Díaz Napal, Georgina; Carpinella, María C; Palacios, Sara M
Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham. (Bignoniaceae) led to the isolation of a natural wax with anti-insect activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae) and Epilachna paenulata (Coleptera). The compound was identified spectroscopically as an ester of a C27 fatty acid and a C25 alcohol, pentacosyl heptacosanoate (1). The effective doses of 1 for 50% feeding inhibition (ED50) of S. frugiperda and E. paenulata were 0.82 and 8.53 µg/cm², respectively, in a choice test, while azadirachtin showed ED50 of 0.10 and 0.59 µg/cm², respectively. In a no-choice test, both insects refused to feed on leaves treated with 1 at doses of 0.1 µg/cm² or greater inhibiting larval growth and dramatically reducing survival. The lethal doses 50 (LD50) of 1 were 0.39 and 0.68 µg/cm² for S. frugiperda and E. paenulata, respectively. These results indicate that 1 has potential for development as botanical insecticides. Similar esters might be obtainable in large quantities as many edible crops produce wax esters that are discarded during food processing. Research on these materials could lead to the detection of similar waxes with insecticidal activity.
Alves, Ruy J V; Da Silva, Nílber G; Fernandes Júnior, Aluísio J; Guimarães, Alessandra R
Underground trees are a rare clonal growth form. In this survey we describe the branching pattern and estimate the age of the underground tree Jacaranda decurrens Cham. (Bignoniaceae), an endangered species from the Brazilian Cerrado, with a crown diameter of 22 meters. The mean age calculated for the individual was 3,801 years, making it one of the oldest known living Neotropical plants.
Fonseca, Luiz Henrique M.; Cabral, Simone Miranda; Agra, Maria de Fátima; Lohmann, Lúcia G.
Abstract Dolichandra is a genus of lianas found in dry and wet Neotropical forests. The genus currently includes eight species and is well characterized by molecular and morphological synapomorphies. Here, Macfadyena hispida (DC.) Seemann is removed from synonomy with Dolichandra uncata (Andrews) L.G. Lohmann based on the presence of the hispid indument, vinaceus ovary, long fruits, and winged seeds. The combination Dolichandra hispida (DC.) L.H. Fonseca & L.G. Lohmann, comb. nov. is proposed, increasing the number of accepted species of Dolichandra to nine. A taxonomic key for all species of Dolichandra is presented. PMID:25878548
Catalpa tibetica (Bignoniaceae) is included within the circumscription of C. bignonioides, a North American species. The genus Catalpa is thereby reduced from 10 species to nine, and the number of native Chinese species from four to three. A preliminary synonymy for C. bignonioides is presented, inc...
de-Almeida, Michelle Rodrigues-Ayres; Ramos-Leal, Ivana Correa; Ruela, Halliny Siqueira; Justo-Araujo, Maria da-Graça; Martins, Thiago Martino; Pinto-Coelho, Marsen Garcia; Kuster, Ricardo Machado; Carvalho-Sabino, Kátia Costa
Cancer chemotherapy is an important strategy to treat this leading cause of death worldwide and plants may constitute a source of new antineoplastic agents. This work fractionated the ethanolic extract of Jacaranda puberula leaves and studied the in vitro antitumoral action and some toxicological effects of the most bioactive fraction. Cell lines related to worldwide cancers were used. The Dichloromethane (DCM) and PP fractions were the most bioactive ones. The anti-tumoral action of the DCM fraction was higher than that of the crude EtOH extract while that of PP fraction was higher than the original one (DCM) for both breast (MCF-7), prostate (PC3) and lung (A549) tumor cells, chronic leukemia cells. The K562 cells were the most sensitive cell line. The PP fraction (20 μg/mL) cytotoxicity for these cells was similar to that of the ursolic acid triterpene or the antineoplastic ethoposide. The PP fraction inhibited K562 cell proliferation without cell cycle arrest in a specific phase or apoptosis. PP increased the mitochondrial reduction activity of lymphocytes. After a single dose by oral route, PP fraction did not induce intrinsic acute toxicity or animal death. This work demonstrated that the J. puberula fraction (PP) present high in vitro anti-tumoral effect with no cytotoxicity for immune system cells or oral acute toxicity, improving the Jacaranda puberula ethnopharmacology and reporting new biological effects for the genus Jacaranda.
This dissertation investigates the prosodic and intonational characteristics of Western Cham (three letter code for International Organization for Standardization's ISO 639-3 code: [iso=cja]), an Austronesian language in the Chamic sub-group. I examine acoustic variables of prominence at word and postlexical levels: syllable duration, pitch…
Puri, Ritika; Khamrui, Kaushik; Khetra, Yogesh; Malhotra, Ravinder; Devraja, H C
Promising development and expansion in the market of cham-cham, a traditional Indian dairy product is expected in the coming future with the organized production of this milk product by some large dairies. The objective of this study was to document the extent of variation in sensory properties of market samples of cham-cham collected from four different locations known for their excellence in cham-cham production and to find out the attributes that govern much of variation in sensory scores of this product using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and principal component analysis (PCA). QDA revealed significant (p < 0.05) difference in sensory attributes of cham-cham among the market samples. PCA identified four significant principal components that accounted for 72.4 % of the variation in the sensory data. Factor scores of each of the four principal components which primarily correspond to sweetness/shape/dryness of interior, surface appearance/surface dryness, rancid and firmness attributes specify the location of each market sample along each of the axes in 3-D graphs. These findings demonstrate the utility of quantitative descriptive analysis for identifying and measuring attributes of cham-cham that contribute most to its sensory acceptability.
Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Burelo Ramos, Carlos Manuel; Gomez-Dominguez, Héctor
Abstract Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented. PMID:27489485
Ogura, M; Cordell, G A; Farnsworth, R
An aqueous ethanol extract of Jacaranda caucana Pittier (Bignoniaceae) showed in vivo antitumor activity against the P-388 lymphocytic leukemia system. Fractionation, accompanied by monitoring for biological activity, afforded a novel phytoquinoid derivative jacaranone, which exhibited both in vivo antitumor and in vitro cytotoxic activity. beta-Sitosterol, betulinic acid, ursolic acid, 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, 2alpha,3alpha-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid and a new triterpene acid, jacarandic acid, were also isolated. The structure elucidation of jacarandic acid is described.
Nazareno, Alison Gonçalves; Carlsen, Monica; Lohmann, Lúcia Garcez
Bignoniaceae is a Pantropical plant family that is especially abundant in the Neotropics. Members of the Bignoniaceae are diverse in many ecosystems and represent key components of the Tropical flora. Despite the ecological importance of the Bignoniaceae and all the efforts to reconstruct the phylogeny of this group, whole chloroplast genome information has not yet been reported for any members of the family. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Tanaecium tetragonolobum (Jacq.) L.G. Lohmann, which was reconstructed using de novo and referenced-based assembly of single-end reads generated by shotgun sequencing of total genomic DNA in an Illumina platform. The gene order and organization of the chloroplast genome of T. tetragonolobum exhibits the general structure of flowering plants, and is similar to other Lamiales chloroplast genomes. The chloroplast genome of T. tetragonolobum is a circular molecule of 153,776 base pairs (bp) with a quadripartite structure containing two single copy regions, a large single copy region (LSC, 84,612 bp) and a small single copy region (SSC, 17,586 bp) separated by inverted repeat regions (IRs, 25,789 bp). In addition, the chloroplast genome of T. tetragonolobum has 38.3% GC content and includes 121 genes, of which 86 are protein-coding, 31 are transfer RNA, and four are ribosomal RNA. The chloroplast genome of T. tetragonolobum presents a total of 47 tandem repeats and 347 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) with mononucleotides being the most common and di-, tri-, tetra-, and hexanucleotides occurring with less frequency. The results obtained here were compared to other chloroplast genomes of Lamiales available to date, providing new insight into the evolution of chloroplast genomes within Lamiales. Overall, the evolutionary rates of genes in Lamiales are lineage-, locus-, and region-specific, indicating that the evolutionary pattern of nucleotide substitution in chloroplast genomes of flowering plants is complex
Binutu, O A; Lajubutu, B A
The methanol extracts of the leaves and stem bark of four Bignoniaceae plants Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Dol., Tecoma stans Linn., Tabebuia rosea (Bertol) D.C., and Crescentia cujete Linn. were studied for their antimicrobial activity using a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Extracts of both the leaves and stem bark of majority of plant species studied showed variable but remarkable broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, methanol extracts of Tecoma stans leaves was found to be effective against only Candida albicans at the concentrations employed. It was observed that the extracts of stem bark generally showed better antimicrobial activity than those of the leaves and some organisms were selectively more sensitive to the extracts than others. Preliminary phytochemical screening of these plants revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones and traces of saponins. The antimicrobial activity observed are discussed in relation to the chemical constituents reportedly isolated from these plants and their traditional uses.
Ching, F P; Omogbai, E K I; Otokiti, I O
Stereospermum kunthianum, Cham Sandrine Petit (Bignoniaceae) known in English as pink jacaranda is used in traditional medicine to treat an array of ailments including febrile convulsions in infants and young children by the rural dwellers in Nigeria. This study examined the anticonvulsant activity of its aqueous stem bark extract (100 - 400mg/kg) against maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rodents. Phenobarbitone and ethosuximide were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Stereospermum kunthianum extract (200 - 400mg/kg, i.p.) remarkably protected (76.9% and 84.6 % respectively) the rats against electroshock-induced seizures. However, the extract (200- 400mg/kg) when administered orally showed a comparatively less effect (33.3% and 55.6% respectively) to the intraperitoneally administered extract in the maximal electroshock test. The extract (100-400mg/kg, i.p.) significantly delayed (p<0.05) the onset of pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizures but only slightly prolonged the time of death of the mice. Although the findings in the present study do not provide conclusive evidence, it appears that the aqueous stem bark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum produces its antiseizure effect by enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission and/or action in the brain. The results indicate that the aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity in rodents and therefore tend to suggest that the shrub may be used as a natural supplementary remedy in the management, control and/or treatment of childhood convulsions. It can be concluded that the aqueous stem bark extract possesses anticonvulsant activity and therefore lend pharmacological credence to the traditionally claimed use in the treatment of childhood convulsions.
Mangabeira, P. A.; Mielke, M. S.; Arantes, I.; Dutruch, L.; Silva, D. da. C.; Barbier, F.; de Almeida, A.-A. F.; Oliveira, A. H.; Severo, M. I. G.; Labejof, L.; Rocha, D. C.; Rosa, T. S.; Santana, K. B.; Gavrilov, K. L.; Galle, P.; Levi-Setti, R.; Grenier-Loustalot, M. F.
The capacity of Borreria scabiosoides Cham. & Schltdl. growing in hydroponics solutions to remove Cr (III) from water was evaluated. This macrophytes efficiently removed Cr from water at concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/l Cr -1. High resolution imaging secondary ion mass-spectrometry (HRI-SIMS) measurements were performed using scanning ion microprobe at the University of Chicago (UC-SIM). The inductively coupled plasma sector type mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) was used to analyse all samples. In general, plant roots exhibited higher metal concentrations than the aerial plants parts. Borreria shows promise for the removal and store Cr from contaminated wastewater. The ion images demonstrated that Cr is preferentially accumulated in cell walls and in some vacuoles of cortical roots cells. The number of Cr deposits are higher in cortical parenchyma, particularly in vacuoles and cell walls, compared to stellar tissue.
Arruda, Ana Lúcia A; Vieira, Carla J B; Sousa, Daniella G; Oliveira, Regilene F; Castilho, Rachel O
This study evaluated, in vitro, the antimicrobial activity of the hexane extract (JCHE), methanol extract (JCME), and chloroform fraction (JCCF) of bark from Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Family Bignoniaceae), a Brazilian medicinal plant, traditionally used as anti-syphilis and anti-gonorrhea treatment. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion method followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. JCHE was not active against the bacteria evaluated. JCME presented antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae with MIC values of 16.3 mg/mL, 9.1 mg/mL, and 25.2 mg/mL, respectively. JCCF was active against Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, S. pyogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes, and N. gonorrhoeae with MIC values of 18.3 mg/mL, 9.3 mg/mL, 6.3 mg/mL, 6.1 mg/mL, 9.2 mg/mL, 6.2 mg/mL, and 25.2 mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical analysis of JCME and JCCF gave positive results for saponins, coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, quinones, alkaloids, triterpenes, and steroids. Verbascoside was isolated and identified as a major peak in JCME and JCCF high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and might contribute to the observed antimicrobial activity.
M P de Medeiros, Maria Cláudia; Lohmann, Lúcia G
The origin of Neotropical biodiversity represents a key question in evolutionary biology. Despite the attempts to decipher the role of ecological and historical factors to present-day distribution patterns, robust phylogenetic studies of Neotropical clades are still needed before a comprehensive picture of the origin of Neotropical biodiversity can be achieved. Tynanthus Miers (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae) is a well-circumscribed genus of Neotropical lianas with species that are narrowly distributed, except from a few taxa. The genus is characterized by a clove odor, small bilabiate flowers with the two upper lobes almost fused, and fruits with raised margins, all of which represent morphological synapomorphies for this clade. Other distinctive characters are the thecae reflexed forward, the densely pubescent ovaries and the poorly-developed nectariferous disk. The circumscription of the genus has remained constant over the years, despite the problematic limits of most genera of tribe Bignonieae. In this study, we reconstruct the phylogeny of Tynanthus based on two plastid (ndhF and rpl32-trnL) and one nuclear (pepC) markers and use this phylogenetic framework to investigate the biogeographical history of the genus. Our phylogenetic hypothesis provides further support for the monophyly of Tynanthus, and strongly supports a series of infra-generic clades. Most species are reconstructed as monophyletic, while T. cognatus and T. polyanthus are paraphyletic. Biogeographic reconstructions suggest that Tynanthus originated between 9.4 and 21.5Mya, most likely at approximately 15.3Mya. The MRCA of the genus was likely broadly distributed through lowland Amazonia, Western South America and Central America and diversified in the Neotropics during the Miocene. Closely related species are generally distributed within the same biogeographic area, suggesting that niche conservatism has played an important role in the diversification history of the group.
Pace, Marcelo R.; Alcantara, Suzana; Lohmann, Lúcia G.; Angyalossy, Veronica
Background and Aims Phloem evolution has been explored in the literature across very broad scales, either for vascular plants as a whole or for major plant groups, such as the monocotyledons or the former dicotyledons. However, it has never been examined in a way that would elucidate evolutionary shifts leading to the diversification of phloem in single lineages. Therefore, the present study explores in detail the patterns of phloem evolution in the tribe Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae). This group represents a particularly good model for phloem studies since it is known to have a very conspicuous and diverse phloem. Methods A total of 19 phloem characters were coded in 56 species from all 21 genera currently recognized in the tribe Bignonieae, accounting for phloem wedge growth and for all the anatomical cell diversity encountered in the phloem. Phloem evolution was explored by reconstructing ancestral character states using maximum-likelihood assumptions with a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny for the group. Directionality and the effect of phylogenetic transformations in the current variation of quantitative traits and evolutionary correlations of selected discrete phloem traits were also tested under a maximum-likelihood approach. Key Results Individual phloem features are quite diverse in the tribe, but generally conserved within smaller clades. Contrasting phloem patterns were found when comparing major groups, with certain lineages having the phloem marked by a background of phloem fibres where all other cells are embedded, tangentially arranged sieve tubes and sieve-tubecentric parenchyma. In contrast, other lineages exhibited a scarcely fibrous phloem, regularly stratified phloem, sieve tube elements in radial or diffuse arrangement, and diffuse parenchyma. We found signals of directional evolution in fibre abundance and number of sieve areas, which increased in the ‘Fridericia and allies extended clade’ and decreased in the ‘Multiples of four extended
Cordeiro, J M P; Lima, S A A; Paz, S N; Santos, A M S; Felix, L P
Most taxa in the Bignoniaceae have 2n = 40, but the basal clade Jacarandeae has 2n = 36, suggesting that x = 18 is the ancestral basic number for the family. Variations in heterochromatin band patterns in genera that are numerically stable, such as Jacaranda, could facilitate our understanding of the chromosomal and karyotypic evolution of the family. We characterized heterochromatin distributions in six Jacaranda species using chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). All of them had 2n = 36, including first counts for Jacaranda bracteata Bureau & K. Schum., Jacaranda irwinii A.H. Gentry, Jacaranda jasminoides (Thunb.) Sandwith, and Jacaranda rugosa A.H. Gentry. Their karyotypes had four to eight terminal CMA(+)/DAPI(-) bands per monoploid set. In the section Monolobos, Jacaranda brasiliana (Lam.) Pers. had eight terminal bands and Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don had four; in the section Dilobos, J. bracteata had six bands per monoploid set, with the other species having five. While three species in the section Dilobos had the same number of terminal bands, J. irwinii had two additional pericentromeric bands and a proximal heterozygotic band, and J. bracteata had two distended CMA bands. The consistent records of 2n = 36 in Jacaranda may represent a plesiomorphic condition for the Bignoniaceae; therefore, the family originated from an ancestor with x = 18. However, 2n = 36 may represent a derived condition, and the family could have had an ancestral basic number of x = 20 that is still conserved in most representatives of the family.
Bergeret, François; Soual, Carole; Le Gratiet, B.
Derivatives technologies based on core CMOS processes are significantly aggressive in term of design rules and process control requirements. Process control plan is a derived from Process Assumption (PA) calculations which result in a design rule based on known process variability capabilities, taking into account enough margin to be safe not only for yield but especially for reliability. Even though process assumptions are calculated with a 4 sigma known process capability margin, efficient and competitive designs are challenging the process especially for derivatives technologies in 40 and 28nm nodes. For wafer fab process control, PA are declined in monovariate (layer1 CD, layer2 CD, layer2 to layer1 overlay, layer3 CD etc….) control charts with appropriated specifications and control limits which all together are securing the silicon. This is so far working fine but such system is not really sensitive to weak signals coming from interactions of multiple key parameters (high layer2 CD combined with high layer3 CD as an example). CHAM is a software using an advanced statistical algorithm specifically designed to detect small signals, especially when there are many parameters to control and when the parameters can interact to create yield issues. In this presentation we will first present the CHAM algorithm, then the case-study on critical dimensions, with the results, and we will conclude on future work. This partnership between Ippon and STM is part of E450LMDAP, European project dedicated to metrology and lithography development for future technology nodes, especially 10nm.
Francisco, Jessica N. C.; Nazareno, Alison G.; Lohmann, Lúcia G.
Premise of the study: In this study, we developed chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) for Pachyptera kerere (Bignoniaceae) to investigate the population structure and genetic diversity of this species. Methods and Results: We used Illumina HiSeq data to reconstruct the chloroplast genome of P. kerere by a combination of de novo and reference-guided assembly. We then used the chloroplast genome to develop a set of cpSSRs from intergenic regions. Overall, 24 primer pairs were designed, 21 of which amplified successfully and were polymorphic, presenting three to nine alleles per locus. The unbiased haploid diversity per locus varied from 0.207 (Pac28) to 0.817 (Pac04). All but one locus amplified for all other taxa of Pachyptera. Conclusions: The markers reported here will serve as a basis for studies to assess the genetic structure and phylogeographic history of Pachyptera. PMID:27672522
Bertoni, Bianca W; de C Telles, Mariana P; Malosso, Milena G; Torres, Simone C Z; Pereira, José O; Lourenço, Mirian V; de C França, Suzelei; Pereira, Ana M S
Jacaranda decurrens (Bignoniaceae) is an endemic species of the Cerrado with validated antitumoral activity. The genetic diversity of six populations of J. decurrens located in the State of São Paulo was determined in this study by using molecular markers for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Following optimization of the amplification reaction, 10 selected primers generated 78 reproducible RAPD fragments that were mostly (69.2%) polymorphic. Two hundred and five reproducible AFLP fragments were generated by using four selected primer combinations; 46.3% of these fragments were polymorphic, indicating a considerable level of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) using these two groups of markers indicated that variability was strongly structured amongst populations. The unweighted pair group method with arithmatic mean (UPGMA) and Pearson's correlation coefficient (RAPD -0.16, p = 0.2082; AFLP 0.37, p = 0.1006) between genetic matrices and geographic distances suggested that the population structure followed an island model in which a single population of infinite size gave rise to the current populations of J. decurrens, independently of their spatial position. The results of this study indicate that RAPD and AFLP markers were similarly efficient in measuring the genetic variability amongst natural populations of J. decurrens. These data may be useful for developing strategies for the preservation of this medicinal species in the Cerrado.
Jacaranda decurrens (Bignoniaceae) is an endemic species of the Cerrado with validated antitumoral activity. The genetic diversity of six populations of J. decurrens located in the State of São Paulo was determined in this study by using molecular markers for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Following optimization of the amplification reaction, 10 selected primers generated 78 reproducible RAPD fragments that were mostly (69.2%) polymorphic. Two hundred and five reproducible AFLP fragments were generated by using four selected primer combinations; 46.3% of these fragments were polymorphic, indicating a considerable level of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) using these two groups of markers indicated that variability was strongly structured amongst populations. The unweighted pair group method with arithmatic mean (UPGMA) and Pearson's correlation coefficient (RAPD -0.16, p = 0.2082; AFLP 0.37, p = 0.1006) between genetic matrices and geographic distances suggested that the population structure followed an island model in which a single population of infinite size gave rise to the current populations of J. decurrens, independently of their spatial position. The results of this study indicate that RAPD and AFLP markers were similarly efficient in measuring the genetic variability amongst natural populations of J. decurrens. These data may be useful for developing strategies for the preservation of this medicinal species in the Cerrado. PMID:21637428
Jones, F A; Chen, J; Weng, G-J; Hubbell, S P
Seed dispersal is a critical but poorly understood life-history stage of plants. Here we use a genetic approach to describe seed dispersal patterns accurately in a natural population of the Neotropical tree species Jacaranda copaia (Bignoniaceae). We used microsatellite genotypes from maternally derived tissue on the diaspore to identify which individual of all possible adult trees in the population was the true source of a given seed collected after it dispersed. Wind-dispersed seeds were captured in two different years in a large array of seed traps in an 84-ha mapped area of tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. We were particularly interested in the proportion of seeds that traveled long distances and whether there was evidence for direct dispersal into gaps, which are required for successful recruitment of this pioneer tree species. Maximum likelihood procedures were used to fit single- and multiple-component dispersal kernels to the distance data. Mixture models, with separate distributions near and far, best fit the observed dispersal distances, albeit with considerable uncertainty in the tail. We discuss the results in light of different mechanisms responsible for separate distributions near the adult source and in the tail of the curve.
Gemelli, Tiago Farret; Prado, Lismare da Silva; Santos, Franciele Souza; de Souza, Ana Paula; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Corrêa, Dione Silva; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento
Arrabidaea chica Verlot (Bignoniaceae) has been used as a medicinal herb to treat anemia, hemorrhage, inflammation, intestinal colic, hepatitis, and skin infections in the Brazilian Amazon region. Studies have demonstrated the healing properties of extracts obtained from A. chica leaves, which contain anthocyanins and flavonoids. However, few investigations have assessed the safe use of this plant species. In this study, mutagenic and genotoxic effects of a crude aqueous extract, a butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste from A. chica leaves were evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome assay in TA98, TA97a, TA100, TA102, and TA1535 strains and the alkaline comet assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture with and without metabolic activation. The crude aqueous extract, butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste were not mutagenic in any of the Salmonella typhimurium strains tested, and showed negative responses for genotoxicity in CHO cells. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids such as rutin and luteolin. The lack of mutagenic/genotoxic effects might be due to phytochemical composition with high concentrations of known anti-inflammatory compounds. Thus, the crude aqueous extract, butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste from A. chica leaves do not appear to pose short-term genotoxic risks.
Wang, Peng; Ma, Yuzhu; Ma, Lingling; Li, Ya; Wang, Shu’an; Li, Linfang; Yang, Rutong; Wang, Qing
Premise of the study: Catalpa bungei (Bignoniaceae) is a deciduous tree native to China. We developed microsatellite markers for C. bungei to investigate its population genetics. Methods and Results: One hundred seventy-seven expressed sequence tag (EST)–simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs were isolated and characterized using next-generation sequencing. Thirty of these primer pairs were polymorphic loci in 52 individuals of C. bungei. The number of alleles ranged from two to 18 with observed and expected heterozygosity values of 0.05–1.00 and 0.18–0.95, respectively. The fixation index ranged from –1.00 to 1.00 with an average of 0.32. No linkage disequilibrium was detected in any pair of loci. All markers showed good amplification results in four species (C. bungei, C. fargesii, C. duclouxii, and C. ovata) except three loci. Conclusions: These polymorphic markers are expected to be helpful in further studies on the systematics and phylogeography of C. bungei and related species. PMID:27144105
Singh, Vineet Kumar; Barman, Chandan; Tandon, Rajesh
The net consequence of nectar robbing on reproductive success of plants is usually negative and the positive effect is rarely produced. We evaluated the influence of nectar robbing on the behaviour of pollinators and the reproductive success of Tecomella undulata (Bignoniaceae) in a natural population. Experimental pollinations showed that the trees were strictly self-incompatible. The three types of floral colour morphs of the tree viz. red, orange and yellow, lacked compatibility barriers. The pollinators (Pycnonotus cafer and Pycnonotus leucotis) and the robber (Nectarinia asiatica) showed equal preference for all the morphs, as they visited each morph with nearly equal frequency and flower-handling time. The sunbirds caused up to 60% nectar robbing, mostly (99%) by piercing through the corolla tube. Although nectar is replenished at regular intervals, insufficient amount of nectar compelled the pollinators to visit additional trees in bloom. Data of manual nectar robbing from the entire tree showed that the pollinators covered lower number of flowers per tree (5 flowers/tree) and more trees per bout (7 trees/bout) than the unrobbed ones (19 flowers/tree and 2 trees bout). The robbed trees set a significantly greater amount of fruits than the unrobbed trees. However, the number of seeds in a fruit did not differ significantly. The study shows that plant-pollinator-robber interaction may benefit the self-incompatible plant species under conditions that increases the visits of pollinators among the compatible conspecifics in a population. PMID:25036554
Bittencourt Júnior, Nelson Sabino
Late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI) has been defined as a genetically controlled self-sterility mechanism that prevents seed set by selfing, despite normal pollen tube growth and ovule penetration in self-pollinated pistils. In species of the Bignoniaceae with LSI, such as Handroanthus impetiginosus, the selfed pistils are characterized by a marked delay in ovule penetration, fertilization, and endosperm initiation, followed by uniform pistil abscission. This highlights the contentious possibility of a post-zygotic self-incompatibility system. However, previous studies were unable to confirm fusion of the sperm and egg cell nuclei in selfed ovules. In the present study, the cytology of the embryo sac, double fertilization, and pistil longevity was investigated in H. impetiginosus using comparative nuclei microspectrofluorometry of DAPI-stained sections of self- vs. unpollinated pistils. Differences in both pistil longevity and ovary size between self- and unpollinated flowers at the time of pistil abscission were significant. Zygotes with double the DNA content in their nuclei relative to unfertilized egg cell nuclei were verified in selfed ovules from the first day after pollination onward, and G1 karyogamy appeared to have occurred. Our cytological analysis clearly indicates that ovules of self-pollinated pistils in H. impetiginosus are fertilized before pistil abscission but no embryogenesis initiation occurs, which strongly supports the idea of a post-zygotic self-incompatibility mechanism.
Moreira, Priscila Ambrósio; Mariac, Cédric; Scarcelli, Nora; Couderc, Marie; Rodrigues, Doriane Picanço; Clement, Charles R.; Vigouroux, Yves
Premise of the study: Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae) fruit rinds are traditionally used for storage vessels and handicrafts. We assembled its chloroplast genome and identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methods and Results: Using a genome skimming approach, the whole chloroplast of C. cujete was assembled using 3,106,928 sequence reads of 150 bp. The chloroplast is 154,662 bp in length, structurally divided into a large single copy region (84,788 bp), a small single copy region (18,299 bp), and two inverted repeat regions (51,575 bp) with 88 genes annotated. By resequencing the whole chloroplast, we identified 66 SNPs in C. cujete (N = 30) and 68 SNPs in C. amazonica (N = 6). Nucleotide diversity was estimated at 1.1 × 10−3 and 3.5 × 10−3 for C. cujete and C. amazonica, respectively. Conclusions: This broadened C. cujete genetic toolkit will be important to study the origin, domestication, diversity, and phylogeography of treegourds in the Neotropics. PMID:27785381
Simões, Evelyne Rolim Braun; Santos, Evelyne Alves; de Abreu, Maria Carolina; Silva, Jurandy do Nascimento; Nunes, Nárcia Mariana Fonseca; da Costa, Marcília Pinheiro; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia Loiola; Pessoa, Cláudia; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro
Lippia microphylla Cham. (Verbenaceae) is an endemic underexploited Brazilian vegetal. This work reviewed the biological potentialities of Lippia microphylla, emphasizing the properties of essential oils (EOs) and analyzed scientific indicators about genus Lippia and L. microphylla. Databases from 1948 to the present were searched and a software (vantage point 7.1) associated with Derwent Innovation Index was used to identify the indicators of the genus Lippia, and biological activities and compounds in the L. macrophylla species. Ethnopharmacological records report use of L. microphylla leaves to treat gastrointestinal disorders, influenza, bronchitis, cough, nasal congestion, and sinusitis during vaporization, whose aromatic volatile oils are rich in monoterpenes, especially cineole, terpineol, and thymol. Other EOs have larvicidal activity on Aedes aegypti larvae, and antifungal, antibacterial and cytotoxic and antitumor action on human and murine cancer cells. Brazil is the country with more articles about Lippia species, but it deposited only 9 patents since 1993. Most of the publications about L. microphylla are concentrated in food and chemical sciences. This bioprospection helps to choice areas of interest for capital investment and to give support for Brazilian Institutions to establish cooperation and improve technological impact at the point of view of creation and innovation.
Simões, Evelyne Rolim Braun; Santos, Evelyne Alves; de Abreu, Maria Carolina; Silva, Jurandy do Nascimento; Nunes, Nárcia Mariana Fonseca; da Costa, Marcília Pinheiro; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia Loiola; Pessoa, Cláudia; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro
Lippia microphylla Cham. (Verbenaceae) is an endemic underexploited Brazilian vegetal. This work reviewed the biological potentialities of Lippia microphylla, emphasizing the properties of essential oils (EOs) and analyzed scientific indicators about genus Lippia and L. microphylla. Databases from 1948 to the present were searched and a software (vantage point 7.1) associated with Derwent Innovation Index was used to identify the indicators of the genus Lippia, and biological activities and compounds in the L. macrophylla species. Ethnopharmacological records report use of L. microphylla leaves to treat gastrointestinal disorders, influenza, bronchitis, cough, nasal congestion, and sinusitis during vaporization, whose aromatic volatile oils are rich in monoterpenes, especially cineole, terpineol, and thymol. Other EOs have larvicidal activity on Aedes aegypti larvae, and antifungal, antibacterial and cytotoxic and antitumor action on human and murine cancer cells. Brazil is the country with more articles about Lippia species, but it deposited only 9 patents since 1993. Most of the publications about L. microphylla are concentrated in food and chemical sciences. This bioprospection helps to choice areas of interest for capital investment and to give support for Brazilian Institutions to establish cooperation and improve technological impact at the point of view of creation and innovation. PMID:26401417
Background Lippia sidoides Cham., also known as pepper-rosmarin, produces an essential oil in its leaves that is currently used by the pharmaceutical, perfumery and cosmetic industries for its antimicrobial and aromatic properties. Because of the antimicrobial compounds (mainly thymol and carvacrol) found in the essential oil, we believe that the endophytic microorganisms found in L. sidoides are selected to live in different parts of the plant. Results In this study, the endophytic microbial communities from the stems and leaves of four L. sidoides genotypes were determined using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent approaches. In total, 145 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated and further grouped using either ERIC-PCR or BOX-PCR, resulting in 76 groups composed of different genera predominantly belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria. The endophytic microbial diversity was also analyzed by PCR-DGGE using 16S rRNA-based universal and group-specific primers for total bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria and 18S rRNA-based primers for fungi. PCR-DGGE profile analysis and principal component analysis showed that the total bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and fungi were influenced not only by the location within the plant (leaf vs. stem) but also by the presence of the main components of the L. sidoides essential oil (thymol and/or carvacrol) in the leaves. However, the same could not be observed within the Actinobacteria. Conclusion The data presented here are the first step to begin shedding light on the impact of the essential oil in the endophytic microorganisms in pepper-rosmarin. PMID:23387945
Background A dried root of Aristolochia tagala Cham. (ATC) is often used in Thai traditional medicine as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory agent, muscle relaxant, appetite-enhancing agent, and analeptic. Homnawakod, an important herbal recipe, originally contains ATC in its formula, however, some Aristolochia species have been reported to cause nephrotoxicity due to aristolochic acid (AA) and its derivatives, resulting in ATC removal from all formulae. Therefore, this study investigates the chemical profiles of ATC, the original (HNK+ATC) and the present Homnawakod Ayurved Siriraj Herbal Formulary™ (HNK), and investigates whether they could cause nephrotoxicity or aggravate LPS-induced organ injuries in vivo. Methods HPLC and LC/MS were used for chemical profile study. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups in which the rats were intragastrically administered distilled water (2 groups), ATC (10 or 30 mg/kg), HNK+ATC (540 or 1,620 mg/kg), or HNK (1,590 mg/kg) for 21 days. A positive control group was administered with single dose 100 mg/kg standard AA-I intragastrically at day 1. Serum creatinine and urea were measured at baseline and at 7, 14 and 21 days of the treatment. On day 22, a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia was used. One-way and two-way analyses of variance were performed and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The similarity of the HPLC chromatograms of HNK+ATC and HNK could suggest that the qualities of both formulae are nearly the same in terms of chemical profile. The amount of AA-I found in ATC is 0.24%w/w. All experimental groups exhibited similar levels of serum urea at baseline and 7 and 14 days of the treatment. At 21 days, rats received AA exhibited a significant increase in serum urea, whereas the others did not exhibit such toxicity. On day 22, there were no significant changes in LPS-induced renal and liver dysfunction, or LPS-induced mean arterial pressure (MAP) reduction
Lopes, Ariadna Valentina; Vogel, Stefan; Machado, Isabel Cristina
This is the first report of corolla-borne secretory trichomes that substitute in role for a non-functional disc in a species of the neotropical genus Lundia A. DC. (Bignoniaceae). The floral biology and flowering phenology of Lundia cordata were investigated at two remnants of tropical rainforest in northeastern Brazil. This species is a typically omithophilous liana, with reddish, tubular, scentless flowers. The flowers are resupinate, protandrous and last for 2 d. There is a vestigial non-functional perigynous disc and nectar is secreted by glandular trichomes distributed along the internal surface of the corolla. The nectar is stored at the base of the corolla tube, thus showing secondary nectar presentation. The nectariferous trichomes are multi-cellular, uniseriate, with a basal foot cell rooting in the epidermis, one neck cell, and a glandular head with 13 cells on average. Three species of hummingbirds (Amazilia fimbriata, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei) serve as pollinators. Phaethornis ruber, Xylocopa bees, wasps and diurnal moths are considered nectar thieves.
Alcantara, Suzana; Ree, Richard H.; Martins, Fernando R.; Lohmann, Lúcia G.
The influence of ecological traits to the distribution and abundance of species is a prevalent issue in biodiversity science. Most studies of plant community assembly have focused on traits related to abiotic aspects or direct interactions among plants, with less attention paid to ignore indirect interactions, as those mediated by pollinators. Here, we assessed the influence of phylogeny, habitat, and floral morphology on ecological community structure in a clade of Neotropical lianas (tribe Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae). Our investigation was guided by the long-standing hypothesis that habitat specialization has promoted speciation in Bignonieae, while competition for shared pollinators influences species co-occurrence within communities. We analyzed a geo-referenced database for 94 local communities occurring across the Neotropics. The effect of floral morphological traits and abiotic variables on species co-occurrence was investigated, taking into account phylogenetic relationships. Habitat filtering seems to be the main process driving community assembly in Bignonieae, with environmental conditions limiting species distributions. Differing specialization to abiotic conditions might have evolved recently, in contrast to the general pattern of phylogenetic clustering found in communities of other diverse regions. We find no evidence that competition for pollinators affects species co-occurrence; instead, pollinator occurrence seems to have acted as an “environmental filter” in some habitats. PMID:24594706
Al-Azzawi, Amad M.; Al-Khateeb, Ekbal; Al-Sameraei, Kulood; Al-Juboori, Alyaa G
Background: Tecoma stans (Bignoniaceae) is a central and south American tree used for the control of diabetes, also known as Yellow Elder, it was collected from the gardens of Al-Jadria in Iraq. Materials and Methods: One of the main reported alkaloidal constituents, tecomine, was isolated and confirmed by spectral analysis. The bacteriological assay for different plant leaves extracts; aqueous, ethanolic, and isolated tecomine were conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effect against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Results: Whole alcoholic and aqueous extract exhibited the antibacterial activity and isolated tecomine. Histopathological evaluation was demonstrated on the liver, spleen, and pancreas of the BALB/c mice given the whole alcoholic and aqueous extract that showed no significant changes in the organ texture. Conclusion: Biochemical analysis of the serum obtained showed decrease in the glucose level in the mice treated with plant extract at the most two higher concentrations used with no change in the cholesterol and triglyceride level. PMID:22224060
Hem, Sopheak; Ly, Sowath; Votsi, Irene; Vogt, Florian; Asgari, Nima; Buchy, Philippe; Heng, Seiha; Picardeau, Mathieu; Sok, Touch; Ly, Sovann; Huy, Rekol; Guillard, Bertrand; Cauchemez, Simon; Tarantola, Arnaud
Background Leptospirosis is an emerging but neglected public health challenge in the Asia/Pacific Region with an annual incidence estimated at 10–100 per 100,000 population. No accurate data, however, are available for at-risk rural Cambodian communities. Method We conducted anonymous, unlinked testing for IgM antibodies to Leptospira spp. on paired sera of Cambodian patients <20 years of age between 2007–2009 collected through active, community-based surveillance for febrile illnesses in a convenience sample of 27 rural and semi-rural villages in four districts of Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Leptospirosis testing was done on paired serological samples negative for Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya viruses after random selection. Convalescent samples found positive while initial samples were negative were considered as proof of acute infection. We then applied a mathematical model to estimate the risk of fever caused by leptospirosis, dengue or other causes in rural Cambodia. Results A total of 630 samples are coming from a randomly selected subset of 2358 samples. IgM positive were found on the convalescent serum sample, among which 100 (15.8%) samples were IgM negative on an earlier sample. Seventeen of these 100 seroconversions were confirmed using a Microagglutination Test. We estimated the probability of having a fever due to leptospirosis at 1. 03% (95% Credible Interval CI: 0. 95%–1. 22%) per semester. In comparison, this probability was 2. 61% (95% CI: 2. 55%, 2. 83%) for dengue and 17. 65% (95% CI: 17. 49%, 18. 08%) for other causes. Conclusion Our data from febrile cases aged below 20 years suggest that the burden of leptospirosis is high in rural Cambodian communities. This is especially true during the rainy season, even in the absence of identified epidemics. PMID:27043016
de Morais, Sandra Ribeiro; Oliveira, Thiago Levi Silva; Bara, Maria Teresa Freitas; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Rezende, Maria Helena; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; de Paula, José Realino
Several studies involving the family Verbenaceae, occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado, have emphasized the popular use of many aromatic species. We highlight the use of Lippia sidoides Cham., known as “alecrim pimenta,” native to northeastern Brazil and northern Minas Gerais. Leaves of this species were collected in antropized Brazilian Cerrado area, in Hidrolândia, Goiás, and their essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and thereafter analyzed GC/MS. Among the compounds identified in this study were the most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes, followed by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons. The oxygenated monoterpene 1,8-cineole was the major constituent followed by isoborneol and bornyl acetate. The chemical composition of essential oil described in this paper differs from that described in the literature for L. sidoides found in its native environment, where the major constituents are thymol and carvacrol. PMID:22505916
Acquisition and diversification of tendrilled leaves in Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae) involved changes in expression patterns of SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM), LEAFY/FLORICAULA (LFY/FLO), and PHANTASTICA (PHAN).
Sousa-Baena, Mariane Silveira; Lohmann, Lúcia G; Rossi, Magdalena; Sinha, Neelima R
Leaves have undergone structural modifications over evolutionary time, and presently exist in many forms. For instance, in Fabaceae and Bignoniaceae, leaf parts can be modified into tendrils. Currently, no data are available on genic control of tendrilled leaf development outside Fabaceae. Here, we conducted a detailed study of three representatives of Bignonieae: Amphilophium buccinatorium, Dolichandra unguis-cati, and Bignonia callistegioides, bearing multifid, trifid, and simple-tendrilled leaves, respectively. We investigated the structure of their petioles, petiolules, leaflets, and tendrils through histological analyses. Additionally, the expression of SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM), PHANTASTICA (PHAN), and LEAFY/FLORICAULA (LFY/FLO) during leaf development was analyzed by in situ hybridizations. Tendrils share some anatomical similarities with leaflets, but not with other leaf parts. Transcripts of both STM and LFY/FLO were detected in leaf primordia, associated with regions from which leaflets and tendril branches originate. PHAN expression was found to be polarized in branched tendrils, but not in simple tendrils. In Bignonieae, tendrils are modified leaflets that, as a result of premature completion of development, become bladeless organs. Bignonieae leaves develop differently from those of peas, as both LFY/FLO and STM are expressed in developing leaves of Bignonieae. Moreover, PHAN is probably involved in tendril diversification in Bignonieae, as it has distinct expression patterns in different leaf types.
Callmander, Martin W; Phillipson, Peter B; Plunkett, Gregory M; Edwards, Molly B; Buerki, Sven
This study presents the most complete generic phylogenetic framework to date for the tribe Coleeae (Bignoniaceae), which is endemic to Madagascar and the other smaller islands in the western part of the Indian Ocean. The study is based on plastid and nuclear DNA regions and includes 47 species representing the five currently recognized genera (including all the species occurring in the western Indian Ocean region). Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses supported (i) the monophyly of the tribe, (ii) the monophyly of Phylloctenium, Phyllarthron and Rhodocolea and (iii) the paraphyly of Colea due to the inclusion of species of Ophiocolea. The latter genus was also recovered paraphyletic due to the inclusion of two species of Colea (C. decora and C. labatii). The taxonomic implications of the mutual paraphyly of these two genera are discussed in light of morphological evidence, and it is concluded that the two genera should be merged, and the necessary new nomenclatural combinations are provided. The phylogenetic framework shows Phylloctenium, which is endemic to Madagascar and restricted to dry ecosystems, as basal and sister to the rest of the tribe, suggesting Madagascar to be the centre of origin of this clade. The remaining genera are diversified mostly in humid ecosystems, with evidence of multiple dispersals to the neighboring islands, including at least two to the Comoros, one to Mauritius and one to the Seychelles. Finally, we hypothesize that the ecological success of this tribe might have been triggered by a shift of fruit-dispersal mode from wind to lemur.
Lobo, Patrícia Leal Dantas; Fonteles, Cristiane Sá Roriz; Marques, Lídia Audrey Rocha Valadas; Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo Fechine; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves da Cruz; de Carvalho, Cibele Barreto Mano; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete Amaral
Essential oils of many plants have been previously tested in the treatment of oral diseases and other infections. This study was a randomized, double-blind, in parallel with an active control study, which aimed to evaluate the efficacy of three formulations of the Lippia sidoides Cham. essential oil (LSO) in the reduction of salivary Streptococcus mutans in children with caries. 81 volunteers, aged 6-12 years, both genders, with caries, were recruited to participate in this study, and randomly assigned to either one of five different groups. Each group received topical treatment with either 1.4% LSO toothpaste, 1.4% LSO gel, 0.8% LSO mouthwash, 1% chlorhexidine gel, or 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash. A 5-ml volume of each gel was placed inside disposable trays, and applied for 1 min, every 24h, for 5 consecutive days. The mouthwash groups used 5-ml volume of a mouthwash inside disposable syringes. In the toothpaste group, children brushed their teeth for 1 min, once a day for 5 days. Saliva was collected before and after treatment. MS colonies were counted, isolated and confirmed through biochemical tests. Differences in MS levels measured in different days within the same treatment group was only verified with LSO toothpaste, chlorhexidine gel and chlorhexidine mouthwash. Comparison between groups of LSO mouthwash, toothpaste and gel showed that the toothpaste group expressed significantly lower MS levels than the mouthwash and gel groups at day-30. Chlorhexidine significantly reduced MS levels after 5 days of treatment, but these levels returned to baseline in other periods of the study. LSO toothpaste reduced MS levels after 5 days of treatment, and MS levels remained low and did not return to baseline during subsequent analysis. Hence, LSO toothpaste demonstrated the most long-lasting MS reduction in saliva, whereas other LSO formulations did not effectively reduce MS levels in children with dental caries.
Castillo, Lucía; González-Coloma, Azucena; González, Andrés; Díaz, Martina; Santos, Estela; Alonso-Paz, Eduardo; Bassagoda, María Julia; Rossini, Carmen
We evaluated the anti-insectan activity of extracts from different vegetative parts of ten plant species native to Uruguay. The selected plants belong to five families: Bignoniaceae: Clytostoma callistegioides, Dolichandra cynanchoides, Macfadyena unguis-cati; Sapindaceae: Dodonaea viscosa, Allophylus edulis, Serjania meridionalis; Lamiaceae: Salvia procurrens, Salvia guaranitica; Solanaceae: Lycium cestroides; and Phytolaccaceae: Phytolacca dioica. The extracts were evaluated in independent bioassays against four insect pests and one beneficial insect. Aphid settling inhibition was evaluated with a grass specialist, Rhopalosiphum padi, and a feeding generalist, Myzus persicae (both Hemiptera: Aphididae). Antifeedant activity was tested with adults of the specialist Epilachna paenulata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and larvae of the generalist Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Finally, contact toxicity was assessed with honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Strong settling inhibition (SI) activity (expressed as %SI, where 100% means complete inhibition by the extract) was found only for the twig extracts of A. edulis (Sapindaceae) against M. persicae (% SI = 77 +/- 4). Antifeedant activity (expressed as % of feeding reduction (FR), where 100% means no consumption on extract-treated diet) against E. paenulata was significant for the leaf extracts of L. cestroides (Solanaceae) (% FR = 100 +/- 0) as well as of all Bignoniaceae and Sapindaceae species. No extracts were active against S. littoralis larvae, and most of them were innocuous to honey bees, with the exception of L. cestroides and S. meridionalis leaf extracts.
Castillo, Lucía; González-Coloma, Azucena; González, Andrés; Díaz, Martina; Santos, Estela; Alonso-Paz, Eduardo; Bassagoda, María Julia; Rossini, Carmen
We evaluated the anti-insectan activity of extracts from different vegetative parts of ten plant species native to Uruguay. The selected plants belong to five families: Bignoniaceae: Clytostoma callistegioides, Dolichandra cynanchoides, Macfadyena unguis-cati; Sapindaceae: Dodonaea viscosa, Allophylus edulis, Serjania meridionalis; Lamiaceae: Salvia procurrens, Salvia guaranitica; Solanaceae: Lycium cestroides; and Phytolaccaceae: Phytolacca dioica. The extracts were evaluated in independent bioassays against four insect pests and one beneficial insect. Aphid settling inhibition was evaluated with a grass specialist, Rhopalosiphum padi, and a feeding generalist, Myzus persicae (both Hemiptera: Aphididae). Antifeedant activity was tested with adults of the specialist Epilachna paenulata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and larvae of the generalist Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Finally, contact toxicity was assessed with honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Strong settling inhibition (SI) activity (expressed as %SI, where 100% means complete inhibition by the extract) was found only for the twig extracts of A. edulis (Sapindaceae) against M. persicae (% SI = 77 ± 4). Antifeedant activity (expressed as % of feeding reduction (FR), where 100% means no consumption on extract-treated diet) against E. paenulata was significant for the leaf extracts of L. cestroides (Solanaceae) (% FR = 100 ± 0) as well as of all Bignoniaceae and Sapindaceae species. No extracts were active against S. littoralis larvae, and most of them were innocuous to honey bees, with the exception of L. cestroides and S. meridionalis leaf extracts. PMID:20046902
Gama, Thália S S; Aguiar-Dias, Ana Cristina A DE; Demarco, Diego
Transfer cells are specialized cells that play an important role where there are high energy costs due to facilitation of transmembrane flow of solutes. This study aimed to investigate the ontogenesis, histochemistry and ultrastructure of glandular trichomes focusing on stalk cells and their possible transfer function. Samples of prophylls of axillary buds, calyces of flowers in anthesis, and flower buds in different stages of development were collected, fixed and processed according to the common methods of microscopy. The glandular trichomes are composed of a secretory head with its cells in columnar format. The stalk is formed by two layers of cells, with the upper layer composed of cuboidal cells where the wall starts to thicken at the beginning of the pre-secretory phase. The secretion is heterogeneous, releasing glucose, other carbohydrates, lipids and phenolic compounds, with two types of release - eccrine and granulocrine. These trichomes are functionally termed as nectaries. The stalk cells appear as transfer cells since they have a thicker anticlinal wall with irregular ingrowths. The presence of transfer cells in the nectaries suggests a high specialization because it improves transport capacity of nectar and compensation in the high energy expenditure for its production and release.
Costa, Erica Vanessa Souza; Brígido, Heliton Patrick Cordovil; Silva, João Victor da Silva e; Coelho-Ferreira, Marlia Regina; Brandão, Geraldo Célio
This study aimed to evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of ethanol extract, fractions, and isolated substance from Handroanthus serratifolius against Leishmania amazonensis. Furthermore, this activity was related to cytotoxicity, and the selectivity index was determined. The ethanol extract was obtained by maceration of the stem powder, and the extract was subjected to fractionation on chromatographic column. The lapachol was obtained by acid base extraction followed by purification in chromatographic column. The antipromastigote activity and cytotoxicity tests were carried out by the cell viability method (MTT). Modified THP-1 cells were infected with L. amazonensis promastigotes and treated for 24 h with different concentrations of the extract, fractions, and lapachol. The ethanol extract, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate fractions were not active against promastigotes (IC50 > 200 μg/mL) or cytotoxic (CC50 > 500 μg/mL), and the selectivity index (SI) was greater than 2.5. The ethyl acetate fraction was active only in promastigotes; it is not cytotoxic (CC50 > 500 μg/mL, SI > 5). The lapachol was selectively active only against amastigote (IS > 2.5, CC50 > 500 μg/mL). In summary, lapachol and ethyl acetate fraction are promising against amastigote and promastigote forms, respectively. PMID:28286535
Pereira, V V; Silva, R R; Dos Santos, M H; Dias, D F; Moreira, M E C; Takahashi, J A
Jacaranda oxyphylla Cham. (Bignoniaceae) is a shrub found in the Brazilian cerrado and used in folk medicine to treat microbial infections. The aim of this study was to carry out a phytochemical screening and evaluate antioedematogenic, antimicrobial and antiacetylcholinesterase properties of J. oxyphylla crude extracts. All extracts analysed showed presence of terpenoids, which are potentially active chemical substances. A high AChE inhibitory activity for hexane extract from leaves and for the extracts from twigs was found. Ethanol extract from leaves of J. oxyphylla showed activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. This extract was also effective in inhibiting the stages of inflammation evaluated. Biological investigation and phytochemical screening of J. oxyphylla extracts provided additional evidence of its traditional medicinal value.
Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Heinrich, Michael
Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome which affects more and more people in all countries over the world. In México, it is commonly treated with herbal extracts. Such treatment may be of considerable benefit especially during the early stages of the illness. In this review, we discuss species commonly used in México in the treatment of diabetes. A total of 306 species have records of a popular use in the treatment of this syndrome in México. Seven of these species--Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol. (Cecropiaceae), Equisetum myriochaetum Schlecht & Cham (Equisetaceae), Acosmium panamense (Benth.) Yacolev (Fabaceae), Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché (Cucurbitaceae), Agarista mexicana (Hemsl.) Judd. (Ericaeae), Brickellia veronicaefolia (Kunth) A. Gray (Asteraceae), Parmentiera aculeata (Kunth) Seem. (Bignoniaceae)--are discussed in greater detail, highlighting our current knowledge about these botanicals, but also the enormous gaps in our knowledge, most notably as it relates to the species' toxicology, the pharmacokinetics of its active constituents and their metabolism.
Santos, C P; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Bajay, M M; Campos, J B; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Pinto, J A O; Blank, A F
The conservation of plants in germplasm banks ensures the characterization and availability of these resources for future generations. The present study used DNA markers to obtain genetic information about germplasm collections of Lippia sidoides and L. gracilis, which are maintained in an Active Germplasm Bank (AGB). Genetic variability of samples in the AGB was assessed using 12 combinations of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primers (EcoRI/MseI). Twenty simple sequence repeat primers designed for L. alba were tested to determine their transferability in L. sidoides and L. gracilis. The AFLP markers generated 789 markers. The assessed loci exhibited a moderate Shannon diversity index (I = 0.42) in both species, suggesting that the conserved accessions possess an intermediate level of genetic diversity. Twelve microsatellite loci amplified satisfactorily, and nine loci were polymorphic in each species. A total of 23, 22, and 36 alleles, with an average of 2.5, 2.4, and 3.27 alleles per locus were identified for L. sidoides and L. gracilis accessions in the AGB, and Lippia sp sampled plants, respectively. Analyses of genetic structure permitted the identification of three different groups using both sets of markers, of which two were representative of L. sidoides. The information generated in this study may help to create, expand, and maintain collections of these species and may assist in genetic-breeding programs.
Demetrio, G R; Barbosa, M E A; Coelho, F F
Aquatic plants are able to alter their morphology in response to environmental condition variation, such as water level fluctuations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of water level on Sagittaria montevidensis morphology through measures of vegetative structures formed in drought and flood periods. We hypothesised that the plant height and the biomass of S. montevidensis leaves will increase during flood periods, while the biomass and diameter of petioles, and the basal plant area will increase during dry periods. We sampled a total amount of 270 individuals in nine sediment banks per visit, totalling 1080 plants. In order to compare plant morphology between dry and flood periods, we measured the water level in each bank and took the following variables for each plant: diameter, height and diameter of the biggest petiole. In order to compare biomass allocation between dry and flood periods, we sampled a total amount of 90 individuals in nine sediment banks per visit, totalling 360 plants. Plants were dried and weighed in the laboratory. All measured morphologic traits, as well as the biomass of leaf blades and petioles, were higher during flood periods, indicating that water level highly influences the morphology of S. montevidensis individuals. Our results suggest that these morphological responses allow survival and maintenance of S. montevidensis populations under environmental stress. These results can be linked to the invasive potential of S. montevidensis and sheds light on basic management practices that may be applied in the future.
Silva, Paulo R D da; Stefenon, Valdir M
The plant species occurring in the savanna region of the Cerrado biome in Brazil present typical morphological and physiological adaptations to a dry climate with seasonal occurrence of wildfires. In this study, the histological features of the root system, the main sites of synthesis and storage of starch and the initial phases of the bud development were characterized in Jacaranda ulei. The anatomical features observed in the root system of J. ulei are related to the needs of the species to survive in the Cerrado. The histochemical analyses demonstrated high synthesis of glucose and glycoprotein after the third day of in vitro culture, in the proximal cells of the cortical parenchyma of the exoderm. Meristematic primordia were observed in the ninth day and the beginning of the meristem formation was observed after 21 days of in vitro culture. Jacaranda ulei displays morphological, anatomical and storage features typical from resprouter species. However, it may be vulnerable to unsustainable exploitation. Considering the importance of this species for local people, more studies regarding its therapeutic properties should be performed, including the planning of appropriate programs for the species management and the production of selected clones through in vitro micropropagation.
Vinson, C C; Sampaio, I; Ciampi, A Y
The Dendrogene Project (Genetic Conservation within Managed Forests in Amazonia) aims to understand the genetic and ecological processes that underpin tree species survival and in particular their response to forest management regimes. As part of the project, we developed eight microsatellite markers for Jacaranda copaia to be used for genetic structure, gene flow and reproductive biology studies. Polymorphism was evaluated using 96 adult trees from the Tapajos National Forest in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon. An average of 22 alleles per locus were detected, with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.731 to 0.94.
Mostafa, Nada M; Ashour, Mohamed L; Eldahshan, Omayma A; Singab, Abdel Nasser B
A novel biflavonoid [kaempferol (6→8″) apigenin] was isolated from the leaves of Jacaranda acutifolia. The structure was elucidated based on chemical evidence, 1D and 2D spectroscopic analyses as well as spectrometric techniques. The compound showed promising cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The anticancer activity was explained via virtual docking of the isolated compound to the main sites in the human cyclin-dependent kinase2 (CDK2) crystal structure.
Duarte, D S; Dolabela, M F; Salas, C E; Raslan, D S; Oliveiras, A B; Nenninger, A; Wiedemann, B; Wagner, H; Lombardi, J; Lopes, M T
Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) has been widely used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory, antimalarial and antivenereal. The purpose of this study was to chemically characterize the main plant components, and to evaluate the biological properties of some of the fractions derived from leaves (MACb) and liana (MACa) of this plant. Chemical characterization allowed the identification of the compounds corymboside, vicenin-2, quercitrin, chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterylglucoside, allantoin and lapachol. The biological screening of fractions and/or purified substances derived from fractions revealed antitumoral and antitrypanosomal activities in fractions MACa/lapachol and MACb/MACb21, respectively. The anti-lipoxygenase and anti-cyclooxygenase effect seen in fractions MACa and MACb showed a partial correlation with the anti-inflammatory property attributed to this plant.
Zuntini, Alexandre R; Taylor, Charlotte M; Lohmann, Lúcia G
Bignonia comprises 29 species of lianas characterized by eight phloem wedges, leaves usually 2-foliolate, mostly simple tendrils and opaque seed wings. The analysis of herbarium specimens in preparation for a taxonomic revision of the genus led to the recognition of two new species: (i) Bignonia cararensis from Costa Rica, characterized by a thyrse with lateral compound dichasia and lack of interpetiolar ridge, and (ii) Bignonia sanctae-crucis from Bolivia and Brazil, distinguishable by its membranous leaflets, membranous calyx and small fruits. We provide detailed descriptions, illustrations, distribution maps, initial conservation status assessments, and comparisons of the newly described taxa with closely related species.
Zuntini, Alexandre R.; Taylor, Charlotte M.; Lohmann, Lúcia G.
Abstract Bignonia comprises 29 species of lianas characterized by eight phloem wedges, leaves usually 2-foliolate, mostly simple tendrils and opaque seed wings. The analysis of herbarium specimens in preparation for a taxonomic revision of the genus led to the recognition of two new species: (i) Bignonia cararensis from Costa Rica, characterized by a thyrse with lateral compound dichasia and lack of interpetiolar ridge, and (ii) Bignonia sanctae-crucis from Bolivia and Brazil, distinguishable by its membranous leaflets, membranous calyx and small fruits. We provide detailed descriptions, illustrations, distribution maps, initial conservation status assessments, and comparisons of the newly described taxa with closely related species. PMID:26491382
Zuntini, Alexandre R.; Fonseca, Luiz Henrique M.; Lohmann, Lúcia G.
• Premise of the study: New primers were developed for Bignonieae to enable phylogenetic studies within this clade using herbarium samples. • Methods and Results: Internal primers were designed based on available sequences of the plastid ndhF gene and the rpl32-trnL intergenic spacer region, and the nuclear gene PepC. The resulting primers were used to amplify DNA extracted from herbarium materials. High-quality data were obtained from herbarium samples up to 53 yr old. • Conclusions: The standardized methodology allows the inclusion of herbarium materials as alternative sources of DNA for phylogenetic studies in Bignonieae. PMID:25202586
Milet-Pinheiro, P; Schlindwein, C
Nectar robbers access floral nectar in illegitimate flower visits without, in general, performing a pollination service. Nevertheless, their effect on fruit set can be indirectly positive if the nectar removal causes an incremental increase in the frequency of legitimate flower visits of effective pollinators, especially in obligate outcrossers. We studied pollination and the effect of nectar robbers on the reproductive fitness of Jacaranda rugosa, an endemic shrub of the National Park of Catimbau, in the Caatinga of Pernambuco, Brazil. Xenogamous J. rugosa flowers continuously produced nectar during the day at a rate of 1 mul.h(-1). Female and male Euglossa melanotricha were the main pollinators. Early morning flower visits substantially contributed to fruit set because stigmas with open lobes were almost absent in the afternoon. Ninety-nine per cent of the flowers showed damage caused by nectar robbers. Artificial addition of sugar water prolonged the duration of flower visits of legitimate flower visitors. Removal of nectar, simulating the impact of nectar robbers, resulted in shorter flower visits of euglossine bees. While flower visits of nectar-robbing carpenter bees (Xylocopa frontalis, X. grisescens, X. ordinaria) produced only a longitudinal slit in the corolla tube in the region of the nectar chamber, worker bees of Trigona spinipes damaged the gynoecium in 92% of the flowers. This explains the outstandingly low fruit set (1.5%) of J. rugosa in the National Park of Catimbau.
Polatto, Leandro P; Alves, Valter V
Aiming to estimate the rate of exploitation of the floral resources of Sparattosperma leucanthum (Vell.) K. Schum. as well as the interaction with their floral visitors in the pollination, the number of visits by flower was sampled, according to the type of visitation, the collected resource and the visitor's behavior during the forage for flowers. The floral visitors were grouped into seven guilds, organized in decreasing order of benefit to the S. leucanthum flower's pollination: effective pollinator, occasional pollinator, endogamic pollinator, generalist visitor, thievery visitor, thievery-pillager ant and pillager visitor. The total of 48.2 +/- 8.84 visits were recorded by flower. Nearly 50% of the visits resulted in nectar thief or pillage, which posed some problems to the reproduction of S. leucanthum, such as the drop in the attractiveness to pollinators and the harm to the flower's reproductive tissues. Trigona spinipes (Fabr.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was considered the most harmful species owing to the high frequency of pillage and forage. Bombus sp1, however, was probably the species that pollinated S. lecanthum flowers the most, making use of the crossed pollination.
Lemos, Odilon A.; Sanches, Júlio C.M.; Silva, Ícaro E.F.; Silva, Márcio L.A.; Vinhólis, Adriana H.C.; Felix, Mireille A.P.; Santos, Raquel A.; Cecchi, Andréa O.
Tabebuia sp. is native to tropical rain forests throughout Central and South America. Although the biological and pharmacological effects of bark extracts have been intensely studied, little is known on the extract obtained from the flower. Herein, the genotoxic potential of a flower extract from T. impetiginosa (“ipê roxo”) on the blood and liver cells of Wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental procedures involved only male animals. Graduated concentrations of the extract, viz., 100, 300 and 500 mg kg−1 of body weight, were gavage-administered and 24 h latter cells were collected and processed for analysis. With the exception of the 100 mg kg−1 dose, a significant increase in DNA damage was noted, when compared with a negative control group. Although the genotoxic potential of this extract was higher in liver cells, the response in both tissues was related to dose-dependency. Even though DNA damage can be corrected before conversion into mutations, further study is recommended to arrive at a better understanding of incurred biological effects. PMID:22888300
Lemos, Odilon A; Sanches, Júlio C M; Silva, Icaro E F; Silva, Márcio L A; Vinhólis, Adriana H C; Felix, Mireille A P; Santos, Raquel A; Cecchi, Andréa O
Tabebuia sp. is native to tropical rain forests throughout Central and South America. Although the biological and pharmacological effects of bark extracts have been intensely studied, little is known on the extract obtained from the flower. Herein, the genotoxic potential of a flower extract from T. impetiginosa ("ipê roxo") on the blood and liver cells of Wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental procedures involved only male animals. Graduated concentrations of the extract, viz., 100, 300 and 500 mg kg(-1) of body weight, were gavage-administered and 24 h latter cells were collected and processed for analysis. With the exception of the 100 mg kg(-1) dose, a significant increase in DNA damage was noted, when compared with a negative control group. Although the genotoxic potential of this extract was higher in liver cells, the response in both tissues was related to dose-dependency. Even though DNA damage can be corrected before conversion into mutations, further study is recommended to arrive at a better understanding of incurred biological effects.
Sánchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Rivard, Benoit; Wright, Joseph; Feng, Ji-Lu; Li, Peijun; Chong, Mei Mei; Bohlman, Stephanie A.
Species identification and characterization in tropical environments is an emerging field in tropical remote sensing. Significant efforts are currently aimed at the detection of tree species, of levels of forest successional stages, and the extent of liana occurrence at the top of canopies. In this paper we describe our use of high resolution imagery from the Quickbird Satellite to estimate the flowering population of Tabebuia guayacan trees at Barro Colorado Island (BCI), in Panama. The imagery was acquired on 29 April 2002 and 21 March 2004. Spectral Angle Mapping via a One-Class Support Vector machine was used to detect the presence of 422 and 557 flowering tress in the April 2002 and March 2004 imagery. Of these, 273 flowering trees are common to both dates. This study presents a new perspective on the effectiveness of high resolution remote sensing for monitoring a phenological response and its use as a tool for potential conservation and management of natural resources in tropical environments. PMID:22163825
de Lacerda, Jackeline Rossetti Mateus; da Silva, Thais Freitas; Vollú, Renata Estebanez; Marques, Joana Montezano; Seldin, Lucy
Eight strains isolated from the stems of Lippia sidoides were identified as belonging to Lactococcus lactis, a bacterial species considered as "generally recognized as safe". Their capacity to solubilize/mineralize phosphate was tested in vitro with different inorganic and organic phosphorus (P) sources. All strains were able to solubilize calcium phosphate as an inorganic P source, and the best result was observed with strain 003.41 which solubilized 31 % of this P source. Rock phosphate, a mined rock containing high amounts of phosphate bearing minerals, was solubilized by five strains. When calcium phytate was the organic P source used, the majority of the strains tested showed phosphate mineralization activity. Moreover, all strains were able to solubilize/mineralize phosphate from poultry litter, a complex P source containing inorganic and predominantly organic P. The presence of genes coding for phytase and alkaline phosphatase was searched within the strains studied. However, only gene sequences related to alkaline phosphatase (phoA and phoD) could be detected in the majority of the strains (excepting strain 006.29) with identities varying from 67 to 88 %. These results demonstrate for the first time the potential of L. lactis strains for phosphate solubilization/mineralization activity using a broad spectrum of P sources; therefore, they are of great importance for the future development of more safe bioinoculants with possible beneficial effects for agriculture.
Zuntini, Alexandre R.; Lohmann, Lucia G.
Abstract Martinella has traditionally included two species, Martinella iquitoensis and Martinella obovata, that are characterized by the presence of interpetiolar ridges surrounding the stems and minute prophylls of the axillary buds. A third species, Martinella insignis, is here described as new, illustrated and compared to other species in the genus. Martinella insignis is the first record of the genus in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, and differs from other species of Martinella by the yellow corolla (vs. red to dark purple) and 5-lobed calices (vs. 2–4-lobed). PMID:24843296
Santacruz, Antonio Mora; Valdez Herández, Juan Ignacio; Angeles Pérez, Gregorio; Musálem Santiago, Miguel Angel; Vaquera Huerta, Humberto
We evaluated the effect of soil "scarification" and vegetation clearing treatments on the natural regeneration and initial development of Tabebuia rosea (Bertold) DC. seedlings in a moderate sized semideciduous tropical forest subjected to wood harvesting on the coast of Jalisco, Mexico. The treatments were applied under "seed" trees, and the number of germinated seedlings and their development were evaluated for nine months. Soil "scarification" promoted seed germination and initial seedling development, while the control of the competing vegetation increased the seedling growth and reduced their mortality. These results should be taken into account for the natural regeneration of this species, after clearing, to improve wood production, and should be incorporated into the silvicultural techniques currently developed in the region.
Bastos, Maria Lysete A; Lima, Maria Raquel F; Conserva, Lucia M; Andrade, Vânia S; Rocha, Eliana MM; Lemos, Rosangela PL
Background Due to the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs, the emergence of human pathogenic microorganisms resistant to major classes of antibiotics has been increased and has caused many clinical problems in the treatment of infectious diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the in vitro antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality of extracts and isolated compounds from Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell.) Bur., a species used in Brazilian folk medicine for treatment of cancer and skin diseases. Methods Using the disc diffusion method, bioautography assay and brine shrimp toxicity test (Artemia salina Leach), we studied the antimicrobial activity and lethality of extracts and isolated compounds against three microorganisms strains, including Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and yeasts (Candida albicans). Results In this study, the extracts inhibited S. aureus (8.0 ± 0.0 to 14.0 ± 0.0 mm) and C. albicans (15.3 ± 0.68 to 25.6 ± 0.4 mm) growth. In the brine shrimp test, only two of them showed toxic effects (LC50 29.55 to 398.05 μg/mL) and some extracts were non-toxic or showed weak lethality (LC50 705.02 to > 1000 μg/mL). From these extracts, four flavones [5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (1), 5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (2), 4'-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (3), and 4'-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (4)] were isolated through bioassay-guided fractionation and identified based on the 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. By bioautography assays, compounds 1 [S. aureus (16.0 ± 0.0 mm) and C. albicans (20.0 ± 0.0 mm)] and 3 [S. aureus (10.3 ± 0.6 mm) and C. albicans (19.7 ± 0.6 mm)] inhibited both microorganisms while 2 inhibited only S. aureus (11.7 ± 0.6 mm). Compound 4 did not restrain the growth of any tested microorganism. Conclusion Our results showed that extracts and isolated flavones from Z. tuberculosa may be particularly useful against two pathogenic microorganisms, S. aureus and C. albicans. These results may justify the popular use this species since some fractions tested had antimicrobial activity and others showed significant toxic effects on brine shrimps. However, in order to evaluate possible clinical application in therapy of infectious diseases, further studies about the safety and toxicity of isolated compounds are needed. PMID:19450272
Joppa, K M; Vovor, A; Eklu-Gadegbeku, K; Agbonon, A; Aklikokou, K; Gbeassor, M
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the In vitro anti-sickling activity of two plants widely used for treatment of sickle cell disease in Togo, i.e., Morinda lucida et Newbouldia leavis. A concentration-dependent decrease in the rate of sickling was observed after incubation of red blood cells with plant extracts and 2% sodium metabisulfite as compared to incubation with 0.9% NaCl. On samples with a SS blood genotype the inhibition rate of Morinda lucida was 17.30% at a concentration of 1 mg/ml and 92.31% at a concentration of 30 mg/ml. On samples with an AS blood genotype, the inhibition rate of Morinda lucida 48.10% at a concentration of 1 mg/ml and 99.34% at a concentration of 30 mg/ml. Using Newbouldia leavis the inhibition rates at concentrations of 1 mg/ml and 30 mg/ml were 15.66% and 90.42% respectively on samples with a SS blood genotype and 64.03% and 99.02% respectively on samples with an AS blood genotype. The study protocol appeared to be adequate for both SS and AS blood genotypes since the Pearson correlation coefficient between rates measured on the two types of samples was 0.92 for Newuboulida and 0.89 for Morinda. These findings show that these two plants have clear-cut in vitro anti-sickling activity and support their use in traditional medicine.
de Sousa, Neila C; de Rezende, Alexandre A A; da Silva, Regildo M G; Guterres, Zaira R; Graf, Ulrich; Kerr, Warwick E; Spanó, Mário A
The wing Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in D. melanogaster was used to study genotoxicity of the medicinal plant Tabebuia impetiginosa. Lapachol (naphthoquinone) and β-lapachone (quinone) are the two main chemical constituents of T. impetiginosa. These compounds have several biological properties. They induce apoptosis by generating oxygen-reactive species, thereby inhibiting topoisomerases (I and II) or inducing other enzymes dependent on NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, thus affecting cell cycle checkpoints. The SMART was used in the standard (ST) version, which has normal levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, to check the direct action of this compound, and in the high bioactivation (HB) version, which has a high constitutive level of CYP enzymes, to check for indirect action in three different T. impetiginosa concentrations (10%, 20% or 40% w/w). It was observed that T. impetiginosa alone did not modify the spontaneous frequencies of mutant spots in either cross. The negative results observed prompted us to study this phytotherapeuticum in association with the reference mutagen doxorubicin (DXR). In co-treated series, T. impetiginosa was toxic in both crosses at higher concentration, whereas in the HB cross, it induced a considerable potentiating effect (from ~24.0 to ~95.0%) on DXR genotoxity. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the possible risks associated with the exposure of living organisms to this complex mixture.
Alvarado-López, Sandra; Soriano, Diana; Velázquez, Noé; Orozco-Segovia, Alma; Gamboa-deBuen, Alicia
Successful revegetation necessarily requires the establishment of a vegetation cover and one of the challenges for this is the scarce knowledge about germination and seedling establishment of wild tree species. Priming treatments (seed hydration during a specific time followed by seed dehydration) could be an alternative germination pre-treatment to improve plant establishment. Natural priming (via seed burial) promotes rapid and synchronous germination as well as the mobilisation of storage reserves; consequently, it increases seedling vigour. These metabolic and physiological responses are similar to those occurring as a result of the laboratory seed priming treatments (osmopriming and matrix priming) applied successfully to agricultural species. In order to know if natural priming had a positive effect on germination of tropical species we tested the effects of natural priming on imbibition kinetics, germination parameters (mean germination time, lag time and germination rate and percentage) and reserve mobilisation in the seeds of two tree species from a tropical deciduous forest in south-eastern México: Tecoma stans (L Juss. Ex Kunth) and Cordia megalantha (S.F Blake). The wood of both trees are useful for furniture and T. stans is a pioneer tree that promotes soil retention in disturbed areas. We also compared the effect of natural priming with that of laboratory matrix priming (both in soil). Matrix priming improved germination of both studied species. Natural priming promoted the mobilisation of proteins and increased the amount of free amino acids and of lipid degradation in T. stans but not in C. megalantha. Our results suggest that the application of priming via the burial of seeds is an easy and inexpensive technique that can improve seed germination and seedling establishment of tropical trees with potential use in reforestation and restoration practices.
The wing Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in D. melanogaster was used to study genotoxicity of the medicinal plant Tabebuia impetiginosa. Lapachol (naphthoquinone) and β-lapachone (quinone) are the two main chemical constituents of T. impetiginosa. These compounds have several biological properties. They induce apoptosis by generating oxygen-reactive species, thereby inhibiting topoisomerases (I and II) or inducing other enzymes dependent on NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, thus affecting cell cycle checkpoints. The SMART was used in the standard (ST) version, which has normal levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, to check the direct action of this compound, and in the high bioactivation (HB) version, which has a high constitutive level of CYP enzymes, to check for indirect action in three different T. impetiginosa concentrations (10%, 20% or 40% w/w). It was observed that T. impetiginosa alone did not modify the spontaneous frequencies of mutant spots in either cross. The negative results observed prompted us to study this phytotherapeuticum in association with the reference mutagen doxorubicin (DXR). In co-treated series, T. impetiginosa was toxic in both crosses at higher concentration, whereas in the HB cross, it induced a considerable potentiating effect (from ~24.0 to ~95.0%) on DXR genotoxity. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the possible risks associated with the exposure of living organisms to this complex mixture. PMID:21637695
Numerous plant species worldwide including Palicourea marcgravii(Rubiaceae) and Tanaecium bilabiatum (Bignoniaceae) in Brazil cause acute cardiac failure (sudden death) and are known to contain monofluoroacetate (MFA). Other Bignoniaceae species including Fridericia japurensis (Arrabidaea japurensis...
de Morais, Sandra Ribeiro; Oliveira, Thiago Levi Silva; de Oliveira, Lanussy Porfiro; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Rezende, Maria Helena; Fiuza, Tatiana de Sousa; Costa, Elson Alves; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; de Paula, José Realino
Background: Lippia sidoides (Verbenaceae) is used in Brazilian folk medicine as an antiseptic, and it is usually applied topically on skin, mucous membranes, mouth, and throat, or used for vaginal washings. Objectives: To analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil from L. sidoides collected in São Gonçalo do Abaeté, Minas Gerais and grown in Hidrolândia, Goiás; to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, crude ethanol extract, and hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl-acetate, and aqueous fractions (AFs); to study the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and central nervous system activities of the crude ethanol extract. Materials and methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity in vitro was performed by broth microdilution method. The pharmacological tests were performed using female Swiss albino mice. Results: The major components of the essential oil were isoborneol (14.66%), bornyl acetate (11.86%), α-humulene (11.23%), α-fenchene (9.32%), and 1.8-cineole (7.05%), supporting the existence of two chemotypes of this species. The hexane fraction (HF) had good antifungal activity against Cryptococcus sp. ATCC D (MIC = 31.25 μg/mL) and Cryptococcus gatti L48 (MIC = 62.5 μg/mL). In the pharmacological tests, the crude ethanol extract presented antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Conclusion: Given that the ethanol extract of L. sidoides is included in the Formulary of Phytotherapeutic Agents of the Brazilian Pharmacopeia as an anti-inflammatory for oral cavities, the present work provides scientific evidence to back this use and highlight the importance of selecting the appropriate chemotype on the basis of the expected biological response. SUMMARY The major components of the essential oil of L. sidoides were isoborneol bornyl acetate, α-humulene, α-fenchene, and 1.8-cineole. The HF had good antifungal activity against Cryptococcus sp. ATCC D and C. gatti L4.The crude ethanol extract of L. sidoides presented antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.The present work provides scientific evidence of the importance of selecting the appropriate chemotype on the basis of the expected biological response. Abbreviations used: UFG: Universidade Federal de Goiás; HF: hexane fraction; DF: dichloromethane fraction; EAF: ethyl acetate fraction; AF: aqueous fraction; MeOH: methanol; MIC: minimum inhibitory concentration; ATCC: American Type Culture Collection; MH: Müller Hinton; DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide; RPMI: Roswell Park Memorial Institute; NaCl: sodium chloride; μL: microliters; mL: milliliters; μg: microgram; kg: kilogram; h: hour; min: minute; cm: centimeter; COBEA: Brazilian College of Animal Experiments; p.o.:, oral; i.p.: intraperitoneal; s.c.: subcutaneous; SEM: standard error of the mean; RI: retention indices. PMID:27867267
Oliveira, Valéria C S; Moura, Daniela M S; Lopes, José A D; de Andrade, Paulo P; da Silva, Nicácio H; Figueiredo, Regina C B Q
The current therapy for leishmaniasis, which affects annually about 2 million people, is far from satisfactory. All available drugs require parenteral administration and are potentially toxic. Plant essential oils have been traditionally used in folk medicine and appear as valuable alternative source for chemotherapeutic compounds. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia sidoides, and Ocimum gratissimum on growth and ultrastructure of Leishmania chagasi promastigote forms. Steam distillation was used to isolate the essential oils, and their constituents were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. All essential oils showed in vitro inhibitory action on L. chagasi promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent way, with IC(50)/72 h of 45, 89, and 75 microg/mL for C. citratus, L. sidoides, and O. gratissimum, respectively. Drastic morphological alterations were observed in all essential oil-treated parasites, including cell swelling, accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, and increase of acidocalcisome volume. Furthermore, aberrant-shaped cells with multi-septate body were observed by scanning electron microscopy, suggesting an additional effect on cytokinesis. Taken together, our data show that these essential oils affect the parasite viability being the C. citratus essential oil the most effective against L. chagasi.
Duarte, M O; Mendes-Rodrigues, C; Alves, M F; Oliveira, P E; Sampaio, D S
Mixed cross and self-pollen load on the stigma (mixed pollination) of species with late-acting self-incompatibility system (LSI) can lead to self-fertilized seed production. This "cryptic self-fertility" may allow selfed seedling development in species otherwise largely self-sterile. Our aims were to check if mixed pollinations would lead to fruit set in LSI Adenocalymma peregrinum, and test for evidence of early-acting inbreeding depression in putative selfed seeds from mixed pollinations. Experimental pollinations were carried out in a natural population. Fruit and seed set from self-, cross and mixed pollinations were analysed. Further germination tests were carried out for the seeds obtained from treatments. Our results confirm self-incompatibility, and fruit set from cross-pollinations was three-fold that from mixed pollinations. This low fruit set in mixed pollinations is most likely due to a greater number of self- than cross-fertilized ovules, which promotes LSI action and pistil abortion. Likewise, higher percentage of empty seeds in surviving fruits from mixed pollinations compared with cross-pollinations is probably due to ovule discounting caused by self-fertilization. Moreover, germinability of seeds with developed embryos was lower in fruits from mixed than from cross-pollinations, and the non-viable seeds from mixed pollinations showed one-third of the mass of those from cross-pollinations. The great number of empty seeds, lower germinability, lower mass of non-viable seeds, and higher variation in seed mass distribution in mixed pollinations, strongly suggests early-acing inbreeding depression in putative selfed seeds. In this sense, LSI and inbreeding depression acting together probably constrain self-fertilized seedling establishment in A. peregrinum.
Abstract A large number of specimens used as original material for the description of new species were destroyed in the bombing of the Berlin-Dahlem herbarium, B, in 1943. Six lectotypes are designated here for Cordia discolor Cham., Cordia multispicata Cham., Cordia tobagensis Urb. and its variety broadwayi Urb. in the Cordiaceae and for Tournefortia paniculata Cham. and Tournefortia ulei Vaupel in the Heliotropiaceae. PMID:27212885
Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), monitored with ChamP traps captured the highest numbers of adults in olive trees, Olea europaea, in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Significantly more adults were captured in Pherocon ® AM traps than ChamP tra...
Sousa, Saulo M; Torres, Giovana A; Viccini, Lyderson F
The genus Lippia (Verbenaceae) comprise around 160 species spread out mainly in South and Central Americas with few African species, some of them with potential medicinal use. Brazil is one the most important centers of diversity with approximately 75% of the species described so far. Innumerous species are endemic and poorly studied especially at a cytological level. Here, chromosomal length, karyomorphology and chromosome asymmetry of twelve Brazilian species of Lippia were evaluated [L. alba (Miller) N.E.Brown, L. diamantinensis Glaz., L. florida Cham., L. hermanioides Cham., L. lacunosa Mart. & Schauer, L. lupulina Cham., L. pohliana Schauer, L. pseudothea (St. Hil) Schauer, L. rosella Moldenke, L. rotundifolia Cham., L. rubella Moldenke and L. sidoides Cham.]. The analysis suggested that the genus has a variable chromosome number (from 2n = 20 to 2n = 56) originated by dysploidy and polyploidy. This is the first description of chromosome morphology for 11 of the 12 Lippia species studied.
Numerous plant species worldwide including some Palicourea (Rubiaceae), Tanaecium (Bignoniaceae), and Amorimia (Malpighiaceae) species in Brazil cause sudden death and are known to contain monofluoroacetate (MFA). Two species of Palicourea, P. aenofusca and P. marcgravii, cause sudden death and are...
Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D
Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants.
Determination of total sulfur in lichens and plants by combustion-infrared analysis. [Medicago sativa L. ; Vitis labruscana Bailey; Festuca sp. ; Fraxinum pennsylvanica Marsh. ; Paremelia chlorochroa Tuck. ; P. sulcata Tayl. ; Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. ; Artemisia tridentata Nuttl; Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. ; Triticum compactum Host; Agropyron smithii Rydb. ; Salix pulchra Cham
Jackson, L.L.; Engleman, E.E.; Peard, J.L.
Sulfur was determined in plants and lichens by combustion of the sample and infrared detection of evolved sulfur dioxide using an automated sulfur analyzer. Vanadium pentaoxide was used as a combustion accelerator. Pelletization of the sample prior to combustion was not found to be advantageous. Washing studies showed that leaching of sulfur was not a major factor in the sample preparation. The combustion-IR analysis usually gave higher sulfur content than the turbidimetric analysis as well as shorter analysis time. Relative standard deviations of less than 7% were obtained by the combustion-IR technique when sulfur levels in plant material range from 0.05 to 0.70%. Determination of sulfur in National Bureau of Standards botanical reference materials showed good agreement between the combustion-IR technique and other instrumental procedures. Seven NBS botanical reference materials were analyzed.
Warashina, Tsutomu; Nagatani, Yoshimi; Noro, Tadataka
Thirteen new phenolic glycosides were obtained by further study of constituents from the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa (MART. ex DC) Standley (Bignoniaceae). The structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, mass spectral and chemical evidence. Most of them have a glycosyl unit esterified by a benzoic acid derivative.
Family) Hydrophyllum sp. (Waterleaf) 1-0 SOLANACEAE (Nightshade Family) Solanum nigrum (Black nightshade) 1-0 SCROPHULARIACEAE ( Figwort Family...Scrophularia lanceolata (Early figwort ) i-O Penstemon pallidus (Beards tongue) 1-o BIGNONIACEAE (Bigno ia Famil Catalpa sp. (CatEpa) 1-0 RUBIACEAE (Madder
Luz, Fernando A.; Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Moreira, Gilson R. P.; Becker, Vitor O.
Abstract Three new cecidogenous species of Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest are described. Larvae of P. fernandesi Moreira & Becker, sp. n., P. rosaemariae Moreira & Becker, sp. n. and P. tavaresi Becker & Moreira, sp. n. induce galls, respectively, on Tibouchina sellowiana (Cham.) Cogn., T. asperior (Cham.) Cogn. and T. fissinervia (Schrank & Mart. ex DC.) Cogn. (Melastomataceae). Adults, immature stages and galls are illustrated, and data on life history and a preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences, including related species, are also provided. PMID:25152676
Shameem, K. M.; Prathapan, K. D.
Abstract Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants. PMID:23653522
Climate change resulting from global warming is expected to affect crop production and seed quality. The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of soybean cultivars to the effect of drought and elevated temperature on seed composition and mineral nutrition. In a repeated growth cham...
Wang, Hong-Sheng; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Man, Yu-Bon; Du, Jun; Xing, Guang-Hua; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung
To assess arsenic contaminations and its possible adverse health effects, food samples were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham in Cambodia. The highest and the lowest concentrations were observed in fish (mean 2,832 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kandal province and cattle stomach (1.86 ± 1.10 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kratie, respectively. The daily intake of arsenic via food consumption was 604, 9.70 and 136 μg day(-1) in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. The arsenic dietary intake in Kandal ranked No. 1 among all the 17 compared countries or regions. Fish consumption contributed the greatest proportion of total arsenic daily intake in Kandal (about 63.0 %) and Kampong Cham (about 69.8 %). It is revealed to be a much more important exposure pathway than drinking water for residents in Kampong Cham. The results of risk assessment suggested that the residents in Cambodia, particularly for people in Kandal province, suffer high public health risks due to consuming arsenic-contaminated food.
Eschscholzia californica Cham., a native US plant, is traditionally used as a sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic herb. With the rapid rise in the use of herbal supplements together with over the counter (OTC) and prescription drugs, the risk for potential herb-drug interactions is also increasing. M...
Global climatic change as expressed by increased CO2 and temperature has the potential for dramatic effects on trees. To determine what its effects may be on Pacific Northwest forests, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings were grown in sun-lit controlled environment cham...
Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Kim, Mimi; Ozuah, Philip O.
Abstract Background: Urban elementary schools in minority communities with high obesity prevalence may have limited resources for physical education (PE) to achieve daily activity recommendations. Little is known whether integrating physical activity (PA) into classrooms can increase activity levels of students attending such schools. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized, controlled trial among kindergarten and first-grade students from four Bronx, New York, schools to determine feasibility and impact of a classroom-based intervention on students' PA levels. Students in two intervention schools received the Children's Hospital at Montefiore Joining Academics and Movement (CHAM JAM), an audio CD consisting of 10-minute, education-focused aerobic activities led by teachers three times a day. PA was objectively measured by pedometer. Each subject wore a sealed pedometer during the 6-hour school day for 5 consecutive days at baseline (Time 1) and 8 weeks postintervention (Time 2). Hierarchical linear models were fit to evaluate differences in mean number of steps between the two groups. Results: A total of 988 students participated (intervention group, n=500; control group, n=488). There was no significant difference at baseline between the two groups on mean number of steps (2581 [standard deviation (SD), 1284] vs. 2476 [SD, 1180]; P=0.71). Eight weeks post–CHAM JAM, intervention group students took significantly greater mean number of steps than controls (2839 [SD, 1262] vs. 2545 [SD, 1153]; P=0.0048) after adjusting for baseline number of steps and other covariates (grade, gender, recess, and PE class). CHAM JAM was equally effective in gender, grade level, and BMI subgroups. Conclusions: CHAM JAM significantly increased school-based PA among kindergarten and first-grade students in inner-city schools. This approach holds promise as a cost-effective means to integrate the physical and cognitive benefits of PA into high-risk schools. PMID:25747719
precision leak valve (Ar gas used). Pressure Differential ........ 300:1 with 30 liters/sec pumping speed for argon in the main test chamber. 8.’. 1000:1...Analysis Cham _r............. 200 I/sec differential ion pumping. Ti sublimation and LN2 cryo. Sorption pump roughing. (Pump isolation via poppet ... valve ). Roughing Manifold ............ dual sorption pumps. Base Pressure................ 5x10-1 0 Torr. (Dependent on sample outgassing properties
treatment for one type of hospital (and possibly only one hospital). Such special treat- ment raises a concern that other specialty hospitals would seek...similar treatment . CHAmPUS officials were concerned that it would erode cHAJIUs’s copayment requirements in a piecemeal fashion. (See p. 27.) 4...other uniformed services treatment facili- ties. Under cwAwmus, beneficiaries must share in the cost of their medical care by paying deductibles and
and bulkheads, and support gate structures at each end of the lock cham- ber. Typically they are rubber- sealed on the upstream and downstream ends with...they form a beveled surface where the miter blocks meet and seal . The gates are made of vertical and horizontal girders, skin plates, diaphragms...intercostals, quoin blocks, mi- ter blocks, seals , pintles, diagonals, embedded anchorages, anchorage links, and gudgeon pins and bushings (Figure 4). At
Campana, Priscilla R V; Mansur, Daniel S; Gusman, Grasielle S; Ferreira, Daneel; Teixeira, Mauro M; Braga, Fernão C
Several plant species are used in Brazil to treat inflammatory diseases and associated conditions. TNF-α plays a pivotal role on inflammation, and several plant extracts have been assayed against this target, both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of 11 Brazilian medicinal plants on TNF-α release by LPS-activated THP-1 cells was evaluated. The plant materials were percolated with different solvents to afford 15 crude extracts, whose effect on TNF-α release was determined by ELISA. Among the evaluated extracts, only Jacaranda caroba (Bignoniaceae) presented strong toxicity to THP-1 cells. Considering the 14 non-toxic extracts, TNF-α release was significantly reduced by seven of them (inhibition > 80%), originating from six plants, namely Cuphea carthagenensis (Lythraceae), Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae), Mansoa hirsuta (Bignoniaceae), Ouratea semiserrata (Ochnaceae), Ouratea spectabilis and Remijia ferruginea (Rubiaceae). The ethanol extract from O. semiserrata leaves was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 and RP-HPLC to give three compounds previously reported for the species, along with agathisflavone and epicatechin, here described for the first time in the plant. Epicatechin and lanceoloside A elicited significant inhibition of TNF-α release, indicating that they may account for the effect produced by O. semiserrata crude extract.
Pinho, R S; Oliveira, A F M; Silva, S I
The caatinga semi-arid ecosystem of northeastern Brazil is characterized by a dry, spiny and predominantly deciduous shrub/forest vegetation, and many species there are potential sources of renewable resources for the oleochemical industry. The present research determined the oil content and fatty acid profiles of seeds from eight caatinga species. Seed oils were extracted in a Soxhlet system, and their fatty acid content identified by GC-MS. Oil content varied between 20.2% in Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae) and 46.4% in Barnebya harleyi (W.R. Anderson & B. Gates) Malpighiaceae. Anemopaegma laeve DC. (Bignoniaceae) had the highest oleic acid content (63.4%), while high levels of linoleic acid were found in Banisteriopsis pubipetala (Juss.) Cuatrec. (42.8%) and B. harleyi (31.9%) (both Malpighiaceae). Palmitic acid was the major fatty acid (50%) in Hippocratea volubilis (L.) (Celastraceae). High levels of linoleic and linolenic acids were found in Croton adamantinus Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), averaging 44.2% and 45.2% respectively. Gadoleic acid in was the most abundant fatty acid in the oil produced by Serjania lethalis A. St. Hill. (Sapindaceae), averaging 69.6%. B. pubipetala, B. harleyi, C. adamantinus, and H. volubilis were identified as promising species for cultivation.
Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Heng, Savoeun; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Wong, Ming Hung; Kim, Kyoung-Woong
In the present study, we investigated the potential arsenic exposure of Cambodian residents from their daily food consumption. Environmental and ecological samples such as paddy soils, paddy rice (unhusked), staple rice (uncooked and cooked), fish and vegetables were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. After acid-digestion, digestates were chemically analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results revealed that the means of total arsenic concentration ([As]tot) in paddy soils and paddy rice from Kandal were significantly higher than those from Kampong Cham province (t-test, p<0.05). Moreover, a significant positive correlation between the [As]tot in paddy soils and paddy rice was found (r(14) = 0.826, p<0.01). Calculations of arsenic intake from food consumption indicated that the upper end of the range of the daily dose of inorganic arsenic for Kandal residents (0.089-8.386 μg d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.) was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5 is equal to 3.0 μg d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.). The present study suggests that the residents in Kandal are at risk of arsenic intake from their daily food consumption. However, the residents in Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces are less likely to be exposed to arsenic through their daily dietary intake. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report estimating the daily intake and daily dose of inorganic arsenic from food consumption in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.
Hanlon, J; Koruga, I; Chell, E; Pintaske, R
Purpose: Clinically viable depth dose determination in kilovoltage pencil-beams is a great challenge that resulted in a published dosimetry method called ITAR, which involves measurement of air kerma and attenuation with a detector in a low scatter environment coupled with MCNP scatter calculations. The objective of this work is to compare ITAR to traditional TAR using inherently water-proof microchambers that have only recently become commercially available. Methods: An Exradin A26 microchamber was centered 150 mm from a 100 kVp x-ray source with 2 mm aluminum HVL. Depth dose in water from 16 to 24 mm in 2 mm increments was determined by: (1) placing blocks of Plastic Water LR near the source to minimize scatter and using previously published conversion coefficients [ITAR method] and (2) submerging the detector in a water tank with 2 mm thick Plastic Water LR walls and jogging the tank with motor controllers while keeping the detector position fixed [traditional TAR method]. Each method was repeated four to five times. For each repetition, dose was measured free in-air to normalize the data for exponential regression. Results: Traditional TAR indicated higher depth dose than ITAR; differences ranged from 2.1% at 24 mm depth to 2.5% at 16 mm depth. However, the results of traditional TAR did not include a correction for Pq,cham because it is unknown for this detector type in these conditions. It is estimated that the component of Pq,cham due to the effect of water displacement alone is ∼0.94, but Pq,cham is likely several percent larger than 0.94 due to the energy dependency of the microchamber in the presence of low energy scatter that is not present during in-air calibration. Conclusion: The ITAR method remains preferable for clinical depth dose determination in kilovoltage pencil-beams due to Pq,cham being unknown for suitable detectors in relevant conditions. All four of the authors are either current full time employees, which include stock option grants, or
Lowry, S. A.; Keeton, L. W.
A general purpose, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code named PHOENICS, developed by CHAM Inc., is used to model the flow in the aft-platform seal cavity in the high pressure fuel pump of the space shuttle main engine. The model is used to predict the temperatures, velocities, and pressures in the cavity for six different sets of boundary conditions. The results are presented as input for further analysis of two known problems in the region, specifically: erratic pressures and temperatures in the adjacent coolant liner cavity and cracks in the blade shanks near the outer diameter of the aft-platform seal.
Cantrell, Kirk J.; Zachara, John M.; Dresel, P. Evan; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey
This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical process information available for the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tank farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility. Two companion reports to this one were recently published which discuss the geology of the farms (Reidel and Chamness 2007) and groundwater flow and contamination beneath the farms (Horton 2007).
Sagiv, Sharon K.; Kogut, Katherine; Gaspar, Fraser; Gunier, Robert; Harley, Kim; Parra, Kimberly; Villaseñor, Diana; Bradman, Asa; Holland, Nina; Eskenazi, Brenda
Objective California children’s exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) are among the highest measured worldwide. We previously reported associations for prenatal and childhood PBDE exposures with decrements in attention, processing speed, fine motor coordination, and cognition in children at ages 5 and 7 years. Here, we investigate associations of PBDEs with attention and executive function at ages 9 to 12 years in the expanded CHAMACOS cohort. Methods We measured PBDEs in prenatal and child age 9 year serum samples for families enrolled in the study since pregnancy (“CHAM1”, N=321). In a subsequent cohort for which families were enrolled at child age 9 (“CHAM2”, N=301), we measured PBDEs in maternal and child samples collected at child age 9, and used predictive modeling to estimate prenatal exposure levels. We examined associations of measured and estimated PBDE concentrations on children’s attention and executive functioning at ages 9, 10½, and 12 years. Results Geometric means for prenatal and childhood ΣPBDE levels (sum of PBDE−47,−99,−100,−153) for the expanded CHAMACOS cohort were 26.3 and 63.2 ng/g lipid, respectively, and did not differ significantly between CHAM1 and CHAM2 families. We found consistent associations of prenatal exposure to PBDEs with poorer attention and executive function, measured with parent report and direct neuropsychological testing of the child. For example, using GEE models of repeated outcome measures at age 9 and 12, a 10-fold increase in prenatal ΣPBDE was associated with poorer response consistency on the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test II (β=2.9; 95% CI: 0.9, 4.8) and poorer working memory on the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (β=2.5; 95% CI: 0.5, 4.4). Child age 9 ΣPBDE levels were associated with poorer parent-reported attention and executive function for girls but not boys. Conclusions Our results suggest that the prefrontal cortex may be a
wx+ w hdu edu/ndu/mss/bookslessa/essamddm.html 3 Setting Off a Cham Reaction Durmg the cold war, DOD built up a serves of supply and repair depots...the An Force’s explanatron Representatrve Don Nickles R -OK, noted “What’s Cahforma7 Ten percent of the electoral votes It makes one wonder ” Other...Reahgmnent Conumss~on, mtemew wnh author at Nahonal War College. 23 October, 1997 ’ Cassata , Donna, “GAO Faults Au Force Declslon to Shut No Repau
Singhal, A. K.; Owens, S. F.; Mukerjee, T.; Keeton, L. W.; Prakash, C.; Przekwas, A. J.
The efforts to adapt CHAM's computational fluid dynamics code, PHOENICS, to the analysis of flow within the high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) aft-platform seal cavity of the SSME are summarized. In particular, the special purpose PHOENICS satellite and ground station specifically formulated for this application are listed and described, and the preliminary results of the first part two-dimensional analyses are presented and discussed. Planned three-dimensional analyses are also briefly outlined. To further understand the mixing and combustion processes in the SSME fuelside preburners, a single oxygen-hydrogen jet element was investigated.
Singhal, A.K.; Keeton, L.W.; Przekwas, A.J.; Weems, J.S.
ATHOS (Analysis of the Thermal Hydraulics of Steam Generators) is a computer code developed by CHAM of North America Incorporated, under the contract RP 1066-1 from the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California. ATHOS supersedes the earlier code URSULA2. ATHOS is designed for three-dimensional, steady state and transient analyses of PWR steam generators. The current version of the code has been checked out for: three different configurations of the recirculating-type U-tube steam generators; the homogeneous and algebraic-slip flow models; and full and part load operating conditions.
possibly present as a hydroxy- tartrato complex, but when the sulfide is added it apparently replaces part of the hydroxy or tartrato groups, so that...there then exists a hydroxy- tartrato - sulfldo complex. Such a complex would undoubtedly give a "sulfide’’ wave, but since the size of such a complex...the behavior of the ouprio- (4) J. J. Lingane, J. Am. Cham. Soo., 65, 666 (1943). tartrato complex. In en acid tartrate medium one well-defined step
Lai, Xijun; Jiang, Jiahu; Liang, Qiuhua; Huang, Qun
The flow regime in the middle Yangtze River Basin is experiencing rapid changes due to intensive human activities and ongoing climate change. The middle reach of Yangtze River and the associated water system are extremely difficult to be reliably modeled due to highly complex interactions between the main stream and many tributaries and lakes. This paper presents a new Coupled Hydrodynamic Analysis Model (CHAM) designed for simulating the large-scale water system in the middle Yangtze River Basin, featured with complex river-lake interactions. CHAM dynamically couples a one-dimensional (1-D) unsteady flow model and a two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic model using a new coupling algorithm that is particularly suitable for large-scale water systems. Numerical simulations are carried out to reproduce the flow regime in the region in 1998 when a severe flood event occurred and in 2006 when it experienced an extremely dry year. The model is able to reproduce satisfactorily the major physical processes featured with seasonal wetting and drying controlled by strong river-lake interactions. This indicates that the present model provides a promising tool for predicting complex flow regimes with remarkable seasonal changes and strong river-lake interactions.
Tavakol, E; Pakniyat, H
This research was conducted to evaluate some of the drought resistance criteria at seedling stage in wheat. A factorial experiment in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used with two factors consisted of stress levels (0, -5 and -8 bar) using PEG 6000 and genotypes (10 genotypes of bread wheat; Azar 2, Gahar, Koohdasht, Bow, Zagros, Cham, Niknejad, E1 Neilairi, Bohoih and Giza 164) in three replications in a hydroponic condition. Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Water Use Efficiency (WUE), Biological Yield (BY), Shoot Dry Weight (SDW), Root Dry Weight (RDW), Root/Shoot weight ratio (R/S), Root Length (RL), Relative Water Content (RWC), Wilting Percentage (WP) and first and 2nd Leaves Extention Rate (LER1 and LER2) were measured at seedling stage. Increasing stress levels caused reduction in BY, SDW, RDW, RL, RWC, LER1 and LER2, but an increase in WUE, DWR, R/S and WP. Azar2, Gahar, Koohdasht, Zagros and Bow were in favorite condition in regard to STI, WUE and other criteria. Therefore, they are drought tolerant and might be suitable genotypes at water deficit conditions. Niknejad, E1 Neilairi and Cham were moderate and Giza 164 and Bohoih were sensitive genotypes to drought conditions. This research revealed that at -5 bar, WUE, BY, SDW, R/S and LER2 and at -8 bar, WUE, BY and WP were suitable criteria for selection of drought resistant genotypes at seedling stage.
Martin, Frédéric; Hay, Anne-Emmanuelle; Quinteros Condoretty, Valentin R; Cressend, Delphine; Reist, Marianne; Gupta, Mahabir P; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Hostettmann, Kurt
Extracts from several plants of the family Bignoniaceae from Panama were submitted to a rapid DPPH TLC test for the detection of radical-scavenging activity. The MeOH extract of the stems of Jacaranda caucana, a tree that grows from Costa Rica to Colombia, was selected due to its interesting activity and the lack of phytochemical studies on the polar extract. This extract was partitioned between ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. The EtOAc fraction afforded two new phenylethanoid glycosides (1, 2), along with protocatechuic acid, acteoside, and jionoside D. Further purifications yielded isoacteoside and martynoside. The BuOH fraction afforded a new rhamnosyl derivative of sisymbrifolin (8), a neolignan. The structures were determined by means of spectrometric methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS analysis.
Morales, Lidia; Acero, Nuria; Galán, Antonio; Perez-García, Carmen; Alguacil, Luis Fernando; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores
Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith (Bignoniaceae) is a liana vine used in traditional Amazonian medicine as a tonic and energizer as well as a treatment for rheumatism. These traditional indications prompted this study of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of T. panurensis bark extract (ETP). Phytochemical analysis of ETP showed the presence of saponins and a high concentration of phenols and flavonoids. A battery of in vitro tests revealed that the extract has free radical-scavenging antioxidant properties and reduces microsomal lipid peroxidation, uric acid synthesis, and tumor necrosis factor-α production. The anti-inflammatory properties of ETP were further confirmed in vivo in a rat carrageenan edema model, in which the extract exhibited a potent activity. These results support the idea that T. panurensis bark extract could be beneficial for treating inflammation and are in agreement with one of the main traditional uses of this plant.
Chulasiri, M.; Bunyapraphatsara, N.; Moongkarndi, P. )
Studies of the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of hispidulin and hortensin, the flavonoids from Millingtonia hortensis L. (Bignoniaceae), were performed using the liquid preincubation method of the Salmonella/microsome test. At the highest dose tested, 100 [mu]g/plate, both compounds showed no mutagenicity and no cytotoxicity toward S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. However, these substances were antimutagens toward 2-aminoanthracene, aflatoxin B1 (in TA98), and dimethylnitrosamine (in TA100); but neither substance inhibited the direct mutagenic activity of 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) acrylamide nor that of sodium azide in strains TA98 and TA100, respectively. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tab.
Callmander, Martin W.; Phillipson, Peter B.; Razanajatovo, Mialy; Nusbaumer, Louis
A recent review of Bignoniaceae for the “Catalogue of the vascular plants of Madagascar” has revealed new species in most of the genera present on the island. We provide descriptions of four new species in the genus Ophiocolea H. Perrier, a genus that is endemic to the Malagasy region: Ophiocolea ambrensis Callm. & Phillipson, Ophiocolea darainensis Callm., Phillipson & Nusb., Ophiocolea pauciflora Callm., Phillipson & Razan. and Ophiocolea ratovosonii Callm. & Phillipson. Field photographs and line drawings are provided for each of these four new species. Two species described previously, Ophiocolea decaryi H. Perrier and Ophiocolea velutina H. Perrier, are lectotypified. For all six treated species, we provide a short discussion on morphological affinities and eco-geography, and perform a conservation threat analysis based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. PMID:23243333
Callmander, Martin W; Phillipson, Peter B; Razanajatovo, Mialy; Nusbaumer, Louis
A recent review of Bignoniaceae for the "Catalogue of the vascular plants of Madagascar" has revealed new species in most of the genera present on the island. We provide descriptions of four new species in the genus Ophiocolea H. Perrier, a genus that is endemic to the Malagasy region: Ophiocolea ambrensis Callm. & Phillipson, Ophiocolea darainensis Callm., Phillipson & Nusb., Ophiocolea pauciflora Callm., Phillipson & Razan. and Ophiocolea ratovosonii Callm. & Phillipson. Field photographs and line drawings are provided for each of these four new species. Two species described previously, Ophiocolea decaryi H. Perrier and Ophiocolea velutina H. Perrier, are lectotypified. For all six treated species, we provide a short discussion on morphological affinities and eco-geography, and perform a conservation threat analysis based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.
da Rocha, Claudia Quintino; de-Faria, Felipe Meira; Marcourt, Laurence; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Kitano, Bruna Tiemi; Ghilardi, Amanda Franceschini; Luiz Ferreira, Anderson; de Almeida, Ana Cristina Alves; Dunder, Ricardo José; Souza-Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro; Hamburger, Matthias; Vilegas, Wagner; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; Wolfender, Jean-Luc
The hydroethanolic root extract of Arrabidaea brachypoda, from Bignoniaceae family, a Brazilian medicinal plant, demonstrated significant in vivo gastroprotective effects using different in vivo assays. The activity was evaluated in several models of experimental gastric ulcer in rats (absolute ethanol, glutathione depletion, nitric oxide depletion, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, pylorus ligation and acetic acid). Using 300 mg/kg (p.o.) the extract significantly reduced gastric injury in all models. In depth phytochemical investigation of this extract led to the isolation of two previously undescribed phenylethanoid glycosides derivatives and seven unusual glycosylated dimeric flavonoids. The structures were elucidated using UV, NMR and HRMS analysis. Absolute configuration of the dimeric flavonoids was performed by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy.
Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A
Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered
Pereira, V V; Duarte, L P; Silva, R R; Takahashi, J A
Jacaranda oxyphylla Cham. is popularly known as 'caroba-de-São-Paulo' and it is used in traditional medicine for microbial infections. A new phytoquinoid (α/β-glucoside-4-phenylacetate-6-(1-hydroxy-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1-acetate) (1) was isolated from J. oxyphylla leaves, together with three known compounds: quercetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside (2), verbascoside (3) and polystyrene (4). Their chemical structures were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques and by comparison with the related known compounds. In addition, it was found a pronounced acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity for the quinoid 1 (100.0 ± 0.8%) and phenolic compounds 2 and 3 (99.9 ± 0.7 and 99.3 ± 0.5%, respectively), if compared to the standard eserine (92.7 ± 0.4%), that was analysed by a microplate spectrophotometer.
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Cavalcanti, S C H; Niculau, E dos S; Blank, A F; Câmara, C A G; Araújo, I N; Alves, P B
The essential oils from accessions of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) were characterized by GC and GC/MS and investigated for their acaricidal activity against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch). Twenty-nine compounds were identified with potential acaricidal activity. Glass receptacles were used as test chambers. For each dose and exposure time combination, three replicates were used. Each replicate consisted of 30 adult females of T. urticae, 10 mites in each leaf disk of Canavalia ensiformis placed in a Petri dish. Increasing amounts of oil or terpene were applied on a blotting paper strip, fixed on the inner surface of the glass recipient cover, corresponding to 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 microL/L of air, respectively. Exposure periods were 24, 48, and 72 h. Data obtained in these experiments were submitted to probit analysis. The essential oil of L. sidoides, thymol and carvacrol exhibited potent acaricidal activity against T. urticae.
de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas; Engel, Michael S.; Mahlmann, Thiago
Abstract A third species of the rare augochlorine bee genus Chlerogelloides Engel et al. (Halictinae, Augochlorini) is described and figured. Chlerogelloides nexosa sp. n. is most similar to the type species, Chlerogelloides femoralis Engel et al., in that both have modified midlegs in the males. The former, however, can be distinguished on the basis of its terminalia, which in some respects more closely resembles those of Chlerogelloides simplex Engel and Brooks. Brief comments on the secondary features of males and relationships of the genus are provided. A key to the species of the genus is provided and floral records of Cordia nodosa Lam. (Boraginaceae) and Gonzalagunia dicocca Cham. & Schltdl. (Rubiaceae) are noted. PMID:22577312
Suthar, K. J.; Stillwell, B.; Lurie, Alexander M.; Den Hartog, P.
Heat pipes and vapour chambers work on heat exchange phenomena of two-phase flow and are widely used for in-dustrial and commercial applications. These devices offer very high effective thermal conductivities (5,000-200,000 W/m/K) and are adaptable to various sizes, shapes, and ori-entations. Although they have been found to be an excel-lent thermal management solution for laptops, satellites, and many things in-between, heat pipes and vapour cham-bers have yet to be adopted for use at particle accelerator facilities where they offer the possibility of more compact and more efficient means to remove heat from unwanted synchrotron radiation. As with all technologies, there are inherent limitations. Foremost, they are limited by practi-cality to serve as local heat transfer devices; heat transfer over long distances is likely best provided by other means. Heat pipes also introduce unique failure modes which must be considered.
Prakash, C.; Samonds, M.; Singhal, A. K.
A numerical method was developed for analyzing the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process. The phenomena being modeled include melting under the arc and the flow in the melt under the action of buoyancy, surface tension, and electromagnetic forces. The latter entails the calculation of the electric potential and the computation of electric current and magnetic field therefrom. Melting may occur at a single temperature or over a temperature range, and the electrical and thermal conductivities can be a function of temperature. Results of sample calculations are presented and discussed at length. A major research contribution has been the development of numerical methodology for the calculation of phase change problems in a fixed grid framework. The model has been implemented on CHAM's general purpose computer code PHOENICS. The inputs to the computer model include: geometric parameters, material properties, and weld process parameters.
Singhal, A.K.; Keeton, L.W.; Spalding, D.B.; Srikantiah, G.S.
ATHOS (Analysis of the Thermal Hydraulics of Steam Generators) is a computer code developed by CHAM of North America Incorporated, under the contract RP 1066-1 from the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California. ATHOS supersedes the earlier code URSULA2. ATHOS is designed for three-dimensional, steady state and transient analyses of PWR steam generators. The current version of the code has been checked out for: three different configurations of the recirculating-type U-tube steam generators; the homogeneous and algebraic-slip flow models; and full and part load operating conditions. The description of ATHOS is divided into four volumes. Volume 1 includes the mathematical and physical models and method of solution.
Singhal, A.K.; Keeton, L.W.; Przekwas, A.J.; Weems, J.S.
ATHOS (Analysis of the Thermal Hydraulics of Steam Generators) is a computer code developed by CHAM of North America Incorporated, under the contract RP 1066-1 from the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California. ATHOS supercedes the earlier code URSULA2. ATHOS is designed for three-dimensional, steady-state and transient analyses of PWR steam generators. The current version of the code has been checked out for: three different configurations of the recirculating-type U-tube steam generators; the homogeneous and algebraic-slip flow models; and full and part load operating conditions. The description of ATHOS is divided into the following four volumes: Volume 1, Mathematical and Physical Models and Methods of Solution; Volume 2, Programmer's Manual; Volume 3, User's Manual; and Volume 4, Applications. The code's possible uses, capabilities and limitations are described in Volume 1 as well as in Volume 3.
Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Spane, F.A. Jr.; Vermeul, V.R.; Webber, W.D.
The ground water underlying parts of the Hanford Site (Figure 1.1) contains radioactive and chemical contaminants at concentrations exceeding regulatory standards (Dresel et al. 1993). The Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is responsible for monitoring the movement of these contaminants to ensure that public health and the environment are protected. To support the monitoring effort, a sitewide three-dimensional ground-water flow model is being developed. This report provides an update on the status of the conceptual model that will form the basis for constructing a numerical three-dimensional flow model for, the site. Thorne and Chamness (1992) provide additional information on the initial development of the three-dimensional conceptual model.
Tovar, D C
The forests of Abies religiosa Schl. et Cham. in the north and the northeast slopes of the mountains of the southwestern region of the Valley of Mexico are in an acute process of decline, particularly the fir forest of the Cultural and Recreational Park Desierto de los Leones. The mortality of the trees began in 1981, and by 1987 30% of the trees of the Park had died; the mortality continues. The surviving trees are in a very poor crown condition, having thin crowns with many dead branches. in the light of current knowledge air pollution, in particular the oxidant gases (ozone), are the primary cause of decline, but other conditions or agents (age of the trees and diseases) could be contributing factors in the dying of the trees.
de L Guimarães, Luiz Gustavo; da Silva, Maria Laura M; Reis, Paula Campos J; Costa, Maria Tereza R; Alves, Livia L
Lippia sidoides Cham. is a plant that belongs to the family Verbenaceac and is commonly known as "alecrim-pimenta". It was first found in northeastern Brazil, where it is extensively used in traditional medicine. Many studies have been made with the essential oil of L. sidoides, which has a high content of the isomeric compounds thymol and carvacrol. L. sidoides extracts, and particularly the essential oil extracted from its aerial parts, have shown many biological activities such as antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal. Given the great biological potentialities of L. sidoides and the amount of recent studies about this plant, the present study aimed to make a survey of its general attributes, cultivation methods, chemical characterization of its extracts and essential oil, as well as its different biological activities.
James, D. J.; Aarnio, A. N.; Richert, A. J. W.; Cargile, P. A.; Santos, N. C.; Melo, C. H. F.; Bouvier, J.
We present the results of an optical photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy campaign for a modest sample of X-ray selected stars in the Chamaeleon and Rho Ophiuchus star-forming regions. With R˜ 50 000 optical spectra, we establish kinematic membership of the parent association and confirm stellar youth for each star in our sample. With the acquisition of new standardized BVIc photometry, in concert with near-infrared data from the literature, we derive age and mass from stellar positions in model-dependent Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams. We compare isochronal ages derived using colour-dependent extinction values finding that, within error bars, ages are the same irrespective of whether E(B - V), E(V - Ic), E(J - H) or E(H - K) is used to establish extinction, although model ages tend to be marginally younger for redder Ecolour values. For Cham I and η Cham members, we derive ages of ≲5-6 Myr, whereas our three η Cha candidates are more consistent with a ≳25 Myr post-T Tauri star population. In Rho Ophiuchus, most stars in our sample have isochronal ages <10 Myr. Five objects show evidence of strong infrared excess (Av > 5) in the Two Micron All Sky Survey colour-colour diagram, however in terms of Hα emission, all stars except RXJ1625.6-2613 are consistent with being weak-lined T-Tauri stars. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) over the range ≃4000 Å <λ < 1000 μm, show that only one Chamaeleon star (RXJ1112.7 -7637) and three Rho Ophiuchus stars (ROXR1 13, RXJ1625.6-2613 & RXJ1627.1-2419) reveal substantial departures from a bare photosphere.
Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong
Thousands of Cambodia populations are currently at high risks of both toxic and carcinogenic effects through drinking arsenic-rich groundwater. In order to determine and assess the use of arsenic contents in different biological samples as biomarkers of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking arsenic-rich groundwater in Cambodia, individual scalp hair, fingernail and toenail were collected from three different provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. After washing and acid-digestion, digestate was analyzed for total arsenic by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Chemical analysis of the acid-digested hair revealed that among 270 hair samples cut from Kandal, 78.1% had arsenic content in scalp hair (As(h)) greater than the typical As(h) (1.00 μg g(-1)), indicating possible arsenic toxicity. Concurrently, 1.2% and 0.6% were found elevated in Kratie (n=84) and Kampong Cham (n=173), respectively. Similarly, the upper end of the ranges for arsenic contents in fingernail (As(fn)) and toenail (As(tn)) clipped from Kandal (fingernail n=241; toenail n=187) were higher than the normal arsenic content in nail (0.43-1.08 μg g(-1)), however, none was observed elevated in both Kratie (fingernail n=76, toenail n=42) and Kampong Cham (fingernail n=83; toenail n=52). Significant positive intercorrelations between groundwater arsenic concentration (As(w)), average daily dose (ADD) of arsenic, As(h), As(fn) and As(tn) suggest that As(h), As(fn) and As(tn) can be used as biomarkers of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking arsenic-rich groundwater, in which As(h) is more favorable than As(fn) and As(tn) due to the ease of sample processing and analytical measurements, respectively.
Maciel, R.; Peña, L.; Rosas, J.
The paleoenvironment of the "Sierra de la Primavera" (SP) Jalisco Mexico, was studied with paleontology, tephrachronology, strato-tectonic, geochronology and climatology techniques. It was created between 126,000 and 27,000 years ago (late Pleistocene) by more than 22 domes and a caldera (110 +- 15 thousand years). There are fault and fractures with a NNE and NNW trends, with up of four reactivation periods. Historically, seismic events have been registered around the caldera. Volcanic and tectonic activities have contributed to the modification of the morphology. The evidence of an intermittent paleolake formed into the caldera, are 24 strata are built on tephras, fluvial and vulcano-lacustres deposits, (> 51 m thick), present 2o to 35o leanings. The central part of the paleolake has raised more than 149 m which was caused by the reappearance of the magmatic chamber, it and the climatic changes disappeared the paleolake. There are layers of gigantic pomez and strata with carbon whith remaining from pines (ones, aciculas and branches). The method of 14C used in fossils report an age of 38,170 to 39,000 years BP. They are classified as remainings of Pinus durangensis Martínez, Pinus leiophylla Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham., Pinus montezumae Lamb., Pinus luzmariae Pérez de la Rosa, Pinus teocote Schltdl. & Cham.y Pinus douglasiana Martínez. This community of pines was moved of SP to the Sierra de Bolaños (SB), 177 km northeast and 850 m higher (25000 masl), it is climatologically more humid and colder than the SP. This implies a movement in the border of the vegetation, associated to global climatic changes. Using the community of pines like bioindicator, it is inferred that the temperature in the SP has increased from 2 to 3 C and the precipitation has decreased between 100 and 200 mm from the late Pleistocene on. The predominant pine wood of its early years is now pine - Encino.
Dominguez-Taylor, P.; Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.; Rosas-Perez, I.; Hernández-Solis, J. M.; Steinbrecher, R.
The isoprenoid emission of sacred fir ( Abies religiosa (Kunth) Schltdl. & Cham.), patula pine ( Pinus patula Schiede, Schltdl. & Cham.) and net-leaf oak ( Quercus rugosa Née) was investigated in Mexico City during the years 2002 and 2003. Chemical compound specific emission factors were obtained for different months of the year. Net-leaf oak is an isoprene emitter whereas the other tree species emit monoterpenes. α-Pinene and linalool are the main compounds emitted from sacred fir and patula pine, respectively. In general, the emission of monoterpenes is temperature dependent, whereas α-pinene emission of sacred fir is controlled by light and temperature like the isoprene emission of net-leaf oak. All isoprenoids show a strong seasonality which is plant species specific. Emission factors for the conifers were high in October and low in April (sacred fir: 6.07μgCg-1dwh-1 in October and 0.02μgCg-1dwh-1 in April; patula pine: 4.22μgCg-1dwh-1 in October and 1.13μgCg-1dwh-1 in June). Isoprene emission potential of net-leaf oak was very variable in the different seasons with low source strengths in July (rainy season: 1.19μgCg-1dwh-1) and November (cold/dry season: 18.50μgCg-1dwh-1) but high in May (warm/dry season: 66.27μgCg-1dwh-1). The results indicate that present biogenic emission inventories of the Mexico City area have to be revised by using the new emission factors of native tree species including the seasonal impact.
Botion, L M; Ferreira, A V M; Côrtes, S F; Lemos, V S; Braga, F C
Ierobina is a Brazilian phytopharmaceutical product indicated for the treatment of dyspepsia. It contains the hydroethanolic extracts of Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae), Remijia ferruginea D.C. (Rubiaceae), Jacaranda caroba D.C. (Bignoniaceae) and Erythraea centaurium (L.) Borkh. (Gentianaceae), species traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. The effect of Ierobina on the digestive system was investigated in rats fed with normal or high-fat (HF) diets, at doses of 2.16, 4.32 and 8.64 mg/kg. The product did not affect the plasmatic levels of glucose, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in the evaluated doses, whereas the triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration showed a dose-dependent increase in HF-fed animals. TAG-rich lipoprotein uptake, estimated by measuring total lipoprotein lipase activity in epididymal adipose tissue, was accompanied by TAG increase in HF-fed rats, after Ierobina administration. The product also induced a concentration-dependent relaxant effect on spontaneous ileum contractions and on the rat ileum pre-contracted with carbachol. Together, these results support the indication of Ierobina as an anti-dyspeptic agent.
Kram, Brian W; Bainbridge, Elizabeth A; Perera, M Ann D N; Carter, Clay
The presence and function of several proteins secreted into floral nectars has been described in recent years. Here we report the presence of at least eight distinct proteins secreted into the floral nectar of the tropical tree Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae). Steps were initiated to identify and characterize these proteins in order to determine potential functions. The N-terminal sequence of the major Jacaranda nectar protein, JNP1, at 43 kDa contained similarity with members of the plant GDSL lipase/esterase gene family. Based upon this sequence, a full-length cDNA was isolated and predicted to encode a mature protein of 339 amino acids with a molecular mass of 37 kDa. Both raw nectar and heterologously expressed JNP1 displayed lipase/esterase activities. Interestingly, J. mimosifolia flowers produce an opaque, white colored nectar containing spherical, lipophilic particles approximately 5 microm in diameter and smaller. GS-MS analysis also identified the accumulation of free fatty acids within the nectar. It is proposed that JNP1 hydrolyzes Jacaranda nectar lipids with the concomitant release of free fatty acids. Potential functions of JNP1 in relation to pollinator attraction and prevention of microbial growth within nectar are briefly discussed.
Singab, Abdel Nasser B; Mostafa, Nada M; Eldahshan, Omayma A; Ashour, Mohamed L; Wink, Michael
Volatile constituents of the essential oil and n-hexane extract of Jacaranda acutifolia Humb. and Bonpl. (Bignoniaceae) leaves were determined, and their antimicrobial activities were investigated using an agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined and compared with those of standard antibiotics (penicillin, gentamicin and nystatin). The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GLC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS). Thirty-four components, comprising almost 93.8% of the total peak area, were identified in the leaf essential oil. The main components were methyl linolenate (26.7%), 1-octen-3-ol (10.8%), methyl phenyl acetate (9.9%), beta-linalool (5.5%) and palmitic acid (4.7%). The n-hexane extract revealed similar oil constituents, but also p-benzoquinone, phenyl acetic acid, resorcinol and homogentisic acid. The oil showed some activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with MIC values of 2.2 and 2.9 mg/mL, respectively, and moderate activity against Candida albicans, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri. The n-hexane extract showed moderate activities against all tested microorganisms, with MIC values ranging from 3.5 to 10.2 mg/mL. The antimicrobial activities of the hydrodistilled and extracted leaves make their local traditional uses rational.
Gachet, María Salomé; Schühly, Wolfgang
The genus Jacaranda, an important representative of the tribe Tecomeae in the family Bignoniaceae, is interesting from both biological and chemical perspectives. In this review, a contemporary summary of biological and pharmacological research on Jacaranda species will be presented and critically evaluated. Significant findings in the treatment of protozoa-caused diseases as well as of skin illnesses have been presented in ethnobotanical reports and recent studies were performed on crude extracts for certain Jacaranda species. Jacaranone, the most important constituent isolated is known to possess anti-cancer activity. Recently, high cutaneous toxicity together with moderate activity against leishmaniasis was described. Very few additional data are available on the biological activities and cytotoxicity of pure compounds from Jacaranda. Thirteen of the forty-nine distinguished species of Jacaranda have been reported in scientific literature as ethnobotanically used or phytochemically investigated. However, information about a chemical profile is available only for six species. The following article gives a critical assessment of the literature to date and aims to show that the pharmaceutical potential of this genus has been underestimated and deserves closer attention.
Santos, Joyce Alencar; Arruda, Aline; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Piccinelli, Ana Cláudia; Figueiredo de Santana Aquino, Diana; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina
Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata Farias & Proença (Bignoniaceae) is a species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. Previous findings from our group reported scientifically that J. decurrens has anti-inflammatory efficacy. However, more toxicological studies are needed to support and ensure its safe use. The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of a prolonged treatment with hydroethanolic root extract of J. decurrens (EJD) on hematological, biochemical, and reproductive parameters in adult male rats. The animals received by oral gavage 0; 250; 500; or 1000 mg/kg body weight of EJD for 28 days. After the treatment, biochemical, hematological, histopathological, and reproductive parameters were analyzed. The EJD treatment did not cause adverse effects on body weight gain, feed and water consumption, hematological and biochemical profiles, or histopathological analysis of liver and kidney. Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences in reproductive parameters, such as sperm production, number of sperm in the epididymis, and sperm morphology. These results demonstrate the absence of subacute toxicity as a result of the oral treatment with EJD for 28 days in adult male rats. However, other studies should be performed to evaluate the total safety of this plant.
Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari; Wilson, Neil L; Guest, David; Roberts, Thomas H
Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) is a major disease of wheat. We tested aqueous leaf extracts of Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae), Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae), and Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) for their ability to protect wheat from leaf rust. Extracts from all three species inhibited P. triticina urediniospore germination in vitro. Plants sprayed with extracts before inoculation developed significantly lower levels of disease incidence (number of plants infected) than unsprayed, inoculated controls. Sprays combining 0.6% leaf extracts and 2 mM salicylic acid with the fungicide Amistar Xtra at 0.05% (azoxystrobin at 10 μg/liter + cyproconazole at 4 μg/liter) reduced disease incidence significantly more effectively than sprays of fungicide at 0.1% alone. Extracts of J. mimosifolia were most active, either alone (1.2%) or in lower doses (0.6%) in combination with 0.05% Amistar Xtra. Leaf extracts combined with fungicide strongly stimulated defense-related gene expression and the subsequent accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in the apoplast of inoculated wheat leaves. The level of protection afforded was significantly correlated with the ability of extracts to increase PR protein expression. We conclude that pretreatment of wheat leaves with spray formulations containing previously untested plant leaf extracts enhances protection against leaf rust provided by fungicide sprays, offering an alternative disease management strategy.
Mendonça, Kiára; Marchini, Luís C; Souza, Bruno de A; Almeida-Anacleto, Daniela de; Moreti, Augusta C de C C
The present work had as objectives to know the bee flora composition in an savannah fragment of the Estação Experimental de Itirapina, unit of Divisão de Florestas e Estações Experimentais do Instituto Florestal, in Itirapina county, São Paulo State, Brazil (22 masculine14'S and 47 masculine49'W). The pollen spectrum of the produced honey and the pollen collected by the Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera L. were determined in the area. The information contributes to understand the beekeeping exploration potential in remaining areas of savannah, as an alternative for the sustainable development. The blooming plants were collected biweekly between December 2004 and November 2005, along a trail with 3 km of extension. Pollen loads samples were collected biweekly from February to November 2005, and honey samples were collected monthly, from February to October of the same year, in five beehives of A. mellifera, installed at the same area. The local flora was represented by 82 species, belonging to 59 genera and 30 families, being 3.7% represented in hony samples and 6.1% in pollen loads. Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Malpighiaceae and Myrtaceae were the most representative families.
Lee, Mu Hong; Choi, Hyun Mi; Hahm, Dae-Hyun; Her, Erk; Yang, Hyung-In; Yoo, Myung Chul; Kim, Kyoung Soo
Taheebo, the purple inner bark of the Bignoniaceae tree Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb, which is found in tropical rain forests in northeastern Brazil, has been used as a traditional medicine for various diseases for more than 1,500 years. In the current study, various animal models were used to demonstrate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of its ethanolic extract, thereby investigating its potential as a therapeutic treatment for diseases with pain and inflammation. In the hot plate and writhing tests for the in vivo analgesic effect test of Taheebo, a 200 mg/kg dose of the extract induced a significant anti-nociceptive effect and increased the pain threshold by approximately 30% compared with the control. In vascular permeability and tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA)‑, arachidonic acid- and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests for anti-inflammatory effects, treatment with 200 mg/kg Taheebo led to significant anti-inflammatory effects and inhibited inflammation by 30-50% compared with the control. At 100 mg/kg, the extract decreased the levels of pain and inflammation in all tested models, but the degree of inhibition was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic or supportive drug against diseases with accompanying pain and inflammation, including osteoarthritis.
Somanathan, Hema; Borges, Renee M; Warrant, Eric J; Kelber, Almut
Bees are mostly active during the daytime, but nocturnality has been reported in some bee families. We studied temporal flight activity in three species of carpenter bees (genus Xylocopa) in relation to light intensities. X. leucothorax is diurnal, X. tenuiscapa is largely diurnal being only occasionally crepuscular, while X. tranquebarica is truly nocturnal. Occasional forays into dim light by X. tenuiscapa are likely to be due to the availability of richly rewarding Heterophragma quadriloculare (Bignoniaceae) flowers, which open at night. X. tranquebarica can fly even during the moonless parts of nights when light intensities were lower than 10(-5) cd m(-2), which makes this species the only truly nocturnal bee known so far. Other known dim-light species fly during crepuscular or moonlit periods. We compare eye and body sizes with other known diurnal and dim-light bees. We conclude that while extremely large ocellar diameters, large eye size:body size ratio, large number of ommatidia and large ommatidial diameters are all adaptations to dim-light foraging, these alone do not sufficiently explain the flights of X. tranquebarica in extremely dim light. We hypothesise that additional adaptations must confer extreme nocturnality in X. tranquebarica.
Zorzenon, F J; Campos, A E C
Urban tree deterioration is a common problem all over the world. Inappropriate plant species choice and inadequate planting may lead to micro and macro organism attacks, such as pests and diseases. Subterranean termite damage is common and may promote tree falls. In order to help urban forestry planning, this work was carried out for 9 years on 1477 street trees in a neighborhood in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Plants were identified to species, grouped as native, exotic plants, and palm trees, and their measures of circumference at breast height (CBH) were taken, in order to evaluate if subterranean termite damages are related to tree size and plant group. Four subterranean termite species were identified infesting up to 27% of the plants, with Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) being the most common. Palm trees were not damaged by subterranean termites, while native plants are the most susceptible, especially Caesalpinia pluviosa var. peltophoroides (Fabaceae). Among the native plants monitored C. pluviosa var. peltophoroides, Caesalpinia ferrea var. leiostachya, Erythrina speciosa, Piptadenia gonoacantha (Fabaceae), Gochnatia polymorpha (Asteraceae), Tibouchina granulosa (Melastomataceae), and Handroanthus spp. (Bignoniaceae), the latter was the least damaged. Exotic plants were also susceptible with the exception of Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae) and Platanus acerifolia (Platanaceae). Correlation analysis showed that the higher the CBH value, the higher the percentage of internal damage by C. gestroi. Infested trees were treated with imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, and subterranean termites were effectively controlled during the 9-year study.
Schenk, H Jochen; Espino, Susana; Visser, Ate; Esser, Bradley K
A new method is described for measuring dissolved gas concentrations in small volumes of xylem sap using membrane inlet mass spectrometry. The technique can be used to determine concentrations of atmospheric gases, such as argon, as reported here, or for any dissolved gases and their isotopes for a variety of applications, such as rapid detection of trace gases from groundwater only hours after they were taken up by trees and rooting depth estimation. Atmospheric gas content in xylem sap directly affects the conditions and mechanisms that allow for gas removal from xylem embolisms, because gas can dissolve into saturated or supersaturated sap only under gas pressure that is above atmospheric pressure. The method was tested for red trumpet vine, Distictis buccinatoria (Bignoniaceae), by measuring atmospheric gas concentrations in sap collected at times of minimum and maximum daily temperature and during temperature increase and decline. Mean argon concentration in xylem sap did not differ significantly from saturation levels for the temperature and pressure conditions at any time of collection, but more than 40% of all samples were supersaturated, especially during the warm parts of day. There was no significant diurnal pattern, due to high variability between samples.
de Carvalho-Sobrinho, Jefferson G; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Alverson, William S
In the course of a taxonomic revision of Pseudobombax Dugand, one of us (JGCS) frequently has observed herbarium specimens of Bombacoideae that comprise a mixture of different Angiosperm families. In particular, Pseudobombax heteromorphum (Kuntze) A. Robyns, a frequent name in checklists of the Bolivian flora, is based on type material of Bombax heteromorphum Kuntze that is clearly a mixture of Pseudobombax flowers and Tabebuia Gomes ex DC. (Bignoniaceae) leaves. We herein designate as the lectotype of Bombax heteromorphum the flowers of an herbarium sheet deposited in NY and as epitype a complete specimen (leaves, flowers, and fruit) in HUEFS. We consider Bombax heteromorphum to be a synonym of Pseudobombax longiflorum (Mart.) A. Robyns, a species widespread in Neotropical seasonally dry forest of Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Peru. Furthermore, we describe a new species, Pseudobombax pulchellum Carv.-Sobr., apparently endemic to seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) in Bolivia (Chiquitano dry forest), based on specimens commonly but incorrectly identified as Pseudobombax heteromorphum.We also comment on the morphology, distribution, and conservation status of this new species.
Siddiqui, Nahida; Aeri, Vidhu
Betulinic acid (BA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid acid obtained from the stem bark of Tecomella undulata Seem. (Bignoniaceae). Development of an efficient extraction method for the isolation of BA is important as it has a wide range of pharmacological activity. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to investigate the effect of extraction variables such as temperature (30-60 °C), time (4-8 h) and solvent to drug ratio (300-500 mL/100 g) on the maximization of BA yield and its quantification using validated densitometric high performance thin layer chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPTLC-VIS). A quadratic polynomial model was found to best fit the model with R² = 0.99. The optimized Soxhlet extraction yielded 2.449% w/w of BA at a temperature 53.86 °C, time 6.38 h and solvent to drug ratio 371 mL/100 g. BA in Tecomella undulata bark was detected at Rf value of 0.65 at 510 nm using the solvent system toluene-ethyl acetate-glacial acetic acid (8.5:1.5:0.02 v/v/v). The analytical method was validated and the linear regression analysis reflects good linear relationship (R² = 0.9902). Lower %RSD and SEM suggested that the developed HPTLC-VIS method was precise, accurate and robust. Therefore, these economical techniques are very efficient and promising for the extraction and quantification of pharmaceutically important BA.
Machado, S R; Morellato, L P C; Sajo, M G; Oliveira, P S
Extrafloral nectaries are nectar-secreting structures that are especially common among the woody flora of the Brazilian cerrado, a savanna-like vegetation. In this study, we provide morphological and anatomical descriptions of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) occurring on vegetative and reproductive organs of several plant species from the cerrado, and discuss their function and ecological relevance. We describe the morphology and anatomy of EFNs of 40 species belonging to 15 woody families using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. We categorise EFNs following a structural-topographical classification, and characterise the vascularised and complex nectaries, amorphous nectaries and secretory trichomes. Fabaceae, Bignoniaceae, Malpighiaceae and Vochysiaceae were the plant families with the majority of species having EFNs. Ten species possess more than one morphotype of gland structure. Observations and experimental field studies in the cerrado support the anti-herbivore role of EFN-gathering ants in this habitat. Additional morphological studies of EFNs-bearing plants, including other growth forms (e.g. herbs and lianas), are being undertaken and will hopefully cast further light on the ecological relevance of these glands in the cerrado, especially with respect to their attractiveness to multiple visitors.
Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G; Im, Myung Hee
This study investigated the effect of grade retention in elementary school on students' motivation for educational attainment in grade 9. We equated retained and promoted students on 67 covariates assessed in grade 1 through propensity score weighting. Retained students (31.55%, nretained=177) and continuously promoted students (68.45%, npromoted=384) were compared on the bifactor model of motivation for educational attainment (Cham, Hughes, West & Im, 2014). This model consists of a General factor (student's overall motivation for educational attainment), and three specific factors: student perceived Teacher Educational Expectations, Peer Educational Aspirations, and Value of Education. Measurement invariance between retained and promoted groups was established. Retained students scored significantly higher than promoted students on each specific factor but not on the General factor. Results showed that the retained and promoted students did not significantly differ on the General factor. The retained students had significantly higher scores on each specific factor than those of the promoted students. The results suggested that grade retention may not have the negative effects so widely assumed in the published literature; it is an expensive intervention with minimal evidence of benefits to the retained student.
West, Stephen G
Should low-achieving students be promoted to the next grade or be retained (held back) in the prior grade? This special section presents a discussion of the application of marginal structural models to the challenging problem of estimating the effect of promotion versus retention in grade on math scores in elementary school. Vandecandelaere, De Fraine, Van Damme, and Vansteelandt provide a didactic presentation of the marginal structural modeling approach, noting retention is a time-varying treatment because promoted low-achieving students may be retained in a subsequent grade. Steiner, Park, and Kim's commentary presents a detailed analysis of the treatment effects being estimated in same-age versus same-grade comparisons from the perspective of the potential outcomes model. Reshetnyak, Cham, and Kim's commentary clarifies the conditions under which same-age versus same-grade comparisons might be preferred; they also identify methods of further improving the estimation of retention effects. In their rejoinder, Vandecandelaere and Vansteelandt discuss tradeoffs in comparing the promoted and retained groups and highlight sensitivity analysis as a method of probing the robustness of treatment effect estimates. Our hope is that this combined didactic presentation and critical evaluation will encourage researchers to add marginal structural models to their methodological toolkits.
Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong
In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia.
Hughes, Nicole M; Vogelmann, Thomas C; Smith, William K
A red/purple coloration of lower (abaxial) leaf surfaces is commonly observed in deeply-shaded understorey plants, especially in the tropics. However, the functional significance of red abaxial coloration, including its role in photosynthetic adaptation, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to test the back-scatter hypothesis for abaxial leaf coloration, which posits that red pigments internally reflect/scatter red light transmitted by the upper leaf surface back into the mesophyll, thereby enhancing photon capture in light-limited environments. Abaxially red/non-red variegated leaves of Begonia heracleifolia (Cham. & Schltdl.) were used to compare reflectance spectra and chlorophyll fluorescence profiles of abaxially anthocyanic (red) and acyanic (non-red) tissues under red light. Photosynthetic gas exchange in response to red light was also compared for abaxially red/non-red leaf sections. The results did not support a back-scattering function, as anthocyanic leaf surfaces were not more reflective of red light than acyanic surfaces. Anthocyanic tissues also did not exhibit any increases in the mesophyll absorbance of red light, or increased photosynthetic gas exchange under red light at any intensity, relative to acyanic tissues. These results suggest that abaxial anthocyanins do not significantly enhance the absorption of red light in the species tested, and alternative functions are discussed.
Rolland, A; Fleurentin, J; Lanhers, M C; Younos, C; Misslin, R; Mortier, F; Pelt, J M
Eschsholzia californica Cham. is a traditional medicinal plant of the Indians used by the rural population of California for its analgesic and sedative properties. Our study on the aqueous extract shows that this plant reduced the behavioural parameters measured in a familiar environment test in mice (novelty preference, locomotion and rearings in two compartments test) at doses above 100 mg/kg and in non-familiar environment tests (staircase test) at doses above 200 mg/kg. This finding validates its traditional sedative properties confirmed by the sleeping induction at doses above 100 mg/kg. Furthermore, when administered at a dose a of 25 mg/kg, E. californica appeared to also have an anxiolytic action since it produced an increase of the number of steps climbed by mice in the staircase test (anticonflict effect) and that of the time spent by animals in the lit box when they were confronted with the light/dark choice situation. Before evaluation of the behavioural effects, it was verified that our aqueous extract did not induce any toxic effect when administered i.p. and p.o.
Becker, Bjorn; Weltz, Adam; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Thompson, J. T.; Thompson, N.; Danon, Yaron
The use of a Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer (LSDS) is consid- ered as a possible option for non-destructive assay of fissile material of used nuclear fuel. The primary objective is to quantify the 239Pu and 235U fissile content via a direct measurement, distinguishing them through their characteristic fission spectra in the LSDS. In this pa- per, we present several assay measurements performed at the Rensse- laer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) to demonstrate the feasibility of such a method and to provide benchmark experiments for Monte Carlo cal- culations of the assay system. A fresh UOX fuel rod from the RPI Criticality Research Facility, a 239PuBe source and several highly en- riched 235U discs were assayed in the LSDS. The characteristic fission spectra were measured with 238U and 232Th threshold fission cham- bers, which are only sensitive to fission neutron with energy above the threshold. Despite the constant neutron and gamma background from the PuBe source and the intense interrogation neutron flux, the LSDS system was able to measure the characteristic 235U and 239Pu responses. All measurements were compared to Monte Carlo simula- tions. It was shown that the available simulation tools and models are well suited to simulate the assay, and that it is possible to calculate the absolute count rate in all investigated cases.
Paul, Mathilde C.; Goutard, Flavie L.; Roulleau, Floriane; Holl, Davun; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Roger, François L.; Tran, Annelise
The Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 (HPAI) virus is now considered endemic in several Asian countries. In Cambodia, the virus has been circulating in the poultry population since 2004, with a dramatic effect on farmers’ livelihoods and public health. In Thailand, surveillance and control are still important to prevent any new H5N1 incursion. Risk mapping can contribute effectively to disease surveillance and control systems, but is a very challenging task in the absence of reliable disease data. In this work, we used spatial multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) to produce risk maps for HPAI H5N1 in poultry. We aimed to i) evaluate the performance of the MCDA approach to predict areas suitable for H5N1 based on a dataset from Thailand, comparing the predictive capacities of two sources of a priori knowledge (literature and experts), and ii) apply the best method to produce a risk map for H5N1 in poultry in Cambodia. Our results showed that the expert-based model had a very high predictive capacity in Thailand (AUC = 0.97). Applied in Cambodia, MCDA mapping made it possible to identify hotspots suitable for HPAI H5N1 in the Tonlé Sap watershed, around the cities of Battambang and Kampong Cham, and along the Vietnamese border. PMID:27489997
Boucher, Douglas H
Quercus oleoides Cham. and Schlecht is an unusual tree in several respects: it is an oak found in neotropical lowland forests, its distribution is not continuous but ratherdivided into many patches of various sizes, and it is a dominant in all the forests in which it occurs, attaining densities far higher than most species of tropical trees. This density pattern is related to the vulnerability of Q. oleoides acorns to predation by mammals. Observations of agoutis, deer, peccaries, squirrels, pocket mice and other seed consumers in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica, showed that these mammals act only as predators, not dispersers, of Q. oleoides acorns. Experiments which involved placing acorns in deciduous forest where Q. oleoides does not occur, demonstrated that, due to high predation rates, the number of acorns produced by an isolated tree is far too low for adults to replace themselves.In oak forest, on the other hand, where the combined acorn crops of many oaks satiate the seed predators, acorn survivorship until germination is high enough to maintain the population. Furthermore, acorn survivorship in oak forest areas is inversely proportional to the apparent mammal density in those areas. Thus the pattern of forest dominance and patchy distribution is related to positively density-dependent acorn survivorship: where Q. oleoides is the forest dominant, it will survive, but if its density falls to the level typical of tropical trees, it will go locally extinct.
Keeton, L.W.; Singhal, A.K.
This is the user's manual for the ATHOS3 computer code. ATHOS3 is a computer code for three-dimensional, steady-state and transient analyses of PWR steam generators. It has been developed by upgrading an earlier code, ATHOS (Analysis of the Thermal Hydraulics of Steam Generators). Both ATHOS and ATHOS3 have been developed by CHAM of North America, Inc., under the contract RP1066-1 from the Electric Power Research Institute. ATHOS3 supercedes ATHOS and all other intermediate versions of the code. ATHOS3 has several additional capabilities, including a much improved and generalized geometry pre-processor module, and has been developed in a fully upwards-compatible manner from the predecessor ATHOS code. For the convenience of new users, the ATHOS3 code is documented in four self-contained volumes, i.e., no reference to the earlier ATHOS volumes is necessary. Furthermore, for the benefit of old (i.e., ATHOS code) users, it may be stated that the new (ATHOS3) documentation has been produced by updating and modifying the earlier documentation.
Keeton, L.W.; Singhal, A.K.; Srikantiah, G.S.
The mathematical and physical models as well as the method of solution are presented for ATHOS3. ATHOS3 is a computer code for three-dimensional, steady-state and transient analyses of PWR steam generators. It has been developed by upgrading an earlier code, ATHOS (Analysis of the Thermal Hydraulics of Steam Generators). Both ATHOS and ATHOS3 have been developed by CHAM of North America, Inc., under the contract RP1066-1 from the Electric Power Research Institute. ATHOS3 supercedes ATHOS and all other intermediate versions of the code. ATHOS3 has several additional capabilities, including a much improved and generalized geometry pre-processor module, and has been developed in a fully upwards-compatible manner from the predecessor ATHOS code. For the convenience of new users, the ATHOS3 code is documented in four self-contained volumes, i.e. no reference to the earlier ATHOS volumes is necessary. Furthermore, for the benefit of old (i.e. ATHOS code) users, it may be stated that the new (ATHOS3) documentation has been produced by updating and modifying the earlier documentation.
Anic, V; Henríquez, C A; Abades, S R; Bustamante, R O
The component Allee effect has been defined as 'a positive relationship between any measure of individual fitness and the number or density of conspecifics'. Larger plant populations or large patches have shown a higher pollinator visitation rate, which may give rise to an Allee effect in reproduction of the plants. We experimentally tested the effect of number of conspecifics on reproduction and pollinator visitation in Eschscholzia californica Cham., an invasive plant in Chile. We then built patches with two, eight and 16 flowering individuals of E. californica (11 replicates per treatment) in an area characterised by dominance of the study species. We found that E. californica exhibits a component Allee effect, as the number of individuals of this species has a positive effect on individual seed set. However, individual fruit production was not affected by the number of plants examined. Pollinator visitation rate was also independent of the number of plants, so this factor would not explain the Allee effect. This rate was positively correlated with the total number of flowers in the patches. We also found that the number of plants did not affect the seed mass or proportion of germinated seeds in the patches. Higher pollen availability in patches with 16 plants and pollination by wind could explain the Allee effect. The component Allee effect identified could lead to a weak demographic Allee effect that might reduce the rate of spread of E. californica. Knowledge of this would be useful for management of this invasive plant in Chile.
Park, J.-M.; Manen, J.-F.; Colwell, A.E.; Schneeweiss, G.M.
The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group based on a region from the plastid genome (rps2 gene). Although substitution rates appear to be elevated compared to the photosynthetic members of Orobanchaceae, relationships among the major lineages Cistanche, Conopholis plus Epifagus, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) B. Fedtsch., B. himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson, B. hookeri Walp. plus B. strobilacea A. Gray, and Orobanche s. l. remain unresolved. Resolution within Orobanche, however, is much better. In agreement with morphological, cytological and other molecular phylogenetic evidence, five lineages, corresponding to the four traditionally recognised sections (Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Orobanche, Trionychon) and O. latisquama Reut. ex Boiss. (of sect. Orobanche), can be distinguished. A combined analysis of plastid rps2 and nuclear ITS sequences of the holoparasitic genera results in more resolved and better supported trees, although the relationships among Orobanche s. l., Cistanche, and the clade including the remaining genera is unresolved. Therefore, rps2 is a marker from the plastid genome that is well-suited to be used in combination with other already established nuclear markers for resolving generic relationships of Orobanche and related genera. ?? 2008 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.
Karnati, Mamatha; Chandra, Rodda H; Veeresham, Ciddi; Kishan, Bookya
Background: Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae) also known as Sonapatha is an indigenous medicinal plant widely used in Ayurvedic medicine for over thousands of years. It is an active ingredient of well-known Ayurvedic formulations such as Chyawanprash and Dasamula. Root bark of this plant has tonic and astringent properties and it is also used in rheumatism. Objective: The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of different extracts of root bark of Oroxylum indicum against adjuvant - induced arthritis in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were used in this study. Arthritis was induced by injecting 0.1 ml Freund's complete adjuvant intra-dermally into the left hind paw of the rats. The paw volume, hematological, biochemical, radiographic and histopathological aspects were evaluated. Results: The relative percentage inhibition potential of paw volume in rats treated with various extracts of Oroxylum indicum was found to be ethyl acetate extract (67.69%) >chloroform extract (64.61%) >n-butanol extract (58.46%) respectively. The hematological parameters like RBC count, hemoglobin content showed significant increase while there was a significant decrease in total WBC count and ESR in all the groups of animals pretreated with root bark extracts. The biochemical parameters such as catalase, glutathione contents showed a significant increase while the lipid peroxide and Cathepsin-D content decreased significantly only in case of ethyl acetate pretreated rats when compared to others. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of root bark of Oroxylum indicum exhibit anti-arthritic activity. The order of activity of extracts was found to be ethyl acetate >chloroform >n-butanol respectively. PMID:23798888
Figueiredo, Carlos R.; Matsuo, Alisson L.; Pereira, Felipe V.; Rabaça, Aline N.; Farias, Camyla F.; Girola, Nátalia; Massaoka, Mariana H.; Azevedo, Ricardo A.; Scutti, Jorge A.B.; Arruda, Denise C.; Silva, Luciana P.; Rodrigues, Elaine G.; Lago, João Henrique G.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Silva, Regildo M.G.
Background: Pyrostegia venusta (Ker. Gawl.) Miers (Bignoniacea) is a medicinal plant from the Brazilian Cerrado used to treat leucoderma and common diseases of the respiratory system. Objective: To investigate the antitumor activity of P.venusta extracts against melanoma. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic activity and tumor induced cell death of heptane extract (HE) from P. venusta flowers was evaluated against murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells in vitro and in a syngeneic model in vivo. Results: We found that HE induced apoptosis in melanoma cells by disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, induction of reactive oxygen species and late apoptosis evidenced by plasma membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, exposure of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface and activation of caspase-2,-3,-8,-9. HE was also protective against singeneyc subcutaneous melanoma HE compounds were also able to induce cell cycle arrest at G2/M phases on tumor cells. On fractionation of HE in silica gel we isolated a cytotoxic fraction that contained a mixture of saturated hydrocarbons identified by 1H NMR and GC-MS analyses. Predominant species were octacosane (C28H58-36%) and triacontane (C30H62-13%), which individually showed significant cytotoxic activity against murine melanoma B16F10-Nex2 cells in vitro and a very promising antitumor protection against subcutaneous melanoma in vivo. Conclusion: The results suggest that the components of the heptane extract, mainly octasane and triacontane, which showed antitumor properties in experimental melanoma upon regional administration, might also be therapeutic in human cancer, such as in the mostly epidermal and slowly invasive melanomas, such as acral lentiginous melanoma, as an adjuvant treatment to surgical excision. PMID:24991116
de Melo, Warita Alves; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S.; Terribile, Levi Carina
Studies based on contemporary plant occurrences and pollen fossil records have proposed that the current disjunct distribution of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) across South America is the result of fragmentation of a formerly widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the arid climatic conditions associated with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which is known as the modern-day dry forest refugia hypothesis. We studied the demographic history of Tabebuia rosealba (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographic distribution of South American SDTFs based on statistical phylogeography and ecological niche modeling (ENM). We specifically tested the dry forest refugia hypothesis; i.e., if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the LGM. We sampled 235 individuals across 18 populations in Central Brazil and analyzed the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnS-trnG, psbA-trnH and ycf6-trnC intergenic spacers) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. We performed coalescence simulations of alternative hypotheses under demographic expectations from two a priori biogeographic hypotheses (1. the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis and, 2. a range shift to Amazon Basin) and other two demographic expectances predicted by ENMs (3. expansion throughout the Neotropical South America, including Amazon Basin, and 4. retraction during the LGM). Phylogenetic analyses based on median-joining network showed haplotype sharing among populations with evidence of incomplete lineage sorting. Coalescent analyses showed smaller effective population sizes for T. roseoalba during the LGM compared to the present-day. Simulations and ENM also showed that its current spatial pattern of genetic diversity is most likely due to a scenario of range retraction during the LGM instead of the fragmentation from a once extensive and largely contiguous SDTF across South America, not supporting the South
Amaral, D D; Vieira, I C G; Salomão, R P; Almeida, S S; Jardim, M A G
This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha), Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha), Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha), Combu Is. reserve (10 ha), Gunma Park reserve (10 ha) and Mocambo reserve (5 ha). Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008) were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae), Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae), Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae), Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae), Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae), Manilkara huberi (Ducke) Chevalier (Sapotaceae), Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae), Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn.) Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae) and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae). Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve), as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém.
Collevatti, Rosane G; Terribile, Levi Carina; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Nabout, João C; de Oliveira, Guilherme; Rangel, Thiago F; Rabelo, Suelen G; Diniz-Filho, Jose A F
We investigated here the demographical history of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Bignoniaceae) to understand the dynamics of the disjunct geographical distribution of South American seasonally dry forests (SDFs), based on coupling an ensemble approach encompassing hindcasting species distribution modelling and statistical phylogeographical analysis. We sampled 17 populations (280 individuals) in central Brazil and analysed the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnS-trnG, psbA-trnH, and ycf6-trnC intergenic spacers) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on median-joining network showed no haplotype sharing among population but strong evidence of incomplete lineage sorting. Coalescent analyses showed historical constant populations size, negligible gene flow among populations, and an ancient time to most recent common ancestor dated from ~4.7 ± 1.1 Myr BP. Most divergences dated from the Lower Pleistocene, and no signal of important population size reduction was found in coalescent tree and tests of demographical expansion. Demographical scenarios were built based on past geographical range dynamic models, using two a priori biogeographical hypotheses ('Pleistocene Arc' and 'Amazonian SDF expansion') and on two additional hypotheses suggested by the palaeodistribution modelling built with several algorithms for distribution modelling and palaeoclimatic data. The simulation of these demographical scenarios showed that the pattern of diversity found so far for T. impetiginosa is in consonance with a palaeodistribution expansion during the last glacial maximum (LGM, 21 kyr BP), strongly suggesting that the current disjunct distribution of T. impetiginosa in SDFs may represent a climatic relict of a once more wide distribution.
Sithisarn, Patchima; Nantateerapong, Petcharat; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Sithisarn, Pongtip
Oroxylum indicum, which is called Pheka in Thai, is a traditional Thai plant in the Bignoniaceae family with various ethnomedical uses such as as an astringent, an anti-inflammatory agent, an anti-bronchitic agent, an anti-helminthic agent and an anti-microbial agent. The young fruits of this plant have also been consumed as vegetables. However, there has been no report concerning its antibacterial activities, especially activities related to clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria and the in vitro antioxidant effects of this plant. Therefore, the extracts from O. indicum fruits and seeds collected from different provinces in Thailand were prepared by decoction and maceration with ethanol and determined for their in vitro antibacterial effects on two clinically isolated bacteria, Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius, using disc diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts from O. indicum fruits collected from Nakorn Pathom province at the concentration of 1000 mg/mL exhibited intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with an inhibition zone of 15.11 mm. Moreover, it promoted moderate inhibitory effects on S. suis with an inhibition zone of 14.39 mm. The extracts prepared by maceration with ethanol promoted higher antibacterial activities than those prepared with water. The ethanol extract from the seeds of this plant, purchased in Bangkok, showed stronger in vitro antioxidant activities than the other extracts, with an EC50 value of 26.33 µg/mL. Phytochemical analysis suggested that the seed ethanol extract contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents (10.66 g% gallic acid equivalent and 7.16 g% quercetin equivalent, respectively) by a significant amount. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the extracts showed the chromatographic band that could correspond to a flavonoid baicalein. From the results, extracts from O. indicum fruits have an in vitro antioxidant effect, with antibacterial potential, on clinically pathologic
Vinson, C C; Kanashiro, M; Sebbenn, A M; Williams, T CR; Harris, S A; Boshier, D H
The impact of logging and subsequent recovery after logging is predicted to vary depending on specific life history traits of the logged species. The Eco-gene simulation model was used to evaluate the long-term impacts of selective logging over 300 years on two contrasting Brazilian Amazon tree species, Dipteryx odorata and Jacaranda copaia. D. odorata (Leguminosae), a slow growing climax tree, occurs at very low densities, whereas J. copaia (Bignoniaceae) is a fast growing pioneer tree that occurs at high densities. Microsatellite multilocus genotypes of the pre-logging populations were used as data inputs for the Eco-gene model and post-logging genetic data was used to verify the output from the simulations. Overall, under current Brazilian forest management regulations, there were neither short nor long-term impacts on J. copaia. By contrast, D. odorata cannot be sustainably logged under current regulations, a sustainable scenario was achieved by increasing the minimum cutting diameter at breast height from 50 to 100 cm over 30-year logging cycles. Genetic parameters were only slightly affected by selective logging, with reductions in the numbers of alleles and single genotypes. In the short term, the loss of alleles seen in J. copaia simulations was the same as in real data, whereas fewer alleles were lost in D. odorata simulations than in the field. The different impacts and periods of recovery for each species support the idea that ecological and genetic information are essential at species, ecological guild or reproductive group levels to help derive sustainable management scenarios for tropical forests. PMID:24424164
Vinson, C C; Kanashiro, M; Sebbenn, A M; Williams, T C R; Harris, S A; Boshier, D H
The impact of logging and subsequent recovery after logging is predicted to vary depending on specific life history traits of the logged species. The Eco-gene simulation model was used to evaluate the long-term impacts of selective logging over 300 years on two contrasting Brazilian Amazon tree species, Dipteryx odorata and Jacaranda copaia. D. odorata (Leguminosae), a slow growing climax tree, occurs at very low densities, whereas J. copaia (Bignoniaceae) is a fast growing pioneer tree that occurs at high densities. Microsatellite multilocus genotypes of the pre-logging populations were used as data inputs for the Eco-gene model and post-logging genetic data was used to verify the output from the simulations. Overall, under current Brazilian forest management regulations, there were neither short nor long-term impacts on J. copaia. By contrast, D. odorata cannot be sustainably logged under current regulations, a sustainable scenario was achieved by increasing the minimum cutting diameter at breast height from 50 to 100 cm over 30-year logging cycles. Genetic parameters were only slightly affected by selective logging, with reductions in the numbers of alleles and single genotypes. In the short term, the loss of alleles seen in J. copaia simulations was the same as in real data, whereas fewer alleles were lost in D. odorata simulations than in the field. The different impacts and periods of recovery for each species support the idea that ecological and genetic information are essential at species, ecological guild or reproductive group levels to help derive sustainable management scenarios for tropical forests.
Vinson, C C; Kanashiro, M; Harris, S A; Boshier, D H
Selective logging in Brazil allows for the removal of up to 90% of trees above 50 cm diameter of a given timber species, independent of a species' life history characteristics or how quickly it will recover. The genetic and demographic effects of selective logging on two Amazonian timber species (Dipteryx odorata Leguminosae, Jacaranda copaia Bignoniaceae) with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics were assessed in the same forest. Genetic diversity and gene flow were characterized by genotyping adults and seed sampled before and after logging, using hypervariable microsatellite markers. Overall, there were no short-term genetic impacts on the J. copaia population, with commercial application of current Brazilian forest management regulations. In contrast, for D. Odorata, selective logging showed a range of genetic impacts, with a 10% loss of alleles, and reductions in siring by pollen from trees within the 546-ha study area (23-11%) and in the number of pollen donors per progeny array (2.8-1.6), illustrating the importance of the surrounding landscape. Asynchrony in flowering between D. odorata trees led to trees with no breeding partners, which could limit the species reproduction and regeneration under current regulations. The results are summarized with other published studies from the same site and the implications for forest management discussed. The different types and levels of impacts associated with each species support the idea that ecological and genetic information by species, ecological guild or reproductive group is essential in helping to derive sustainable logging guidelines for tropical forests.
Otero, R; Núñez, V; Jiménez, S L; Fonnegra, R; Osorio, R G; García, M E; Díaz, A
Twelve of 74 ethanolic extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites in the northwest region of Colombia, were active against lethal effect of Bothrops atrox venom when they were i.p. injected into mice (18-20 g). After preincubation of sublethal doses of every extract (0.5-4.0 mg/mouse) with 1.5 i.p. lethal dose 50% (LD50) (99.3 microg) of venom, seven of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity within 48 h. These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae) and Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae) and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae); and the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae). The other five extracts showing partial neutralization (45-80%; 10-30% survival rate in the control group receiving the venom alone; P<0.05) were: leaves, branches and stem of Costus lasius (Costaceae); the whole plant of Sida acuta (Malvaceae); rhizomes of Dracontium croatii (Araceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae) and Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae). When the extracts were independently administered per oral or i.p. route 60 min before an i.m. venom injection (204 microg=1.5 i.m. LD50), C. limon, T. elegans, B. orellana and T. rosea extracts had partial and significant neutralizing capacity against B. atrox venom lethal effect. C. limon extract was also partially effective when it was administered either i.v. 15 min before or i.p. 5 min after an i.m. venom injection. Three of the 12 extracts with anti-lethal effect (C. limon, D. croatii and S. acuta) were devoid of antiphospholipase A2 activity, when they were tested against one minimum indirect hemolytic dose of B. atrox venom (2 microg) in agarose-erythrocyte-egg yolk gels.
Núñez, V; Otero, R; Barona, J; Saldarriaga, M; Osorio, R G; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Díaz, A; Quintana, J C
We determined the neutralizing activity of 12 ethanolic extracts of plants against the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom in Swiss Webster mice. The material used consisted of the leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plant of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae) and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae), Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae) and Dracontium croatii (Araceae), and the ripe fruit of Citrus limon (Rutaceae). After preincubation of varying amounts of each extract with either 1.0 microg venom for the edema-forming effect or 2.0 microg venom for the defibrinating effect, the mixture was injected subcutaneously (sc) into the right foot pad or intravenously into the tail, respectively, to groups of four mice (18-20 g). All extracts (6.2-200 microg/mouse) partially neutralized the edema-forming activity of venom in a dose-dependent manner (58-76% inhibition), with B. orellana, S. orbicularis, G. panamensis, B. rosademonte, and D. croatii showing the highest effect. Ten extracts (3.9-2000 microg/mouse) also showed 100% neutralizing ability against the defibrinating effect of venom, and nine prolonged the coagulation time induced by the venom. When the extracts were administered either before or after venom injection, the neutralization of the edema-forming effect was lower than 40% for all extracts, and none of them neutralized the defibrinating effect of venom. When they were administered in situ (sc at the same site 5 min after venom injection), the neutralization of edema increased for six extracts, reaching levels up to 64% for C. limon.
Habash, Dimah Z.; Baudo, Marcela; Hindle, Matthew; Powers, Stephen J.; Defoin-Platel, Michael; Mitchell, Rowan; Saqi, Mansoor; Rawlings, Chris; Latiri, Kawther; Araus, Jose L.; Abdulkader, Ahmad; Tuberosa, Roberto; Lawlor, David W.; Nachit, Miloudi M.
Durum wheat is susceptible to terminal drought which can greatly decrease grain yield. Breeding to improve crop yield is hampered by inadequate knowledge of how the physiological and metabolic changes caused by drought are related to gene expression. To gain better insight into mechanisms defining resistance to water stress we studied the physiological and transcriptome responses of three durum breeding lines varying for yield stability under drought. Parents of a mapping population (Lahn x Cham1) and a recombinant inbred line (RIL2219) showed lowered flag leaf relative water content, water potential and photosynthesis when subjected to controlled water stress time transient experiments over a six-day period. RIL2219 lost less water and showed constitutively higher stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, abscisic acid content and enhanced osmotic adjustment at equivalent leaf water compared to parents, thus defining a physiological strategy for high yield stability under water stress. Parallel analysis of the flag leaf transcriptome under stress uncovered global trends of early changes in regulatory pathways, reconfiguration of primary and secondary metabolism and lowered expression of transcripts in photosynthesis in all three lines. Differences in the number of genes, magnitude and profile of their expression response were also established amongst the lines with a high number belonging to regulatory pathways. In addition, we documented a large number of genes showing constitutive differences in leaf transcript expression between the genotypes at control non-stress conditions. Principal Coordinates Analysis uncovered a high level of structure in the transcriptome response to water stress in each wheat line suggesting genome-wide co-ordination of transcription. Utilising a systems-based approach of analysing the integrated wheat’s response to water stress, in terms of biological robustness theory, the findings suggest that each durum line
Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Mudd, Ryan G.; Liu, Wen; Ziegler, Alan D.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope
To investigate the effects of expanding rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation on water cycling in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), evapotranspiration (ET) was measured within rubber plantations at Bueng Kan, Thailand, and Kampong Cham, Cambodia. After energy closure adjustment, mean annual rubber ET was 1211 and 1459 mm yr-1 at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively, higher than that of other tree-dominated land covers in the region, including tropical seasonal forest (812-1140 mm yr-1), and savanna (538-1060 mm yr-1). The mean proportion of net radiation used for ET by rubber (0.725) is similar to that of tropical rainforest (0.729) and much higher than that of tropical seasonal forest (0.595) and savanna (0.548). Plant area index (varies with leaf area changes), explains 88.2% and 73.1% of the variance in the ratio of latent energy flux (energy equivalent of ET) to potential latent energy flux (LE/LEpot) for midday rain-free periods at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. High annual rubber ET results from high late dry season water use, associated with rapid refoliation by this brevideciduous species, facilitated by tapping of deep soil water, and by very high wet season ET, a characteristic of deciduous trees. Spatially, mean annual rubber ET increases strongly with increasing net radiation (Rn) across the three available rubber plantation observation sites, unlike nonrubber tropical ecosystems, which reduce canopy conductance at high Rn sites. High water use by rubber raises concerns about potential effects of continued expansion of tree plantations on water and food security in MSEA.
Gorsuch, Dennis M; Oberbauer, Steven F
An increased risk of frost is expected during the growing season, as climate warming increases spring temperatures in the Arctic. Because deciduous species have a growth season limited in length and also have generally larger conduit volumes, they are more likely than evergreens to be injured by freeze-thaw-induced cavitation during the growing season. To test whether growth at elevated temperature increases susceptibility to freeze-thaw damage, we grew a deciduous arctic shrub species (Salix pulchra Cham.) in simulated Alaskan summer temperatures and at 5 degrees C above the ambient simulation (+5 degrees C plants) in controlled environments. Stem specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) and leaf stomatal conductance (g(s)) were measured in plants grown at both temperatures before and after a freeze treatment simulating a mid-season frost. Before the freeze treatment, specific xylem conductivity was 2.5 times higher and stomatal conductances were 1.3 times higher in +5 degrees C plants than in ambient-grown plants. Reductions in hydraulic conductivity and stomatal conductance as a result of the freeze were 3.5 and 1.8 times greater respectively in +5 degrees C plants than in ambient-grown plants. Many of the +5 degrees C plants showed extensive leaf damage. Plants grown in the two treatments also differed in comparative xylem anatomy; +5 degrees C plants had larger vessel diameters (25.4 versus 22.6 micro m) and higher vessel densities (71 versus 67.4 vessels mm(-2)) than ambient-grown plants. Our results suggest that higher growing season temperatures will increase the susceptibility of arctic deciduous shrubs to frost damage, which may offset their competitive growth advantage.
Hiremath, A J
Differences in nutrient-use efficiency have been attributed to differences in leaf habit. It has been suggested that evergreens, with their longer-lived leaves, and therefore longer nutrient retention, are more efficient than deciduous species in their use of nutrients. In tropical trees, however, leaf life span is not always a function of whole-tree deciduousness, leading to the proposal that nutrient-use efficiency is better related to leaf life span than to leaf habit. It was predicted that potential photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiency (maximum potential photosynthesis/leaf nutrient content) would decrease with increasing leaf life span, whereas cumulative photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiency (carbon assimilated over a leaf's life span/total nutrients invested in a leaf) would increase with increasing leaf life span. Potential and cumulative photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiencies (with respect to nitrogen and phosphorus) were measured for three fast-growing tropical trees: Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae), Cordia alliodora (R. & P.) Cham. (Boraginaceae), and Hyeronima alchorneoides Allemão (Euphorbiaceae). Mean leaf life spans of the three species varied about threefold and ranged from 50 to 176 days. The predictions were partially supported: Cedrela odorata had the shortest-lived leaves and the highest potential nitrogen-use efficiency, whereas Hyeronima alchorneoides had the longest-lived leaves and the highest cumulative nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies. Potential phosphorus-use efficiency, however, was invariant among species. It is suggested that there are potential tradeoffs between leaf characteristics that lead to high potential and cumulative nutrient-use efficiencies. High potential nutrient-use efficiency may be beneficial in high-nutrient environments, whereas high cumulative nutrient-use efficiency may be of greater benefit to species in low-nutrient environments.
Tyler, Madelaine K; Liu, Paul Z Y; Lee, Christopher; McKenzie, David R; Suchowerska, Natalka
Flattening filter-free (FFF) beams are becoming the preferred beam type for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), as they enable an increase in dose rate and a decrease in treatment time. This work assesses the effects of the flattening filter on small field output factors for 6 MV beams generated by both Elekta and Varian linear accelerators, and determines differences between detector response in flattened (FF) and FFF beams. Relative output factors were measured with a range of detectors (diodes, ionization cham-bers, radiochromic film, and microDiamond) and referenced to the relative output factors measured with an air core fiber optic dosimeter (FOD), a scintillation dosimeter developed at Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, Sydney. Small field correction factors were generated for both FF and FFF beams. Diode measured detector response was compared with a recently published mathematical relation to predict diode response corrections in small fields. The effect of flattening filter removal on detector response was quantified using a ratio of relative detector responses in FFF and FF fields for the same field size. The removal of the flattening filter was found to have a small but measurable effect on ionization chamber response with maximum deviations of less than ± 0.9% across all field sizes measured. Solid-state detectors showed an increased dependence on the flattening filter of up to ± 1.6%. Measured diode response was within ± 1.1% of the published mathematical relation for all fields up to 30 mm, independent of linac type and presence or absence of a flattening filter. For 6 MV beams, detector correction factors between FFF and FF beams are interchangeable for a linac between FF and FFF modes, providing that an additional uncertainty of up to ± 1.6% is accepted.
Pal, Khuondyla; Ngin, Chanrith; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Ly, Cheaty; Chhim, Srean; Luong, Minh-Anh; Tatomir, Brent; Yi, Siyan
Background In Cambodia, HIV prevalence is high while HIV testing rates remain low among transgender women (TG women), men who have sex with men (MSM), and female entertainment workers (FEW). Introducing self-testing for HIV to these key populations (KPs) could potentially overcome the under-diagnosis of HIV and significantly increase testing rates and receipt of the results, and thus could decrease transmission. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the acceptability of HIV self-testing (HIVST) among these three categories of KPs. Methods This study was conducted through focus group discussions (FGDs) with TG women, MSM, and FEW in Phnom Penh city, Kampong Cham, Battambang, and Siem Reap provinces of Cambodia. Convenience sampling was used to recruit the participants. Two FGDs (six participants in each FGD) were conducted in each target group in each study site, totaling 24 FGDs (144 participants). Thematic analysis was performed to identify common or divergent patterns across the target groups. Results Almost all participants among the three groups (TG women, MSM, and FEW) had not heard about HIVST, but all of them expressed willingness to try it. They perceived HIVST as confidential, convenient, time-saving, and high-tech. Barriers to obtaining HIVST included cost, access, administration technique, embarrassment, and fear of pain. The majority preferred counseling before and after testing. Conclusions Participants showed high willingness to use and acceptability of HIVST due to its confidentiality/privacy and convenience even if it is not linked to a confirmatory test or care and treatment. Notwithstanding, to increase HIVST, the target groups would need affordable self-test kits, education about how to perform HIVST and read results, assurance about accuracy and reliability of HIVST, and provision of post-test counseling and facilitation of linkage to care and treatment. PMID:27829064
Manthalu, Gerald; Yi, Deokhee; Farrar, Shelley; Nkhoma, Dominic
The Government of Malawi has signed contracts called service level agreements (SLAs) with mission health facilities in order to exempt their catchment populations from paying user fees. Government in turn reimburses the facilities for the services that they provide. SLAs started in 2006 with 28 out of 165 mission health facilities and increased to 74 in 2015. Most SLAs cover only maternal, neonatal and in some cases child health services due to limited resources. This study evaluated the effect of user fee exemption on the utilization of maternal health services. The difference-in-differences approach was combined with propensity score matching to evaluate the causal effect of user fee exemption. The gradual uptake of the policy provided a natural experiment with treated and control health facilities. A second control group, patients seeking non-maternal health care at CHAM health facilities with SLAs, was used to check the robustness of the results obtained using the primary control group. Health facility level panel data for 142 mission health facilities from 2003 to 2010 were used. User fee exemption led to a 15% (P < 0.01) increase in the mean proportion of women who made at least one antenatal care (ANC) visit during pregnancy, a 12% (P < 0.05) increase in average ANC visits and an 11% (P < 0.05) increase in the mean proportion of pregnant women who delivered at the facilities. No effects were found for the proportion of pregnant women who made the first ANC visit in the first trimester and the proportion of women who made postpartum care visits. We conclude that user fee exemption is an important policy for increasing maternal health care utilization. For certain maternal services, however, other determinants may be more important.
Mota, Magaly L; Lobo, Lis Tavares Coelho; Costa, José M Galberto da; Costa, Leandro S; Rocha, Hugo A O; Rocha e Silva, Luiz F; Pohlit, Adrian M; Neto, Valter F de Andrade
The prophylactic and therapeutic arsenal against malaria is quite restricted and all the antimalarials currently in use have limitations. Thus, there is a need to investigate medicinal plants in the search for phytochemicals which can be developed into drugs. In our investigation, essential oils (EOs) were obtained from Vanillosmopsis arborea (Gardner) Baker, Lippia sidoides Cham. and Croton zehntneri Pax & K. Hoffm., aromatic plants abundant in northeastern Brazil, which are found in the caatinga region and are used in traditional medicine. The chemical composition of these EOs was characterized by GC-MS, and monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were well represented. We assessed the in vitro activity of these EOs and also individual EO chemical components against the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (K1 strain) and the in vivo activity of EOs in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. The acute toxicity of these oils was assessed in healthy mice and in vitro cytotoxicity was determined at different concentrations against HeLa cells and mice macrophages. The EO of V. Arborea was partially active only when using the subcutaneous route (inhibited from 33 up to 47 %). In relation to the EOs, L. sidoides and C. zehntneri were active only by the oral route (per gavage) and partially inhibited the growth of P. berghei from 43 up to 55 % and showed good activity against P. falciparum in vitro (IC (50) = 7.00, 10.50, and 15.20 µg/mL, respectively). Individual EO constituents α-bisabolol, estragole, and thymol also exhibited good activity against P. falciparum (IC (50) = 5.00, 30.70, and 4.50 µg/mL, respectively). This is the first study showing evidence for the antimalarial activity of these species from northeastern Brazil and the low toxicity of their EOs.
Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki
Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 year<1) had 26. There was a significant difference in departments of the two groups (P=0.011) but not in sex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia.
Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A.; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki
ABSTRACT Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 year<1) had 26. There was a significant difference in departments of the two groups (P=0.011) but not in sex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia. PMID:27303102
Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Mudd, Ryan G.; Liu, Wen; Ziegler, Alan D.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope
The expansion of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation to higher latitudes and higher elevations in southeast Asia is part of a dramatic shift in the direction of rural land cover change in the region toward more tree covered landscapes. To investigate the possible effects of increasing rubber cultivation in the region on ecosystem services including water cycling, eddy covariance towers were established to measure ecosystem fluxes within two rubber plantations, one each in Bueng Kan, northeastern Thailand, and Kampong Cham, central Cambodia. The results show that evapotranspiration (ET) at both sites is strongly related to variations in available energy and leaf area, and moderately controlled by soil moisture. Measured mean annual ET was 1128 and 1272 mm for the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. After adjustment for energy closure, mean annual was estimated to be 1211 and 1459 mm yr at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. Based on these estimates and that of another site in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China, it appears that of rubber is higher than that of other tree dominated land covers in the region, including forest. While measurements by others in non rubber tropical ecosystems indicate that at high net radiation sites is at most only slightly higher than for sites with lower net radiation, mean annual rubber increases strongl with increasing net radiation across the three available rubber plantation observation sites. With the continued expansion of tree dominated land covers, including rubber cultivation, in southeast Asia, the possible association between commercially viable, fast growing tree crop species Giambelluca et al. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Havea brasiliensis) cultivated at two sites in southeast Asia and their relatively high water use raises concerns about potential effects on water and food security.
Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D
To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers
Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C. B.; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M.
Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum. PMID:27594838
Manthalu, Gerald; Yi, Deokhee; Farrar, Shelley; Nkhoma, Dominic
The Government of Malawi has signed contracts called service level agreements (SLAs) with mission health facilities in order to exempt their catchment populations from paying user fees. Government in turn reimburses the facilities for the services that they provide. SLAs started in 2006 with 28 out of 165 mission health facilities and increased to 74 in 2015. Most SLAs cover only maternal, neonatal and in some cases child health services due to limited resources. This study evaluated the effect of user fee exemption on the utilization of maternal health services. The difference-in-differences approach was combined with propensity score matching to evaluate the causal effect of user fee exemption. The gradual uptake of the policy provided a natural experiment with treated and control health facilities. A second control group, patients seeking non-maternal health care at CHAM health facilities with SLAs, was used to check the robustness of the results obtained using the primary control group. Health facility level panel data for 142 mission health facilities from 2003 to 2010 were used. User fee exemption led to a 15% (P < 0.01) increase in the mean proportion of women who made at least one antenatal care (ANC) visit during pregnancy, a 12% (P < 0.05) increase in average ANC visits and an 11% (P < 0.05) increase in the mean proportion of pregnant women who delivered at the facilities. No effects were found for the proportion of pregnant women who made the first ANC visit in the first trimester and the proportion of women who made postpartum care visits. We conclude that user fee exemption is an important policy for increasing maternal health care utilization. For certain maternal services, however, other determinants may be more important. PMID:27175033
Deacon, Nicholas John; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine
Background Quercus oleoides Cham. and Schlect., tropical live oak, is a species of conservation importance in its southern range limit of northwestern Costa Rica. It occurs in high-density stands across a fragmented landscape spanning a contrasting elevation and precipitation gradient. We examined genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure in this geographically isolated and genetically distinct population. We characterized population genetic diversity at 11 nuclear microsatellite loci in 260 individuals from 13 sites. We monitored flowering time at 10 sites, and characterized the local environment in order to compare observed spatial genetic structure to hypotheses of isolation-by-distance and isolation-by-environment. Finally, we quantified pollen dispersal distances and tested for local adaptation through a reciprocal transplant experiment in order to experimentally address these hypotheses. Results High genetic diversity is maintained in the population and the genetic variation is significantly structured among sampled sites. We identified 5 distinct genetic clusters and average pollen dispersal predominately occurred over short distances. Differences among sites in flowering phenology and environmental factors, however, were not strictly associated with genetic differentiation. Growth and survival of upland and lowland progeny in their native and foreign environments was expected to exhibit evidence of local adaptation due to the more extreme dry season in the lowlands. Seedlings planted in the lowland garden experienced much higher mortality than seedlings in the upland garden, but we did not identify evidence for local adaptation. Conclusion Overall, this study indicates that the Costa Rican Q. oleoides population has a rich population genetic history. Despite environmental heterogeneity and habitat fragmentation, isolation-by-distance and isolation-by-environment alone do not explain spatial genetic structure. These results add to studies of genetic
Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Becerra-Jiménez, Jaime; Cárdenas-Vázquez, René
Type 2 diabetes is an endocrine disease, which accounts for 9% of deaths worldwide. The aim of oral therapy is to reach normoglycemia to prevent later complications. Among glucose-lowering medications, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors delay the absorption of ingested carbohydrates, reducing the postprandial glucose and insulin peaks. In the present study, we tested the butanolic extracts of four Mexican plants with respect to their alpha-glucosidase inhibition activity, without excluding other possible mechanisms of action. The plants Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol., Equisetum myriochaetum Schlecht & Cham, Acosmium panamense (Benth.) Yacolev and Malmea depressa (Baill) R.E. Fries are used in traditional medicine to treat type 2 diabetes. In previous studies, we have demonstrated these plants' hypoglycemic activity and determined the phytochemical composition of their extracts. Our results in n-STZ diabetic rats loaded with maltose showed that Malmea and Acosmium extracts decreased plasma glucose significantly from 30 min on resembling the effect of acarbose. Cecropia extract produced the highest reduction of plasma glucose, and at 90 min, the glucose level was lower than the fasting level, which suggests another mechanism of action. Equisetum did not exert any effect. In vitro assays of alpha-glucosidase activity showed an IC(50) of 14 microg/ml for Cecropia, 21 microg/ml for Malmea, and 109 microg/ml for Acosmium, which were lower than that of acarbose (128 microg/ml). Equisetum did not show any significant effect on this assay, either. These results contribute to understand the mechanism of action of these plants on glucose metabolism.
Cunha, Nayanne Larissa; Uchôa, Camila Jacintho de Mendonça; Cintra, Lucas Silva; de Souza, Herbert Cristian; Peixoto, Juliana Andrade; Silva, Claudia Peres; Magalhães, Lizandra Guidi; Gimenez, Valéria Maria Meleiro; Groppo, Milton; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; da Silva Filho, Ademar Alves; Andrade e Silva, Márcio Luís; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Pauletti, Patrícia Mendonça; Januário, Ana Helena
Miconia langsdorffii Cogn. (Melastomataceae), Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae), Struthanthus syringifolius (Mart.) (Loranthaceae), and Schefflera vinosa (Cham. & Schltdl.) Frodin (Araliaceae) are plant species from the Brazilian Cerrado whose schistosomicidal potential has not yet been described. The crude extracts, fractions, the triterpenes betulin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside were evaluated in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms and the bioactive n-hexane fractions of the mentioned species were also analyzed by GC-MS. Betulin was able to cause worm death percentage values of 25% after 120 h (at 100 μM), and 25% and 50% after 24 and 120 h (at 200 μM), respectively; besides the flavonoid quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside promoted 25% of death of the parasites at 100 μM. Farther the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside at 100 μM exhibited significantly reduction in motor activity, 75% and 87.5%, respectively. Biological results indicated that crude extracts of R. montana, S. vinosa, and M. langsdorffii and some n-hexane and EtOAc fractions of this species were able to induce worm death to some extent. The results suggest that lupane-type triterpenes and flavonoid monoglycosides should be considered for further antiparasites studies. PMID:22924053
Chen, Min; Deng, Sufang; Yang, Youquang; Huang, Yibing; Liu, Zhongzhu
Azolla has high growth and propagation rate, strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability and rich nutrient value. It is able to be used as salad-type vegetable, and can also be cultured on wet bed in multi-layer condition. Hence, it possesses a potential functioning as providing O2, fresh vegetable and absorbing CO2 for Controlled Ecological Life Support System in space. In this study, we try to make clear the O2-providing characteristics of Azolla in controlled close chamber under manned condition in order to lay a foundation for Azolla as a biological component in the next ground simulated experiment and space application. A closed test cham-ber of Controlled Ecological Life Support System and Azolla wet-culturing devices were built to measure the changes of atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber under "Azolla-fish -men" coexisting condition. The results showed that, the amount of O2 consumption is 80.49 83.07 ml/h per kilogram fish, the amount of CO2 emissions is 70.49 73.56 ml/(kg • h); O2 consumption of trial volunteers is 19.71 L/h, the volume of respiration release CO2 18.90 L/h .Artificial light intensity of Azolla wet culture under 70009000 Lx, people respiration and Azolla photosynthesis complemented each other, the atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber maintained equilibration. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations in close chamber have obvious effects on enhancing Azolla net photosynthesis efficiency. This shows that Azolla has strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability, which equilibrates the O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber in favor of human survival, and then verifies the prospect of Azolla in space application.
Nogueira, Anselmo; El Ottra, Juliana Hanna Leite; Guimarães, Elza; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues; Lohmann, Lúcia G.
Background and Aims Trichomes are epidermal outgrowths generally associated with protection against herbivores and/or desiccation that are widely distributed from ferns to angiosperms. Patterns of topological variation and morphological evolution of trichomes are still scarce in the literature, preventing valid comparisons across taxa. This study integrates detailed morphoanatomical data and the evolutionary history of the tribe Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae) in order to gain a better understanding of current diversity and evolution of trichome types. Methods Two sampling schemes were used to characterize trichome types: (1) macromorphological characterization of all 105 species currently included in Bignonieae; and (2) micromorphological characterization of 16 selected species. Individual trichome morphotypes were coded as binary in each vegetative plant part, and trichome density and size were coded as multistate. Ancestral character state reconstructions were conducted using maximum likelihood (ML) assumptions. Key Results Two main functional trichome categories were found: non-glandular and glandular. In glandular trichomes, three morphotypes were recognized: peltate (Pg), stipitate (Sg) and patelliform/cupular (P/Cg) trichomes. Non-glandular trichomes were uniseriate, uni- or multicellular and simple or branched. Pg and P/Cg trichomes were multicellular and non-vascularized with three clearly distinct cell layers. Sg trichomes were multicellular, uniseriate and long-stalked. ML ancestral character state reconstructions suggested that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Bignonieae probably had non-glandular, Pg and P/Cg trichomes, with each trichome type presenting alternative histories of appearance on the different plant parts. For example, the MRCA of Bignonieae probably had non-glandular trichomes on the stems, prophylls, petiole, petiolule and leaflet veins while P/Cg trichomes were restricted to leaflet blades. Sg trichomes were not present in the MRCA
Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina
Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon
Vargas Figueroa, Jhon Alexander; Duque Palacio, Olga Lucía; Torres González, Alba Marina
The ecological restoration strategies for highly threatened ecosystems such as the tropical dry forest, depend on the knowledge of limiting factors of biological processes for the different species. Some of these include aspects such as germination and seed longevity of typical species present in those forests. In this study, we evaluated the effect of light and temperature on seed germination of two Fabaceae (Samanea saman and Jacaranda caucana) and two Bignoniaceae (Pithecellobium dulce and Tabebuia rosea) species having potential use in restoration, and we analyzed the seed storage behavior of these species for a three months period. To study the light effect, four levels of light quality on seeds were used (photoperiod of 12 hours of white light, darkness and light enriched in red and far-red, both for an hour each day), and we combined them with three levels of alternated temperatures (20/25, 20/30 and 25/30*C-16/8h). For the storage behavior, two levels of seed moisture content particular for each species were used (low: 3.5-6.1% and high: 8.3-13.8%), with three storage temperatures (20, 5 and -20 degrees C) and two storage times (one and three months). The criterion for germination was radicle emergence which was measured in four replicates per treatment, and was expressed as percentage of germination (PG). There were significant differences in germination of Samanea saman and Jacaranda caucana among light and temperature treatments, with the lowest value in darkness treatments, whereas germination of Pithecellobium dulce and Tabebuia rosea did not differ between treatments (PG>90%). The most suitable temperature regime to promote germination in all species was 25/30 degrees C. These four species showed an orthodox seed storage behavior. We concluded that seeds of R dulce, J. caucana and T. rosea did not have an apparent influence of all light conditions tested in their germination response, which might confer advantages in colonization and establishment
Yin, Ge; Barrett, Spencer C. H.; Luo, Yi-Bo; Bai, Wei-Ning
Background and Aims Flowering plants display considerable variation in mating system, specifically the relative frequency of cross- and self-fertilization. The majority of estimates of outcrossing rate do not account for temporal variation, particularly during the flowering season. Here, we investigated seasonal variation in mating and fertility in Incarvillea sinensis (Bignoniaceae), an annual with showy, insect-pollinated, ‘one-day’ flowers capable of delayed selfing. We examined the influence of several biotic and abiotic environmental factors on day-to-day variation in fruit set, seed set and patterns of mating. Methods We recorded daily flower number and pollinator abundance in nine 3 × 3-m patches in a population at Mu Us Sand land, Inner Mongolia, China. From marked flowers we collected data on daily fruit and seed set and estimated outcrossing rate and biparental inbreeding using six microsatellite loci and 172 open-pollinated families throughout the flowering period. Key Results Flower density increased significantly over most of the 50-d flowering season, but was associated with a decline in levels of pollinator service by bees, particularly on windy days. Fruit and seed set declined over time, especially during the latter third of the flowering period. Multilocus estimates of outcrossing rate were obtained using two methods (the programs MLTR and BORICE) and both indicated high selfing rates of ∼80 %. There was evidence for a significant increase in levels of selfing as the flowering season progressed and pollinator visitation declined. Biparental inbreeding also declined significantly as the flowering season progressed. Conclusions Temporal variation in outcrossing rates may be a common feature of the mating biology of annual, insect-pollinated plants of harsh environments but our study is the first to examine seasonal mating-system dynamics in this context. Despite having large flowers and showy floral displays, I. sinensis attracted
Niinemets, Ulo; Lukjanova, Aljona; Turnbull, Matthew H; Sparrow, Ashley D
Acclimation potential of needle photosynthetic capacity varies greatly among pine species, but the underlying chemical, anatomical and morphological controls are not entirely understood. We investigated the light-dependent variation in needle characteristics in individuals of Pinus patula Schlect. & Cham., which has 19-31-cm long pendulous needles, and individuals of P. radiata D. Don., which has shorter (8-17-cm-long) stiffer needles. Needle nitrogen and carbon contents, mesophyll and structural tissue volume fractions, needle dry mass per unit total area (M(A)) and its components, volume to total area ratio (V/A(T)) and needle density (D = M(A)/(V/A(T))), and maximum carboxylase activity of Rubisco (V(cmax)) and capacity of photosynthetic electron transport (J(max)) were investigated in relation to seasonal mean integrated irradiance (Q(int)). Increases in Q(int) from canopy bottom to top resulted in proportional increases in both needle thickness and width such that needle total to projected surface area ratio, characterizing the efficiency of light interception, was independent of Q(int). Increased light availability also led to larger M(A) and nitrogen content per unit area (N(A)). Light-dependent modifications in M(A) resulted from increases in both V/A(T) and D, whereas N(A) changed because of increases in both M(A) and mass-based nitrogen content (N(M)) (N(A) = N(M)M(A)). Overall, the volume fraction of mesophyll cells increased with increasing irradiance and V/A(T) as the fraction of hypodermis and epidermis decreased with increasing needle thickness. Increases in M(A) and N(A) resulted in enhanced J(max) and V(cmax) per unit area in both species, but mass-based photosynthetic capacity increased only in P. patula. In addition, J(max) and V(cmax) showed greater plasticity in response to light in P. patula. Species differences in mesophyll volume fraction explained most of the variation in mass-based needle photosynthetic capacity between species
Hadem, Khetbadei Lysinia Hynniewta; Sharan, Rajeshwar Nath; Kma, Lakhan
Rationale: The active compounds or metabolites of herbal plants exert a definite physiological action on the human body and thus are widely used in human therapy for various diseases including cancer. Previous studies by our group have reported the anticarcinogenic properties of the two herbal plants extracts (HPE) of Aristolochia tagala (AT) Cham. and Curcuma caesia (CC) Roxb. in diethylnitrosamine-induced mouse liver cancer in vivo. The anticarcinogenic properties of these extracts may be due to the active compounds present in them. Objectives: Our objective was to analyze the phytochemical constituents present in AT and CC, to assay their antioxidant properties and to determine their role in a possible intervention on tumor progression. Materials and Methods: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of constituent with anticancer properties present in the crude methanol extract of the two plants CC and AT was carried out following standard methods. Separation of the phytochemical compounds was done by open column chromatography. The extracts were eluted out with gradients of chloroform-methanol solvents. Ultraviolet-visible spectra of individual fractions were recorded, and the fractions were combined based on their λmax. The free radical scavenging activity of crude extracts and fractions obtained was also determined; the radical scavenging activity was expressed as IC50. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of fractionated compounds was carried out to identify partially the phytochemical compounds. The anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity of AT and CC extracts was studied in DEN induced BALB/c mice by analyzing the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in serum and the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) binding activity in nuclear extracts of the liver. Results: It was observed that both AT and CC contained compounds such as phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, etc., and both extracts exhibited antioxidant capacity. HPTLC
Rybin, Artem; Soomere, Tarmo; Kurkina, Oxana; Kurkin, Andrey; Rouvinskaya, Ekaterina; Markus Meier, H. E.
Internal waves and internal tides are an essential component of the functioning of stratified shelf seas. They carry substantial amounts of energy through the water masses, drive key hydrophysical processes such as mixing and overturning and support the functioning of marine ecosystem in many ways. Their particular impact becomes evident near and at the bottom where they often create substantial loads to engineering structures and exert a wide range of impacts on the bottom sediments and evolution of the seabed. We analyse several properties of spatio-temporal distributions of energy of relatively long-period large-scale internal wave motions in the Baltic Sea. The analysis is based on numerically simulated pycnocline variations that are extracted from the hydrographic data calculated by the Rossby Centre Ocean circulation model (RCO) for the entire Baltic Sea for 1961-2005. This model has a horizontal resolution of 2 nautical miles and uses 41 vertical layers with a thickness between 3 m close to the surface and 12 m in 250 m depth. The model is forced with atmospheric data derived from the ERA-40 re-analysis using a regional atmosphere model with a horizontal resolution of 25 km. It also accounts for river inflow and water exchange through the Danish Straits. See (Meier, H.E.M., Höglund, A., 2013. Studying the Baltic Sea circulation with Eulerian tracers, in Soomere, T., Quak, E., eds., Preventive Methods for Coastal Protection, Springer, Cham, Heidelberg, 101-130) for a detailed description of the model and its forcing. The resolution of the model output used in this study (once in 6 hours) is sufficient for estimates of spectral amplitudes of the displacements of isopycnal surfaces with a typical period of 2-12 days. We provide the analysis of kinetic and potential energy of motions with these periods. The resulting maps of the maxima of energy and spatial distributions of near-bottom velocities have been evaluated for the entire simulation interval of 45
Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Cerdà, Artemi
Iran currently faces many soil erosion-related problems (see citations below). These issues are resulted from some inherent characteristic and anthropogenic triggering forces. Nowadays, the latter plays more important rule to accelerate the erosion with further emphasis on soil erosion-prone arid and semi arid regions of the country. This contribution attempts to identify and describe the existing main reasons behind accelerated soil erosion in Iran. Appropriate solutions viz. structural and non-structural approaches will be then advised to combat or minimise the problems. Iran can be used as a pilot research site to understand the soil erosion processes in semiarid, arid and mountainous terrain and our research will review the scientific literature and will give an insight of the soil erosion rates in the main factors of the soil erosion in Iran. Key words: Anthropogenic Erosion, Land Degradation; Sediment Management; Sediment Problems Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Aghili Nategh, N., Hemmat, A., & Sadeghi, M. (2014). Assessing confined and semi-confined compression curves of highly calcareous remolded soil amended with farmyard manure. Journal of Terramechanics, 53, 75-82. Arekhi, S., Bolourani, A. D., Shabani, A., Fathizad, H., Ahamdy-Asbchin, S. 2012. Mapping Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Susceptibility using RUSLE, Remote Sensing and GIS (Case study: Cham Gardalan Watershed, Iran). Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(1), 109-124. Arekhi, S., Shabani, A., Rostamizad, G. 2012. Application of the modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE) in prediction of sediment yield (Case study: Kengir Watershed, Iran). Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 5(6), 1259-1267.Sadeghi, S. H., Moosavi, V., Karami, A., Behnia, N. 2012. Soil erosion assessment and prioritization of affecting factors at plot