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Sample records for cynodon spp cv

  1. EcoTurf - a case study: genetic variation and agronomic potential of bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) germplasm collected from Australian biodiversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Australian Cynodon germplasm has not been comprehensively exploited for bermudagrass improvement. In this paper we will describe ‘EcoTurf’ a four year (2007-2011) project to develop water and nutrient use efficient bermudagrasses from Australian biodiversity. We describe the sampling strategies of A...

  2. Ultrastructural changes and the distribution of arabinogalactan proteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA cv. 'Yueyoukang 1').

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao; Yang, Xiao; Lin, Guimei; Zou, Ru; Chen, Houbin; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2011-08-01

    A better understanding of somatic embryogenesis in banana (Musa spp.) may provide a practical way to improve regeneration of banana plants. In this study, we applied scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to visualize the ultrastructural changes during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa AAA cv. 'Yueyoukang 1'). We also used histological and immunohistochemical techniques with 16 monoclonal antibodies to study the spatial distribution and cellular/subcellular localization of different arabinogalactan protein (AGP) components of the cell wall during somatic embryogenesis. Histological study with periodic acid-Schiff staining documented diverse embryogenic stages from embryogenic cells (ECs) to the late embryos. SEM revealed a mesh-like structure on the surface of proembryos which represented an early structural marker of somatic embryogenesis. TEM showed that ECs were rich in juvenile mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi stacks. Cells in proembryos and early globular embryos resembled ECs, but they were more vacuolated, showed more regular nuclei and slightly more developed organelles. Immunocytochemical study revealed that the signal of most AGP epitopes was stronger in starch-rich cells when compared with typical ECs. The main AGP component in the extracellular matrix surface network of banana proembryos was the MAC204 epitope. Later, AGP immunolabelling patterns varied with the developmental stages of the embryos. These results about developmental regulation of AGP epitopes along with developmental changes in the ultrastructure of cells are providing new insights into the somatic embryogenesis of banana.

  3. Karyotype asymmetry in Cynodon Rich. (Poaceae) accessions.

    PubMed

    Chiavegatto, R B; Paula, C M P; Souza Sobrinho, F; Benites, F R G; Techio, V H

    2016-12-02

    Cynodon is a genus of plants with forage potential that has attracted the interest of breeders. These species have high morphological variability in a large number of varieties and cytotypes, hampering identification. This study aimed to determine the karyotype asymmetry index among accessions of Cynodon to discriminate between them. Karyotype symmetry was based on three estimates, which were compared. The basic number for the genus is x = 9. The results of the chromosome count and DNA quantification, respectively, were as follows: two diploid accessions (2n = 2x = 18 and 1.08 ± 0.094 to 1.17 ± 0.036 pg DNA and ± standard deviation), one triploid accession (2n = 3x = 27 and 1.63 ± 0.017 pg DNA), four tetraploid accessions (2n = 4x = 36 and 1.88 ± 0.069 to 2.10 ± 0.07 pg DNA), and one pentaploid accession (2n = 5x = 45 and 2.55 ± 0.098 pg DNA). C. incompletus var. hirsutus had the longest total length of the haploid lot (29.05 µm), with chromosomes that ranged from 1.7 to 6.2 µm in length. On the basis of the karyotype asymmetry indices, the accessions were divided into two groups: 1) C. dactylon var. dactylon, C. transvaalensis, C. dactylon var. polevansii, three accessions of Cynodon sp, and C. nlemfuensis; and 2) C. incompletus var. hirsutus. This is the first description of tetraploidy in C. transvaalensis. The karyotypic data facilitated a determination of the degree of proximity between the accessions.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple introductions of Cynodon species in Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distinction between native and introduced flora in Australia presents some unique challenges given its geological and colonization history. While it is believed that seven species of Cynodon are present in Australia, no genetic analyses, to date, have investigated the origin, diversity and phylo...

  5. Field testing, gene flow assessment and pre-commercial studies on transgenic Solanum tuberosum spp. tuberosum (cv. Spunta) selected for PVY resistance in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando; Rudoy, Valeria; Welin, Bjorn; Segretin, María Eugenia; Bedogni, María Cecilia; Stolowicz, Fabiana; Criscuolo, Marcelo; Foti, Marcelo; Gomez, Maximiliano; López, Mariana; Serino, Germán; Cabral, Silvia; Dos Santos, Cristina; Huarte, Marcelo; Mentaberry, Alejandro

    2012-10-01

    Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum (cv. Spunta) was transformed with a chimeric transgene containing the Potato virus Y (PVY) coat protein (CP) sequence. Screening for PVY resistance under greenhouse conditions yielded over 100 independent candidate lines. Successive field testing of selected lines allowed the identification of two genetically stable PVY-resistant lines, SY230 and SY233, which were further evaluated in field trials at different potato-producing regions in Argentina. In total, more than 2,000 individuals from each line were tested along a 6-year period. While no or negligible PVY infection was observed in the transgenic lines, infection rates of control plants were consistently high and reached levels of up to 70-80%. Parallel field studies were performed in virus-free environments to assess the agronomical performance of the selected lines. Tubers collected from these assays exhibited agronomical traits and biochemical compositions indistinguishable from those of the non-transformed Spunta cultivar. In addition, an interspecific out-crossing trial to determine the magnitude of possible natural gene flow between transgenic line SY233 and its wild relative Solanum chacoense was performed. This trial yielded negative results, suggesting an extremely low probability for such an event to occur.

  6. Physiological integration enhanced the tolerance of Cynodon dactylon to flooding.

    PubMed

    Li, Z J; Fan, D Y; Chen, F Q; Yuan, Q Y; Chow, W S; Xie, Z Q

    2015-03-01

    Many flooding-tolerant species are clonal plants; however, the effects of physiological integration on plant responses to flooding have received limited attention. We hypothesise that flooding can trigger changes in metabolism of carbohydrates and ROS (reactive oxygen species) in clonal plants, and that physiological integration can ameliorate the adverse effects of stress, subsequently restoring the growth of flooded ramets. In the present study, we conducted a factorial experiment combining flooding to apical ramets and stolon severing (preventing physiological integration) between apical and basal ramets of Cynodon dactylon, which is a stoloniferous perennial grass with considerable flooding tolerance. Flooding-induced responses including decreased root biomass, accumulation of soluble sugar and starch, as well as increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in apical ramets. Physiological integration relieved growth inhibition, carbohydrate accumulation and induction of antioxidant enzyme activity in stressed ramets, as expected, without any observable cost in unstressed ramets. We speculate that relief of flooding stress in clonal plants may rely on oxidising power and electron acceptors transferred between ramets through physiological integration.

  7. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  8. Cloning and characterization of a novel stress-responsive WRKY transcription factor gene (MusaWRKY71) from Musa spp. cv. Karibale Monthan (ABB group) using transformed banana cells.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Srinivas, Lingam

    2011-08-01

    WRKY transcription factor proteins play significant roles in plant stress responses. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel WRKY gene, MusaWRKY71 isolated from an edible banana cultivar Musa spp. Karibale Monthan (ABB group). MusaWRKY71, initially identified using in silico approaches from an abiotic stress-related EST library, was later extended towards the 3' end using rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The 1299-bp long cDNA of MusaWRKY71 encodes a protein with 280 amino acids and contains a characteristic WRKY domain in the C-terminal half. Although MusaWRKY71 shares good similarity with other monocot WRKY proteins the substantial size difference makes it a unique member of the WRKY family in higher plants. The 918-bp long 5' proximal region determined using thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction has many putative cis-acting elements and transcription factor binding motifs. Subcellular localization assay of MusaWRKY71 performed using a GFP-fusion platform confirmed its nuclear targeting in transformed banana suspension cells. Importantly, MusaWRKY71 expression in banana plantlets was up-regulated manifold by cold, dehydration, salt, ABA, H2O2, ethylene, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate treatment indicating its involvement in response to a variety of stress conditions in banana. Further, transient overexpression of MusaWRKY71 in transformed banana cells led to the induction of several genes, homologues of which have been proven to be involved in diverse stress responses in other important plants. The present study is the first report on characterization of a banana stress-related transcription factor using transformed banana cells.

  9. CV-990 LSRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA), is serviced on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, before a test of the space shuttle landing gear system. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  10. Effect of alfalfa (medicago sativa) on fermentation profile and nutritive value of switchgrass (panicum virgatum) and bermudagrass (cynodon dactylon) silages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted at the University of Kentucky Spindletop Farm in Lexington, Kentucky between October and November, 2009 to evaluate the effect of different percentages of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as mixtures in switchgrass (Panicum virgatus) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silages. ...

  11. Role of glycemic elements of Cynodon dactylon and Musa paradisiaca in diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prashant Kumar; Jaiswal, Dolly; Rai, Nilesh K; Pandhija, Shiwani; Rai, A K; Watal, Geeta

    2009-09-01

    The study defined the scientific evaluation of glycemic elements of extracts of Cynodon dactylon and Musa paradisiaca. A dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (bw) of C. dactylon produced maximum falls of 23.2% and 22.8% in blood glucose levels of normoglycemic rats during studies of fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance, respectively, whereas the same dose of M. paradisiaca produced a rise of 34.9% and 18.4%. In diabetic rats during glucose tolerance tests, a fall of 27.8% and a rise of 17.5% were observed with the same dose of C. dactylon and M. paradisiaca, respectively. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy used for detection of glycemic elements present in both the extracts indicated that C. dactylon was rich in magnesium (Mg), whereas M. paradisiaca was rich in potassium (K) and sodium (Na), comparatively, suggesting thereby the defined roles of these elements in diabetes management.

  12. Kidney stone formation and antioxidant effects of Cynodon dactylon decoction in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Golshan, Alireza; Hayatdavoudi, Parichehr; Hadjzadeh, Mousa AL-Reza; Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Mohamadian Roshan, Nema; Abbasnezhad, Abbasali; Mousavi, Seyed Mojtaba; Pakdel, Roghayeh; Zarei, Batool; Aghaee, Azita

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The antioxidant capacity impairs in kidney and urinary bladder of animals with stone disease. Herbal medicine can improve the antioxidant condition of renal tissue. Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) is a medicinal plant with antioxidative and diuretic properties and different preparations of this plant have shown promising effects in stone disease. Assessment of the whole plant decoction to prevent kidney stone disease as well as its antioxidant effects was the aim of this paper. Materials and Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups (n=10). One group was left without treatment and four groups received ethylene glycol (1% v/v) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Three doses of Cynodon dactylon aqueous decoction (12.5, 50 and 200 mg/kg BW) were added to the drinking water of groups 3-5. Finally, water intake, 24-hour urine volume, MDA, total thiol concentration and FRAP value were measured in the serum and kidney tissues. The CaOx depositions were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: Compared to the ethylene glycol-treated group, 200 mg/kg C. dactylon, lowered stone incidents, decreased urine volume, increased FRAP/g Cr (43%) and thiol content (p<0.05) with no significant alteration of water intake, MDA decreased significantly compared to C. dactylon 12.5 (p<0.01). Kidney weight increased and body weight decreased in ethylene glycol-treated group compared to the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: A minimum dose of 200 mg/kg C. dactylon reduced stone formation and simultaneously increased total antioxidant power of serum and preserved MDA content and water. PMID:28348973

  13. CV 100--Still Going Strong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    Describes results of a study that used CV 100, a fuel additive for use in oil-fired heating systems, on a trial basis in 12 Ontario schools. The test showed an average 12 percent reduction in fuel costs in the schools using CV 100. (JG)

  14. Contrasting Changes Caused by Drought and Submergence Stresses in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon)

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Tiantian; Shi, Haitao; Wang, Yanping; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which bermudagrass withstands the drought and submergence stresses through physiological, proteomic and metabolomic approaches. The results showed that significant physiological changes were observed after drought treatment, while only slight changes after submergence treatment, including compatible solute contents, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities. Proteomics results showed that 81 proteins regulated by drought or submergence treatment were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. Among them, 76 proteins were modulated by drought stress with 46 increased abundance and 30 decreased abundance. Forty-five showed abundance changes after submergence treatment with 10 increased and 35 decreased. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that pathways of amino acid metabolism and mitochondrial electron transport/ATP synthesis were only enriched by drought treatment, while other pathways including photosynthesis, biodegradation of xenobiotics, oxidative pentose phosphate, glycolysis and redox were commonly over-represented after both drought and submergence treatments. Metabolomic analysis indicated that most of the metabolites were up-regulated by drought stress, while 34 of 40 metabolites contents exhibited down-regulation or no significant changes when exposed to submergence stress, including sugars and sugar alcohols. These data indicated that drought stress extensively promoted photosynthesis and redox metabolisms while submergence stress caused declined metabolisms and dormancy in Cynodon dactylon. Taken together, the quiescence strategy with retarded growth might allow bermudagrass to be adaptive to long-term submerged environment, while activation of photosynthesis and redox, and accumulation of compatible solutes and molecular chaperones increased bermudagrass tolerance to drought stress. PMID:26617615

  15. Identification and determination of flavonoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll concentration in Cynodon dactylon (L.) by HPLC analysis.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishnan, Saradha Devi; Kaliyaperumal, Ashokkumar; Subramaniyan, Annapoorani

    2015-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (L.) is a potent medicinal plant in the traditional and current Indian medicinal systems. The objective of this research was to find out the levels of flavonoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll b in C. dactylon leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a diode array detector. HPLC analysis revealed that total carotenoid and total flavonoid concentration were 62 mg/100 g and 249.1 μg/g, respectively. The mean chlorophyll b was 85.1 mg/100 g in C. dactylon. Among the flavonoids, quercetin (164.7 μg/g) was the major flavonoid followed by kaempferol (48.2 μg/g), rutin (18.4 μg/g), catechin (12.1 μg/g) and myricetin (5.7 μg/g). Of the carotenoids, β-carotene (35.2 mg/100 g) was predominant followed by lutein (17.0 mg/100 g), violaxanthin (5.8 mg/100 g) and zeaxanthin (4.2 mg/100 g). Chlorophyll b concentration was 85.1 mg/100 g in C. dactylon. The results of this investigation should be useful information for further pharmacological studies.

  16. Analysis of Natural Variation in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Reveals Physiological Responses Underlying Drought Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhangmin; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used warm-season turfgrass and one of the most drought tolerant species. Dissecting the natural variation in drought tolerance and physiological responses will bring us powerful basis and novel insight for plant breeding. In the present study, we evaluated the natural variation of drought tolerance among nine bermudagrass varieties by measuring physiological responses after drought stress treatment through withholding water. Three groups differing in drought tolerance were identified, including two tolerant, five moderately tolerant and two susceptible varieties. Under drought stress condition, drought sensitive variety (Yukon) showed relative higher water loss, more severe cell membrane damage (EL), and more accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen) exhibited significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities. Further results indicated that drought induced cell injury in different varieties (Yukon, SR9554 and Tifgreen) exhibited liner correlation with leaf water content (LWC), H2O2 content, MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, Tifgreen plants had significantly higher levels of osmolytes (proline level and soluble sugars) when compared with Yukon and SR9554 under drought stress condition. Taken together, our results indicated that natural variation of drought stress tolerance in bermudagrass varieties might be largely related to the induced changes of water status, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant defense system. PMID:23285294

  17. Effects of Cynodon dactylon on Stress-Induced Infertility in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chidrawar, VR; Chitme, HR; Patel, KN; Patel, NJ; Racharla, VR; Dhoraji, NC; Vadalia, KR

    2011-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) is known to be a tackler in Indian mythology and is offered to Lord Ganesha. It is found everywhere, even on waste land, road side, dry places, and spreads vigorously on cultivated ground. This study was carried out with an objective to test if the constituents of this plant are useful in coping stress-induced sexual In this study, we considered immobilization stress to induce male infertility and the effect of C. dactylon in restoration of the dysfunction was evaluated by considering sexual behavioral observations, sexual performance, fructose content of the seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm concentration and histopathological examinations as parameters. Treatment of rats under stress with methanolic extract of C. dactylon has shown a promising effect in overcoming stress-induced sexual dysfunction, sexual performance, fructose content, sperm concentration and its effect on accessory sexual organs and body weight. We conclude that active constituents of C. dactylon present in methanolic extract have a potent aphrodisiac and male fertility activity. PMID:21607051

  18. Comparative Analyses of Physiological Responses of Cynodon dactylon Accessions from Southwest China to Sulfur Dioxide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Li, Yiqiao; Cai, Shizhen

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity. PMID:25097893

  19. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Cynodon dactylon leaves and assessment of their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Nidhi; Soni, Deepika; Chandrashekhar, B; Sarangi, Bijaya Ketan; Satpute, Devanand; Pandey, Ram Avatar

    2013-07-01

    Many methods of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by reducing Ag⁺ ions using aqueous/organic extracts of various plants have been reported in the past, but the methods are rather slow. In this investigation, silver nanoparticles were quickly synthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple method using leaf extract of a plant--Cynodon dactylon which served as reducing agent, while sunlight acted as a catalyst. The formation of Ag-NPs was indicated by gradual change in colour and pH and confirmed by ultraviolet--visible spectroscopy. The Ag-NPs showed a surface plasmon resonance at 451 nm. Based on the decrease in pH, a possible mechanism of the synthesis of Ag-NPs involving hydroxyl (OH⁻) ions of polyphenols of the leaf extract is postulated. Ag-NPs having (111) and (200) crystal lattices were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the spherical nature of the Ag-NPs, while transmission electron microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were polydispersed with a size range of 8-10 nm. The synthesized Ag-NPs also demonstrated their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium.

  20. [Acinetobacter spp].

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Naohisa

    2012-02-01

    Acinetobacter species are aerobic, glucose non-fermenting gram-negative rods, and ubiquitous in the environment. Acinetobacter spp. can survive for months on dry surfaces. Acinetobacter spp. have been grown from skin, pharynx, sputum, urine and feces. The most common Acinetobacter infection is pneumonia. According to Japan Nosocomial Infection Surveillance, 0.34% of the Acinetobacter spp. was multidrug-resistant in 2010. In Japan, Acinetobacter spp. whose imipenem MICs were > or = 16 microg/mL, amikacin > or = 32 microg/mL, and ciprofloxacin > or = 4 microg/mL were defined as multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter species (MDRA) in 2011 in the amended Infectious Diseases Control Law. Break-point Checkerboard Plate can help to infer an effective combination antimicrobial therapy. A selective medium for the isolation of MDRA is a great tool for active surveillance cultures. Treatment options for MDRA infections in Japan are very limited, because colistin, polymyxin B, or tigecycline is not approved. Keys to control MDRA are high levels of compliance with standard and contact precautions, appropriate cleaning and disinfection of the environment, and judicious antimicrobial use.

  1. Protective role of Cynodon dactylon in ameliorating the aluminium-induced neurotoxicity in rat brain regions.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, Thangarajan; Shobana, Chandrasekar; Kumari, Balasubramanian Rathina; Nandhini, Devarajulu Nisha

    2011-12-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae) is a creeping grass used as a traditional ayurvedic medicine in India. Aluminium-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminium have been reported to accelerate damage to biomolecules like lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of C. dactylon (AECD) could potentially prevent aluminium-induced neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of the rat brain. Male albino rats were administered with AlCl(3) at a dose of 4.2 mg/kg/day i.p. for 4 weeks. Experimental rats were given C. dactylon extract in two different doses of 300 mg and 750 mg/keg/day orally 1 h prior to the AlCl(3) administration for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiments, antioxidant status and activities of ATPases in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of rat brain were measured. Aluminium administration significantly decreased the level of GSH and the activities of SOD, GPx, GST, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, and Mg(2+) ATPase and increased the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all the brain regions when compared with control rats. Pre-treatment with AECD at a dose of 750 mg/kg b.w increased the antioxidant status and activities of membrane-bound enzymes (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and Mg(2+) ATPase) and also decreased the level of LPO significantly, when compared with aluminium-induced rats. The results of this study indicated that AECD has potential to protect the various brain regions from aluminium-induced neurotoxicity.

  2. Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of Lotus spp. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Girardi, Felipe A; Tonial, Fabiana; Chini, Silvia O; Sobottka, Andréa M; Scheffer-Basso, Simone M; Bertol, Charise D

    2014-09-01

    The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of cultivar (cv.) extracts of Lotus uliginosus (cvs. Trojan and Serrano), L. tenuis (cv. Larrañaga) and L. corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel) were investigated. The phytochemical analysis revealed tannins, coumarins and flavonoids in all extracts, with variations among cultivars, showing genotypic variability. By High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method, the cvs. Larrañaga and São Gabriel showed the highest percentage of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, and presented rutin, which was not detected in the other ones. These genotypes showed antifungal activity but not antibacterial one. The cv. Larrañaga inhibited the mycelia growth of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium graminearum while the cv. São Gabriel was active only against Alternaria sp. The cultivars showed the greatest amounts of secondary metabolites and demonstrated significant activity against filamentous fungi. The results provide a direction for further research about pharmacological use of Lotus spp.

  3. Evaluation of a Non-Flowering Perennial Sorghum spp. Hybrid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial Sorghum spp. hybrids (PSSHs) such as Columbusgrass (Sorghum almum Parodi; S. bicolor [L.] Moench x S. halepense [L.] Pers.) and the reciprocal hybridization (S. halepense x S. bicolor; e.g. Cv 'Krish') are high-biomass feedstocks currently utilized as forage but with potential as dual-...

  4. Chemopreventive effect of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. extract against DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Albert-Baskar, Arul; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2010-07-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the chemopreventive property of Cynodon dactylon. The antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic potentials of the plant were investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NO(-)) and MTT assay on four cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM, MCH-7, AGS, A549) and a normal cell line (VERO). In vivo chemopreventive property of the plant extract was studied in DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis. The methanolic extract of C. dactylon was found to be antiproliferative and antioxidative at lower concentrations and induced apoptotic cell death in COLO 320 DM cells. Treatment with methanolic extract of C. dactylon increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the number of dysplastic crypts in DMH-induced colon of albino rats. The present investigation revealed the anticancer potential of methanolic extract of C. dactylon in COLO 320 DM cells and experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

  5. Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Datura metel Linn. and Cynodon dactylon Linn. Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Soumen; Pawar, Sandip; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity of Datura metel L. and Cynodon dactylon L. extracts. Materials and Methods: The extraction of plants parts (datura seed and fruit pulp) and areal parts of durva was carried out using soxhlet and cold extraction method using solvents namely methanol and distilled water. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) was determined by established methods. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed in vero cell line by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay method. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was performed by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. Results: We found that the highest amount of TPC and TFC in methanolic extracts of seed (268.6 μg of gallic acid equivalence/mg of dry plant material) and fruit pulp (8.84 μg of quercetin equivalence/mg dry plant material) of D. metel, respectively prepared by Soxhlet method. The methanolic extract of C. dactylon prepared using soxhlation has shown potent free radical scavenging activity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 100 μg/ml. The IC50 of a methanolic cold extract of datura fruit was found to be 3 mg/ml against vero cell line. Conclusion: We observed that plant parts of C. dactylon and D. metel have a high antioxidant activity. Further research is needed to explore the therapeutic potential of these plant extracts. SUMMARY In the present study we observed a positive correlation was between the phenolic and flavanoid content of the Datura metel and cynodon doctylon (durva) extracts with the free radical scavenging activities. Both were found to have a high antioxidant activity. Abbreviations used: BHA: Butylated hydroxyanisole, BHT: Butylated hydroxytoluene, CC50: 50% cell cytotoxic concentration, CNS: Central nervous system, DPPH: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, IC50: 50% inhibitory concentration, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2

  6. Disomic Inheritance and Segregation Distortion of SSR Markers in Two Populations of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuanwen; Wu, Yanqi; Anderson, Jeff A.; Moss, Justin Q.; Zhu, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Common bermudagrass [C. dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon] is economically and environmentally the most important member among Cynodon species because of its extensive use for turf, forage and soil erosion control in the world. However, information regarding the inheritance within the taxon is limited. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to determine qualitative inheritance mode in common bermudagrass. Two tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36), first-generation selfed (S1) populations, 228 progenies of ‘Zebra’ and 273 from A12359, were analyzed for segregation with 21 and 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, respectively. It is concluded that the inheritance mode of tetraploid bermudagrass was complete or near complete disomic. It is evident that the two bermudagrass parents had an allotetraploid genome with two distinct subgenomes since 33 SSR primer pairs amplified 34 loci, each having two alleles. Severe transmission ratio distortions occurred in the Zebra population while less so in the A12359 population. The findings of disomic inheritance and segregation ratio distortion in common bermudagrass is significant in subsequent linkage map construction, quantitative trait locus mapping and marker-assisted selection in the species. PMID:26295707

  7. Factors Influencing Dislodgeable 2, 4-D Plant Residues from Hybrid Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis) Athletic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khalied A.; Breeden, Gregory K.

    2016-01-01

    Research to date has confirmed 2,4-D residues may dislodge from turfgrass; however, experiments have not been conducted on hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis), the most common athletic field turfgrass in subtropical climates. More specifically, previous research has not investigated the effect of post-application irrigation on dislodgeable 2,4-D residues from hybrid bermudagrass and across turfgrass species, research has been nondescript regarding sample time within a d (TWD) or conducted in the afternoon when the turfgrass canopy is dry, possibly underestimating potential for dislodgement. The effect of irrigation and TWD on 2,4-D dislodgeability was investigated. Dislodgeable 2,4-D amine was reduced > 300% following irrigation. From 2 to 7 d after treatment (DAT), ≤ 0.5% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged from irrigated turfgrass, while ≤ 2.3% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged when not irrigated. 2,4-D dislodgeability decreased as TWD increased. Dislodgeable 2,4-D residues declined to < 0.1% of the applied at 1 DAT– 13:00, and increased to 1 to 3% of the applied 2 DAT– 5:00, suggesting 2,4-D re-suspended on treated turfgrass vegetation overnight. In conclusion, irrigating treated turfgrass reduced dislodgeable 2,4-D. 2,4-D dislodgeability increased as TWD decreased, which was attributed to non-precipitation climatic conditions favoring turfgrass canopy wetness. This research will improve turfgrass management practices and research designed to minimize human 2,4-D exposure. PMID:26863005

  8. Protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract from rhizomes of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. on compensated right heart failure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Garjani, Alireza; Afrooziyan, Arash; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Najafi, Moslem; Kharazmkia, Ali; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin

    2009-01-01

    Background The rhizomes of Cynodon dactylon are used for the treatment of heart failure in folk medicine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of C. dactylon rhizomes on cardiac contractility in normal hearts and on cardiac functions in right-heart failure in rats. Methods Right-heart failure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (50 mg/kg). Two weeks later, the animals were treated orally with different doses of the extract for fifteen days. At the end of the experiments cardiac functions and markers of myocardial hypertrophy were measured. Results The treated rats showed very less signs of fatigue, peripheral cyanosis and dyspnea. The survival rate was high in the extract treated groups (90%). Administration of C. dactylon in monocrotaline-injected rats led to profound improvement in cardiac functions as demonstrated by decreased right ventricular end diastolic pressure (RVEDP) and elevated mean arterial pressure. RVdP/dtmax, and RVdP/dt/P as indices of myocardial contractility were also markedly (p < 0.001; using one way ANOVA) increased by the extract. The extract reduced heart and lung congestion by decreasing tissue wet/dry and wet/body weight ratios (p < 0.01). In the isolated rat hearts, the extract produced a remarkable (P < 0.001) positive inotropic effect concomitant with a parallel decrease in LVEDP. Conclusion The results of this study indicated that C. dactylon exerted a strong protective effect on right heart failure, in part by positive inotropic action and improving cardiac functions. PMID:19653918

  9. Greenhouse studies on the phyto-extraction capacity of Cynodon nlemfuensis for lead and cadmium under irrigation with treated wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madyiwa, S.; Chimbari, M. J.; Schutte, C. F.; Nyamangara, J.

    For over 30 years, discharge of sewage effluent and sludge on pasturelands has been used in Zimbabwe as a cheap method for secondary treatment of wastewater without any monitoring of accumulation of heavy metals in soils and grasses, let alone in animals grazing on the pastures. Cynodon nlemfuensis (star grass) has been the main grass planted on the wastewater irrigated pasturelands. This study was conducted to assess the capacity of star grass to accumulate lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and develop models incorporating grass yield, metal uptake and soil bio-available (EDTA extractable) metal content, that could be used to determine critical grass and soil concentrations at which grass productivity declines. Star grass was planted in 30 fertilized pots containing sandy soil within a greenhouse. The pots consisted of nine treatments of varying levels of added inorganic Pb and Cd subjected to treated wastewater application and one control that had no added metals and received water application only. The elements were applied to the soils once just after planting the grass. Chemical analyses showed that star grass had a relatively high phyto-extraction capacity of Pb and Cd, comparable to that of hyper-accumulating grasses such as Lolium perenne (rye grass). It accumulated Pb and Cd to levels far beyond the recommended maximum limits for pasture grass. Analysis of variance on log-normal transformed data showed that bio-available soil metal concentrations correlated strongly with grass metal content and grass metal content correlated strongly with the yield. There was however a weak correlation between the yield and bio-available soil levels. The yield versus grass metal content models that were developed for the first crop and re-growth predicted similar critical metal concentrations and yields. Using the critical grass metal concentrations in the soil bio-available metal concentration versus grass metal concentration models allowed for the prediction of the

  10. Cynodon dactylon and Sida acuta extracts impact on the function of the cardiovascular system in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Rajaretinam Rajesh; Vincent, Samuel Gnana Prakash

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen cardioactive herbs from Western Ghats of India. The heart beat rate (HBR) and blood flow during systole and diastole were tested in zebrafish embryos. We found that Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) induced increases in the HBR in zebrafish embryos with a HBR of (3.968±0.344) beats/s, which was significantly higher than that caused by betamethosone [(3.770±0.344) beats/s]. The EC50 value of C. dactylon was 3.738 µg/mL. The methanolic extract of Sida acuta (S. acuta) led to decreases in the HBR in zebrafish embryos [(1.877±0.079) beats/s], which was greater than that caused by nebivolol (positive control). The EC50 value of Sida acuta was 1.195 µg/mL. The untreated embryos had a HBR of (2.685±0.160) beats/s at 3 d post fertilization (dpf). The velocities of blood flow during the cardiac cycle were (2,291.667±72.169) µm/s for the control, (4,250±125.000) µm/s for C. dactylon and (1,083.333±72.169) µm/s for S. acuta. The LC50 values were 32.6 µg/mL for C. dactylon and 20.9 µg/mL for S. acuta. In addition, the extracts exhibited no chemical genetic effects in the drug dosage range tested. In conclusion, we developed an assay that can measure changes in cardiac function in response to herbal small molecules and determine the cardiogenic effects by microvideography.

  11. Draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi).

    PubMed

    Kolton, Max; Green, Stefan J; Harel, Yael Meller; Sela, Noa; Elad, Yigal; Cytryn, Eddie

    2012-10-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi). Flavobacterium spp. are ubiquitous in the rhizospheres of agricultural crops; however, little is known about their physiology. To our knowledge, this is the first published genome of a root-associated Flavobacterium strain.

  12. Non-flowering Sorghum spp. hybrids: Perennial, sterile, high-biomass feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial Sorghum spp. hybrids such as Columbusgrass (Sorghum almum Parodi; S. bicolor [L.] Moench x S. halepense [L.] Pers.) and the reciprocal hybridization (S. halepense x S. bicolor; e.g. Cv 'Krish') are high-biomass forage feedstocks. Utilization of such hybrids is limited, however, by both th...

  13. Vertical migration of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae on Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum notatum pastures in response to climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Amaradasa, Bimal S; Lane, Robert A; Manage, Ananda

    2010-05-28

    Observations were made on vertical migration patterns of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae on Cynodon dactylon (bermudagrass) and Paspalum notatum (bahiagrass) pastures under summer climatic conditions typical of East Texas. Ten thousand H. contortus infective larvae (L3) were introduced to 100 cm(2) subplots of each pasture species within a plot area of 1m(2). Subplots were inoculated with larvae by applying them in an aqueous medium to the soil or mat beneath the vegetation. Herbage from the inoculated areas was harvested on 5 sampling days over a span of 21 days. L3 recoveries were observed and recorded each day on four herbage strata viz. 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and >20 cm from ground level. The log transformed larval recovery data were analyzed for effect of day, stratum, and day x stratum interaction for each grass species during two separate experimental periods. Precipitation, relative humidity and temperature during the study were subjected to correlation and multiple regression analyses with the larval counts. Significant (Por=0.93) between rainfall and total average daily larval counts was apparent. The multiple regression analysis did not show significant results for any of the climatic factors tested. This study showed that the H. contortus infective larvae can survive beyond 21 days in the soil and infest pasture grasses when the climatic conditions are favorable. Avoiding use of H. contortus contaminated pasturelands in summer at the onset of rainfall following a dry spell may effectively reduce nematode loads in susceptible farm animals. Additional studies should focus on factors affecting long term L3 survivability, migrational pattern on these and other plant species and the

  14. Isolation and Antimicrobial Testing of Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., and Trabulsiella spp. from the Gallbladder of Pigs.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulou, Grammato; Filioussis, Georgios; Kritas, Spyridon; Kantere, Maria; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Gram-negative bacteria species, other than Salmonella spp., in the gallbladder of pigs was examined. Isolated Gram-negative bacteria were assigned to species using the Microgen™ GnA+B-ID Systems. Of the 64 isolated strains 43 were identified as Escherichia coli, seven as Enterobacter spp., three each as Klebsiella spp., Citrobacterfreundii, Aeromonas hydrophila and Cronobacter sakazakii and one each as Escherichiafergusonii and Trabulsiella guamensis. Their antibiograms showed very high resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. It was concluded that the pigs' gallbladder is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria for pork consumers.

  15. The Limbic-Prefrontal Network Modulated by Electroacupuncture at CV4 and CV12

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jiliang; Wang, Xiaoling; Liu, Hesheng; Wang, Yin; Zhou, Kehua; Hong, Yang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Xue, Chao; Song, Ming; Liu, Baoyan; Zhu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    fMRI studies showed that acupuncture could induce hemodynamic changes in brain networks. Many of these studies focused on whether specific acupoints could activate specific brain regions and were often limited to manual acupuncture at acupoints on the limbs. In this fMRI study, we investigated acupuncture's modulation effects on brain functional networks by electroacupuncture (EA) at acupoints on the midline of abdomen. Acupoints Guanyuan (CV4) and Zhongwan (CV12) were stimulated in 21 healthy volunteers. The needling sensations, brain activation, and functional connectivity were studied. We found that the limbic-prefrontal functional network was deactivated by EA at CV4 and CV12. More importantly, the local functional connectivity was significantly changed during EA stimulation, and the change persisted during the period after the stimulation. Although minor differences existed, both acupoints similarly modulated the limbic-prefrontal functional network, which is overlapped with the functional circuits associated with emotional and cognitive regulation. PMID:22291848

  16. Sequencing protocols to genotype mdx, mdx(4cv), and mdx(5cv) mice.

    PubMed

    Banks, Glen B; Combs, Ariana C; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S

    2010-08-01

    Currently available polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping methods for point mutations in the mouse dystrophin gene can lead to false positives and result in wasted time and money due to breeding or treating the wrong mice. Here we describe a simple and accurate method for sequencing the point mutations in mdx, mdx(4cv), and mdx(5cv) mice. This method clearly distinguishes between wildtype, heterozygous, and mutant transcripts, and thereby time and money can be saved by avoiding false positives.

  17. Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine: PHiD-CV.

    PubMed

    Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Yargic, Zeynel Abidin

    2009-11-01

    At the beginning of a new century, we have gained significant achievements against pneumococcal infections by using conjugated pneumococcal vaccines. In January 2009, the EMEA issued a positive opinion about, and recommended the approval of, GlaxoSmithKline's pediatric pneumococcal candidate vaccine, which is indicated for active immunization against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in infants and children from 6 weeks up to 2 years of age. The approved 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PHiD-CV) contains all serotypes in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) plus serotypes 1, 5 and 7F. Protein D from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is the carrier protein for eight serotypes, while tetanus and diphtheria toxins are in the carrier proteins for the remaining two serotypes. It has also been proved that PHiD-CV is immunogenic, safe and well-tolerated in children. This vaccine can be coadministered with routinely used pediatric vaccines. Noninferiority criteria of PHiD-CV compared with PCV-7 were established in shared serotypes, except for serotypes 6B and 23F, and PHiD-CV is immunogenic for additional serotypes as assessed by the percentage of subjects with antibody concentrations. PHiD-CV is also immunogenic for ten serotypes as assessed by post-primary and post-booster dose opsonophagocytic activity responses. Vaccine efficacy against IPD and other conditions should be monitored for shared serotypes and also additional serotypes during the postmarketing period. Optimal scheduling, safety and immunogenicity data in children with different risk factors for IPD, or whether it will provide herd immunity, are the questions waiting for answers in the postmarketing period. Further studies are needed to assess the potential advantages of protein D as a carrier and the potential efficacy of this new vaccine against H. influenzae. The potential public health efficacy of PHiD-CV in low-income countries

  18. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties.

  19. 5-Year Update Environmental Assessment for CV-22 Beddown

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Final 5-Year Update Environmental Assessment for CV-22 Beddown Hurlburt Field , Florida...SIGNIFICANT IMPACT 5-YEAR UPDATE CV-22 BEDDOWN HURLBURT FIELD , FL Agencies: The United States Air Force (USAF) and the United States Navy (Navy...the CV-22 Osprey at Hurlburt Field , Florida. The purpose of the Proposed Action is to: • Conduct IOT&E by testing the operation of the CV-22 in as

  20. Faint CV Monitoring at CBA Pretoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monard, L. A. G. B.

    2006-05-01

    The regular monitoring of faint cataclysmic variables (CV) is one of five observing programs that are run at CBA Pretoria. It started off in 2002 with about 120 CVs and related objects in the program. The intention was to observe those targets as often as possible with unfiltered CCD. There were continuous additions of more CVs by digging deeper in the CV atlas, new finds, and reclassified stars while some were taken off the list. At the end of 2004 the number of CVs in the observing program exceeded 200. With only one telescope and one observer and so many other things to observe, the actual number of snapshot CV observations have been much less than hoped. Despite this, the program has shown to be very successful. Publications have been referring to reported findings from this program while even more publications resulted from observing campaigns (time resolved photometry) dedicated to CVs that were found in outburst by observations at CBA Pretoria. In most cases they were the first real-time outburst detection of that CV. The present paper will not deal with those published or alerted finds but will show observing results of other CVs from the list just to give an indication of the broader meaningfulness of such a program. A selection of fifteen light curves obtained after three years of monitoring will be shown and discussed. The choice of the 15 stars was based on their possible interest and the fact that they have been positively observed on most occasions, since they were mostly brighter than magnitude 18 CR (unfiltered with red zero-point).

  1. Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

    2014-09-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations.

  2. Selenium accumulation and selenium-salt co-tolerance in five grass species. [Festuca arundinaceae; Agropyron deserorum; Buchloe dactyloides; Agrostis stolonifera; Cynodon dactylon

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, L.; Huang, Z.; Burau, R.G.

    1987-04-01

    Five grass species including Tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae Schred), Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron deserorum Fisch), Buffalo grass (Buchlor dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.), Seaside bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Syn.) were examined for selenium and salt tolerance and selenium accumulation under solution culture conditions. Distinct differences in both selenium and salt tolerance were detected among the five species, but no direct association between selenium and salt resistance was found. Tall fescue displayed considerable tolerance under 1 ppm selenium and 100 mM salt treatment. Combined selenium and salt treatment revealed that selenium uptake was increased by the incorporation of salt in the culture solution. However, salt uptake was not significantly affected by the presence of selenium in the culture solution. At moderate toxic levels of selenium, the species with greater tolerance accumulated less selenium than did the less tolerant species.

  3. EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  4. Kinetics of caesium and potassium absorption by roots of three grass pastures and competitive effects of potassium on caesium uptake in Cynodon sp

    SciTech Connect

    Ayub, J. Juri; Velasco, R. H.; Valverde, L. Rubio; Garcia-Sanchez, M. J.; Fernandez, J. A.

    2008-08-07

    Caesium uptake by plant roots has been normally associated with the uptake of potassium as the potassium transport systems present in plants have also the capacity to transport caesium. Three grass species (Eragrostis curvula, Cynodon sp and Distichlis spicata) growing in seminatural grassland of central Argentina were selected to study their capability to incorporate Cs{sup +} (and K{sup +}) using electrophysiological techniques. Although the {sup 137}Cs soil inventory ranged between 328-730 Bq m{sup -2} in this region, no {sup 137}Cs activity was detected in these plants. However, all the species, submitted previously to K{sup +} starvation, showed the uptake of both Cs{sup +} and K{sup +} when micromolar concentrations of these cations were present in the medium. The uptake showed saturation kinetics for both cations that could be fitted to the Michelis-Menten model. K{sub M} values were smaller for K{sup +} than for Cs{sup +}, indicating a higher affinity for the first cation. The presence of increasing K{sup +} concentrations in the assay medium inhibited Cs{sup +} uptake in Cynodon sp., as expected if both cations are transported by the same transport systems. This effect is due to the competition of both ions for the union sites of the high affinity potassium transporters. In field situation, where soil concentration of Cs{sup +} is smaller than K{sup +} concentration, is then expectable that caesium activity in plants is not detectable. Nevertheless, the studied plants would have the capacity to incorporate caesium if its availability in soil solution increases. In addition, studies of Cs/K interaction can help us to understand the variability in transfer factors.

  5. Kinetics of caesium and potassium absorption by roots of three grass pastures and competitive effects of potassium on caesium uptake in Cynodon sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayub, J. Juri; Valverde, L. Rubio; Garcia-Sanchez, M. J.; Fernandez, J. A.; Velasco, R. H.

    2008-08-01

    Caesium uptake by plant roots has been normally associated with the uptake of potassium as the potassium transport systems present in plants have also the capacity to transport caesium. Three grass species (Eragrostis curvula, Cynodon sp and Distichlis spicata) growing in seminatural grassland of central Argentina were selected to study their capability to incorporate Cs+ (and K+) using electrophysiological techniques. Although the 137Cs soil inventory ranged between 328-730 Bq m-2 in this region, no 137Cs activity was detected in these plants. However, all the species, submitted previously to K+ starvation, showed the uptake of both Cs+ and K+ when micromolar concentrations of these cations were present in the medium. The uptake showed saturation kinetics for both cations that could be fitted to the Michelis-Menten model. KM values were smaller for K+ than for Cs+, indicating a higher affinity for the first cation. The presence of increasing K+ concentrations in the assay medium inhibited Cs+ uptake in Cynodon sp., as expected if both cations are transported by the same transport systems. This effect is due to the competition of both ions for the union sites of the high affinity potassium transporters. In field situation, where soil concentration of Cs+ is smaller than K+ concentration, is then expectable that caesium activity in plants is not detectable. Nevertheless, the studied plants would have the capacity to incorporate caesium if its availability in soil solution increases. In addition, studies of Cs/K interaction can help us to understand the variability in transfer factors.

  6. Improved tolerance toward fungal diseases in transgenic Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA group) cv. Grand Nain.

    PubMed

    Vishnevetsky, Jane; White, Thomas L; Palmateer, Aaron J; Flaishman, Moshe; Cohen, Yuval; Elad, Yigal; Velcheva, Margarita; Hanania, Uri; Sahar, Nachman; Dgani, Oded; Perl, Avihai

    2011-02-01

    The most devastating disease currently threatening to destroy the banana industry worldwide is undoubtedly Sigatoka Leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. In this study, we developed a transformation system for banana and expressed the endochitinase gene ThEn-42 from Trichoderma harzianum together with the grape stilbene synthase (StSy) gene in transgenic banana plants under the control of the 35S promoter and the inducible PR-10 promoter, respectively. The superoxide dismutase gene Cu,Zn-SOD from tomato, under control of the ubiquitin promoter, was added to this cassette to improve scavenging of free radicals generated during fungal attack. A 4-year field trial demonstrated several transgenic banana lines with improved tolerance to Sigatoka. As the genes conferring Sigatoka tolerance may have a wide range of anti-fungal activities we also inoculated the regenerated banana plants with Botrytis cinerea. The best transgenic lines exhibiting Sigatoka tolerance were also found to have tolerance to B. cinerea in laboratory assays.

  7. Chemical C-V Measurements on ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabig, Sarah Jane; Farlow, Gary

    2008-10-01

    When metal/semiconductor schotky barriers are not practical, an electrolyte/semiconductor interface can be used to make capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The physics of such electrochemical C-V measurements will be described. Electrical properties of ZnO were measured by electrochemical C-V techniques and photovoltage spectroscopy using an Accent 4400 Electrochemical CV system. Specifically, the electrical behavior of a 0.1 M ZnCl2 electrolyte-ZnO interface has been investigated with attention to the electrolyte-ZnO interface's C-V dependence on carrier frequency.

  8. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of an ethylene receptor gene from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) by hormone and environmental stresses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethylene receptor (ethylene response sensor, ERS) is the primary component involving in the ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signal transduction pathway. In the present study, a GZ-ERS gene encoding ERS was cloned from a sugarcane cv. YL17 (Saccharum spp.) using RT-PCR and ligation-mediated PCR wi...

  9. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-07-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat-associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans.

  10. MIZEX, 1984, NASA CV-990 flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    During June/July 1984, the NASA CV-990 Airborne Laboratory was utilized in a mission to overly the Fram Strait/East Greenland Sea marginal ice zone (MIZ) during the main summer marginal ice zone experiment (MIZEX '84). The eight data flights were coordinated where possible with overpasses of the Nimbus-7 satellite, and with measurement of sea ice, open ocean, and atmospheric properties at the surface. The surface research teams were based on seven research vessels, some with helicopters: (1) M/V Kvitbjorn, (2) M/V Polarqueen; (3) M/S Haakon Mosby; (4) a M/S H.U. Sverdrup, all from Norway; (5) F/S Polarstern from the Federal Republic of Germany; and (6) the USNS Lynch from the USA. There were also coordinated flights with the NRL P3, NOAA P3, Canadian CV580, and the French B-17 during the overlap portions of their respective missions. Analysis of the real-time data acquired during the mission and uncalibrated data stored on tape has served to indicate the mission was over 90% successful.

  11. NASA/ESA CV-990 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Due to interest in the application of simplified techniques used to conduct airborne science missions at NASA's Ames Research Center, a joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive Spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Communication links between the 'Spacelab' and a ground based mission operations center were limited consistent with Spacelab plans. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to Spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); multiexperiment operation by experiment operators; selection criteria for Spacelab experiment operators; and schedule requirements to prepare for such a Spacelab mission.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  13. [Responses of Cynodon dactylon population in hydro-fluctuation belt of Three Gorges Reservoir area to flooding-drying habitat change].

    PubMed

    Hong, Ming; Guo, Quan-Shu; Nie, Bi-Hong; Kang, Yi; Pei, Shun-Xiang; Jin, Jiang-Qun; Wang, Xiang-Fu

    2011-11-01

    This paper studied the population density, morphological characteristics, and biomass and its allocation of Cynodon dactylon at different altitudinal sections of the hydro-fluctuation belt in Three Gorges Reservoir area, based on located observations. At the three altitudinal sections, the population density of C. dactylon was in the order of shallow water section (165-170 m elevation) > non-flooded section (above 172 m elevation) > deep water section (145-150 m elevation), the root diameter and root length were in the order of deep water section > shallow water section > non-flooded section, the total biomass, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, and stem biomass allocation ratio were in the order of the shallow water section > non-flooded section > deep water section, and the root biomass allocation ratio, leaf biomass allocation ratio, and underground biomass/aboveground biomass were in the order of deep water section > shallow water section > non-flooded section. The unique adaption strategies of C. dactylon to the flooding-drying habitat change in the shallow water section were the accelerated elongation growth and the increased stem biomass allocation, those in the deep water section were the increased node number of primary and secondary branches, increased number of the branches, and increased leaf biomass allocation, whereas the common strategies in the shallow and deep water sections were the accelerated root growth and the increased tillering and underground biomass allocation for preparing nutrition and energy for the rapid growth in terrestrial environment.

  14. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna.

    PubMed

    Zwerts, J A; Prins, H H T; Bomhoff, D; Verhagen, I; Swart, J M; de Boer, W F

    2015-01-01

    South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling) by herbivores on the formation of grazing lawns. We conducted a series of common garden experiments to test the effect of nutrients on interspecific competition between a typical lawn-forming grass species (Cynodon dactylon) and a species that is frequently found outside grazing lawns (Hyparrhenia hirta), and tested for the effect of herbivore disturbance in the form of trampling and clipping. We also performed a vegetation and herbivore survey to apply experimentally derived insights to field observations. Our results showed that interspecific competition was not affected by soil nutrient concentrations. C. dactylon did show much more resilience to disturbance than H. hirta, presumably due to the regenerative capacity of its rhizomes. Results from the field survey were in line with these findings, describing a correlation between herbivore pressure and C. dactylon abundance. We conclude that herbivore disturbance, and not soil nutrients, provide C. dactylon with a competitive advantage over H. hirta, due to vegetative regeneration from its rhizomes. This provides evidence for the importance of concentrated, high herbivore densities for the creation and maintenance of grazing lawns.

  15. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna

    PubMed Central

    Zwerts, J. A.; Prins, H. H. T.; Bomhoff, D.; Verhagen, I.; Swart, J. M.; de Boer, W. F.

    2015-01-01

    South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling) by herbivores on the formation of grazing lawns. We conducted a series of common garden experiments to test the effect of nutrients on interspecific competition between a typical lawn-forming grass species (Cynodon dactylon) and a species that is frequently found outside grazing lawns (Hyparrhenia hirta), and tested for the effect of herbivore disturbance in the form of trampling and clipping. We also performed a vegetation and herbivore survey to apply experimentally derived insights to field observations. Our results showed that interspecific competition was not affected by soil nutrient concentrations. C. dactylon did show much more resilience to disturbance than H. hirta, presumably due to the regenerative capacity of its rhizomes. Results from the field survey were in line with these findings, describing a correlation between herbivore pressure and C. dactylon abundance. We conclude that herbivore disturbance, and not soil nutrients, provide C. dactylon with a competitive advantage over H. hirta, due to vegetative regeneration from its rhizomes. This provides evidence for the importance of concentrated, high herbivore densities for the creation and maintenance of grazing lawns. PMID:26510157

  16. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.)

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Ramadoss; Devadasu, Chapala; Srinivasa Babu, Puttagunta

    2015-01-01

    P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H1 NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water : methanol : glacial acetic acid (65 : 34 : 1 v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310 nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617 min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2–10 μg/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. PMID:25788944

  17. Graphite whiskers in CV3 meteorites.

    PubMed

    Fries, Marc; Steele, Andrew

    2008-04-04

    Graphite whiskers (GWs), an allotrope of carbon that has been proposed to occur in space, have been discovered in three CV-type carbonaceous chondrites via Raman imaging and electron microscopy. The GWs are associated with high-temperature calcium-aluminum inclusion (CAI) rims and interiors, with the rim of a dark inclusion, and within an inclusion inside an unusual chondrule that bears mineralogy and texture indicative of high-temperature processing. Current understanding of CAI formation places their condensation, and that of associated GWs, relatively close to the Sun and early in the condensation sequence of protoplanetary disk materials. If this is the case, then it is a possibility that GWs are expelled from any young solar system early in its history, thus populating interstellar space with diffuse GWs. Graphite whiskers have been postulated to play a role in the near-infrared (near-IR) dimming of type Ia supernovae, as well as in the thermalization of both the cosmic IR and microwave background and in galactic center dimming between 3 and 9 micrometers. Our observations, along with the further possibility that GWs could be manufactured during supernovae, suggest that GWs may have substantial effects in observational astronomy.

  18. Barium sulphate in a Saharan CV chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ash, R. D.

    1994-07-01

    Acfer 086 (CV3) was recovered from the Sahara in 1989. A thin section was studied for weathering products. During routine microprobe analysis a phase was found containing Ba and S in approximate 1:1 atomic ratio. The only other element detected at more than trace level was Fe (less than 2%), possibly from surrounding Fe-rich phases. It is concluded that the only likely mineral with this chemistry is barytes, BaSO4. The barytes occurs as isolated, 1-10-micron, irregularly shaped grains. It is present exclusively in inclusions, both metal/C-rich and chondrules and chondrule fragments. None were observed in the matrix. At its highest the barytes density reached greater than 50 grains in an area measuring 300 x 200 microns. At present, whether the barytes is terrestrial or meteoritic remains unclear. Reasons for both cases are given and discussed. While it is an intriguing possibility that the barytes in Acfer 086 may be a primary meteoritic mineral, and considerable evidence would support this view, it must be treated with great caution. Although texturally it is unlike a secondary phase and there are difficulties with the introduction of barytes by groundwater, this cannot be dismissed. The high and variable Ba contents of the Acfer/El Djouf Saharan CR chondrites are strong evidence for the formation of secondary barytes during residence on the desert floor. If terrestrial, the presence and distribution pattern of barytes in Acfer 086 has potentially important consequences for chemical and isotopic analyses of many elements in both bulk and inclusions of meteorite finds from the deserts of the world.

  19. Dichotic and monotic masking of CV's by CV second formants with different transition starting values.

    PubMed

    Porter, R J; Whittaker, R G

    1980-05-01

    Listeners were asked to identify ambiguous and unambiguous stop-vowel targets placed in monotic and dichotic competition with second formants (bleats) from voiced consonant-vowel (CV) syllables lying along a place-of-articulation continuum. Target performance varied with bleat-continuum position as well as bleat intensities. In cases where target errors occurred, either dichotically or monotically, they reflected predominantly the place cue of the bleat. This result, like that of previous studies, suggests the dominance of target or bleat reflects the relative "salience" of the two signals' cues. Differences were seen between monotic and dichotic conditions in the rate of change in performance with bleat intensity and continuum position. The rate of monotic performance change was a more precipitous (higher slope) function of these variables than was dichotic performance. This difference was interpreted as suggesting that monotic interference includes a peripheral masking component which is sensitive to the relative spectral energies of target and bleat. Dichotic effects, in contrast, seem to primarily reflect the operation of (central) processes which grant different perceptual weights to signals' cues depending on their intensity-dependent saliences. The observation that ambiguity, per se, of the targets (or the CV's from which the bleats were extracted) played little role in predicting results, was interpreted as reflecting a primarily prephonetic (i.e., auditory) locus for both monotic and dichotic interactions.

  20. EPA Method 1682: Salmonella spp.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Method 1682 describes procedures for analysis of solid samples (biosolids) and may be adapted for assessment of water, liquid, particulate and aerosol samples contaminated with Salmonella spp. using culture and immunoassay.

  1. Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in Arachis spp. Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, S. C.; Simpson, C. E.; Starr, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Field and greenhouse evaluations of 116 wild Arachis spp. genotypes demonstrated the presence of resistance to reproduction of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria race 1. Resistance in greenhouse tests was based on test lines having ≤ 2.5% of the number of eggs per gram of roots as did the susceptible A. hypogaea cv. Tamnut 74. In field tests, resistant genotypes were identified on the basis of having lower (P = 0.05) final nematode population densities than did Tamnut 74. Resistance was identified in genotypes from 11 of 15 wild species tested and in 10 of 20 genotypes belonging to undescribed species. Results of field and greenhouse experiments were similar; 26 of 31 genotypes common to both tests gave similar responses in both tests. Resistance to M. arenaria was identified in the complex hybrid TP-135, which was derived from A. hypogaea cv. Florunner x (A. batizocoi K 9484 x [A. cardenasii GKP 10017 x A. chacoensis GKP 10602])⁴x. In a single greenhouse test, three of six genotypes resistant to M. arenaria were also resistant to M. hapla. These data indicate that the Arachis spp. germplasm contains several sources of resistance to M. arenaria and possibly M. hapla. Some of this resistance is in germplasm that is genetically compatible with A. hypogaea. The complex hybrid TP-135 incorporates resistance from wild species into the genetic background of A. hypogaea. On the basis of these data, we believe it may be possible to develop peanut cultivars with high levels of resistance to M. arenaria and M. hapla. PMID:19287667

  2. Prevalence of Eimeria spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in calves in the Van province.

    PubMed

    Gül, Abdurrahman; Ciçek, Mutalip; Kilinç, Ozlem

    2008-01-01

    This research was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia cysts in calves less than 6 months of age in Van province. For this purpose, fecal samples were obtained from the rectum of 182 calves. Fecal samples (n: 182) were examined with the modified acid-fast technique for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. The same samples were examined by zinc sulphate flotation technique for Eimeria oocysts and Giardia cysts. During the laboratory examination of fecal samples, Eimeria spp. oocysts were identified in 22.53% (41/182), Cryptosporidium oocysts in 13.19% (24/182) and Giardia cysts in 9.34 % (17/182) of the dairy calves examined. The rate of infection was 69.78% (127/182). Single infections (45.05%) and mixed infections (24.73%) were identified.

  3. Comparative genomics of Fructobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. reveals niche-specific evolution of Fructobacillus spp.

    DOE PAGES

    Endo, Akihito; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Naoto; ...

    2015-12-29

    In this study, Fructobacillus spp. in fructose-rich niches belong to the family Leuconostocaceae. They were originally classified as Leuconostoc spp., but were later grouped into a novel genus, Fructobacillus , based on their phylogenetic position, morphology and specific biochemical characteristics. The unique characters, so called fructophilic characteristics, had not been reported in the group of lactic acid bacteria, suggesting unique evolution at the genome level. Here we studied four draft genome sequences of Fructobacillus spp. and compared their metabolic properties against those of Leuconostoc spp. As a result, Fructobacillus species possess significantly less protein coding sequences in their small genomes.more » The number of genes was significantly smaller in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Several other metabolic pathways, including TCA cycle, ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis and phosphotransferase systems, were characterized as discriminative pathways between the two genera. The adhE gene for bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase, and genes for subunits of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex were absent in Fructobacillus spp. The two genera also show different levels of GC contents, which are mainly due to the different GC contents at the third codon position. In conclusion, the present genome characteristics in Fructobacillus spp. suggest reductive evolution that took place to adapt to specific niches.« less

  4. Crop Rotation and Nematicides for Management of Mixed Populations of Meloidogyne spp. on Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Fortnum, B A; Lewis, S A; Johnson, A W

    2001-12-01

    The effects of crop rotation and the nematicides 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), ethoprop, and fenamiphos on the relative frequency of Meloidogyne incognita race 3, M. arenaria race 2, and M. javanica and tobacco yields on a sandy loam soil were determined. Cropping sequences altered the species composition and population densities of Meloidogyne spp. Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita predominated when cotton, corn, sorghum, or rye-fallow preceded tobacco. Meloidogyne javanica and M. arenaria predominated when tobacco preceded tobacco. Sorghum, cotton, corn, or rye-fallow preceding tobacco enhanced yields compared to tobacco preceding tobacco in plots containing mixtures of Meloidogyne species. Sorghum supported minimal reproduction of any Meloidogyne spp. Application of 1,3-D increased tobacco yields and reduced root galling when compared to untreated controls. Both fenamiphos and ethoprop treatments were less effective than 1,3-D in controlling Meloidogyne spp. or increasing yields. A rotation crop x nematicide interaction was not observed. In continuous tobacco, use of the M. incognita-resistant tobacco cv. Coker 176 increased tobacco yields when compared to the M. incognita-susceptible cv. Coker 319 when 1,3-D was not applied.

  5. Parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coccidioides spp. is the ethiological agent of coccidioidomycosis, an infection that can be fatal. Its diagnosis is complicated, due to that it shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with other pulmonary mycoses. Coccidioides spp. is a dimorphic fungus and, in its saprobic phase, grows as a mycelium, forming a large amount of arthroconidia. In susceptible persons, arthroconidia induce dimorphic changes into spherules/endospores, a typical parasitic form of Coccidioides spp. In addition, the diversity of mycelial parasitic forms has been observed in clinical specimens; they are scarcely known and produce errors in diagnosis. Methods We presented a retrospective study of images from specimens of smears with 15% potassium hydroxide, cytology, and tissue biopsies of a histopathologic collection from patients with coccidioidomycosis seen at a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico City. Results The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. observed in the clinical specimens was as follows: i) spherules/endospores in different maturation stages; ii) pleomorphic cells (septate hyphae, hyphae composed of ovoid and spherical cells, and arthroconidia), and iii) fungal ball formation (mycelia with septate hyphae and arthroconidia). Conclusions The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. includes the following: spherules/endospores, arthroconidia, and different forms of mycelia. This knowledge is important for the accurate diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. In earlier studies, we proposed the integration of this diversity of forms in the Coccidioides spp. parasitic cycle. The microhabitat surrounding the fungus into the host would favor the parasitic polymorphism of this fungus, and this environment may assist in the evolution toward parasitism of Coccidioides spp. PMID:24750998

  6. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Nareshkumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Prasannakumar, Kanagarajan; Thangamani, Sundaram; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40°C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. C. dactylon showed the highest mortality rate against the three species of mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties.

  7. Opaque Assemblages in CK and CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, K. E.; Righter, K.

    2006-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites that exhibit thermal metamorphism. As a result, CKs display features of metamorphism such as silicate darkening, recrystallization and shock veins. Calcium Aluminum Inclusions and Fe-Ni metal are rare. CV carbonaceous chondrites are unequilibrated and have two subgroups; oxidized and reduced. The CV and CK carbonaceous chondrite groups have been compared to each other often because of petrographic similarities, such as overlapping oxygen isotopic ratios. Scientists have suggested the two groups of carbonaceous chondrites formed from the same parent body and CKs are equilibrated CV chondrites [1, 2]. The oxidized CV group has been most closely related to CKs. This study examines the petrology and mineralogy of CKs and CVs focusing on opaque minerals found in the meteorites. Using the oxide, metal and sulfide assemblages, constraints can be placed on the temperature and oxygen fugacity at which the meteorites equilibrated. The temperature and oxygen fugacity of the CK and CV chondrites can be compared in order to help define their formation history.

  8. Infections Caused by Scedosporium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Karoll J.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Quiroz-Telles, Flavio; Meletiadis, Joseph; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Knudsen, Tena; Buchanan, Wendy; Milanovich, Jeffrey; Sutton, Deanna A.; Fothergill, Annette; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Shea, Yvonne R.; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Kottilil, Shyam; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Scedosporium spp. are increasingly recognized as causes of resistant life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Scedosporium spp. also cause a wide spectrum of conditions, including mycetoma, saprobic involvement and colonization of the airways, sinopulmonary infections, extrapulmonary localized infections, and disseminated infections. Invasive scedosporium infections are also associated with central nervous infection following near-drowning accidents. The most common sites of infection are the lungs, sinuses, bones, joints, eyes, and brain. Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans are the two principal medically important species of this genus. Pseudallescheria boydii, the teleomorph of S. apiospermum, is recognized by the presence of cleistothecia. Recent advances in molecular taxonomy have advanced the understanding of the genus Scedosporium and have demonstrated a wider range of species than heretofore recognized. Studies of the pathogenesis of and immune response to Scedosporium spp. underscore the importance of innate host defenses in protection against these organisms. Microbiological diagnosis of Scedosporium spp. currently depends upon culture and morphological characterization. Molecular tools for clinical microbiological detection of Scedosporium spp. are currently investigational. Infections caused by S. apiospermum and P. boydii in patients and animals may respond to antifungal triazoles. By comparison, infections caused by S. prolificans seldom respond to medical therapy alone. Surgery and reversal of immunosuppression may be the only effective therapeutic options for infections caused by S. prolificans. PMID:18202441

  9. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  10. Legionella spp. and Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed

    Diederen, B M W

    2008-01-01

    Infection with Legionella spp. is an important cause of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia, occurring both sporadically and in outbreaks. Infection with Legionella spp. ranks among the three most common causes of severe pneumonia in the community setting, and is isolated in 1-40% of cases of hospital-acquired pneumonia. There are no clinical features unique to Legionnaires' disease. Macrolides and fluoroquinolones are the most widely used drugs in treatment. The availability of a good diagnostic repertoire, suitable for accurately diagnosing LD, constitutes the basis for the early recognition and treatment of the individual patient as well as for effective measures for prevention and control. This review summarizes the available information regarding the microbiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of LD, with an emphasis on the laboratory diagnosis of infection with Legionella spp.

  11. Somatic Embryogenesis in Pinus spp.

    PubMed

    Montalbán, Itziar Aurora; García-Mendiguren, Olatz; Moncaleán, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) has been the most important development for plant tissue culture, not only for mass propagation but also for enabling the implementation of biotechnological tools that can be used to increase the productivity and wood quality of plantation forestry. Development of SE in forest trees started in 1985 and nowadays many studies are focused on the optimization of conifer SE system. However, these advances for many Pinus spp. are not sufficiently refined to be implemented commercially. In this chapter, a summary of the main systems used to achieve SE in Pinus spp. is reported.

  12. Nodulation, Nitrogen Fixation, and Hydrogen Oxidation by Pigeon Pea Bradyrhizobium spp. in Symbiotic Association with Pigeon Pea, Cowpea, and Soybean †

    PubMed Central

    Nautiyal, C. S.; Hegde, S. V.; van Berkum, P.

    1988-01-01

    The pigeon pea strains of Bradyrhizobium CC-1, CC-8, UASGR(S), and F4 were evaluated for nodulation, effectiveness for N2 fixation, and H2 oxidation with homologous and nonhomologous host plants. Strain CC-1 nodulated Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata, Glycine max, and G. soja but did not nodulate Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Trifolium repens. Strain F4 nodulated G. max cv. Peking and PI 434937 (Malayan), but the symbioses formed were poor. Similarly, G. max cv. Peking, cv. Bragg, PI 434937, PR 13-28-2-8-7, and HM-1 were nodulated by strain CC-1, and symbioses were also poor. G. max cv. Williams and cv. Clark were not nodulated. H2 uptake activity was expressed with pigeon pea and cowpea, but not with soybean. G. max cv. Bragg grown in Bangalore, India, in local soil not previously exposed to Bradyrhizobium japonicum formed nodules with indigenous Bradyrhizobium spp. Six randomly chosen isolates, each originating from a different nodule, formed effective symbioses with pigeon pea host ICPL-407, nodulated PR 13-28-2-8-7 soybean forming moderately effective symbioses, and did not nodulate Williams soybean. These results indicate the six isolates to be pigeon pea strains although they originated from soybean nodules. Host-determined nodulation of soybean by pigeon pea Bradyrhizobium spp. may depend upon the ancestral backgrounds of the cultivars. The poor symbioses formed by the pigeon pea strains with soybean indicate that this crop should be inoculated with B. japonicum for its cultivation in soils containing only pigeon pea Bradyrhizobium spp. PMID:16347542

  13. REE Abundances in Matrix of Allende (CV) Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, M.; Nakamura, N.; Kimura, M.

    1996-03-01

    In order to examine trace element distributions in matrix material of primitive chondrites, four interchondrule matrix specimens (sample weight ~100 micrograms) were carefully excavated using a microdrill from the petrographically characterized areas of the published sections of Allende (CV) chondrite and were precisely analyzed for REE, Ba, Sr, Rb, K, Ca and Mg by direct loading isotope dilution method (DL-IDMS).

  14. Genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Čitavičius, Donaldas

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Geobacillus are thermophiles that are of great biotechnological importance, since they are sources of many thermostable enzymes. Because of their metabolic versatility, geobacilli can be used as whole-cell catalysts in processes such as bioconversion and bioremediation. The effective employment of Geobacillus spp. requires the development of reliable methods for genetic engineering of these bacteria. Currently, genetic manipulation tools and protocols are under rapid development. However, there are several convenient cloning vectors, some of which replicate autonomously, while others are suitable for the genetic modification of chromosomal genes. Gene expression systems are also intensively studied. Combining these tools together with proper techniques for DNA transfer, some Geobacillus strains were shown to be valuable producers of recombinant proteins and industrially important biochemicals, such as ethanol or isobutanol. This review encompasses the progress made in the genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp. and surveys the vectors and transformation methods that are available for this genus.

  15. The biology of Giardia spp.

    PubMed Central

    Adam, R D

    1991-01-01

    Gardia spp. are flagellated protozoans that parasitize the small intestines of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The infectious cysts begin excysting in the acidic environment of the stomach and become trophozoites (the vegetative form). The trophozoites attach to the intestinal mucosa through the suction generated by a ventral disk and cause diarrhea and malabsorption by mechanisms that are not well understood. Giardia spp. have a number of unique features, including a predominantly anaerobic metabolism, complete dependence on salvage of exogenous nucleotides, a limited ability to synthesize and degrade carbohydrates and lipids, and two nuclei that are equal by all criteria that have been tested. The small size and unique sequence of G. lamblia rRNA molecules have led to the proposal that Giardia is the most primitive eukaryotic organism. Three Giardia spp. have been identified by light lamblia, G. muris, and G. agilis, but electron microscopy has allowed further species to be described within the G. lamblia group, some of which have been substantiated by differences in the rDNA. Animal models and human infections have led to the conclusion that intestinal infection is controlled primarily through the humoral immune system (T-cell dependent in the mouse model). A major immunogenic cysteine-rich surface antigen is able to vary in vitro and in vivo in the course of an infection and may provide a means of evading the host immune response or perhaps a means of adapting to different intestinal environments. Images PMID:1779932

  16. Axtrell, a new CV3 chondrite find from Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.; Casanova, I.; Symes, S.; Benoit, P.; Sears, D. W. G.; Wacker, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a previously unreported meteorite found in Axtell, Texas, in 1943. Based on the mineralogical composition and texture of its matrix and the sizes and abundance of chondrules, we classify it as a CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. The dominant opaque phase in the chondrules is magnetite, and that in refractory inclusions is Ni-rich metal (awaruite). Axtell, therefore, belongs to the oxidized subgroup of CV3 chondrites, although unlike Allende it escaped strong sulfidation. The meteorite bears a strong textural resemblance to Allende, and its chondrule population and matrix appear to be quite similar to those of Allende, but its refractory inclusions, thermoluminescence properties, and cosmogenic Co-60 abundances are not. Our data are consistent with a terrestrial age for Axtell of approximately 100 years and a metamorphic grade slightly lower than that of Allende.

  17. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-16do as a CV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Shishkovsky, Laura

    2016-04-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum of ASASSN-16do (ATel #8888) on UT April 17.07 with the Goodman Spectrograph on the SOAR telescope. The source has a blue continuum and broad double-peaked Balmer and He 5875 emission at z~0, with an H-alpha FWHM of about 2400 km/s. This value is high for a CV and suggests the source is observed close to edge-on.

  18. Importance of serological cross-reactivity among Toxoplasma gondii, Hammondia spp., Neospora spp., Sarcocystis spp. and Besnoitia besnoiti.

    PubMed

    Gondim, Luís F P; Mineo, José R; Schares, Gereon

    2017-02-28

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora spp., Sarcocystis spp., Hammondia spp. and Besnoitia besnoiti are genetically related cyst-forming coccidia. Serology is frequently used for the identification of T. gondii, Neospora spp. and B. besnoiti-exposed individuals. Serologic cross-reactions occur in different tests among animals infected with T. gondii and H. hammondi, as well as among animals infected by T. gondii and N. caninum. Infections caused by N. caninum and N. hughesi are almost indistinguishable by serology. Neospora caninum, B. besnoiti and Sarcocystis spp. infections in cattle show some degree of serologic cross-reactivity. Antibody cross-reactivity between Neospora spp. and H. heydorni-infected animals is suspected, but not proven to occur. We review serologic cross-reactivity among animals and/or humans infected with T. gondii, Neospora spp., Sarcocystis spp., Hammondia spp. and B. besnoiti. Emphasis is laid upon antigens and serological methods for N. caninum diagnosis which were tested for cross-reactivity with related protozoa. Species-specific antigens, as well as stage-specific proteins have been identified in some of these parasites and have promising use for diagnosis and epidemiological surveys.

  19. Phermonal Control of Biting Midges (Culicoides SPP).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-28

    AD-A113 915 FLORIDA MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY LAB VERO BEACH F/G 6/3 PHERMONAL CONTROL OF BITING MIDGES ( CULICOIDES SPP ).(U) APR 82 J R LINLEY» D A...BITING MIDGES ( CULICOIDES SPP .) By Dr. 0. R. Linley, co-principal investigator, Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Institute of Food and...CONTROL OF BITING MIDGES ( CULICOIDES SPP .) Annual ’ 35/01/81-04/30/82 7. AUTHORS J. R. Unley 0. A. Carlson » PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME

  20. Osteosarcoma in Baboons (Papio spp).

    PubMed

    Mezzles, Marguerite J; Dick, Edward J; Owston, Michael A; Bauer, Cassondra

    2015-04-01

    Bone neoplasms in baboons (Papio spp) are rare, with only one confirmed case of osteosarcoma previously described in the literature. Over a 12-y period, 6 baboons at a national primate research center presented with naturally occurring osteosarcoma; 3 lesions affected the appendicular skeleton, and the remaining 3 were in the head (skull and mandible). The 6 cases presented were identified in members of a large outdoor-housed breeding colony. The subjects were not genetically related or exposed to the same research conditions. Diagnoses were made based on the presentation and radiographic findings, with histologic confirmation.

  1. [Mycoses and zoonoses: Cryptococcus spp].

    PubMed

    Cabañes, F Javier

    2008-03-01

    The term "zoonosis" is difficult to delimit because different authors have various definitions for this term. Few mycoses are usually considered zoonoses. However, the role that animals play in the epidemiology of the main human mycoses is still not well known. Moreover, the environmental niches for these fungal agents have not yet been completely determined. This special issue of the "Revista Iberoamericana de Micología" deals with the talks and round table presented at the VIII Spanish Mycological Congress held in October 2006 in Barcelona, Spain on "Cryptococcus spp. and zoonoses".

  2. Prevalence of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. in beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fayer, R.; Santin, M.; Trout, J.M.; DeStefano, S.; Koenen, K.; Kaur, T.

    2006-01-01

    Feces from 62 beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts were examined by fluorescence microscopy (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Microsporidia species, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. between January 2002 and December 2004. PCR-positive specimens were further examined by gene sequencing. Protist parasites were detected in 6.4% of the beavers. All were subadults and kits. Microsporidia species were not detected. Giardia spp. was detected by IFA from four beavers; Cryptosporidium spp. was also detected by IFA from two of these beavers. However, gene sequence data for the ssrRNA gene from these two Cryptosporidium spp.-positive beavers were inconclusive in identifying the species. Nucleotide sequences of the TPI, ssrRNA, and ??-giardin genes for Giardia spp. (deposited in GenBank) indicated that the four beavers were excreting Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B, the zoonotic genotype representing a potential source of waterborne Giardia spp. cysts. Copyright 2006 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

  3. Prevalence of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. in beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Fayer, Ronald; Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; DeStefano, Stephen; Koenen, Kiana; Kaur, Taranjit

    2006-12-01

    Feces from 62 beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts were examined by fluorescence microscopy (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Microsporidia species, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. between January 2002 and December 2004. PCR-positive specimens were further examined by gene sequencing. Protist parasites were detected in 6.4% of the beavers. All were subadults and kits. Microsporidia species were not detected. Giardia spp. was detected by IFA from four beavers; Cryptosporidium spp. was also detected by IFA from two of these beavers. However, gene sequence data for the ssrRNA gene from these two Cryptosporidium spp.-positive beavers were inconclusive in identifying the species. Nucleotide sequences of the TPI, ssrRNA, and beta-giardin genes for Giardia spp. (deposited in GenBank) indicated that the four beavers were excreting Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B, the zoonotic genotype representing a potential source of waterborne Giardia spp. cysts.

  4. The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae CV Patrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Alexandra Bianca; Shappee, Benjamin John; Archer Shappee, Bartlett; ASAS-SN

    2015-01-01

    Even in the modern era, only human eyes scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The "All Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae" (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by monitoring the extra-galactic sky down to V~17 mag every 2-3 days using multiple telescopes, hosted by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, in the northern and southern hemispheres. By far the most common events observed by ASAS-SN are the Galactic transients. Since April 2013 ASAS-SN has identified over 180 new cataclysmic variable stars and announced over 260 new outbursts of known CVs. To make our data available to the CV community in 'real time', we have launched an automated 'CV Patrol' to monitor known CVs for outbursts as a useful tool for both professional and amateurs astronomers. It is a long term goal of ASAS-SN to make all our data public in real-time, and this patrol will serve as a framework for future ASAS-SN data releases.

  5. No nebular magnetization in the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R. R.; Lima, E. A.; Weiss, B. P.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic fields in the solar nebula may have played a central role in mass and angular momentum transport in the protosolar disk and facilitated the accretion of the first planetesimals. Thought to be key evidence for this hypothesis is the high unblocking-temperature, randomly oriented magnetization in chondrules in the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite. However, it has recently been realized that most of the ferromagnetic minerals in Allende are products of secondary processes on the parent planetesimal. Here we reevaluate the pre-accretional magnetism hypothesis for Allende using new paleomagnetic analyses of chondrules including the first measurements of mutually oriented subsamples from within individual chondrules. We confirm that Allende chondrules carry a high-temperature component of magnetization that is randomly oriented among chondrules. However, we find that subsamples of individual chondrules are also non-unidirectionally magnetized. Therefore, the high-temperature magnetization in Allende chondrules is not a record of nebular magnetic fields and is instead best explained by remagnetization during metasomatism in a <8 μT magnetic field. This low field intensity suggests that any core dynamo on the CV parent body decayed before the end of metasomatism, likely <40 My after the formation of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). Despite widespread practice, the magnetization in Allende should not be used to constrain magnetic fields in the protosolar nebula.

  6. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp. and Monocercomonas spp. in the gastrointestinal tract of snakes by in-situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Richter, B; Kübber-Heiss, A; Weissenböck, H; Schmidt, P

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the development of a diagnostic method for protozoal infections of the gastrointestinal tract of captive snakes, based on chromogenic in-situ hybridization with probes designed for the detection of 18S rRNA genes from Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp., Entamoeba invadens and Monocercomonas spp. The specificity of the probes was confirmed with the help of parasitic cultures and gene sequence analysis. The probes gave clear positive signals. Of 182 snakes examined, seven were positive with the Cryptosporidium probe, 13 with the Entamoeba probe (of which nine were also positive with the E. invadens probe), and 34 with the Monocercomonas probe.

  7. Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.

    PubMed

    Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey.

  8. Molecular characterization of the presence of Eubacterium spp and Streptococcus spp in endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Fouad, A F; Kum, K-Y; Clawson, M L; Barry, J; Abenoja, C; Zhu, Q; Caimano, M; Radolf, J D

    2003-08-01

    Eubacterium spp. and Streptococcus spp. are virulent, commonly identified microorganisms in endodontic infections. The purpose of this study was to use molecular methods to identify these organisms in 22 infected root canals that include eight cases with preoperative clinical symptoms and five cases with a history of diabetes mellitus. The presence of Streptococcus spp. and Eubacterium spp. was examined using two sets of PCR primers specific with multiple species within the respective genera. Positive specimens had their PCR products sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to identify the specific species. Sixteen specimens (73%) contained Eubacterium spp. and nine (41%) were positive for Streptococcus spp. Eubacterium infirmum was the most prevalent Eubacterium sp. This organism was significantly associated with a history of diabetes (OR = 9.6; P = 0.04). Streptococcus anginosus was the most common Streptococcus sp., but neither it nor any of the other streptococci were significantly associated with the clinical parameters evaluated.

  9. Pheromonal Control of Biting Midges (Culicoides Spp.).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    AD-RI34 760 PHEROMONRL CONTROL OF BITING MIDGES ( CULICOIDES SPP )- i/i (U) FLORIDA MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGIY LAB VERO BEACH J R LINLEY ET RL. OCT 83 N888i4...PHEROMONAL CONTROL OF BITING MIDGES ( CULICOIDES SPP .) BY Dr. J. R. Linley, co-principal investigator, Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Institute of...for public release; its "’.~ distribution is unlimited CD N OV |-,°- ! --. * ABSTRACT ... .~. 4’/The male Culicoides melleus (Coquillett) (Diptera

  10. Death of pastures syndrome: tissue changes in Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Júnior, N G; Ariano, A P R; Silva, I V

    2016-07-11

    The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS). Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso. After collection, the individuals were fixed in FAA50 and stored in 70% alcohol. Histological slides were prepared from the middle third of the sections of roots, rhizomes, and leaves, and the proportions and characteristics of tissues were evaluated in healthy, intermediate, and advanced stages of DPS. Changes were compared between cultivars. With the advancement of the syndrome, the following changes were observed: a more marked decrease in the length of roots in U. hybrida; disorganization of the cortical region of the roots and rhizome cultivars; fungal hyphae in roots and aerenchyma formation in U. hybrida; a decrease in sclerenchyma fiber proportions in roots and leaves; sclerification of the epidermis of U. brizantha rhizomes; and an increase in pericyclic fibers in U. hybrida. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the volume of epidermal cells of the abaxial face of the leaves of both cultivars, with a greater reduction in U. hybrida; a gradual decrease in thickness in the midrib of leaves similar to leaf mesophyll; conduction system obstructions; partial or total cell lysis in roots and rhizomes affected by the syndrome. Obstructions in sieve tube element and companion cells, and sometimes obstruction in xylem vessel elements. The evolution of DPS in cultivars was similar, but there were variations, arising probably from the physiological response to stress, such as aerenchyma formation in the root and increased

  11. Ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma biomonitoring suitability for estimating nutritional contamination risks under seasonal climate in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z S; Domingos, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    The risks posed by nutrient deposition due to air pollution on ecosystems and their respective services to human beings can be appropriately estimated by bioindicator plants when they are well acclimated to the study region environmental conditions. This assumption encouraged us to comparatively evaluate the accumulation potential of ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma macro and micronutrients. We also indicated the most appropriate species for biomonitoring nutrient contamination risks in tropical areas of Southeastern Brazil, which are characterized by marked dry and wet seasons and complex mixtures of air pollutants from different sources (industries, vehicle traffic and agriculture). The study was conducted in 14 sites with different neighboring land uses, within the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, central-eastern region of São Paulo State. The exposure experiments with ryegrass and guava were consecutively repeated 40 (28 days each) and 12 (84 days each) times, respectively, from Oct/2010 to Sept/2013. Macro and micronutrients were analyzed and background concentrations and enrichment ratios (ER) were estimated to classify the contamination risk within the study region. Significantly higher ER suggested that ryegrass were the most appropriate accumulator species for N, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn deposition and guava for K, Ca, P and B deposition. Based on these biomonitoring adjustments, we concluded that the nutrient deposition was spatially homogeneous in the study area, but clear seasonality in the contamination risk by nutritional inputs was evidenced. Significantly higher contamination risk by S, Fe, K and B occurred during the dry season and enhanced contamination risk by Mn, Cu and Zn were highlighted during the wet season. Distinctly high contamination risk was estimated for S, Fe and Mn in several exposure experiments.

  12. Heat Resistance in Liquids of Enterococcus spp., Listeria spp., Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp

    PubMed Central

    Sörqvist, S

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work was to collect, evaluate, summarize and compare heat resistance data reported for Campylobacter, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Listeria, Salmonella and Yersinia spp. The work was limited to resistance in liquids with pH values 6–8. Results obtained under similar experimental conditions were sought. Thermal destruction lines for the various bacterial groups studied were constructed using log10 D values and treatment temperatures. There was a good linear relationship between log10 D and temperature with Escherichia coli, listerias and salmonellas. For campylobacters, enterococci and yersinias the relationships were weaker but, nevertheless, present. Using the slopes of the lines and their 95% confidence limits, z values and their 95% confidence limits were calculated. z values were compared with z values obtained from reports. The equations for the lines were also used for calculation of predicted means of D values at various treatment temperatures. 95% confidence limits on predicted means of D values and on predicted individual D values were also calculated. Lines and values are shown in figures and tables. Differences in heat resistance noted between and within the bacterial groups studied are discussed. PMID:14650540

  13. Anthocyanin Profile in Berries of Wild and Cultivated Vaccinium spp. along Altitudinal Gradients in the Alps.

    PubMed

    Zoratti, Laura; Jaakola, Laura; Häggman, Hely; Giongo, Lara

    2015-10-07

    Vaccinium spp. berries provide some of the best natural sources of anthocyanins. In the wild bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), a clear increasing trend in anthocyanin biosynthesis has been reported toward northern latitudes of Europe, but studies related to altitude have given contradictory results. The present study focused on the anthocyanin composition in wild bilberries and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta Blue) growing along altitudinal gradients in the Alps of northern Italy. Our results indicate an increasing accumulation of anthocyanins in bilberries along an altitudinal gradient of about 650 m. The accumulation was due to a significant increase in delphinidin and malvidin glycosides, whereas the accumulation of cyanidin and peonidin glycosides was not affected by altitude. Seasonal differences, especially temperature, had a major influence on the accumulation of anthocyanins in blueberries.

  14. Cloning and sequencing of columbid circovirus (coCV), a new circovirus from pigeons.

    PubMed

    Mankertz, A; Hattermann, K; Ehlers, B; Soike, D

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of columbid circovirus (CoCV) isolated from pigeons is described. CoCV was amplified using a consensus primer PCR approach directed against conserved sequences within the rep genes of vertebrate circoviruses. The genome of CoCV is circular and 2037 nt in size. It displays 55% homology to the genome of psittacine beak and feather disease virus and is more distantly related (< 40% homology) to porcine circovirus type 1 and 2. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase and the putative capsid protein of CoCV. A region similar to the origin of replication of other circoviruses was found: it encompasses a stem-loop structure with the nonamer 5'-TAGTATTAC, conserved in circo-, nano- and geminiviruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggest classification of CoCV as member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae.

  15. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented.

  16. Molecular Detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Ruminants from Twelve Provinces of China

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Haixiang; Kelly, Patrick John; Zhang, Jilei; Luo, Qinghua; Yang, Yi; Mao, Yongjiang; Yang, Zhangping; Li, Jing; Wu, Hongzhuan

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that are of significant economic importance as they can infect large and small ruminants and also people. There is little information on anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in ruminants in China. 16S rRNA FRET-qPCRs were used to screen convenience whole blood samples from 2,240 domestic ruminants in 12 provinces of China for Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Positive samples were further analyzed with a standard PCR for the gltA. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in the sheep (11.7%; 13/111), goats (81.8%; 219/270), cattle (13.2%; 241/1,830), and water buffaloes (6.9%; 2/29). Ehrlichia spp. DNA was detected in sheep (1.8%; 2/111), goats (1.1%; 3/270), and cattle (3.6%; 65/1830) but not in water buffaloes (0/29). Sequencing of gltA PCR products showed that A. marginale, A. ovis, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia sp. (JX629807) were present in ruminants from China, while the 16S rRNA FRET-qPCR sequence data indicated that there might also be A. platys, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma sp. BL126-13 (KJ410243), and Anaplasma sp. JC3-6 (KM227012). Our study shows that domestic ruminants from China are not uncommonly infected with a variety of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. PMID:28096822

  17. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  18. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-05-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  19. Morphological Analyses of Spring Wheat (CIMMYT cv. PCYT-10) Somaclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Hashim, Z. N.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to induce callus from single immature wheat embryos, produce multiple seedlings from the induced callus, and analyse the somaclonal regenerants for potential grain production in a space garden. Immature wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (cv. PCYT-10), embryos were excised 10 to 12 days post-anthesis and cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog's inorganic salts. Embryos cultured on medium containing kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) at 0.5mg/l plus 2 or 3mg/l dicamba (1-methoxy-3,6- dichlorobenzoic acid) or 0.2mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid produced calli from which 24, 35 and 39% of the explant tissue exhibited regenerants, respectively. The size of flag leaves, plant heights, tillers per plant, spike lengths, awn lengths, and seeds per spike were significantly different in regenerants of two-selfed recurrent generations (SC(sub 1), SC(sub 2)) than in parental controls. However, there were no significant differences in spikelets per spike between the SC(sub 2) and parental controls. Desirable characteristics that were obtained included longer spikes, more seeds per spike, supernumerary spikelets, and larger flag leaves, variants that should be useful in wheat improvement programs.

  20. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ganogpichayagrai, Aunyachulee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitro phenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro. PMID:28217550

  1. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves.

    PubMed

    Ganogpichayagrai, Aunyachulee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitro phenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro.

  2. An antifungal peptide from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Pan, Wen Liang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-04-01

    A 5.4-kDa antifungal peptide, with an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensins and inhibitory activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola (IC(50)= 3 μM), Setospaeria turcica and Bipolaris maydis, was isolated from the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean. The peptide was purified by employing a protocol that entailed adsorption on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S and finally gel filtration on Superdex 75. The antifungal activity of the peptide against M. arachidicola was stable in the pH range 3-12 and in the temperature range 0°C to 80°C. There was a slight reduction of the antifungal activity at pH 2 and 13, and the activity was indiscernible at pH 0, 1, and 14. The activity at 90°C and 100°C was slightly diminished. Deposition of Congo red at the hyphal tips of M. arachidicola was induced by the peptide indicating inhibition of hyphal growth. The lack of antiproliferative activity of brown kidney bean antifungal peptide toward tumor cells, in contrast to the presence of such activity of other antifungal peptides, indicates that different domains are responsible for the antifungal and antiproliferative activities.

  3. Seven health physics calculator programs for the HP-41CV

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1984-08-01

    Several user-oriented programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV are explained. The first program builds, stores, alters, and ages a list of radionuclides. This program only handles single- and double-decay chains. The second program performs convenient conversions for the six nuclides of concern in plutonium handling. The conversions are between mass, activity, and weight percents of the isotopes. The source can be aged and/or neutron generation rates can be computed. The third program is a timekeeping program that improves the process of manually estimating and tracking personnel exposure during high dose rate tasks by replacing the pencil, paper, and stopwatch method. This program requires a time module. The remaining four programs deal with computations of time-integrated air concentrations at various distances from an airborne release. Building wake effects, source depletion by ground deposition, and sector averaging can all be included in the final printout of the X/Q - Hanford and X/Q - Pasquill programs. The shorter versions of these, H/Q and P/Q, compute centerline or sector-averaged values and include a subroutine to facilitate dose estimation by entering dose factors and quantities released. The horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters in the Pasquill-Gifford programs were modeled with simple, two-parameter functions that agreed very well with the usual textbook graphs. 8 references, 7 appendices.

  4. Ultrastructure and germination of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro pollen.

    PubMed

    Abreu, I; Costa, I; Oliveira, M; Cunha, M; de Castro, R

    2006-08-01

    The cultivar Loureiro of Vitis vinifera is one of the most economically important, recommended in almost the totality of the Região Demarcada dos Vinhos Verdes. In vineyards, the grape productivity of this cultivar is normal while in others it is extremely low. The aim of this work was to study the morphology and germination of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro pollen with high and low productivity. The pollen grain was examined under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Typically V. vinifera pollen present three furrows but in the cultivar Loureiro we found tricolporated and acolporated (without furrows or pores) pollen grains. Both pollen types present generative and vegetative cells with the usual aspect and a dense cytoplasm rich in organelles. In the acolporated pollen a continuous exine layer and an irregular intine layer were observed. Differences were found in the starch accumulation, since only in tricolporated pollen abundant plastids filled with numerous starch granules were observed. To determine the causes of the low productivity of this cultivar we tested pollen viability by the fluorochromatic reaction and pollen germinability by in vitro assays. We observed that the acolporated pollen grain is viable, but no germination was recorded.

  5. Identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by righ-resolution melting analysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan), on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction), and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction). The proposed method allowed us to identify and discriminate the four species by analyzing the derivative, normalized, and difference melting curves, with high reproducibility among and within the experiments, as demonstrated by low coefficients of variation (less than 2.2% and 2.0%, respectively). This is the first study where this method is used for discrimination of these four species of protozoa in a single reaction. PMID:28346485

  6. Solution NMR Structure of Hypothetical Protein CV_2116 Encoded by a Viral Prophage Element in Chromobacterium violaceum

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Cort, John R.; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-06-14

    CV{_}2116 from Chromobacterium violaceum is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV{_}2116 protein sequence as a query identified only two hits, both with amino acid sequence identities of less than 40%. After the CV{_}2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid and transformed into E. coli, the desired CV{_}2116 protein was expressed and purified. A high quality solution structure of CV{_}2116 was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The tertiary structure of CV{_}2116 adopts a novel alpha + beta fold containing two anti-parallel beta sheets and one alpha helix in the C-terminal end. CV{_}2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence families and no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. To date, no function of CV{_}2116 can be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches.

  7. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans1

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti; Teles, José Andreey Almeida; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; Silva, Stemberg Oliveira Firmino; Cruz, Maria Vilma Rocha Andrade; da Silva-Júnior, Francisco Feliciano

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans. Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy). The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol. Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests. Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection. PMID:26487143

  8. [Blastocystis spp.: Advances, controversies and future challenges].

    PubMed

    Del Coco, Valeria F; Molina, Nora B; Basualdo, Juan A; Córdoba, María A

    2017-02-09

    Blastocystis spp. is the most common protozoan detected in human stool samples. In developing countries, infection rates are higher than 20%. The presence of this parasite in the feces of several host species suggests its zoonotic potential. The clinical relevance and the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. in the intestinal tract remain unclear. There are several clinical reports that recognize it as the etiologic agent of several intestinal disorders such as diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis, although the pathogenicity of this parasite has not been proved yet. This wide range of clinical manifestations could be related to the genetic diversity exhibited by this parasite.

  9. [Bacteremia and meningitis caused by Yersinia spp].

    PubMed

    Robert, J; Moreno, A; Martínez, J A; Almela, M; Jiménez de Anta, M T; Soriano, E

    2000-07-01

    Yersinia spp infection in human people are increasing attention last thirty years. We have reviewed the bacteremia in our hospital last five years. Three episodes were Yersinia spp bacteremia. Presence of disease or predisponent therapy were present in most of episodes. All patients were more than seventy years old. The septic metastasis were present in all the cases: one with meningitis, other with liver abscess and one with septic arthritis. We have documented a good clinical evolution, though the mortality in different reports is around 50%. The election therapy for all episodes were cephalosporins, and in two cases we added quinolones.

  10. Suppression of Pythium spp. by Trichoderma spp. during germination of tomato seeds in soilless growing media.

    PubMed

    Aerts, R; De Schutter, B; Rombouts, L

    2002-01-01

    In the Flemish horticulture Pythium spp. is an important pathogen of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculenthum) in soilless growing media. Therefore some experiments were conducted to evaluate the possibility of decreasing the damage caused by Pythium spp. by Trichoderma spp. In a tray with several growing media, a suspension of Trichoderma conidia (10(6)/ml growing medium) was applied two weeks before sowing. On some objects, a compost extract (Biostimulus) was added. The growing media used in the experiment were rockwool, recycled rockwool and recycled coconut fibre. After sowing, the trays were covered with perlite. Three isolates of Trichoderma spp.: T. asperellum (Biofungus), T. harzianum (Tri 003) and Trichoderma sp. (KHK) and two isolates of Pythium spp.: P. ultimum (MUCL) en P. aphanidermatum (HRI, UK) were used. Propamocarb was used as a chemical standard. The use of coconut fibre growing medium resulted in a higher percentage (36%) of germination than the rockwool media when only Pythium spp. was used. The presence of the spontaneous developing microflora in the coconut fibre medium gave probably also a suppression of Pythium spp. For that reason the results of the suppression by Trichoderma spp. are not easy to explain and very variable on the different objects. Pythium ultimum was more suppressed than P. aphanidermatum on all the growing media and the application of all the Trichoderma isolates increased the germination percentage of tomato seeds. T. asperellum (Biofungus) gave on rockwool also a good result for the suppression of P. aphanidermatum (increasing of germination with 48%). This effect was comparable with the propamocarb treatment (48%). T. harzianum (Tri 003) gave a small suppression (22%) and Trichoderma sp. (KHK) gave almost no suppression of P. aphanidermatum (7%). When less Trichoderma conidia were applied the germination percentage decreased. The adding of a compost extract (Biostimulus) had no influence on the results. This experiment

  11. DNA microarray-based detection of multiple pathogens: Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp.

    PubMed

    Schnee, Christiane; Sachse, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Rapid detection of slow-growing or non-culturable microorganisms, such as Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp., is still a challenge to diagnosticians in the veterinary field. In addition, as epidemiological evidence on the frequency of mixed infections involving two and more bacterial species has been emerging, detection methods allowing simultaneous identification of different pathogens are required. In the present chapter, we describe DNA microarray-based procedures for the detection of 83 Mollicutes species (Mycoplasma assay) and 11 Chlamydia spp. (Chlamydia assay). The assays are suitable for use in a routine diagnostic environment, as well as in microbiological research.

  12. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological reagents are devices... streptococci are associated with infections, such as sore throat, impetigo (an infection characterized by...

  13. Cr and O Isotope Systematics in CV/CK Chondrite Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defouilloy, C.; Sanborn, M. E.; Yamakawa, A.; Kita, N. T.; Ebel, D. S.; Yin, Q.-Z.

    2017-02-01

    Combined in-situ high-precision measurements of Cr and O isotopic ratios reveal heterogeneities of compositions and the diversity of reservoirs of origin of silicate grains in CV/CK chondrite chondrules.

  14. Detoxification of microcystin-LR in water by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Takatoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Jeon, Bong-Seok; Park, Ho-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Microcystin-LR (0.02 μg/ml) in the hydroculture medium of Portulaca oleracea cv., became below the detection level (<0.0001 μg/ml) by HPLC analysis after 7 days. The toxicity of microcystin estimated with protein phosphatase inhibition assay, however, remained at 37% of the initial level, indicating that microcystin-LR was transformed by P. oleracea cv. into unknown compound(s) of lower toxicity.

  15. Chamobtusin A, a novel skeleton diterpenoid alkaloid from Chamaecyparis obtusa cv. tetragon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Mei; Tan, Ning-Hua; Lu, Yang; Chang, Ying; Jia, Rui-Rui

    2007-10-25

    The novel diterpenoid alkaloid chamobtusin A (1) was isolated from the branches and leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa cv. tetragon. Its structure and relative stereochemistry were mainly determined by MS, 2D NMR, and X-ray methods. The methanol extracts, total alkaloids of C. obtusa cv. tetragon, and chamobtusin A were tested for their cytotoxicities against A549 and K562 human tumor cell lines.

  16. Cyclovirus CyCV-VN species distribution is not limited to Vietnam and extends to Africa

    PubMed Central

    Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; May, Jürgen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Perse, Amanda; Jöst, Hanna; Börstler, Jessica; Shahhosseini, Nariman; Desmecht, Daniel; Mbunkah, Herbert Afegenwi; Daniel, Achukwi Mbunkah; Kingsley, Manchang Tanyi; de Mendonca Campos, Renata; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Randriamampionona, Njary; Poppert, Sven; Tannich, Egbert; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Cadar, Daniel; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Cycloviruses, small ssDNA viruses of the Circoviridae family, have been identified in the cerebrospinal fluid from symptomatic human patients. One of these species, cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), was shown to be restricted to central and southern Vietnam. Here we report the detection of CyCV-VN species in stool samples from pigs and humans from Africa, far beyond their supposed limited geographic distribution. PMID:25518947

  17. Characterization of a novel gene encoding ankyrin repeat domain from Cotesia vestalis polydnavirus (CvBV)

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Min; Chen Yafeng; Huang Fang; Liu Pengcheng; Zhou Xueping; Chen Xuexin

    2008-06-05

    Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) is an endoparasitoid of Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae and injects a polydnavirus (CvBV) into its host during oviposition. In this report we describe the characterization of a gene (CvBV805) and its products. CvBV805 is located on the segment S8 of CvBV genome; it has a size of 909 bp and encodes a predicted protein of 125 amino acids. This protein contains an ankyrin repeat domain with a high degree of similarity with I{kappa}B-like genes. Gene transcripts were detected in extracts of the host as early as 2 h post-parasitization (p.p.) and continued to be detected through 24 h. Tissue-specific expression patterns showed that CvBV805 might be involved in early host immunosuppression. CvBV805 was detected in parasitized hosts at 12 h p.p. and in rBac-eGFP-CvBV805-infected Tn-5B1-4 cells at 72 h.p.i. by using western blots analysis. The size of the protein expressed in the host hemocytes and infected Tn-5B1-4 cells was 17 kDa and 56 kDa (including eGFP), respectively, which nearly corresponded with the predicted molecular weight (14.31 kDa) of CvBV805, suggesting that the protein did not undergo extensive post-translational modification. The protein was confirmed to be present within the nuclear region in hemocytes of the parasitized P. xylostella larvae at 48 h p.p. using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  18. Genomics of Secondary Metabolism in Pseudomonas spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas is a heterogeneous genus of bacteria known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its prolific production of secondary metabolites. The structurally diverse chemical structures produced by Pseudomonas spp. result from biosynthetic processes with unusual features that have revealed no...

  19. SPP1 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Osteopontin, also known as SPP1 or OPN, a secreted, integrin-binding matrix phosphorylated glycoprotein is involved in bone remodeling by osteoclasts and is overexpressed in many advanced cancers. Osteopontin has been identified as one of the leading genes that promotes the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  20. Evaluating SPP/APR Improvement Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document is intended to assist State Education Agency (SEA) and Lead Agency (LA) staff and technical assistance providers in designing a meaningful evaluation for the State Performance Plan (SPP)/Annual Performance Report (APR) improvement activities. It provides: (1) information about the relevance of evaluation in the context of improvement…

  1. Characterization of Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) Seed Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) is a crop grown mainly for the production of floss used as hypoallergenic fillers in comforters and pillows. The seeds end up as by-products. Milkweed seed contains 21% oil and 30% crude protein (dry basis). The oil is similar in quality to soybean oil, but there is no i...

  2. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    PubMed

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  3. The case of Artemia spp. in nanoecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Libralato, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Artemia spp. is one of the most widespread saltwater organism suitable for ecotoxicity testing, but no internationally standardised methods exist. Several endpoints can be considered with Artemia spp. including short-term (24-48 h) and long-term (14 days) mortality, cysts and nauplii hatchability, biomass productivity, biomarkers' expression/inhibition and bioaccumulation on larvae as well as organisms' reproductive ability. Recently, Artemia spp. started to be used as a reference biological model in nanoecotoxicology with both inorganic and organic engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) also in combination with traditional environmental stressors looking for potential interactive effects. Criticisms were detected about the use of Artemia spp. in relation to the hatching phase, the toxicity test design, the occasional use only of reference toxicants and the way testing solution/suspensions were prepared thus potentially compromising the reliability of nanoecotoxicological results. A full list of compulsory information that must accompany Artemia nanoecotoxicity data is provided with positive feedbacks also for other toxicity bioassays.

  4. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  5. Yersiniabactin and other siderophores produced by clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Mokracka, Joanna; Koczura, Ryszard; Kaznowski, Adam

    2004-01-15

    We analyzed the ability of extraintestinal strains of Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. to employ different siderophore-mediated strategies of iron acquisition. All strains produced iron-chelating compounds. Cross-feeding assays indicated that most isolates of both Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. excreted catecholate siderophore enterobactin, less produced aerobactin, and single strains excreted hydroxamates different from aerobactin. Besides, we analyzed if the strains had the ability to produce the siderophore yersiniabactin coded by the Yersinia high-pathogenicity island (HPI). The presence of HPI genes was observed in single isolates of three species: E. cloaceae, E. aerogenes and C. koseri. A detailed polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed differences in the genetic organization of the HPIs; however, in a cross-feeding test we proved that yersiniabactin was produced and the island was functional.

  6. Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA

    PubMed Central

    M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.; Dettinger, Lisa A.; Perry, Amanda; Rogers, Paul; Reynolds, Stanley M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, we surveyed 176 clinical laboratories in Pennsylvania regarding stool specimen testing practices for enteropathogens, including Campylobacter spp. Most (96.3%) routinely test for Campylobacter spp. In 17 (15.7%), a stool antigen test is the sole method for diagnosis. We recommend that laboratory practice guidelines for Campylobacter spp. testing be developed. PMID:22377086

  7. Detection of Salmonella spp. in oysters by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Bej, A K; Mahbubani, M H; Boyce, M J; Atlas, R M

    1994-01-01

    PCR DNA amplification of a region of the himA gene of Salmonella typhimurium specifically detected Salmonella spp. In oysters, 1 to 10 cells of Salmonella spp. were rapidly detected by the PCR following a pre-enrichment step to increase sensitivity and to ensure that detection was based on the presence of viable Salmonella spp. Images PMID:8117091

  8. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices...

  13. [Habitat factor analysis for Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii based on spatial information technology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-ming; Wang, Ke; Ao, Wei-jiu; Deng, Jin-song; Han, Ning; Zhu, Xiao-yun

    2008-11-01

    Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii, a tertiary survival plant, is a rare tree species of significant economic value and expands rapidly in China. Its special habitat factor analysis has the potential value to provide guide information for its planting, management, and sustainable development, because the suitable growth conditions for this tree species are special and strict. In this paper, the special habitat factors for T. grandis cv. Merrillii in its core region, i.e., in seven villages of Zhuji City, Zhejiang Province were analyzed with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a series of data, such as IKONOS image, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and field survey data supported by the spatial information technology. The results showed that T. grandis cv. Merrillii exhibited high selectivity of environmental factors such as elevation, slope, and aspect. 96.22% of T. grandis cv. Merrillii trees were located at the elevation from 300 to 600 m, 97.52% of them were found to present on the areas whose slope was less than 300, and 74.43% of them distributed on sunny and half-sunny slopes. The results of PCA analysis indicated that the main environmental factors affecting the habitat of T. grandis cv. Merrillii were moisture, heat, and soil nutrients, and moisture might be one of the most important ecological factors for T. grandis cv. Merrillii due to the unique biological and ecological characteristics of the tree species.

  14. Small rodents as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in south-western Poland.

    PubMed

    Perec-Matysiak, Agnieszka; Buńkowska-Gawlik, Katarzyna; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Hildebrand, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. have been detected in a range of host species, including rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of these pathogens and recognition of the reservoir role of rodents in the maintenance of these pathogens in south-western Poland. Additionally, preliminary molecular studies were conducted to elucidate the species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia identified in this study. Stool samples (n=266) from A. agrarius, A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, were subjected for analyses. Values of prevalence were 61.7, 68.3 and 68.1%, respectively, for Cryptosporidium spp. and 41.7, 24.4 and 38.4%, respectively, for Giardia spp. There was a statistically significant correlation between host species and Giardia infection where A. agrarius was the species of the highest prevalence. Statistically significant differences were not found for comparisons made for study sites and occurrence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. Due to preliminary nested PCR results, specific amplifications of Cryptosporidium COWP and SSU rRNA genes were obtained for several isolates taken from rodent host species. One isolate recovered from A. agrarius (from a semi-aquatic, urban area) was identified as C. parvum and revealed 100% similarity with sequences obtained from humans. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, this is the first record of the C. parvum zoonotic species from the striped field mouse. Also recorded were the first findings of C. ubiquitum from three small rodent species.

  15. The in-vitro activity of grepafloxacin against Chlamydia spp., Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma urealyticum and Legionella spp.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, G L; Salman, H; Robbins, M J; Dencer, C; Felmingham, D

    1997-12-01

    The activity of grepafloxacin, a new orally active fluoroquinolone, was compared with the activities of ofloxacin, clarithromycin and doxycycline against Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum, and with the activities of ofloxacin, clarithromycin and rifampicin against Legionella spp. Grepafloxacin (MIC range 0.06-0.12 mg/L) was some 8-16 times more active than ofloxacin against the chlamydiae, showing activity similar to that of doxycycline, and equal or two- to four-fold less active than clarithromycin. Grepafloxacin was four-fold more active than ofloxacin against M. pneumoniae (MIC 0.06-0.5 mg/L) and U. urealyticum (MIC 0.12-1.0 mg/L), but 16 times more active against M. hominis (MIC 0.015-0.05 mg/L). Grepafloxacin was highly active against Legionella spp. (MIC 0.008-0.03 mg/L), showing equivalent activity to ofloxacin, clarithromycin and rifampicin.

  16. The Role of Malassezia spp. in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Glatz, Martin; Bosshard, Philipp P.; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia spp. is a genus of lipophilic yeasts and comprises the most common fungi on healthy human skin. Despite its role as a commensal on healthy human skin, Malassezia spp. is attributed a pathogenic role in atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms by which Malassezia spp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis are not fully understood. Here, we review the latest findings on the pathogenetic role of Malassezia spp. in atopic dermatitis (AD). For example, Malassezia spp. produces a variety of immunogenic proteins that elicit the production of specific IgE antibodies and may induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, Malassezia spp. induces auto-reactive T cells that cross-react between fungal proteins and their human counterparts. These mechanisms contribute to skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis and therefore influence the course of this disorder. Finally, we discuss the possible benefit of an anti-Malassezia spp. treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:26239555

  17. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed.

  18. Chronic otomycosis due to malassezia spp.

    PubMed

    Latha, R; Sasikala, R; Muruganandam, N

    2010-05-01

    We report the case of a 31-year-old male presenting with complaints of mild pain in the right ear for three months and hypoacusis for 10 days. On otoscopic examination, a thin, papery, white material was extracted from his ear and sent for fungal identification. This material revealed presence of Malassezia spp - with characteristic "spaghetti and meat ball appearance". The patient was treated with 2% acetic acid, hydrocortisone and Clotrimazole powder for one week and he resolved completely.

  19. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Xavier; De Langhe, Edmond; Donohue, Mark; Lentfer, Carol; Vrydaghs, Luc; Bakry, Frédéric; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Jenny, Christophe; Lebot, Vincent; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Doutrelepont, Hugues; Ball, Terry; Manwaring, Jason; de Maret, Pierre; Denham, Tim

    2011-07-12

    Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles of people in the movement and cultivation of bananas from New Guinea to West Africa during the Holocene. The historical reconstruction of domestication processes is essential for breeding programs seeking to diversify and improve banana cvs for the future.

  20. 53Mn-53Cr chronology of Ca-Fe silicates in CV3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Doyle, Patricia M.; Ivanova, Marina A.

    2017-03-01

    High precision secondary ion mass-spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4) in the reduced CV3 chondrites Vigarano and Efremovka yield well resolved 53Cr excesses that correlate with 55Mn/52Cr, demonstrating in situ decay of the extinct short-lived radionuclide 53Mn. To ensure proper correction for relative sensitivities between 55Mn+ and 52Cr+ ions, we synthesized kirschsteinite doped with Mn and Cr to measure the relative sensitivity factor. The inferred initial ratio (53Mn/55Mn)0 in chondritic kirschsteinite is (3.71 ± 0.50) × 10-6. When anchored to 53Mn-53Cr relative and U-corrected 207Pb-206Pb absolute ages of the D'Orbigny angrite, this ratio corresponds to kirschsteinite formation 3.2-0.7+08 Ma after CV Ca-, Al-rich inclusions. The kirschsteinite data are consistent within error with the data for aqueously-formed fayalite from the Asuka 881317 CV3 chondrite as reported by Doyle et al. (2015), supporting the idea that Ca-Fe silicates in CV3 chondrites are cogenetic with fayalite (and magnetite) and formed during metasomatic alteration on the CV3 parent body. Concentrically-zoned crystals of kirschsteinite and hedenbergite indicate that they initially formed as near end-member compositions that became more Mg-rich with time, possibly as a result of an increase in temperature.

  1. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    PubMed

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p < 0.01) higher cell counts were obtained in Dijkshoorn's enrichment. Next, the Dijkshoorn's enrichment followed by direct plating on CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species.

  2. The occurrence of Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Arvanitidou, M; Papa, A; Constantinidis, T C; Danielides, V; Katsouyannopoulos, V

    1997-12-01

    Listeria ssp., mainly Listeria monocytogenes as well as Salmonella spp. are recognized as significant human pathogens. The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. in surface waters of Northern Greece and to investigate the correlation of these pathogens with the standard indicator bacteria. A total number of 128 water samples from four rivers and one lake were examined for the presence of Listeria, Salmonella, total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci. For isolating Listeria, 250 ml of water were filtered through 0.45 microns pore size membrane, that was transferred in 10 ml listeria enrichment broth and after incubation for 24 h at 30 degrees C, a second enrichment in FDA and Fraser broths was followed. After 24 hour incubation, an amount of 0.1 ml was streaked out onto listeria selective medium. The typical colonies were further biochemically and serologically examined. Salmonella spp. were isolated after preenrichment in BPW, enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis and selenite cysteine broths and identified from BGD and SS agar plates by biochemistry and serology. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from five (3.9%) and Salmonella spp. from eight (6.2%) samples. Mean log values of the standard indicator bacteria did not significantly differ between listeria and salmonella positive and negative samples.

  3. [Identification and analysis on the error of Guanyuan (CV 4) point in Yulong Ge (Jade Dragon Verse)].

    PubMed

    Gang, Wei-juan; Huang, Long-xiang

    2009-02-01

    After investigation on the contents about Yulong Ge (Jade Dragon Verse) and Guanyuan (CV 4) in Chinese ancient medical works of the successive dynasties, the authors of the present paper found some errors of recording on CV4. In fact, Guanyuan (CV 4) in the current edition Yulong Ge should be the extra point Lanmen. The author hold that this error mainly results from similar writing in Chinese character, repeated copy, such as [Chinese characters: see text] etc.

  4. Solution NMR Structure of Hypothetical Protein CV_2116 Encoded by a Viral Prophage Element in Chromobacterium violaceum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Cort, John R.; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    CV_2116 is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids from the Gram-negative coccobacillus Chromobacterium violaceum. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV_2116 sequence as a query identified only one hit (E = 2e−07) corresponding to a hypothetical protein OR16_04617 from Cupriavidus basilensis OR16, which failed to provide insight into the function of CV_2116. The CV_2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid, transformed into E. coli, and 13C- and 15N-labeled NMR samples of CV_2116 were overexpressed in E. coli and purified for structure determination using NMR spectroscopy. The resulting high-quality solution NMR structure of CV_2116 revealed a novel α + β fold containing two anti-parallel β-sheets in the N-terminal two-thirds of the protein and one α-helix in the C-terminal third of the protein. CV_2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence family and a Dali search indicated that no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. Although no function of CV_2116 could be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches, the neighboring genes of CV_2116 encode various proteins annotated as similar to bacteriophage tail assembly proteins. Interestingly, C. violaceum exhibits an extensive network of bacteriophage tail-like structures that likely result from lateral gene transfer by incorporation of viral DNA into its genome (prophages) due to bacteriophage infection. Indeed, C. violaceum has been shown to contain four prophage elements and CV_2116 resides in the fourth of these elements. Analysis of the putative operon in which CV_2116 resides indicates that CV_2116 might be a component of the bacteriophage tail-like assembly that occurs in C. violaceum. PMID:22837698

  5. Position Determination with LORAN-C Triplets and the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV Programmable Calculator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California POSITION DETERMINATION WITH LORAN-C TRIPLETS AND THE HEWLETT-PACKARD HP-41CV PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR by...HP-41CV PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) 6. CONTRACT O GRANT NUMBER(*) Rex H. Shudd? 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Hyperbolic Fixing Programmable Calculator Loran-C Radio Positioning HP-41C Navigation Geodetics HP-41CV Position Determination Geodetic Distances

  6. Solution NMR structure of hypothetical protein CV_2116 encoded by a viral prophage element in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A; Cort, John R; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Kennedy, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    CV_2116 is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids from the Gram-negative coccobacillus Chromobacterium violaceum. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV_2116 sequence as a query identified only one hit (E = 2e(-07)) corresponding to a hypothetical protein OR16_04617 from Cupriavidus basilensis OR16, which failed to provide insight into the function of CV_2116. The CV_2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid, transformed into E. coli, and (13)C- and (15)N-labeled NMR samples of CV_2116 were overexpressed in E. coli and purified for structure determination using NMR spectroscopy. The resulting high-quality solution NMR structure of CV_2116 revealed a novel α + β fold containing two anti-parallel β-sheets in the N-terminal two-thirds of the protein and one α-helix in the C-terminal third of the protein. CV_2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence family and a Dali search indicated that no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. Although no function of CV_2116 could be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches, the neighboring genes of CV_2116 encode various proteins annotated as similar to bacteriophage tail assembly proteins. Interestingly, C. violaceum exhibits an extensive network of bacteriophage tail-like structures that likely result from lateral gene transfer by incorporation of viral DNA into its genome (prophages) due to bacteriophage infection. Indeed, C. violaceum has been shown to contain four prophage elements and CV_2116 resides in the fourth of these elements. Analysis of the putative operon in which CV_2116 resides indicates that CV_2116 might be a component of the bacteriophage tail-like assembly that occurs in C. violaceum.

  7. Variation amongst protoplast-derived potato plants (Solatium tuberosum cv. 'Maris Bard').

    PubMed

    Thomas, E; Bright, S W; Franklin, J; Lancaster, V A; Miflin, B J; Gibson, R

    1982-03-01

    Plants were obtained from protoplasts of shoot cultures of potato (Solarium tuberosum L. cv. 'Maris Bard') and from in situ calluses upon plants of cv. 'Majestic'. None of the protoplast-derived plants resembled each other in all of ten morphological characteristics scored and only one resembled the parental 'Maris Bard' type. As there were a number of plants regenerated from each of ten protoplast-derived calluses it is concluded that variation arose after protoplast isolation during the cell culture phase. Plants regenerated from in situ calluses of cv. 'Majestic' were quite uniform. Reported cases of variation and uniformity from cultured potato tissues are discussed. It is concluded that the variation is not a consequence of using protoplasts and that the expression or induction of variation is controllable.

  8. Segmentation of kidney using C-V model and anatomy priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinghua; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Juan; Yang, Wenjia

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for kidney segmentation on abdominal CT images as the first step of a virtual reality surgery system. Segmentation for medical images is often challenging because of the objects' complicated anatomical structures, various gray levels, and unclear edges. A coarse to fine approach has been applied in the kidney segmentation using Chan-Vese model (C-V model) and anatomy prior knowledge. In pre-processing stage, the candidate kidney regions are located. Then C-V model formulated by level set method is applied in these smaller ROI, which can reduce the calculation complexity to a certain extent. At last, after some mathematical morphology procedures, the specified kidney structures have been extracted interactively with prior knowledge. The satisfying results on abdominal CT series show that the proposed approach keeps all the advantages of C-V model and overcome its disadvantages.

  9. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) during final Space Shuttle tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Convair 990 (CV-990) was used as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test space shuttle landing gear and braking systems as part of NASA's effort to upgrade and improve space shuttle capabilities. The first flight at Dryden of the CV-990 with shuttle test components occurred in April 1993, and tests continued into August 1995, when this photo shows a test of the shuttle tires. The purpose of this series of tests was to determine the performance parameters and failure limits of the tires. This particular landing was on the dry lakebed at Edwards, but other tests occurred on the main runway there. The CV-990, built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.

  10. A new species of Eurytoma (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) attacking, Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) galling Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae) with a summary of African Eurytoma spp. biology and species checklist

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eurytoma erythrinae Gates and Delvare, new species, is described and illustrated. This species was reared from field-collected galls induced on Erythrina spp. by Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), in Tanzania, Ghana, and South Africa. It is compared to a closely related African species. W...

  11. A serological survey of Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. in Iberian fattening pigs reared in free-range systems.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M; Gómez-Laguna, J; Tarradas, C; Luque, I; García-Valverde, R; Reguillo, L; Astorga, R J

    2014-10-01

    Zoonotic agents such as Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp., all considered high-risk zoonotic pathogens by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA), may cause no symptoms of infection in free-range pigs yet still have a significant public health impact. A serological survey was therefore performed to determine the history of occurrence of these pathogens in such pigs in southern Spain. A total of 709 serum samples were collected at abattoir from pigs from 79 farms and analysed for specific antibodies against the above pathogens using commercially available ELISA kits. Encysted Trichinella spp. larvae were also sought following the artificial digestion method of diaphragm pillar muscle. The results showed Salmonella spp. to be widely distributed among the sampled herds [73.42%, 95% confidence interval (CI95 ) 65.6-81.78] and Toxoplasma gondii to be present in over half (58.23%, CI95 47.33-69.07). The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was very low (3.8%, CI95 0.18-7.42), and antibodies against Trichinella spp. were not detected. No encysted Trichinella spp. larvae were microscopically detected.

  12. Mineralogy and Petrography of MIL 090001, a Highly Altered CV Chondrite from the Reduced Sub-Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (greater than 6 kg) CV chondrite from the reduced subgroup (CV(sub red)) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. The CV(sub red) subgroup meteorites retain primitive characteristics and have escaped the Na and Fe meta-somatism that affected the oxidized (CV(sub ox)) subgroups. MIL 090001 is, however, reported to be altered [1], and thus a major objective of this study is to characterize its mineralogy and petrography and the extent of the alteration.

  13. Persistent Giardia spp. and Trichuris spp. infection in maras (Dolichotis patagonum) at a zoo in Greece.

    PubMed

    Tahas, Stamatios Alan; Diakou, Anastasia

    2013-06-01

    The mara (Dolichotis patagonum) is a species classified as "Near Threatened" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In the wild, it inhabits only Argentina, but it is also kept in zoos around the world. In order to investigate the endoparasites of the maras kept in the Attica Zoological Park, Greece, four fecal examinations were performed in a period of 4 yr (2008-2011) by standard parasitologic methods. Cysts of the protozoan parasite Giardia spp. and eggs of the nematode Trichuris spp. were found in all four examinations. The possible routes of infection of the maras and the importance of these parasites to other animals and to humans are discussed.

  14. A Comparison of the Highest Precision Commonly Available Time Transfer Methods: TWSTT and GPS CV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    A COMPARISON OF THE HIGHEST PRECISION COMMONLY AVAILABLE TIME TRANSFER METHODS: TWSTT AND GPS CV James A. DeYoung, Francine Vannicola, and Angela...D. McKinley U.S. Naval Observatory, Time Service Department 3450 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20392, USA dey@herschel.usno.navy.mil, hv...view (CY) and the ’Auo-Way SoteUite Time Transfer (TWSTT) method. The GPS CV time transfer data are jonned from shict 13- minute common-view tracks

  15. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-03-27

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity).

  16. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Heng-Wen; Wei, Ben-Jun; He, Xuan-Hui; Liu, Yan; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp. PMID:26788113

  17. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Echinococcus spp. in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of echinococcosis, caused by parasitic tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus and provides epidemiological information on this...

  18. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus spp.

    PubMed

    Brackman, Gilles; Coenye, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic coccus-shaped bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are among the most important causative agents of acute and chronic bacterial infections in humans as well as in animals. Treatment of Staphylococcus infections has become increasingly challenging due to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance. For this reason innovative antimicrobials with novel targets and modes of action are needed. Since the discovery that QS is used by Staphylococcus spp. to coordinate the expression of several genes involved in virulence, biofilm formation and pathogenicity, QS inhibition has gained increasing attention as an alternative anti-pathogenic strategy. A major advantage compared with antibiotic therapy is that QSIs are used in concentrations that do not affect bacterial growth. For this reason, it is expected that these compounds would exert less pressure towards the development of resistance. However, some important points still need to be addressed. Although several inhibitors have proven to be active antipathogenic agents in vitro and in several in vivo models, it is still unknown whether these compounds will also be useful in humans. Furthermore, several fundamental mechanisms by which the different QS systems in Staphylococcus spp. exert their regulatory functions and how they are inhibited by QSIs are still poorly understood. In order to achieve real-life applications with QSIs, these challenges should be addressed and more research will be needed. In this article, we will discuss the different QS systems present in Staphylococcus spp., how they are used to control virulence and biofilm formation and how they can be blocked.

  19. Anther culture of chili pepper (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) is a very important horticultural crop around the world and is especially important for Mexicans because of its impact in the culture and the cuisine. Biotechnological tools such as tissue culture techniques and specifically anther culture may be applied successfully for plant breeding and genetic improvement in order to generate isogenic lines (100% homozygous) in a shorter time in comparison with the classic breeding methods. In this chapter, a protocol for efficient recovery of chili pepper haploid plants from in vitro cultured anthers is described.

  20. Endemic Viruses of Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Donna L; McClure, Gloria B; Ruiz, Julio C; Abee, Christian R; Vanchiere, John A

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are the experimental animals of choice for the study of many human diseases. As such, it is important to understand that endemic viruses of primates can potentially affect the design, methods, and results of biomedical studies designed to model human disease. Here we review the viruses known to be endemic in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.). The pathogenic potential of these viruses in squirrel monkeys that undergo experimental manipulation remains largely unexplored but may have implications regarding the use of squirrel monkeys in biomedical research. PMID:26141448

  1. Treatment of Rickettsia spp. infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Botelho-Nevers, Elisabeth; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Human rickettsioses caused by intracellular bacteria of the genus Rickettsia are distributed worldwide and are transmitted by arthropod vectors such as ticks, fleas, mites and lice. They have a wide range of manifestations from benign to life-threatening diseases. Mortality rates of up to 30% have been reported for some rickettsioses. Here, the authors will review in vitro and human studies of the various compounds that have been used for the treatment of Rickettsia spp. infections. The authors will also provide recommendations for the treatment of spotted fever and typhus group rickettsioses.

  2. Characterization of Brevibacterium spp. from clinical specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, E; Pfyffer, G E; von Graevenitz, A

    1993-01-01

    Nonfermenting coryneform bacteria identified as Brevibacterium spp. were isolated from routine clinical specimens. Four strains were derived from peritoneal fluid and has presumably been involved in the pathogenesis of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis. Another five isolates most probably represented skin contaminants. Cell wall and lipid analyses confirmed the genus identification. Strains in this taxon are difficult to distinguish from other biochemically inactive and nonmotile coryneform species but show characteristics cellular fatty acid profiles. In vitro susceptibilities to commonly used antibiotics were determined. PMID:8314980

  3. Chronic Otomycosis Due to Malassezia Spp

    PubMed Central

    Latha, R; Sasikala, R; Muruganandam, N

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 31-year-old male presenting with complaints of mild pain in the right ear for three months and hypoacusis for 10 days. On otoscopic examination, a thin, papery, white material was extracted from his ear and sent for fungal identification. This material revealed presence of Malassezia spp – with characteristic “spaghetti and meat ball appearance”. The patient was treated with 2% acetic acid, hydrocortisone and Clotrimazole powder for one week and he resolved completely. PMID:20606976

  4. Histological Comparisons of Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. (Nemata: Aphelenchoididae) in Neotropical Ficus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Center, Barbara J.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Herre, E. Allen; Chung-Schickler, Genevieve C.

    1999-01-01

    Syconia (enclosed infructescences) infested with host-specific species of Schistonchus (Aphelenchoididae) were collected from six species of Ficus (Moraceae) native to Florida or Panama. They were sectioned and histologically examined to assess the effects of parasitism. Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. was associated with hypertrophied cells, tissue necrosis, and the presence of an exudate in all species. Occasional hypertrophy of the outer epidermal cells occurred on seed florets, wasp florets, and on the endothecial cells of male florets in F. aurea (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida. Aberrations of the inner mesocarp occurred under the hypertrophied cells on seed florets. In F. laevigata (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida, Schistonchus sp. infested immature male florets and was associated with hypertrophy of endothecial cells, epidermal cells of the anther filaments, and anthers. Schistonchus sp. also caused aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. Ficus poponoei (subgenus Urostigma) and F. glabrata (subgenus Pharmacosycea), both from Panama, had hypertrophied outer epidermal cells on seed florets. Ficus poponoei also had Schistonchus sp. within the pedicel of an aborted floret, with hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. Ficus trigonata (subgenus Urostigma) from Panama had hypertrophy of the outer epidermis of seed florets. When the outer epidermis on these florets was missing, the inner mesocarp was hypertrophied. Ficus maxima (subgenus Pharmacosycea) from Panama had hypertrophy on the outer epidermis of seed and aborted florets. Schistonchus spp. were not found in wasp larvae or pupae in any of the Ficus spp. examined. Hypertrophy was never observed in the absence of Schistonchus spp. PMID:19270912

  5. Histological Comparisons of Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. (Nemata: Aphelenchoididae) in Neotropical Ficus spp.

    PubMed

    Center, B J; Giblin-Davis, R M; Herre, E A; Chung-Schickler, G C

    1999-12-01

    Syconia (enclosed infructescences) infested with host-specific species of Schistonchus (Aphelenchoididae) were collected from six species of Ficus (Moraceae) native to Florida or Panama. They were sectioned and histologically examined to assess the effects of parasitism. Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. was associated with hypertrophied cells, tissue necrosis, and the presence of an exudate in all species. Occasional hypertrophy of the outer epidermal cells occurred on seed florets, wasp florets, and on the endothecial cells of male florets in F. aurea (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida. Aberrations of the inner mesocarp occurred under the hypertrophied cells on seed florets. In F. laevigata (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida, Schistonchus sp. infested immature male florets and was associated with hypertrophy of endothecial cells, epidermal cells of the anther filaments, and anthers. Schistonchus sp. also caused aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. Ficus poponoei (subgenus Urostigma) and F. glabrata (subgenus Pharmacosycea), both from Panama, had hypertrophied outer epidermal cells on seed florets. Ficus poponoei also had Schistonchus sp. within the pedicel of an aborted floret, with hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. Ficus trigonata (subgenus Urostigma) from Panama had hypertrophy of the outer epidermis of seed florets. When the outer epidermis on these florets was missing, the inner mesocarp was hypertrophied. Ficus maxima (subgenus Pharmacosycea) from Panama had hypertrophy on the outer epidermis of seed and aborted florets. Schistonchus spp. were not found in wasp larvae or pupae in any of the Ficus spp. examined. Hypertrophy was never observed in the absence of Schistonchus spp.

  6. Characterization of Geographically Distinct Bacterial Communities Associated with Coral Mucus Produced by Acropora spp. and Porites spp.

    PubMed Central

    McKew, B. A.; Dumbrell, A. J.; Daud, S. D.; Hepburn, L.; Thorpe, E.; Mogensen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Acropora and Porites corals are important reef builders in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Bacteria associated with mucus produced by Porites spp. and Acropora spp. from Caribbean (Punta Maroma, Mexico) and Indo-Pacific (Hoga and Sampela, Indonesia) reefs were determined. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities from Caribbean corals were significantly more diverse (H′, 3.18 to 4.25) than their Indonesian counterparts (H′, 2.54 to 3.25). Dominant taxa were Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Cyanobacteria, which varied in relative abundance between coral genera and region. Distinct coral host-specific communities were also found; for example, Clostridiales were dominant on Acropora spp. (at Hoga and the Mexican Caribbean) compared to Porites spp. and seawater. Within the Gammproteobacteria, Halomonas spp. dominated sequence libraries from Porites spp. (49%) and Acropora spp. (5.6%) from the Mexican Caribbean, compared to the corresponding Indonesian coral libraries (<2%). Interestingly, with the exception of Porites spp. from the Mexican Caribbean, there was also a ubiquity of Psychrobacter spp., which dominated Acropora and Porites libraries from Indonesia and Acropora libraries from the Caribbean. In conclusion, there was a dominance of Halomonas spp. (associated with Acropora and Porites [Mexican Caribbean]), Firmicutes (associated with Acropora [Mexican Caribbean] and with Acropora and Porites [Hoga]), and Cyanobacteria (associated with Acropora and Porites [Hoga] and Porites [Sampela]). This is also the first report describing geographically distinct Psychrobacter spp. associated with coral mucus. In addition, the predominance of Clostridiales associated with Acropora spp. provided additional evidence for coral host-specific microorganisms. PMID:22636010

  7. Seedling development in maize cv. B73 and blue light-mediated proteomic changes in the tip vs. stem of the coleoptile.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhiping; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2016-09-15

    In 2009, the draft genome of the reference inbred line of maize (Zea mays L. spp. mays cv. B73) was published so that, using this specific corn variety, molecular analyses of physiological processes became possible. However, the morphology and developmental patterns of B73 maize, compared with that of the more frequently used hybrid varieties, have not yet been analyzed. Here, we describe organ development in seedlings of B73 maize and in those of six other hybrid cultivars, and document significant morphological as well as quantitative differences between these varieties of Z. mays. In a second set of experiments, we used etiolated seedlings of B73 maize to analyze the effect of blue light (BL) on the patterns of proteins in the tip vs. growing region of this sheath-like organ. By using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE), coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, we detected, in the microsomal fraction of maize coleoptile tips, rapid changes in the abundance of protein spots of maize phototropin 1 and several metabolic enzymes. In the sub-apical (growing) region of the coleoptile, proteomic changes were less pronounced. These results suggest that the tip of the coleoptile of B73 maize may serve as a unique model system for dissecting BL responses in a light-sensitive plant organ of known function.

  8. Insulator polarization effect in quasi-static and high-frequency C(V) curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tüttő, P.; Balázs, J.

    1982-01-01

    A new method is given to evaluate quasi-static and high frequency C(V) curves. Surface state density distribution and insulator polarization can be obtained simultaneously without the need of other measurements. Measurements of MNOS structures indicate that there are "free" charge carriers in the Si 3N 4 layer which move in a rather inhomogeneous electric field.

  9. Using CV-GLUE procedure in analysis of wetland model predictive uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Wei; Lin, Yu-Pin; Chiang, Li-Chi; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2014-07-01

    This study develops a procedure that is related to Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), called the CV-GLUE procedure, for assessing the predictive uncertainty that is associated with different model structures with varying degrees of complexity. The proposed procedure comprises model calibration, validation, and predictive uncertainty estimation in terms of a characteristic coefficient of variation (characteristic CV). The procedure first performed two-stage Monte-Carlo simulations to ensure predictive accuracy by obtaining behavior parameter sets, and then the estimation of CV-values of the model outcomes, which represent the predictive uncertainties for a model structure of interest with its associated behavior parameter sets. Three commonly used wetland models (the first-order K-C model, the plug flow with dispersion model, and the Wetland Water Quality Model; WWQM) were compared based on data that were collected from a free water surface constructed wetland with paddy cultivation in Taipei, Taiwan. The results show that the first-order K-C model, which is simpler than the other two models, has greater predictive uncertainty. This finding shows that predictive uncertainty does not necessarily increase with the complexity of the model structure because in this case, the more simplistic representation (first-order K-C model) of reality results in a higher uncertainty in the prediction made by the model. The CV-GLUE procedure is suggested to be a useful tool not only for designing constructed wetlands but also for other aspects of environmental management.

  10. Automatic tracking of red blood cells in micro channels using OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Vânia; Rodrigues, Pedro J.; Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, Rui

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to developan automatic method able to track red blood cells (RBCs) trajectories flowing through a microchannel using the Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV). The developed method is based on optical flux calculation assisted by the maximization of the template-matching product. The experimental results show a good functional performance of this method.

  11. Study of Catalytic Reaction at Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces by a CV-XAFS Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusano, Shogo; Matsumura, Daiju; Asazawa, Koichiro; Kishi, Hirofumi; Sakamoto, Tomokazu; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Tanaka, Hirohisa; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro

    2017-01-01

    A method combining cyclic voltammetry (CV) with x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, viz. CV-XAFS, has been developed to enable in situ real-time investigation of atomic and electronic structures related to electrochemical reactions. We use this method to study the reaction of a Pt/C cathode catalyst in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an alkaline electrolyte, using x-ray energies near the Pt LIII edge for XAFS measurements. It was found that the current induced by the ORR was first observed at approximately 0.08 V versus Hg/HgO, although the Pt valence, which is reflected in the oxidation states, remained almost unchanged. The electronic structure of the catalytic surface in the ORR was observed to be different in the negative and positive scan directions of CV measurements. Hydrogen adsorption is also discussed on the basis of the observation of this spectral change. We have demonstrated that CV-XAFS provides dynamical structural and electronic information related to electrochemical reactions and can be used for in situ real-time measurements of a catalyst.

  12. 75 FR 54887 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; REPEL-CV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; REPEL-CV AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  13. Indirect measurements of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu fermentable cell wall sugars for second generation biofuels production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results of a study conducted to evaluate the possibility of using IVDMD values of B. brizantha cv. Marandu to predict cell wall sugars that would be available in a biorefinery for ethanol production are reported. The study was conducted based on the similarity between rumen enzymes and those used i...

  14. Microscopic C-V measurements of SOI wafers by scanning capacitance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, T.; Yoshida, H.; Kishino, S.

    2004-07-01

    Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) has been applied to microscopic characterization of electrical properties of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. Two kinds of capacitance-voltage (C-V) methods have been proposed for separately characterizing the electrical properties of a gate oxide, an SOI layer, a buried oxide (BOX) layer, a Si substrate, and their interfaces: (i) a front-gate C-V method whereby the electrical properties of the gate oxide and front SOI (the gate oxide/SOI) interface can be characterized, and (ii) a back-gate C-V method for the characterization of the electrical properties of the BOX layer, back SOI (the BOX/SOI) interface, and the BOX/Si substrate interface. Furthermore, SCM images of the sampled SOI wafer have been obtained for visualizing the microscopic spatial distribution of electrical properties of SOI wafers by using the proposed C-V methods. These SCM images revealed the fluctuation in the oxide charges and interface traps. SCM has been demonstrated to be an effective tool for microscopic electrical characterization of SOI wafers.

  15. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conditions were optimized for transient transformation of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Bulb scale and basal meristem explants were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 containing the binary vector pCAMBIA 2301 which has the uidA gene that codes for ß-gl...

  16. Optimized growth and plant regeneration for callus of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rates of growth and regeneration were compared for compact callus, friable callus, and suspension cells of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White to determine the optimal culture conditions. The fresh weight was higher for compact callus induced from bulb scales cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s m...

  17. Abstract Morphemes and Lexical Representation: The CV-Skeleton in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, Willian D.

    2004-01-01

    Overlaps in form and meaning between morphologically related words have led to ambiguities in interpreting priming effects in studies of lexical organization. In Semitic languages like Arabic, however, linguistic analysis proposes that one of the three component morphemes of a surface word is the CV-Skeleton, an abstract prosodic unit coding the…

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 72 faint CV candidates in CRTS (Breedt+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breedt, E.; Gansicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Szkody, P.; Schreiber, M. R.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    We obtained identification spectra of a total of 72 faint CV candidates identified by the CRTS, using the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC; La Palma, Spain) and the Gemini telescopes (North: Mauna Kea, Hawaii and South: Cerro Pachon, Chile). The observations were carried out in service mode during 2010, 2011 and 2013. (5 data files).

  19. NASA Aircraft on ramp (Aerial view) Sides: (L) QSRA (R) C-8A AWJSRA - Back to Front: CV-990 (711)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    NASA Aircraft on ramp (Aerial view) Sides: (L) QSRA (R) C-8A AWJSRA - Back to Front: CV-990 (711) C-141 KAO, CV-990 (712) Galileo, T-38, YO-3A, Lear Jet, X-14, U-2, OH-6, CH-47, SH-3G, RSRA, AH-1G, XV-15, UH-1H

  20. Beryllium-Boron Systematics of Refractory Inclusions in CR2 and CV3 Chondrites: Evidence for 10Be Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, E.; Wadhwa, M.; Simon, S.; Grossman, L.

    2016-08-01

    Be-B systematics of Allende (CV3), Axtell (CV3), and NWA 5028 (CR2) CAIs suggests that 10Be was distributed heterogeneously in the early solar system which implies that 10Be was produced in the solar nebula by irradiation of nebular gas or dust.

  1. Characterizing the nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides spp.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lucas Nojosa; Casaletti, Luciana; Báo, Sônia Nair; Borges, Clayton Luiz; de Sousa Lima, Patrícia; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria

    2016-10-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic disease in Latin America, caused by thermo dimorphic fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides. Although previous proteome analyses of Paracoccidioides spp. have been carried out, the nuclear subproteome of this pathogen has not been described. In this way, we aimed to characterize the nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides species, in the yeast form. For that, yeast cells were disrupted and submitted to cell fractionation. The purity of the nuclear fraction was confirmed by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed the identification of 867 proteins. In order to support our enrichment method for nuclear proteins, bioinformatics analysis were applied that allowed the identification of 281 proteins with nuclear localization. The analysis revealed proteins related to DNA maintenance, gene expression, synthesis and processing of messenger and ribosomal RNAs, likewise proteins of nuclear-cytoplasmic traffic. It was also possible to detect some proteins that are poorly expressed, like transcription factors involved in important roles such as resistance to abiotic stress, sporulation, cellular growth and DNA and chromatin maintenance. This is the first descriptive nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides spp. that can be useful as an important platform base for fungi-specific nuclear processes.

  2. Bioethanol production from the macroalgae Sargassum spp.

    PubMed

    Borines, Myra G; de Leon, Rizalinda L; Cuello, Joel L

    2013-06-01

    Macroalgae, an abundant and carbon-neutral renewable resource, with several species rich in carbohydrates are suitable for bioethanol production. This study focused on the pretreatment, enzyme saccharification and fermentation of Sargassum spp., a brown macroalgae for bioethanol production. The optimal acid pretreatment condition achieved in terms of glucose and reducing sugar yields was 3.4-4.6% (w/v) H2SO4 concentration, 115°C and 1.50h. The pretreated biomass was hydrolyzed with cellulase enzyme system supplemented with β-glucosidase. After fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40°C, pH of 4.5 for 48 h, the ethanol conversion rate of the enzyme hydrolysate reached 89%, which was markedly higher than the theoretical yield of 51% based on glucose as substrate. Since all the glucose was consumed during fermentation, other sugar sources might be present in the hydrolysate. The macroalgae, Sargassum spp., showed significant potential as a renewable feedstock for the production of bioethanol.

  3. Distribution of pathogenic Naegleria spp in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tiewcharoen, S; Junnu, V

    2001-01-01

    Research concerning the distribution, isolation, viability, ultrastructure, morphology and immunogenicity of Naegleria fowleri has been increasing in Thailand during 1988-2000. The distribution of the organism was carried out from 1985 to 1987 in Si Sa Ket and Ubon Rachathani Provinces, after the first fatal case was reported in Si Sa Ket. Since then in a 1998 survey of N. fowleri in stagnant water around industrial areas was carried out in Pathum Thani, Samut Prakan and Lopburi provinces. The results showed that 10% of pathogenic Naegleria belonged to species fowleri as characterized by morphology and the occurrence of pathogenesis in mice after nasal inoculation. In the same year, Nacapunchai et al (1999) determined the prevalence of amebae in aquatic habitat of human environments in five parts of Thailand during the summer. Fourteen percent of free living Naegleria spp were found in both soil and water resources. Recent studies of the ultrastructure, factors affecting the viability and SDS-PAGE electrophoretic patterns of 3 Thai strains of pathogenic Naegleria spp indicated their similarities in morphological characteristics of pathogenic reference control, Naegleria fowleri CDC VO 3081. Additional study using a genetic approach to species criteria using allozyme electrophoresis had been conducted.

  4. Legionella spp. in Puerto Rico cooling towers.

    PubMed Central

    Negrón-Alvíra, A; Pérez-Suarez, I; Hazen, T C

    1988-01-01

    Water samples from air conditioning cooling towers receiving different treatment protocols on five large municipal buildings in San Juan, P.R., were assayed for various Legionella spp. and serogroups by using direct immunofluorescence. Several water quality parameters were also measured for each sample. Guinea pigs were inoculated with water samples to confirm pathogenicity and recover viable organisms. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6, L. bozemanii, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, and L. gormanii were observed in at least one of the cooling towers. L. pneumophila was the most abundant species; its density reached 10(5) cells per ml, which is within the range that is considered potentially pathogenic to humans. A significantly higher density of L. pneumophila was observed in the cooling tower water that was not being treated with biocides. Percent respiration (INT) and total cell activity (acridine orange direct count) were inversely correlated with bacterial density. This study demonstrates that Legionella spp. are present in tropical air-conditioning cooling systems and that, without continuous biocide treatment, they may reach densities that present a health risk. PMID:3202625

  5. Evaluation of transport methods for isolating Shigella spp.

    PubMed

    Wells, J G; Morris, G K

    1981-04-01

    Recovery of Shigella spp. from fecal specimens transported in buffered glycerol saline and Cary-Blair media held at frozen, refrigerated, or room temperature was compared with recovery by direct plating of fecal specimens. Buffered glycerol saline was the better transport medium for the recovery of Shigella spp. Refrigerated or frozen transport temperatures were superior to room temperature for recovery from either medium.

  6. Isolation and identification of Pseudomonas spp. from Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica.

    PubMed Central

    Shivaji, S; Rao, N S; Saisree, L; Sheth, V; Reddy, G S; Bhargava, P M

    1989-01-01

    Ten cultures of Pseudomonas spp. were established from soil samples collected in and around a lake in Antarctica. Based on their morphology, biochemical and physiological characteristics, and moles percent G + C of their DNA, they were identified as P. fluorescens, P. putida, and P. syringae. This is the first report on the identification of Pseudomonas spp. from continental Antarctica. PMID:2930174

  7. A new selective medium for isolating Pseudomonas spp. from water.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, C L; Sheikh, W

    1987-01-01

    A new medium, pseudomonas selective isolation agar, was developed to isolate Pseudomonas spp. from water. It consists of 350 micrograms of nitrofurantoin per ml and 2 micrograms of crystal violet per ml in a nutrient agar base. It is more selective for Pseudomonas spp. than are available commercial media. Its ingredients are inexpensive and readily available, and it is easy to prepare. PMID:3579287

  8. INK128 Exhibits Synergy with Azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lujuan; Sun, Yi; He, Chengyan; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang; Lu, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4–8 μg/ml) against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125–2 μg/ml and 1–4 μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a potential strategy

  9. The effect of co-administration of death camas (Zigadenus spp.) and low larkspur (Delphinium spp.) in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many rangeland settings, there is more than one potential poisonous plant. Two poisonous plants that are often found growing simultaneously in the same location are death camas (Zigadenus spp.) and low larkspur (Delphinium spp.). The objective of this study was to determine if co-administration...

  10. Contamination of public parks and squares from Guarulhos (São Paulo State, Brazil ) by Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp.

    PubMed

    Marques, Jacó Pereira; Guimarães, Catarina de Rezende; Boas, Ailton Vilas; Carnaúba, Paulo Usignolo; Moraes, Josué de

    2012-01-01

    The contaminated soil with mammal feces is an important factor of risk to infection with zoonotic diseases. Amongst these zoonoses are visceral larva migrans and cutaneous larva migrans caused by Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp., respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs and hookworms (Ancylostoma spp.) in public parks and squares in the city of Guarulhos, a metropolitan area of São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected, between September and December 2010, and examined using the centrifugal flotation technique with sodium dichromate and zinc sulphate as well as the modified Baermann method. Notably, 35 (74.5%) of the 47 districts surveyed in Guarulhos possessed samples contaminated with Toxocara spp. and/or eggs or larvae of Ancylostoma spp. The frequency of Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp. in the samples from public areas was 68.1% and 46.8%, respectively. Overall, the eastern side of Guarulhos is the region with the highest occurrence of causative agents of larva migrans. In all collection sites, the presence of feces from dogs and cats accompanied by their owners and stray animals were observed. Notably, it is important to adopt measures to control dog and cat breeding, to treat infected animals, and provide health education to the population.

  11. Modal mineralogy of CV3 chondrites by X-ray diffraction (PSD-XRD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, K. T.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.; Cressey, G.

    2010-09-01

    Using position sensitive detector X-ray diffraction (PSD-XRD) we determine a complete modal mineralogy for all phases present in abundances greater than 1 wt% in Vigarano, Efremovka, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Kaba and Allende. Reduced CV3 samples are comprised of (vol%): olivine (83-85%); enstatite (6.5-8.1%); anorthite (1.1-1.2%); magnetite (1.4-1.8%); sulphide (2.4-5.1%); Fe, Ni metal (2-2.2%). The oxidized samples are comprised of: olivine (76.3-83.9%); enstatite (4.8-7.8%); anorthite (1.1-1.7%); magnetite (0.3-6.1%); sulphide (2.9-8.1%); Fe, Ni metal (0.2-1.1%); Fe-oxide (0-2.7%) and phyllosilicate (1.9-4.2%). When our modal data is used to calculate a bulk chemistry that is compared to literature data a near 1:1 correlation is observed. PSD-XRD data indicates that olivine compositions may span almost the entire Fe-Mg solid solution series in all CV samples and that these contain a component (4-13%) of fine-grained olivine that is more Fe-rich (>Fa 60) than is typically reported. Modal mineralogy shows that there are mineralogic differences between CV3 samples classified as oxidized and reduced but that these sub-classes are most clearly distinguished by the relative abundance of metal and Ni content of sulphide, rather than abundance of magnetite. The most significant difference in modal mineralogy observed is the relative absence of phyllosilicate in reduced CV that essentially escaped aqueous alteration. Fayalite, ferrous olivine and magnetite are typically considered secondary alteration products. The abundances of these minerals overlap in oxidized and reduced samples and correlate positively supporting common conditions of formation in a relatively oxidizing environment. The abundances of fayalite, ferrous olivine and magnetite show no relationship to petrographic type and if these abundances were used as a proxy for alteration, Allende would be the least altered CV - contrary to all previous data. The implication is that thermal metamorphism on the parent body

  12. Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.

    PubMed

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-05-01

    In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 μg/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis.

  13. Thermal stability of oils added with avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) leaf extracts during the French potatoes frying.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Paula; García, Paula; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Robert, Paz

    2017-04-15

    Effect of the addition of avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) hydroalcoholic leaf extracts (AHE and OHE, respectively) on thermal stability of canola oil (CO) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) during French potatoes frying at 180°C was studied. The extracts were characterized by the total phenolic content, phenol chromatographic profiles and antioxidant activity. B-type trimer procyanidins were the major phenolic compounds identified in AHE. OHE showed higher phenol content, antioxidant activity regarding AHE. CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE decreased the formation of polar compounds and showed an anti-polymeric effect with respect to oils without extracts, whereas AHE extract showed a prooxidant effect on HOSO. Therefore, OHE showed an antioxidant effect on HOSO and CO under the studied conditions. In addition, all systems (CO+AHE, HOSO+AHE, CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE) increased the retention of tocopherols. These results demonstrate the potential utility of OHE as natural antioxidant for oils.

  14. Comparative genomics of Fructobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. reveals niche-specific evolution of Fructobacillus spp.

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Akihito; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Naoto; Maeno, Shintaro; Kumar, Himanshu; Shiwa, Yuh; Okada, Sanae; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Dicks, Leon; Nakagawa, Junichi; Arita, Masanori

    2015-12-29

    In this study, Fructobacillus spp. in fructose-rich niches belong to the family Leuconostocaceae. They were originally classified as Leuconostoc spp., but were later grouped into a novel genus, Fructobacillus , based on their phylogenetic position, morphology and specific biochemical characteristics. The unique characters, so called fructophilic characteristics, had not been reported in the group of lactic acid bacteria, suggesting unique evolution at the genome level. Here we studied four draft genome sequences of Fructobacillus spp. and compared their metabolic properties against those of Leuconostoc spp. As a result, Fructobacillus species possess significantly less protein coding sequences in their small genomes. The number of genes was significantly smaller in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Several other metabolic pathways, including TCA cycle, ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis and phosphotransferase systems, were characterized as discriminative pathways between the two genera. The adhE gene for bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase, and genes for subunits of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex were absent in Fructobacillus spp. The two genera also show different levels of GC contents, which are mainly due to the different GC contents at the third codon position. In conclusion, the present genome characteristics in Fructobacillus spp. suggest reductive evolution that took place to adapt to specific niches.

  15. Differential molecular identification of Taeniid spp. and Sarcocystis spp. cysts isolated from infected pigs and cattle.

    PubMed

    González, L M; Villalobos, N; Montero, E; Morales, J; Sanz, R Alamo; Muro, A; Harrison, L J S; Parkhouse, R M E; Gárate, T

    2006-11-30

    In the present work, the species-specific identification of Taeniid spp. cysticerci and sarcocystis cysts isolated from infected pigs and cattle was achieved by PCR. In particular: (i) multiplex-PCR derived from HDP2 DNA fragment, specific for Taenia saginata/Taenia solium; (ii) PCRs and PCR-RFLPs of the rDNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) for the differential diagnosis of taeniids; (iii) PCR derived from the 18S rRNA gene and sequencing, specific for Sarcoystis spp. The combined application of these three PCR protocols provided an unequivocally specific diagnosis of T. saginata, T. solium, T. hydatigena, Sarcocystis hominis and Sarcocystis suihominis, and may have practical application in the identification of calcified degenerating or morphologically dubious cysts, for example in the slaughter house situation or in human biopsy samples.

  16. [Biofilm formation by Legionella spp. in experiment].

    PubMed

    Karpova, T I; Dronina, Iu E; Alekseeva, N V; Romanova, Iu M; Tartakovskiĭ, I S

    2008-01-01

    Ability of biofilm formation was studied in 28 strains belonging to 12 species of Legionella. Optimal conditions for formation of biofilms were ascertained using reference strain Legionella pneumophila Philadelphia 1. Comparative assessment of the ability of Legionella spp. to form biofilms was performed by cultivation in proteosopepton broth (for 96 hours) and in water (for up to 2 weeks). Highest rates of biofilm formation were observed for strains of L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae. Between L. pneumophila strains the most prominent ability to form biofilms was observed in newly isolated strains BLR-05 and TOTAL 1. Opportunity to use different ability of Legionella species to biofilm formation as a epidemiologically significant marker and for modeling of biofilms of Legionella in association with other microorganisms was discussed.

  17. Capsaicin accumulation in Capsicum spp. suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2006-01-01

    Fruits of chili peppers (Capsicum spp.) specifically synthesize and accumulate a group of analogs known as capsaicinoids in the placenta tissues. These secondary metabolites are responsible for the hot taste of chili pepper fruits. Capsaicinoids are of economic importance because of their use in the food, cosmetic, military, and pharmaceutical industry. Several efforts have been focused to investigate the biosynthetic capacity of in vitro chili pepper cells and tissue cultures in order to determine the production feasibility of these compounds at the industrial level under controlled conditions. A description of techniques for the establishment of in vitro cultures of chili pepper, the addition of precursors and intermediates to the culture medium, and the selection of cell lines as a means to increase the production of capsaicinoids as well as the extraction, separation, and quantification of capsaicinoids from chili pepper cell cultures is reported in this chapter.

  18. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. Associated with the Infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Human, Zander R.; Moon, Kyuho; Bae, Munhyung; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Cha, Sangwon; Wingfield, Michael J.; Slippers, Bernard; Oh, Dong-Chan; Venter, Stephanus N.

    2016-01-01

    Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences. PMID:27853450

  19. [Antibiotic resistance analysis of Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae spp. isolated from food].

    PubMed

    Korotkevich, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The isolates from foods were screened for sensitivity to clinically significant antibiotics to assess the actual situation related to the prevalence of the antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in food. The goal of this work was to study the phenotypic characteristics of the antibiotic susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the good quality foods, and evaluation of the prevalence of tetracycline resistance in this groups of microbial contaminants. 68 strains of Enterobacteriaceae family and Enterococcus spp. isolated from poultry and livestock meat, pasteurized dairy products, acquired in the retail in the Moscow region, were studied. The disk-diffusion method (DDM) analysis showed a rather high prevalence of bacteria that are resistant and forming resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics: in general 38% of Enterobacteriaceae strains and 40% of Enterococcus spp., isolated from meat products were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline, and 21 and 33% - from dairy products, respectively; 26% of milk isolates and 54% of meat isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Considering that the tetracyclines is the most frequently used in animal husbandry and veterinary, the incidence and levels of tetracycline resistance were evaluated using tests with higher sensitivity to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), than the DDM. It was shown that among the Enterobacteriaceae strains 26% of isolates and 38% isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (MIC ranged from 8 to 120 mg/kg) and 17-40% - among Enterococcus spp. These data obtained on a small number of samples, however, correspond to the frequency of tetracycline resistant strains detected in animal products in the EU (10-50%). Two multidrug-resistant enterobacteria strains - Klebsiella pneumoniae (farmer cheese) and Escherichia coli (minced turkey) were found among the .46 strains (4.4%), and they were resistant to 8 antibiotics.

  20. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars.

  1. Camera calibration method of binocular stereo vision based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wanzhen; Dong, Xiaona

    2015-10-01

    Camera calibration, an important part of the binocular stereo vision research, is the essential foundation of 3D reconstruction of the spatial object. In this paper, the camera calibration method based on OpenCV (open source computer vision library) is submitted to make the process better as a result of obtaining higher precision and efficiency. First, the camera model in OpenCV and an algorithm of camera calibration are presented, especially considering the influence of camera lens radial distortion and decentering distortion. Then, camera calibration procedure is designed to compute those parameters of camera and calculate calibration errors. High-accurate profile extraction algorithm and a checkboard with 48 corners have also been used in this part. Finally, results of calibration program are presented, demonstrating the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results can reach the requirement of robot binocular stereo vision.

  2. Slurry sampling in serum blood for mercury determination by CV-AFS.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Pedro R; Gil, Raúl A; Moyano, Susana; De Vito, Irma; Martinez, Luis D

    2009-01-30

    The heavy metal mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin known to have a serious health impact even at relatively low concentrations. A slurry method was developed for the sensitive and precise determination of mercury in human serum blood samples by cold vapor generation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). All variables related to the slurry formation were studied. The optimal hydrochloric concentration and tin(II) chloride concentration for CV generation were evaluated. Calibration within the range 0.1-10 microg L(-1) Hg was performed with the standard addition method, and compared with an external calibration. Additionally, the reliability of the results obtained was evaluated by analyzing mercury in the same samples, but submitted to microwave-assisted digestion method. The limit of detection was calculated as 25 ng L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 3.9% at levels around of 0.4 microg L(-1)Hg.

  3. The control volume radial basis function method CV-RBF with Richardson extrapolation in geochemical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez, W. F.; Portapila, M.; Hill, A. F.; Power, H.; Orsini, P.; Bustamante, C. A.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present how to implement a control volume approach improved by Hermite radial basis functions (CV-RBF) for geochemical problems. A multi-step strategy based on Richardson extrapolation is proposed as an alternative to the conventional dual step sequential non-iterative approach (SNIA) for coupling the transport equations with the chemical model. Additionally, this paper illustrates how to use PHREEQC to add geochemical reaction capabilities to CV-RBF transport methods. Several problems with different degrees of complexity were solved including cases of cation exchange, dissolution, dissociation, equilibrium and kinetics at different rates for mineral species. The results show that the solution and strategies presented here are effective and in good agreement with other methods presented in the literature for the same cases.

  4. A model for the C-V characteristics of the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun Jie; Sun, Jing; Zheng, Xue Jun

    2009-02-01

    A model is developed to describe the characteristics of the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) structure based on the dipole switching theory (DST) and the silicon physics of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure. The ferroelectric dipole distribution function is used to simulate the history-dependent electric field effect of the ferroelectric layer. Using the model, the thickness effects of the ferroelectric and insulator layers on the capacitance-voltage ( C-V) characteristic and the memory window were investigated for Pt/SBT/ZrO 2/Si and Pt/BLT/MgO/Si structures. All the simulation results show good agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the model is suitable for simulating the C-V characteristic and the memory window of MFIS structure. In addition, the mathematical description is simple and can be easily integrated into the electronic design automation (EDA) software for circuit simulation.

  5. Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded.

  6. Automatic segmentation of Leishmania parasite in microscopic images using a modified CV level set method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahi, Maria; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Ensafi, Shahab

    2015-12-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that affects liver, spleen and bone marrow. According to World Health Organization report, definitive diagnosis is possible just by direct observation of the Leishman body in the microscopic image taken from bone marrow samples. We utilize morphological and CV level set method to segment Leishman bodies in digital color microscopic images captured from bone marrow samples. Linear contrast stretching method is used for image enhancement and morphological method is applied to determine the parasite regions and wipe up unwanted objects. Modified global and local CV level set methods are proposed for segmentation and a shape based stopping factor is used to hasten the algorithm. Manual segmentation is considered as ground truth to evaluate the proposed method. This method is tested on 28 samples and achieved 10.90% mean of segmentation error for global model and 9.76% for local model.

  7. Graphical method for determining the coefficient of consolidation cv from a flow-pump permeability test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, Roger H.; Olsen, Harold W.; Nelson, Karl R.; Gill, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A graphical method has been developed for determining the coefficient of consolidation from the transient phases of a flow-pump permeability test. The flow pump can be used to infuse fluid into or withdraw fluid from a laboratory sediment specimen at a constant volumetric rate in order to obtain data that can be used to calculate permeability using Darcy's law. Representative type-curve solutions to the associated forced-flow and pressure-decay models are derived. These curves provide the basis for graphically evaluating the permeability k, the coefficient of consolidation cv, and the coefficient of volume change mv. The curve-matching technique is easy and rapid. Values of k, cv and mv for a laterally confined kaolinite specimen were determined by this graphical method and appear to be in reasonably good agreement with numerically derived estimates (within 20%). Discrepancies between the two sets of results seem to be largely a function of data quality.

  8. Leptospira spp. in rodents and shrews in Germany.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G; Pfeffer, Martin; Woll, Dietlinde; Scholz, Holger C; Thomas, Astrid; Nöckler, Karsten

    2014-07-24

    Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae), six vole species (family Cricetidae) and six shrew species (family Soricidae). The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%), followed by Apodemus spp. (11%) and Clethrionomys spp. (6%). The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST). Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified.

  9. Heavily metamorphosed clasts from the CV chondrite breccias Mokoia and Yamato-86009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nakamura, Tomoki

    2012-12-01

    Abstract- Metamorphosed clasts in the CV carbonaceous chondrite breccias Mokoia and Yamato-86009 (Y-86009) are coarse-grained, granular, polymineralic rocks composed of Ca-bearing (up to 0.6 wt% CaO) ferroan olivine (Fa34-39), ferroan Al-diopside (Fs9-13Wo47-50, approximately 2-7 wt% Al2O3), plagioclase (An37-84Ab63-17), Cr-spinel (Cr/(Cr + Al) = 0.19-0.45, Fe/(Fe + Mg) = 0.60-0.79), nepheline, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, Ca-phosphate, and rare grains of Ni-rich taenite; low-Ca pyroxene is absent. Most clasts have triple junctions between silicate grains, indicative of prolonged thermal annealing. Based on the olivine-spinel and pyroxene thermometry, the estimated metamorphic temperature recorded by the clasts is approximately 1100 K. Few clasts experienced thermal metamorphism to a lower degree and preserved chondrule-like textures. The Mokoia and Y-86009 clasts are mineralogically unique and different from metamorphosed chondrites of known groups (H, L, LL, R, EH, EL, CO, CK) and primitive achondrites (acapulcoites, brachinites, lodranites). On a three-isotope oxygen diagram, compositions of olivine in the clasts plot along carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral line and the Allende mass-fractionation line, and overlap with those of the CV chondrule olivines; the Δ17O values of the clasts range from about -4.3‰ to -3.0‰. We suggest that the clasts represent fragments of the CV-like material that experienced metasomatic alteration, high-temperature metamorphism, and possibly melting in the interior of the CV parent asteroid. The lack of low-Ca pyroxene in the clasts could be due to its replacement by ferroan olivine during iron-alkali metasomatic alteration or by high-Ca ferroan pyroxene during melting under oxidizing conditions.

  10. A real-time camera calibration system based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Guo, Huinan; Ren, Long; Zhou, Zuofeng

    2015-07-01

    Camera calibration is one of the essential steps in the computer vision research. This paper describes a real-time OpenCV based camera calibration system, and developed and implemented in the VS2008 environment. Experimental results prove that the system to achieve a simple and fast camera calibration, compared with MATLAB, higher precision and does not need manual intervention, and can be widely used in various computer vision system.

  11. Real-time detecting and tracking ball with OpenCV and Kinect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osiecki, Tomasz; Jankowski, Stanislaw

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a way to detect and track ball with using the OpenCV and Kinect. Object and people recognition, tracking are more and more popular topics nowadays. Described solution makes it possible to detect ball based on the range, which is set by the user and capture information about ball position in three dimensions. It can be store in the computer and use for example to display trajectory of the ball.

  12. 26Al-26Mg systematics in chondrules from Kaba and Yamato 980145 CV3 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Komatsu, Mutsumi

    2017-03-01

    We report the mineralogy, petrography, and in situ measured 26Al-26Mg systematics in chondrules from the least metamorphosed CV3 (Vigarano-type) chondrites, Kaba and Yamato (Y) 980145. Two Y 980145 chondrules measured show no resolvable excesses in 26Mg (26Mg∗), a decay product of a short-lived (t1/2 ∼0.7 Ma) radionuclide 26Al. Plagioclase in one of the chondrules is replaced by nepheline, indicative of thermal metamorphism. The lack of 26Mg∗ in the Y 980145 chondrules is most likely due to disturbance of their 26Al-26Mg systematics during the metamorphism. Although Kaba experienced extensive metasomatic alteration (<300 °C), it largely avoided subsequent thermal metamorphism, and the 26Al-26Mg systematics of its chondrules appear to be undisturbed. All eight Kaba chondrules measured show 26Mg∗, corresponding to the initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] ranging from (2.9 ± 1.7) × 10-6 to (6.3 ± 2.7) × 10-6. If CV parent asteroid accreted rapidly after chondrule formation, the inferred (26Al/27Al)0 ratios in Kaba chondrules provide an upper limit on 26Al available in this asteroid at the time of its accretion. The estimated initial abundance of 26Al in the CV asteroid is too low to melt it and contradicts the existence of a molten core in this body suggested from the paleomagnetic records of Allende [Carporzen et al. (2011) Magnetic evidence for a partially differentiated carbonaceous chondrite parent body. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108, 6386-6389] and Kaba [Gattacceca et al. (2013) More evidence for a partially differentiated CV parent body from the meteorite Kaba. Lunar Planet. Sci.44, abstract#1721].

  13. Biochemical analysis of SV40 small t mediated theophylline resistance in CV-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Renz, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The papovavirus SV40 encodes for the two tumor antigens, large T and small t. While much is known about large T, little information is available about the role of small t in the viral life cycle. The authors have developed a system for studying small t antigen based on its ability to overcome the G/sub 0/ growth arrest induced by the methylxanthine, theophylline. Uninfected CV-1 cells, the permissive host for SV40, are arrested by 1-2mM theophylline. In contrast, Wt-infected cells are not arrested by the same concentrations of this drug. Biochemical studies were designed to analyze the effects of theophylline and the means by which small t can overcome the growth arrest of CV-1 cells. Theophylline, a cyclic AMP analogue, does not appear to arrest CV-1 cells by a cAMP-dependent mechanism. Theophylline appears to arrest CV-1 cells by inhibiting sodium influx. Both /sub 86/Rb/sup +/ and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake were inhibited by theophylline. Amiloride and TMB-8, drugs which are known to inhibit the plasma membrane Na/sup +//H/sup +/ antiporter, decreased /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake to the same degree as theophylline. Because these drugs also arrested mock and D1- but not Wt-infected cells it is possible that theophylline inhibits sodium uptake by inhibiting this antiporter. Furthermore, because Wt-infected cells are resistant to the growth arrest induced by these drugs, it is possible that small t acts either by directly altering this antiporter or by bypassing the step which requires the activity of the antiporter.

  14. Stereoselective oxidation of racemic 1-arylethanols by basil cultured cells of Ocimum basilicum cv. Purpurascens.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Kaoru; Utsukihara, Takamitsu; Sakamaki, Hiroshi; Horiuchi, C Akira

    2008-05-01

    The biotransformation of racemic 1-phenylethanol (30 mg) with plant cultured cells of basil (Ocimum basilicum cv. Purpurascens, 5 g wet wt) by shaking 120 rpm at 25 degrees C for 7 days in the dark gave (R)-(+)-1-phenylethanol and acetophenone in 34 and 24% yields, respectively. The biotransformation can be applied to other 1-arylethanols and basil cells oxidized the (S)-alcohols to the corresponding ketones remaining the (R)-alcohols in excellent ee.

  15. Nipple Reconstruction Using the C-V Flap Technique: Long-Term Outcomes and Patient Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Jalini, Lona; Lund, Jonathan; Kurup, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nipple creation using the C-V flap technique is often the final step in breast reconstruction. The aim of this study was to subjectively and objectively assess the cosmetic outcomes and satisfaction of patients undergoing C-V flap nipple reconstruction. METHODS Subjective assessments of patient satisfaction with the neo-nipple were recorded by visual analogue scoring (VAS; 0-10). Objective measurements were performed using a calliper to measure nipple projection relative to the native breast. Descriptive data analysis was performed with differences in projection assessed with the Mann-Whitney test and mean and median VAS scores (with inter-quartile ranges; IQR) calculated to describe satisfaction. RESULTS Thirty-three C-V flap nipple reconstructions were performed. 87.9% received latissimus dorsi (LD) reconstructions with implants and 12.1% had transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) reconstructions. The median projection of reconstructed nipples was 4.7 mm (range 4-10.2 mm) at 4.6 years mean follow-up, which was not significantly different from the contralateral nipple (p = 0.34). Patient satisfaction was 9 (IQR: 8-10) with shape, 9 (IQR: 7.5-10) with projection, 5 (IQR: 2-9.6) with sensation, and 8.5 (IQR: 6-9.5) with symmetry. Median overall satisfaction was 9 (IQR: 8-10). Three patients had complete nipple loss, of whom two had undergone nipple piercing post procedure and none had received radiotherapy. CONCLUSION C-V flap nipple reconstructions provide a simple and reliable method to reconstruct the nipple that enhances confidence and perception of body image. Satisfaction was high with long-term outcomes in terms of projection equivalent to the contralateral breast. PMID:28289616

  16. TST from geofinder traverse data on HP41CV programmable calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Carman, G.J. )

    1989-02-01

    Using program subroutines designed for the HP41CV programmable calculator and the geometric data recorded from Geofinder traversing or other pace-and-compass-type methods, the true stratigraphic thickness (TST) of dipping or gently folded strata is calculated at a rate of about 30 seconds per station. TST information is therefore readily available for reviewing stratigraphic and structure data and for post survey graphical plots.

  17. Teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the Intel OpenCV library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozłowski, Adam; Królak, Aleksandra

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present an approach to teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the use of the OpenCV library. Image processing, pattern recognition and computer vision are important branches of science and apply to tasks ranging from critical, involving medical diagnostics, to everyday tasks including art and entertainment purposes. It is therefore crucial to provide students of image processing and pattern recognition with the most up-to-date solutions available. In the Institute of Electronics at the Technical University of Lodz we facilitate the teaching process in this subject with the OpenCV library, which is an open-source set of classes, functions and procedures that can be used in programming efficient and innovative algorithms for various purposes. The topics of student projects completed with the help of the OpenCV library range from automatic correction of image quality parameters or creation of panoramic images from video to pedestrian tracking in surveillance camera video sequences or head-movement-based mouse cursor control for the motorically impaired.

  18. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (−)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana. PMID:24583851

  19. Anthelmintic activities of aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-02-27

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana.

  20. Exploring the SDSS Data Set with Linked Scatter Plots. I. EMP, CEMP, and CV Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbon, Duane F.; Henze, Christopher; Nelson, Bron C.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of a search for extremely metal-poor (EMP), carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP), and cataclysmic variable (CV) stars using a new exploration tool based on linked scatter plots (LSPs). Our approach is especially designed to work with very large spectrum data sets such as the SDSS, LAMOST, RAVE, and Gaia data sets, and it can be applied to stellar, galaxy, and quasar spectra. As a demonstration, we conduct our search using the SDSS DR10 data set. We first created a 3326-dimensional phase space containing nearly 2 billion measures of the strengths of over 1600 spectral features in 569,738 SDSS stars. These measures capture essentially all the stellar atomic and molecular species visible at the resolution of SDSS spectra. We show how LSPs can be used to quickly isolate and examine interesting portions of this phase space. To illustrate, we use LSPs coupled with cuts in selected portions of phase space to extract EMP stars, CEMP stars, and CV stars. We present identifications for 59 previously unrecognized candidate EMP stars and 11 previously unrecognized candidate CEMP stars. We also call attention to 2 candidate He ii emission CV stars found by the LSP approach that have not yet been discussed in the literature.

  1. Interaction of Salmonella spp. with the Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Ahmer, Brian M. M.; Gunn, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella spp. are major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Upon entry into the human host, Salmonella spp. must overcome the resistance to colonization mediated by the gut microbiota and the innate immune system. They successfully accomplish this by inducing inflammation and mechanisms of innate immune defense. Many models have been developed to study Salmonella spp. interaction with the microbiota that have helped to identify factors necessary to overcome colonization resistance and to mediate disease. Here we review the current state of studies into this important pathogen/microbiota/host interaction in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21772831

  2. Increased Prevalence of Trichinella spp., Northeastern Germany, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Pannwitz, Gunter; Balicka-Ramisz, Aleksandra; Nöckler, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, a Trichinella spp. outbreak occurred on a small family-owned pig farm in Mecklenburg–Western Pomerania in northeastern Germany. To obtain epidemiologic information on this outbreak, we determined that after 2005 the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in wild boars has increased in this region of Germany. We discuss the potential role of the raccoon dog in the increase in Trichinella spp. prevalence in the sylvatic cycle in this region. We believe that this increase could pose a threat to pigs kept in back yard conditions, and we provide recommendations to ensure public health safety. PMID:20507743

  3. Opaque minerals in CAIs, and classification of the Axtell (CV3) chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, I.; Simon, S. B.

    1994-07-01

    Axtell is a new CV3 chondrite from Texas. Preliminary studies of its Ca-Al rich Inclusions (CAIs) were reported. The mineralogy and chemical compositions of opaque minerals in four Axtell CAIs are distinct from their analogs in other inclusions from CV3 chondrites. Metallic NiFe (awaruite) is the dominant phase in opaque assemblages from Axtell inclusions, and occurs as well-rounded particles of sizes between about 1 and 20 microns. Their compositions (in atom %) are N63-67Fe31-33Co2-3 in AX-4, AX-7, and AX-9, and Ni74Fe23Co2 in AX-5. None of the awaruite grains contains measurable amounts (greater than 200 ppm by weight) of the platinum-group elements analyzed for Ru, W, Mo, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt. With very few exceptions, the awaruite particles studied are surrounded by or intergrown with V-free magnetite (detection limit = 400 ppm). In contrast with Allende, the dominant sulfide phase in Axtell inclusions is troilite (Ni less than or = 0.02-0.3%, by weight); pentlandite is scarce, occurring only sporadically as small grains associated with metallic FeNi (just a few particles of 5-15 microns were found in AX-5, AX-4, and AX-7, and none in AX-9). Also, an isolated 10-microns grain of millerite (NiS; Fe = 0.6 wt%) has been identified in AX-5. Unlike Allende inclusions, Axtell CAIs do not contain sulfide veins. Two remarkably large PGE-rich sulfide grains have been recognized: one spherical 12-microns particle in AX-4 (AX-4A, in melilite, close to the edge of the inclusion) and another irregularly shaped 25-microns grain in AX-9 (AX-9A, in melilite inside a spinel palisade). Study of the elemental distribution by wavelength-dispersive X-ray mapping and analysis and backscattered electron imaging suggests that these are single minerals and not multiphase assemblages. Microprobe analyses of chondrule olivines and low-Ca pyroxenes yield average Fa and Fs contents of 6.7 and 1.0 mol% respectively. These compositions suggest that Axtell is more similar to the CV3 chondrites

  4. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by Palmitic, Stearic, and Oleic Acid Sophorolipids and Thiamine Dilauryl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuejie; Ashby, Richard; Solaiman, Daniel K. Y.; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong

    2016-01-01

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of various types of sophorolipids (SLs) and thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS) against pathogenic Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Both free and lactonic forms of SLs were synthesized from Candida bombicola using palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids as co-feedstocks. TDS and purified SLs were used to treat cocktails of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Results showed that lactonic SLs had higher antimicrobial activity than the free-acid form, and Gram-positive Listeria spp. were more susceptible to SLs and TDS than Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Listeria populations were reduced from an initial concentration of 7.2 log CFU/mL to a non-detectible level within a 1 min treatment of 0.1% (w/v) lactonic SLs and TDS in the presence of 20% ethanol, which itself did not significantly reduce the populations. There were no significant differences in the antimicrobial efficacy among palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid-based SLs against Salmonella or Listeria spp. Ethanol was utilized to improve the antimicrobial activity of free-acid SLs against Gram-negative bacteria. In general, TDS was more effective than the SLs against Salmonella and Listeria spp. scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SLs and TDS damaged Listeria cell membranes and resulted in cell lysis. Overall, our results demonstrated that SLs and TDS in the presence of ethanol can be used to inactivate foodborne pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:28066390

  5. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by Palmitic, Stearic, and Oleic Acid Sophorolipids and Thiamine Dilauryl Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuejie; Ashby, Richard; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong

    2016-01-01

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of various types of sophorolipids (SLs) and thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS) against pathogenic Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Both free and lactonic forms of SLs were synthesized from Candida bombicola using palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids as co-feedstocks. TDS and purified SLs were used to treat cocktails of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Results showed that lactonic SLs had higher antimicrobial activity than the free-acid form, and Gram-positive Listeria spp. were more susceptible to SLs and TDS than Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Listeria populations were reduced from an initial concentration of 7.2 log CFU/mL to a non-detectible level within a 1 min treatment of 0.1% (w/v) lactonic SLs and TDS in the presence of 20% ethanol, which itself did not significantly reduce the populations. There were no significant differences in the antimicrobial efficacy among palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid-based SLs against Salmonella or Listeria spp. Ethanol was utilized to improve the antimicrobial activity of free-acid SLs against Gram-negative bacteria. In general, TDS was more effective than the SLs against Salmonella and Listeria spp. scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SLs and TDS damaged Listeria cell membranes and resulted in cell lysis. Overall, our results demonstrated that SLs and TDS in the presence of ethanol can be used to inactivate foodborne pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria.

  6. Pathogenicity and control of Heterodera schachtii and Meloidogyne spp. on some cruciferous plant cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenicity of the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita and M. javanica on cabbage cvs. Balady, Brunswick and Ganzouri, cauliflower cv. Balady, turnip cv. Balady, and radish cv. Balady was determined in several greenhouse ...

  7. Secondary Mineralization of Components in CV3 Chondrites: Nebular and Asteroidal Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.; Zolensky, M. E.

    1995-09-01

    Our review of mineralogical variations among CV3 chondrites suggests that all components, chondrules, matrices, and CAIs, were affected by various degrees of secondary mineralization. Chondrules and CAIs are rimmed with fayalitic olivine [1, 2]; metal in all components is oxidized and sulfidized to magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides [3]; silicates in all components are aqueously altered to phyllosilicates [4]; and nepheline, sodalite, wollastonite, and hedenbergite replace primary minerals in CAIs [5]. In those CV3s with altered CAIs, nepheline etc. are also present in chondrule mesostases [6] and in matrices [7]. Correlated occurrences of secondary minerals indicate that they have related origins. CV3 chondrites can be divided into three kinds according to their secondary features. Reduced CV3s (e.g., Efremovka) lack magnetite [8] and show minimal secondary features. Oxidized CV3s [8] generally show all features: those like Mokoia contain minor fayalitic rims, nepheline, etc, whereas those like Allende lack phyllosilicates but contain well developed fayalite rims and abundant nepheline, etc. Allende-like CV3 chondrites also contain abundant plate-like matrix olivine (Fa(sub)45-55). Similarities in chemistry and O isotopic composition and petrographic observations suggest that fayalitic rims and plate-like matrix olivine have related origins [1, 9]. The presence of secondary minerals in all components implies that alteration postdated component formation. The absence of secondary minerals in reduced CV3s indicates that CV3 oxidized formed from CV3 reduced-like material. Oxidized and reduced materials coexist in some breccias indicating a common parent asteroid. Nebular origins are widely accepted for most secondary features. To form fayalitic rims and matrix , Palme and colleagues [10, 11] suggest that chondritic components were briefly exposed to a hot (>1500 K), highly oxidizing nebula with H2O/H2 to about 1. Such an environment could have resulted from

  8. Relative frequency, characteristics, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., Chromobacterium violaceum, and Shewanella spp. in the northern territory of Australia, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Gary N; Hennessy, Jann; Baird, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Vibrio, Aeromonas, Chromobacterium violaceum, and Shewanella (VACS) are water-associated Gram-negative organisms that can cause a variety of infections. The frequency, patient characteristics, and antimicrobial susceptibilities for 468 isolates from 442 patients from the Northern Territory were reviewed. Aeromonas spp. (312 of 468; 67%) were most commonly isolated followed by Vibrio spp. (71 of 468; 15%), Shewanella spp. (61 of 468; 13%), and C. violaceum (24 of 468; 5%). A strong male predominance was found (male to female ratio of 2.3:1). Skin and soft tissue isolations (373 of 468; 80%) from lower limb infections (222 of 371; 60%) were the most common clinical manifestation. The episodes were usually polymicrobial (281 of 468; 60%). Coisolates included Staphylococcus aureus (137 of 468; 29%), β-hemolytic streptococci (74 of 468; 16%), enterobacteriaceae (111 of 468; 24%), non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (35 of 468; 7%), and other VACS organisms (37 of 468; 8%). Antimicrobial resistance of VACS organisms to ciprofloxacin (0-4%), cefepime (0-3%), and gentamicin (0-0.8%) and Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Shewanella to cotrimoxazole (0-3%) was rarely shown. For water-associated lower limb skin and soft tissue infections in the tropics, clinicians should consider empirical antimicrobial therapy with agents active against S. aureus and VACS organisms.

  9. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  10. Epidemiological study on feline gastric Helicobacter spp. in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kubota-Aizawa, Sanae; Ohno, Koichi; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Nakashima, Ko; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Mimuro, Hitomi; Watanabe, Takayasu; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-03-26

    Epidemiological and pathological studies on Helicobacter spp. in feline stomachs in Japan were conducted using genus- and species-specific (H. felis, H. bizzozeronii, H. heilmannii sensu stricto[s.s.] and H. pylori) polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), ureAB gene sequencing and histopathology. PCR results showed that 28 of 56 cats were infected with Helicobacter spp., and H. heilmannii s.s. was the most prevalent species by both PCR (28/28) and ureAB gene sequencing (26/28). Some of the sequences showed high similarities with those from human patients with gastric diseases (99%). There were no significant differences between Helicobacter spp.-positive and -negative cats in the severity of chronic gastritis (P=0.69). This is the first extensive epidemiological study on feline gastric Helicobacter spp. in Japan.

  11. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pet turtles and their environment.

    PubMed

    Back, Du-San; Shin, Gee-Wook; Wendt, Mitchell; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2016-09-01

    Pet turtles are known as a source of Salmonella infection to humans when handled in captivity. Thirty four turtles purchased from pet shops and online markets in Korea were examined to determine whether the turtles and their environment were contaminated with Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. were isolated from fecal samples of 17 turtles. These isolates were identified as S. enterica through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolation rate of Salmonella spp. from the soil and water samples increased over time. We concluded that a high percentage of turtles being sold in pet shops were infected with Salmonella spp., and their environments tend to become contaminated over time unless they are maintained properly. These results indicate that pet turtles could be a potential risk of salmonellosis in Korea.

  12. Biofouling of groundwater distribution systems by Thiothrix spp.

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; Martin, H.W.; Aldrich, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    Thiothrix spp., sulfide oxidizing filamentous bacteria, were found to be the main bacterial component of aquatic biofilms causing biofouling in selected municipal water storage tanks, private wells, and drip irrigation systems in Florida. The water originated from the upper Floridan aquifer and associated aquifers in Central and North Florida. Samples were examined where visible biofilms had a white, slimy, filamentous appearance indicative of Thiothrix spp. The detection of Thiothrix spp. was confirmed by enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These observations confirm that these bacteria and associated extracellular material play an important role in formation of biofilms, which in turn may induce physical changes leading to significant biofouling. These studies suggest that Thiothrix spp.-associated biofouling occurs at an interface where reduced sulfide-containing water contacts aerated water and a surface or substrate is available for attachment.

  13. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, and Platygastridae) of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Argentina are reviewed and keyed. Newly described are Anagrus (Anagrus) empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Mymaridae, parasitoid of M. scutellaris Berg on water hyacinth, Eichhornia cras...

  14. Incidence and inactivation of Listeria spp. on frozen shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including shrimp. Foodborne pathogens occasionally found on shrimp include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrios. In this study the microbiological qualit...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of Mycoplasma spp. antisera conjugated with a.... The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Mycoplasma and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these microorganisms....

  16. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pet turtles and their environment

    PubMed Central

    Back, Du-San; Shin, Gee-Wook; Wendt, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Pet turtles are known as a source of Salmonella infection to humans when handled in captivity. Thirty four turtles purchased from pet shops and online markets in Korea were examined to determine whether the turtles and their environment were contaminated with Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. were isolated from fecal samples of 17 turtles. These isolates were identified as S. enterica through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolation rate of Salmonella spp. from the soil and water samples increased over time. We concluded that a high percentage of turtles being sold in pet shops were infected with Salmonella spp., and their environments tend to become contaminated over time unless they are maintained properly. These results indicate that pet turtles could be a potential risk of salmonellosis in Korea. PMID:27729933

  17. An alternative bacteriological medium for the isolation of Aeromonas spp.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Taylor, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Two solid bacteriologic media were compared for cultivating Aeromonas spp. from piscine sources: the Rimler-Shotts (RS) medium and a starch-glutamate-ampicillin-penicillin-based medium (SGAP-10C) used for the recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water samples. The selective and differential capacities of the media were assessed March through October 1992 by recovery rate and phenotype of 99 isolates representing 15 genera of bacteria. Recovery frequency of Aeromonas spp. (n = 62) was similar at 97% on RS and 95% on SGAP-10C. The SGAP-10C medium proved to be more specific than RS toward Aeromonas species (P ≤ 0.005). Use of SGAP-10C at 24 C for 48 hr offers a better choice for the laboratory recovery of Aeromonas spp. from clinical fish specimens.

  18. Aspartic proteinases from Mucor spp. in cheese manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Yegin, Sirma; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo; Jose Gama Salgado, Antonio; Guvenc, Ulgar; Goksungur, Yekta; Tari, Canan

    2011-02-01

    Filamentous fungi belonging to the order of Mucorales are well known as producers of aspartic proteinases depicting milk-clotting activity. The biosynthesis level, the biochemical characteristics, and the technological properties of the resulting proteinases are affected by the producer strain and the mode of cultivation. While the milk-clotting enzymes produced by the Rhizomucor spp. have been extensively studied in the past, much less is known on the properties and potential applications of the aspartic proteinases obtained for Mucor spp. Indeed, several Mucor spp. strains have been reported as a potential source of milk-clotting enzymes having unique technological properties. Both submerged fermentation and solid substrate cultivation are proven alternatives for the production of Mucor spp. aspartic proteinases. This review provides an overview on the bioprocessing routes to obtain large amounts of these enzymes, on their structural characteristics as related to their functional properties, and on their industrial applications with focus on cheese manufacturing.

  19. C-V Measurement of HfO2 Dielectric Layer Received by UV Stimulated Plasma Anodizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibilashvili, Amiran; Kushitashvili, Zurab

    2016-10-01

    In this report we consider HfO2 dielectric layer received by UV stimulated plasma anodizing. This dielectric is distinguished by good electric parameters. For this purpose, it was used C-V characterization technic and calculate dielectric constant, flatband voltage, thrishold voltage, bulk potential, work function, oxide effective charge, charge concentration. The C-V measurement was carried out on Keithley Instrument - Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer 4200, oxide thickness was measured by reflectometer - MprobeVis System.

  20. Defective secretion of mucilage is the cellular basis for agravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Root caps of primary, secondary, and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Kys secrete large amounts of mucilage and are in close contact with the root all along the root apex. These roots are strongly graviresponsive. Secondary and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are also strongly graviresponsive. Similarly, their caps secrete mucilage and closely appress the root all along the root apex. However, primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are non-responsive to gravity. Their caps secrete negligible amounts of mucilage and contact the root only at the extreme apex of the root along the calyptrogen. These roots become graviresponsive when their tips are coated with mucilage or mucilage-like materials. Peripheral cells of root caps of roots of Z. mays cv. Kys contain many dictyosomes associated with vesicles that migrate to and fuse with the plasmalemma. Root-cap cells of secondary and seminal (i.e. graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are similar to those of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Kys. However, root-cap cells of primary (i.e. non-graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic have distended dictyosomal cisternae filled with an electron-dense, granular material. Large vesicles full of this material populate the cells and apparently do not fuse with the plasmalemma. Taken together, these results suggest that non-graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic results from the lack of apoplastic continuity between the root and the periphery of the root cap. This is a result of negligible secretion of mucilage by cells along the edge of the root cap which, in turn, appears to be due to the malfunctioning of dictyosomes in these cells.

  1. [Isolation of Candida spp. from ascites in cirrhotic patients].

    PubMed

    Saludes, Paula; Araguás, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Dalmau, Blai; Font, Bernat

    2016-10-01

    The isolation of Candida spp. in ascites of cirrhotic patients is an uncommon situation in clinical practice. Factors that have been associated with increased susceptibility to primary fungal peritonitis are exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppression, a typical situation of these patients. We report seven episodes of Candida spp. isolation in ascites of cirrhotic patients detected in our hospital during the past 15years.

  2. Cefotaxime resistance and outcome of Klebsiella spp bloodstream infection.

    PubMed

    Ortega, M; Marco, F; Soriano, A; Almela, M; Martínez, J A; López, J; Pitart, C; Mensa, J

    2011-12-01

    We attempt to describe the epidemiology and outcome associated with cefotaxime-resistant (CTX-R) Klebsiella spp bacteraemia. Klebsiella spp bloodstream infection episodes prospectively collected through a blood culture surveillance programme from January 1991 to December 2008 in a single institution were analysed. A total of 910 monomicrobial episodes of Klebsiella spp bacteraemia were identified during the study period. The most important sources were from urinary tract infection, unknown sources, billiary focus and catheter related infection. There were 112 (12%) CTX-R isolates. Out of 112 isolates, 98 were CTX-R by Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase production. Shock on presentation and mortality were significantly more frequent in CTX-R than in CTX susceptible isolates. Inappropriate empirical therapy was received in 50 (45%) cases in the CTX-R Klebsiella spp group (13 cases of death, 26%). Predictive factors associated with CTX-R Klebsiella spp isolate were: previous β-lactam therapy (OR = 4.16), nosocomial acquired bacteraemia (OR = 1.93), solid organ trasplantation (OR = 2.09) and shock (OR = 1.90). Independent risk factors associated with mortality in Klebsiella spp bacteraemia were: age (OR = 1.03), liver cirrhosis (OR = 2.63), ultimately or rapidly fatal prognosis of underlying disease (OR = 2.44), shock (OR = 8.60), pneumonia (OR = 4.96) or intraabdominal (OR = 3.85) source of bacteraemia and CTX-R isolate (OR = 4.63). Klebsiella spp is an important cause of bloodstream infection. CTX-R isolates have been increasing since 2000. CTX-R is an independent factor associated with mortality in Klebsiella spp bacteraemia.

  3. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter Sakazakii) from Artisanal Mozzarella

    PubMed Central

    Rippa, Paola; Battaglia, Luciana; Parisi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21%) of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this present study helps

  4. Phylogenetic Relationships of Thiothrix spp. from Two Distinct Biofilm Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.

    2000-09-05

    Molecular procedures were used to investigate the relationship of Thiothrix spp. in biofilms from sulfide-rich waters in two distinct Florida ecosystems. These Thiothrix spp.-containing biofilms at these sites have been consistently observed for over 10 years. Analyzed biofilm samples from each site contained one clone that was 99 to 99.5 percent similar to Thiothrix unzii. This finding may be explained by the similarity of the groundwater supplying the two systems.

  5. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    PubMed

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares.

  6. Clinical aspects of infection with Trichinella spp.

    PubMed Central

    Capó, V; Despommier, D D

    1996-01-01

    Isolated cases and outbreaks of infection with Trichinella spp. occur frequently throughout the world, sometimes resulting in fatalities. The clinical presentations of signs and symptoms are remarkably constant for most of the species of Trichinella, but in infections with Trichinella nativa and Trichinella britovi, classical symptoms of trichinellosis may be absent. It is important to be able to correlate the clinical presentation of trichinellosis with the life cycle of these helminths in order to make an accurate diagnosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease enables the physician to identify other potential cases, since most epidemics can be traced back to a common source of raw or undercooked meat. A comprehensive summary relating the most important clinical variables is presented graphically for easy reference to the text. Symptoms and signs are considered in relation to severity of infection. Laboratory findings and diagnostic techniques, including new modalities (e.g., DNA and antigen detection), are discussed. A discussion of treatment and preventive measures concludes our review. PMID:8665476

  7. Current Knowledge of Trichosporon spp. and Trichosporonosis

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Arnaldo L.; Padovan, Ana Carolina B.; Chaves, Guilherme M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Trichosporon spp. are basidiomycetous yeast-like fungi found widely in nature. Clinical isolates are generally related to superficial infections. However, this fungus has been recognized as an opportunistic agent of invasive infections, mostly in cancer patients and those exposed to invasive medical procedures. It is possible that the ability of Trichosporon strains to form biofilms on implanted devices, the presence of glucuronoxylomannan in their cell walls, and the ability to produce proteases and lipases are all factors likely related to the virulence of this genus and therefore may account for the progress of invasive trichosporonosis. Disseminated trichosporonosis has been increasingly reported worldwide and represents a challenge for both diagnosis and species identification. Phenotypic identification methods are useful for Trichosporon sp. screening, but only molecular methods, such as IGS region sequencing, allow the complete identification of Trichosporon isolates at the species level. Methods for the diagnosis of invasive trichosporonosis include PCR-based methods, Luminex xMAP technology, and, more recently, proteomics. Treating patients with trichosporonosis remains a challenge because of limited data on the in vitro and in vivo activities of antifungal drugs against clinically relevant species of the genus. Despite the mentioned limitations, the use of antifungal regimens containing triazoles appears to be the best therapeutic approach. PMID:21976604

  8. Toxocara spp. infections in paratenic hosts.

    PubMed

    Strube, Christina; Heuer, Lea; Janecek, Elisabeth

    2013-04-15

    The zoonotic roundworms Toxocara canis and T. cati are not only present worldwide in their definitive hosts; they also frequently occur in other animal species, including humans. In those so-called paratenic hosts, the larvae do not develop into the adult stage, but rather migrate throughout the somatic tissue and persist as infectious L3 stage for extensive periods. Those arrested larvae may lead to severe inflammatory reactions and consequently to a wide range of pathological and clinical manifestations. However, the infected paratenic hosts also constitute a potential source of infection for the definitive hosts or humans who may also function as paratenic hosts. In the present review, current knowledge of larval migration in a variety of possible paratenic hosts is summarized including variations of migration routes and susceptibilities. Furthermore, information about the clinical and pathological changes for the presented species and possible consequences of the somatic migration of larvae, i.e. the resulting tissue damage as well as adverse host reactions to arrested larvae are reviewed. There are still many questions unanswered regarding larval behaviour in hosts other than their definitive host. Therefore, it is of great importance to continue further elaboration on the biology of Toxocara spp. to prevent further spreading of larvae in both the paratenic and the definitive host.

  9. Radiosensitization of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat baby spinach leaves.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Carmen; Moreira, Rosana G; Castell-Perez, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The FDA recently approved irradiation treatment of leafy greens such as spinach up to 1 kGy; however, it is important to reduce the dose required to decontaminate the produce while maintaining its quality. Thus, the objectives of this study were: (1) to assess the radiation sensitivities of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. inoculated in ready-to-eat baby spinach leaves under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and irradiated using a 1.35-MeV Van de Graff accelerator (the leaves were irradiated both at room temperature and at -5 °C); and (2) to understand and optimize the synergistic effect of MAP and irradiation by studying the radiolysis of ozone formation under different temperatures, the effect of dose rate on its formation, and its decomposition. Results showed that increased concentrations of oxygen in the packaging significantly increased the radiation sensitivity of the test organisms, ranging from 7% up to 25% reduction in D(10)-values. In particular, radiosensitization could be effected (P < 0.05) by production of ozone, which increases with increasing dose-rate and oxygen concentration, and reducing temperatures. Radiosensitization was demonstrated for both microorganisms with irradiation of either fresh or frozen (-5 °C) baby spinach. These results suggest that low-dose (below 1 kGy) e-beam radiation under modified atmosphere packaging (100% O(2) and N(2):O(2)[1:1]) may be a viable tool for reducing microbial populations or eliminating Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. from baby spinach. A suggested treatment to achieve a 5-log reduction of the test organisms would be irradiation at room temperature under 100% O(2) atmosphere at a dose level of 0.7 kGy. Practical Application: Decontamination of minimally processed fruits and vegetables from food-borne pathogens presents technical and economical challenges to the produce industry. Internalized microorganisms cannot be eliminated by the current procedure (water-washed or treated with 200-ppm chlorine

  10. SPP2 Mutations Cause Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Chen, Xue; Xu, Qihua; Gao, Xiang; Tam, Pancy O. S.; Zhao, Kanxing; Zhang, Xiumei; Chen, Li Jia; Jia, Wenshuang; Zhao, Qingshun; Vollrath, Douglas; Pang, Chi Pui; Zhao, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) shows progressive loss of photoreceptors involved with heterogeneous genetic background. Here, by exome sequencing and linkage analysis on a Chinese family with autosomal dominant RP, we identified a putative pathogenic variant, p.Gly97Arg, in the gene SPP2, of which expression was detected in multiple tissues including retina. The p.Gly97Arg was absent in 800 ethnically matched chromosomes and 1400 in-house exome dataset, and was located in the first of the two highly conserved disulfide bonded loop of secreted phosphoprotein 2 (Spp-24) encoded by SPP2. Overexpression of p.Gly97Arg and another signal peptide mutation, p.Gly29Asp, caused cellular retention of both endogenous wild type and exogenous mutants in vitro, and primarily affected rod photoreceptors in zebrafish mimicking cardinal feature of RP. Taken together, our data indicate that the two mutations of SPP2 have dominant negative effects and cellular accumulation of Spp-24 might be particularly toxic to photoreceptors and/or retinal pigment epithelium. SPP2 has a new role in retinal degeneration. PMID:26459573

  11. Isolation of Aeromonas spp. from an unchlorinated domestic water supply.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, V; Robinson, J; Gracey, M; Peterson, D; Meyer, N; Haley, V

    1984-01-01

    The recovery of Aeromonas spp. from the unchlorinated water supply for a Western Australian city of 21,000 people was monitored at several sampling points during a period of 1 year. Membrane filtration techniques were used to count colonies of Aeromonas spp., coliforms, and Escherichia coli in water sampled before entry to service reservoirs, during storage in service reservoirs, and in distribution systems. Aeromonas spp. were identified by subculture on blood agar with ampicillin, oxidase tests, and the use of Kaper medium and then were tested for production of enterotoxins and hemolysins. During the same period, two-thirds of all fecal specimens sent for microbiological examination were cultured on ampicillin-blood agar for Aeromonas spp. Recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water supplies at distribution points correlated with fecal isolations and continued during autumn and winter. Coliforms and E. coli were found most commonly in late summer to autumn. This pattern differs from the summer peak of Aeromonas isolations both from water and from patients with Aeromonas spp.-associated gastroenteritis in Perth, Western Australia, a city with a chlorinated domestic water supply. Of the Aeromonas strains from water, 61% were enterotoxigenic, and 64% produced hemolysins. PMID:6486783

  12. Alternations in the liver enzymatic activity of Common carp, Cyprinus carpio in response to parasites, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp.

    PubMed

    Rastiannasab, Abulhasan; Afsharmanesh, Shiva; Rahimi, Ruhollah; Sharifian, Iman

    2016-12-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of parasites, monogenea, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp. on some enzymatic and biochemical components of liver in healthy and infected common carp, Cyprinus carpio. For this purpose, 10 healthy and 10 infected fish were collected from farm. The blood samples were taken and after separation of serum, the values of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes activities as well as Creatinine and Urea were measured. Based on obtained results, the values of AST, ALT enzymes activities as well as Creatinine and Urea were higher in the infected fish compared to non-infected fish. In conclusion; our results reveals that infection with external parasites, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp. can causes some dysfunctions in liver and kidney of common carp.

  13. Insights into the Mechanisms Underlying Ultraviolet-C Induced Resveratrol Metabolism in Grapevine (V. amurensis Rupr.) cv. “Tonghua-3”

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiangjing; Singer, Stacy D.; Qiao, Hengbo; Liu, Yajun; Jiao, Chen; Wang, Hao; Li, Zhi; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Yuejin; Fan, Chonghui; Wang, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Stilbene compounds belong to a family of secondary metabolites that are derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Production of the stilbene phytoalexin, resveratrol, in grape (Vitis spp.) berries is known to be induced by ultraviolet-C radiation (UV-C), which has numerous regulatory effects on plant physiology. While previous studies have described changes in gene expression caused by UV-C light in several plant species, such information has yet to be reported for grapevine. We investigated both the resveratrol content and gene expression responses of berries from V. amurensis cv. Tonghua-3 following UV-C treatment, to accelerate research into resveratrol metabolism. Comparative RNA-Seq profiling of UV-C treated and untreated grape berries resulted in the identification of a large number of differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology (GO) term classification and biochemical pathway analyses suggested that UV-C treatment caused changes in various cellular processes, as well as in both hormone and secondary metabolism. The data further indicate that UV-C induced increases in resveratrol may be related to the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the production of secondary metabolites and signaling, as well as several transcription factors. We also observed that following UV-C treatment, 22 stilbene synthase (STS) genes exhibited increases in their expression levels and a VaSTS promoter drove the expression of the GUS reporter gene when expressed in tobacco. We therefore propose that UV-C induction of VaSTS expression is an important factor in promoting resveratrol accumulation. This transcriptome data set provides new insight into the response of grape berries to UV-C treatment, and suggests candidate genes, or promoter activity of related genes, that could be used in future functional and molecular biological studies of resveratrol metabolism. PMID:27148326

  14. Development of duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanyan; Zhang, Yan; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Cao, Shuxuan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Yan, Yaqun; Ning, Changshen

    2017-05-01

    Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp., which are important tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), impact the health of humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Theileria and Anaplasma co-infections are common in sheep and goats. Following alignment of the relevant DNA sequences, two primer sets were designed to specifically target the Theileria spp. 18S rRNA and Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene sequences. Genomic DNA from the two genera was serially diluted tenfold for testing the sensitivities of detection of the primer sets. The specificities of the primer sets were confirmed when DNA from Anaplasma and Theileria (positive controls), other related hematoparasites (negative controls) and ddH2O were used as templates. Fifty field samples were also used to evaluate the utility of single PCR and duplex PCR assays, and the detection results were compared with those of the PCR methods previously published. An optimized duplex PCR assay was established from the two primer sets based on the relevant genes from the two TBPs, and this assay generated products of 298-bp (Theileria spp.) and 139-bp (Anaplasma spp.). The detection limit of the assay was 29.4 × 10(-3) ng per μl, and there was no cross-reaction with the DNA from other hematoparasites. The results showed that the newly developed duplex PCR assay had an efficiency of detection (P > 0.05) similar to other published PCR methods. In this study, a duplex PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously identify Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats. This duplex PCR is a potentially valuable assay for epidemiological studies of TBPs in that it can detect cases of mixed infections of the pathogens.

  15. Flavonoids from the grains of C1/R-S transgenic rice, the transgenic Oryza sativa spp. japonica, and their radical scavenging activities.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Song, Na-Young; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Shrestha, Sabina; Park, Hee-Jung; Lyu, Ha-Na; Kim, Dae-Ok; Lee, Gihwan; Woo, Young-Min; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Baek, Nam-In

    2013-10-30

    The transgenic rice cultivar of Oryza sativa spp. japonica cv. Hwa-Young, C1/R-S transgenic rice (C1/R-S rice), is a flavonoid-rich cultivar of rice. The grains of C1/R-S rice were extracted with aqueous MeOH, and the concentrated extract was partitioned with EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O, successively. Repeated silica gel, octadecyl silica gel (ODS), and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies for the EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions afforded four new flavonoids (compounds 2, 3, 7, and 8) along with four known flavonoids: (+)-3'-O-methyltaxifolin (1), brassicin (4), isorhamnetin-4'-O-β-D-glucosyranoside (5), and 3'-O-methyltaxifolin-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6). The new flavonoids were identified as 3'-O-methyltaxifolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3'-O-methyltaxifolin-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), isorhamnetin-7-O-β-D-cellobioside (brassicin-4″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) (7), and brassicin-4'-O-β-D-glucosyranoside (8) from the result of spectroscopic data including nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Also, quantitative analysis of major flavonoids (compounds 2, 3, and 8) in C1/R-S rice, O. sativa spp. japonica cv. Hwa-Young (HY), and a hybrid of two cultivar (C1/R-S rice/HY) extracts was performed using HPLC experiment. The isolated flavonoids were evaluated for their radical-scavenging effect on DPPH and ABTS radicals.

  16. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in surface water supply of Campinas, southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neto, Romeu Cantusio; dos Santos, Luciana Urbano; Sato, Maria Ines Zanoli; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2010-01-01

    Surface water contaminated by domestic sewage discharges is a potential source of pathogens, including protozoa. During 2005-2006, the source water (Atibaia River) of the Surface Water Treatment Plant (WTP) of Campinas city, São Paulo, Brazil was sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Calcium carbonate flocculation (CCF) and membrane filtration (MF) concentration techniques, with and without purification by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) were evaluated. The cysts and oocysts were detected by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and confirmed by differential interference contrast (DIC). Membrane filtration method generally produced higher recovery efficiency. Giardia spp. was detected in 87.5% of the water samples analyzed with densities ranging from 2.5 to 120 cysts per L. Cryptosporidium spp were detected in 62.5% and the concentrations ranged from 15 to 60 oocysts per L. Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations detected in this study were elevated and are associated with discharge of untreated sewage in Atibaia River. Measures should be taken to protect surface water from sources of contamination.

  17. [Comparison of phylogeny analysis methods for rhizobia asolated from Albizia spp., Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengqin; Zhang, Yongfa; Liu, Jie; Song, Andong; Liu, Quanjun; Chen, Wenxin

    2008-01-01

    Multilocus house-keeping gene sequence analysis is a hotspot of taxonomy and phylogeny of prokaryotes. In this research, we used atpD and gln II gene sequences to analyze the phylogeny of nine rhizobia strains of Albizia spp., Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala and compared the results to that of 16S rDNA. The phylogenetic relationships based on the sequence analysis of these three genes were congruent at the genera level. CCBAU43060 and CCBAU 61139 were located in the branch of Rhizobium-Agrobacterium. CCBAU51471, CCBAU35220, CCBAU51276 and CCBAU61158 belonged to the genera of Mesorhizobium. CCBAU35234, CCBAU61178 and CCBAU35085 were assigned to Bradyrhizobium. Differences were found for some strains, for example CCBAU 61158, CCBAU43060, CCBAU61178, at the species level. Insertion fragment and mosaic gene were also found in some isolates. These results indicated that there was recombination between species in the same genera. It is reliable to determine the taxonomy status at genera levels based on the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. If the relationships between strains belonging to the same genera were studied using the phylogeny methods, researches should be carried out with more than one house-keeping genes.

  18. Desulfotomaculum spp.and Methanobacterium spp. Dominate a 4-5 km Deep Fault

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Duane P.; Gihring, Thomas M.; Brockman, Fred J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Balkwill, David L.; Dollhopf, M E.; Lollar, B S.; Pratt, Lisa; Boice, E.; Southam, G; Wanger, Greg; Baker, Brett; Pfiffner, S; Lin, L; Onstott, T C.

    2005-12-01

    Sulfidic, 54-60 C, 3 to 30 million year old meteoric water stably Alkaline, sulfidic, 54 to 60 C, 4 to 53 million-year-old meteoric water emanating from a borehole intersecting quartzite-hosted fractures >3.3 km beneath the surface supported a microbial community dominated by a bacterial species affiliated with Desulfotomaculum spp. and an archaeal species related to Methanobacterium spp. The geochemical homogeneity over the 650-m length of the borehole, the lack of dividing cells, and the absence of these microorganisms in mine service water support an indigenous origin for the microbial community. The coexistence of these two microorganisms is consistent with a limiting flux of inorganic carbon and SO4 2 in the presence of high pH, high concentrations of H2 and CH4, and minimal free energy for autotrophic methanogenesis. Sulfide isotopic compositions were highly enriched, consistent with microbial SO4 2 reduction under hydrologic isolation. An analogous microbial couple and similar abiogenic gas chemistry have been reported recently for hydrothermal carbonate vents of the Lost City near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (D. S. Kelly et al., Science 307:1428-1434, 2005), suggesting that these features may be common to deep subsurface habitats (continental and marine) bearing this geochemical signature. The geochemical setting and microbial communities described here are notably different from microbial ecosystems reported for shallower continental subsurface environments.

  19. Both Cycloclasticus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. as PAH-degrading bacteria in the Seine estuary (France).

    PubMed

    Niepceron, Maïté; Portet-Koltalo, Florence; Merlin, Chloé; Motelay-Massei, Anne; Barray, Sylvie; Bodilis, Josselin

    2010-01-01

    Like other highly urbanized and industrialized estuaries, the Seine estuary (France) has, for decades, received high inputs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to estimate the bioremediation potentials and to identify the bacterial species involved in hydrocarbon degradation, we used microcosms containing seawater from the Seine estuary supplemented with either naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene or pyrene. In the microcosms enriched with naphthalene or phenanthrene, hydrocarbon biodegradation was significant within 9 weeks (43% or 46%, respectively), as shown by analyses in GC-MS. In similar microcosms incubated also with naphthalene or phenanthrene, analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences (DNA and cDNA) with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone libraries indicated that the PAH-degrading communities were dominated by Cycloclasticus spp., confirming their universal key role in degradation of low-molecular-weight PAHs in marine environments. However, in contrast to previous studies, we found that Pseudomonas spp. also degraded naphthalene and phenanthrene in seawater; this occurred only after 21 days, as was confirmed by real-time PCR. Although this genus has been abundantly described in the literature as a good PAH-degrading bacterial group in soil or in sediment, to our knowledge, this is the first evidence of a significant fitness in PAH degradation in seawater.

  20. Rangelia vitalii, Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs in Passo Fundo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Juliana; André, Marcos Rogério; Soares, João Fábio; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Tonial de Oliveira, Mateus; Costa, Marcio Machado; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Bortolini, Carlos Eduardo; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Vieira, Maria Isabel Botelho

    2016-06-14

    Pathogens transmitted by ticks are an emerging problem worldwide, this study aimed to diagnose the causal agents of infection in dogs presenting suspected hemoparasitoses. Fifty-eight dogs with clinical signs such as depression, hemorrhagic diathesis and fever were evaluated regarding clinical presentation, hemogram, blood smears and serological tests, using the indirect immunofluorescence method for the agents Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis and conventional PCR for Babesia spp. (gene 18S rRNA), Rangelia vitalii (gene 18S rRNA) and Ehrlichia spp. (gene dsb). Five (8.6%) of the 58 dogs were serologically positive for Babesia spp. and three (5.1%) for E. canis. Four dogs (6.8%) were positive for R. vitalii through the molecular diagnosis. The PCR products were sequenced and the DNA from R. vitalii was found to be 99% genetically identical to samples of R. vitalii that had been isolated in Brazil. No presence of Babesia spp. or E. canis was observed through PCR on the dogs evaluated here. The results indicate the presence of R. vitalii and exposure to Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. among the dogs analyzed.

  1. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, and Central Nervous System Activities of the Essential Oils of Citrus medica L. cv. 'Liscia' and C. medica cv. 'Rugosa' Cultivated in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Aliberti, Luigi; Caputo, Lucia; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura; Nazzaro, Filomena; Souza, Lucéia Fátima

    2016-09-18

    Citrus medica cv. 'liscia' and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' are two taxa of citron, belonging to the biodiversity of South Italy, in particular of Amalfi Coast, in the Campania region. The chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) from fruit peels of both C. medica cultivars was studied by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. In all, 100 compounds were identified, 82 for C. medica cv. 'liscia', accounting for 91.4% of the total oil, and 88 for C. medica cv. 'rugosa', accounting for 92.0% of the total oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents in both oils of C. medica cv. 'liscia' (79.1%) and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' (80.2%). In both oils, limonene (67.2%-62.8%) and camphene (8.5%-10.9%) are the main constituents. The antimicrobial activity of the EOs was assayed against some bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313), Bacillus cereus (DSM 4384), Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071), and Escherichia coli (DSM 8579). Low concentrations of C. medica cv. 'rugosa' EO showed an inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and higher concentrations inhibited more B. cereus (4384) and E. coli than S. aureus. The cytotoxicity of the EO was evaluated against SH-SY5Y cell line. The influence of the EO on the expression of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) was also studied. The antimicrobial activity registered confirm their traditional uses as food preserving agents and led us to hypothesize the possible use of these oils as antimicrobials. The alterations in ADCY1 expression suggested a role for limonene in effects on the central nervous system.

  2. The first mass and angular momentum loss measurements for a CV-like binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    The period distribution of close binaries, cataclysmic variables, novae and single-degenerate SN1a progenitor candidates is largely controlled by magnetically-driven mass and angular momentum loss (AML) from the M dwarf secondary. The mass loss rates for these spun-up stars remain essentially unknown and impossible to observe directly, with likely values in the range 1e-12 to 1e-15 Msun/yr. AML presciptions for CVs differ by orders of magnitude. One way to measure the mass loss rate is to observe the dM wind accrete onto its WD companion in a pre-CV very close to Roche Lobe overflow but lacking the obscuring complications and emission from an accretion disk. The measurement can be combined with realistic MHD models to understand the accretion fraction, the mass that escapes, and the AML. The best-studied nearby pre-CV is QS Vir (48pc, P=3.6hr). However, its wind accretion rates measured from 1999 HST UV spectra of the WD metal absorption lines and 2006 XMM-Newton CCD spectroscopy differ by a factor of a thousand, pointing to either a dominant CME stochastic component, or a "magnetic switch" found in MHD simulations and driven by cyclic activity on the M dwarf. HST COS spectra combined with XMM-Newton monitoring on timescales from weeks to years will tease out CME vs cyclic accretion variations. UV and X-ray measurements will provide the first consistency check of both accretion rate measurement methods. MHD models tailored to the system will enable the first quasi-direct measurements of the mass loss and AML from a CV-like binary. Our project requires 6 HST/COS orbits in Cycles 22-24, and 60ksec on XMM in Cycle 22

  3. Pulmonary nodule detection in CT images based on shape constraint CV model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bing; Tian, Xuedong; Wang, Qian; Yang, Ying; Xie, Hongzhi E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn; Zhang, Shuyang; Gu, Lixu E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules remains a technical challenge in computer-aided diagnosis systems because some nodules may adhere to the blood vessels or the lung wall, which have low contrast compared to the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the analysis of typical shape features of candidate nodules based on a shape constraint Chan–Vese (CV) model combined with calculation of the number of blood branches adhered to nodule candidates is proposed to reduce false positive (FP) nodules from candidate nodules. Methods: The proposed scheme consists of three major stages: (1) Segmentation of lung parenchyma from computed tomography images. (2) Extraction of candidate nodules. (3) Reduction of FP nodules. A gray level enhancement combined with a spherical shape enhancement filter is introduced to extract the candidate nodules and their sphere-like contour regions. FPs are removed by analysis of the typical shape features of nodule candidates based on the CV model using spherical constraint and by investigating the number of blood branches adhered to the candidate nodules. The constrained shapes of CV model are automatically achieved from the extracted candidate nodules. Results: The detection performance was evaluated on 127 nodules of 103 cases including three types of challenging nodules, which are juxta-pleural nodules, juxta-vascular nodules, and ground glass opacity nodules. The free-receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method is able to detect 88% of all the nodules in the data set with 4 FPs per case. Conclusions: Evaluation shows that the authors’ method is feasible and effective for detection of three types of nodules in this study.

  4. Carrier Density Profiling of Ultra-Shallow Junction Layers Through Corrected C-V Plotting

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, James; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Dimitrova, Tatiana; Timans, Paul; Gelpey, Jeff; McCoy, Steve; Lerch, Wilfried; Paul, Silke; Bolze, Detlef

    2008-11-03

    The aim of this report is to present and justify a new approach for carrier density profiling in ultra-shallow junction (USJ) layer. This new approach is based on a capacitance measurement model, which takes series impedance, shunt resistance and the presence of a boron skin on the USJ layer into account. It allows us to extract the depletion layer capacitances in the USJ layer from C-V plotting more accurately and hence to obtain better carrier density profiles. Based on this new approach the carrier density profiles of different USJ layers with and without halo-style implants are obtained and discussed.

  5. Low-lift-to-drag-ratio approach and landing studies using a CV-990 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kock, B. M.; Fulton, F. L.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of a flight-test program utilizing a CV-990 airplane, flow in low-lift-to-drag-ratio (L/D) configurations, to simulate terminal area operation, approach, and landing of large unpowered vehicles. The results indicate that unpowered approaches and landings are practical with vehicles of the size and performance characteristics of the proposed shuttle vehicle. Low L/D landings provided touchdown dispersion patterns acceptable for operation on runways of reasonable length. The dispersion pattern was reduced when guidance was used during the final approach. High levels of pilot proficiency were not required for acceptable performance.

  6. Ultrastructural changes in shoot apical meristem of canola (Brassica napus cv. Symbol) treated with sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodzadeh, Homa

    2008-04-15

    In the present research, structure and ultrastructure of shoot apical meristem of canola (Brassica napus cv. Symbol) under salinity conditions were investigated. The experiments were conducted in five groups (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 dS m(-1)) under greenhouse conditions. Sampling of apical meristem and TEM tissue preparation procedure were carried out. Semithin and ultrathin sections were prepared and viewed in light and electron microscopy, respectively. The results included reduction of meristem size, disorders in meristem structure. Also formation of autophagic vacuoles was observed that is probably one of the plant responses to salt stress for more water storage in these vacuoles and decreasing of cell water requirements.

  7. Aggressiveness and Damage Potential of Central American and Caribbean Populations of Radopholus spp. in Banana.

    PubMed

    Marin, D H; Barker, K R; Kaplan, D T; Sutton, T B; Opperman, C H

    1999-12-01

    Monoxenic cultures of burrowing nematode populations extracted from banana roots from Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Costa Rica were established on carrot discs. Cultures of Radopholus spp. were also obtained from Florida, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Ivory Coast. The aggressiveness (defined as reproductive fitness and root necrosis) of these populations was evaluated by inoculating banana plants (Musa AAA, cv. Grande Naine) with 200 nematodes/plant. Banana plants produced by tissue culture were grown in 0.4-liter styrofoam cups, containing a 1:1 mix of a coarse and a fine sand, at ca. 27 degrees C and 80% RH. Banana plants were acclimated and allowed to grow for 4 weeks prior to inoculation. Plant height, fresh shoot and root weights, root necrosis, and nematode population densities were determined 8 weeks after inoculation. Burrowing-nematode populations varied in aggressiveness, and their reproductive fitness was generally related to damage reported in the field. Plant height and fresh shoot and root weight did not reflect damage caused by nematodes under our experimental conditions. Necrosis of primary roots was closely related to the reproductive fitness of the nematode populations. Variation in aggressiveness among nematode populations followed a similar trend in the two susceptible hosts tested, Grande Naine and Pisang mas. All nematode populations had a low reproductive factor (Rf

  8. Aggressiveness and Damage Potential of Central American and Caribbean Populations of Radopholus spp. in Banana

    PubMed Central

    Marin, D. H.; Barker, K. R.; Kaplan, D. T.; Sutton, T. B.; Opperman, C. H.

    1999-01-01

    Monoxenic cultures of burrowing nematode populations extracted from banana roots from Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Costa Rica were established on carrot discs. Cultures of Radopholus spp. were also obtained from Florida, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Ivory Coast. The aggressiveness (defined as reproductive fitness and root necrosis) of these populations was evaluated by inoculating banana plants (Musa AAA, cv. Grande Naine) with 200 nematodes/plant. Banana plants produced by tissue culture were grown in 0.4-liter styrofoam cups, containing a 1:1 mix of a coarse and a fine sand, at ca. 27 °C and 80% RH. Banana plants were acclimated and allowed to grow for 4 weeks prior to inoculation. Plant height, fresh shoot and root weights, root necrosis, and nematode population densities were determined 8 weeks after inoculation. Burrowing-nematode populations varied in aggressiveness, and their reproductive fitness was generally related to damage reported in the field. Plant height and fresh shoot and root weight did not reflect damage caused by nematodes under our experimental conditions. Necrosis of primary roots was closely related to the reproductive fitness of the nematode populations. Variation in aggressiveness among nematode populations followed a similar trend in the two susceptible hosts tested, Grande Naine and Pisang mas. All nematode populations had a low reproductive factor (Rf ≤2.5) in the resistant host except for the Ivory Coast population which had a moderate reproductive factor (Rf ≤ 5) on Pisang Jari Buaya. This is the first report of a burrowing nematode population parasitizing this important source of resistance to R. similis. PMID:19270910

  9. Impedance biosensor for the rapid detection of Listeria spp. based on aptamer functionalized Pt-interdigitated microelectrodes array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, R.; Rong, Y.; Vanegas, D. C.; Claussen, J.; McLamore, E. S.; Gomes, C.

    2016-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most common causes of food illness deaths worldwide, with multiple outbreaks in the United States alone. Current methods to detect foodborne pathogens are laborious and can take several hours to days to produce results. Thus, faster techniques are needed to detect bacteria within the same reliability level as traditional techniques. This study reports on a rapid, accurate, and sensitive aptamer biosensor device for Listeria spp. detection based on platinum interdigitated array microelectrodes (Pt-IDEs). Pt-IDEs with different geometric electrode gaps were fabricated by lithographic techniques and characterized by cyclic voltammetric (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potential amperometry (DCPA) measurements of reversible redox species. Based on these results, 50 μm Pt-IDE was chosen to further functionalize with a Listeria monocytogenes DNA aptamer selective to the cell surface protein internalin A, via metal-thiol self-assembly at the 5' end of the 47-mer's. EIS analysis was used to detect Listeria spp. without the need for label amplification and pre-concentration steps. The optimized aptamer concentration of 800 nM was selected to capture the bacteria through internalin A binding and the aptamer hairpin structure near the 3' end. The aptasensor was capable of detecting a wide range of bacteria concentration from 10 to 106 CFU/mL at lower detection limit of 5.39 +/- 0.21 CFU/mL with sensitivity of 268.1 +/- 25.40 (Ohms/log [CFU/mL]) in 17 min. The aptamer based biosensor offers a portable, rapid and sensitive alternative for food safety applications with one of the lowest detection limits reported to date.

  10. Core Microbiota and Metabolome of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Grapes and Musts.

    PubMed

    Stefanini, Irene; Carlin, Silvia; Tocci, Noemi; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Franceschi, Pietro; Paris, Michele; Zenato, Alberto; Tempesta, Silvano; Bronzato, Alberto; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2017-01-01

    The composition and changes of the fungal population and of the metabolites present in grapes and in ferments of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina, one of the major components of the Amarone musts, were dissected aiming at the identification of constant characteristics possibly influenced by the productive process. The fungal populations and metabolomic profiles were analyzed in three different vintages. 454-pyrosequencing on the ribosomal ITS1 region has been used to identify the fungal population present in Corvina grapes and fresh must. Samples were also subjected to metabolomics analysis measuring both free volatile compounds and glycosylated aroma precursors through an untargeted approach with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Albeit strongly dependent on the climate, both the mycobiota and metabolome of Corvina grapes and fresh musts show some characteristics recursive in different vintages. Such persistent characteristics are likely determined by the method adopted to produce Amarone or other dry wines made from partially dried grapes. In particular, the harsh conditions imposed by the prolonged withering appear to contribute to the shaping of the fungal populations. The fungal genera and metabolites present in different vintages in V. vinifera L. cv. Corvina grapes and fresh musts represent core components of the peculiar technique of production of Amarone. Their identification allows the in-depth understanding and improved control of the process of production of this economically and culturally relevant wine.

  11. Heterogeneous compute in computer vision: OpenCL in OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparakis, Harris

    2014-02-01

    We explore the relevance of Heterogeneous System Architecture (HSA) in Computer Vision, both as a long term vision, and as a near term emerging reality via the recently ratified OpenCL 2.0 Khronos standard. After a brief review of OpenCL 1.2 and 2.0, including HSA features such as Shared Virtual Memory (SVM) and platform atomics, we identify what genres of Computer Vision workloads stand to benefit by leveraging those features, and we suggest a new mental framework that replaces GPU compute with hybrid HSA APU compute. As a case in point, we discuss, in some detail, popular object recognition algorithms (part-based models), emphasizing the interplay and concurrent collaboration between the GPU and CPU. We conclude by describing how OpenCL has been incorporated in OpenCV, a popular open source computer vision library, emphasizing recent work on the Transparent API, to appear in OpenCV 3.0, which unifies the native CPU and OpenCL execution paths under a single API, allowing the same code to execute either on CPU or on a OpenCL enabled device, without even recompiling.

  12. Multi-camera calibration based on openCV and multi-view registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-ming; Wan, Xiong; Zhang, Zhi-min; Leng, Bi-yan; Lou, Ning-ning; He, Shuai

    2010-10-01

    For multi-camera calibration systems, a method based on OpenCV and multi-view registration combining calibration algorithm is proposed. First of all, using a Zhang's calibration plate (8X8 chessboard diagram) and a number of cameras (with three industrial-grade CCD) to be 9 group images shooting from different angles, using OpenCV to calibrate the parameters fast in the camera. Secondly, based on the corresponding relationship between each camera view, the computation of the rotation matrix and translation matrix is formulated as a constrained optimization problem. According to the Kuhn-Tucker theorem and the properties on the derivative of the matrix-valued function, the formulae of rotation matrix and translation matrix are deduced by using singular value decomposition algorithm. Afterwards an iterative method is utilized to get the entire coordinate transformation of pair-wise views, thus the precise multi-view registration can be conveniently achieved and then can get the relative positions in them(the camera outside the parameters).Experimental results show that the method is practical in multi-camera calibration .

  13. Gene ontology based characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Brassica rapa cv. Osome.

    PubMed

    Arasan, Senthil Kumar Thamil; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Lee, In-Ho; Cho, Yong-Gu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2013-07-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) is widely recognized for its economic importance and contribution to human nutrition but abiotic and biotic stresses are main obstacle for its quality, nutritional status and production. In this study, 3,429 Express Sequence Tag (EST) sequences were generated from B. rapa cv. Osome cDNA library and the unique transcripts were classified functionally using a gene ontology (GO) hierarchy, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). KEGG orthology and the structural domain data were obtained from the biological database for stress related genes (SRG). EST datasets provided a wide outlook of functional characterization of B. rapa cv. Osome. In silico analysis revealed % 83 of ESTs to be well annotated towards reeds one dimensional concept. Clustering of ESTs returned 333 contigs and 2,446 singlets, giving a total of 3,284 putative unigene sequences. This dataset contained 1,017 EST sequences functionally annotated to stress responses and from which expression of randomly selected SRGs were analyzed against cold, salt, drought, ABA, water and PEG stresses. Most of the SRGs showed differentially expression against these stresses. Thus, the EST dataset is very important for discovering the potential genes related to stress resistance in Chinese cabbage, and can be of useful resources for genetic engineering of Brassica sp.

  14. Ophthalmic results in patients with macroprolactinomas treated with a new prolactin inhibitor CV 205-502.

    PubMed Central

    Grochowicki, M; Khalfallah, Y; Vighetto, A; Berquet, S; Sassolas, G

    1993-01-01

    Macroprolactinomas are pituitary tumours which have been effectively treated medically since the introduction of bromocriptine. The visual function of 13 patients treated with a new prolactin (PRL) inhibitor CV 205-502 (Sandoz Basle), a potent and selective dopamine D2 receptor agonist, was evaluated. This is the first detailed ophthalmic report of the use of this drug in macroprolactinomas. Patients were enrolled from June 1988 to July 1990 (mean follow up 30 months). Visual function including visual acuity, ocular pressure, and visual fields was regularly controlled. Visual fields (VF) were tested with Goldmann and automatic static perimetry (Vision Monitor). Treatment was globally effective. No modifications of the visual function were observed in nine patients (six normal, three previous VF losses after surgery). In four other patients, visual function dramatically improved (regression of a III paresis, one case; disappearance of a chiasmatic syndrome, three cases). A pituitary necrosis was observed in one case and successfully cured. CV 205-502 seems to be an effective and well tolerated treatment of macroprolactinomas. Images PMID:7906538

  15. Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (PV1) modulates SV40 virus infectivity in CV-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Tse, Dan; Armstrong, David A; Oppenheim, Ariella; Kuksin, Dmitry; Norkin, Leonard; Stan, Radu V

    2011-08-26

    Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (Plvap/PV1) is a structural protein required for the formation of the stomatal diaphragms of caveolae. Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations that were implicated in SV40 virus entry in primate cells. Here we show that de novo Plvap/PV1 expression in CV-1 green monkey epithelial cells significantly reduces the ability of SV40 virus to establish productive infection, when cells are incubated with low concentrations of the virus. However, in presence of high viral titers PV1 has no effect on SV40 virus infectivity. Mechanistically, PV1 expression does not reduce the cell surface expression of known SV40 receptors such as GM1 ganglioside and MHC class I proteins. Furthermore, PV1 does not reduce the binding of virus-like particles made by SV40 VP1 protein to the CV-1 cell surface and does not impact their internalization when cells are incubated with either high or low VLP concentrations. These results suggest that PV1 protein is able to block SV40 infectivity at low but not at high viral concentration either by interfering with the infective internalization pathway at the cell surface or at a post internalization step.

  16. Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (PV1) modulates SV40 virus infectivity in CV-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Dan; Armstrong, David A.; Oppenheim, Ariella; Kuksin, Dimitry; Norkin, Leonard; Stan, Radu V.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (Plvap/PV1) is a structural protein required for the formation of the stomatal diaphragms of caveolae. Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations that were implicated in SV40 virus entry in primate cells. Here we show that de novo Plvap/PV1 expression in CV-1 green monkey epithelial cells significantly reduces the ability of SV40 virus to establish productive infection, when cells are incubated with low concentrations of the virus. However, in presence of high viral titers PV1 has no effect on SV40 virus infectivity. Mechanistically, PV1 expression does not reduce the cell surface expression of known SV40 receptors such as GM1 ganglioside and MHC class I proteins. Furthermore, PV1 does not reduce the binding of virus-like particles made by SV40 VP1 protein to the CV-1 cell surface and does not impact their internalization when cells are incubated with either high or low VLP concentrations. These results suggest that PV1 protein is able to block SV40 infectivity at low but not at high viral concentration either by interfering with the infective internalization pathway at the cell surface or at a post internalization step. PMID:21827737

  17. Biochemical markers assisted screening of Fusarium wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. puttabale micropropagated clones.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh; Krishna, V; Kumar, K Girish; Pradeepa, K; Kumar, S R Santosh; Kumar, R Shashi

    2013-07-01

    An efficient protocol was standardized for screening of panama wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale clones, an endemic cultivar of Karnataka, India. The synergistic effect of 6-benzyleaminopurine (2 to 6 mg/L) and thidiazuron (0.1 to 0.5 mg/L) on MS medium provoked multiple shoot induction from the excised meristem. An average of 30.10 +/- 5.95 shoots was produced per propagule at 4 mg/L 6-benzyleaminopurine and 0.3 mg/L thidiazuron concentrations. Elongation of shoots observed on 5 mg/L BAP augmented medium with a mean length of 8.38 +/- 0.30 shoots per propagule. For screening of disease resistant clones, multiple shoot buds were mutated with 0.4% ethyl-methane-sulfonate and cultured on MS medium supplemented with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) culture filtrate (5-15%). Two month old co-cultivated secondary hardened plants were used for screening of disease resistance against FOC by the determination of biochemical markers such as total phenol, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, oxidative enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase and PR-proteins like chitinase, beta-1-3 glucanase activities. The mutated clones of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale cultured on FOC culture filtrate showed significant increase in the levels of biochemical markers as an indicative of acquiring disease resistant characteristics to FOC wilt.

  18. Core Microbiota and Metabolome of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Grapes and Musts

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Irene; Carlin, Silvia; Tocci, Noemi; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Franceschi, Pietro; Paris, Michele; Zenato, Alberto; Tempesta, Silvano; Bronzato, Alberto; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2017-01-01

    The composition and changes of the fungal population and of the metabolites present in grapes and in ferments of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina, one of the major components of the Amarone musts, were dissected aiming at the identification of constant characteristics possibly influenced by the productive process. The fungal populations and metabolomic profiles were analyzed in three different vintages. 454-pyrosequencing on the ribosomal ITS1 region has been used to identify the fungal population present in Corvina grapes and fresh must. Samples were also subjected to metabolomics analysis measuring both free volatile compounds and glycosylated aroma precursors through an untargeted approach with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Albeit strongly dependent on the climate, both the mycobiota and metabolome of Corvina grapes and fresh musts show some characteristics recursive in different vintages. Such persistent characteristics are likely determined by the method adopted to produce Amarone or other dry wines made from partially dried grapes. In particular, the harsh conditions imposed by the prolonged withering appear to contribute to the shaping of the fungal populations. The fungal genera and metabolites present in different vintages in V. vinifera L. cv. Corvina grapes and fresh musts represent core components of the peculiar technique of production of Amarone. Their identification allows the in-depth understanding and improved control of the process of production of this economically and culturally relevant wine. PMID:28377754

  19. Mechanisms of HIV-1 subtype C resistance to GRFT, CV-N and SVN

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Kabamba B.; Moore, Penny L.; Nonyane, Molati; Gray, Elin S.; Ranchobe, Nthabeleng; Chakauya, Ereck; McMahon, James B.; O’Keefe, Barry R.; Chikwamba, Rachel; Morris, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    We examined the ability of HIV-1 subtype C to develop resistance to the inhibitory lectins, griffithsin (GRFT), cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and scytovirin (SVN), which bind multiple mannose-rich glycans on gp120. Four primary HIV-1 strains cultured under escalating concentrations of these lectins became increasingly resistant tolerating 2 to 12 times their 50% inhibitory concentrations. Sequence analysis of gp120 showed that most had deletions of 1 to 5 mannose-rich glycans. Glycosylation sites at positions 230, 234, 241, 289 located in the C2 region and 339, 392 and 448 in the C3-C4 region were affected. Furthermore, deletions and insertions of up to 5 amino acids in the V4 region were observed in 3 of the 4 isolates. These data suggest that loss of glycosylation sites on gp120 as well as rearrangement of glycans in V4 are mechanisms involved in HIV-1 subtype C escape from GRFT, CV-N and SVN. PMID:24074568

  20. Differential phenolic production in leaves of Vitis vinifera cv. Alvarinho affected with esca disease.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marta R M; Felgueiras, Mafalda L; Cunha, Ana; Chicau, Gisela; Ferreres, Federico; Dias, Alberto C P

    2017-03-01

    Esca is a destructive disease of complex etiology affecting grapevines worldwide. A major constraint to the study and control of esca is that the disease is not diagnosed until external leaf and/or fruit symptoms are visible; however external symptoms usually appear several years after infection onset. We studied the phenolic content of V. vinifera cv. Alvarinho leaves using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS)/LC-MS. Leaves from affected cordons with and without visible symptoms (diseased and apparently healthy leaves, respectively) and leaves from asymptomatic cordons (healthy leaves) were analyzed. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) to HPLC data showed a clear separation between diseased, apparently healthy, and healthy leaves, with the apparently healthy leaves clustered in a medial position. Several compounds were highly correlated with diseased leaves indicating a differential phenolic production due to esca disease in V. vinifera cv. Alvarinho leaves. Total phenolic production was shown to significantly increase in diseased leaves, compared to healthy leaves, with apparently healthy leaves containing a medial amount. Trans-caffeoyltartaric acid, trans-coumaroyl-tartaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside and myricetin were identified among the compounds associated with disease and their content shown to change similarly to total phenolic production. This study shows that it is possible to discriminate between diseased, healthy and apparently healthy leaves by applying PCA to HPLC data.

  1. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions.

  2. Leptospira spp. infection in sheep herds in southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With the aim of studying Leptospira spp. infection in sheep herds, blood samples and respective kidney and liver fragments were collected from 100 animals from twenty different properties during slaughter at a meat company in the Sorocaba region, São Paulo state, southeast Brazil. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was performed with 29 strains of Leptospira spp. To identify the agent in the liver and kidney, 100 samples of each tissue were submitted to culture in Fletcher medium and analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Leptospira spp. Results MAT detected 23 samples serologically positive for one or more Leptospira spp. serovars and significantly more for Autumnalis. Eight (4%) samples were positive in culture (four kidneys and four livers), corresponding to five animals with positive serology (one animal simultaneously positive for both kidney and liver) and two negatives. PCR detected Leptospira spp. in 14 samples (seven kidneys and seven livers) corresponding to 12 positive animals (two animals simultaneously positive for kidney and liver), of which ten were serologically positive and two negative. Conclusions PCR was faster, more practical and more sensitive than culture for detecting leptospires. The results reinforce the importance of sheep in the epidemiological context of leptospirosis. PMID:24822059

  3. Protein Chips for Detection of Salmonella spp. from Enrichment Culture

    PubMed Central

    Poltronieri, Palmiro; Cimaglia, Fabio; De Lorenzis, Enrico; Chiesa, Maurizio; Mezzolla, Valeria; Reca, Ida Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Food pathogens are the cause of foodborne epidemics, therefore there is a need to detect the pathogens in food productions rapidly. A pre-enrichment culture followed by selective agar plating are standard detection methods. Molecular methods such as qPCR have provided a first rapid protocol for detection of pathogens within 24 h of enrichment culture. Biosensors also may provide a rapid tool to individuate a source of Salmonella contamination at early times of pre-enrichment culture. Forty mL of Salmonella spp. enrichment culture were processed by immunoseparation using the Pathatrix, as in AFNOR validated qPCR protocols. The Salmonella biosensor combined with immunoseparation showed a limit of detection of 100 bacteria/40 mL, with a 400 fold increase to previous results. qPCR analysis requires processing of bead-bound bacteria with lysis buffer and DNA clean up, with a limit of detection of 2 cfu/50 μL. Finally, a protein chip was developed and tested in screening and identification of 5 common pathogen species, Salmonella spp., E. coli, S. aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. The protein chip, with high specificity in species identification, is proposed to be integrated into a Lab-on-Chip system, for rapid and reproducible screening of Salmonella spp. and other pathogen species contaminating food productions. PMID:27110786

  4. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter spp.: Increasingly Problematic Nosocomial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyungwon; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria have increasingly been resisting to antimicrobial therapy. Recently, resistance problem has been relatively much worsened in Gram-negative bacilli. Acinetobacter spp. are typical nosocomial pathogens causing infections and high mortality, almost exclusively in compromised hospital patients. Acinetobacter spp. are intrinsically less susceptible to antibiotics than Enterobacteriaceae, and have propensity to acquire resistance. A surveillance study in Korea in 2009 showed that resistance rates of Acinetobacter spp. were very high: to fluoroquinolone 67%, to amikacin 48%, to ceftazidime 66% and to imipenem 51%. Carbapenem resistance was mostly due to OXA type carbapenemase production in A. baumannii isolates, whereas it was due to metallo-β-lactamase production in non-baumannii Acinetobacter isolates. Colistin-resistant isolates were rare but started to be isolated in Korea. Currently, the infection caused by multidrug-resistant A. baumannii is among the most difficult ones to treat. Analysis at tertiary care hospital in 2010 showed that among the 1,085 isolates of Acinetobacter spp., 14.9% and 41.8% were resistant to seven, and to all eight antimicrobial agents tested, respectively. It is known to be difficult to prevent Acinetobacter spp. infection in hospitalized patients, because the organisms are ubiquitous in hospital environment. Efforts to control resistant bacteria in Korea by hospitals, relevant scientific societies and government agencies have only partially been successful. We need concerted multidisciplinary efforts to preserve the efficacy of currently available antimicrobial agents, by following the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. PMID:22028150

  5. Significance and Roles of Proteus spp. Bacteria in Natural Environments.

    PubMed

    Drzewiecka, Dominika

    2016-11-01

    Proteus spp. bacteria were first described in 1885 by Gustav Hauser, who had revealed their feature of intensive swarming growth. Currently, the genus is divided into Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus penneri, Proteus hauseri, and three unnamed genomospecies 4, 5, and 6 and consists of 80 O-antigenic serogroups. The bacteria are known to be human opportunistic pathogens, isolated from urine, wounds, and other clinical sources. It is postulated that intestines are a reservoir of these proteolytic organisms. Many wild and domestic animals may be hosts of Proteus spp. bacteria, which are commonly known to play a role of parasites or commensals. However, interesting examples of their symbiotic relationships with higher organisms have also been described. Proteus spp. bacteria present in soil or water habitats are often regarded as indicators of fecal pollution, posing a threat of poisoning when the contaminated water or seafood is consumed. The health risk may also be connected with drug-resistant strains sourcing from intestines. Positive aspects of the bacteria presence in water and soil are connected with exceptional features displayed by autochthonic Proteus spp. strains detected in these environments. These rods acquire various metabolic abilities allowing their adaptation to different environmental conditions, such as high concentrations of heavy metals or toxic substances, which may be exploited as sources of energy and nutrition by the bacteria. The Proteus spp. abilities to tolerate or utilize polluting compounds as well as promote plant growth provide a possibility of employing these microorganisms in bioremediation and environmental protection.

  6. Human infections due to Malassezia spp.

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, M J; Powell, D A

    1992-01-01

    The genus Malassezia contains three member species: Malassezia furfur and Malassezia sympodialis, both obligatory lipophilic, skin flora yeasts of humans, and Malassezia pachydermatis, a nonobligatory lipophilic, skin flora yeast of other warm-blooded animals. Several characteristics suggest the basidiomycetous nature of these yeasts, although a perfect stage has not been identified. Classically, these organisms are associated with superficial infections of the skin and associated structures, including pityriasis versicolor and folliculitis. Recently, however, they have been reported as agents of more invasive human diseases including deep-line catheter-associated sepsis. The latter infection occurs in patients, primarily infants, receiving parenteral nutrition (including lipid emulsions) through the catheter. The lipids presumably provide growth factors required for replication of the organisms. It is unclear how deep-line catheters become colonized with Malassezia spp. Skin colonization with M. furfur is common in infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units, whereas colonization of newborns hospitalized in well-baby nurseries and of older infants is rarely observed. Catheter colonization, which may occur without overt clinical symptoms, probably occurs secondary to skin colonization, with the organism gaining access either via the catheter insertion site on the skin or through the external catheter hub (connecting port). There is little information on the colonization of hospitalized patients by M. sympodialis or M. pachydermatis. Diagnosis of superficial infections is best made by microscopic examination of skin scrapings following KOH, calcofluor white, or histologic staining. Treatment of these infections involves the use of topical or oral antifungal agents, and it may be prolonged. Diagnosis of Malassezia catheter-associated sepsis requires detection of the organism in whole blood smears or in buffy coat smears of blood drawn through the infected

  7. Mesorhizobium spp. are the main microsymbionts of Caragana spp. grown in Liaoning Province of China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xue Rui; Chen, Wen Feng; Fu, Jun Fan; Lu, Yang Li; Xue, Cai Yun; Sui, Xin Hua; Li, Ying; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2007-06-01

    Caragana species are woody legumes widely distributed in the arid regions of China. These plants form root nodules but their nodule bacteria have not been clearly classified. A total of 112 symbiotic bacterial isolates were obtained from four Caragana species grown in Liaoning Province and were characterized with ARDRA, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins, BOX-PCR and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Most of them were classified as Mesorhizobium belonging to 11 putative species. Three isolates were identified as Rhizobium etli and Burkholderia spp. This study offers new information about the Caragana-rhizobia association and resource for selection of inoculants used in sustainable agriculture and for further studies on the Caragana rhizobia.

  8. New constraints on the magnetic history of the CV parent body and the solar nebula from the Kaba meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, Jérôme; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2016-12-01

    Recent paleomagnetic studies of Allende CV chondrite as well as thermal modeling suggest the existence of partially differentiated asteroids with outer unmelted and variably metamorphosed crusts overlying differentiated interiors. To further constrain the magnetic history of the CV parent body, we report here paleomagnetic results on Kaba CV chondrite. This meteorite contains 11 wt% pseudo-single domain magnetite, making it a rock with an excellent paleomagnetic recording capacity. Kaba appears to carry a stable natural remanent magnetization acquired on its parent body upon cooling in an internally generated magnetic field of about 3 μT from temperatures below 150 °C during thermal metamorphism about 10 to several tens of Myr after solar system formation. This strengthens the case for the existence of a molten advecting core in the CV parent body. Furthermore, we show that no significant magnetic field (i.e. lower than ∼ 0.3 μT) was present when aqueous alteration took place on the Kaba parent body around 4 to 6 Myr after solar system formation, suggesting a delay in the onset of the dynamo in the CV parent body and confirming that nebular fields had already decayed at that time.

  9. Analysis of constituents of metal elements and amino acids in new cultivar Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ougan fruit from China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangtao; Yuan, Ke; Si, Jinping

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to establish a new kind of simple and rapid method to determine amino acids and metal elements in Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ougan fruit. The high-performance liquid chromatography pre-column derivation method was used to test the contents of amino acids found in the cv. fruit. The results showed that there were 17 kinds of amino acids in the fruits of two different mature periods. They could be separated easily within 30 min. The correlation coefficients between the peak area of amino acid and the content of the amino acid were above 0.99. The sample-added recovery rate of amino acids was between 96.0% and 102.4%. Meanwhile, the microwave-aided dissolving procedure was adopted for dissolving of the cv. fruit to determine the 15 metal elements in the cv. fruit under the best conditions of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that there were high contents of trace elements and amino acids in the fruit of two different ripening periods. The correlation coefficients between the peak areas of amino acids and the concentration of the elements are satisfactory. These results may provide us with the scientific evidence for further studies and the exploitation of C. reticulata Blanco cv. Ougan.

  10. Changes in alpha band activity associated with application of the compression of fourth ventricular (CV-4) osteopathic procedure: a qEEG pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miana, Luiz; Bastos, Victor Hugo do Vale; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Almeida, Laís; Ribeiro, Pedro; Machado, Dionis; King, Hollis; Silva, Julio Guilherme

    2013-07-01

    The compression of the fourth ventricle (CV-4) is one of the more well known procedures in the cranial manipulation curriculum and practice. Cranial manipulation has received criticism because of the subtle, difficult to learn techniques, controversy over whether or not cranial bone structures move, and what if any clinical effects have been shown. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of CV-4 in 10 healthy subjects through quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG), specifically in alpha band. Participants were randomly distributed in control, sham-CV4 and CV4 conditions using a cross-over design. qEEG activity was recorded for each of the 10 subjects in each of the 3 conditions. There was a significant increase in the alpha absolute power between pre and post in the CV-4 condition. There appears to be potential for understanding the effect of the CV-4 if these finding are replicated in further clinical trials.

  11. ERSYS-SPP access method subsystem design specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weise, R. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The STARAN special purpose processor (SPP) is a machine allowing the same operation to be performed on up to 512 different data elements simultaneously. In the ERSYS system, it is to be attached to a 4341 plug compatible machine (PCM) to do certain existing algorithms and, at a later date, to perform other to be specified algorithms. That part of the interface between the 4341 PCM and the SPP located in the 4341 PCM is known as the SPP access method (SPPAM). Access to the SPPAM will be obtained by use of the NQUEUE and DQUEUE commands. The subsystem design specification is to incorporate all applicable design considerations from the ERSYS system design specification and the Level B requirements documents relating to the SPPAM. It is intended as a basis for the preliminary design review and will expand into the subsystem detailed design specification.

  12. SPPTOOLS: Programming tools for the IRAF SPP language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An IRAF package to assist in SPP code development and debugging is described. SPP is the machine-independent programming language used by virtually all IRAF tasks. Tools have been written to aide both novice and advanced SPP programmers with development and debugging by providing tasks to check the code for the number and type of arguments in all calls to IRAF VOS library procedures, list the calling sequences of IRAF tasks, create a database of identifiers for quick access, check for memory which is not freed, and a source code formatter. Debugging is simplified since the programmer is able to get a better understanding of the structure of his/her code, and IRAF library procedure calls (probably the most common source of errors) are automatically checked for correctness.

  13. Identification of Ehrlichia spp in canines in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Chatsiriwech, Jarin; Suksai, Parut; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Rawangchue, Thanakorn; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sungpradit, Sivapong

    2012-07-01

    Canine ehrlichiosis is an endemic parasitic disease widely found in Thailand. The causative microorganism is tick-borne Ehrlichia spp, an obligate intracellular rickettsia residing in leukocytes. Ehrlichia spp in morulae-positive canine blood samples were identified using polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing of Ehrlichia spp. 16S rDNA 396 bp fragment and 36 of 59 were positive for E. canis. E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii were not detected. Sequencing alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that 16S rDNA sequences of E. canis strains are 99.1-100% identical among E. canis strains from different countries worldwide. Further studies are required in order to determine new target sequence for genotyping of E. canis strains in the dog population in Thailand.

  14. High Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in Small Ruminants in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases.

  15. Sub-ns time transfer consistency: a direct comparison between GPS CV and T2L2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exertier, P.; Samain, E.; Courde, C.; Aimar, M.; Torre, J. M.; Rovera, G. D.; Abgrall, M.; Uhrich, P.; Sherwood, R.; Herold, G.; Schreiber, U.; Guillemot, P.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a direct comparison between two satellite time transfer techniques: common-view (CV) of satellites from the global positioning system (GPS) constellation, and time transfer by laser link (T2L2) through the low orbiting satellite Jason-2. We describe briefly both techniques, together with two independent relative calibration campaigns of the links involving four European laboratories. Between the same remote time scale reference points, the mean values of the calibrated differences between GPS CV and T2L2 are below 240 ps, with standard deviations below 500 ps, mostly due to GPS CV. Almost all sample deviations from 0 ns are within the combined uncertainty estimates. Despite the relatively small number of common points obtained, due to the fact that T2L2 is weather dependent, these results provide an unprecedented sub-ns consistency between two independently calibrated microwave and optical satellite time transfer techniques.

  16. Pathogenicity of seed transmittedFusarium spp. to triticale seedlings.

    PubMed

    Arseniuk, E; Scharen, A L; Czembor, H J

    1991-09-01

    In the conducted studies 13 species ofFusarium were isolated into pure culture from triticale seed. Their pathogenicity was assessed under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Most of the species studied were highly pathogenic to the first leaf see-dlings of triticale 'Grado' and 'Lasko' under both sets of conditions. It was shown, that seed-transmitted Fusarium spp. considerably reduced the ability of seeds to germinate and incited seedling blight. On average, triticale 'Lasko' was more resistant toFusarium spp. than 'Grado', but in some instances a reverse reaction was observed.

  17. Brucella spp. lumazine synthase: a novel antigen delivery system.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, Edda; Toledo, Andrea; Cruz, Carmen; Rosas, Gabriela; Meneses, Gabriela; Laplagne, Diego; Ainciart, Natalia; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Fragoso, Gladis; Goldbaum, Fernando A

    2005-04-15

    Lumazine synthase from Brucella spp. (BLS) was evaluated as a protein carrier to improve antigen delivery of KETc1, one of the peptides of the anti-cysticercosis vaccine. KETc1 becomes antigenic, preserved its immunogenicity and its protective capacity when expressed as a recombinant chimeric protein using Brucella spp. lumazine synthase. KETc1 and BLS-KETc1 were not MHC H-2(d), H-2(k) nor H-2(b) haplotype-restricted albeit KETc1 is preferentially presented in the H-2(b) haplotype. These findings support that BLS is a potent new delivery system for the improvement of subunit vaccines.

  18. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  19. Recovery of Campylobacter spp. from Food and Environmental Sources.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Catherine D; Kenwell, Robyn; Iugovaz, Irene; Oyarzabal, Omar A

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of Campylobacter species from food and environmental sources is challenging due to the slow growth of these bacteria and the need to suppress competing organisms during the isolation procedures. The addition of multiple selective antimicrobials to growth media can negatively impact recovery of some Campylobacter spp. Here, we describe our current method for the isolation of thermotolerant Campylobacter species, mainly C. jejuni and C. coli, from food and environmental samples. We emphasize the use of membrane filtration during plating for the specific isolation of Campylobacter spp. and a reduced use of antimicrobial supplements throughout the whole isolation process.

  20. Detection of Quorum Sensing Signal Molecules and Identification of an Autoinducer Synthase Gene among Biofilm Forming Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Anbazhagan, Deepa; Mansor, Marzida; Yan, Gracie Ong Siok; Md Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Hassan, Hamimah; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2012-01-01

    Background Quorum sensing is a term that describes an environmental sensing system that allows bacteria to monitor their own population density which contributes significantly to the size and development of the biofilm. Many gram negative bacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactones as quorum sensing signal molecules. In this study, we sought to find out if the biofilm formation among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. is under the control of autoinducing quorum sensing molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings Biofilm formation among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. was assessed and the production of signal molecules were detected with Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 biosensor system. Characterisation of autoinducers was carried out by mass spectrometric analysis. We have also reported the identification of an autoinducer synthase gene, abaΙ among the isolates that produce quorum sensing signal molecules and have reported that the mutation in the abaI gene influences their biofilm forming capabilities. Using a microtitre-plate assay it was shown that 60% of the 50 Acinetobacter spp. isolates significantly formed biofilms. Further detection with the biosensor strain showed that some of these isolates produced long chain signal molecules. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that five of these isolates produced N-decanoyl homoserine lactone and two isolates produced acyl-homoserine lactone with a chain length equal to C12. The abaΙ gene was identified and a tetracycline mutant of the abaΙ gene was created and the inhibition in biofilm formation in the mutant was shown. Conclusions/Significance These data are of great significance as the signal molecules aid in biofilm formation which in turn confer various properties of pathogenicity to the clinical isolates including drug resistance. The use of quorum sensing signal blockers to attenuate bacterial pathogenicity is therefore highly attractive, particularly with respect to the emergence of multi antibiotic

  1. Rapid detection of listeria spp. using an internalin A aptasensor based on carbon-metal nanohybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanegas, D. C.; Rong, Yue; Schwalb, N.; Hills, K. D.; Gomes, C.; McLamore, E. S.

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne outbreaks caused by Listeria monocytogenes continue to raise major public health concerns worldwide. In the United States alone, the centers for disease control and prevention have confirmed the occurrence of 183 cases of listeriosis with 39 fatalities within the last 3 years. Standard methods for the detection of pathogenic strains require up to 7 days to yield results, thus faster techniques with the same level of reliability for bacteria detection are desirable. This study reports on the development of a rapid, accurate, and sensitive electrochemical biosensor for rapid testing of Listeria spp. based on the selective binding of InlA aptamers to internalins in the cell membrane of the target bacteria. Hybrid nanomaterial platforms based on reduced graphene oxide and nanoplatinum were deposited onto Pt/Ir electrodes for enhancing electrochemical transduction during the recognition events. InlA aptamers were immobilized onto the nanomaterial platforms via metal-thiol adsorption. Aptamer loading onto different platform nanostructures was investigated through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The detection mechanism was evaluated by recording the electrochemical response to several bacterial dilutions in PBS buffer using the non-pathogenic species Listeria innocua. These preliminary results show that the aptasensor can be tuned for detection of Listeria concentrations as low as 100 CFU/ml in less than 3 hours (including incubation time and data analysis). The developed aptasensor opens a promising direction for rapid testing of Listeria monocytogenes in food products.

  2. Molar Heat Capacity (Cv) for Saturated and Compressed Liquid and Vapor Nitrogen from 65 to 300 K at Pressures to 35 MPa

    PubMed Central

    Magee, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    Molar heat capacities at constant volume (Cv,) for nitrogen have been measured with an automated adiabatic calorimeter. The temperatures ranged from 65 to 300 K, while pressures were as high as 35 MPa. Calorimetric data were obtained for a total of 276 state conditions on 14 isochores. Extensive results which were obtained in the saturated liquid region (Cv(2) and Cσ) demonstrate the internal consistency of the Cv (ρ,T) data and also show satisfactory agreement with published heat capacity data. The overall uncertainty of the Cv values ranges from 2% in the vapor to 0.5% in the liquid. PMID:28184144

  3. Occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Rhipidomys spp. from a forest fragment of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Gomes, D O; Ramos, G B; Alves, V B A; Ciuffa, A Z; Cuccato, L P; Dos Reis, T F M; Lima, A M C; Gonçalves, M C; Tolesano, G V; Rodrigues, V S; Szabó, M P J

    2017-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of world importance, and its transmission depends on the interaction between humans and animals. Given the necessity to investigate potential hosts of Leptospira spp., this study verified the prevalence of different serovars in the species of Rhipidomys spp., a widespread sigmodont rodent in Brazil. The studied population originates from a semi-evergreen forest located in the county of Uberlândia, in the state of Minas Gerais. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was performed with 14 serovars. Thirteen out of the 43 wild rodents captured showed a positive agglutination reaction, with a greater prevalence of the serovars Pyrogenes, Copenhageni, and Canicola. This study found a prevalence of 30.3% anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies; all positive animals were reactive to more than one serovar.

  4. More evidence for a partially differentiated CV chondrite parent body from paleomagnetic studies of ALH 84028 and ALH 85006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, B. Z.; Weiss, B. P.; Carporzen, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent paleomagnetic studies of the CV carbonaceous chondrites Allende and Kaba and numerical modeling studies have suggested that the CV chondrite parent body may have been partially differentiated, with a molten metallic core, dynamo magnetic field, and an unmelted chondritic lid. To further evaluate this hypothesis, here we present new paleomagnetic analyses of two previously unstudied CV3 chondrites: the unshocked, Allende-type oxidized chondrite ALH 84028 and the weakly shocked, Bali-type oxidized chondrite ALH 85006. We preformed alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization experiments, AF-based paleointensity experiments, and rock magnetic experiments on mutually oriented subsamples of each meteorite. Both meteorites pass fusion crust baked contact tests, indicating that their interiors retain a magnetization predating atmospheric entry. In the interior of ALH 84028, we identified a unidirectional medium temperature (blocked to 300°C), high coercivity (blocked to >420 mT) component. In the interior of ALH 85006, we identified MT components blocked up to 400-475°C. The unblocking temperatures and unidirectional nature of the MT components in both meteorites indicates their origin as a partial thermoremanence or thermochemical remanence acquired during metamorphism following accretion of the CV chondrite parent body. Our paleointensity experiments indicate paleofield intensities of 32-73 μT for ALH 84028 and 14-45 μT for ALH 85006 . When combined with similar recent results for Allende and Kaba, there is now consistent evidence for dynamo fields from four CV chondrites with collectively diverse lithologies and shock states. Therefore, the magnetic field on the CV parent body was not a localized event like that expected for a field generated by meteoroid impact plasmas and instead likely had a wide spatial extent. Further, given the younger I-Xe ages for Kaba compared to Allende (9-10 Ma and 2-3 Ma after Stillwater respectively), CV parent body

  5. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites 12: The metamorphic history of CV chondrites and their components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guimon, R. Kyle; Symes, Steven J. K.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1995-01-01

    The induced thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 16 CV and CV-related chondrites, four CK chondrites and Renazzo (CR2) have been measured in order to investigate their metamorphic history. The petrographic, mineralogical and bulk compositional differences among the CV chondrites indicate that the TL sensitivity of the approximately 130 C TL peak is reflecting the abundance of ordered feldspar, especially in chondrule mesostasis, which in turn reflects parent-body metamorphism. The TL properties of 18 samples of homogenized Allende powder heated at a variety of times and temperatures, and cathodoluminescence mosaics of Axtell and Coolidge, showed results consistent with this conclusion. Five refractory inclusions from Allende, and separates from those inclusions, were also examined and yielded trends reflecting variations in mineralogy indicative of high peak temperatures (either metamorphic or igneous) and fairly rapid cooling. The CK chondrites are unique among metamorphosed chondrites in showing no detectable induced TL, which is consistent with literature data that suggests very unusual feldspar in these meteorites. Using TL sensitivity and several mineral systems and allowing for the differences in the oxidized and reduced subgroups, the CV and CV-related meteorites can be divided into petrologic types analogous to those of the ordinary and CO type 3 chondrites. Axtell, Kaba, Leoville, Bali, Arch and ALHA81003 are type 3.0-3.1, while ALH84018, Efremovka, Grosnaja, Allende and Vigarano are type 3.2-3.3 and Coolidge and Loongana 001 are type 3.8. Mokoia is probably a breccia with regions ranging in petrologic type from 3.0 to 3.2. Renazzo often plots at the end of the reduced and oxidized CV chondrite trends, even when those trends diverge, suggesting that in many respects it resembles the unmetamorphosed precursors of the CV chondrites. The low-petrographic types and low-TL peak temperatures of all samples, including the CV3.8 chondrites, indicates metamorphism

  6. Variables Associated with Infections of Cattle by Brucella abortus., Leptospira spp. and Neospora spp. in Amazon Region in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chiebao, D P; Valadas, S Y O B; Minervino, A H H; Castro, V; Romaldini, A H C N; Calhau, A S; De Souza, R A B; Gennari, S M; Keid, L B; Soares, R M

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of Neospora spp., Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus infections in adult cattle was determined in herds of the State of Pará, Brazil, which is an important region for cattle production located in the Amazon region. A total of 3466 adult female cattle from 176 herds were tested, leading to a frequency of seropositive animals of 14.7%, 3.7% and 65.5% and a herd positivity of 87.4%, 41.3% and 98.8% for infections caused by Neospora spp., B. abortus and Leptospira spp., respectively. The five most frequently diagnosed serologic responses to Leptospira spp. were those against serovars hardjo, wolfii, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and shermani. The following associations were found: practice of artificial insemination, large farm size, large herd size, large number of dogs and high number of total abortions per year with the presence of antibodies against serovar hardjo; positive results to serovar grippotyphosa with the presence of dogs; inappropriate disposal of aborted foetuses with positivity to serovar hebdomadis. Serovar grippotyphosa was also associated with number of episodes of abortions. Neospora spp. positive herds were associated with episodes of abortion and B. abortus infection with the disposal of dead animals and aborted foetuses on pastures and with the use of artificial insemination. In conclusion, the high frequency of brucellosis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in the region may be a consequence of social, natural and raising conditions as: (i) climate conditions that favour the survival and spread of pathogens in the environment; (ii) farms located in regions bordering forest areas; (iii) farms in areas of difficult access to the veterinary service; (iv) extensive beef herds raised at pastures with different age and productive groups inter-mingled; and (v) minimal concerns regarding hygiene practices and disease prevention measures.

  7. Canine infection with Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in the United States, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The geographic distribution of canine infection with vector-borne disease agents in the United States appears to be expanding. Methods To provide an updated assessment of geographic trends in canine infection with Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia spp., and Anaplasma spp., we evaluated results from an average of 3,588,477 dogs tested annually by veterinarians throughout the United States from 2010 – 2012. Results As in an earlier summary report, the percent positive test results varied by agent and region, with antigen of D. immitis and antibody to Ehrlichia spp. most commonly identified in the Southeast (2.9% and 3.2%, respectively) and antibody to both B. burgdorferi and Anaplasma spp. most commonly identified in the Northeast (13.3% and 7.1%, respectively) and upper Midwest (4.4% and 3.9%, respectively). Percent positive test results for D. immitis antigen were lower in every region considered, including in the Southeast, than previously reported. Percent positive test results for antibodies to B. burgdorferi and Ehrlichia spp. were higher nationally than previously reported, and, for antibodies to Anaplasma spp., were higher in the Northeast but lower in the Midwest and West, than in the initial report. Annual reports of human cases of Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis were associated with percent positive canine test results by state for each respective tick-borne disease agent (R2 = 0.701, 0.457, and 0.314, respectively). Within endemic areas, percent positive test results for all three tick-borne agents demonstrated evidence of geographic expansion. Conclusions Continued national monitoring of canine test results for vector-borne zoonotic agents is an important tool for accurately mapping the geographic distribution of these agents, and greatly aids our understanding of the veterinary and public health threats they pose. PMID:24886589

  8. Cereal crop volatile organic compound induction after mechanical injury, beetle herbivory (Oulema spp.), or fungal infection (Fusarium spp.).

    PubMed

    Piesik, Dariusz; Pańka, Dariusz; Delaney, Kevin J; Skoczek, Agata; Lamparski, Robert; Weaver, David K

    2011-06-15

    Herbivory, mechanical injury or pathogen infestation to vegetative tissues can induce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) production, which can provide defensive functions to injured and uninjured plants. In our studies with 'McNeal' wheat, 'Otana' oat, and 'Harrington' barley, plants that were mechanically injured, attacked by either of two Oulema spp. (melanopus or cyanella) beetles, or infected by one of the three Fusarium spp. (graminearum, avenaceum, or culmorum), had significant VOC induction compared to undamaged plants. Mechanical injury to the main stem or one leaf caused the induction of one green leaf volatile (GLV) - (Z)-3-hexenol, and three terpenes (β-linalool, β-caryophyllene, and α-pinene) with all three grasses; wheat and barley also showed β-linalool oxide induction. The blend of induced VOCs after Fusarium spp. infestation or Oulema spp. herbivory was dominated by GLVs ((Z)-3-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and 1-hexenyl acetate) and β-linalool and β-caryophyllene; beetle herbivory also induced (E)-β-farnesene. Different ratios of individual VOCs were induced between the two Oulema spp. for each cereal grass and different ratios across the three cereals for each beetle species. Also, different ratios of individual VOCs were induced between the three Fusarium spp. for each cereal grass and different ratios across the three cereals for each fungal pathogen species. Our results are preliminary since we could not simultaneously measure VOC induction from controls with each of the ten different injury treatments for each of the three cereals. However, the comparison of mechanical injury, insect herbivory, and fungal infection has not been previously examined with VOC responses from three different plant species within the same family. Also, our work suggests large qualitative and quantitative overlap of VOC induction from plants of all three cereals having beetle herbivory injury when compared to infection injury

  9. Postharvest treatments with ethylene on Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) grapes affect berry metabolism and wine composition.

    PubMed

    Becatti, Elisa; Genova, Giuseppe; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tonutti, Pietro

    2014-09-15

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera, cv Sangiovese), harvested at standard commercial maturity, were treated for 36 h with ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm) or air (control, CT) before vinification. The composition of the grapes, must and wine was different in the CT and ET samples. In the ET wine, higher concentrations of specific phenol compounds, belonging to the classes of flavonols, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and stilbenes, were detected. ET induced a significant change in the wine aroma profile by increasing free volatile categories such as phenols and fatty acids, and reducing the content of carbonyl compounds and, in particular, of esters. Less pronounced differences between CT and ET wines were observed in terms of glycosidically-bound volatile compounds. The activity of pectin methyl esterase and β-glucosidase was enhanced in ET-treated berry skins, suggesting that cell wall properties and changes in the hydrolytic activity are effective in modulating the composition of CT and ET wines.

  10. [Chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi].

    PubMed

    Deng, Gai-Gai; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Zhang, You-Bo; Xu, Wei; Wei, Wei; Chen, Tian-Li

    2015-06-01

    The chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in the roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods on silica gel and HPLC, and the chemical structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Twenty-nine compounds were obtained and identified as isoimperatorin (1), β-sitosterol (2), imperatorin (3), bergapten (4), osthenol (5), xanthotoxin (6), isoimpinellin (7), dehydrogeijerin (8), phellopterin (9), isodemethylfuropinarine (10), 7-demethylsuberosin (11), alloimperatorin (12), xanthotoxol (13), isooxypeucedanin (14), alloisoimperatorin (15), demethylfuropinarine (16), 5-hydroxy-8-methoxypsoralen (17), oxypeucedanin methanolate (18), pabulenol (19), byakangelicin (20), marmesin (21), (+) -decursinol (22), heraclenol (23), oxypeucedanin hydrate (24), marmesinin (25), ulopterol (26), erythro-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (27), threo-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (28), and uracil (29). Compounds 5, 8, 11, 18, 21-23, and 26-28 were obtained from the roots of title plant for the first time.

  11. Defect Detection in Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavity Surface Using C + + and OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Samantha; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) uses superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities to accelerate an electron beam. If theses cavities have a small particle or defect, it can degrade the performance of the cavity. The problem at hand is inspecting the cavity for defects, little bubbles of niobium on the surface of the cavity. Thousands of pictures have to be taken of a single cavity and then looked through to see how many defects were found. A C + + program with Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV) was constructed to reduce the number of hours searching through the images and finds all the defects. Using this code, the SRF group is now able to use the code to identify defects in on-going tests of SRF cavities. Real time detection is the next step so that instead of taking pictures when looking at the cavity, the camera will detect all the defects.

  12. Persimmon cv. Hachiya (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit: some physical, chemical and nutritional properties.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ahmet; Ercisli, Sezai

    2008-01-01

    The persimmon cv. Hachiya (Diospyros kaki) fruits were analysed for some physical properties (fruit dimensions, fruit mass, fruit volume, fruit density, aspect ratio, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, spread area, projected area, bulk density, skin and flesh firmness, skin and flesh colour as L, a and b values, coefficient of static friction on different surfaces and porosity), chemical properties (moisture, ash, pH, acidity, vitamin C, total soluble solids) and nutritional properties (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc). The fruit characteristics ranged from 169 g for average fruit mass, 65.97 mm for the geometric mean diameter, 1.03% for sphericity and 180 cm3 for volume of fruit. The bulk density, fruit density and porosity were determined as 5,817 N/m3, 9,300 N/m3 and 38.06%, respectively. The present study also revealed important nutritional values of persimmon fruits.

  13. Purification and characterisation of multiple forms of polygalacturonase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Dashehari) fruit.

    PubMed

    Singh, Poorinima; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2008-11-15

    Three multiple forms of polygalacturonase (PG) namely PGI, PGII and PGIII were isolated, purified and characterized from ripe mango (Mangifera indica cv. Dashehari) fruit. Native molecular weights of PGI, PGII and PGIII were found to be 120, 105 and 65kDa, respectively. On SDS-PAGE analysis, PGI was found to be a homodimer of subunit size 60kDa each while those of PGII and PGIII were found to be heterodimers of 70, 35 and 38, 27kDa subunit size each, respectively. Three isoforms of PG differed with respect to the effect of pH, metals, reducing agents and their susceptibility towards heat. PG isoforms also differed with respect to the effect of substrate concentration on enzyme activity. PGI and PGIII exhibited inhibition at high substrate concentration while PGII did not. Km for polygalacturonic acid was found to be 0.02% for PGI.

  14. The fractionation of noble gases in diamonds of CV3 Efremovka chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Semjonova, L. F.; Shukolyukov, Yu. A.

    1993-01-01

    It was shown that in diamonds of Efremovka CV3 the noble gases with normal isotopic compositions are fractionated in different degree while the correlation of isotopic anomalous components is nearly constant. Some data for noble gases in DE-4 sample of Efremovka chondrite are considered. In contrast to DE-2 sample the DE-4 was treated except conc. HClO4, 220 C in addition with mixture of conc. H2SO4+H3PO4 (1:1), 220 C, twice. Noble gases analysis were performed in Germany at Max Plank Institute fur Chemie. Noble gases were released by oxidation of samples at stepped heating from 420 C to 810 C and by pyrolysis at 580, 590, and 680 C.

  15. Humudifucol and Bioactive Prenylated Polyphenols from Hops (Humulus lupulus cv. "Cascade").

    PubMed

    Forino, Martino; Pace, Simona; Chianese, Giuseppina; Santagostini, Laura; Werner, Markus; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Fico, Gelsomina; Werz, Oliver; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2016-03-25

    Humulus lupulus (hop plant) has long been used in traditional medicine as a sedative and antimicrobial agent. More recently, attention has been devoted to the phytoestrogenic activity of the plant extracts as well as to the anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties of the prenylated chalcones present. In this study, an Italian sample of H. lupulus cv. "Cascade" has been investigated and three new compounds [4-hydroxycolupulone (6), humudifucol (7) and cascadone (8)] have been purified and identified by means of NMR spectroscopy along with four known metabolites. Notably, humudifucol (7) is the first prenylated dimeric phlorotannin discovered in nature. Because structurally related phloroglucinols from natural sources were found previously to inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), the isolated compounds were evaluated for their bioactivity against these pro-inflammatory target proteins. The prenylated chalcone xanthohumol inhibited both enzymes at low μM concentrations.

  16. Inducing gravitropic curvature of primary roots of Zea mays cv Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Evans, M. L.; Fondren, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of the mutant 'Ageotropic' cultivar of Zea mays are nonresponsive to gravity. Their root caps secrete little or no mucilage and touch the root only at the extreme apex. A gap separates the cap and root at the periphery of the cap. Applying mucilage from normal roots or substances with a consistency similar to that of mucilage to tips of mutant roots causes these roots to become strongly graviresponsive. Gravicurvature stops when these substances are removed. Caps of some mutants secrete small amounts of mucilage and are graviresponsive. These results indicate that (a) the lack of graviresponsiveness in the mutant results from disrupting the transport pathway between the cap and root, (b) movement of the growth-modifying signal from the cap to the root occurs via an apoplastic pathway, and (c) mucilage is necessary for normal communication between the root cap and root in Zea mays cv Ageotropic.

  17. Radical-scavenging activities of new hydroxylated ursane triterpenes from cv. Annurca apples.

    PubMed

    D'Abrosca, Brigida; Fiorentino, Antonio; Monaco, Pietro; Pacifico, Severina

    2005-07-01

    Two new ursolic acid triterpene derivatives, compounds 2 and 3, have been isolated from cv. Annurca apple fruit, a high-quality apple variety widely cultivated in southern Italy, together with the known 2-oxopomolic acid (1). The new compounds were identified by means of different spectroscopic techniques as 3-epi-2-oxopomolic acid (= (3alpha)-3,19-dihydroxy-2-oxours-12-en-28-oic acid; 2) and (1alpha)-1-hydroxy-3-oxours-12-en-28-oic acid (3). Compounds 1-3 were tested for their radical-scavenging activities with the aid of a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay (Fig. 2). All three constituents showed activities similar to that of the reference antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E).

  18. Altitudinal variation of secondary metabolite profiles in flowering heads of Matricaria chamomilla cv. BONA.

    PubMed

    Ganzera, Markus; Guggenberger, Manuela; Stuppner, Hermann; Zidorn, Christian

    2008-03-01

    The altitudinal variation of the contents of secondary metabolites in flowering heads of Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae) was assessed. Plants of M. chamomilla cultivar BONA were grown in nine experimental plots at altitudes between 590 and 2,230 m at Mount Patscherkofel near Innsbruck/Austria. The amounts of flavonoids and phenolic acids were quantified by HPLC/DAD. For both flavonoids and phenolic acids positive (r = 0.559 and 0.587) and statistically significant (both p < 0.001) correlations with the altitude of the growing site were observed. The results are compared to previous results on Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO. Moreover, various ecological factors, which change with the altitude of the growing site, are discussed as potential causes for the observed variation.

  19. Overseas trip report, CV 990 underflight mission. [Norwegian Sea, Greenland ice sheet, and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Crawford, J.; Hardis, L.

    1980-01-01

    The scanning microwave radiometer-7 simulator, the ocean temperature scanner, and an imaging scatterometer/altimeter operating at 14 GHz were carried onboard the NASA CV-990 over open oceans, sea ice, and continental ice sheets to gather surface truth information. Data flights were conducted over the Norwegian Sea to map the ocean polar front south and west of Bear Island and to transect several Nimbus-7 footprints in a rectangular pattern parallel to the northern shoreline of Norway. Additional flights were conducted to obtain correlative data on the cryosphere parameters and characteristics of the Greenland ice sheet, and study the frozen lakes near Barrow. The weather conditions and flight path way points for each of the nineteen flights are presented in tables and maps.

  20. Proliferation potential of 18-month-old callus of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris.

    PubMed

    De Silva, A E; Kadir, M A; Aziz, M A; Kadzimin, S

    2006-02-17

    Differential effect of plant growth regulators and additives in proliferation of 18-month-old calli of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris were assessed in vitro. The proliferation of callus relied on the growth regulators and additives. Of the different auxins supplemented in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) media, 32.22 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) gave the highest mean fresh weight of callus (46.817 g). Medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was inferior to NAA, while b-naphthoxy acetic acid (BNOA) and p-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (4-CPA) were not effective in proliferating 18-months old callus. Addition of casein hydrolysate and coconut water to NAA supplemented medium showed better proliferation and production of callus. However, in terms of callus production, NAA at 32.22 microM was economically better.

  1. Contrasting Size Distributions of Chondrules and Inclusions in Allende CV3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kent R.; Tait, Alastair W.; Simon, Jusin I.; Cuzzi, Jeff N.

    2014-01-01

    There are several leading theories on the processes that led to the formation of chondrites, e.g., sorting by mass, by X-winds, turbulent concentration, and by photophoresis. The juxtaposition of refractory inclusions (CAIs) and less refractory chondrules is central to these theories and there is much to be learned from their relative size distributions. There have been a number of studies into size distributions of particles in chondrites but only on relatively small scales primarily for chondrules, and rarely for both Calcium Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules in the same sample. We have implemented macro-scale (25 cm diameter sample) and high-resolution microscale sampling of the Allende CV3 chondrite to create a complete data set of size frequencies for CAIs and chondrules.

  2. Invasion Assays and Genomotyping to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Epithelial cell invasion is thought to be essential for Campylobacter spp. infection. Previous invasion studies with intestinal epithelial cells revealed that the ability of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to inva...

  3. The Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora Phyllody Phenotype Is Associated with Misexpression of Flower Organ Identity Genes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huijun; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qigang; Jian, Hongying; Qiu, Xianqin; Baudino, Sylvie; Just, Jeremy; Raymond, Olivier; Gu, Lianfeng; Wang, Jihua; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Tang, Kaixue

    2016-01-01

    Phyllody is a flower abnormality in which leaf-like structures replace flower organs in all whorls. Here, we investigated the origin and the molecular mechanism of phyllody phenotype in Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora, an ancient naturally occurring Chinese mutant cultivar. Reciprocal grafting experiments and microscopy analyses, demonstrated that the phyllody phenotype in Viridiflora is not associated with phytoplasmas infection. Transcriptome comparisons by the mean of RNA-Seq identified 672 up-regulated and 666 down-regulated genes in Viridiflora compared to its closely related genotype R. chinensis cv. Old Blush. A fraction of these genes are putative homologs of genes known to be involved in flower initiation and development. We show that in flower whorl 2 of Viridiflora, a down-regulation of the floral organ identity genes RcPISTILLATA (RcPI), RcAPETALA3 (RcAP3) and RcSEPALLATA3 (RcSEP3), together with an up-regulation of the putative homolog of the gene SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS1 (RcSOC1) are likely at the origin of the loss of petal identity and leaf-like structures formation. In whorl 3 of Viridiflora, ectopic expression of RcAPETALA2 (RcAP2) along with the down regulation of RcPI, RcAP3, and RcSEP3 is associated with loss of stamens identity and leaf-like structures formation. In whorl 4, the ectopic expression of RcAP2 associated with a down-regulation of RcSEP3 and of the C-class gene RcAGAMOUS correlate with loss of pistil identity. The latter also suggested the antagonist effect between the A and C class genes in the rose. Together, these data suggest that modified expression of the ABCE flower organ identity genes is associated with the phyllody phenotype in the rose Viridiflora and that these genes are important for normal flower organs development.

  4. [Phenolic compounds in leaves insertions of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná].

    PubMed

    Tekeľová, Daniela; Bittner Fialová, Silvia; Tóth, Jaroslav; Czigle, Szilvia

    2016-01-01

    Lamiaceae plants mostly accumulate active ingredients in their leaves. The subfamily Nepetoideae, including the genus Mentha L., is characterized by the presence of essential oil and antioxidant phenolics, chiefly hydroxycinnamic acids with predominance of rosmarinic acid, and flavonoids. Mentha × piperita and M. spicata are the most broadly used mints in both medicine and industry, while M. x villosa is less known in our country. Herbal drugs in the form of leaves are usually analysed unpartitioned, while single leaves insertions have only been studied occasionally. Therefore, the aim of this work was the quantification of the active compounds content in the leaves pairs of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná, using pharmacopoeial methods: total hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid (THD) and luteolin-type flavonoids. THD content ranged from 6.7% to 9.4% in the leaves pairs water extracts, and from 6.6% to 14.0% in methanol extracts. Flavonoids contents, expressed as luteolin-7-O-glucoside, ranged from 4.0% to 8.8% in water extracts, and from 4.0% to 10.5% in methanol extracts. Antioxidant activity (DPPH) expressed as SC50 ranged from 10.2 to 16.9 μg.ml-1 (drug dry weight) in water extracts, and from 10.7 to 21.6 μg.ml-1 in methanol extracts. The highest content of phenolic compounds as well as the highest antioxidant activity were found to be in the top sheet, while the lowest content of phenolic compounds and lowest antioxidant activity were detected in the leaves of the middle stem part.Key words: Mentha × villosa Huds cv. Snežná hydroxycinnamic derivatives rosmarinic acid luteolin-7-O-glucoside DPPH.

  5. Quantifying key parameters as elicitors for alternate fruit bearing in cv. 'Elstar' apple trees.

    PubMed

    Krasniqi, Anne-Lena; Damerow, Lutz; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-11-01

    The commonly known alternate bearing, i.e. year-to-year change of large and small yields of fruit tree crops worldwide, is often induced by abiotic stress such as late frost, which will eliminate flowers or fruitlets. This study presents an alternative form, biotic biennial bearing, i.e. change of large and small yields of the same trees within the same tree row in the same year. Three methods were developed or modified for the analysis of the number of flower clusters and yield of 2086 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. 'Elstar' trees. The first method, i.e., based on intersect between yield in year x and year x+1 and flower clusters in year x, yielded 91-106 flower clusters, whereas the second method, i.e., mean yield in year x and year x+1, resulted in a range of 72-133 flower clusters, or 9.6kg/tree necessary for sustainable cultivation of apple cv. 'Elstar'. The third 'biennial bearing index' (BBI), was calculated in three ways as the ratio of differences in tree yields to cumulative tree yield, for individual trees (rather than orchard average) to demonstrate the tree-to-tree alternation. A scheme for the possible underlying regulatory mechanisms was developed, which includes potential elicitors such as light deprivation and subsequent lack of flower initiation, are discussed as a possible result of polar basipetal GA7 transport, cytokinin level in the xylem and phloem and down-regulation of the gene expression of the flowering gene. Suggested countermeasures included early chemical or mechanical thinning.

  6. Booklice (Liposcelis spp.), Grain Mites (Acarus siro), and Flour Beetles (Tribolium spp.): 'Other Pests' Occasionally Found in Laboratory Animal Facilities.

    PubMed

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Douglas K

    2016-11-01

    Pests that infest stored food products are an important problem worldwide. In addition to causing loss and consumer rejection of products, these pests can elicit allergic reactions and perhaps spread disease-causing microorganisms. Booklice (Liposcelis spp.), grain mites (Acarus siro), and flour beetles (Tribolium spp.) are common stored-product pests that have previously been identified in our laboratory animal facility. These pests traditionally are described as harmless to our animals, but their presence can be cause for concern in some cases. Here we discuss the biology of these species and their potential effects on human and animal health. Occupational health risks are covered, and common monitoring and control methods are summarized.

  7. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350 Section 866.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350 Section 866.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350 Section 866.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350 Section 866.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350 Section 866.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona...

  20. Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in northern elephant seals, California.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Robyn A; Gulland, M D Frances; Atwill, E Rob; Lawrence, Judy; Jang, Spencer; Conrad, Patricia A

    2005-12-01

    Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. prevalence and antimicrobial drug sensitivity were determined in northern elephant seals that had not entered the water and seals that were stranded on the California coast. Stranded seals had a higher prevalence of pathogenic bacteria, possibly from terrestrial sources, which were more likely to be resistant.

  1. The biology and control of Giardia spp and Tritrichomonas foetus.

    PubMed

    Payne, Patricia A; Artzer, Marjory

    2009-11-01

    The biology and control of Giardia spp in dogs and cats, and Tritrichomonas foetus in cats is reviewed, including nomenclature, morphology, life cycle, epidemiology, pathogenic process, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and control, and public health aspects. These surprisingly similar protozoan pathogens are both clinically significant in veterinary clinical medicine.

  2. Asymptomatic presence of Nosema spp. in Spanish commercial apiaries.

    PubMed

    Fernández, José Manuel; Puerta, Francisco; Cousinou, Mercedes; Dios-Palomares, Rafaela; Campano, Francisco; Redondo, Laura

    2012-10-01

    Nosemosis is caused by intracellular parasites (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae) that infect the midgut epithelial cells in adult honey bees. Recent studies relate N. ceranae to Colony Collapse Disorder and there is some suggestion that Nosema spp., especially N. ceranae, induces high mortality in honey bees, a fact that is considered as a serious threat for colony survival. 604 samples of adult honey bees for Nosema spp. analysis were collected from beekeeping colonies across Spain and were analysed using PCR with capillary electrophoresis. We also monitored 77 Andalusian apiaries for 2 years; the sampled hives were standard healthy colonies, without any special disease symptoms. We found 100% presence of Nosema spp. in some locations, indicating that this parasite was widespread throughout the country. The two year monitoring indicated that 87% of the hives with Nosema spp. remained viable, with normal honey production and biological development during this period of time. The results of these trials indicated that both N. ceranae and N. apis could be present in these beehives without causing disease symptom and that there is no evidence for the replacement of N. apis by N. ceranae, supporting the hypothesis that nosemosis is not the main reason of the collapse and death of beehives.

  3. A culture method for darkling beetles, Blapstinus spp. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Darkling beetles, Blapstinus spp., have become a serious pest of Cucurbitaceae crops, especially in California. A culture method was sought to provide large numbers (> 500) of adult beetles of known age and sex that could be used for laboratory testing when needed. A method previously developed for ...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740 Section 866.3740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600 Section 866.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3600...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870 Section 866.3870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740 Section 866.3740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600 Section 866.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3600...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740 Section 866.3740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600 Section 866.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3600...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600 Section 866.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3600...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740 Section 866.3740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., abscesses, and meningitis (inflammation of brain membranes). Pseudomonas pseudomallei causes melioidosis,...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., abscesses, and meningitis (inflammation of brain membranes). Pseudomonas pseudomallei causes melioidosis,...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., abscesses, and meningitis (inflammation of brain membranes). Pseudomonas pseudomallei causes melioidosis,...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., abscesses, and meningitis (inflammation of brain membranes). Pseudomonas pseudomallei causes melioidosis,...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., abscesses, and meningitis (inflammation of brain membranes). Pseudomonas pseudomallei causes melioidosis,...

  6. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. on tomatoes by plant molecules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of carvacrol (CAR), trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), eugenol (EUG) and ß-resorcylic acid (BR) as a wash treatment for reducing Salmonella spp. on tomatoes was investigated. Plum tomatoes inoculated with a six-serotype mixture of Salmonella (108 CFU) were subjected to washing in sterile deion...

  7. [Prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection in household dogs].

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Muraoka, Noboru; Aoki, Mikiko; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2003-06-01

    A total of 1,505 household dogs were investigated for the prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection by fecal examination in relation to their fecal conditions, rearing environments, origins, age, sex and breed. Strongyloides spp. infection was demonstrated in 29 of 1,505 (1.93%) dogs. Strongyloides stercoralis was detected in 28 dogs, and Strongyloides planiceps was detected in one dog. The rate of Strongyloides spp. infection was higher in dogs reared indoors, originated from pet shops/breeding kennels and aged 1-6 months. The infected rate was higher in dogs excreting soft feces. No significant sex-related difference was observed in Strongyloides spp. infection. The rate was high in Pomeranians and low in mongrels. The detection of S. stercolaris in dogs reared indoors will involve a serious problem in public health, because the parasite has zoonoitic potential. It suggests that a positive sanitary instruction against a dog's owner and a worker in pet shops/breeding kennels seems necessary for prevention of transmission from dogs to humans. Furthermore, the reliable treatment for dogs infected with S. stercoralis seems to be important.

  8. The copepod Calanus spp. (Calanidae) is repelled by polarized light

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I.

    2016-01-01

    Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments. PMID:27762400

  9. Bordetella pseudohinzii spp. nov. infects C57Bl6 mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinical studies rely heavily on mouse models of infection. Precise identification and control of contaminating pathogens that circulate in mouse colonies is an important task. Over the past decade, there have been several reports documenting the isolation of Bordetella spp. from purported pathog...

  10. The copepod Calanus spp. (Calanidae) is repelled by polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I.

    2016-10-01

    Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments.

  11. Gregarines in Dermatophagoides spp. (Acari: Pyroglyphidae): light microscopy observation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Doganci, Levent; Iraola, Victor

    2009-03-01

    Recently there has been an increasing interest in studying arthropods that live close to humans, such as cockroaches and mites, for their potential as vectors. Gregarines observed under light microscopy in intestinal extracts of house dust mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are described for the first time in scientific literature.

  12. Colpodella spp.–like Parasite Infection in Woman, China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Cong L.; Keeling, Patrick J.; Krause, Peter J.; Horak, Ales; Bent, Stephen; Rollend, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa comprises intracellular protozoa that include many human pathogens. Their nearest relatives are chromerids and colpodellids. We report a case of a Babesia spp.–like relapsing infection caused by a newly described microorganism related to the Apicomplexa. This case is highly suggestive of a previously undescribed type of colpodellid that infects vertebrates. PMID:22260904

  13. A SURVEY OF CYST NEMATODES (HETERODERA SPP.) IN NORTHERN EGYPT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria and El-Behera Governorates in northern Egypt to identify the species of cy...

  14. Biological characterization of Aeromonas spp. isolated from the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Z.; Khan, S. I.; Chopra, A. K.

    2004-01-01

    Cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) is a key virulence factor in the pathogenesis of infections caused by Aeromonas spp. The cytotoxic enterotoxin gene (act) was detected in 32 out of 69 environmental isolates of Aeromonas spp. by hybridization with the act gene probe. To evaluate the pathogenic potential of the act gene probe-positive isolates, 32 act gene probe-positive and 31 randomly selected act gene probe-negative isolates were tested for enterotoxicity in a suckling mice assay (SMA), for haemolytic activity on sheep blood agar plates, for the presence of CAMP-like factors, and for cytotoxicity in a Vero cell line. The act gene probe-positive isolates significantly differed from the toxin gene probe-negative ones with respect to enterotoxicity in the SMA (P=0.009) and haemolytic activity (P=0.005). The CAMP-haemolysin phenotype was significantly associated with the rabbit ileal loop assay (P= 0.08), Vero cell assay (P= 0.064), and haemolysin production under the microaerophilic conditions (P= 0.056) of the act gene probe-positive isolates of Aeromonas spp. These data indicated the role of Act in the pathogenesis of Aeromonas infections and that the enterotoxic potential of Aeromonas spp. could be assessed by simply performing a CAMP-haemolysin assay. PMID:15310164

  15. Phenolic compounds and chromatographic profiles of pear skins (Pyrus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized profiling method based on liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric detection (LC-DAD-ESI/MS) was used to analyze the phenolic components of 16 pear skins (Pyrus spp., varieties and cultivars). More than 30 flavonoids and 13 hydroxycinnamat...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600 Section 866.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3600...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia...

  19. Distribution of Anastrepha spp. in carambola orchards: Evidence for migration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carambola orchards in Juana Diaz, Corozal, and Isabela, PR, were monitored for Anastrepha spp. fruit flies using Multi-lure traps baited with putrescine and ammonium acetate. The number of flies at various locations within the orchards were statistically compared with the expected distribution if fl...

  20. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions.

    PubMed

    Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio

    2013-07-01

    To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.

  1. Adverse effects of larkspur (Delphinium spp.) on cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are numerous species of larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) in North America. The larkspurs are a major cause of cattle losses on western ranges in the USA, especially on foothill and mountain rangelands. The toxicity of larkspur species is due to various norditerpenoid alkaloids. In this article, we ...

  2. Contamination of Bovine, Sheep and Goat Meat with Brucella Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method. PMID:27853716

  3. Contamination of Bovine, Sheep and Goat Meat with Brucella Spp.

    PubMed

    Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola

    2016-06-03

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  4. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870 Section 866.3870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system and heart muscle. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  5. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870 Section 866.3870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system and heart muscle. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  6. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870 Section 866.3870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system and heart muscle. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  7. Salmonella spp. dynamics in wild blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A six-year field study was conducted in the two major wild, or lowbush, blueberry growing regions in Maine, Midcoast and Downeast. This study used data from two cropping cycles (four years) to model the dynamics of Salmonella spp. prevalence in wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). ...

  8. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques.

    PubMed

    Estevinho, Leticia M; Chambó, Emerson Dechechi; Pereira, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de; Toledo, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as "bioactive", which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects.

  9. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as “bioactive”, which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects. PMID:27588420

  10. Susceptibility breakpoint for enrofloxacin against swine Salmonella spp.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haihong; Pan, Huafang; Ahmad, Ijaz; Cheng, Guyue; Wang, Yulian; Dai, Menghong; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2013-09-01

    Susceptibility breakpoints are crucial for prudent use of antimicrobials. This study has developed the first susceptibility breakpoint (MIC ≤ 0.25 μg/ml) for enrofloxacin against swine Salmonella spp. based on wild-type cutoff (COWT) and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) cutoff (COPD) values, consequently providing a criterion for susceptibility testing and clinical usage of enrofloxacin.

  11. New anthocyanins from purple pods of pea (Pisum spp.).

    PubMed

    Terahara, N; Honda, T; Hayashi, M; Ishimaru, K

    2000-12-01

    Two new anthocyanins were isolated from purple pods of pea (Pisum spp.). Their structures were identified as delphinidin 3-xylosylgalactoside-5-acetylglucoside and its deacetylated derivative by the usual chemical degradation methods and by spectroscopic methods such as UV-VIS, MS and NMR. Both pigments showed moderate stability and antioxidative activity in a neutral aqueous solution.

  12. Occurrence of Biosurfactant Producing Bacillus spp. in Diverse Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sanket J.; Suthar, Harish; Yadav, Amit Kumar; Hingurao, Krushi; Nerurkar, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Diversity among biosurfactant producing Bacillus spp. from diverse habitats was studied among 77 isolates. Cluster analysis based on phenotypic characteristics using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMAs) method was performed. Bacillus isolates possessing high surface tension activity and five reference strains were subjected to amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). A correlation between the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Bacillus spp. is explored. Most of the oil reservoir isolates showing high surface activity clustered with B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, the hot water spring isolates clustered in two ingroups, while the petroleum contaminated soil isolates were randomly distributed in all the three ingroups. Present work revealed that diversity exists in distribution of Bacillus spp. from thermal and hydrocarbon containing habitats where majority of organisms belonged to B. licheniformis and B. subtilis group. Isolate B. licheniformis TT42 produced biosurfactant which reduced the surface tension of water from 72 mNm−1 to 28 mNm−1, and 0.05 mNm−1 interfacial tension against crude oil at 80°C. This isolate clustered with B. subtilis and B. licheniformis group on the basis of ARDRA. These findings increase the possibility of exploiting the Bacillus spp. from different habitats and their possible use in oil recovery. PMID:25969778

  13. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices...

  17. Antifungal activity of the honeybee products against Candida spp. and Trichosporon spp.

    PubMed

    Koç, Ayşe Nedret; Silici, Sibel; Kasap, Filiz; Hörmet-Oz, Hatice Tuna; Mavus-Buldu, Hikmet; Ercal, Bariş Derya

    2011-01-01

    Honeybee products (honey, royal jelly, pollen, and propolis) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of 40 yeast strains of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, and Trichosporon spp. The broth microdilution method was used to assess the antifungal activity of honeybee products against yeasts. Fluconazole was selected as the antifungal control agent. Using the broth microdilution method, minimal inhibitory concentration ranges with regard to all isolates were 5-80% (vol/vol), 0.06-1 μg/mL, 0.002-0.25 μg/mL, 0.006-0.1 μg/mL, and 0.02-96 μg/mL for honey, royal jelly, pollen, propolis, and fluconazole, respectively. The antifungal activities of each product decreased in the following order: propolis >pollen > royal jelly > > honey. This study demonstrated that honeybee products, particularly propolis and pollen, can help to control some fluconazole-resistant fungal strains.

  18. Antifungal activity of Turkish honey against Candida spp. and Trichosporon spp: an in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Koc, Ayşe Nedret; Silici, Sibel; Ercal, Bariş Derya; Kasap, Filiz; Hörmet-Oz, Hatice Tuna; Mavus-Buldu, Hikmet

    2009-11-01

    Abstract Honey samples from different floral sources were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of 40 yeast strains (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. glabrata and Trichosoporon spp.). Broth microdilution method (CLSI, M27-A2) was used to assess the activity of the honeys against yeasts at different concentrations ranging from 1.25-80% (v/v). All of the yeast strains tested were inhibited by honeys in this study. Broth microdilution assay revealed that inhibition of growth depends on the type and concentration of honey as well as the test pathogen. Little or no antifungal activity was seen at honey concentrations <2%. Rhododendron and multifloral honeys have generally more inhibitory effect than eucalyptus and orange honeys (P<0.05). Fluconazole-resistant yeast strains were examined for their susceptibility to honeys. This study demonstrated that, in vitro, these honeys had antifungal activity at the high concentration of 80% (v/v) in these fluconazole-resistant strains. Further studies are now required to demonstrate if this antifungal activity has any clinical application.

  19. Molecular phylogeny and surface morphology of marine aseptate gregarines (Apicomplexa): Selenidium spp. and Lecudina spp.

    PubMed

    Leander, B S; Harper, J T; Keeling, P J

    2003-12-01

    Many aseptate gregarines from marine invertebrate hosts are thought to have retained several plesiomorphic characteristics and are instrumental in understanding the early evolution of intracellular parasitism in apicomplexans and the phylogenetic position of cryptosporidians. We sequenced the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA genes from 2 archigregarines, Selenidium terebellae and Selenidium vivax, and 2 morphotypes of the marine eugregarine Lecudina polymorpha. We also used scanning electron microscopy to investigate the surface morphology of trophozoites from Lecudina tuzetae, Monocystis agilis, the 2 species of Selenidium, and the 2 morphotypes of L. polymorpha. The SSU ribosomal DNA sequences from S. vivax and L. polymorpha had long branch lengths characteristic of other gregarine sequences. However, the sequence from S. terebellae was not exceptionally divergent and consistently emerged as 1 of the earliest 'true' gregarines in phylogenetic analyses. Statistical support for the sister relationship between Cryptosporidium spp. and gregarines was significantly bolstered in analyses including the sequence from S. terebellae but excluding the longest branches in the alignment. Eugregarines formed a monophyletic group with the neogregarine Ophryocystis, suggesting that trophozoites with elaborate cortex folds and gliding motility evolved only once. The trophozoites from the 2 species of Selenidium shared novel transverse striations but differed from one another in overall cell morphologies and writhing behavior.

  20. Incidence and virulence characteristics of Aeromonas spp. in fish

    PubMed Central

    Abd-El-Malek, Ashraf M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas spp. in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE) fish commonly consumed in Assiut city, Egypt, and to determine virulence factors due to they play a key role in their pathogenicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 samples of raw and RTE fish samples were taken from different fish markets and fish restaurants in Assiut Governorate and screened for the presence of Aeromonas spp. by enrichment on tryptic soy broth then incubated at 30°C for 24 h. Plating unto the sterile Petri dishes containing Aeromonas agar base to which Aeromonas selective supplement was added. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive Aeromonas colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production, protease, and lipase detection. Results: The results indicated that raw fish were contaminated with Aeromonas spp. (40% in wild and 36% in cultured Nile tilapia). Regarding RTE, Aeromonas spp. could be isolated with the percentage of 16%, 28% and 20% in fried Bolti, grilled Bolti and fried Bayad, respectively. Out of 35 isolates obtained, 22 were categorized as Aeromonas hydrophila, 12 were classified as Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae were found in only one isolate. The virulence factors of Aeromonas spp. were detected and the results showed that all isolates produced of hemolysin (91.4%), protease (77.1%), and lipase enzyme (17.1%). Conclusion: This study indicates that the presence of A. hydrophila with virulence potential in fresh and RTE fish may be a major threat to public health. PMID:28246446

  1. Occurrence of Treponema spp. in porcine skin ulcers and gingiva.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Frida; Svartström, Olov; Belák, Katinka; Fellström, Claes; Pringle, Märit

    2013-08-30

    Porcine shoulder ulcers and ear necrosis are a significant animal welfare concern and impair efficient livestock production. Although spirochetes have been detected in both types of lesions the potential role of these bacteria in lesion propagation has received little attention. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of spirochetes of the genus Treponema in shoulder ulcers or ear necrosis in pigs and compare these with treponemes from porcine gingiva. Samples were collected from gingiva and necrotic ulcers in 169 pigs. Presence of spirochetes was observed in silver stained histological sections and by phase contrast microscopy in scrapings from the necrotic lesions. Additionally, PCR of the 16SrRNA-tRNA(Ile) intergenic spacer region (ISR2) was used to detect Treponema spp. in all samples. Combined analysis showed that 73% of the shoulder ulcers and 53% of the ear necroses were positive for spirochetes. Treponema spp. were detected in 9.7% of the gingival samples. Comparative DNA sequence analysis of the ISR2 sequences revealed the presence of three distinct genetic phylotypes of Treponema spp. corresponding to Treponema pedis, and as yet two unnamed phylotypes represented by GenBank sequences C1UD1 (Acc. No. AY342041) and C1BT2-8 (Acc. No. AY342046). Detection of identical ISR2 sequences from gingiva and ulcer samples indicates that oral Treponema spp. are spread from mouth to ulcer. We conclude that Treponema spp. frequently occur in shoulder ulcers and ear necrosis in pigs, and suggest a possible infection route through biting and licking.

  2. A Ribeiroia spp. (Class: Trematoda) - Specific PCR-based diagnostic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinitz, D.M.; Yoshino, T.P.; Cole, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased reporting of amphibian malformations in North America has been noted with concern in light of reports that amphibian numbers and species are declining worldwide. Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to cause a variety of types of malformations in amphibians. However, little is known about the prevalence of R. ondatrae in North America. To aid in conducting field studies of Ribeiroia spp., we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic. Herein, we describe the development of an accurate, rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostic for detection of Ribeiroia spp. infection in snails (Planorbella trivolvis). Candidate oligonucleotide primers for PCR were designed via DNA sequence analyses of multiple ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 regions from Ribeiroia spp. and Echinostoma spp. Comparison of consensus sequences determined from both genera identified areas of sequence potentially unique to Ribeiroia spp. The PCR reliably produced a diagnostic 290-base pair (bp) product in the presence of a wide concentration range of snail or frog DNA. Sensitivity was examined with DNA extracted from single R. ondatrae cercaria. The single-tube PCR could routinely detect less than 1 cercariae equivalent, because DNA isolated from a single cercaria could be diluted at least 1:50 and still yield a positive result via gel electrophoresis. An even more sensitive nested PCR also was developed that routinely detected 100 fg of the 290-bp fragment. The assay did not detect furcocercous cercariae of certain Schistosomatidae, Echinostoma sp., or Sphaeridiotrema globulus nor adults of Clinostomum sp. or Cyathocotyle bushiensis. Field testing of 137 P. trivolvis identified 3 positives with no overt environmental cross-reactivity, and results concurred with microscopic examinations in all cases. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  3. Confirmation By QTL mapping Of The Malus Robusta (Cv. Robusta 5) derived powdery mildew resistance gene Pl1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has made extensive use of Malus robusta cv. Robusta 5 as a source of resistance to fire blight. Robusta 5 has also been used as the source of powdery mildew resistance by other breeding programs and a single locus Pl1 has been associated with this resist...

  4. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including monoesters with an unusual esterifying acid, from cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp cv. 'Tropic Sun')

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation of Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn Hemp cv. ‘Tropic Sun’) is recommended as a green manure crop in a rotation cycle to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds, and reduce soil nematodes. Because C. juncea belongs to a genus that is known for the production of toxic dehydr...

  5. Experimental determination of the boundary layer at air-sample inlet positions on the NASA CV 990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, S. W.; Vedder, J. F.; Condon, E. P.

    1984-01-01

    Full-scale, in-flight measurements of the boundary-layer thickness, velocity profile, and flow angle have been made at several sample collection stations on the fuselage of the NASA CV 990. These results are given as functions of Mach number, Reynolds number, yaw, and angle of attack.

  6. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. "K...

  7. Water Deficit Effect on Ratio of Seed to Berry Fresh Weight and Berry Weight Uniformity in Winegrape cv. Merlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field-grown grapevines cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) were differentially irrigated in a randomized block design during two growing seasons to maintain a high or low level of vine water stress between fruit set and harvest. Detached berries from clusters harvested at maturity were individually weig...

  8. Growth and physiological responses of Chinese cabbage cv. 'Chungwang' to different irradiances during early-to-middle growth stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes of the growth and morphology of Chinese cabbage cv. ‘Chungwang’ in response to five different irradiance treatments were investigated during the early and middle stages of growth. Seedlings were transplanted to 15 liter pots at the fourth leaf stage and plants were grown in controlled enviro...

  9. Extraction of arbutin and its comparative content in branches, leaves, stems, and fruits of Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Ichitani, Masaki; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor and is extensively used as a human skin-whitening agent. This study investigated the optimum conditions for extracting arbutin by ultrasonic homogenization from discarded branches pruned from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui) trees. The arbutin content was measured in the branches and also in the leaves, stems, fruit peel, and fruit flesh.

  10. Seasonal adaptations to day length in ecotypes of Diorhabda spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) inform selection of agents against saltcedars (Tamarix spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Seasonal adaptations to day length often limit the effective range of biocontrol insects. The leaf beetle Diorhabda carinulata was introduced into North America from Fukang, China (latitude 44°N) for the biocontrol of saltcedars (Tamarix spp.), but failed to establish below 38° latitude because o...

  11. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rotondano, Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias; Almeida, Herta Karyanne Araújo; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Santana, Vanessa Lira; Vidal, Ivana Fernandes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Ade lmeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; de Melo, Marcia Almeida

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100) of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100) of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10%) and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007) and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01). None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  12. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by palmitic, stearic and oleic acid sophorolipids and thiamine dilauryl sulfate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of th...

  13. The Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV): A Measure of Behavioral Change for Young Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; Coonrod, Elaine E.; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Turner, Lauren M.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV) for 58 children (ages 2-5). Results support the utility of the PIA-CV for obtaining ecologically valid information from parents and for measuring behavioral change in young children with autism. (Contains references.)…

  14. Evidence for Oxygen-Isotope Exchange in Chondrules and Refractory Inclusions During Fluid-Rock Interaction on the CV Chondrite Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. N.; Nagashima, K.

    2016-08-01

    Plagioclase in chondrules, CAIs and AOAs from the carbonaceous chondrite Kaba (CV3.1) experienced oxygen-isotope exchange with a metasomatic fluid responsible for the formation of magnetite, fayalite and Ca,Fe-rich silicates on the CV parent body.

  15. Morphological characterisation of Paranoplocephala bairdi (Schad, 1954) (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) in heather voles Phenacomys spp. and tree voles Arborimus spp., and related species in voles and lemmings (Muridae: Arvicolinae).

    PubMed

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Rausch, Robert L; Henttonen, Heikki

    2005-11-01

    The taxonomical status of Paranoplocephala bairdi (Schad, 1954)-like cestodes (Anoplocephalidae) in heather voles Phenacomys spp. and tree voles Arborimus spp. (Muridae: Arvicolinae) and their discrimination from five related species of Paranoplocephala is assessed using uni- and multivariate morphometrics. The analyses support the independent status and conspecificity of specimens from Phenacomys spp. and Arborimus spp., and P. bairdi is therefore suggested to be a host-specialist species of heather and tree voles with a wide geographical distribution in North America. A redescription is presented for P. bairdi.

  16. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba,Vermamoeba vermiformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were estimated using qPCR methods.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Lu , J., I. Struewing, E. Vereen, A.E. Kirby, K. Levy, C. Moe, and N. Ashbolt. Molecular detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system (Journal Article). JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, USA, 120(2): 509-521, (2016).

  17. Occurrence of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. spores in Western, Northern and Central-Eastern Poland in 2004-2006 and relation to some meteorological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2009-08-01

    The concentration of airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. has been investigated at three monitoring stations situated along the west-north and central-east transect in Poland (Szczecin, Olsztyn, Warszawa,) i.e. from a height of 100 m to 149 m above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of three Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. Cladosporium spp. spores were dominant at all the stations. The highest Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. numbers of spores were observed at all the cities in July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. concentration in the air and the mean air temperature, amount of precipitation, air pressure and relative air humidity. The spore count of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the air temperature. The identification of factors, which influence and shape spore concentrations, may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.

  18. Culturable Populations of Sporomusa spp. and Desulfovibrio spp. in the Anoxic Bulk Soil of Flooded Rice Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Rosencrantz, Dirk; Rainey, Frederick A.; Janssen, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    Most-probable-number (MPN) counts were made of homoacetogenic and other bacteria present in the anoxic flooded bulk soil of laboratory microcosms containing 90- to 95-day-old rice plants. MPN counts with substrates known to be useful for the selective enrichment or the cultivation of homoacetogenic bacteria (betaine, ethylene glycol, 2,3-butanediol, and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate) gave counts of 2.3 × 103 to 2.8 × 105 cells per g of dry soil. Homoacetogens isolated from the terminal positive steps of these dilution cultures belonged to the genus Sporomusa. Counts with succinate, ethanol, and lactate gave much higher MPNs of 5.9 × 105 to 3.4 × 107 cells per g of dry soil and led to the isolation of Desulfovibrio spp. Counting experiments on lactate and ethanol which included Methanospirillum hungatei in the medium gave MPNs of 2.3 × 106 to 7.5 × 108 cells per g of dry soil and led to the isolation of Sporomusa spp. The latter strains could grow with betaine, ethylene glycol, 2,3-butanediol, and/or 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate, but apparently most cells of Sporomusa spp. did not initiate growth in counting experiments with those substrates. Spores apparently accounted for 2.2% or less of the culturable bacteria. It appears that culturable Desulfovibrio spp. and Sporomusa spp. were present in approximately equal numbers in the bulk soil. Multiple, phylogenetically-distinct, phenotypically-different, strains of each genus were found in the same soil system. PMID:10427044

  19. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, ‘INTA Rojo’. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar ‘INTA Rojo’ and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  20. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  1. Detection of Leptospira spp. in wild Phrynops geoffroanus (Geoffroy's side-necked turtle) in urban environment.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J P; Kawanami, A E; Silva, A S L; Chung, D G; Werther, K

    2016-12-01

    Leptospira spp., a zoonotic agent relevant for public health, occurs frequently in tropical regions. The aquatic environment represents a viable survival and transmission pathway. This study aimed to investigate the presence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Phrynops geoffroanus (Geoffroy's side-necked turtle) serum samples using the microagglutination test (MAT), and Leptospira spp. in gastric and cloacal lavage samples using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Antibodies against nine different Leptospira spp. serovars were detected in 45.45% (30/66) of the serum samples. Specific amplification of Leptospira spp. genomic material (331bp) was observed in 16.67% (11/66) of the samples. In conclusion, these freshwater testudines host Leptospira spp. and eliminate them. This situation may represent a risk to public health, especially to people who use urban streams for fishing and recreational activities. Additionally, we described some Leptospira spp. serovars, not yet reported in testudines, detected here in P. geoffroanus.

  2. The Galectin CvGal1 from the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Binds to Blood Group A Oligosaccharides on the Hemocyte Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N.; Giomarelli, Barbara; Shridhar, Surekha; Banerjee, Aditi; Fernández-Robledo, José A.; Bianchet, Mario A.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Vasta, Gerardo R.

    2013-01-01

    The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which possesses four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains, was previously shown to display stronger binding to galactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine relative to d-galactose. CvGal1 expressed by phagocytic cells is “hijacked” by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it proliferates and causes systemic infection and death. In this study, a detailed glycan array analysis revealed that CvGal1 preferentially recognizes type 2 blood group A oligosaccharides. Homology modeling of the protein and its oligosaccharide ligands supported this preference over type 1 blood group A and B oligosaccharides. The CvGal ligand models were further validated by binding, inhibition, and competitive binding studies of CvGal1 and ABH-specific monoclonal antibodies with intact and deglycosylated glycoproteins, hemocyte extracts, and intact hemocytes and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. A parallel glycomic study carried out on oyster hemocytes (Kurz, S., Jin, C., Hykollari, A., Gregorich, D., Giomarelli, B., Vasta, G. R., Wilson, I. B. H., and Paschinger, K. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288,) determined the structures of oligosaccharides recognized by CvGal1. Proteomic analysis of the hemocyte glycoproteins identified β-integrin and dominin as CvGal1 “self”-ligands. Despite strong CvGal1 binding to P. marinus trophozoites, no binding of ABH blood group antibodies was observed. Thus, parasite glycans structurally distinct from the blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface may function as potentially effective ligands for CvGal1. We hypothesize that carbohydrate-based mimicry resulting from the host/parasite co-evolution facilitates CvGal1-mediated cross-linking to β-integrin, located on the hemocyte surface, leading to cell activation, phagocytosis, and host infection. PMID:23824193

  3. Detection of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., and other eubacteria in ticks from the Thai-Myanmar border and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Parola, Philippe; Cornet, Jean-Paul; Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Miller, R Scott; Thien, Huynh Van; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Raoult, Didier; Telford III, Sam R; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2003-04-01

    A total of 650 ticks, including 13 species from five genera, were collected from animals, from people, or by flagging of the vegetation at sites on the Thai-Myanmar border and in Vietnam. They were tested by PCR to detect DNA of bacteria of the order RICKETTSIALES: Three Anaplasma spp. were detected in ticks collected in Thailand, including (i) Anaplasma sp. strain AnDa465, which was considered a genotype of Anaplasma platys (formerly Ehrlichia platys) and which was obtained from Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from dogs; (ii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnAj360, which was obtained from Amblyomma javanense ticks collected on a pangolin; and (iii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnHl446, which was closely related to Anaplasma bovis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis lagrangei ticks collected from a bear. Three Ehrlichia spp. were identified, including (i) Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52, which was obtained from Boophilus microplus ticks collected from cattle from Thailand; (ii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh324, which was closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam; and (iii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh317, which was closely related to Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52 and which was also detected in H. hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam. Two Rickettsia spp. were detected in Thailand, including (i) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla420, which was detected in Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from a bear, and (ii) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla440, which was identified from two pools of Dermacentor larvae collected from a wild pig nest. Finally, two bacteria named Eubacterium sp. strain Hw124 and Eubacterium sp. strain Hw191 were identified in Haemaphysalis wellingtoni ticks collected from chicken in Thailand; these strains could belong to a new group of bacteria.

  4. [Chemical constituents from polarity part in roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi].

    PubMed

    Deng, Gai-gai; Gui, Zhi-jia; Yang, Xiu-wei

    2015-10-01

    The chemical constituents from polarity part in the roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods on silica gel and HPLC, and the chemical structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Fourteen compounds were obtained and identified as tert-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(R)-byakangelicin (1), (2"S) -3"-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oxypeucedanin hydrate (2), marmesinin (3), sec-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-byakangelicin (4), isofraxidin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), benzyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), 8-O-β-D-glycopyranosylxanthotoxol (7), prenyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), scopolin (9), (2' R) -5'-hydroxymarmesin-5'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), (2'S,3'R) -3'-hydroxymarmesinin (11), skimmin (12), benzyl-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1"--> 6')-β-D-glucopyranoside (13), and decuroside IV (14). Among them, compounds 2, 5, 6, 8, and 10-13 were obtained from the roots of title plant for the first time.

  5. The BANANA Project. V. Misaligned and Precessing Stellar Rotation Axes in CV Velorum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Triaud, Amaury; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter

    2014-04-01

    As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of βp = -52° ± 6° and βs = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i sstarf) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ≈65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i sstarf. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary. Based on observations made with ESOs 2.2 m Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.C-1008 and under MPIA guaranteed time.

  6. Effect of postharvest ultraviolet irradiation on resveratrol and other phenolics of cv. Napoleon table grapes.

    PubMed

    Cantos, E; García-Viguera, C; de Pascual-Teresa, S; Tomás-Barberán, F A

    2000-10-01

    In the skin of cv. Napoleon table grapes, the anthocyanins malvidin 3-glucoside (and its acetyl and p-coumaroyl derivatives), cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-glucoside were identified by HPLC-DAD-MS. In addition, quercetin 3-glucoside and 3-glucuronide, caffeoyltartaric, piceid, and resveratrol were also detected. The content of most phenolics remained quite constant during postharvest refrigerated storage (10 days at 0 degrees C) while the resveratrol derivatives increased 2-fold. Postharvest treatments of grapes with UVC and UVB light induced a large increase in resveratrol derivatives (3- and 2-fold, respectively). This means that a serving of mature Napoleon grapes (200 g) provides approximately 1 mg of resveratrol, which is in the range of the amount supplied by a glass of red wine. This can be increased to 2 or 3 mg of resveratrol per serving in grapes that have been irradiated with UVB or UVC, respectively. These results show that refrigerated storage and UV irradiation of table grapes can be beneficial in terms of increasing the content of potentially health-promoting phenolics.

  7. Efficient and stable transformation of Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco (lettuce) plastids.

    PubMed

    Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asao, Hiroshi; Okumura, Satoru; Takase, Hisabumi; Hattori, Masahira; Yokota, Akiho; Tomizawa, Ken-Ichi

    2006-04-01

    Transgenic plastids offer unique advantages in plant biotechnology, including high-level foreign protein expression. However, broad application of plastid genome engineering in biotechnology has been largely hampered by the lack of plastid transformation systems for major crops. Here we describe the development of a plastid transformation system for lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco. The transforming DNA carries a spectinomycin-resistance gene (aadA) under the control of lettuce chloroplast regulatory expression elements, flanked by two adjacent lettuce plastid genome sequences allowing its targeted insertion between the rbcL and accD genes. On average, we obtained 1 transplastomic lettuce plant per bombardment. We show that lettuce leaf chloroplasts can express transgene-encoded GFP to approximately 36% of the total soluble protein. All transplastomic T0 plants were fertile and the T1 progeny uniformly showed stability of the transgene in the chloroplast genome. This system will open up new possibilities for the efficient production of edible vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and antibodies in plants.

  8. Sequence analysis of ORF IV RTBV isolated from tungro infected Oryza sativa L. cv Ciherang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastilestari, Bernadetta Rina; Astuti, Dwi; Estiati, Amy; Nugroho, Satya

    2015-09-01

    The Effort to increase rice production is often constrained by pest and disease such as Tungro. The Tungro disease is caused by the joint infection with two dissimilar viruses; a bacil-form-DNA virus, the Rice tungro bacilliform virus(RTBV) and the spherical RNA virus, Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) and transmitted by Green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens). The symptom of disease is caused by the presence of RTBV. The genome of RTBV consists of four Open reading frames (ORFs) which encode functional proteins. Of the four, ORF IV is unique because it exists only in RTBV. The most efficient method of generating disease resistance plants is to look for natural sources of resistance genes in wild or germplasm and then transfer the gene and the accompanying resistance in cultivated crop varieties. The aim of this study is, therefore, to isolate and analyze of 1170 bp gene of ORF 4 of Tungro virus isolated from an Indonesian rice cultivar, Ciherang (Oryza sativa L. cv Indica). DNA sequencing analysis using BLAST showed 94% similarity with the reference sequence gen bank Acc.M65026.1. The comparisons and mutation analysis of DNA sequences were discussed in this research.

  9. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the CV990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.

  10. The BANANA project. V. Misaligned and precessing stellar rotation axes in CV Velorum

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Triaud, Amaury; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter

    2014-04-20

    As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of β{sub p} = –52° ± 6° and β{sub s} = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i {sub *}) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ≈65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i {sub *}. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary.

  11. Calcium transport in vesicles from carrot cells: Stimulation by calmodulin and phosphatidylserine. [Daucus carota cv. Danvers

    SciTech Connect

    Wenling Hsieh; Sze, Heven )

    1991-05-01

    The transport properties of Ca-pumping ATPases from carrot (Daucus carota cv. Danvers) tissue culture cells were studied. ATP dependent Ca transport in vesicles that comigrated with an ER marker, was stimulated 3-4 fold by calmodulin. Cyclopiazonic acid (a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase) partially inhibited oxalate-stimulated Ca transport activity; however, it had little or not effect on calmodulin-stimulated Ca uptake. The results suggested the presence of two types of Ca ATPases, and ER- and a plasma membrane-type. Incubation of membranes with (gamma{sup 32}P)ATP resulted in the formation of a single acyl ({sup 32}P) phosphoprotein of 120 kDa. Formation of this phosphoprotein was dependent on Ca, and enhanced by La {sup 3+}, characteristic of the plasma membrane CaATPase. Acidic phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, stimulated Ca transport, similar to their effect on the erythrocyte plasma membrane CaATPase. These results would indicate that the calmodulin-stimulated Ca transport originated in large part from a plasma membrane-type Ca pump of 120 kDa.

  12. Culture treatments for enhancing post-thaw recovery of cryopreserved suspension cells of potato cv. Desiree.

    PubMed

    Sadia, Bushra; Anthony, Paul; Lowe, Kenneth C; Power, J Brian; Davey, Michael R

    2003-01-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for the cryopreservation of cell suspension cultures of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Desiree. An evaluation was made of the effectiveness of different pre-culture and post-thaw treatments on cell growth, as measured by changes in biomass. Cell suspensions were cultured in UM medium supplemented with 0.25, 0.5, 0.625, 0.75 or 1.0 M sucrose prior to cryopreservation. Sucrose-treated cells were harvested from suspension and 0.75 ml packed cell volumes placed in 2 ml capacity polypropylene vials with 0.5 ml of chilled cryoprotectant (glycerol 46.0 g 1(-1), dimethylsulphoxide 39.0 g 1(-1), sucrose 342.0 g 1(-1) proline 5.0 g 1(-1); pH 5.8). Cells were frozen at -0.5 degrees C min(-1) from 0 to -35 degrees C, held at -35 degrees C for 35 min and stored, for 10 days, in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). The most effective pre-treatment, in terms of subsequent post-thaw cell viability as assessed by fluorescein diacetate uptake or triphenyltetrazolium chloride reduction, was culture with 0.75 M sucrose. For this treatment, the mean absorbance (490 nm) following triphenyltetrazolium chloride reduction was 88% greater (p < 0.05) than control and 59% greater (p < 0.05) for thawed cells also cultured on supporting filter paper discs.

  13. Regulation of Cytokinin Oxidase Activity in Callus Tissues of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Great Northern 1

    PubMed Central

    Chatfield, J. Mark; Armstrong, Donald J.

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of cytokinin oxidase activity in callus tissues of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Great Northern has been examined using an assay based on the oxidation of N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine-8-14C (i6 Ade-8-14C) to adenine. Solutions of exogenous cytokinins applied directly to the surface of the callus tissues induced relatively rapid increases in cytokinin oxidase activity. The increase in activity was detectable after 1 hour and continued for about 8 hours, reaching values two- to three-fold higher than the controls. The cytokinin-induced increase in cytokinin oxidase activity was inhibited in tissues pretreated with cordycepin or cycloheximide, suggesting that RNA and protein synthesis may be required for the response. Rifampicin and chloramphenicol, at concentrations that inhibited the growth of Great Northern callus tissues, were ineffective in inhibiting the increase in activity. All cytokinin-active compounds tested, including both substrates and nonsubstrates of cytokinin oxidase, were effective in inducing elevated levels of the enzyme in Great Northern callus tissue. The cytokinin-active urea derivative, Thidiazuron, was as effective as any adenine derivative in inducing this response. The addition of Thidiazuron to the reaction volumes used to assay cytokinin oxidase activity resulted in a marked inhibition of the degradation of the labeled i6 Ade-8-14C substrate. On the basis of this result, it is possible that Thidiazuron may serve as a substrate for cytokinin oxidase, but other mechanisms of inhibition have not yet been excluded. PMID:16664650

  14. Composition of cuticular waxes coating flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem.

    PubMed

    Racovita, Radu C; Hen-Avivi, Shelly; Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Granell, Antonio; Aharoni, Asaph; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    The work herein presents comprehensive analyses of the cuticular wax mixtures covering the flag leaf blade and peduncle of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Bethlehem. Overall, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Flame Ionization Detection revealed a wax coverage of flag leaf blades (16 μg/cm(2)) a third that of peduncles (49 μg/cm(2)). Flag leaf blade wax was dominated by 1-alkanols, while peduncle wax contained primarily β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones, thus suggesting differential regulation of the acyl reduction and β-diketone biosynthetic pathways in the two analyzed organs. The characteristic chain length distributions of the various wax compound classes are discussed in light of their individual biosynthetic pathways and biosynthetic relationships between classes. Along with previously reported wheat wax compound classes (fatty acids, 1-alkanols, 1-alkanol esters, aldehydes, alkanes, β-diketone, hydroxy-β-diketones, alkylresorcinols and methyl alkylresorcinols), esters of 2-alkanols and three types of aromatic esters (benzyl, phenethyl and p-hydroxyphenethyl) are also reported. In particular, 2-heptanol esters were identified. Detailed analyses of the isomer distributions within 1-alkanol and 2-alkanol ester homologs revealed distinct patterns of esterified acids and alcohols, suggesting several wax ester synthases with very different substrate preferences in both wheat organs. Terpenoids, including two terpenoid esters, were present only in peduncle wax.

  15. [In vitro and in vivo effects of mango pulp (Mangifera indica cv. Azucar) in colon carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Corrales-Bernal, Andrea; Amparo Urango, Luz; Rojano, Benjamín; Maldonado, Maria Elena

    2014-03-01

    Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica cv. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 µg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation.

  16. Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel.

    PubMed

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

  17. Priming and temperature limits for germination of dispersal units of Urochloa brizantha (Stapf) Webster cv. basilisk.

    PubMed

    Nakao, E A; Cardoso, V J M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of priming treatments on the upper and lower thermal limits for germination of Urochloa brizantha cv. basilisk, and testing the hypothesis that pré-imbibition affect thermal parameters of the germination. Pre-imbibed seeds both in distilled water (0 MPa) and PEG 6000 solution (-0.5 MPa) were put to germinate in different temperatures. It is suggested that U. brizantha seeds have low response to priming when they were placed to germinate in medium where water is not limiting. The response of U. brizantha seeds to priming is dependent on the temperature and water potential conditions at which the seeds are pre-imbibed, as well as on the germination temperature. The optimum temperature for germination of U. brizantha shift toward warmer temperatures in primed seeds. Priming effect was more pronounced at temperatures closer to the upper and lower limit for germination, but probably that response cannot be accounted for changes in the thermal time constant (θT(g)) and ceiling temperature (Tc(g)). Otherwise, a decrease in the base temperature (Tb) was observed in primed seeds, suggesting that the Tb distribution in U. brizantha seeds is influenced by priming.

  18. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Lunn, John E.; Feil, Regina; Wang, Yufei; Zhao, Jingjing; Tao, Hongxia; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala). Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple. PMID:28069587

  19. G-quadruplex formation in double strand DNA probed by NMM and CV fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Kreig, Alex; Calvert, Jacob; Sanoica, Janet; Cullum, Emily; Tipanna, Ramreddy; Myong, Sua

    2015-09-18

    G-quadruplexes (GQs) are alternative DNA secondary structures that can form throughout the human genome and control the replication and transcription of important regulatory genes. Here, we established an ensemble fluorescence assay by employing two GQ-interacting compounds, N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) and Crystal Violet (CV). This enables quantitative measurement of the GQ folding propensity and conformation specificity in both single strand (ss) and double strand (ds) DNA. Our GQ mapping indicates that the likelihood of GQ formation is substantially diminished in dsDNA, likely due to the competition from the Watson-Crick base pairing. Unlike GQ folding sequence in ssDNA which forms both parallel and antiparallel GQs, dsDNA displays only parallel folding. Additionally, we employed single molecule FRET to obtain a direct quantitation of stably formed-, weakly folded and unfolded GQ conformations. The findings of this study and the method developed here will enable identifying and classifying potential GQ-forming sequences in human genome.

  20. Transfer cell wall ingrowths and transport capacity in pea leaf discs. [Pisum sativum cv

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmers, L.E.; Turgeon, R.

    1986-04-01

    Transfer cell wall ingrowths are thought to increase transport capacity by increasing plasmelemma surface area. Little direct evidence for this hypothesis exists since experimental systems in which the surface area of wall ingrowths can be modulated have not been available. They grew Pisum sativum cv. Little Marvel plants under three light regimes (150, 500, 1000 umol photons m/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/) using 1000 watt Sylvania Metal Halide lamps. Wall ingrowths in minor vein phloem parenchyma cells were analyzed morphometrically from electron micrographs and a positive correlation was found between light intensity and extent of wall ingrowths. Vein loading was assayed by floating abraded leaf discs on /sup 14/C-sucrose (1 mM). There was a positive correlation between uptake and transfer cell wall surface area, although the latter increased more than the former. No significant differences were found in vein length, numbers of phloem elements, or phloem cross sectional areas. Changes in light intensity after a leaf reached maturity did not change uptake potential over a period of at least three days.

  1. Perianth bottom-specific blue color development in Tulip cv. Murasakizuisho requires ferric ions.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Kazuaki; Miki, Naoko; Nakajima, Noriyuki; Momonoi, Kazumi; Kato, Chiharu; Yoshida, Kumi

    2007-02-01

    The entire flower of Tulipa gesneriana cv. Murasakizuisho is purple, except the bottom, which is blue. To elucidate the mechanism of the different color development in the same petal, we prepared protoplasts from the purple and blue epidermal regions and measured the flavonoid composition by HPLC, the vacuolar pH by a proton-selective microelectrode, and element contents by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method. Chemical analyses revealed that the anthocyanin and flavonol compositions in both purple and blue colored protoplasts were the same; delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside (1) and major three flavonol glycosides, manghaslin (2), rutin (3) and mauritianin (4). The vacuolar pH values of the purple and blue protoplasts were 5.5 and 5.6, respectively, without any significant difference. However, the Fe(3+) content in the blue protoplast was approximately 9.5 mM, which was 25 times higher than that in the purple protoplasts. We could reproduce the purple solution by mixing 1 with two equimolar concentrations of flavonol with lambda(vismax) = 539 nm, which was identical to that of the purple protoplasts. Furthermore, addition of Fe(3+) to the mixture of 1-4 gave the blue solution with lambda(vismax) = 615 nm identical to that of the blue protoplasts. We have established that Fe(3+) is essential for blue color development in the tulip.

  2. Zinc biofortification improves phytochemicals and amino-acidic profile in Brassica oleracea cv. Bronco.

    PubMed

    Barrameda-Medina, Yurena; Blasco, Begoña; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Baenas, Nieves; Moreno, Diego A; Ruiz, Juan M

    2017-05-01

    Zn deficiency is currently listed as a major risk factor for human health. Recently, a complimentary solution to mineral malnutrition termed 'biofortification' has been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of a Zn-biofortification program on Zn levels, amino acidic profile and the phytochemicals content in an edible leafy vegetable, such as Brassica oleracea cv. Bronco. Our results indicate that supplementation of 80-100μM Zn is optimal for maintaining the normal growth of plants and to promote the major Zn concentration in the edible part of B. oleracea. Any further increase of Zn supply induced an accumulation of total amino acids, and increased the enzymatic activities involved in sulfur assimilation and synthesis of phenols, finally resulting in a foliar accumulation of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds. Thus, it could be proposed that the growth of B. oleracea under 80-100μM Zn may increase the intake of this micronutrient and other beneficial compunds for the human health.

  3. Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel

    PubMed Central

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (−2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (−1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134

  4. Measurement of heme efflux and heme content in isolated developing chloroplasts. [Cucumis sativus, cv. Sumter

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1990-11-01

    Hemes destined for cytosolic hemoproteins must originate in one of the cellular compartments which have the capacity for heme synthesis, namely the chloroplast or the mitochondria. Since developing chloroplasts from greening cucumber (Cucumis sativus, cv. Sumter) cotyledons are known to contain complete heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways, they were tested for their capacity export hemes. Picomole quantities of heme were measured by reconstitution of the heme with apo-peroxidase and subsequent determination of peroxidase activity. The assay method was sensitive (as little as 0.7 picomole of heme could be detected in a volume of 100 microliters) and was linear with heme concentration. When intact plastids were incubated with apo-peroxidase, a steady-state rate of efflux between 0.12 and 0.45 picomole heme/minute/milligram plastid protein was measured. The efflux rate was not due to plastid breakage and could be enhanced by incubating with the heme precursor, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid. Cold acetone extraction removed 47 {plus minus} 17 picomoles heme/milligram plastid protein from the total b-type heme pool in the chloroplasts (166 {plus minus} 9 picomoles heme/milligram protein, by acid-acetone extraction). The reconstitution technique provided a similar estimate of readily exchangeable heme in the plastid, 37 {plus minus} 8 picomoles heme/milligram protein (or 6 micromolar in the plastids). These values may be indicative of a free heme pool which exists in the chloroplast.

  5. Copper-mediated oxidative burst in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2 cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Raeymaekers, T; Potters, G; Asard, H; Guisez, Y; Horemans, N

    2003-05-01

    In cell suspension cultures of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) a rapid and concentration-dependent accumulation of H(2)O(2) is induced by excess concentrations of copper (up to 100 microM). This specific and early response towards copper stress was shown to be extracellular. Addition of 300 U of catalase per ml decreased the level of H(2)O(2). Superoxide dismutase (5 U/ml) induced an increase in H(2)O(2) production by 22.2%. This indicates that at least part of the H(2)O(2) is produced by dismutation of superoxide. Pretreatment of the cell cultures with the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors diphenylene iodonium (2 and 10 microM) and quinacrine (1 and 5 mM) prevented the generation of H(2)O(2) under copper stress for 90%. The influence of the pH on the H(2)O(2) production revealed the possible involvement of cell-wall-dependent peroxidases in the generation of reactive oxygen species after copper stress.

  6. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Lunn, John E; Feil, Regina; Wang, Yufei; Zhao, Jingjing; Tao, Hongxia; Guo, Yanping; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2017-02-15

    Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala). Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple.

  7. Hidden secrets of deformation: Impact-induced compaction within a CV chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, L. V.; Bland, P. A.; Timms, N. E.; Collins, G. S.; Davison, T. M.; Ciesla, F. J.; Benedix, G. K.; Daly, L.; Trimby, P. W.; Yang, L.; Ringer, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    The CV3 Allende is one of the most extensively studied meteorites in worldwide collections. It is currently classified as S1-essentially unshocked-using the classification scheme of Stöffler et al. (1991), however recent modelling suggests the low porosity observed in Allende indicates the body should have undergone compaction-related deformation. In this study, we detail previously undetected evidence of impact through use of Electron Backscatter Diffraction mapping to identify deformation microstructures in chondrules, AOAs and matrix grains. Our results demonstrate that forsterite-rich chondrules commonly preserve crystal-plastic microstructures (particularly at their margins); that low-angle boundaries in deformed matrix grains of olivine have a preferred orientation; and that disparities in deformation occur between chondrules, surrounding and non-adjacent matrix grains. We find heterogeneous compaction effects present throughout the matrix, consistent with a highly porous initial material. Given the spatial distribution of these crystal-plastic deformation microstructures, we suggest that this is evidence that Allende has undergone impact-induced compaction from an initially heterogeneous and porous parent body. We suggest that current shock classifications (Stöffler et al., 1991) relying upon data from chondrule interiors do not constrain the complete shock history of a sample.

  8. Phenotypic Variations in the Foliar Chemical Profile of Persea americana Mill. cv. Hass.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Yolanda Magdalena; Torres-Gurrola, Guadalupe; Meléndez-González, Claudio; Espinosa-García, Francisco J

    2016-12-01

    The Hass avocado tree Persea americana cv. Hass was derived from a single hybrid tree of P. americana var. drymifolia and P. americana var. guatemalensis, and it is propagated clonally by grafting. This cultivar is the most widely planted in the world but its profile of secondary metabolites has been studied rarely despite of its importance in plant protection. We illustrate the variability of the volatilome of mature leaves by describing the average chemical composition and the phenotypic variability found in 70 trees. Contrary to the uniformity expected in the Hass cultivar, high variability coefficients were found for most of the 36 detected foliar volatile compounds; furthermore we found six chemotypes grouping the foliar phenotypes of the sampled trees using hierarchical cluster analysis. About 48% of trees were grouped in one chemotype; five chemotypes grouped the remaining trees. The compounds that determined these chemotypes were: estragole, α-farnesene, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, α-cubebene and eugenol. This striking variation in a cultivar propagated clonally is discussed in terms of somatic mutation.

  9. Acylated anthocyanins from sprouts of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; Berretti, Serena; Amorati, Riccardo; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on structure-activity relationships of antioxidant anthocyanins. Raphanus sativus cv Sango sprouts are among the richest sources (270 mg/100 g fresh weight). We isolated from sprouts' juice 9 acylated anthocyanins, including 4 new compounds. All comprise a cyanidin core bearing 3-4 glucose units, multiply acylated with malonic and phenolic acids (ferulic and sinapic). All compounds were equally effective in inhibiting the autoxidation of linoleic acid in aqueous micelles, with rate constant for trapping peroxyl radicals kinh=(3.8 ± 0.7) × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) at 37 °C. In acetonitrile solution kinh varied with acylation: (0.9-2.1) × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at 30 °C. Each molecule trapped a number n of peroxyl radicals ranging from 4 to 7. Anthocyanins bearing sinapic acid were more effective than those bearing the ferulic moiety. Under identical settings, deacylated cyanin, ferulic and sinapic acids had kinh of 0.4 × 10(5), 0.3 × 10(5) and 1.6 × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) respectively, with n ranging 2-3. Results show the major role of acylation on antioxidant performance.

  10. Molecular properties and activities of tuber proteins from starch potato cv. Kuras.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Malene; Bauw, Guy; Welinder, Karen G

    2006-12-13

    Potato starch production leaves behind a huge amount of juice. This juice is rich in protein, which might be exploited for food, biotechnological, and pharmaceutical applications. In northern Europe cv. Kuras is dominant for industrial starch production, and juice protein of freshly harvested mature tubers was fractionated by Superdex 200 gel filtration. The fractions were subjected to selected activity assays (patatin, peroxidase, glyoxalases I and II, alpha-mannosidase, inhibition of trypsin, Fusarium protease, and alcalase) and protein subunit size determination by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Proteins present in SDS-PAGE bands were identified by tryptic peptide mass fingerprinting. Protein complexes such as ribosomes and proteasomes eluted with the void volume of the gel filtration. Large proteins were enzymes of starch synthesis dominated by starch phosphorylase L-1 (ca. 4% of total protein). Five identified dimeric patatin variants (25%) coeluted with four monomeric lipoxygenase variants (10%) at 97 kDa. Protease inhibitor I variants (4%) at 46 kDa (hexamer) inhibited alcalase. Fourteen Kunitz protease inhibitor variants (30%) at 19 kDa inhibited trypsin and Fusarium protease. Carboxypeptidase inhibitor variants (5%) and defensins (5%) coeluted with phenolics. The native sizes and molecular properties were determined for 43 different potato tuber proteins, several for the first time.

  11. Coal-fired propulsion system dynamics. Volume III. Dynamic analysis of the cv-3600. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, T.L.; Pearsons, J.L.

    1982-12-01

    This volume summarizes the results of a thorough analysis of the CV-3600 dynamic model that was discussed in Volume II. The purpose of this effort was to determine general engineering details and specifications for coal-fired propulsion systems based on a detailed analysis of a specific propulsion system design. The basis for these specifications included the sensitivity of ship propulsion system response to component parameter and control variations such as grate travel speed and controls, spreader and distributor feed and controls, fan speed and damper controls, steam dump (sizing, control valve characteristics and controls), feedwater pump controls (drum level controls), throttle control, and desuperheater steam attemperation controls. To develop greater insight into the effects of these variations, both open-loop (without control) and closed-loop (with control) versions of the propulsion system were studied. The open and closed-loop responses were further analyzed through the use of linear models and eigenvalue analyses. Specific conclusions regarding desirable trends in component specification are provided as part of the conclusions in this volume.

  12. Cloning, characterization and localization of CHS gene from blood orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Ruby.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xu; Zhou, Wei; Gao, Feng

    2009-09-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS) is involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin. In this study, a full-length DNA of CHS gene (named as CsCHS-bo) was cloned from the blood orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Ruby. The gene was 1,512 bp in size containing an open reading frame (1,176 bp) encoding 391 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatic analyses revealed that the deduced protein of CsCHS-bo was highly homologous to CHS from other plant species. The protein of CsCHS-bo had four CHS-specific conserved motifs and a CHS-family signature sequence GFGPG. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the protein of CsCHS-bo was in a subgroup with CHS of Ruta Palmatum. The CsCHS-bo was localized to the chromosomes 2p, 4p and 6p by an improved fluorescence in situ hybridization technique, indicating that at least three copies of CsCHS-bo were present in the genome.

  13. Air-sampling inlet contamination by aircraft emissions on the NASA CV-990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, E. P.; Vedder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA CV-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.

  14. Folate levels and polyglutamylation profiles of papaya (Carica papaya cv. Maradol) during fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; de la Garza, Rocío I Díaz

    2013-04-24

    Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in cv. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development.

  15. I-Xe measurements of CAIs and chondrules from the CV3 chondrites Mokoia and Vigarano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, J. A.; Russell, S. S.; Turner, G.; Gilmour, J. D.

    2004-08-01

    I-Xe analyses were carried out for chondrules and refractory inclusions from the two CV3 carbonaceous chondrites Mokoia and Vigarano (representing the oxidized and reduced subgroups, respectively). Although some degree of disturbance to the I-Xe system is evident in all of the samples, evidence is preserved of aqueous alteration of CAIs in Mokoia 1 Myr later than the I-Xe age of the Shallowater standard and of the alteration of a chondrule (V3) from Vigarano ~0.7 Myr later than Shallowater. Other chondrules in Mokoia and Vigarano experienced disturbance of the I-Xe system millions of years later and, in the case of one Vigarano chondrule (VS1), complete resetting of the I-Xe system after decay of essentially all 129I, corresponding to an age more than 80 Myr after Shallowater. Our interpretation is that accretion and processing to form the Mokoia and Vigarano parent bodies must have continued for at least 4 Myr and 80 Myr, respectively. The late age of a chondrule that shows no evidence for any aqueous alteration or significant thermal processing after its formation leads us to postulate the existence of an energetic chondrule-forming mechanism at a time when nebular processes are not expected to be important.

  16. Effects and action mechanisms of Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Shingo) on alcohol detoxification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Woo, Hyun-Su; Kim, An Keun; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2012-11-01

    Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Shingo) has been used as a traditional medicine for alleviating alcohol hangover. However, scientific evidence for its effectiveness or mechanism is not clearly established. To investigate its mechanism of alcohol detoxification, both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed with an aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) alternated animal model. The pear extract (10 mL/kg bw) was administered to Aldh2 normal (C57BL/6) and deficient (Aldh2 -/-) male mice. After 30 min, ethanol (1 g or 2 g/kg bw) was administered to the mice via gavage. Levels of alcohol and acetaldehyde in blood were quantified by GC/MS. First, it was observed that the pears stimulated both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and ALDH activities by 2∼3-  and 1.3-fold in in vitro studies, respectively. Second, mouse PK data (AUC(∞) and C(max) ) showed that the pear extract decreased the alcohol level in blood regardless of ALDH2 genotype. Third, the pear increased the acetaldehyde level in blood in Aldh2 deficient mice but not in Aldh2 normal mice. Therefore, the consistent in vitro and in vivo data suggest that Korean pears stimulate the two key alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. These stimulations could be the main mechanism of the Korean pear for alcohol detoxification. Finally, the results suggest that polymorphisms of human ALDH2 could bring out individual variations in the effects of Korean pear on alcohol detoxification.

  17. Influence of foliar fertilization with P and K on chemical constituents of grape cv. 'Cardinal'.

    PubMed

    Topalović, Ana; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Knezević, Mirko; Veberic, Robert

    2011-09-28

    The foliar fertilization has been used as an important agrotechnical measure to avoid deficiencies and to improve quality. During the two consecutive years, a study has been performed on Vitis vinifera L. (cv. 'Cardinal') to examine whether a grape berry quality has been affected by the foliar application of PK fertilizer. A liquid mineral fertilizer containing 15% P2O5, 20% K2O with 0.1% B, 0.1% Mn and 0.01% Mo (% w/w) has been sprayed three times at rate of 8 L ha(-1) every 14-15 days starting at about 15 days before veraison. The sugars, organic acids and flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols and flavan-3-ols) have been analyzed by the high performance liquid chromatography in the grape berries. The foliar fertilization of grapevine can accelerate the accumulation of sugars and anthocyanins, whereas climatic factors and yearly fluctuations influence the content of sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds in general. The effect of fertilizer spraying on flavonols and flavan-3-ols has not been found.

  18. Using MOST to reveal the secrets of the mischievous Wolf-Rayet binary CV Ser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David-Uraz, Alexandre; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Chené, André-Nicolas; Rowe, Jason F.; Lange, Nicholas; Guenther, David B.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W.

    2012-11-01

    The Wolf-Rayet (WR) binary CV Serpentis (= WR113, WC8d + O8-9IV) has been a source of mystery since it was shown that its atmospheric eclipses change with time over decades, in addition to its sporadic dust production. The first high-precision time-dependent photometric observations obtained with the Microvariability and Oscillations of STars (MOST) space telescope in 2009 show two consecutive eclipses over the 29-d orbit, with varying depths. A subsequent MOST run in 2010 showed a seemingly asymmetric eclipse profile. In order to help make sense of these observations, parallel optical spectroscopy was obtained from the Mont Megantic Observatory (2009, 2010) and from the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (2009). Assuming these depth variations are entirely due to electron scattering in a β-law wind, an unprecedented 62 per cent increase in M⊙ is observed over one orbital period. Alternatively, no change in mass-loss rate would be required if a relatively small fraction of the carbon ions in the wind globally recombined and coaggulated to form carbon dust grains. However, it remains a mystery as to how this could occur. There also seems to be evidence for the presence of corotating interaction regions (CIR) in the WR wind: a CIR-like signature is found in the light curves, implying a potential rotation period for the WR star of 1.6 d. Finally, a new circular orbit is derived, along with constraints for the wind collision.

  19. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2005-07-13

    The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower.

  20. Impacts of strigolactone on shoot branching under phosphate starvation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Jinba).

    PubMed

    Xi, Lin; Wen, Chao; Fang, Shuang; Chen, Xiaoli; Nie, Jing; Chu, JinFang; Yuan, Cunquan; Yan, Cunyu; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Jinba) shoot branching is determined by bud outgrowth during the vegetative growth stage. The degree of axillary bud outgrowth is highly influenced by environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability. Here, we demonstrated that phosphorus (Pi) starvation significantly reduces axillary bud outgrowth in chrysanthemum. A strigolactone (SL) biosynthesis gene, DgCCD7, was isolated and characterized as an ortholog of MAX3/DAD3/RMS5/D17. By using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), three putative SLs were identified and levels of all three SLs showed strong increase under Pi starvation conditions. Determinations of the distribution of SLs and regulation of DgCCD7/8 in response to Pi changes in root indicate that SL acts systemically. However, temporal expression patterns of biosynthesis and signaling genes in nodes revealed that Pi starvation causes a local response of SL pathway. Treatment of node segments with or without auxin and Pi revealed that in the absence of exogenous auxin, Pi delayed axillary buds outgrowth and up-regulated local SL pathway genes. These data indicated that an auxin-SL regulatory loop responded to Pi starvation for delaying bud outgrowth locally, root biosynthesized SLs were transported acropetally and functioned in shoot branching inhibition under Pi starvation. We proposed that SLs contributed to chrysanthemum shoot branching control in response to Pi-limiting conditions in a systemic way.