chirality of the spin triangular structure. Our theoretical calculations demonstrate that the large anomalous Hall effect in Mn3Ge originates from a nonvanishing Berry curvature that arises from the chiral spin structure, and that also results in a large spin Hall effect of 1100 (ħ/e) (ohm·cm)(-1), comparable to that of platinum. The present results pave the way toward the realization of room temperature antiferromagnetic spintronics and spin Hall effect-based data storage devices.

  18. Large anomalous Hall effect driven by a nonvanishing Berry curvature in the noncolinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Ajaya K; Fischer, Julia Erika; Sun, Yan; Yan, Binghai; Karel, Julie; Komarek, Alexander C; Shekhar, Chandra; Kumar, Nitesh; Schnelle, Walter; Kübler, Jürgen; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that the anomalous Hall effect displayed by a ferromagnet scales with its magnetization. Therefore, an antiferromagnet that has no net magnetization should exhibit no anomalous Hall effect. We show that the noncolinear triangular antiferromagnet Mn3Ge exhibits a large anomalous Hall effect comparable to that of ferromagnetic metals; the magnitude of the anomalous conductivity is ~500 (ohm·cm)(-1) at 2 K and ~50 (ohm·cm)(-1) at room temperature. The angular dependence of the anomalous Hall effect measurements confirms that the small residual in-plane magnetic moment has no role in the observed effect except to control the chirality of the spin triangular structure. Our theoretical calculations demonstrate that the large anomalous Hall effect in Mn3Ge originates from a nonvanishing Berry curvature that arises from the chiral spin structure, and that also results in a large spin Hall effect of 1100 (ħ/e) (ohm·cm)(-1), comparable to that of platinum. The present results pave the way toward the realization of room temperature antiferromagnetic spintronics and spin Hall effect-based data storage devices. PMID:27152355

  19. Theoretical investigations of plasma processes in the ion bombardment thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    A physical model for a thruster discharge was developed, consisting of a spatially diverging plasma sustained electrically between a small ring cathode and a larger ring anode in a cylindrical chamber with an axial magnetic field. The associated boundary-value problem for the coupled partial differential equations with mixed boundary conditions, which describe the electric potential and the plasma velocity fields, was solved in closed form. By means of quantum-mechanical perturbation theory, a formula for the number S(E) of atoms sputtered on the average by an ion of energy E was derived from first principles. The boundary-value problem describing the diffusion of the sputtered atoms through the surrounding rarefied electron-ion plasma to the system surfaces of ion propulsion systems was formulated and treated analytically. It is shown that outer boundary-value problems of this type lead to a complex integral equation, which requires numerical resolution.

  20. Ion Voltage Diagnostics in the Far-Field Plume of a High-Specific Impulse Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofer, Richard R.; Haas, James M.; Gallimore, Alec D.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of the magnetic field and discharge voltage on the far-field plume of the NASA 173Mv2 laboratory-model Hall thruster were investigated. A cylindrical Langmuir probe was used to measure the plasma potential and a retarding potential analyzer was employed to measure the ion voltage distribution. The plasma potential was affected by relatively small changes in the external magnetic field, which suggested a means to control the plasma surrounding the thruster. As the discharge voltage increased, the ion voltage distribution showed that the acceleration efficiency increased and the dispersion efficiency decreased. This implied that the ionization zone was growing axially and moving closer to the anode, which could have affected thruster efficiency and lifetime due to higher wall losses. However, wall losses may have been reduced by improved focusing efficiency since the total efficiency increased and the plume divergence decreased with discharge voltage.

  1. A Novel Method of Zero Offset Reduction in Hall Effect Sensors with Applications to Magnetic Field Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng; Liu, Ji-Gou; Zhang, Quan

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents a novel method to reduce the zero offset in Hall-Effect based magnetic measurement with single power supply. This method consists of a coarse zero compensation and a fine zero adjustment afterwards. By using the proposed method the zero output offset of Hall Effect sensors under using single power supply can be controlled within 0.2%. This method can be applied to all Hall Effect sensors with analog output and other similar sensors, which are powered with a single voltage or current source.

  2. Synchronization of spin-transfer torque oscillators by spin pumping, inverse spin Hall, and spin Hall effects

    SciTech Connect

    Elyasi, Mehrdad; Bhatia, Charanjit S.; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2015-02-14

    We have proposed a method to synchronize multiple spin-transfer torque oscillators based on spin pumping, inverse spin Hall, and spin Hall effects. The proposed oscillator system consists of a series of nano-magnets in junction with a normal metal with high spin-orbit coupling, and an accumulative feedback loop. We conduct simulations to demonstrate the effect of modulated charge currents in the normal metal due to spin pumping from each nano-magnet. We show that the interplay between the spin Hall effect and inverse spin Hall effect results in synchronization of the nano-magnets.

  3. Scrutinizing Hall Effect in Mn1 -xFex Si : Fermi Surface Evolution and Hidden Quantum Criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, V. V.; Lobanova, I. I.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Voronov, V. V.; Dyadkin, V. A.; Chubova, N. M.; Grigoriev, S. V.; Demishev, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    Separating between the ordinary Hall effect and anomalous Hall effect in the paramagnetic phase of Mn1 -xFex Si reveals an ordinary Hall effect sign inversion associated with the hidden quantum critical (QC) point x*˜0.11 . The effective hole doping at intermediate Fe content leads to verifiable predictions in the field of fermiology, magnetic interactions, and QC phenomena in Mn1 -xFex Si . The change of electron and hole concentrations is considered as a "driving force" for tuning the QC regime in Mn1 -xFex Si via modifying the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange interaction within the Heisenberg model of magnetism.

  4. All-electrical manipulation of magnetization dynamics in a ferromagnet by antiferromagnets with anisotropic spin Hall effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Freimuth, Frank; Jiang, Wanjun; Sklenar, Joseph; Pearson, John E.; Ketterson, John B.; Mokrousov, Yuriy; Hoffmann, Axel

    2015-10-01

    We investigate spin-orbit torques of metallic CuAu-I-type antiferromagnets using spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance tuned by a dc-bias current. The observed spin torques predominantly arise from diffusive transport of spin current generated by the spin Hall effect. We find a growth-orientation dependence of the spin torques by studying epitaxial samples, which may be correlated to the anisotropy of the spin Hall effect. The observed anisotropy is consistent with first-principles calculations on the intrinsic spin Hall effect. Our work demonstrates large tunable spin-orbit effects in magnetically ordered materials.

  5. Development, Demonstration, and Analysis of an Integrated Iodine Hall Thruster Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Peeples, Steven R.; Burt, Adam O.; Martin, Adam K.; Martinez, Armando; Seixal, Joao F.; Mauro, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The design of an in-space iodine-vapor-fed Hall effect thruster propellant management system is described. The solid-iodine propellant tank has unique issues associated with the microgravity environment, requiring a solution where the iodine is maintained in intimate thermal contact with the heated tank walls. The flow control valves required alterations from earlier iterations to survive for extended periods of time in the corrosive iodine-vapor environment. Materials have been selected for the entire feed system that can chemically resist the iodine vapor, with the design now featuring Hastelloy or Inconel for almost all the wetted components. An integrated iodine feed system/Hall thruster demonstration unit was fabricated and tested, with all control being handled by an onboard electronics card specifically designed to operate the feed system. Structural analysis shows that the feed system can survive launch loads after the implementation of some minor reinforcement. Flow modeling, while still requiring significant additional validation, is presented to show its potential in capturing the behavior of components in this low-flow, low-pressure system.

  6. Metallization and Hall-effect of Mg{sub 2}Ge under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuqiang; Gao, Yang; Han, Yonghao Liu, Cailong; Peng, Gang; Ke, Feng; Gao, Chunxiao; Wang, Qinglin; Ma, Yanzhang

    2015-10-05

    The electrical transport properties of Mg{sub 2}Ge under high pressure were studied with the in situ temperature-dependent resistivity and Hall-effect measurements. The theoretically predicted metallization of Mg{sub 2}Ge was definitely found around 7.4 GPa by the temperature-dependent resistivity measurement. Other two pressure-induced structural phase transitions were also reflected by the measurements. Hall-effect measurement showed that the dominant charge carrier in the metallic Mg{sub 2}Ge was hole, indicating the “bad metal” nature of Mg{sub 2}Ge. The Hall mobility and charge carrier concentration results pointed out that the electrical transport behavior in the antifluorite phase was controlled by the increase quantity of drifting electrons under high pressure, but in both anticotunnite and Ni{sub 2}In-type phases it was governed by the Hall mobility.

  7. Driving and detecting ferromagnetic resonance in insulators with the spin Hall effect.

    SciTech Connect

    Sklenar, Joseph; Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; Chang, Houchen; Pearson, John E.; Wu, Mingzhong; Ketterson, John B.; Hoffmann, Axel

    2015-11-06

    We demonstrate the generation and detection of spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance in Pt/Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) bilayers. A unique attribute of this system is that the spin Hall effect lies at the heart of both the generation and detection processes and no charge current is passing through the insulating magnetic layer. When the YIG undergoes resonance, a dc voltage is detected longitudinally along the Pt that can be described by two components. One is the mixing of the spin Hall magnetoresistance with the microwave current. The other results from spin pumping into the Pt being converted to a dc current through the inverse spin Hall effect. The voltage is measured with applied magnetic field directions that range in-plane to nearly perpendicular. We find that for magnetic fields that are mostly out-of-plane, an imaginary component of the spin mixing conductance is required to model our data.

  8. Spin wave amplification using the spin Hall effect in permalloy/platinum bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladii, O.; Collet, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, K.; Cheng, C.; Xavier, S.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Henry, Y.; Kim, J.-V.; Anane, A.; Bailleul, M.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the effect of an electrical current on the attenuation length of a 900 nm wavelength spin-wave in a permalloy/Pt bilayer using propagating spin-wave spectroscopy. The modification of the spin-wave relaxation rate is linear in current density, reaching up to 14% for a current density of 2.3 × 1011 A/m2 in Pt. This change is attributed to the spin transfer torque induced by the spin Hall effect and corresponds to an effective spin Hall angle of 0.13, which is among the highest values reported so far. The spin Hall effect thus appears as an efficient way of amplifying/attenuating propagating spin waves.

  9. Simulation of the many-body dynamical quantum Hall effect in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan-Wei; Yang, Xu-Chen

    2016-05-01

    We propose an experimental scheme to simulate the many-body dynamical quantum Hall effect with ultra-cold bosonic atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice. We first show that the required model Hamiltonian of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with an effective magnetic field and tunable parameters can be realized in this system. For dynamical response to ramping the external fields, the quantized plateaus emerge in the Berry curvature of the interacting atomic spin chain as a function of the effective spin-exchange interaction. The quantization of this response in the parameter space with the interaction-induced topological transition characterizes the many-body dynamical quantum Hall effect. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this phenomenon can be observed in practical cold atom experiments with numerical simulations.

  10. Spontaneous magnetization and anomalous Hall effect in an emergent Dice lattice

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Omjyoti; Przysiężna, Anna; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices serve as a tool to model different physical phenomena appearing originally in condensed matter. To study magnetic phenomena one needs to engineer synthetic fields as atoms are neutral. Appropriately shaped optical potentials force atoms to mimic charged particles moving in a given field. We present the realization of artificial gauge fields for the observation of anomalous Hall effect. Two species of attractively interacting ultracold fermions are considered to be trapped in a shaken two dimensional triangular lattice. A combination of interaction induced tunneling and shaking can result in an emergent Dice lattice. In such a lattice the staggered synthetic magnetic flux appears and it can be controlled with external parameters. The obtained synthetic fields are non-Abelian. Depending on the tuning of the staggered flux we can obtain either anomalous Hall effect or its quantized version. Our results are reminiscent of Anomalous Hall conductivity in spin-orbit coupled ferromagnets. PMID:26057635

  11. Experimental Observation of the Inverse Spin Hall Effect at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Baoli; Shi, Junren; Wang, Wenxin; Zhao, Hongming; Li, Dafang; Zhang, Shoucheng; Xue, Qikun; Chen, Dongmin; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.

    2010-03-16

    We observe the inverse spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas confined in Al-GaAs/InGaAs quantum wells. Specifically, they find that an inhomogeneous spin density induced by the optical injection gives rise to an electric current transverse to both the spin polarization and its gradient. The spin Hall conductivity can be inferred from such a measurement through the Einstein relation and the onsager relation, and is found to have the order of magnitude of 0.5(e{sup 2}/h). The observation is made at the room temperature and in samples with macroscopic sizes, suggesting that the inverse spin Hall effects is a robust macroscopic transport phenomenon.

  12. Geometrical Optics of Beams with Vortices: Berry Phase and Orbital Angular Momentum Hall Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Bliokh, Konstantin Yu.

    2006-07-28

    We consider propagation of a paraxial beam carrying the spin angular momentum (polarization) and intrinsic orbital angular momentum (IOAM) in a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium. It is shown that the presence of IOAM can dramatically enhance and rearrange the topological phenomena that previously were considered solely in connection to the polarization of transverse waves. In particular, the appearance of a new type of Berry phase that describes the parallel transport of the beam structure along a curved ray is predicted. We derive the ray equations demonstrating the splitting of beams with different values of IOAM. This is the orbital angular momentum Hall effect, which resembles the Magnus effect for optical vortices. Unlike the spin Hall effect of photons, it can be much larger in magnitude and is inherent to waves of any nature. Experimental means to detect the phenomena are discussed.

  13. Anomalous Hall effect in magnetic disordered alloys: Effects of spin orbital coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, L.; Gao, W. B.; Zhou, S. M.; Shi, Z.; He, P.; Miao, J.; Jiang, Y.

    2013-12-28

    For disordered ternary Fe{sub 0.5}(Pd{sub 1−x}Pt{sub x}){sub 0.5} alloy films, the anomalous Hall effect obeys the conventional scaling law ρ{sub AH}=aρ{sub xx}+bρ{sub xx}{sup 2} with the longitudinal resistivity ρ{sub xx} and anomalous Hall resistivity ρ{sub AH}. Contributed by the intrinsic term and the extrinsic side-jump one, the scattering-independent anomalous Hall conductivity b increases with increasing Pt/Pd concentration. In contrast, the skew scattering parameter a is mainly influenced by the residual resistivity. The present results will facilitate the theoretical studies of the anomalous Hall effect in magnetic disordered alloys.

  14. Trap healing and ultralow-noise Hall effect at the surface of organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Lee, B; Chen, Y; Fu, D; Yi, H T; Czelen, K; Najafov, H; Podzorov, V

    2013-12-01

    Fundamental studies of intrinsic charge transport properties of organic semiconductors are often hindered by charge traps associated with static disorder present even in optimized single-crystal devices. Here, we report a method of surface functionalization using an inert non-conjugated polymer, perfluoropolyether (PFPE), deposited at the surface of organic molecular crystals, which results in accumulation of mobile holes and a 'trap healing' effect at the crystal/PFPE interface. As a consequence, a remarkable ultralow-noise, trp-free conduction regime characterized by intrinsic mobility and transport anisotropy emerges in organic single crystals, and Hall effect measurements with an unprecedented signal-to-noise ratio are demonstrated. This general method to convert trap-dominated organic semiconductors to intrinsic systems may enable the determination of intrinsic transport parameters with high accuracy and make Hall effect measurements in molecular crystals ubiquitous. PMID:24162882

  15. Prospect of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall effect in doped kagome lattice Mott insulators.

    PubMed

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O; Valentí, Roser

    2016-01-01

    Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions. PMID:27185665

  16. Quantum Hall effect in black phosphorus two-dimensional electron system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Likai; Yang, Fangyuan; Ye, Guo Jun; Zhang, Zuocheng; Zhu, Zengwei; Lou, Wenkai; Zhou, Xiaoying; Li, Liang; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Chang, Kai; Wang, Yayu; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo

    2016-07-01

    The development of new, high-quality functional materials has been at the forefront of condensed-matter research. The recent advent of two-dimensional black phosphorus has greatly enriched the materials base of two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs). Here, we report the observation of the integer quantum Hall effect in a high-quality black phosphorus 2DES. The high quality is achieved by embedding the black phosphorus 2DES in a van der Waals heterostructure close to a graphite back gate; the graphite gate screens the impurity potential in the 2DES and brings the carrier Hall mobility up to 6,000 cm2 V-1 s-1. The exceptional mobility enabled us to observe the quantum Hall effect and to gain important information on the energetics of the spin-split Landau levels in black phosphorus. Our results set the stage for further study on quantum transport and device application in the ultrahigh mobility regime.

  17. Quantum thermal Hall effect of Majorana fermions on the surface of superconducting topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yosuke; Yamakage, Ai; Nomura, Kentaro

    2015-05-01

    We study the quantum anomalous thermal Hall effect in a topological superconductor, which possesses an integer bulk topological number and supports Majorana excitations on the surface. To realize the quantum thermal Hall effect, a finite gap at the surface is induced by applying an external magnetic field or by the proximity effects with magnetic materials or s -wave superconductors with complex pair potentials. Basing on the lattice model Hamiltonian for superconducting states in Cu-doped Bi2Se3 , we compute the thermal Hall conductivity as a function of various parameters such as the chemical potential, the pair potential, and the spin-orbit coupling-induced band gap. It is argued that the bulk topological invariant corresponds to the quantization rule of the thermal Hall conductivity induced by complex s -wave pair potentials.

  18. Interface engineering of quantum Hall effects in digital transition metal oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Di; Zhu, Wenguang; Ran, Ying; Nagaosa, Naoto; Okamoto, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) are characterized by a non-trivial band topology driven by the spin-orbit coupling. To fully explore the fundamental science and application of TIs, material realization is indispensable. Here we predict, based on tight-binding modeling and first-principles calculations, that bilayers of perovskite-type transition-metal oxides grown along the [111] crystallographic axis are potential candidates for two-dimensional TIs. The topological band structure of these materials can be fine-tuned by changing dopant ions, substrates and external gate voltages. We predict that LaAuO$_3$ bilayers have a topologically non-trivial energy gap of about 0.15~eV, which is sufficiently large to realize the quantum spin Hall effect at room temperature. Intriguing phenomena, such as fractional quantum Hall effect, associated with the nearly flat topologically non-trivial bands found in $e_g$ systems are also discussed.

  19. Interface engineering of quantum Hall effects in digital transition metal oxide heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Di; Zhu, Wenguang; Ran, Ying; Nagaosa, Naoto; Okamoto, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Topological insulators are characterized by a non-trivial band topology driven by the spin-orbit coupling. To fully explore the fundamental science and application of topological insulators, material realization is indispensable. Here we predict, based on tight-binding modelling and first-principles calculations, that bilayers of perovskite-type transition-metal oxides grown along the [111] crystallographic axis are potential candidates for two-dimensional topological insulators. The topological band structure of these materials can be fine-tuned by changing dopant ions, substrates and external gate voltages. We predict that LaAuO(3) bilayers have a topologically non-trivial energy gap of about 0.15 eV, which is sufficiently large to realize the quantum spin Hall effect at room temperature. Intriguing phenomena, such as fractional quantum Hall effect, associated with the nearly flat topologically non-trivial bands found in e(g) systems are also discussed.

  20. Anomalous hall effect in the (in,mn)sb dilute magnetic semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Mihály, G; Csontos, M; Bordács, S; Kézsmárki, I; Wojtowicz, T; Liu, X; Jankó, B; Furdyna, J K

    2008-03-14

    High magnetic field study of Hall resistivity in the ferromagnetic phase of (In,Mn)Sb allows one to separate its normal and anomalous components. We show that the anomalous Hall term is not proportional to the magnetization, and that it even changes sign as a function of magnetic field. We also show that the application of pressure modifies the scattering process, but does not influence the Hall effect. These observations suggest that the anomalous Hall effect in (In,Mn)Sb is an intrinsic property and supports the application of the Berry phase theory for (III,Mn)V semiconductors. We propose a phenomenological description of the anomalous Hall conductivity, based on a field-dependent relative shift of the heavy- and light-hole valence bands and the split-off band.

  1. Origin of the planar Hall effect in nanocrystalline Co60Fe20B20.

    PubMed

    Seemann, K M; Freimuth, F; Zhang, H; Blügel, S; Mokrousov, Y; Bürgler, D E; Schneider, C M

    2011-08-19

    An angle dependent analysis of the planar Hall effect (PHE) in nanocrystalline single-domain Co(60)Fe(20)B(20) thin films is reported. In a combined experimental and theoretical study we show that the transverse resistivity of the PHE is entirely driven by anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). Our results for Co(60)Fe(20)B(20) obtained from first principles theory in conjunction with a Boltzmann transport model take into account the nanocrystallinity and the presence of 20 at. % boron. The ab initio AMR ratio of 0.12% agrees well with the experimental value of 0.22%. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that the anomalous Hall effect contributes negligibly in the present case.

  2. Prospect of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall effect in doped kagome lattice Mott insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valentí, Roser

    2016-05-01

    Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions.

  3. Metallic phase of the quantum Hall effect in four-dimensional space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, Jonathan; Tworzydlo, Jakub; Beenakker, Carlo

    2013-03-01

    We study the phase diagram of the quantum Hall effect in four-dimensional (4D) space. Unlike in 2D, in 4D there exists a metallic as well as an insulating phase, depending on the disorder strength. The critical exponent ν ~ 1 . 2 of the diverging localization length at the quantum Hall insulator-to-metal transition differs from the semiclassical value ν = 1 of 4D Anderson transitions in the presence of time-reversal symmetry. Our numerical analysis is based on a mapping of the 4D Hamiltonian onto a 1D dynamical system, providing a route towards the experimental realization of the 4D quantum Hall effect. NanoCTM, FOM/NWO, ERC

  4. Trap healing and ultralow-noise Hall effect at the surface of organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Lee, B; Chen, Y; Fu, D; Yi, H T; Czelen, K; Najafov, H; Podzorov, V

    2013-12-01

    Fundamental studies of intrinsic charge transport properties of organic semiconductors are often hindered by charge traps associated with static disorder present even in optimized single-crystal devices. Here, we report a method of surface functionalization using an inert non-conjugated polymer, perfluoropolyether (PFPE), deposited at the surface of organic molecular crystals, which results in accumulation of mobile holes and a 'trap healing' effect at the crystal/PFPE interface. As a consequence, a remarkable ultralow-noise, trp-free conduction regime characterized by intrinsic mobility and transport anisotropy emerges in organic single crystals, and Hall effect measurements with an unprecedented signal-to-noise ratio are demonstrated. This general method to convert trap-dominated organic semiconductors to intrinsic systems may enable the determination of intrinsic transport parameters with high accuracy and make Hall effect measurements in molecular crystals ubiquitous.

  5. Quantum Hall effect in black phosphorus two-dimensional electron system.

    PubMed

    Li, Likai; Yang, Fangyuan; Ye, Guo Jun; Zhang, Zuocheng; Zhu, Zengwei; Lou, Wenkai; Zhou, Xiaoying; Li, Liang; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Chang, Kai; Wang, Yayu; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo

    2016-07-01

    The development of new, high-quality functional materials has been at the forefront of condensed-matter research. The recent advent of two-dimensional black phosphorus has greatly enriched the materials base of two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs). Here, we report the observation of the integer quantum Hall effect in a high-quality black phosphorus 2DES. The high quality is achieved by embedding the black phosphorus 2DES in a van der Waals heterostructure close to a graphite back gate; the graphite gate screens the impurity potential in the 2DES and brings the carrier Hall mobility up to 6,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The exceptional mobility enabled us to observe the quantum Hall effect and to gain important information on the energetics of the spin-split Landau levels in black phosphorus. Our results set the stage for further study on quantum transport and device application in the ultrahigh mobility regime.

  6. Driving and detecting ferromagnetic resonance in insulators with the spin Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklenar, Joseph; Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; Chang, Houchen; Pearson, John E.; Wu, Mingzhong; Ketterson, John B.; Hoffmann, Axel

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the generation and detection of spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance in Pt/Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) bilayers. A unique attribute of this system is that the spin Hall effect lies at the heart of both the generation and detection processes and no charge current is passing through the insulating magnetic layer. When the YIG undergoes resonance, a dc voltage is detected longitudinally along the Pt that can be described by two components. One is the mixing of the spin Hall magnetoresistance with the microwave current. The other results from spin pumping into the Pt being converted to a dc current through the inverse spin Hall effect. The voltage is measured with applied magnetic field directions that range from in plane to nearly perpendicular. When compared with theory, we find that the real and imaginary parts of the spin mixing conductance have out-of-plane angular dependences.

  7. Spontaneous magnetization and anomalous Hall effect in an emergent Dice lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Omjyoti; Przysiężna, Anna; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2015-06-01

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices serve as a tool to model different physical phenomena appearing originally in condensed matter. To study magnetic phenomena one needs to engineer synthetic fields as atoms are neutral. Appropriately shaped optical potentials force atoms to mimic charged particles moving in a given field. We present the realization of artificial gauge fields for the observation of anomalous Hall effect. Two species of attractively interacting ultracold fermions are considered to be trapped in a shaken two dimensional triangular lattice. A combination of interaction induced tunneling and shaking can result in an emergent Dice lattice. In such a lattice the staggered synthetic magnetic flux appears and it can be controlled with external parameters. The obtained synthetic fields are non-Abelian. Depending on the tuning of the staggered flux we can obtain either anomalous Hall effect or its quantized version. Our results are reminiscent of Anomalous Hall conductivity in spin-orbit coupled ferromagnets.

  8. Prospect of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall effect in doped kagome lattice Mott insulators

    PubMed Central

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valentí, Roser

    2016-01-01

    Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions. PMID:27185665

  9. Prospect of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall effect in doped kagome lattice Mott insulators.

    PubMed

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O; Valentí, Roser

    2016-05-17

    Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions.

  10. Plume and Discharge Plasma Measurements of an NSTAR-type Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E; Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    The success of the NASA Deep Space I spacecraft has demonstrated that ion propulsion is a viable option for deep space science missions. More aggressive missions such as Comet Nuclear Sample Return and Europa lander will require higher power, higher propellant throughput and longer thruster lifetime than the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) engine. Presented here are thruster plume and discharge plasma measurements of an NSTAR-type thruster operated from 0.5 kW to 5 kW. From Faraday plume sweeps, beam divergence was determined. From Langmuir probe plume measurements on centerline, low energy ion production on axis due to charge-exchange and direct ionization was assessed. Additionally, plume plasma potential measurements made on axis were used to determine the upper energy limits at which ions created on centerline could be radially accelerated. Wall probes flush-mounted to the thruster discharge chamber anode were used to assess plasma conditions. Langmuir probe measurements at the wall indicated significant differences in the electron temperature in the cylindrical and conical sections of the discharge chamber.

  11. NEXT Propellant Management System Integration With Multiple Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Soulas, George C.; Herman, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    As a critical part of the NEXT test validation process, a multiple-string integration test was performed on the NEXT propellant management system and ion thrusters. The objectives of this test were to verify that the PMS is capable of providing stable flow control to multiple thrusters operating over the NEXT system throttling range and to demonstrate to potential users that the NEXT PMS is ready for transition to flight. A test plan was developed for the sub-system integration test for verification of PMS and thruster system performance and functionality requirements. Propellant management system calibrations were checked during the single and multi-thruster testing. The low pressure assembly total flow rates to the thruster(s) were within 1.4 percent of the calibrated support equipment flow rates. The inlet pressures to the main, cathode, and neutralizer ports of Thruster PM1R were measured as the PMS operated in 1-thruster, 2-thruster, and 3-thruster configurations. It was found that the inlet pressures to Thruster PM1R for 2-thruster and 3-thruster operation as well as single thruster operation with the PMS compare very favorably indicating that flow rates to Thruster PM1R were similar in all cases. Characterizations of discharge losses, accelerator grid current, and neutralizer performance were performed as more operating thrusters were added to the PMS. There were no variations in these parameters as thrusters were throttled and single and multiple thruster operations were conducted. The propellant management system power consumption was at a fixed voltage to the DCIU and a fixed thermal throttle temperature of 75 C. The total power consumed by the PMS was 10.0, 17.9, and 25.2 W, respectively, for single, 2-thruster, and 3-thruster operation with the PMS. These sub-system integration tests of the PMS, the DCIU Simulator, and multiple thrusters addressed, in part, the NEXT PMS and propulsion system performance and functionality requirements.

  12. Performance comparison of Hall Effect sensor and EMATs in measurement of specimen with various hole depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriratana, Witsarut; Murayama, Riichi

    2014-06-01

    This study presents the experimental results completed to compare both performance of a special ultrasonic sensor and a Hall Effect sensor under the same measurement condition in order to assess the effectiveness, the proper installation, the convenience of use, and the costs of both methods. A special ultrasonic sensor is generally called Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) which consists of magnet and sensor coil. It was tuned that ultrasonic wave with 1 MHz can be injected and detected. Sensor coils were separated to the transmitter and the receiver and placed at two surfaces of the specimen (top and bottom) to set the Lorentz force in parallel direction of the specimen surfaces [1]. This type of EMAT can generate the transverse wave (shear ware) for analyzing the wavelength from measurement. In application, the output voltage from Hall Effect sensor was then compared to the reference voltage in comparator circuit and then amplified the difference to gain 20 times and converted to frequency domain for better resolution at the specific set point of 8 kHz. From experiment, use of Hall Effect sensor exhibited high efficiency over that of EMAT method due to less complexity of the system, lower cost, as well as ease and convenience of installation. Moreover, application of EMAT method with the small size of specimen would lead the error and standard deviation by up to 4.51% and 0.279, respectively compared to that of Hall Effect sensor that can exhibit less error and standard deviation by about 0.24% and 0.013, respectively.

  13. Effective-field-theory model for the fractional quantum Hall effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, S. C.; Hansson, T. H.; Kivelson, S.

    1989-01-01

    Starting directly from the microscopic Hamiltonian, a field-theory model is derived for the fractional quantum Hall effect. By considering an approximate coarse-grained version of the same model, a Landau-Ginzburg theory similar to that of Girvin (1986) is constructed. The partition function of the model exhibits cusps as a function of density. It is shown that the collective density fluctuations are massive.

  14. Low-field anomaly of the hall effect in disordered two-dimensional systems

    SciTech Connect

    Germanenko, A. V.; Minkov, G. M.; Rut, O. E.; Soldatov, I. V.; Sherstobitov, A. A.

    2010-11-15

    This study is devoted to investigation of the nonlinear behavior of the Hall resistance in low magnetic fields. When investigating two-dimensional electron gas in single GaAs/In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As/GaAs quantum wells, it is shown that the anomaly of the Hall effect in disordered systems can be described taking into account the second-order quantum corrections to conductivity.

  15. Scaling in the quantum Hall effect regime in n-InGaAs/GaAs nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Arapov, Yu. G.; Gudina, S. V.; Klepikova, A. S.; Neverov, V. N. Novokshonov, S. G.; Kharus, G. I.; Shelushinina, N. G.; Yakunin, M. V.

    2013-07-15

    The longitudinal {rho}{sub xx}(B) and Hall {rho}{sub xy}(B) magnetoresistances are investigated experimentally in the integer quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime in n-InGaAs/GaAs double quantum well nanostructures in the range of magnetic fields B = (0-16) T and temperatures T = (0.05-70) K before and after IR illumination. The results are evaluated within the scaling hypothesis with regard to electron-electron interaction.

  16. MHD Convective rotating flow past an oscillating porous plate with chemical reaction and Hall effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veera Krishna, M.; Gangadhar Reddy, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we have considered Hall effects on the unsteady MHD free convective rotating flow of visco-elastic fluid with heat and mass transfer near oscillating porous plate. The equations of the flow are solved by perturbation method for small elastic parameter. The analytical expressions for the velocity, temperature, concentration have been derived and also its behaviour is computationally discussed with the help of graphs. The skin friction, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number are also obtained analytically and their behaviour discussed.

  17. Berry curvature on the fermi surface: anomalous Hall effect as a topological fermi-liquid property.

    PubMed

    Haldane, F D M

    2004-11-12

    The intrinsic anomalous Hall effect in metallic ferromagnets is shown to be controlled by Berry phases accumulated by adiabatic motion of quasiparticles on the Fermi surface, and is purely a Fermi-liquid property, not a bulk Fermi sea property like Landau diamagnetism, as has been previously supposed. Berry phases are a new topological ingredient that must be added to Landau Fermi-liquid theory in the presence of broken inversion or time-reversal symmetry.

  18. Understanding the 5/2 fractional quantum Hall effect without the Pfaffian wave function.

    PubMed

    Toke, Csaba; Jain, Jainendra K

    2006-06-23

    It is demonstrated that an understanding of the 5/2 fractional quantum Hall effect can be achieved within the composite fermion theory without appealing to the Pfaffian wave function. The residual interaction between composite fermions plays a crucial role in establishing incompressibility at this filling factor. This approach has the advantage of being amenable to systematic perturbative improvements, and produces ground as well as excited states. It, however, does not relate to non-Abelian statistics in any obvious manner.

  19. Spin Hall effects for cold atoms in a light induced gauge potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Shi-Liang; Fu, Hao; Wu, C.-J.; Zhang, S.-C.; Duan, L.-M. /Michigan U., MCTP

    2010-03-16

    We propose an experimental scheme to observe spin Hall effects with cold atoms in a light induced gauge potential. Under an appropriate configuration, the cold atoms moving in a spatially varying laser field experience an effective spin-dependent gauge potential. Through numerical simulation, we demonstrate that such a gauge field leads to observable spin Hall currents under realistic conditions. We also discuss the quantum spin Hall state in an optical lattice.

  20. Coriolis effect and spin Hall effect of light in an inhomogeneous chiral medium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongliang; Shi, Lina; Xie, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the spin Hall effect of spinning light in an inhomogeneous chiral medium. The Hamiltonian equations of the photon are analytically obtained within eikonal approximation in the noninertial orthogonal frame. Besides the usual spin curvature coupling, the chiral parameter enters the Hamiltonian as a spin-torsion-like interaction. We reveal that both terms have parallel geometric origins as the Coriolis terms of Maxwell's equations in nontrivial frames.

  1. Modified weak measurements for the detection of the photonic spin Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shizhen; Zhou, Xinxing; Mi, Chengquan; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2015-06-01

    Weak measurement is an important technique for the detection of the tiny spin-dependent splitting in photonic spin Hall effect. The weak measurement is only valid when the probe wave function remains almost undisturbed during the procedure of measurements. However, it does not always satisfy such condition in some practical situations, such as in the strong-coupling regime or when the preselected and postselected states are nearly orthogonal. In this paper, we develop a modified weak measurement for the detection of the photonic spin Hall effect when the probe wave function is distorted. We find that the measuring procedure with preselected and postselected ensembles is still effective. This scheme is important for us to detect the photonic spin Hall effect in the case where neither weak nor strong measurements can detect the spin-dependent splitting. The modified theory is valid not only in the weak-coupling regime but also in the strong-coupling regime, and especially in the intermediate regime. The theoretical models of conventional weak measurements and modified weak measurements are established and compared. We show that the experimental results coincide well with the predictions of the modified theory.

  2. Calibration of a Hall effect displacement measurement system for complex motion analysis using a neural network.

    PubMed

    Northey, G W; Oliver, M L; Rittenhouse, D M

    2006-01-01

    Biomechanics studies often require the analysis of position and orientation. Although a variety of transducer and camera systems can be utilized, a common inexpensive alternative is the Hall effect sensor. Hall effect sensors have been used extensively for one-dimensional position analysis but their non-linear behavior and cross-talk effects make them difficult to calibrate for effective and accurate two- and three-dimensional position and orientation analysis. The aim of this study was to develop and calibrate a displacement measurement system for a hydraulic-actuation joystick used for repetitive motion analysis of heavy equipment operators. The system utilizes an array of four Hall effect sensors that are all active during any joystick movement. This built-in redundancy allows the calibration to utilize fully connected feed forward neural networks in conjunction with a Microscribe 3D digitizer. A fully connected feed forward neural network with one hidden layer containing five neurons was developed. Results indicate that the ability of the neural network to accurately predict the x, y and z coordinates of the joystick handle was good with r(2) values of 0.98 and higher. The calibration technique was found to be equally as accurate when used on data collected 5 days after the initial calibration, indicating the system is robust and stable enough to not require calibration every time the joystick is used. This calibration system allowed an infinite number of joystick orientations and positions to be found within the range of joystick motion.

  3. Hall effects on the steady structure of the rotational layer at the dayside magnetopause

    SciTech Connect

    Westerberg, Lars G.; Aakerstedt, Hans O.

    2007-10-15

    The influence of the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law on the large-scale plasma flow during conditions of ongoing magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause (MP) is investigated. Of special interest is the plasma flow behavior during the transition of the MP transition layer as the Hall effect grows in proportion to the viscous-resistive effects. The governing equations are solved approximately by an ordinary perturbation expansion in orders of large Reynolds and Lundqvist numbers. It is shown that the flow pattern is strongly dependent on the magnitude of the Hall parameter; as it approaches zero, the viscous-resistive solution is obtained, while for an ordering of the same magnitude as the resistivity/viscosity, the Hall effect begins to affect the flow structure severely. For an increasing value on the Hall parameter, oscillations are brought into the system, an effect that is enhanced with the magnitude of the Hall parameter. Furthermore, it is shown that as the Hall effect begins to dominate, the transition layer thickens.

  4. A syringe injection rate detector employing a dual Hall-effect sensor configuration.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Biswarup; George, Boby; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2013-01-01

    Injection of fluids in the body using needle syringes is a standard clinical practice. The rate of injection can have various pathological effects on the body such as the pain perceived or in case of anesthesia, the amount of akinesia attained. Hence, a training system with a modified syringe employing a simple measurement scheme where a trainee can observe and practice the rate of injection prior to administering on actual human subjects, can be of great value towards reduction of complications in real life situations. In this paper, we develop a system for measurement of syringe injection rate with two Hall-effect sensors. Ring magnets attached to the body of the syringe along with the dual Hall-effect sensor configuration help in determining the position of the piston with respect to the syringe body. The two Hall-sensors are arranged in a differential configuration such that a linear relationship is obtained between the volume of liquid in the syringe (in ml) and the Hall-effect sensor output voltages. A prototype developed validated the measurement scheme. The rate of injection was displayed in real-time with a LabVIEW based Virtual Instrument. The error was within acceptable limits illustrating its efficacy for practical training purposes.

  5. Anomalous Hall effect sensors based on magnetic element doped topological insulator thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yan; Zhang, Zhen; Nlebedim, Ikenna; Jiles, David

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is recently discovered in magnetic element doped topological insulators (TIs), which promises low power consumption highly efficient spintronics and electronics. This discovery broaden the family of Hall effect (HE) sensors. In this work, both HE and AHE sensor based on Mn and Cr doped Bi2Te3 TI thin films will be systematically studied. The influence of Mn concentration on sensitivity of MnxBi2-xTe3 HE sensors will be discussed. The Hall sensitivity increase 8 times caused by quantum AHE will be reported. AHE senor based on Cr-doped Bi2Te3 TI thin films will also be studied and compared with Mn doped Bi2Te3 AHE sensor. The influence of thickness on sensitivity of CrxBi2-xTe3 AHE sensors will be discussed. Ultrahigh Hall sensitivity is obtained in Cr doped Bi2Te3. The largest Hall sensitivity can reach 2620 Ω/T in sensor which is almost twice higher than that of the normal semiconductor HE sensor. Our work indicates that magnetic element doped topological insulator with AHE are good candidates for ultra-sensitive Hall effect sensors.

  6. The spin Hall effect in single-crystalline gold thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Dai; Chen, Caigan; Wang, Hua; Jin, Xiaofeng

    2016-10-01

    The spin Hall effect has been investigated in 10-nm-thick epitaxial Au (001) single crystal films via H-pattern devices, whose minimum characteristic dimension is about 40 nm. By improving the film quality and optimizing the in-plane geometry parameters of the devices, we explicitly extract the spin Hall effect contribution from the ballistic and bypass contribution which were previously reported to be dominating the non-local voltage. Furthermore, we calculate a lower limit of the spin Hall angle of 0.08 at room temperature. Our results indicate that the giant spin Hall effect in Au thin films is dominated not by the interior defects scattering, but by the surface scattering. Besides, our results also provide an additional experimental method to determine the magnitude of spin Hall angle unambiguously. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015CB921400 and 2011CB921802) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374057, 11434003, and 11421404).

  7. Large extrinsic spin Hall effect in Au-Cu alloys by extensive atomic disorder scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, L. K.; Wang, S. H.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, J. R.; Cai, J. W.; Kang, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Spin Hall angle, which denotes the conversion efficiency between spin and charge current, is a key parameter in the pure spin current phenomenon. The search for materials with large spin Hall angle is indeed important for scientific interest and potential application in spintronics. Here the large enhanced spin Hall effect (SHE) of Au-Cu alloy is reported by investigating the spin Seebeck effect, spin Hall anomalous Hall effect, and spin Hall magnetoresistance of the Y3F e5O12 (YIG)/A uxC u1 -x hybrid structure over the full composition. At the near equiatomic Au-Cu composition with maximum atomic disorder scattering, the spin Hall angle of the Au-Cu alloy increases by two to three times together with a moderate spin diffusion length in comparison with Au. The longitudinal spin Seebeck voltage and the spin Hall magnetoresistance ratio also increase by two to three times. More importantly, no evidence of anomalous Hall effect is observed in all YIG/Au-Cu samples, in contrast to the cases of other giant SHE materials Pt(Pd), Ta, and W. This behavior makes Au-Cu free from any suspicion of the magnetic proximity effect involved in the hybrid structure, and thus the Au-Cu alloy can be an ideal material for pure spin current study.

  8. Topological honeycomb magnon Hall effect: A calculation of thermal Hall conductivity of magnetic spin excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Quite recently, the magnon Hall effect of spin excitations has been observed experimentally on the kagome and pyrochlore lattices. The thermal Hall conductivity κxy changes sign as a function of magnetic field or temperature on the kagome lattice, and κxy changes sign upon reversing the sign of the magnetic field on the pyrochlore lattice. Motivated by these recent exciting experimental observations, we theoretically propose a simple realization of the magnon Hall effect in a two-band model on the honeycomb lattice. The magnon Hall effect of spin excitations arises in the usual way via the breaking of inversion symmetry of the lattice, however, by a next-nearest-neighbour Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. We find that κxy has a fixed sign for all parameter regimes considered. These results are in contrast to the Lieb, kagome, and pyrochlore lattices. We further show that the low-temperature dependence on the magnon Hall conductivity follows a T2 law, as opposed to the kagome and pyrochlore lattices. These results suggest an experimental procedure to measure thermal Hall conductivity within a class of 2D honeycomb quantum magnets and ultracold atoms trapped in a honeycomb optical lattice.

  9. Observation of even denominator fractional quantum Hall effect in suspended bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Ki, Dong-Keun; Fal'ko, Vladimir I; Abanin, Dmitry A; Morpurgo, Alberto F

    2014-01-01

    We investigate low-temperature magneto-transport in recently developed, high-quality multiterminal suspended bilayer graphene devices, enabling the independent measurement of the longitudinal and transverse resistance. We observe clear signatures of the fractional quantum Hall effect with different states that are either fully developed, and exhibit a clear plateau in the transverse resistance with a concomitant dip in longitudinal resistance or incipient, and exhibit only a longitudinal resistance minimum. All observed states scale as a function of filling factor ν, as expected. An unprecedented even-denominator fractional state is observed at ν = -1/2 on the hole side, exhibiting a clear plateau in Rxy quantized at the expected value of 2h/e(2) with a precision of ∼0.5%. Many of our observations, together with a recent electronic compressibility measurement performed in graphene bilayers on hexagonal boron-nitride (hBN) substrates, are consistent with a recent theory that accounts for the effect of the degeneracy between the N = 0 and N = 1 Landau levels in the fractional quantum Hall effect and predicts the occurrence of a Moore-Read type ν = -1/2 state. Owing to the experimental flexibility of bilayer graphene, which has a gate-dependent band structure, can be easily accessed by scanning probes, and can be contacted with materials such as superconductors, our findings offer new possibilities to explore the microscopic nature of even-denominator fractional quantum Hall effect.

  10. Electrical detection of coherent spin precession using the ballistic intrinsic spin Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Young; Kim, Hyung-jun; Chang, Joonyeon; Han, Suk Hee; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Johnson, Mark

    2015-08-01

    The spin-orbit interaction in two-dimensional electron systems provides an exceptionally rich area of research. Coherent spin precession in a Rashba effective magnetic field in the channel of a spin field-effect transistor and the spin Hall effect are the two most compelling topics in this area. Here, we combine these effects to provide a direct demonstration of the ballistic intrinsic spin Hall effect and to demonstrate a technique for an all-electric measurement of the Datta-Das conductance oscillation, that is, the oscillation in the source-drain conductance due to spin precession. Our hybrid device has a ferromagnet electrode as a spin injector and a spin Hall detector. Results from multiple devices with different channel lengths map out two full wavelengths of the Datta-Das oscillation. We also use the original Datta-Das technique with a single device of fixed length and measure the channel conductance as the gate voltage is varied. Our experiments show that the ballistic spin Hall effect can be used for efficient injection or detection of spin polarized electrons, thereby enabling the development of an integrated spin transistor. PMID:26005997

  11. Hall effect on a Merging Formation Process of a Field-Reversed Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminou, Yasuhiro; Guo, Xuehan; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi; Horiuchi, Ritoku

    2015-11-01

    Counter-helicity spheromak merging is one of the formation methods of a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). In counter-helicity spheromak merging, two spheromaks with opposing toroidal fields merge together, through magnetic reconnection events and relax into a FRC, which has no or little toroidal field. This process contains magnetic reconnection and a relaxation phenomena, and the Hall effect has some essential effects on these process because the X-point in the magnetic reconnection or the O-point of the FRC has no or little magnetic field. However, the Hall effect as both global and local effect on counter-helicity spheromak merging has not been elucidated. In this poster, we conducted 2D/3D Hall-MHD simulations and experiments of counter-helicity spheromak merging. We find that the Hall effect enhances the reconnection rate, and reduces the generation of toroidal sheared-flow. The suppression of the ``slingshot effect'' affects the relaxation process. We will discuss details in the poster.

  12. Giant Anomalous Hall Effect in the Chiral Antiferromagnet Mn3Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyohara, Naoki; Tomita, Takahiro; Nakatsuji, Satoru

    2016-06-01

    The external field control of antiferromagnetism is a significant subject both for basic science and technological applications. As a useful macroscopic response to detect magnetic states, the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is known for ferromagnets, but it has never been observed in antiferromagnets until the recent discovery in Mn3Sn . Here we report another example of the AHE in a related antiferromagnet, namely, in the hexagonal chiral antiferromagnet Mn3Ge . Our single-crystal study reveals that Mn3Ge exhibits a giant anomalous Hall conductivity |σx z|˜60 Ω-1 cm-1 at room temperature and approximately 380 Ω-1 cm-1 at 5 K in zero field, reaching nearly half of the value expected for the quantum Hall effect per atomic layer with Chern number of unity. Our detailed analyses on the anisotropic Hall conductivity indicate that in comparison with the in-plane-field components |σx z| and |σz y|, which are very large and nearly comparable in size, we find |σy x| obtained in the field along the c axis to be much smaller. The anomalous Hall effect shows a sign reversal with the rotation of a small magnetic field less than 0.1 T. The soft response of the AHE to magnetic field should be useful for applications, for example, to develop switching and memory devices based on antiferromagnets.

  13. Strong Intrinsic Spin Hall Effect in the TaAs Family of Weyl Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai

    2016-09-01

    Since their discovery, topological insulators are expected to be ideal spintronic materials owing to the spin currents carried by surface states with spin-momentum locking. However, the bulk doping problem remains an obstacle that hinders such an application. In this work, we predict that a newly discovered family of topological materials, the Weyl semimetals, exhibits a large intrinsic spin Hall effect that can be utilized to generate and detect spin currents. Our ab initio calculations reveal a large spin Hall conductivity in the TaAs family of Weyl materials. Considering the low charge conductivity of semimetals, Weyl semimetals are believed to present a larger spin Hall angle (the ratio of the spin Hall conductivity over the charge conductivity) than that of conventional spin Hall systems such as the 4 d and 5 d transition metals. The spin Hall effect originates intrinsically from the bulk band structure of Weyl semimetals, which exhibit a large Berry curvature and spin-orbit coupling, so the bulk carrier problem in the topological insulators is naturally avoided. Our work not only paves the way for employing Weyl semimetals in spintronics, but also proposes a new guideline for searching for the spin Hall effect in various topological materials.

  14. Anomalous Hall effect in Pt thin films induced by ionic gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Sunao; Takahashi, Kei S.; Hatano, Takafumi; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2014-03-01

    Pt is an exchange-enhanced paramagnetic material, in which the Stoner criterion for ferromagnetism is nearly satisfied and thus external stimuli may induce unconventional magnetic characteristics. For example, nano-structure formation such as particles[2] or wires[3] provides Pt with ferromagnetic-like properties even at room temperature. In this presentation, we report that a nonmagnetic perturbation in the form of a gate voltage applied through an ionic liquid induces a nonlinear Hall effect in Pt thin films,[4] which resembles the anomalous Hall effect induced by the contact to yttrium iron garnet.[5] Analysis of detailed temperature and magnetic field experiments indicates that the evolution of the nonlinear Hall effect can be explained in terms of large local moments. The applied electric field triggers an electrochemical reaction at the solid/liquid interface and induces magnetic moments as large as ~10 μB that follow the Langevin function. This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSAP) through its `Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST Program)'.

  15. Imaging Drift and Diffusion of Accumulation from the Spin Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, N. P.; Steuerman, D. W.; Mack, S.; Gossard, A. C.; Awschalom, D. D.

    2008-03-01

    The spontaneous generation of spin polarization near sample edges by the spin Hall effect when electron currents flow in a metal or semiconductor with spin-orbit coupling has attracted recent attention due to the elegant and complex spin-orbit physics as well as the potential for all-electrical spin generation in spintronics devices. Optical techniques in semiconductors allow for spatial resolution of the electrically generated spin accumulation, a feature not present in all-electrical measurements. We use Kerr rotation microscopy to image the spatial and temporal evolution of spin accumulation produced by the extrinsic spin Hall effect in n-GaAs devices. Measurements in a variety of device geometries, including arms transverse to a channel, reveal the unambiguous contribution of longitudinal spin drift in accumulation profilesootnotetextN. P. Stern, D. W. Steuerman, S. Mack, A.C. Gossard, and D. D. Awschalom, Appl. Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 062109 (2007). We develop one- and two- dimensional drift-diffusion modeling to explain the observed features, providing a more complete understanding of observations of spin accumulation and the spin Hall effect.

  16. Electrical Measurement of the Direct Spin Hall Effect in Fe/GaAs Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlid, E. S.; Hu, Q.; Chan, M. K.; Palmstrøm, C. J.; Crowell, P. A.

    2010-03-01

    A handful of recent experiments, all of which have used optical techniques, have investigated the spin Hall effect in semiconductors. We report on an all-electrical measurement showing evidence of the spin Hall effect in epitaxial (100) Fe/GaAs heterostructures with a channel doping (Si) of n =5x10^16 cm-3 and highly doped Schottky tunnel barriers (n^+=5x10^18 cm-3). Multiple devices were fabricated on a single chip with the distance of the ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes from the channel edge varying between 2 and 10 μm. Devices were first characterized by performing non-local spin valve and Hanle measurements. Hall measurements were then performed with an unpolarized current flowing down the GaAs channel parallel to the magnetic easy axis of the FM electrodes. A magnetic field was applied along the FM hard axis to induce precession of the out-of-plane spins at the channel edges into the FM easy axis. We investigate the bias and temperature dependence of the resulting Hanle signal, and find that it is consistent with an extrinsic spin Hall effect. The data suggests that ionized impurity scattering is the dominant contribution to the spin Hall conductivity in these samples. Supported by ONR and NSF.

  17. A syringe injection rate detector employing a dual Hall-effect sensor configuration.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Biswarup; George, Boby; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2013-01-01

    Injection of fluids in the body using needle syringes is a standard clinical practice. The rate of injection can have various pathological effects on the body such as the pain perceived or in case of anesthesia, the amount of akinesia attained. Hence, a training system with a modified syringe employing a simple measurement scheme where a trainee can observe and practice the rate of injection prior to administering on actual human subjects, can be of great value towards reduction of complications in real life situations. In this paper, we develop a system for measurement of syringe injection rate with two Hall-effect sensors. Ring magnets attached to the body of the syringe along with the dual Hall-effect sensor configuration help in determining the position of the piston with respect to the syringe body. The two Hall-sensors are arranged in a differential configuration such that a linear relationship is obtained between the volume of liquid in the syringe (in ml) and the Hall-effect sensor output voltages. A prototype developed validated the measurement scheme. The rate of injection was displayed in real-time with a LabVIEW based Virtual Instrument. The error was within acceptable limits illustrating its efficacy for practical training purposes. PMID:24110792

  18. Magnetic field evolution in white dwarfs: The hall effect and complexity of the field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muslimov, A. G.; Van Horn, H. M.; Wood, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the evolution of the magnetic fields in white dwarfs, taking into account the Hall effect. Because this effect depends nonlinearly upon the magnetic field strength B, the time dependences of the various multipole field components are coupled. The evolution of the field is thus significantly more complicated than has been indicated by previous investigations. Our calculations employ recent white dwarf evolutionary sequences computed for stars with masses 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 solar mass. We show that in the presence of a strong (up to approximately 10(exp 9) G) internal toroidal magnetic field; the evolution of even the lowest order poloidal modes can be substantially changed by the Hall effect. As an example, we compute the evolution of an initially weak quadrupole component, which we take arbitrarily to be approximately 0.1%-1% of the strength of a dominant dipole field. We find that coupling provided by the Hall effect can produce growth of the ratio of the quadrupole to the dipole component of the surface value of the magnetic field strength by more than a factor of 10 over the 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 10) year cooling lifetime of the white dwarf. Some consequences of these results for the process of magnetic-field evolution in white dwarfs are briefly discussed.

  19. Experimental Results of the Impact of an Ion Thruster Plasma on Microwave Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz J.; Lambert, Kevin M.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility utilizes a cylindrical, stainless steel, vacuum chamber, which is 18.3 m long and 4.6 m in diameter. For the tests being described here a 30 cm diameter, xenon ion thruster was used. The thruster provided between 500 W and 2.3 kW of operating power. The thruster was mounted on a stand along the axis of the chamber near one of its ends.

  20. Experimental Results of the Impact of an Ion Thruster Plasma on Microwave Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz J.; Lambert, Kevin M.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility utilizes a cylindrical, stainless steel, vacuum chamber, which is 18.3 m long and 4.6 m in diameter. For the tests being described here a 30 cm diameter, xenon ion thruster was used. The thruster provided between 500 W and 2.3 kW of operating power. The thruster was mounted on a stand along the axis of the chamber near one of its ends and could be moved axially.