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Sample records for cyp gene superfamily

  1. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene superfamily in Daphnia pulex

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, William S; Marko, Peter B; Nelson, David R

    2009-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in animals fall into two categories: those that synthesize or metabolize endogenous molecules and those that interact with exogenous chemicals from the diet or the environment. The latter form a critical component of detoxification systems. Results Data mining and manual curation of the Daphnia pulex genome identified 75 functional CYP genes, and three CYP pseudogenes. These CYPs belong to 4 clans, 13 families, and 19 subfamilies. The CYP 2, 3, 4, and mitochondrial clans are the same four clans found in other sequenced protostome genomes. Comparison of the CYPs from D. pulex to the CYPs from insects, vertebrates and sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis) show that the CYP2 clan, and to a lesser degree, the CYP4 clan has expanded in Daphnia pulex, whereas the CYP3 clan has expanded in insects. However, the expansion of the Daphnia CYP2 clan is not as great as the expansion observed in deuterostomes and the nematode C. elegans. Mapping of CYP tandem repeat regions demonstrated the unusual expansion of the CYP370 family of the CYP2 clan. The CYP370s are similar to the CYP15s and CYP303s that occur as solo genes in insects, but the CYP370s constitute ~20% of all the CYP genes in Daphnia pulex. Lastly, our phylogenetic comparisons provide new insights into the potential origins of otherwise mysterious CYPs such as CYP46 and CYP19 (aromatase). Conclusion Overall, the cladoceran, D. pulex has a wide range of CYPs with the same clans as insects and nematodes, but with distinct changes in the size and composition of each clan. PMID:19383150

  2. Conotoxin gene superfamilies.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Samuel D; Norton, Raymond S

    2014-12-17

    Conotoxins are the peptidic components of the venoms of marine cone snails (genus Conus). They are remarkably diverse in terms of structure and function. Unique potency and selectivity profiles for a range of neuronal targets have made several conotoxins valuable as research tools, drug leads and even therapeutics, and has resulted in a concerted and increasing drive to identify and characterise new conotoxins. Conotoxins are translated from mRNA as peptide precursors, and cDNA sequencing is now the primary method for identification of new conotoxin sequences. As a result, gene superfamily, a classification based on precursor signal peptide identity, has become the most convenient method of conotoxin classification. Here we review each of the described conotoxin gene superfamilies, with a focus on the structural and functional diversity present in each. This review is intended to serve as a practical guide to conotoxin superfamilies and to facilitate interpretation of the increasing number of conotoxin precursor sequences being identified by targeted-cDNA sequencing and more recently high-throughput transcriptome sequencing.

  3. Conotoxin Gene Superfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Samuel D.; Norton, Raymond S.

    2014-01-01

    Conotoxins are the peptidic components of the venoms of marine cone snails (genus Conus). They are remarkably diverse in terms of structure and function. Unique potency and selectivity profiles for a range of neuronal targets have made several conotoxins valuable as research tools, drug leads and even therapeutics, and has resulted in a concerted and increasing drive to identify and characterise new conotoxins. Conotoxins are translated from mRNA as peptide precursors, and cDNA sequencing is now the primary method for identification of new conotoxin sequences. As a result, gene superfamily, a classification based on precursor signal peptide identity, has become the most convenient method of conotoxin classification. Here we review each of the described conotoxin gene superfamilies, with a focus on the structural and functional diversity present in each. This review is intended to serve as a practical guide to conotoxin superfamilies and to facilitate interpretation of the increasing number of conotoxin precursor sequences being identified by targeted-cDNA sequencing and more recently high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. PMID:25522317

  4. Identification of Cytochrome P450 ( CYP) genes in Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huihui; Bao, Zhenmin; Du, Huixia; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Sun, Luyang; Mou, Xiaoyu; Hu, Xiaoli

    2013-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 ( CYP) superfamily is one of the membership largest and function most diverse protein superfamily recogniozed among living beings. Members of this superfamily were further assigned to different families and subfamilies based on their amino acid similarities. According to their phylogenetic relationships, the CYP genes which likely diverged from common ancestor gene and may share common functions were grouped into one clan. Widely distributing scallops are a group of the most conspicuous bivalve; however the studies on their CYP is acarce. In this study, we searched the genome and expressed sequence tags of Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) for CYP genes. In total, 88 non-redundant CYP were identified, which were homed in 13 CYPs gene families. Phylogenetic analysis divided these genes into 4 CYP clans. As in deuterostomes, Clan 2 was the largest, which contained 33 genes belonging to CYP1, CYP2, CYP17 and CYP356 families. Clan 3 contgained 19 genes belonging to CYP3, CYP5 and CYP30 families. Clan 4 contained 23 genes, all belonging to CYP4 family. The mitochondrial CYP clan contained 9 genes belonging to CYP10 and CYP24 families. In comparison, protostomes ( C. farreri, D. pluex, D. melanogaster) contained more CYP genes than deuterostomes ( S. purpuratus and vertebrates) in Clan 2 but less genes in Clan 3 and Clan 4. Our findings will aid to deciphering CYP function and evolution in scallops and bivalves.

  5. Integrated analysis of cytochrome P450 gene superfamily in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The functional and evolutionary diversification of insect cytochrome P450s (CYPs) shaped the success of insects. CYPs constitute one of the largest and oldest gene superfamilies that are found in virtually all aerobic organisms. Because of the availability of whole genome sequence and well functioning RNA interference (RNAi), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum serves as an ideal insect model for conducting functional genomics studies. Although several T. castaneum CYPs had been functionally investigated in our previous studies, the roles of the majority of CYPs remain largely unknown. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of all T. castaneum CYPs with genes in other insect species, investigated the CYP6BQ gene cluster organization, function and evolution, as well as examined the mitochondrial CYPs gene expression patterns and intron-exon organization. Results A total 143 CYPs were identified and classified into 26 families and 59 subfamilies. The phylogenetic trees of CYPs among insects across taxa provided evolutionary insight for the genetic distance and function. The percentage of singleton (33.3%) in T. castaneum CYPs is much less than those in Drosophila melanogaster (52.5%) and Bombyx mori (51.2%). Most members in the largest CYP6BQ gene cluster may make contribution to deltamethrin resistance in QTC279 strain. T. castaneum genome encodes nine mitochondrial CYPs, among them CYP12H1 is only expressed in the final instar larval stage. The intron-exon organizations of these mitochondrial CYPs are highly diverse. Conclusion Our studies provide a platform to understand the evolution and functions of T. castaneum CYP gene superfamily which will help reveal the strategies employed by insects to cope with their environment. PMID:23497158

  6. Diversity and distribution of CYP gene family in Bactrian camel.

    PubMed

    Hasi, Surong; Yao, Jirimutu; Yu, Siriguleng; Tian, Yanan

    2017-09-12

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes belong to a superfamily of monooxygenases which are phase I enzymes responsible for the first pass metabolism of about 90% of drugs in animals. However, these enzymes are often polymorphic and metabolism of the same drug in different species or different individuals is influenced by genetic and non-genetic factors. Bactrian camels are capable of survival in harsh living environments, being able to consume diets that are often toxic to other mammals and can tolerate extreme water and food deprivation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Bactrian camel's special metabolic pathways and unique detoxification capabilities are attributable to particularities of the CYP gene family. The Bactrian camel's whole genome sequencing data were systemically analyzed and annotated, and then, CYP gene family was searched from the whole protein database and compared with CYP gene families of cattle, horse, chicken, and human. The total of 63 CYP gene copies were found in Bactrian camel's whole genome and were classified into 17 families and 38 subfamilies. Among them, 9 multi-gene families were found, and CYP2, CYP3, and CPY4 have 27, 6, and 7 subfamilies, accounting for 43, 10, and 11% in camel CYP gene, respectively. In comparison with cattle, chicken, horse, and human, the distribution of CYP gene subfamilies in camel is different, with more CYP2J and CYP3A copies in the Bactrian camel, which may contribute to the Bactrian camel's specific biological characteristics and metabolic pathways. Comparing to the cow, horse, chicken, and human CYP genes, the distribution of CYP gene subfamilies is distinct in the Bactrian camel. The higher copy number of CYP2J gene and CYP3A gene in Bactrian camel may be the important factors contributing to the distinct biological characteristics and metabolic pathways of Bactrian camels for adaptation to the harsh environments.

  7. Regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes by nuclear receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Honkakoski, P; Negishi, M

    2000-01-01

    Members of the nuclear-receptor superfamily mediate crucial physiological functions by regulating the synthesis of their target genes. Nuclear receptors are usually activated by ligand binding. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms often catalyse both formation and degradation of these ligands. CYPs also metabolize many exogenous compounds, some of which may act as activators of nuclear receptors and disruptors of endocrine and cellular homoeostasis. This review summarizes recent findings that indicate that major classes of CYP genes are selectively regulated by certain ligand-activated nuclear receptors, thus creating tightly controlled networks. PMID:10749660

  8. CYP1B1: a unique gene with unique characteristics.

    PubMed

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Sharma, Reetika; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    CYP1B1, a recently described dioxin inducible oxidoreductase, is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily involved in the metabolism of estradiol, retinol, benzo[a]pyrene, tamoxifen, melatonin, sterols etc. It plays important roles in numerous physiological processes and is expressed at mRNA level in many tissues and anatomical compartments. CYP1B1 has been implicated in scores of disorders. Analyses of the recent studies suggest that CYP1B1 can serve as a universal/ideal cancer marker and a candidate gene for predictive diagnosis. There is plethora of literature available about certain aspects of CYP1B1 that have not been interpreted, discussed and philosophized upon. The present analysis examines CYP1B1 as a peculiar gene with certain distinctive characteristics like the uniqueness in its chromosomal location, gene structure and organization, involvement in developmentally important disorders, tissue specific, not only expression, but splicing, potential as a universal cancer marker due to its involvement in key aspects of cellular metabolism, use in diagnosis and predictive diagnosis of various diseases and the importance and function of CYP1B1 mRNA in addition to the regular translation. Also CYP1B1 is very difficult to express in heterologous expression systems, thereby, halting its functional studies. Here we review and analyze these exceptional and startling characteristics of CYP1B1 with inputs from our own experiences in order to get a better insight into its molecular biology in health and disease. This may help to further understand the etiopathomechanistic aspects of CYP1B1 mediated diseases paving way for better research strategies and improved clinical management.

  9. Comparative human-horse sequence analysis of the CYP3A subfamily gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, A; Demmel, S; Peters, L M; Leeb, T; Mevissen, M; Haase, B

    2010-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP450s) represent a superfamily of haem-thiolate proteins. CYP450s are most abundant in the liver, a major site of drug metabolism, and play key roles in the metabolism of a variety of substrates, including drugs and environmental contaminants. Interaction of two or more different drugs with the same enzyme can account for adverse effects and failure of therapy. Human CYP3A4 metabolizes about 50% of all known drugs, but little is known about the orthologous CYP450s in horses. We report here the genomic organization of the equine CYP3A gene cluster as well as a comparative analysis with the human CYP3A gene cluster. The equine CYP450 genes of the 3A family are located on ECA 13 between 6.97-7.53 Mb, in a region syntenic to HSA 7 99.05-99.35 Mb. Seven potential, closely linked equine CYP3A genes were found, in contrast to only four genes in the human genome. RNA was isolated from an equine liver sample, and the approximately 1.5-kb coding sequence of six CYP3A genes could be amplified by RT-PCR. Sequencing of the RT-PCR products revealed numerous hitherto unknown single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these six CYP3A genes, and one 6-bp deletion compared to the reference sequence (EquCab2.0). The presence of the variants was confirmed in a sample of genomic DNA from the same horse. In conclusion, orthologous genes for the CYP3A family exist in horses, but their number differs from those of the human CYP3A gene family. CYP450 genes of the same family show high homology within and between mammalian species, but can be highly polymorphic.

  10. Single amino acid polymorphism in aldehyde dehydrogenase gene superfamily.

    PubMed

    Priyadharshini Christy, J; George Priya Doss, C

    2015-01-01

    The aldehyde dehydrogenase gene superfamily comprises of 19 genes and 3 pseudogenes. These superfamily genes play a vital role in the formation of molecules that are involved in life processes, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. ALDH superfamily genes associated mutations are implicated in various diseases, such as pyridoxine-dependent seizures, gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria, type II Hyperprolinemia, Sjogren-Larsson syndrome including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Accumulation of large DNA variations data especially Single Amino acid Polymorphisms (SAPs) in public databases related to ALDH superfamily genes insisted us to conduct a survey on the disease associated mutations and predict their function impact on protein structure and function. Overall this study provides an update and highlights the importance of pathogenic mutations in associated diseases. Using KD4v and Project HOPE a computational based platform, we summarized all the deleterious properties of SAPs in ALDH superfamily genes by the providing valuable insight into structural alteration rendered due to mutation. We hope this review might provide a way to define the deleteriousness of a SAP and helps to understand the molecular basis of the associated disease and also permits precise diagnosis and treatment in the near future.

  11. The Glutathione-S-Transferase, Cytochrome P450 and Carboxyl/Cholinesterase Gene Superfamilies in Predatory Mite Metaseiulus occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Marjorie A.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide-resistant populations of the predatory mite Metaseiulus (= Typhlodromus or Galendromus) occidentalis (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Acari: Phytoseiidae) have been used in the biological control of pest mites such as phytophagous Tetranychus urticae. However, the pesticide resistance mechanisms in M. occidentalis remain largely unknown. In other arthropods, members of the glutathione-S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 (CYP) and carboxyl/cholinesterase (CCE) gene superfamilies are involved in the diverse biological pathways such as the metabolism of xenobiotics (e.g. pesticides) in addition to hormonal and chemosensory processes. In the current study, we report the identification and initial characterization of 123 genes in the GST, CYP and CCE superfamilies in the recently sequenced M. occidentalis genome. The gene count represents a reduction of 35% compared to T. urticae. The distribution of genes in the GST and CCE superfamilies in M. occidentalis differs significantly from those of insects and resembles that of T. urticae. Specifically, we report the presence of the Mu class GSTs, and the J’ and J” clade CCEs that, within the Arthropoda, appear unique to Acari. Interestingly, the majority of CCEs in the J’ and J” clades contain a catalytic triad, suggesting that they are catalytically active. They likely represent two Acari-specific CCE clades that may participate in detoxification of xenobiotics. The current study of genes in these superfamilies provides preliminary insights into the potential molecular components that may be involved in pesticide metabolism as well as hormonal/chemosensory processes in the agriculturally important M. occidentalis. PMID:27467523

  12. Phylogenomic evolutionary surveys of subtilase superfamily genes in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Gu, Fei; Wu, Runian; Yang, JinKui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2017-01-01

    Subtilases belong to a superfamily of serine proteases which are ubiquitous in fungi and are suspected to have developed distinct functional properties to help fungi adapt to different ecological niches. In this study, we conducted a large-scale phylogenomic survey of subtilase protease genes in 83 whole genome sequenced fungal species in order to identify the evolutionary patterns and subsequent functional divergences of different subtilase families among the main lineages of the fungal kingdom. Our comparative genomic analyses of the subtilase superfamily indicated that extensive gene duplications, losses and functional diversifications have occurred in fungi, and that the four families of subtilase enzymes in fungi, including proteinase K-like, Pyrolisin, kexin and S53, have distinct evolutionary histories which may have facilitated the adaptation of fungi to a broad array of life strategies. Our study provides new insights into the evolution of the subtilase superfamily in fungi and expands our understanding of the evolution of fungi with different lifestyles. PMID:28358043

  13. CYP superfamily perturbation by diflubenzuron or acephate in different tissues of CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Sapone, A; Pozzetti, L; Canistro, D; Broccoli, M; Bronzetti, G; Potenza, G; Affatato, A; Biagi, G L; Cantelli-Forti, G; Paolini, M

    2005-01-01

    This work aimed to investigate whether the insecticide acephate (125 or 250 mg/kg b.w.) or diflubenzuron (752 or 1075 mg/kg b.w.), two of the most widely used pesticides worldwide, impairs CYP-linked murine metabolism in liver, kidney and lung microsomes after repeated (daily, for three consecutive days) i.p. administration. The regio- and stereo-selective hydroxylation of testosterone was used as multibiomarker of different CYP isoforms. Both gender and tissue specific effects were observed. Lung was the most responsive tissue to induction by lower diflubenzuron dose, as exemplified by the marked increase of testosterone 7alpha-hydroxylation (CYP2A) (up to 13-fold) in males. Higher dose produced a generalized inactivation. At the lower dose acephate induced 6beta- (CYP3A1/2, liver) as well as 2beta- (CYP2B1/2, kidney) hydroxylase activities ( approximately 5 and approximately 4-fold increase, respectively) in males. In females, a marked suppression of the various hydroxylations was observed. At 250 mg/kg of acephate, animals did not survive. Induction of the most affected isoforms was sustained by immunoblotting analysis. Corresponding human CYP modulations might disrupt normal physiological functions related to these enzymes. Furthermore, the co-mutagenic and promoting potential of these pesticides, phenomena linked to CYP upregulation (e.g. increased bioactivation of ubiquitous pollutants and generation of oxygen free radicals) are of concern for a more complete definition of their overall toxicological potential.

  14. Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Bethke, Lara; Webb, Emily; Sellick, Gabrielle; Rudd, Matthew; Penegar, Stephen; Withey, Laura; Qureshi, Mobshra; Houlston, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes have the potential to affect colorectal cancer (CRC) risk by determining the genotoxic impact of exogenous carcinogens and levels of sex hormones. Methods To investigate if common variants of CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 influence CRC risk we genotyped 2,575 CRC cases and 2,707 controls for 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have not previously been shown to have functional consequence within these genes. Results There was a suggestion of increased risk, albeit insignificant after correction for multiple testing, of CRC for individuals homozygous for CYP1B1 rs162558 and heterozygous for CYP1A2 rs2069522 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.80 and OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.00–1.79 respectively). Conclusion This study provides some support for polymorphic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 playing a role in CRC susceptibility. PMID:17615053

  15. Regulation of the Alkane Hydroxylase CYP153 Gene in a Gram-Positive Alkane-Degrading Bacterium, Dietzia sp. Strain DQ12-45-1b.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jie-Liang; JiangYang, Jing-Hong; Nie, Yong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-11-13

    CYP153, one of the most common medium-chain n-alkane hydroxylases belonging to the cytochrome P450 superfamily, is widely expressed in n-alkane-degrading bacteria. CYP153 is also thought to cooperate with AlkB in degrading various n-alkanes. However, the mechanisms regulating the expression of the protein remain largely unknown. In this paper, we studied CYP153 gene transcription regulation by the potential AraC family regulator (CypR) located upstream of the CYP153 gene cluster in a broad-spectrum n-alkane-degrading Gram-positive bacterium, Dietzia sp. strain DQ12-45-1b. We first identified the transcriptional start site and the promoter of the CYP153 gene cluster. Sequence alignment of upstream regions of CYP153 gene clusters revealed high conservation in the -10 and -35 regions in Actinobacteria. Further analysis of the β-galactosidase activity in the CYP153 gene promoter-lacZ fusion cell indicated that the CYP153 gene promoter was induced by n-alkanes comprised of 8 to 14 carbon atoms, but not by derived decanol and decanic acid. Moreover, we constructed a cypR mutant strain and found that the CYP153 gene promoter activities and CYP153 gene transcriptional levels in the mutant strain were depressed compared with those in the wild-type strain in the presence of n-alkanes, suggesting that CypR served as an activator for the CYP153 gene promoter. By comparing CYP153 gene arrangements in Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, we found that the AraC family regulator is ubiquitously located upstream of the CYP153 gene, suggesting its universal regulatory role in CYP153 gene transcription. We further hypothesize that the observed mode of CYP153 gene regulation is shared by many Actinobacteria.

  16. Regulation of the Alkane Hydroxylase CYP153 Gene in a Gram-Positive Alkane-Degrading Bacterium, Dietzia sp. Strain DQ12-45-1b

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jie-Liang; JiangYang, Jing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    CYP153, one of the most common medium-chain n-alkane hydroxylases belonging to the cytochrome P450 superfamily, is widely expressed in n-alkane-degrading bacteria. CYP153 is also thought to cooperate with AlkB in degrading various n-alkanes. However, the mechanisms regulating the expression of the protein remain largely unknown. In this paper, we studied CYP153 gene transcription regulation by the potential AraC family regulator (CypR) located upstream of the CYP153 gene cluster in a broad-spectrum n-alkane-degrading Gram-positive bacterium, Dietzia sp. strain DQ12-45-1b. We first identified the transcriptional start site and the promoter of the CYP153 gene cluster. Sequence alignment of upstream regions of CYP153 gene clusters revealed high conservation in the −10 and −35 regions in Actinobacteria. Further analysis of the β-galactosidase activity in the CYP153 gene promoter-lacZ fusion cell indicated that the CYP153 gene promoter was induced by n-alkanes comprised of 8 to 14 carbon atoms, but not by derived decanol and decanic acid. Moreover, we constructed a cypR mutant strain and found that the CYP153 gene promoter activities and CYP153 gene transcriptional levels in the mutant strain were depressed compared with those in the wild-type strain in the presence of n-alkanes, suggesting that CypR served as an activator for the CYP153 gene promoter. By comparing CYP153 gene arrangements in Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, we found that the AraC family regulator is ubiquitously located upstream of the CYP153 gene, suggesting its universal regulatory role in CYP153 gene transcription. We further hypothesize that the observed mode of CYP153 gene regulation is shared by many Actinobacteria. PMID:26567302

  17. Phylogenetic Diversification of the Globin Gene Superfamily in Chordates

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Jay F.; Opazo, Juan C.; Hoffmann, Federico G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Phylogenetic reconstructions provide a means of inferring the branching relationships among members of multigene families that have diversified via successive rounds of gene duplication and divergence. Such reconstructions can illuminate the pathways by which particular expression patterns and protein functions evolved. For example, phylogenetic analyses can reveal cases in which similar expression patterns or functional properties evolved independently in different lineages, either through convergence, parallelism, or evolutionary reversals. The purpose of this paper is to provide a robust phylogenetic framework for interpreting experimental data and for generating hypotheses about the functional evolution of globin proteins in chordate animals. To do this we present a consensus phylogeny of the chordate globin gene superfamily. We document the relative roles of gene duplication and whole-genome duplication in fueling the functional diversification of vertebrate globins, and we unravel patterns of shared ancestry among globin genes from representatives of the three chordate subphyla (Craniata, Urochordata, and Cephalochordata). Our results demonstrate the value of integrating phylogenetic analyses with genomic analyses of conserved synteny to infer the duplicative origins and evolutionary histories of globin genes. We also discuss a number of case studies that illustrate the importance of phylogenetic information when making inferences about the evolution of globin gene expression and protein function. Finally, we discuss why the globin gene superfamily presents special challenges for phylogenetic analysis, and we describe methodological approaches that can be used to meet those challenges. PMID:21557448

  18. Perturbation of murine liver cyp-superfamily of isoforms by different combinations of pesticide mixtures.

    PubMed

    Canistro, D; Pozzetti, L; Sapone, A; Broccoli, M; Affatato, A A; Stradiotti, A; Longo, V; Menichini, P; Barale, R; Paolini, M

    2008-01-01

    It was previously found that fenarimol, vinclozolin or acephate, three of the most used pesticides worldwide, provoked a marked perturbation of murine cytochrome P450 (CYP)-linked monooxygenases. Here, to more closely mimic human exposure, it was investigated whether different pesticide combinations administered i.p. in male Swiss Albino CD1 mice in single or repeated fashion (daily, for three consecutive days), affect CYP-dependent oxidations. The four simulated mixtures showed a complex pattern of CYP induction and suppression, especially after repeated injection. For example, while fenarimol alone was the most inducing agent--reaching a 79-fold increase over control in testosterone 2alpha-hydroxylase--followed by vinclozolin and acephate, coadministration with the former markedly reduced induction. Coadministration with vinclozolin, determined various positive and negative modulations. An increase of CYP2B1/2 and CYP3A1/2-associated oxidases and a decrease of ethoxycoumarin metabolism was observed in the acephate and vinclozolin mixture. An equivalent or reduced CYP expression, if compared to double combinations, was seen using the complete mixture. Taken as a whole, the unpredictability of the recorded effects with simple mixtures, shrinks the misleading extrapolation performed on a single pesticide. If reproduced in human, such changes, altering either endogenous metabolism or biotransformation of ubiquitous toxins, might have public health implications.

  19. A superfamily of DNA transposons targeting multicopy small RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kenji K; Jurka, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Target-specific integration of transposable elements for multicopy genes, such as ribosomal RNA and small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, is of great interest because of the relatively harmless nature, stable inheritance and possible application for targeted gene delivery of target-specific transposable elements. To date, such strict target specificity has been observed only among non-LTR retrotransposons. We here report a new superfamily of sequence-specific DNA transposons, designated Dada. Dada encodes a DDE-type transposase that shows a distant similarity to transposases encoded by eukaryotic MuDR, hAT, P and Kolobok transposons, as well as the prokaryotic IS256 insertion element. Dada generates 6-7 bp target site duplications upon insertion. One family of Dada DNA transposons targets a specific site inside the U6 snRNA genes and are found in various fish species, water flea, oyster and polycheate worm. Other target sequences of the Dada transposons are U1 snRNA genes and different tRNA genes. The targets are well conserved in multicopy genes, indicating that copy number and sequence conservation are the primary constraints on the target choice of Dada transposons. Dada also opens a new frontier for target-specific gene delivery application.

  20. A new family of cytochrome P450 genes (CYP41) from the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus.

    PubMed

    Crampton, A L; Baxter, G D; Barker, S C

    1999-09-01

    We isolated and sequenced a cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene that is sufficiently different from other CYP genes that a new CYP family, CYP41 was created. CYP41 encodes a protein of 518 residues and is most similar to genes from the family CYP3; it is 36% identical to CYP3A2 and 34% identical to CYP3A28. We hypothesise that CYP41 encodes an enzyme that metabolizes xenobiotic compounds i.e. compounds that are foreign to the cattle tick. The phylogenetic position of CYP41 could not be resolved because of the high level of sequence divergence at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels.

  1. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Cyp26b1 to Be an Activin Regulated Gene Involved in Ovarian Granulosa Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Kipp, Jingjing L.; Golebiowski, Ann; Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Demczuk, Michael; Kilen, Signe M.; Mayo, Kelly E.

    2011-01-01

    Activin, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is an important modulator of FSH synthesis and secretion and is involved in reproductive dysfunctions and cancers. It also regulates ovarian follicle development. To understand the mechanisms and pathways by which activin regulates follicle function, we performed a microarray study and identified 240 activin regulated genes in mouse granulosa cells. The gene most strongly inhibited by activin was Cyp26b1, which encodes a P450 cytochrome enzyme that degrades retinoic acid (RA). Cyp26b1 has been shown to play an important role in male germ cell meiosis, but its expression is largely lost in the ovary around embryonic d 12.5. This study demonstrated that Cyp26b1 mRNA was expressed in granulosa cells of follicles at all postnatal developmental stages. A striking inverse spatial and temporal correlation between Cyp26b1 and activin-βA mRNA expression was observed. Cyp26b1 expression was also elevated in a transgenic mouse model that has decreased activin expression. The Cyp26 inhibitor R115866 stimulated the proliferation of primary cultured mouse granulosa cells, and a similar effect was observed with RA and activin. A pan-RA receptor inhibitor, AGN194310, abolished the stimulatory effect of either RA or activin on granulosa cell proliferation, indicating an involvement of RA receptor-mediated signaling. Overall, this study provides new insights into the mechanisms of activin action in the ovary. We conclude that Cyp26b1 is expressed in the postnatal mouse ovary, regulated by activin, and involved in the control of granulosa cell proliferation. PMID:21084447

  2. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng-Xia; Zang, Jian-Lei; Wang, Tan; Xie, Yu-Li; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants.

  3. Direct sequencing and comprehensive screening of genetic polymorphisms on CYP2 family genes (CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, and CYP2E1) in five ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Park, Byung Lae; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Shin, Hee Jung; Na, Han Sung; Chung, Myeon Woo; Shin, Hyoung Doo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, and CYP2E1 have been reported to play a role in the metabolic effect of pharmacological and carcinogenic compounds. Moreover, genetic variations of drug metabolism genes have been implicated in the interindividual variation in drug disposition and pharmacological response. To define the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these four CYP2 family genes and to discover novel SNPs across ethnic groups, 288 DNAs composed of 48 African-Americans, 48 European-Americans, 48 Japanese, 48 Han Chinese, and 96 Koreans were resequenced. A total of 143 SNPs, 26 in CYP2A6, 45 in CYP2B6, 29 in CYP2C8, and 43 in CYP2E1, were identified, including 13 novel variants. Notably, two SNPs in the regulatory regions, a promoter SNP rs2054675 and a nonsynonymous rs3745274 (p.172Q>H) in CYP2B6, showed significantly different minor allele frequencies (MAFs) among ethnic groups (minimum P = 4.30 × 10(-12)). In addition, rs2031920 in the promoter region of CYP2E1 showed a wide range of MAF between different ethnic groups, and even among other various ethnic groups based on public reports. Among 13 newly discovered SNPs in this study, 5 SNPs were estimated to have potential functions in further in silico analyses. Some differences in genetic variations and haplotypes of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, and CYP2E1 were observed among populations. Our findings could be useful in further researches, such as genetic associations with drug responses.

  4. Chimeric CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 genes identified in Czech patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Vrzalová, Zuzana; Hrubá, Zuzana; Hrabincová, Eva Sťahlová; Vrábelová, Slávka; Votava, Felix; Koloušková, Stanislava; Fajkusová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) comprises a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by an enzymatic deficiency which impairs the biosynthesis of cortisol and, in the majority of severe cases, also the biosynthesis of aldosterone. Approximately 95% of all CAH cases are caused by mutations in the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2). The CYP21A2 gene and its inactive pseudogene (CYP21A1P) are located within the HLA class III region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus on chromosome 6p21.3. In this study, we describe chimeric CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 genes detected in our patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). Chimeric CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 genes were present in 171 out of 508 mutated CYP21A2 alleles (33.8%). We detected four types of chimeric CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 genes: three of them have been described previously as CH-1, CH-3, CH-4, and one type is novel. The novel chimeric gene, termed CH-7, was detected in 21.4% of the mutant alleles. Possible causes of CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 formation are associated with 1) high recombination rate in the MHC locus, 2) high recombination rate between highly homologous genes and pseudogenes in the CYP21 gene area, and 3) the existence of chi-like sequences and repetitive minisatellite consensus sequences in CYP21A2 and CYP21A1P which play a role in promoting genetic recombination.

  5. Functional polymorphisms in the CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP21A2 genes in the risk for hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Coto, Eliecer; Tavira, Beatriz; Marín, Rafael; Ortega, Francisco; López-Larrea, Carlos; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Ortiz, Alberto; Díaz, Marta; Corao, Ana I; Alonso, Belén; Alvarez, Victoria

    2010-07-02

    An intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CYP3A5 gene (CYP3A5*3; SNP rs776746) affects RNA splicing and enzymatic activity. The CYP3A5*3 frequency increased with distance from the equator and natural selection has been proposed to explain the worldwide distribution of this allele. CYP3A activity has been related with the risk for hypertension in pregnancy, a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women, and CYP3A5*3 could reduce the risk for this disease in populations from regions with high sodium and water availability. The CYP3A5 genotype was related with blood pressure in the general population, but the effect on the risk for hypertension in pregnancy has not been evaluated.We compared the allele and genotype frequencies of three functional SNPs in the CYP3A5 (rs776746), CYP3A4 (rs2740574), and CYP21A2 (rs6471) genes between pregnant women who developed hypertension (n = 250) or who remained normotensive (control group, n = 250). In addition, we sequenced the full CYP3A5 coding sequence in 40 women from the two groups to determine whether some gene variants could explain the risk for hypertensive pregnancies in our population.Allele and genotype frequencies did not differ between hypertensive and normotensive women for the three CYP variants. We did not find CYP3A5 nucleotide changes that could explain a higher risk for hypertension in pregnancy. Our data suggests that the variation in CYP3A5, CYP3A4, and CYP21A2 did not contribute to the risk for hypertension in pregnancy in our population.

  6. Isolation and Expression Analysis of CYP9A11 and Cytochrome P450 Reductase Gene in the Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunqing; Feng, Xiaoyun; Tang, Tao; Qiu, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs), as an enzyme superfamily, is widely distributed in organisms and plays a vital function in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds by interacting with its obligatory redox partner, CYP reductase (CPR). A novel CYP gene (CYP9A11) and CPR gene from the agricultural pest insect Spodoptera exigua were cloned and characterized. The complete cDNA sequences of SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR are 1,931 and 3,919 bp in length, respectively, and contain open reading frames of 1,593 and 2,070 nucleotides, respectively. Analysis of the putative protein sequences indicated that SeCYP9A11 contains a heme-binding domain and the unique characteristic sequence (SRFALCE) of the CYP9 family, in addition to a signal peptide and transmembrane segment at the N-terminal. Alignment analysis revealed that SeCYP9A11 shares the highest sequence similarity with CYP9A13 from Mamestra brassicae, which is 66.54%. The putative protein sequence of SeCPR has all of the classical CPR features, such as an N-terminal membrane anchor; three conserved domain flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) domain; and characteristic binding motifs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that SeCPR shares the highest identity with HaCPR, which is 95.21%. The SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR genes were detected in the midgut, fat body, and cuticle tissues, and throughout all of the developmental stages of S. exigua. The mRNA levels of SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR decreased remarkably after exposure to plant secondary metabolites quercetin and tannin. The results regarding SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR genes in the current study provide foundation for the further study of S. exigua P450 system. PMID:26320261

  7. Cytochrome P450 CYP2 genes in the common cormorant: Evolutionary relationships with 130 diapsid CYP2 clan sequences and chemical effects on their expression.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Akira; Stegeman, John J; Goldstone, Jared V; Nelson, David R; Kim, Eun-Young; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Iwata, Hisato

    2011-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 CYP2 family enzymes are important in a variety of physiological and toxicological processes. CYP2 genes are highly diverse and orthologous relationships remain clouded among CYP2s in different taxa. Sequence and expression analyses of CYP2 genes in diapsids including birds and reptiles may improve understanding of this CYP family. We sought CYP2 genes in a liver cDNA library of the common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), and in the genomes of other diapsids, chicken (Gallus gallus), zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), and anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis), for phylogenetic and/or syntenic analyses. Screening of the cDNA library yielded four CYP2 cDNA clones that were phylogenetically classified as CYP2C45, CYP2J25, CYP2AC1, and CYP2AF1. There are numerous newly identified diapsid CYP2 genes that include genes related to the human CYP2Cs, CYP2D6, CYP2G2P, CYP2J2, CYP2R1, CYP2U1, CYP2W1, CYP2AB1P, and CYP2AC1P. Syntenic relationships show that avian CYP2Hs are orthologous to CYP2C62P in humans, CYP2C23 in rats, and Cyp2c44 in mice, and suggest that avian CYP2Hs, along with human CYP2C62P and mouse Cyp2c44, could be renamed as CYP2C23, based upon the nomenclature rules. Analysis of sequence and synteny identifies cormorant and finch CYPs that are apparent orthologs of phenobarbital-inducible chicken CYP2C45. Transcripts of all four cormorant CYP2 genes were detected in the liver of birds from Lake Biwa, Japan. The transcript levels bore no significant relationship to levels of chlorinated organic pollutants in the liver, including polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites. In contrast, concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorononanoic acid were negatively correlated with levels of CYP2C45 and/or CYP2J25, suggesting down-regulation of expression by these environmental pollutants. This study expands our view of the phylogeny and evolution of CYP2s, and provides evolutionary insight into the chemical

  8. Ah receptor, CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms are not involved in the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Y; Sata, F; Yamada, H; Suzuki, K; Sasaki, S; Kondo, T; Gong, Y Y; Kato, E H; Shimada, S; Morikawa, M; Minakami, H; Kishi, R

    2004-10-01

    The etiology of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) remains unclear, but it may be related to a possible genetic predisposition together with involvement of environmental factors. We examined the relation between RPL and polymorphisms in four genes, human aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1, which are involved in the metabolism of a wide range of environmental toxins and carcinogens. All cases and controls were women resident in Sapporo, Japan and the surrounding area. The Ah receptor, CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genotypes were assessed in 113 Japanese women with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and 203 ethnically matched women experiencing at least one live birth and no spontaneous abortion (control). No significant differences in Ah receptor, CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genotype frequencies were found between the women with RPL and the controls [Ah receptor: Arg/Arg (reference); Arg/Lys and Lys/Lys, odds ratio (OR)=0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.40-1.11, CYP1A1: m1m1 (reference); m1m2 and m2m2, OR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.53-1.40, CYP1A2: C/C and C/A (reference); A/A, OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.71-1.88, CYP1B1: Leu/Leu (reference); Leu/Val and Val/Val, OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 0.68-2.02]. The present study suggests that the Ah receptor, CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms are not major genetic regulators in RPL.

  9. The Impact of CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 Genes Polymorphism on Theophylline Response.

    PubMed

    Sutrisna, Em

    2016-11-01

    Theophylline is a medicine with narrow therapeutic index. This implies that a small change in dosage would cause side effects. Theophylline is metabolized by CYP1A2 and CYP2E1. The aim of this review is to know the impact of CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 genes polymorphism on theophylline response. The review was done by searching literature in Pubmed and Science Direct databases with keywords 'polymorphism', 'pharmacogenetic', 'CYP1A2', 'CYP2E1' and 'theophylline'. There were 5 research articles from Pubmed and 65 articles (21 research articles, 23 review articles and 21 book chapters) from Science Direct. The exclusion criteria were - articles discussing about polymorphism but not CYP1A2 or CYP2E1, the ones with a mention of theophylline but not about its metabolism, articles on CYP1A2 and/or 2E1 polymorphism but not on the effect on theophylline. Thus, 33 articles were reviewed due to their suitability. The review discusses the influence of polymorphism of CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 genes on theophylline response.

  10. Selaginella moellendorffii has a reduced and highly conserved expansin superfamily with genes more closely related to angiosperms than to bryophytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Expansins are plant cell wall loosening proteins encoded by a large superfamily of genes, consisting of four families named EXPA, EXPB, EXLA, and EXLB. The evolution of the expansin superfamily is well understood in angiosperms, thanks to synteny-based evolutionary studies of the gene superfamily in Arabidopsis, rice, and Populus. Analysis of the expansin superfamily in the moss Physcomitrella patens revealed a superfamily without EXLA or EXLB genes that has evolved considerably and independently of angiosperm expansins. The sequencing of the Selaginella moellendorffii genome has allowed us to extend these analyses into an early diverging vascular plant. Results The expansin superfamily in Selaginella moellendorffii has now been assembled from genomic scaffolds. A smaller (and less diverse) superfamily is revealed, consistent with studies of other gene families in Selaginella. Selaginella has an expansin superfamily, which, like Physcomitrella, lacks EXLA or EXLB genes, but does contain two EXPA genes that are related to a particular Arabidopsis-rice clade involved in root hair development. Conclusions From sequence-based phylogenetic analysis, most Selaginella expansins lie outside the Arabidopsis-rice clades, leading us to estimate the minimum number of expansins present in the last common ancestor of Selaginella and angiosperms at 2 EXPA genes and 1 EXPB gene. These results confirm Selaginella as an important intermediary between bryophytes and angiosperms. PMID:23286898

  11. Selaginella moellendorffii has a reduced and highly conserved expansin superfamily with genes more closely related to angiosperms than to bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Carey, Robert E; Hepler, Nathan K; Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2013-01-03

    Expansins are plant cell wall loosening proteins encoded by a large superfamily of genes, consisting of four families named EXPA, EXPB, EXLA, and EXLB. The evolution of the expansin superfamily is well understood in angiosperms, thanks to synteny-based evolutionary studies of the gene superfamily in Arabidopsis, rice, and Populus. Analysis of the expansin superfamily in the moss Physcomitrella patens revealed a superfamily without EXLA or EXLB genes that has evolved considerably and independently of angiosperm expansins. The sequencing of the Selaginella moellendorffii genome has allowed us to extend these analyses into an early diverging vascular plant. The expansin superfamily in Selaginella moellendorffii has now been assembled from genomic scaffolds. A smaller (and less diverse) superfamily is revealed, consistent with studies of other gene families in Selaginella. Selaginella has an expansin superfamily, which, like Physcomitrella, lacks EXLA or EXLB genes, but does contain two EXPA genes that are related to a particular Arabidopsis-rice clade involved in root hair development. From sequence-based phylogenetic analysis, most Selaginella expansins lie outside the Arabidopsis-rice clades, leading us to estimate the minimum number of expansins present in the last common ancestor of Selaginella and angiosperms at 2 EXPA genes and 1 EXPB gene. These results confirm Selaginella as an important intermediary between bryophytes and angiosperms.

  12. Expression of 6-Cys gene superfamily defines babesia bovis sexual stage development within rhipicephalus microplus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Babesia bovis, an intra-erythrocytic tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan, is one of the agents of bovine babesiosis. Its life cycle includes sexual reproduction within cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp. Six B. bovis 6-Cys gene superfamily members were previously identified (A, B, C, D, E, F) and t...

  13. Genome-Wide Identification and Functional Classification of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) Gene Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Valverde, Francisco J.; Robles-Bolivar, Paula; Lima-Cabello, Elena; Gachomo, Emma W.; Kotchoni, Simeon O.

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) is a protein superfamily that catalyzes the oxidation of aldehyde molecules into their corresponding non-toxic carboxylic acids, and responding to different environmental stresses, offering promising genetic approaches for improving plant adaptation. The aim of the current study is the functional analysis for systematic identification of S. lycopersicum ALDH gene superfamily. We performed genome-based ALDH genes identification and functional classification, phylogenetic relationship, structure and catalytic domains analysis, and microarray based gene expression. Twenty nine unique tomato ALDH sequences encoding 11 ALDH families were identified, including a unique member of the family 19 ALDH. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 13 groups, with a conserved relationship among ALDH families. Functional structure analysis of ALDH2 showed a catalytic mechanism involving Cys-Glu couple. However, the analysis of ALDH3 showed no functional gene duplication or potential neo-functionalities. Gene expression analysis reveals that particular ALDH genes might respond to wounding stress increasing the expression as ALDH2B7. Overall, this study reveals the complexity of S. lycopersicum ALDH gene superfamily and offers new insights into the structure-functional features and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants. The functional characterization of ALDHs is valuable and promoting molecular breeding in tomato for the improvement of stress tolerance and signaling. PMID:27755582

  14. Genome-Wide Identification and Functional Classification of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) Gene Superfamily.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C; Lopez-Valverde, Francisco J; Robles-Bolivar, Paula; Lima-Cabello, Elena; Gachomo, Emma W; Kotchoni, Simeon O

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) is a protein superfamily that catalyzes the oxidation of aldehyde molecules into their corresponding non-toxic carboxylic acids, and responding to different environmental stresses, offering promising genetic approaches for improving plant adaptation. The aim of the current study is the functional analysis for systematic identification of S. lycopersicum ALDH gene superfamily. We performed genome-based ALDH genes identification and functional classification, phylogenetic relationship, structure and catalytic domains analysis, and microarray based gene expression. Twenty nine unique tomato ALDH sequences encoding 11 ALDH families were identified, including a unique member of the family 19 ALDH. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 13 groups, with a conserved relationship among ALDH families. Functional structure analysis of ALDH2 showed a catalytic mechanism involving Cys-Glu couple. However, the analysis of ALDH3 showed no functional gene duplication or potential neo-functionalities. Gene expression analysis reveals that particular ALDH genes might respond to wounding stress increasing the expression as ALDH2B7. Overall, this study reveals the complexity of S. lycopersicum ALDH gene superfamily and offers new insights into the structure-functional features and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants. The functional characterization of ALDHs is valuable and promoting molecular breeding in tomato for the improvement of stress tolerance and signaling.

  15. Precursor De13.1 from Conus delessertii defines the novel G gene superfamily.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Manuel B; Ortiz, Ernesto; Kaas, Quentin; López-Vera, Estuardo; Becerril, Baltazar; Possani, Lourival D; de la Cotera, Edgar P Heimer

    2013-03-01

    Peptide de13a was previously purified from the venom of the worm-hunting cone snail Conus delessertii from the Yucatán Channel, México. This peptide has eight cysteine (Cys) residues in the unique arrangement C-C-C-CC-C-C-C, which defines the cysteine framework XIII ("-" represents one or more non-Cys residues). Remarkably, δ-hydroxy-lysine residues have been found only in conotoxin de13a, which also contains an unusually high proportion of hydroxylated amino acid residues. Here, we report the cDNA cloning of the complete precursor De13.1 of a related peptide, de13b, which has the same Cys framework and inter-Cys spacings as peptide de13a, and shares high protein/nucleic acid sequence identity (87%/90%) with de13a, suggesting that both peptides belong to the same conotoxin gene superfamily. Analysis of the signal peptide of precursor De13.1 reveals that this precursor belongs to a novel conotoxin gene superfamily that we chose to name gene superfamily G. Thus far superfamily G only includes two peptides, each of which contains the same, distinctive Cys framework and a high proportion of amino acid residues with hydroxylated side chains.

  16. A new gene superfamily of pathogen-response (repat) genes in Lepidoptera: classification and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Cerrillo, G; Hernández-Martínez, P; Vogel, H; Ferré, J; Herrero, S

    2013-01-01

    Repat (REsponse to PAThogens) genes were first identified in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in response to Bacillus thuringiensis and baculovirus exposure. Since then, additional repat gene homologs have been identified in different studies. In this study the comprehensive larval transcriptome from S. exigua was analyzed for the presence of novel repat-homolog sequences. These analyses revealed the presence of at least 46 repat genes in S. exigua, establishing a new gene superfamily in this species. Phylogenetic analysis and studies of conserved motifs in these hypothetical proteins have allowed their classification in two main classes, αREPAT and βREPAT. Studies on the transcriptional response of repat genes have shown that αREPAT and βREPAT differ in their sequence but also in the pattern of regulation. The αREPAT were mainly regulated in response to the Cry1Ca toxin from B. thuringiensis but not to the increase in the midgut microbiota load. In contrast, βREPAT were neither responding to Cry1Ca toxin nor to midgut microbiota. Differential expression between midgut stem cells and the whole midgut tissue was studied for the different repat genes revealing changes in the gene expression distribution between midgut stem cells and midgut tissue in response to midgut microbiota. This high diversity found in their sequence and in their expression profile suggests that REPAT proteins may be involved in multiple processes that could be of relevance for the understanding of the insect gut physiology.

  17. Cloning of a new member of the insulin gene superfamily (INSL4) expressed in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, D.; Laurent, A.; Janneau, J.L.

    1995-09-20

    A new member of the insulin gene superfamily was identified by screening a subtracted cDNA library of first-trimester human placenta and, hence, was tentatively named early placenta insulin-like peptide (EPIL). In this paper, we report the cloning and sequencing of the EPIL cDNA and the EPIL gene (INSL4). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the early placenta insulin-like peptide revealed significant overall and structural homologies with members of the insulin-like hormone superfamily. Moreover, the organization of the early placenta insulin-like gene, which is composed of two exons and one intron, is similiar to that of insulin and relaxin. By in situ hybridization, the INSL4 gene was assigned to band p24 of the short arm of chromosome 9. RT-PCR analysis of EPIL tissue distribution revealed that its transcripts are expressed in the placenta and uterus. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Differential gene expression of CYP3A isoforms in equine liver and intestines.

    PubMed

    Tydén, E; Löfgren, M; Pegolo, S; Capolongo, F; Tjälve, H; Larsson, P

    2012-12-01

    Recently, seven CYP3A isoforms - CYP3A89, CYP3A93, CYP3A94, CYP3A95, CYP3A96, CYP3A97 and CYP129 - have been isolated from the horse genome. In this study, we have examined the hepatic and intestinal gene expression of these CYP3A isoforms using TaqMan probes. We have also studied the enzyme activity using luciferin-isopropyl acetal (LIPA) as a substrate. The results show a differential gene expression of the CYP3A isoforms in the liver and intestines in horses. In the liver, CYP3A89, CYP3A94, CYP3A96 and CYP3A97 were highly expressed, while in the intestine there were only two dominating isoforms, CYP3A93 and CYP3A96. The isoform CYP3A129 was not detected in the liver or the intestine, although this gene consists of a complete set of exons and should therefore code for a functional protein. It is possible that this gene is expressed in tissues other than the liver and intestines. In the intestine, both CYP3A96 and CYP3A93 showed the highest gene expression in the duodenum and the proximal parts of the jejunum. This correlated with a high protein expression in these tissues. Studies of the enzyme activity showed the same K(m) for the LIPA substrate in the liver and the intestine, while the maximum velocity (V(max)) in the liver was higher than in the intestine. Our finding of a differential gene expression of the CYP3A isoforms in the liver and the intestines contributes to a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Update of the human and mouse SERPIN gene superfamily

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The serpin family comprises a structurally similar, yet functionally diverse, set of proteins. Named originally for their function as serine proteinase inhibitors, many of its members are not inhibitors but rather chaperones, involved in storage, transport, and other roles. Serpins are found in genomes of all kingdoms, with 36 human protein-coding genes and five pseudogenes. The mouse has 60 Serpin functional genes, many of which are orthologous to human SERPIN genes and some of which have expanded into multiple paralogous genes. Serpins are found in tissues throughout the body; whereas most are extracellular, there is a class of intracellular serpins. Serpins appear to have roles in inflammation, immune function, tumorigenesis, blood clotting, dementia, and cancer metastasis. Further characterization of these proteins will likely reveal potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for disease. PMID:24172014

  20. Analysis and update of the human solute carrier (SLC) gene superfamily

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The solute-carrier gene (SLC) superfamily encodes membrane-bound transporters. The SLC superfamily comprises 55 gene families having at least 362 putatively functional protein-coding genes. The gene products include passive transporters, symporters and antiporters, located in all cellular and organelle membranes, except, perhaps, the nuclear membrane. Transport substrates include amino acids and oligopeptides, glucose and other sugars, inorganic cations and anions (H+, HCO3-, Cl-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, PO43-, HPO42-, H2PO4-, SO42-, C2O42-, OH-,CO32-), bile salts, carboxylate and other organic anions, acetyl coenzyme A, essential metals, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, vitamins, fatty acids and lipids, nucleosides, ammonium, choline, thyroid hormone and urea. Contrary to gene nomenclature commonly assigned on the basis of evolutionary divergence http://www.genenames.org/, the SLC gene superfamily has been named based largely on transporter function by proteins having multiple transmembrane domains. Whereas all the transporters exist for endogenous substrates, it is likely that drugs, non-essential metals and many other environmental toxicants are able to 'hitch-hike' on one or another of these transporters, thereby enabling these moieties to enter (or leave) the cell. Understanding and characterising the functions of these transporters is relevant to medicine, genetics, developmental biology, pharmacology and cancer chemotherapy. PMID:19164095

  1. A genetic polymorphism in coumarin 7-hydroxylation: Sequence of the human CYP2A genes and identification of variant CYP2A6 alleles

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Salguero, P.; Hoffman, S.M.G.; Mohrenweiser, H.

    1995-09-01

    A group of human cytochrome P450 genes encompassing the CYP2A, CYP2B, and CYP2F subfamilies were cloned and assembled into a 350-kb contig localized on the long arm of chromosome 19. Three complete CYP2A genes - CYP2A6, CYP2A7, and CYP2A13 - plus two pseudogenes truncated after exon 5 were identified and sequenced. A variant CYP2A6 allele that differed from the corresponding CYP2A6 and CYP2A7 cDNAs previously sequenced was found and was designated CYP2A6{nu}2. Sequence differences in the CY-P2A6{nu}2 gene are restricted to regions encompassing exons 3, 6, and 8, which bear sequence relatedness with the corresponding exons of the CYP2A7 gene, located downstream and centromeric of CYP2A6{nu}2, suggesting recent gene-conversion events. The sequencing of all the CYP2A genes allowed the design of a PCR diagnostic test for the normal CYP2A6 allele, the CYP2A6{nu}2 allele, and a variant - designated CYP2A6{nu}1 - that encodes an enzyme with a single inactivating amino acid change. These variant alleles were found in individuals who were deficient in their ability to metabolize the CYP2A6 probe drug coumarin. The allelic frequencies of CYP2A6{nu}1 and CYP2A6{nu}2 differed significantly between Caucasian, Asian, and African-American populations. These studies establish the existence of a new cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphism. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Analysis of the Small GTPase Gene Superfamily of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Vernoud, Vanessa; Horton, Amy C.; Yang, Zhenbiao; Nielsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Small GTP-binding proteins regulate diverse processes in eukaryotic cells such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, and intracellular membrane trafficking. These proteins function as molecular switches that cycle between “active” and “inactive” states, and this cycle is linked to the binding and hydrolysis of GTP. The Arabidopsis genome contains 93 genes that encode small GTP-binding protein homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes shows that plants contain Rab, Rho, Arf, and Ran GTPases, but no Ras GTPases. We have assembled complete lists of these small GTPases families, as well as accessory proteins that control their activity, and review what is known of the functions of individual members of these families in Arabidopsis. We also discuss the possible roles of these GTPases in relation to their similarity to orthologs with known functions and localizations in yeast and/or animal systems. PMID:12644670

  3. Gene conversions and unequal crossovers between CYP21 (steroid 21-hydroxylase gene) and CYP21P involve different mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Tusié-Luna, M T; White, P C

    1995-01-01

    Most cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, the inherited inability to synthesize cortisol, are caused by mutations in the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21). Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency is unusual among genetic diseases in that approximately 95% of the mutant alleles have apparently been generated by recombination between a normally active gene (CYP21) and a linked pseudogene (CYP21P). Approximately 20% of mutant alleles carry DNA deletions of 30 kb that have presumably been generated by unequal meiotic crossing-over, whereas 75% carry one or more mutations in CYP21 that are normally found in the CYP21P pseudogene. These latter mutations are termed "gene conversions," although the mechanism by which they are generated is not well understood. To assess the frequency at which these different recombination events occur, we have used PCR to detect de novo deletions and gene conversions in matched sperm and peripheral blood leukocyte DNA samples from normal individuals. Deletions with breakpoints in a 100-bp region in intron 2 and exon 3 were detected in sperm DNA samples with frequencies of approximately 1 in 10(5)-10(6) genomes but were never detected in the matching leukocyte DNA. Gene conversions in the same region occur in approximately 1 in 10(3)-10(5) genomes in both sperm and leukocyte DNA. These data suggest that whereas deletions occur exclusively in meiosis, gene conversions occur during both meiosis and mitosis, or perhaps only during mitosis. Thus, gene conversions must occur by a mechanism distinct from unequal crossing-over. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479886

  4. Assessing the identity and expression level of the cytochrome P450 20A1 (CYP20A1) gene in the BPA-, BDE-47, and WAF-exposed copepods Tigriopus japonicus and Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Seo, Jung Soo; Kim, Il-Chan; Nelson, David R; Puthumana, Jayesh; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-03-01

    CYP20A1 is a member of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily, identified as an orphan P450 without any assigned biological function; hence, its continued status as an "orphan" gene. In order to address this shortcoming in our understanding of this superfamily, we sought to characterize the CYP20A1 gene in the copepods Tigriopus japonicus (Tj-CYP20A1) and Paracyclopina nana (Pn-CYP20A1) at their mRNA transcriptional level. We assessed the response of this gene's expression in various developmental stages and in response to treatment with bisphenol A (BPA), 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), and water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil. As shown in the vertebrate CYP20A1, both Tj-CYP20A1 and Pn-CYP20A1 contained characteristic conserved motifs and domain regions (I helix, K helix and heme-binding motifs) with unusual amino acid sequences apparent in their gene structure. Also molecular characterization of the putative responsive elements in the promoter regions was performed. We observed transcriptional up-regulation of these genes during post-embryonic developmental stages including sex-specific up-regulation in adults. In addition, concentration- and time-dependent mRNA transcripts in response to xenobiotics (BPA, BDE-47, and WAFs) were seen. This study focuses on the molecular elucidation of CYP20A1 genes and their interactions with xenobiotics in the copepods T. japonicus and P. nana that provides important insight into the biological importance of CYP20A1 in invertebrates.

  5. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. . E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P.; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  6. Identification of the Full 46 Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Complement and Modulation of CYP Expression in Response to Water-Accommodated Fractions of Crude Oil in the Cyclopoid Copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Hui-Su; Nelson, David R; Lee, Su-Jae; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-06-02

    The 46 cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene superfamily was identified in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana after searching an RNA-seq database and comparing it with other copepod CYP gene families. To annotate the 46 Pn-CYP genes, a phylogenetic analysis of CYP genes was performed using a Bayesian method. Pn-CYP genes were separated into five different clans: CYP2, CYP3, CYP20, CYP26, and mitochondrial. Among these, the principal Pn-CYP genes involved in detoxification were identified by comparing them with those of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus and were examined with respect to their responses to exposure to a water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil and to the alkylated forms of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; phenanthrene and fluorene). The expression of two Pn-CYP3027 genes (CYP3027F1 and CYP3027F2) was increased in response to WAF exposure and also was upregulated in response to the two alkylated PAHs. In particular, Pn-CYP3027F2 showed the most notable increase in response to 80% WAF exposure. These two responsive CYP genes (Pn-CYP3027F1 and CYP3027F2) were also phylogenetically clustered into the same clade of the WAF- and alkylated PAH-specific CYP genes of the copepod T. japonicus, suggesting that these CYP genes would be those chiefly involved in detoxification in response to WAF exposure in copepods. In this paper, we provide information on the copepod P. nana CYP gene superfamily and also speculate on its potential role in the detoxification of PAHs in marine copepods. Despite the nonlethality of WAF, Pn-CYP3027F2 was rapidly and significantly upregulated in response to WAF that may serve as a useful biomarker of 40% or higher concentration of WAF exposure. This paper will be helpful to better understand the molecular mechanistic events underlying the metabolism of environmental toxicants in copepods.

  7. Association of CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP17 gene polymorphisms and organochlorine pesticides with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Datta, Sudip Kumar; Yadav, Chandra Shekhar; Singh, Satyender; Ahmed, Rafat Sultana; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that steroidal hormones (testosterone and estrogen) increase benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) risk. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes especially CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP17 metabolize these hormones. Apart from that, several endocrine disrupting organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are reported to mimic the activity of these steroidal hormones. Therefore, functional polymorphisms in these genes and exposure to such pesticides may increase BPH risk further. Our study included 100 newly diagnosed BPH subjects and 100 age-matched healthy male controls. CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP17 polymorphisms were studied using PCR-RFLP and allele-specific PCR method. OCP levels in blood were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Levels of p,p'-DDE and endosulfan α were found to be significantly higher amongst BPH subjects as compared to controls (p-values=0.001 and 0.03 respectively) and CYP17 polymorphism was observed to be significantly associated with BPH subjects as compared to controls (p-values=0.03), indicating that these factors may be important risk factors for BPH. However, further studies are required before unequivocal conclusion.

  8. Novel drug metabolism indices for pharmacogenetic functional status based on combinatory genotyping of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genes

    PubMed Central

    Villagra, David; Goethe, John; Schwartz, Harold I; Szarek, Bonnie; Kocherla, Mohan; Gorowski, Krystyna; Windemuth, Andreas; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2011-01-01

    Aims We aim to demonstrate clinical relevance and utility of four novel drug-metabolism indices derived from a combinatory (multigene) approach to CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 allele scoring. Each index considers all three genes as complementary components of a liver enzyme drug metabolism system and uniquely benchmarks innate hepatic drug metabolism reserve or alteration through CYP450 combinatory genotype scores. Methods A total of 1199 psychiatric referrals were genotyped for polymorphisms in the CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 gene loci and were scored on each of the four indices. The data were used to create distributions and rankings of innate drug metabolism capacity to which individuals can be compared. Drug-specific indices are a combination of the drug metabolism indices with substrate-specific coefficients. Results The combinatory drug metabolism indices proved useful in positioning individuals relative to a population with regard to innate drug metabolism capacity prior to pharmacotherapy. Drug-specific indices generate pharmacogenetic guidance of immediate clinical relevance, and can be further modified to incorporate covariates in particular clinical cases. Conclusions We believe that this combinatory approach represents an improvement over the current gene-by-gene reporting by providing greater scope while still allowing for the resolution of a single-gene index when needed. This method will result in novel clinical and research applications, facilitating the translation from pharmacogenomics to personalized medicine, particularly in psychiatry where many drugs are metabolized or activated by multiple CYP450 isoenzymes. PMID:21861665

  9. Passive smoking, Cyp1A1 gene polymorphism and dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Yang, Fan; Li, Zhiping; Chen, Changzhong; Fang, Zhian; Wang, Lihua; Hu, Yonghua; Chen, Dafang

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether the association between passive smoking exposure and dysmenorrhea is modified by two susceptibility genes, CYP1A1MspI and CYP1A1HincII. Methods This report includes 1645 (1124 no dysmenorrhea, 521 dysmenorrhea) nonsmoking and nondrinking newly wed female workers at Anqing, China between June 1997 and June 2000. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations of passive smoking exposure and genetic susceptibility with dysmenorrhea, adjusting for perceived stress. Results When stratified by women genotype, the adjusted OR of dysmenorrhea was 1.6 (95%CI=1.3-2.1) for passive smoking group with Ile/Ile462 genotype, and 1.5 (95%CI=1.1-2.1) with C/C6235 genotype, compared to non passive smoking group, respectively. The data further showed that there was a significant combined effect between passive smoking and the CYP1A1 Msp1 C/C6235 and HincII Ile/Ile462 genotype (OR=2.6, 95%CI=1.3-5.2). Conclusion CYP1A1 MspI and HincII genotypes modified the association between passive smoking and dysmenorrhea. PMID:17566695

  10. Transcriptional profiles of glutathione-S-Transferase isoforms, Cyp, and AOE genes in atrazine-exposed zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Glisic, Branka; Hrubik, Jelena; Fa, Svetlana; Dopudj, Nela; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa

    2016-02-01

    Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) superfamily consists of multiple members involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Expressional pattern of the GST isoforms in adult fish has been used as a biomarker of exposure to environmental chemicals. However, GST transcriptional responses vary across organs, thus requiring a cross-tissue examination of multiple mRNAs for GST profiling in an animal after chemical exposure. Zebrafish embryos express all GST isoforms as adult fish and could therefore represent an alternative model for identification of biomarkers of exposure. To evaluate such a possibility, we studied a set of cytosolic and microsomal GST isoform-specific expression profiles in the zebrafish embryos after exposure to atrazine, a widely used herbicide. Expression of the GST isoforms was compared with that of CYP genes involved in the phase I of xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant enzyme (AOE) genes. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we showed dynamic changes in the expressional pattern of twenty GST isoforms, cyp1a, cyp3a65, ahr2, and four AOEs in early development of zebrafish. Acute (48 and 72 h) exposure of 24 h-old embryos to atrazine, from environmentally relevant (0.005 mg/L) to high (40 mg/L) concentrations, caused a variety of transient, albeit minor changes (<2.5-fold) in the GST isoforms, ahr2 and AOE genes response. However, expression of cyp1a and cyp3a65 mRNA was markedly and consistently induced by high doses of atrazine (5 and 40 mg/L). In summary, an analysis of the response of multiple systems in the zebrafish embryos provided a comprehensive understanding of atrazine toxicity and its potential impact on biological processes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Whole-Genome Identification, Phylogeny, and Evolution of the Cytochrome P450 Family 2 (CYP2) Subfamilies in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Daniela; Maldonado, Emanuel; Khan, Imran; Silva, Liliana; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zhang, Guojie; Jarvis, Erich D.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Johnson, Warren E.; Antunes, Agostinho

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily defends organisms from endogenous and noxious environmental compounds, and thus is crucial for survival. However, beyond mammals the molecular evolution of CYP2 subfamilies is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the CYP2 family across 48 avian whole genomes representing all major extant bird clades. Overall, 12 CYP2 subfamilies were identified, including the first description of the CYP2F, CYP2G, and several CYP2AF genes in avian genomes. Some of the CYP2 genes previously described as being lineage-specific, such as CYP2K and CYP2W, are ubiquitous to all avian groups. Furthermore, we identified a large number of CYP2J copies, which have been associated previously with water reabsorption. We detected positive selection in the avian CYP2C, CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, CYP2K, and CYP2AC subfamilies. Moreover, we identified new substrate recognition sites (SRS0, SRS2_SRS3, and SRS3.1) and heme binding areas that influence CYP2 structure and function of functional importance as under significant positive selection. Some of the positively selected sites in avian CYP2D are located within the same SRS1 region that was previously linked with the metabolism of plant toxins. Additionally, we find that selective constraint variations in some avian CYP2 subfamilies are consistently associated with different feeding habits (CYP2H and CYP2J), habitats (CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, and CYP2K), and migratory behaviors (CYP2D, CYP2H, and CYP2J). Overall, our findings indicate that there has been active enzyme site selection on CYP2 subfamilies and differential selection associated with different life history traits among birds. PMID:26979796

  12. Whole-Genome Identification, Phylogeny, and Evolution of the Cytochrome P450 Family 2 (CYP2) Subfamilies in Birds.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Daniela; Maldonado, Emanuel; Khan, Imran; Silva, Liliana; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zhang, Guojie; Jarvis, Erich D; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E; Antunes, Agostinho

    2016-04-13

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily defends organisms from endogenous and noxious environmental compounds, and thus is crucial for survival. However, beyond mammals the molecular evolution of CYP2 subfamilies is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the CYP2 family across 48 avian whole genomes representing all major extant bird clades. Overall, 12 CYP2 subfamilies were identified, including the first description of the CYP2F, CYP2G, and several CYP2AF genes in avian genomes. Some of the CYP2 genes previously described as being lineage-specific, such as CYP2K and CYP2W, are ubiquitous to all avian groups. Furthermore, we identified a large number of CYP2J copies, which have been associated previously with water reabsorption. We detected positive selection in the avian CYP2C, CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, CYP2K, and CYP2AC subfamilies. Moreover, we identified new substrate recognition sites (SRS0, SRS2_SRS3, and SRS3.1) and heme binding areas that influence CYP2 structure and function of functional importance as under significant positive selection. Some of the positively selected sites in avian CYP2D are located within the same SRS1 region that was previously linked with the metabolism of plant toxins. Additionally, we find that selective constraint variations in some avian CYP2 subfamilies are consistently associated with different feeding habits (CYP2H and CYP2J), habitats (CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, and CYP2K), and migratory behaviors (CYP2D, CYP2H, and CYP2J). Overall, our findings indicate that there has been active enzyme site selection on CYP2 subfamilies and differential selection associated with different life history traits among birds.

  13. Multiple gains of spliceosomal introns in a superfamily of vertebrate protease inhibitor genes

    PubMed Central

    Ragg, Hermann; Kumar, Abhishek; Köster, Katharina; Bentele, Caterina; Wang, Yunjie; Frese, Marc-André; Prib, Natalie; Krüger, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Background Intron gains reportedly are very rare during evolution of vertebrates, and the mechanisms underlying their creation are largely unknown. Previous investigations have shown that, during metazoan radiation, the exon-intron patterns of serpin superfamily genes were subject to massive changes, in contrast to many other genes. Results Here we investigated intron dynamics in the serpin superfamily in lineages pre- and postdating the split of vertebrates. Multiple intron gains were detected in a group of ray-finned fishes, once the canonical groups of vertebrate serpins had been established. In two genes, co-occurrence of non-standard introns was observed, implying that intron gains in vertebrates may even happen concomitantly or in a rapidly consecutive manner. DNA breakage/repair processes associated with genome compaction are introduced as a novel factor potentially favoring intron gain, since all non-canonical introns were found in a lineage of ray-finned fishes that experienced genomic downsizing. Conclusion Multiple intron acquisitions were identified in serpin genes of a lineage of ray-finned fishes, but not in any other vertebrates, suggesting that insertion rates for introns may be episodically increased. The co-occurrence of non-standard introns within the same gene discloses the possibility that introns may be gained simultaneously. The sequences flanking the intron insertion points correspond to the proto-splice site consensus sequence MAG↑N, previously proposed to serve as intron insertion site. The association of intron gains in the serpin superfamily with a group of fishes that underwent genome compaction may indicate that DNA breakage/repair processes might foster intron birth. PMID:19698129

  14. LmCYP4G102: An oenocyte-specific cytochrome P450 gene required for cuticular waterproofing in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhitao; Zhang, Xueyao; Wang, Yiwen; Moussian, Bernard; Zhu, Kun Yan; Li, Sheng; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2016-07-22

    Cytochrome P450 superfamily proteins play important roles in detoxification of xenobiotics and during physiological and developmental processes. To contribute to our understanding of this large gene family in insects, we have investigated the function of the cytochrome P450 gene LmCYP4G102 in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Suppression of LmCYP4G102 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) does not interfere with moulting but causes rapid loss of body weight - probably due to massive loss of water, and death soon after moulting. Accordingly, maintaining these animals at 90% relative humidity prevented lethality. Consistently, RNAi against LmCYP4G102 provoked a decrease in the content of cuticular alkanes, which as an important fraction of cuticular hydrocarbons have been shown to confer desiccation resistance. In addition, the cuticle of LmCYP4G102-knockdown locusts was fragile and easier deformable than in control animals. Presumably, this phenotype is due to decreased amounts of cuticular water that is reported to modulate cuticle mechanics. Interestingly, LmCYP4G102 was not expressed in the epidermis that produces the cuticle but in the sub-epdiermal hepatocyte-like oenocytes. Together, our results suggest that the oenocyte-specific LmCYP4G102 plays a critical role in the synthesis of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are important for cuticle waterproofing and mechanical stability in L. migratoria.

  15. LmCYP4G102: An oenocyte-specific cytochrome P450 gene required for cuticular waterproofing in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhitao; Zhang, Xueyao; Wang, Yiwen; Moussian, Bernard; Zhu, Kun Yan; Li, Sheng; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 superfamily proteins play important roles in detoxification of xenobiotics and during physiological and developmental processes. To contribute to our understanding of this large gene family in insects, we have investigated the function of the cytochrome P450 gene LmCYP4G102 in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Suppression of LmCYP4G102 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) does not interfere with moulting but causes rapid loss of body weight - probably due to massive loss of water, and death soon after moulting. Accordingly, maintaining these animals at 90% relative humidity prevented lethality. Consistently, RNAi against LmCYP4G102 provoked a decrease in the content of cuticular alkanes, which as an important fraction of cuticular hydrocarbons have been shown to confer desiccation resistance. In addition, the cuticle of LmCYP4G102-knockdown locusts was fragile and easier deformable than in control animals. Presumably, this phenotype is due to decreased amounts of cuticular water that is reported to modulate cuticle mechanics. Interestingly, LmCYP4G102 was not expressed in the epidermis that produces the cuticle but in the sub-epdiermal hepatocyte-like oenocytes. Together, our results suggest that the oenocyte-specific LmCYP4G102 plays a critical role in the synthesis of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are important for cuticle waterproofing and mechanical stability in L. migratoria PMID:27444410

  16. Self-regulated Pax gene expression and modulation by the TGFbeta superfamily.

    PubMed

    Frost, Victoria; Grocott, Timothy; Eccles, Michael R; Chantry, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian Pax gene family encode a set of paired-domain transcription factors which play essential roles in regulating proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell migration, and stem-cell maintenance. Pax gene expression is necessarily tightly controlled and is associated with the demarcation of boundaries during tissue development and specification. Auto- and inter-regulation are mechanisms frequently employed to achieve precise control of Pax expression domains in a variety of tissues including the eye, central nervous system, kidney, pancreas, skeletal system, muscle, tooth, and thymus. Furthermore, aberrant Pax expression is linked to several diseases and causally associated with certain tumors. An increasing number of studies also relate patterns of Pax expression to signaling by members of the TGFbeta superfamily and, in some instances, this is due to disruption of Pax gene auto-regulation. Here, we review the current evidence highlighting functional and mechanistic overlap between TGFbeta signaling and Pax-mediated gene transcription. We conclude that self-regulation of Pax gene expression coupled with modulation by the TGFbeta superfamily represents a signaling axis that is frequently employed during development and disease to drive normal tissue growth, differentiation and homeostasis.

  17. Diversity of conotoxin gene superfamilies in the venomous snail, Conus victoriae.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Samuel D; Safavi-Hemami, Helena; McIntosh, Lachlan D; Purcell, Anthony W; Norton, Raymond S; Papenfuss, Anthony T

    2014-01-01

    Animal venoms represent a vast library of bioactive peptides and proteins with proven potential, not only as research tools but also as drug leads and therapeutics. This is illustrated clearly by marine cone snails (genus Conus), whose venoms consist of mixtures of hundreds of peptides (conotoxins) with a diverse array of molecular targets, including voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors and neurotransmitter transporters. Several conotoxins have found applications as research tools, with some being used or developed as therapeutics. The primary objective of this study was the large-scale discovery of conotoxin sequences from the venom gland of an Australian cone snail species, Conus victoriae. Using cDNA library normalization, high-throughput 454 sequencing, de novo transcriptome assembly and annotation with BLASTX and profile hidden Markov models, we discovered over 100 unique conotoxin sequences from 20 gene superfamilies, the highest diversity of conotoxins so far reported in a single study. Many of the sequences identified are new members of known conotoxin superfamilies, some help to redefine these superfamilies and others represent altogether new classes of conotoxins. In addition, we have demonstrated an efficient combination of methods to mine an animal venom gland and generate a library of sequences encoding bioactive peptides.

  18. Identification and characterization of two CYP9A genes associated with pyrethroid detoxification in Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenya; Yu, Rongrong; Wu, Haihua; Zhang, Xueyao; Liu, Yaoming; Zhu, Kun Yan; Zhang, Jianzhen; Ma, Enbo

    2016-09-01

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) constitute one of the largest gene super families and distribute widely in all living organisms. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences of two LmCYP9A genes (LmCYP9AQ1 and LmCYP9A3) were cloned from Locusta migratoria. We analyzed the expression patterns of two LmCYP9A genes in various tissues and different developmental stages using real-time quantitative PCR. Then we evaluated the detoxification functions of the two LmCYP9A genes by testing mortalities with four kinds of pyrethroid treatment after RNA interference (RNAi), respectively. Combining with docking structure of two LmCYP9A genes, their detoxification properties were extensively analyzed. The full-length cDNAs of LmCYP9AQ1 and LmCYP9A3 putatively encoded 525 and 524 amino acid residues, respectively. Both LmCYP9A genes were expressed throughout the developmental stages. The expression of LmCYP9AQ1 in the brain was higher than that in other examined tissues, whereas the LmCYP9A3 was mainly expressed in the fat body. The mortalities of nymphs exposed to deltamethrin and permethrin increased from 27.7% to 77.7% and 27.7% to 58.3%, respectively, after dsLmCYP9A3 injection. While the mortalities of nymphs exposed to fluvalinate increased from 29.8% to 53.0% after LmCYP9AQ1 was silenced using RNA interference. Our results suggested that the two LmCYP9A genes may be involved in different pyrethroid insecticide detoxification in L. migratoria.

  19. Frequency of undetected CYP2D6 hybrid genes in clinical samples: impact on phenotype prediction.

    PubMed

    Black, John Logan; Walker, Denise L; O'Kane, Dennis J; Harmandayan, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is highly polymorphic. CYP2D6-2D7 hybrid genes can be present in samples containing CYP2D6*4 and CYP2D6*10 alleles. CYP2D7-2D6 hybrid genes can be present in samples with duplication signals and in samples with homozygous genotyping results. The frequency of hybrid genes in clinical samples is unknown. We evaluated 1390 samples for undetected hybrid genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, PCR fragment analysis, TaqMan copy number assays, DNA sequencing, and allele-specific primer extension assay. Of 508 CYP2D6*4-containing samples, 109 (21.5%) harbored CYP2D6*68 + *4-like, whereas 9 (1.8%) harbored CYP2D6*4N + *4-like. Of 209 CYP2D6*10-containing samples, 44 (21.1%) were found to have CYP2D6*36 + *10. Of 332 homozygous samples, 4 (1.2%) harbored a single CYP2D7-2D6 hybrid, and of 341 samples with duplication signals, 25 (7.3%) harbored an undetected CYP2D7-2D6 hybrid. Phenotype before and after accurate genotyping was predicted using a method in clinical use. The presence of hybrid genes had no effect on the phenotype prediction of CYP2D6*4- and CYP2D6*10-containing samples. Four of four (100%) homozygous samples containing a CYP2D7-2D6 gene had a change in predicted phenotype, and 23 of 25 (92%) samples with a duplication signal and a CYP2D7-2D6 gene had a change in predicted phenotype. Four novel genes were identified (CYP2D6*13A1 variants 1 and 2, CYP2D6*13G1, and CYP2D6*13G2), and two novel hybrid tandem structures consisting of CYP2D6*13B + *68×2 + *4-like and CYP2D6*13A1 variant 2 + *1×N were observed.

  20. Polymorphic variation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genes in a Haryana population.

    PubMed

    Giri, Shiv Kumar; Yadav, Anita; Kumar, Anil; Dev, Kapil; Gulati, Sachin; Gupta, Ranjan; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Gautam, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 are important phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes involved in the metabolism of numbers of toxins, endogenous hormones, and pharmaceutical drugs. Polymorphisms in these phase I genes can alter enzyme activity and are known to be associated with cancer susceptibility related to environmental toxins and hormone exposure. Their genotypes may also display ethnicity-dependent population frequencies. The present study was aimed to determine the frequencies of commonly known functional polymorphisms of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genes in a Haryana state population of North India. The allelic frequency of CYP1A1 polymorphism m1 (MspI) was 29.65% and m2 (Ile(462)Val) was 24.85%. The frequency of CYP1B1 polymorphism m1 (Val(432)Leu) was 45.85% and m2 (Asn(453)Ser) was 16.2%. We observed inter- and intra-ethnic variation in the frequency distribution of these polymorphisms. Analysis of polymorphisms in these genes might help in predicting the risk of cancer. Our results emphasize the need for more such studies in high-risk populations.

  1. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily in plants: gene nomenclature and comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Brocker, Chad; Vasiliou, Melpomene; Carpenter, Sarah; Carpenter, Christopher; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Wood, Andrew J; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Kopečný, David; Nebert, Daniel W; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of completely sequenced plant genomes. The comparison of fully sequenced genomes allows for identification of new gene family members, as well as comprehensive analysis of gene family evolution. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily comprises a group of enzymes involved in the NAD(+)- or NADP(+)-dependent conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. ALDH enzymes are involved in processing many aldehydes that serve as biogenic intermediates in a wide range of metabolic pathways. In addition, many of these enzymes function as 'aldehyde scavengers' by removing reactive aldehydes generated during the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. Plants and animals share many ALDH families, and many genes are highly conserved between these two evolutionarily distinct groups. Conversely, both plants and animals also contain unique ALDH genes and families. Herein we carried out genome-wide identification of ALDH genes in a number of plant species-including Arabidopsis thaliana (thale crest), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular algae), Oryza sativa (rice), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Vitis vinifera (grapevine) and Zea mays (maize). These data were then combined with previous analysis of Populus trichocarpa (poplar tree), Selaginella moellindorffii (gemmiferous spikemoss), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Volvox carteri (colonial algae) for a comprehensive evolutionary comparison of the plant ALDH superfamily. As a result, newly identified genes can be more easily analyzed and gene names can be assigned according to current nomenclature guidelines; our goal is to clarify previously confusing and conflicting names and classifications that might confound results and prevent accurate comparisons between studies.

  2. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily in plants: gene nomenclature and comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Brocker, Chad; Vasiliou, Melpomene; Carpenter, Sarah; Carpenter, Christopher; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Wood, Andrew J.; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Kopečný, David; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of completely sequenced plant genomes. The comparison of fully sequenced genomes allows for identification of new gene family members, as well as comprehensive analysis of gene family evolution. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily comprises a group of enzymes involved in the NAD+- or NADP+-dependent conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. ALDH enzymes are involved in processing many aldehydes that serve as biogenic intermediates in a wide range of metabolic pathways. In addition, many of these enzymes function as ‘aldehyde scavengers’ by removing reactive aldehydes generated during the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. Plants and animals share many ALDH families, and many genes are highly conserved between these two evolutionarily distinct groups. Conversely, both plants and animals also contain unique ALDH genes and families. Herein we carried outgenome-wide identification of ALDH genes in a number of plant species—including Arabidopsis thaliana (thale crest), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular algae), Oryza sativa (rice), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Vitis vinifera (grapevine) and Zea mays (maize). These data were then combined with previous analysis of Populus trichocarpa (poplar tree), Selaginella moellindorffii (gemmiferous spikemoss), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Volvox carteri (colonial algae) for a comprehensive evolutionary comparison of the plant ALDH superfamily. As a result, newly identified genes can be more easily analyzed and gene names can be assigned according to current nomenclature guidelines; our goal is to clarify previously confusing and conflicting names and classifications that might confound results and prevent accurate comparisons between studies. PMID:23007552

  3. A new member of the ras gene superfamily identified in a rat liver cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, C; Frunzio, R; Chiariotti, L; Brown, A L; Rechler, M M; Bruni, C B

    1988-01-01

    A new member of the ras genes superfamily was isolated from a cDNA library derived from a rat liver cell line (BRL-3A). The predicted 201 amino acids ras-like protein shows 30-35% homology with other members of the ras and ras-related gene products so far described. Conserved features include the GTP-binding and hydrolysis domains and the carboxyl terminal cysteine residues. A protein of the expected size (Mr 23,000) was synthesized in an in vitro transcription-translation system. The BRL-ras gene is present in single copy in the rat genome and is ubiquitously expressed at high levels in all tissues and cell lines examined. Images PMID:3057452

  4. CYP1B1 and CYP19 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer incidence: no association in the ARIC study.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, Bharat; Brott, Marcia; Mink, Pamela; Folsom, Aaron R; Anderson, Kristin E; Oetting, William Starr; Gross, Myron

    2004-04-30

    We conducted a nested case control study of 178 incident breast cancer cases and 356 controls in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. We evaluated the association between breast cancer and Val432Leu polymorphism in the CYP1B1 gene and the tetranucleotide repeats in intron 4 of the CYP19 gene. After adjustment for height, age at menopause, age at menarche, BMI, HRT, and alcohol intake, carriers of the Val/Leu or Val/Val genotype had a 1.45 fold (95% CI 0.85-2.47) greater odds of breast cancer than Leu/Leu carriers. There was no association of the breast cancer with any individual CYP19 allele. Compared to individuals homozygous with the 167 allele, odds ratios were close to 1.0 for the 167 heterozygous genotype and for the remaining tetranucleotide repeats combined. Our data shows no association between breast cancer and the Leu432Val polymorphism of the CYP1B1 gene or the tetranucleotide repeats of the CYP19 gene.

  5. De novo sequence analysis of cytochrome P450 1-3 genes expressed in ostrich liver with highest expression of CYP2G19.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yusuke K; Watanabe, Kensuke P; Ishii, Akihiro; Ohnuma, Aiko; Sawa, Hirofumi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2013-09-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1-3 families are involved in xenobiotic metabolism, and are expressed primarily in the liver. Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are members of Palaeognathae with the earliest divergence from other bird lineages. An understanding of genes coding for ostrich xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme contributes to knowledge regarding the xenobiotic metabolisms of other Palaeognathae birds. We investigated CYP1-3 genes expressed in female ostrich liver using a next-generation sequencer. We detected 10 CYP genes: CYP1A5, CYP2C23, CYP2C45, CYP2D49, CYP2G19, CYP2W2, CYP2AC1, CYP2AC2, CYP2AF1, and CYP3A37. We compared the gene expression levels of CYP1A5, CYP2C23, CYP2C45, CYP2D49, CYP2G19, CYP2AF1, and CYP3A37 in ostrich liver and determined that CYP2G19 exhibited the highest expression level. The mRNA expression level of CYP2G19 was approximately 2-10 times higher than those of other CYP genes. The other CYP genes displayed similar expression levels. Our results suggest that CYP2G19, which has not been a focus of previous bird studies, has an important role in ostrich xenobiotic metabolism.

  6. Identification of 18 mouse ABC genes and characterization of the ABC superfamily in Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Schriml, L M; Dean, M

    2000-02-15

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) genes encode a family of transport proteins known to be involved in a number of human genetic diseases. In this study, we characterized the ABC superfamily in Mus musculus through in silico gene identification and mapping and phylogenetic analysis of mouse and human ABC genes. By querying dbEST with amino acid sequences from the conserved ATP-binding domains, we identified and partially sequenced 18 new mouse ABC genes, bringing the total number of mouse ABC genes to 34. Twelve of the new ABC genes were mapped in the mouse genome to the X chromosome and to 10 of the 19 autosomes. Phylogenetic relationships of mouse and human ABC genes were examined with maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining analyses that demonstrated that mouse and human ABC orthologs are more closely related than are mouse paralogs. The mouse ABC genes could be grouped into the seven previously described human ABC subfamilies. Three mouse ABC genes mapped to regions implicated in cholesterol gallstone susceptibility. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  7. Constitutive and xenobiotics-induced expression of a novel CYP3A gene from zebrafish larva

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, H.-P.; Hseu, Tzong-Hsiung; Buhler, Donald R.; Wang, W.-D.; Hu, C.-H. . E-mail: chhu@mail.ntou.edu.tw

    2005-06-15

    In mammals, CYP3A isozymes collectively comprise the largest portion of the liver and small intestinal CYP protein. They are involved in the metabolism of an extensive range of endogenous substrates and xenobiotics and make a significant contribution to the termination of the action of steroid hormones. A full-length cDNA of CYP3A gene, named CYP3A65, was cloned from zebrafish by RT-PCR. The CYP3A65 mRNA was initially transcribed only in the liver and intestine upon hatching of the zebrafish embryos. Like the human CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription in the foregut region was enhanced by treatment of the zebrafish larvae with the steroid dexamethasone and the macrocyclic antibiotic rifampicin. Differing from mammalian CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription was also elicited by 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during early larval stages. Repression of AHR2 translation by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides abrogated both of constitutive and TCDD-stimulated CYP3A65 transcription in larval intestine. These findings suggested that the AHR2 signaling pathway plays an essential role in CYP3A65 transcription.

  8. An unequal cross-over event within the CYP2D gene cluster generates a chimeric CYP2D7/CYP2D6 gene which is associated with the poor metabolizer phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Panserat, S; Mura, C; Gérard, N; Vincent-Viry, M; Galteau, M M; Jacoz-Aigrain, E; Krishnamoorthy, R

    1995-01-01

    1. The study of the CYP2D genotype and phenotype of a Caucasian family revealed that a XbaI-9 kb allele was associated with the poor metabolizer phenotype. 2. A Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based assay showed that the previously described mutations D6A and D6B are not associated with the XbaI-9 kb allele. 3. To explore the molecular basis of the poor metabolizer phenotype associated with the XbaI-9 kb allele, complete sequencing of the nine exons and intron-exon boundaries of the CYP2D6 gene was undertaken after amplification by PCR. 4. All the exons were successfully amplified using CYP2D6 gene-specific primers except exon 1 which required a combination of CYP2D7 gene-specific 5' primer and a CYP2D6 gene-specific 3' primer. 5. Sequence data derived from this amplified product revealed that the XbaI-9 kb allele corresponds to a novel rearrangement of the locus. This involved a deletion of an approximately 20 kilobase (kb) DNA segment generating a hybrid 5' CYP2D7/CYP2D6 3' gene. 6. The chimeric gene is non-functional presumably due to an insertion in exon 1 (characteristic of the exon 1 of the CYP2D7 gene) which causes a shift in the reading frame with premature termination of translation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8554938

  9. Generation and characterization of novel cytochrome P450 Cyp2c gene cluster knockout and CYP2C9 humanized mouse lines.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Nico; Kapelyukh, Yury; Chatham, Lynsey; Rode, Anja; Buechel, Sandra; Wolf, C Roland

    2012-12-01

    Compared with rodents and many other animal species, the human cytochrome P450 (P450) Cyp2c gene cluster varies significantly in the multiplicity of functional genes and in the substrate specificity of its enzymes. As a consequence, the use of wild-type animal models to predict the role of human CYP2C enzymes in drug metabolism and drug-drug interactions is limited. Within the human CYP2C cluster CYP2C9 is of particular importance, because it is one of the most abundant P450 enzymes in human liver, and it is involved in the metabolism of a wide variety of important drugs and environmental chemicals. To investigate the in vivo functions of cytochrome P450 Cyp2c genes and to establish a model for studying the functions of CYP2C9 in vivo, we have generated a mouse model with a deletion of the murine Cyp2c gene cluster and a corresponding humanized model expressing CYP2C9 specifically in the liver. Despite the high number of functional genes in the mouse Cyp2c cluster and the reported roles of some of these proteins in different biological processes, mice deleted for Cyp2c genes were viable and fertile but showed certain phenotypic alterations in the liver. The expression of CYP2C9 in the liver also resulted in viable animals active in the metabolism and disposition of a number of CYP2C9 substrates. These mouse lines provide a powerful tool for studying the role of Cyp2c genes and of CYP2C9 in particular in drug disposition and as a factor in drug-drug interaction.

  10. Differential regulation of hepatic CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 genes by constitutive androstane receptor but not pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Faucette, Stephanie R; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Smith, Cornelia M; Negishi, Masahiko; Lecluyse, Edward L; Wang, Hongbing

    2006-06-01

    Accumulated evidence suggests that cross-talk between the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) results in shared transcriptional activation of CYP2B and CYP3A genes. Although most data imply symmetrical cross-regulation of these genes by rodent PXR and CAR, the actual selectivities of the corresponding human receptors are unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the symmetry of human (h) PXR and hCAR cross-talk by comparing the selectivities of these receptors for CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. Human hepatocyte studies revealed nonselective induction of both CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by hPXR activation but marked preferential induction of CYP2B6 by selective hCAR activation. Gel shift assays demonstrated that hPXR exhibited strong and relatively equal binding to all functional response elements in both CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 genes, whereas hCAR displayed significantly weak binding to the CYP3A4 proximal ER6 motif. In cell-based transfection assays, hCAR displayed greater activation of CYP2B6 reporter gene expression compared with CYP3A4 with constructs containing both proximal and distal regulatory elements. Furthermore, in agreement with binding observations, transfection assays using promoter constructs containing repeats of CYP2B6 DR4 and CYP3A4 ER6 motifs revealed an even greater difference in reporter activation by hCAR. In contrast, hPXR activation resulted in less discernible differences between CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 reporter gene expression. These results suggest asymmetrical cross-regulation of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by hCAR but not hPXR in that hCAR exhibits preferential induction of CYP2B6 relative to CYP3A4 because of its weak binding and functional activation of the CYP3A4 ER6.

  11. Genome-wide identification of nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Bo-Young; Kim, Hui-Su; Lee, Min Chul; Kyung, Do-Hyun; Om, Ae-Son; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-11-18

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a large superfamily of proteins defined by a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD). They function as transcriptional regulators to control expression of genes involved in development, homeostasis, and metabolism. The number of NRs differs from species to species, because of gene duplications and/or lineage-specific gene losses during metazoan evolution. Many NRs in arthropods interact with the ecdysteroid hormone and are involved in ecdysone-mediated signaling in arthropods. The nuclear receptor superfamily complement has been reported in several arthropods, including crustaceans, but not in copepods. We identified the entire NR repertoire of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, which is an important marine model species for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics. Using whole genome and transcriptome sequences, we identified a total of 31 nuclear receptors in the genome of T. japonicus. Nomenclature of the nuclear receptors was determined based on the sequence similarities of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and ligand-binding domain (LBD). The 7 subfamilies of NRs separate into five major clades (subfamilies NR1, NR2, NR3, NR4, and NR5/6). Although the repertoire of NR members in, T. japonicus was similar to that reported for other arthropods, there was an expansion of the NR1 subfamily in Tigriopus japonicus. The twelve unique nuclear receptors identified in T. japonicus are members of NR1L. This expansion may be a unique lineage-specific feature of crustaceans. Interestingly, E78 and HR83, which are present in other arthropods, were absent from the genomes of T. japonicus and two congeneric copepod species (T. japonicus and Tigriopus californicus), suggesting copepod lineage-specific gene loss. We identified all NR receptors present in the copepod, T. japonicus. Knowledge of the copepod nuclear receptor repertoire will contribute to a better understanding of copepod- and crustacean-specific NR evolution.

  12. Prevertebrate Local Gene Duplication Facilitated Expansion of the Neuropeptide GPCR Superfamily.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seongsik; Furlong, Michael; Sim, Mikang; Cho, Minah; Park, Sumi; Cho, Eun Bee; Reyes-Alcaraz, Arfaxad; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Kim, Jaebum; Seong, Jae Young

    2015-11-01

    In humans, numerous genes encode neuropeptides that comprise a superfamily of more than 70 genes in approximately 30 families and act mainly through rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Two rounds of whole-genome duplication (2R WGD) during early vertebrate evolution greatly contributed to proliferation within gene families; however, the mechanisms underlying the initial emergence and diversification of these gene families before 2R WGD are largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed 25 vertebrate rhodopsin-like neuropeptide GPCR families and their cognate peptides using phylogeny, synteny, and localization of these genes on reconstructed vertebrate ancestral chromosomes (VACs). Based on phylogeny, these GPCR families can be divided into five distinct clades, and members of each clade tend to be located on the same VACs. Similarly, their neuropeptide gene families also tend to reside on distinct VACs. Comparison of these GPCR genes with those of invertebrates including Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Branchiostoma floridae, and Ciona intestinalis indicates that these GPCR families emerged through tandem local duplication during metazoan evolution prior to 2R WGD. Our study describes a presumptive evolutionary mechanism and development pathway of the vertebrate rhodopsin-like GPCR and cognate neuropeptide families from the urbilaterian ancestor to modern vertebrates.

  13. A polymorphism in the CYP17 gene is associated with male breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Young, I E; Kurian, K M; Annink, C; Kunkler, I H; Anderson, V A; Cohen, B B; Hooper, M L; Wyllie, A H; Steel, C M

    1999-01-01

    The CYP17 gene codes for the cytochrome P450c17α enzyme that is involved in the synthesis of oestrogens. This case-control study from the South East of Scotland shows that a polymorphism of the CYP17 gene is associated with an increased risk of male breast cancer. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10487625

  14. Functional polymorphisms in the CYP2C19 gene contribute to digestive system cancer risk: evidence from 11,042 subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Song, Zhenshun; Qian, Mingping; Li, Liang; Gong, Jian; Zou, Shaowu

    2013-01-01

    CYP2C19 belongs to the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes involved in activating and detoxifying many carcinogens and endogenous compounds, which has attracted considerable attention as a candidate gene for digestive system cancer. CYP2C19 has two main point mutation sites (CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3) leading to poor metabolizer (PM) phenotype. In the past decade, the relationship between CYP2C19 polymorphism and digestive system cancer has been reported in various ethnic groups; however, these studies have yielded contradictory results. To clarify this inconsistency, we performed this meta-analysis. Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. In total, 18 studies with 4,414 cases and 6,628 controls were included. Overall, significantly elevated digestive system cancer risk was associated CYP2C19 PM with OR of 1.66 (95%CI: 1.31-2.10, P<10(-5)) when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. There was strong evidence of heterogeneity (P = 0.006), which largely disappeared after stratification by cancer type. In the stratified analyses according to cancer type, ethnicity, control source and sample size, significantly increased risks were found. In summary, our meta-analysis suggested that the PM phenotype caused by the variation on CYP2C19 gene is associated with increased risk of digestive system cancer, especially in East Asians.

  15. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Superfamily 15 Gene Expression in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Özçimen, Ahmet Ata; Ünal, Selma; Canacankatan, Necmiye; Antmen, Şerife Efsun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between tumor necrosis factor-superfamily 15 (TNFSF15) gene expression and clinical findings in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Materials and Methods: Forty-nine patients with SCD and 38 healthy controls were included in this study. TNFSF15 gene expression and plasma levels were analyzed. TNFSF15 gene expression was compared in subgroups considering the frequency of painful crises and acute chest syndrome (ACS). Results: It was found that TNFSF15 gene expression was significantly higher in patients with SCD than the controls (p=0.001), whereas there was no significant difference between the patients with SCD and the control groups considering plasma levels of TNFSF15. TNFSF15 gene expression was also significantly higher in SCD patients with ACS (p=0.008). Conclusion: These findings suggest that TNFSF15 may have a role in the pathogenesis of SCD presenting with ACS. Further studies on larger groups are needed to determine the function of TNFSF15 in SCD patients with ACS and pulmonary hypertension. Analysis of TNFSF15 expression may also serve as a promising approach in ACS therapy. PMID:25330517

  16. Constitutive androstane receptor transcriptionally activates human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes through a common regulatory element in the 5'-flanking region.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, Kouichi; Yoda, Noriaki; Toriyabe, Takayoshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2010-01-15

    Phenobarbital has long been known to increase cellular levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 possibly through a pathway(s) independent of aryl hydrocarbon receptor. We have investigated the role of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a xenobiotic-responsive nuclear receptor, in the transactivation of human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. These genes are located in a head-to-head orientation, sharing a 5'-flanking region. Reporter assays were thus performed with dual-reporter constructs, containing the whole or partially deleted human CYP1A promoter between two different reporter genes. In this system, human CAR (hCAR) enhanced the transcription of both genes through common promoter regions from -461 to -554 and from -18089 to -21975 of CYP1A1. With reporter assays using additional deleted and mutated constructs, electrophoresis mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, an ER8 motif (everted repeat separated by eight nucleotides), located at around -520 of CYP1A1, was identified as an hCAR-responsive element and a binding motif of hCAR/human retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimer. hCAR enhanced the transcription of both genes also in the presence of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand. Finally, hCAR activation increased CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNA levels in cultured human hepatocytes. Our results indicate that CAR transactivates human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in human hepatocytes through the common cis-element ER8. Interestingly, the ER8 motif is highly conserved in the CYP1A1 proximal promoter sequences of various species, suggesting a fundamental role of CAR in the xenobiotic-induced expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 independent of aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

  17. Phi Class of Glutathione S-transferase Gene Superfamily Widely Exists in Nonplant Taxonomic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Munyampundu, Jean-Pierre; Xu, You-Ping; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes involved in detoxification of noxious compounds and protection against oxidative damage. GST class Phi (GSTF), one of the important classes of plant GSTs, has long been considered as plant specific but was recently found in basidiomycete fungi. However, the range of nonplant taxonomic groups containing GSTFs remains unknown. In this study, the distribution and phylogenetic relationships of nonplant GSTFs were investigated. We identified GSTFs in ascomycete fungi, myxobacteria, and protists Naegleria gruberi and Aureococcus anophagefferens. GSTF occurrence in these bacteria and protists correlated with their genome sizes and habitats. While this link was missing across ascomycetes, the distribution and abundance of GSTFs among ascomycete genomes could be associated with their lifestyles to some extent. Sequence comparison, gene structure, and phylogenetic analyses indicated divergence among nonplant GSTFs, suggesting polyphyletic origins during evolution. Furthermore, in silico prediction of functional partners suggested functional diversification among nonplant GSTFs. PMID:26884677

  18. A new CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimeric gene identified in an Italian woman suffering from classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia form.

    PubMed

    Concolino, Paola; Mello, Enrica; Minucci, Angelo; Giardina, Emiliano; Zuppi, Cecilia; Toscano, Vincenzo; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2009-07-22

    More than 90% of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) cases are associated with mutations in the 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2) in the HLA class III area on the short arm of chromosome 6p21.3. In this region, a 30 kb deletion produces a non functional chimeric gene with its 5' and 3' ends corresponding to CYP21A1P pseudogene and CYP21A2, respectively. To date, five different CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimeric genes have been found and characterized in recent studies. In this paper, we describe a new CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimera (CH-6) found in an Italian CAH patient. Southern blot analysis and CYP21A2 sequencing were performed on the patient. In addition, in order to isolate the new CH-6 chimeric gene, two different strategies were used. The CYP21A2 sequencing analysis showed that the patient was homozygote for the g.655C/A>G mutation and heterozygote for the p.P30L missense mutation. In addition, the promoter sequence revealed the presence, in heterozygosis, of 13 SNPs generally produced by microconversion events between gene and pseudogene. Southern blot analysis showed that the woman was heterozygote for the classic 30-kb deletion producing a new CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimeric gene (CH-6). The hybrid junction site was located between the end of intron 2 pseudogene, after the g.656C/A>G mutation, and the beginning of exon 3, before the 8 bp deletion. Consequently, CH-6 carries three mutations: the weak pseudogene promoter region, the p.P30L and the g.655C/A>G splice mutation. We describe a new CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimera (CH-6), associated with the HLA-B15, DR13 haplotype, in a young Italian CAH patient.

  19. Cloning and characterization of a novel CYP3A1 allelic variant: analysis of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 sex-hormone-dependent expression reveals that the CYP3A2 gene is regulated by testosterone.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, V; Lechner, M C

    1992-02-14

    A clone was isolated from a cDNA library constructed from phenobarbital-treated Wistar rat liver and proven to correspond to the full-length mRNA of a polymorphic variant of Sprague-Dawley CYP3A1. Eight nucleotide differences were detected in a single 76-nucleotide stretch and confirmed to be present in the genomic clone. They are seated in a region implicated in the definition of a substrate binding domain of the native P450. Three out of the eight nucleotide changes are nonconservative, implicating the replacement of Thr/Ala 207, Phe/Ile 213, and Ile/Val 232. This is the first report of an allelic variant of CYP3A1, a new example of interstrain P450 variability. The CYP3A subfamily is composed of several genes coding for active testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylases which are expressed in the liver. CYP3A genes are under strong and distinct developmental regulation. Conversely to CYP3A1, transiently expressed in immature animals, CYP3A2 is constitutively expressed in the liver early after birth and characterized by an extinction in the adult females. Castration of 90-day-old male rats causes a drastic reduction (80%) of CYP3A2 mRNA relative abundance. Administration of testosterone propionate restores the physiological levels of CYP3A2 mRNA characteristic of the male rat liver. Our results demonstrate the existence of a direct relationship between the male hormonal status and the constitutive expression of rat liver CYP3A2.

  20. Common polymorphisms in the CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes: evidence for a digenic influence on hypertension.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Madrazo, Samantha; Mackenzie, Scott M; Davies, Eleanor; Fraser, Robert; Lee, Wai-Kwong; Brown, Morris; Caulfield, Mark J; Dominiczak, Anna F; Farrall, Martin; Lathrop, Mark; Hedner, Thomas; Melander, Olle; Munroe, Patricia B; Samani, Nilesh; Stewart, Paul M; Wahlstrand, Björn; Webster, John; Palmer, Colin N A; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Connell, John M

    2013-01-01

    The locus encompassing the corticosteroidogenic genes CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 is of potential importance in essential hypertension. We analyzed the association of polymorphisms at this locus with risk of essential hypertension, using 2 white case-control collections for discovery (n=3340) and confirmation (n=2929). Single-marker and haplotype analyses were performed, with the CYP11B2 Intron 2 Conversion polymorphism showing strongest association with hypertension in both cohorts and in combined analysis (odds ratio=1.16, P=8.54×10(-5)). The CYP11B1 ACA haplotype associated with increased risk of hypertension relative to the alternative, GTC (odds ratio=1.11; P=7.4×10(-3)), whereas the CYP11B2 TWtC haplotype seemed protective relative to the contrasting CConvT (odds ratio=0.88, P=2.2×10(-3)). Analysis spanning the whole CYP11B1/CYP11B2 locus showed that haplotypes associated with raised risk of hypertension tend to coexist. Functional analysis of heterozygous human adrenal tissue demonstrated decreased CYP11B2 expression and increased CYP11B1 expression for those alleles associating with reduced risk of hypertension. These results confirm the hypertensive influence of this locus, with data suggesting a complex digenic mechanism whereby altered relative CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 gene expression could have a chronic effect on enzyme activity and corticosteroid synthesis.

  1. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Kim, HyeRan; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-07-27

    Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Currently, understanding of their function(s) during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST) and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible) under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants.

  2. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Kim, HyeRan; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Currently, understanding of their function(s) during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST) and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible) under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants. PMID:27472324

  3. [Transgenic plant regeneration of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) haboring mammalian cyp2e1 gene].

    PubMed

    Li, Peihan; Xiang, Taihe; Xie, Jun; Feng, Ting; Lu, Wenyi

    2012-10-01

    CYP2E1 enzyme encoded by cyp2e1 gene plays an important role in metabolism of heterogeneous organics in mammalian liver cells. The transgenic plant with cyp2e1 can metabolize various low molecular weight organic pollutants. However, it is unclear the mechanism of expression control of cyp2e1 in transgenic plant. In this study, plasmid pSLD50-6 with cyp2e1 and pKH200 with gus as control were transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 separately. Then, the cyp2e1 or gus genes were transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and the transgenic plants were regenerated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens method. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the cyp2e1 gene expression. The expression of cyp2e1 in transgenic tobacco with cyp2e1 decreased obviously treated by ethyl alcohol and reduced slightly by benzene and toluene, while it enhanced by acetone, formaldehyde and oxygen deficit in different levels. In addition, the gene expression of NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase and cytochrome b5 enzyme in the transgenic tobacco with cyp2e1 were increased significantly treated by benzene, which showed that NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase and cytochrome b5 enzyme in transgenic tobacco have relation with CYP2E1 detoxication process. It suggested that the NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase and cytochrome b5 enzyme in transgenic plant formed the requirement in mammalian and participated in the electron transport chain of CYP2E1 enzyme catalytic process.

  4. CYP genes in osteosarcoma: Their role in tumorigenesis, pulmonary metastatic microenvironment and treatment response.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Paolillo, Alini; Tesser-Gamba, Francine; Petrilli, Antonio Sergio; de Seixas Alves, Maria Teresa; Garcia Filho, Reynaldo Jesus; de Oliveira, Renato; de Toledo, Silvia Regina Caminada

    2017-06-13

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. The present study investigated the expression of Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) genes: CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 by qRT-PCR in 135 specimens obtained from OS patients, including biopsy (pre-chemotherapy), tumor resected in surgery (post-chemotherapy), adjacent bone to tumor (nonmalignant tissue), pulmonary metastasis and adjacent lung to metastasis (nonmalignant tissue). Normal bone and normal lung tissues were used as control. We also investigated in five OS cell lines the modulation of CYPs expression by cisplatin, doxorubicin and methotrexate. As result, the adjacent lung specimens presented CYP1A2 overexpression compared to the normal lung (p=0.0256). Biopsy specimens presented lower CYP3A4 expression than normal bone (p=0.0314). The overexpression of both CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in post-chemotherapy specimens were correlated with better event free-survival (p=0.0244) and good response (p=0.0484), respectively. Furthermore, in vitro assays revealed that CYP1A2 was upregulated by doxorubicin (p=0.0034); CYP3A4 was upregulated by cisplatin, doxorubicin and methotrexate (p=0.0004, p=0.0024, p<0.0001, respectively); and CYP3A5 was downregulated by doxorubicin (p=0.0285) and upregulated in time-dependent manner by methotrexate (p=0.0239). In conclusion, our findings suggest that CYP genes play an important role in OS tumorigenesis, at primary and metastatic sites, as well in treatment response.

  5. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genotypes, haplotypes, and TCDD-induced gene expression in subjects from Seveso, Italy.

    PubMed

    Landi, Maria Teresa; Bergen, Andrew W; Baccarelli, Andrea; Patterson, Donald G; Grassman, Jean; Ter-Minassian, Monica; Mocarelli, Paolo; Caporaso, Neil; Masten, Scott A; Pesatori, Angela C; Pittman, Gary S; Bell, Douglas A

    2005-02-14

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is highly toxic in experimental animals, and is known to induce cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene expression. We investigated the effect of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 variant genotypes and haplotypes on CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in lymphocytes from 121 subjects from the Seveso population, Italy, accidentally exposed to TCDD in 1976. The 3'UTR 3801T>C and I462V variants of CYP1A1 were present in 16% and 6% of the subjects, respectively. The frequency of CYP1B1 variants was 85.2% for L432V, 49.6% for R48G and A119S, and 28.7% for N453S. There was complete linkage disequilibrium (LD) among the CYP1B1 variant loci (D'=-1) and high LD among the CYP1A1 loci (D'=0.86). Gene expression measured by RT-PCR did not vary by CYP1B1 genotype in uncultured lymphocytes. However, when lymphocytes were treated in vitro with 10 nM TCDD, CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 mRNA expression was strongly induced and modified by CYP variant alleles. Specifically, the CYP1B1*3 haplotype (L432V) was associated with increased CYP1B1 mRNA expression (P=0.03), following an additive model; the CYP1A1 I462V polymorphism was positively, although not significantly, associated with CYP1A1 expression. The CYP1B1*3 variant may have affected CYP1B1 expression in subjects highly and acutely exposed to dioxin at the time of the accident. Although based on small number of subjects, a slight increase in eczema (P=0.05, n=8) and urticaria (P=0.02, n=2) was observed 20 years after the accident in subjects carrying the CYP1B1*3 allele. Genetic variation in cytochrome P450 induction may identify subjects with variable responsiveness to TCDD and potentially increased risk of disease.

  6. Dietary cholesterol fails to stimulate the human cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP7A1) in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Agellon, Luis B; Drover, Victor A B; Cheema, Sukhinder K; Gbaguidi, G Franck; Walsh, Annemarie

    2002-06-07

    Dietary cholesterol has been shown to have a stimulatory effect on the murine cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene (Cyp7a1), but its effect on human cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP7A1) expression in vivo is not known. A transgenic mouse strain harboring the human CYP7A1 gene and homozygous for the disrupted murine Cyp7a1 gene was created. Cholesterol feeding increased the expression of the endogenous modified Cyp7a1 allele but failed to stimulate the human CYP7A1 transgene. In transfected hepatoma cells, 25-hydroxycholesterol increased murine Cyp7a1 gene promoter activity, whereas the human CYP7A1 gene promoter was unresponsive. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated the interaction of the liver X receptor alpha (LXRalpha): retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimer, a transcription factor complex that is activated by oxysterols, with the murine Cyp7a1 gene promoter, whereas no binding to the human CYP7A1 gene promoter was detected. The results demonstrate that the human CYP7A1 gene is not stimulated by dietary cholesterol in the intact animal, and this is attributable to the inability of the CYP7A1 gene promoter to interact with LXRalpha:RXR.

  7. The cytochrome P450 2AA gene cluster in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Expression of CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2 and response to phenobarbital-type inducers

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Akira; Bainy, Afonso C.D.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Stegeman, John J.

    2013-10-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2 gene family is the largest and most diverse CYP gene family in vertebrates. In zebrafish, we have identified 10 genes in a new subfamily, CYP2AA, which does not show orthology to any human or other mammalian CYP genes. Here we report evolutionary and structural relationships of the 10 CYP2AA genes and expression of the first two genes, CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2. Parsimony reconstruction of the tandem duplication pattern for the CYP2AA cluster suggests that CYP2AA1, CYP2AA2 and CYP2AA3 likely arose in the earlier duplication events and thus are most diverged in function from the other CYP2AAs. On the other hand, CYP2AA8 and CYP2AA9 are genes that arose in the latest duplication event, implying functional similarity between these two CYPs. A molecular model of CYP2AA1 showing the sequence conservation across the CYP2AA cluster reveals that the regions with the highest variability within the cluster map onto CYP2AA1 near the substrate access channels, suggesting differing substrate specificities. Zebrafish CYP2AA1 transcript was expressed predominantly in the intestine, while CYP2AA2 was most highly expressed in the kidney, suggesting differing roles in physiology. In the liver CYP2AA2 expression but not that of CYP2AA1, was increased by 1,4-bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) and, to a lesser extent, by phenobarbital (PB). In contrast, pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) increased CYP2AA1 expression, but not CYP2AA2 in the liver. The results identify a CYP2 subfamily in zebrafish that includes genes apparently induced by PB-type chemicals and PXR agonists, the first concrete in vivo evidence for a PB-type response in fish. - Highlights: • A tandemly duplicated cluster of ten CYP2AA genes was described in zebrafish. • Parsimony and duplication analyses suggest pathways to CYP2AA diversity. • Homology models reveal amino acid positions possibly related to functional diversity. • The CYP2AA locus does not share synteny with

  8. Possible involvement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 in the gene expression of Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5.

    PubMed

    Ashino, Takashi; Ohkubo-Morita, Haruyo; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yoshida, Takemi; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 gene expression is altered by various chemical compounds. In this study, we used nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-deficient (Nrf2(-⧸-)) mice to investigate the involvement of Nrf2 in Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 gene expression. Phorone, an Nrf2 activator, strongly increased Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 mRNA as well as Nrf2 target genes, including NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase-1 and heme oxygenase-1, in wild-type mouse livers 8 h after treatment. The phorone-induced mRNA levels in Nrf2(-⧸-) mouse livers were lower than that in wild-type mouse livers. Nrf2(-⧸-) mice showed attenuated Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 induction by phenobarbital, a classical Cyp2b inducer. These findings suggest that the Nrf2 pathway is involved in Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 gene expression.

  9. Postprandial response and tissue distribution of the bile acid synthesis-related genes, cyp7a1, cyp8b1 and shp, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Murashita, Koji; Yoshiura, Yasutoshi; Chisada, Shin-ichi; Furuita, Hirofumi; Sugita, Tsuyoshi; Matsunari, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2013-10-01

    In mammals, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) are rate-limiting enzymes in bile acid synthesis. In addition, a small heterodimer partner (SHP) is also known to inhibit bile acid synthesis via the suppression of CYP7A1 and CYP8B1 expression. However, little information is currently available regarding primary structure of the genes involved in bile acid synthesis in fish. We therefore cloned cyp7a1, cyp8b1 and shp genes from rainbow trout and obtained cDNAs encoding two isoforms each of Cyp7a1 (-1 and -2), Cyp8b1 (-1 and -2) and Shp (-1 and -2). Both cyp7a1-1 and -2 encoded proteins of 512 amino acids. Trout cyp7a1-1 was expressed not only primarily in the kidney, pyloric caecum and mid-gut, but also weakly in the liver, eye, gill and ovary. cyp7a1-2 was highly expressed in the liver, pyloric caecum and mid-gut. cyp8b1-1 and -2, which encoded proteins of 512 and 509 amino acids, respectively, were principally expressed in the liver. Both shp-1 and -2, which encoded proteins of 288 and 290 amino acids, respectively, were strongly expressed in the liver, but shp-2 was also highly expressed in the gallbladder and digestive tract. The temporal changes in the expression of cyp7a1-1/-2, cyp8b1-1/-2 and shp-1/-2 in the liver were assessed after consumption of a single meal. Expression of cyp7a1-1/-2 and cyp8b1-1/-2 increased within 3h post feeding (hpf) when the stomach was still approximately 84% full and the gallbladder was almost completely empty. Although the expression of shp-1 did not change after feeding, the expression pattern of shp-2 was inversely related to the expression patterns of cyp7a1-1/-2 and cyp8b1-1/-2. Specifically, shp-2 expression decreased until 3 hpf before returning to initial levels at 24 hpf. These findings suggest that Cyp7a1s/8b1s and Shp-2 function antagonistically in bile acid synthesis in rainbow trout.

  10. Linkage disequilibrium between the CYP2C19*2,*17 and CYP2C9*1 alleles and impact of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms and gene-gene interactions on warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Khalighi, Koroush; Cheng, Gang; Mirabbasi, Seyedabbas; Khalighi, Bahar; Wu, Yin; Fan, Wuqiang

    2017-01-01

    Warfarin therapy is complicated by its large inter-individual and intra-individual variability. Both genetic and non-genetic factors can affect warfarin therapy. This study aims to investigate the allele distribution of VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19, contribution of different allele variants and possible gene-gene interaction on warfarin therapy. Four hundreds and ninety-two patients were enrolled and single nucleotide polymorphisms for vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1), cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 and cytochrome P450 CYP2C19 were genotyped. CYP2C9*1 allele is in complete linkage disequilibrium with CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 (D' = 1) in our study population. Patient with VKORC1-1639 G > A, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 genetic variants need significant lower warfarin dose than patient with wild type allele of VKORC1 1639 G or CYP2C9*1. There is no significant differences between CYP2C19 allele variants for warfarin stable dose and INR > 5 event. Because of the complete linkage disequilibrium between CYP2C19*2,*17 and CYP2C9*1, patient with CYP2C19 *2/*2, *2/*17 and *17/*17 genotypes tend to have higher warfarin dose than patient with CYP2C19*1/*1 genotype. Stepwise regression analysis showed that VKORC1, CYP2C9, body mass index (BMI), age and gender were included as a factor significantly contributing to warfarin dose, whereas CYP2C19 did not contribute to warfarin dose. No statistically significant interaction between CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on warfarin dose and INR > 5 event was detected in univariate general linear model analysis. Our study suggests that polymorphic variants of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 affect warfarin dose independently, whereas CYP2C19 did not contribute to warfarin therapy.

  11. Evolutionary Dynamics of the Cellulose Synthase Gene Superfamily in Grasses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schwerdt, Julian G.; Wright, Frank; Oehme, Daniel; Wagner, John M.; Shirley, Neil J.; Burton, Rachel A.; Schreiber, Miriam; Zimmer, Jochen; Marshall, David F.; Waugh, Robbie; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of cellulose synthase (CesA) and cellulose synthase-like (Csl) families from the cellulose synthase gene superfamily were used to reconstruct their evolutionary origins and selection histories. Counterintuitively, genes encoding primary cell wall CesAs have undergone extensive expansion and diversification following an ancestral duplication from a secondary cell wall-associated CesA. Selection pressure across entire CesA and Csl clades appears to be low, but this conceals considerable variation within individual clades. Genes in the CslF clade are of particular interest because some mediate the synthesis of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, a polysaccharide characteristic of the evolutionarily successful grasses that is not widely distributed elsewhere in the plant kingdom. The phylogeny suggests that duplication of either CslF6 and/or CslF7 produced the ancestor of a highly conserved cluster of CslF genes that remain located in syntenic regions of all the grass genomes examined. A CslF6-specific insert encoding approximately 55 amino acid residues has subsequently been incorporated into the gene, or possibly lost from other CslFs, and the CslF7 clade has undergone a significant long-term shift in selection pressure. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics of the CslF6 protein were used to define the three-dimensional dispositions of individual amino acids that are subject to strong ongoing selection, together with the position of the conserved 55-amino acid insert that is known to influence the amounts and fine structures of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans synthesized. These wall polysaccharides are attracting renewed interest because of their central roles as sources of dietary fiber in human health and for the generation of renewable liquid biofuels. PMID:25999407

  12. Functional Characterization of CYP94-Genes and Identification of a Novel Jasmonate Catabolite in Flowers

    PubMed Central

    König, Stefanie; Brodhun, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades much research focused on the biosynthesis of the plant hormone jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). While many details about its biosynthetic pathway as well about its physiological function are established nowadays, knowledge about its catabolic fate is still scarce. Only recently, the hormonal inactivation mechanisms became a stronger research focus. Two major pathways have been proposed to inactivate JA-Ile: i) The cleavage of the jasmonyl-residue from the isoleucine moiety, a reaction that is catalyzed by specific amido-hydrolases, or ii), the sequential oxidation of the ω-end of the pentenyl side-chain. This reaction is catalyzed by specific members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) subfamily CYP94: CYP94B1, CYP94B3 and CYP94C1. In the present study, we further investigated the oxidative fate of JA-Ile by expanding the analysis on Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, lacking only one (cyp94b1, cyp94b2, cyp94b3, cyp94c1), two (cyp94b1xcyp94b2, cyp94b1xcyp94b3, cyp94b2xcyp94b3), three (cyp94b1xcyp94b2xcyp94b3) or even four (cyp94b1xcyp94b2xcyp94b3xcyp94c1) CYP94 functionalities. The results obtained in the present study show that CYP94B1, CYP94B2, CYP94B3 and CYP94C1 are responsible for catalyzing the sequential ω-oxidation of JA-Ile in a semi-redundant manner. While CYP94B-enzymes preferentially hydroxylate JA-Ile to 12-hydroxy-JA-Ile, CYP94C1 catalyzes primarily the subsequent oxidation, yielding 12-carboxy-JA-Ile. In addition, data obtained from investigating the triple and quadruple mutants let us hypothesize that a direct oxidation of unconjugated JA to 12-hydroxy-JA is possible in planta. Using a non-targeted metabolite fingerprinting analysis, we identified unconjugated 12-carboxy-JA as novel jasmonate derivative in floral tissues. Using the same approach, we could show that deletion of CYP94-genes might not only affect JA-homeostasis but also other signaling pathways. Deletion of CYP94B1, for example, led to accumulation of metabolites that may be

  13. Functional Characterization of CYP94-Genes and Identification of a Novel Jasmonate Catabolite in Flowers.

    PubMed

    Bruckhoff, Viktoria; Haroth, Sven; Feussner, Kirstin; König, Stefanie; Brodhun, Florian; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades much research focused on the biosynthesis of the plant hormone jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). While many details about its biosynthetic pathway as well about its physiological function are established nowadays, knowledge about its catabolic fate is still scarce. Only recently, the hormonal inactivation mechanisms became a stronger research focus. Two major pathways have been proposed to inactivate JA-Ile: i) The cleavage of the jasmonyl-residue from the isoleucine moiety, a reaction that is catalyzed by specific amido-hydrolases, or ii), the sequential oxidation of the ω-end of the pentenyl side-chain. This reaction is catalyzed by specific members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) subfamily CYP94: CYP94B1, CYP94B3 and CYP94C1. In the present study, we further investigated the oxidative fate of JA-Ile by expanding the analysis on Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, lacking only one (cyp94b1, cyp94b2, cyp94b3, cyp94c1), two (cyp94b1xcyp94b2, cyp94b1xcyp94b3, cyp94b2xcyp94b3), three (cyp94b1xcyp94b2xcyp94b3) or even four (cyp94b1xcyp94b2xcyp94b3xcyp94c1) CYP94 functionalities. The results obtained in the present study show that CYP94B1, CYP94B2, CYP94B3 and CYP94C1 are responsible for catalyzing the sequential ω-oxidation of JA-Ile in a semi-redundant manner. While CYP94B-enzymes preferentially hydroxylate JA-Ile to 12-hydroxy-JA-Ile, CYP94C1 catalyzes primarily the subsequent oxidation, yielding 12-carboxy-JA-Ile. In addition, data obtained from investigating the triple and quadruple mutants let us hypothesize that a direct oxidation of unconjugated JA to 12-hydroxy-JA is possible in planta. Using a non-targeted metabolite fingerprinting analysis, we identified unconjugated 12-carboxy-JA as novel jasmonate derivative in floral tissues. Using the same approach, we could show that deletion of CYP94-genes might not only affect JA-homeostasis but also other signaling pathways. Deletion of CYP94B1, for example, led to accumulation of metabolites that may be

  14. Bridging sequence diversity and tissue-specific expression by DNA methylation in genes of the mouse prolactin superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Koji; Nakanishi, Momo O.; Ohgane, Jun; Tanaka, Satoshi; Hirosawa, Mitsuko; Soares, Michael J.; Yagi, Shintaro; Shiota, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Much of the DNA in genomes is organized within gene families and hierarchies of gene superfamilies. DNA methylation is the main epigenetic event involved in gene silencing and genome stability. In the present study, we analyzed the DNA methylation status of the prolactin (PRL) superfamily to obtain insight into its tissue-specific expression and the evolution of its sequence diversity. The PRL superfamily in mice consists of two dozen members, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. The genes in this family have CpG-less sequences, and they are located within a 1-Mb region as a gene cluster on chromosome 13. We tentatively grouped the family into several gene clusters, depending on location and gene orientation. We found that all the members had tissue-dependent differentially methylated regions (T-DMRs) around the transcription start site. The T-DMRs are hypermethylated in nonexpressing tissues and hypomethylated in expressing cells, supporting the idea that the expression of the PRL superfamily genes is subject to epigenetic regulation. Interestingly, the DNA methylation patterns of T-DMRs are shared within a cluster, while the patterns are different among the clusters. Finally, we reconstituted the nucleotide sequences of T-DMRs by converting TpG to CpG based on the consideration of a possible conversion of 5-methylcytosine to thymine by spontaneous deamination during the evolutionary process. On the phylogenic tree, the reconstituted sequences were well matched with the DNA methylation pattern of T-DMR and orientation. Our study suggests that DNA methylation is involved in tissue-specific expression and sequence diversity during evolution. PMID:22193412

  15. Mutations of the CYP1B1 gene in congenital anterior staphylomas.

    PubMed

    Al Judaibi, Ramzi; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Morales, Jose; Al Shahwan, Sami; Edward, Deepak P

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present two patients with congenital anterior staphyloma, with mutations in the CYP1B1 gene. We reviewed the medical records, including the genetic analysis. Two unrelated patients presented with congenital anterior staphylomas. Both patients showed mutations in the CYP1B1 gene. The first patient, the product of a consanguineous marriage, showed a homozygous misssense mutation g.3987G>A (p.G61E). The second patient had compound heterozygous misssense mutations [g.4160 G>T (p.A119S) and g.8131 C>G (p.L432V)]. CYP1B1 gene mutation may be associated with congenital anterior staphylomas.

  16. Analysis of Genetic Variation in CYP450 Genes for Clinical Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Liuh Ling; Lim, Chia Wei; Sim, Wey Cheng; Toh, Li Xian; Leong, Khai Pang

    2017-01-01

    Background Genetic determinants of drug response remain stable throughout life and offer great promise to patient-tailored drug therapy. The adoption of pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing in patient care requires accurate, cost effective and rapid genotyping with clear guidance on the use of the results. Hence, we evaluated a 32 SNPs panel for implementing PGx testing in clinical laboratories. Methods We designed a 32-SNP panel for PGx testing in clinical laboratories. The variants were selected using the clinical annotations of the Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB) and include polymorphisms of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A5 and VKORC1 genes. The CYP2D6 gene allele quantification was determined simultaneously with TaqMan copy number assays targeting intron 2 and exon 9 regions. The genotyping results showed high call rate accuracy according to concordance with genotypes identified by independent analyses on Sequenome massarray and droplet digital PCR. Furthermore, 506 genomic samples across three major ethnic groups of Singapore (Malay, Indian and Chinese) were analysed on our workflow. Results We found that 98% of our study subjects carry one or more CPIC actionable variants. The major alleles detected include CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*2, CYP2D6*10, CYP2D6*36, CYP2D6*41, CYP3A5*3 and VKORC1*2. These translate into a high percentage of intermediate (IM) and poor metabolizer (PM) phenotypes for these genes in our population. Conclusion Genotyping may be useful to identify patients who are prone to drug toxicity with standard doses of drug therapy in our population. The simplicity and robustness of this PGx panel is highly suitable for use in a clinical laboratory. PMID:28046094

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Expansin Gene Superfamily Reveals Grapevine-Specific Structural and Functional Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Fasoli, Marianna; Venturini, Luca; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background Expansins are proteins that loosen plant cell walls in a pH-dependent manner, probably by increasing the relative movement among polymers thus causing irreversible expansion. The expansin superfamily (EXP) comprises four distinct families: expansin A (EXPA), expansin B (EXPB), expansin-like A (EXLA) and expansin-like B (EXLB). There is experimental evidence that EXPA and EXPB proteins are required for cell expansion and developmental processes involving cell wall modification, whereas the exact functions of EXLA and EXLB remain unclear. The complete grapevine (Vitis vinifera) genome sequence has allowed the characterization of many gene families, but an exhaustive genome-wide analysis of expansin gene expression has not been attempted thus far. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified 29 EXP superfamily genes in the grapevine genome, representing all four EXP families. Members of the same EXP family shared the same exon–intron structure, and phylogenetic analysis confirmed a closer relationship between EXP genes from woody species, i.e. grapevine and poplar (Populus trichocarpa), compared to those from Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa). We also identified grapevine-specific duplication events involving the EXLB family. Global gene expression analysis confirmed a strong correlation among EXP genes expressed in mature and green/vegetative samples, respectively, as reported for other gene families in the recently-published grapevine gene expression atlas. We also observed the specific co-expression of EXLB genes in woody organs, and the involvement of certain grapevine EXP genes in berry development and post-harvest withering. Conclusion Our comprehensive analysis of the grapevine EXP superfamily confirmed and extended current knowledge about the structural and functional characteristics of this gene family, and also identified properties that are currently unique to grapevine expansin genes. Our data provide a model for the functional

  18. Association of vdr, cyp27b1, cyp24a1 and mthfr gene polymorphisms with oral lichen planus risk.

    PubMed

    Kujundzic, Bojan; Zeljic, Katarina; Supic, Gordana; Magic, Marko; Stanimirovic, Dragan; Ilic, Vesna; Jovanovic, Barbara; Magic, Zvonko

    2016-05-01

    The current study investigated the association between VDR EcoRV (rs4516035), FokI (rs2228570), ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236), CYP27B1 (rs4646536), CYP24A1 (rs2296241), and MTHFR (rs1801133) gene polymorphisms and risk of oral lichen planus (OLP) occurrence. The study group consisted of 65 oral lichen planus patients and 100 healthy blood donors in the control group. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped by real time PCR or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Heterozygous as well as mutated genotype of vitamin D receptor (VDR) FokI (rs2228570) polymorphism was associated with increased oral lichen planus risk in comparison with wild type genotype (odds ratio (OR) = 3.877, p = 0.017, OR = 38.153, p = 0.001, respectively). A significantly decreased OLP risk was observed for heterozygous genotype of rs2296241 polymorphism in CYP24A1 gene compared with the wild type form (OR = 0.314, p = 0.012). VDR gene polymorphisms ApaI and TaqI were in linkage disequilibrium (D' = 0.71, r(2) = 0.22). Identified haplotype AT was associated with decreased OLP risk (OR = 0.592, p = 0.047). Our results highlight the possible important role of VDR FokI (rs2228570) and CYP24A1 rs2296241 gene polymorphisms for oral lichen planus susceptibility. Identification of new molecular biomarkers could potentially contribute to determination of individuals with OLP predisposition.

  19. Insights into Hydrocarbon Assimilation by Eurotialean and Hypocrealean Fungi: Roles for CYP52 and CYP53 Clans of Cytochrome P450 Genes.

    PubMed

    Huarte-Bonnet, Carla; Kumar, Suresh; Saparrat, Mario C N; Girotti, Juan R; Santana, Marianela; Hallsworth, John E; Pedrini, Nicolás

    2017-09-23

    Several filamentous fungi are able to concomitantly assimilate both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are the biogenic by-products of some industrial processes. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases catalyze the first oxidation reaction for both types of substrate. Among the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, the family CYP52 is implicated in the first hydroxylation step in alkane-assimilation processes, while genes belonging to the family CYP53 have been linked with oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Here, we perform a comparative analysis of CYP genes belonging to clans CYP52 and CYP53 in Aspergillus niger, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium robertsii (formerly M. anisopliae var. anisopliae), and Penicillium chrysogenum. These species were able to assimilate n-hexadecane, n-octacosane, and phenanthrene, exhibiting a species-dependent modification in pH of the nutrient medium during this process. Modeling of the molecular docking of the hydrocarbons to the cytochrome P450 active site revealed that both phenanthrene and n-octacosane are energetically favored as substrates for the enzymes codified by genes belonging to both CYP52 and CYP53 clans, and thus appear to be involved in this oxidation step. Analyses of gene expression revealed that CYP53 members were significantly induced by phenanthrene in all species studied, but only CYP52X1 and CYP53A11 from B. bassiana were highly induced with n-alkanes. These findings suggest that the set of P450 enzymes involved in hydrocarbon assimilation by fungi is dependent on phylogeny and reveal distinct substrate and expression specificities.

  20. Genome-wide identification of 52 cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus and their B[α]P-induced expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kim, Hui-Su; Nelson, David R; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-09-01

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are enzymes with a heme-binding domain that are found in all living organisms. CYP enzymes have important roles associated with detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds (e.g. steroids, fatty acids, and hormones). Although CYP enzymes have been reported in several invertebrates, including insects, little is known about copepod CYPs. Here, we identified the entire repertoire of CYP genes (n=52) from whole genome and transcriptome sequences of the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus, including a tandem duplication (CYP3026A3, CYP3026A4, CYP3026A5), and examined patterns of gene expression over various developmental stages and in response to benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P) exposure. Through phylogenetic analysis, the 52 T. japonicus CYP genes were assigned to five distinct clans: CYP2 (22 genes), CYP3 (19 genes), CYP4 (two genes), CYP20 (one gene), and mitochondrial (eight genes). Developmental stage and gender-specific expression patterns of the 52 T. japonicus CYPs were analyzed. CYP3022A1 was constitutively expressed during all developmental stages. CYP genes in clans 2 and 3 were induced in response to B[α]P, suggesting that these differentially modulated CYP transcripts are likely involved in defense against exposure to B[α]P and other pollutants. This study enhances our understanding of the repertoire of CYP genes in copepods and of their potential role in development and detoxification in copepods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nine co-localized cytochrome P450 genes of the CYP2N, CYP2AD, and CYP2P gene families in the mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus genome: Identification and expression in response to B[α]P, BPA, OP, and NP.

    PubMed

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kang, Hye-Min; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Il-Chan; Hwang, Un-Ki; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-06-01

    The CYP2 genes are the largest and most diverse cytochrome P450 (CYP) subfamily in vertebrates. We have identified nine co-localized CYP2 genes (∼55kb) in a new cluster in the genome of the highly resilient ecotoxicological fish model Kryptolebias marmoratus. Molecular characterization, temporal and tissue-specific expression pattern, and response to xenobiotics of these genes were examined. The CYP2 gene clusters were characterized and designated CYP2N22-23, CYP2AD12, and CYP2P16-20. Gene synteny analysis confirmed that the cluster in K. marmoratus is similar to that found in other teleost fishes, including zebrafish. A gene duplication event with diverged catalytic function was observed in CYP2AD12. Moreover, a high level of divergence in expression was observed among the co-localized genes. Phylogeny of the cluster suggested an orthologous relationship with similar genes in zebrafish and Japanese medaka. Gene expression analysis showed that CYP2P19 and CYP2N20 were consecutively expressed throughout embryonic development, whereas CYP2P18 was expressed in all adult tissues, suggesting that members of each CYP2 gene family have different physiological roles even though they are located in the same cluster. Among endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P) induced expression of CYP2N23, bisphenol A (BPA) induced CYP2P18 and CYP2P19, and 4-octylphenol (OP) induced CYP2AD12, but there was no significant response to 4-nonylphenol (NP), implying differential catalytic roles of the enzyme. In this paper, we identify and characterize a CYP2 gene cluster in the mangrove killifish K. marmoratus with differing catalytic roles toward EDCs. Our findings provide insights on the roles of nine co-localized CYP2 genes and their catalytic functions for better understanding of chemical-biological interactions in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 Gene Polymorphisms in Schizophrenic Patients with Neuroleptic Drug-Induced Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, S A; Filipenko, M L; Vyalova, N M; Voronina, E N; Pozhidaev, I V; Osmanova, D Z; Ivanov, M V; Fedorenko, O Yu; Semke, A V; Bokhan, N A

    2016-03-01

    Polymorphic variants of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 genes of the cytochrome P450 system were studied in patients with schizophrenia with drug-induced motor disorders and hyperprolactinemia against the background of long-term neuroleptic therapy. We revealed an association of polymorphic variant C-163A CYP1A2*1F of CYP1A2 gene with tardive dyskinesia and association of polymorphic variant 1846G>A CY2D6*4 and genotype A/A of CYP2D6 gene (responsible for debrisoquin-4-hydroxylase synthesis) with limbotruncal tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia receiving neuroleptics for a long time.

  3. Identification and characterization of a pathogenicity-related gene VdCYP1 from Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Xin-Yan; Chen, Jie-Yin; Kong, Zhi-Qiang; Gui, Yue-Jing; Li, Nan-Yang; Bao, Yu-Ming; Dai, Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes vascular wilt disease in a wide variety of crop plants, thereby causing extensive economic loss. In present study, one V. dahliae T-DNA mutant M01C06 showed the pathogenicity loss on cotton, and the expression of a flanking gene encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450, VdCYP1) was strongly repressed. P450s of fungi could affect the fungal pathogenicity by involving in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. However, there was no report about the pathogenic function of P450s in V. dahliae. VdCYP1 gene deletion and complementation experiments confirmed that VdCYP1 was the pathogenicity-related gene in V. dahliae. A comparison of culture supernatants of the VdCYP1 deletion mutants and wild-type strains indicates that at least 14 kinds of secondary metabolites syntheses were affected due to VdCYP1 gene deletion. One of these compounds, sulfacetamide, had the ability to induce the necrosis and wilting symptoms in cotton. Above results indicate that VdCYP1 could participate in pathogenesis by involving the secondary metabolism in V. dahliae, such as the compound sulfacetamide. In conclusion, VdCYP1 acts as an important pathogenicity-related factor to involve in secondary metabolism that likely contributes to the pathogenic process in V. dahliae. PMID:27329129

  4. Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy associated with CYP4V2 gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Makoto; Lin, Jian; Nishiguchi, Koji; Kondo, Mineo; Sugita, Jiro; Miyake, Yozo

    2006-01-01

    Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy (BCD) is an autosomal recessive chorioretinal dystrophy characterized by progressive night blindness, tiny, yellowish, glistening retinal crystals, choroidal sclerosis, and crystalline deposits in the peripheral cornea. Recent studies have demonstrated that the CYP4V2 gene which encodes a CYP450 family protein is the causative gene of the disease. We have identified a homozygous mutation in the CYP4V2 gene in 8 separate Japanese patients with BCD and conclude that mutations in the CYP4V2 gene are the major cause of BCD. The IVS6-8_c.810del/insGC mutation is found at a higher frequency in the Asian populations suggesting a founder effect.

  5. Microarray Analysis of Differentially-Expressed Genes Encoding CYP450 and Phase II Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in Psoriasis and Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Sumantran, Venil N.; Mishra, Pratik; Bera, Rakesh; Sudhakar, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes are implicated in personalized medicine for two main reasons. First, inter-individual variability in CYP3A4 expression is a confounding factor during cancer treatment. Second, inhibition or induction of CYP3A4 can trigger adverse drug–drug interactions. However, inflammation can downregulate CYP3A4 and other drug metabolizing enzymes and lead to altered metabolism of drugs and essential vitamins and lipids. Little is known about effects of inflammation on expression of CYP450 genes controlling drug metabolism in the skin. Therefore, we analyzed seven published microarray datasets, and identified differentially-expressed genes in two inflammatory skin diseases (melanoma and psoriasis). We observed opposite patterns of expression of genes regulating metabolism of specific vitamins and lipids in psoriasis and melanoma samples. Thus, genes controlling the turnover of vitamin D (CYP27B1, CYP24A1), vitamin A (ALDH1A3, AKR1B10), and cholesterol (CYP7B1), were up-regulated in psoriasis, whereas melanomas showed downregulation of genes regulating turnover of vitamin A (AKR1C3), and cholesterol (CYP39A1). Genes controlling abnormal keratinocyte differentiation and epidermal barrier function (CYP4F22, SULT2B1) were up-regulated in psoriasis. The up-regulated CYP24A1, CYP4F22, SULT2B1, and CYP7B1 genes are potential drug targets in psoriatic skin. Both disease samples showed diminished drug metabolizing capacity due to downregulation of the CYP1B1 and CYP3A5 genes. However, melanomas showed greater loss of drug metabolizing capacity due to downregulation of the CYP3A4 gene. PMID:26901218

  6. Common variation of the CYP17 gene in Iraqi women with endometriosis disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Rubae'i, Salwa H N; Naji, Tamara Sami; Turki, Kisma M

    2017-03-01

    Common variants among genes coding for enzymes in sex steroid biosynthetic pathways may influence the risk of endometriosis in Iraqi women patients in the last years. Cytochrome P450c17a1 (CYP17), a gene that codes for a key enzyme (cytochrome P450c17a1) in a rate-limiting step of estrogen biosynthesis has attracted considerable attention as an important gene for endometriosis. To evaluate the relationship between common genetic variations in CYP17 and endometriosis risk and determine the main effects of those variations on the gene expression. A women-based case control study of Iraqi women aged range (23-46), the associations between selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP17 gene and endometriosis diagnosis in fifty women and thirty disease-free controls were evaluated. The study found a significant association (P ≤ 0.01)between endometriosis and selected SNPs of CYP17 gene, with the homozygous genotype conferring decreased risk. A highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.01) in CYP17 gene expression from women with versus without endometriosis and increased by 1.56-fold in women with endometriosis. These findings suggest that variation in or around CYP17 may be associated with endometriosis development in the Iraqi women.

  7. The cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel gene superfamily of the parasitoid wasp, Nasonia vitripennis.

    PubMed

    Jones, A K; Bera, A N; Lees, K; Sattelle, D B

    2010-03-01

    Members of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel (cysLGIC) superfamily mediate chemical neurotransmission and are studied extensively as potential targets of drugs used to treat neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. Insect cys-loop LGICs also have central roles in the nervous system and are targets of highly successful insecticides. Here, we describe the cysLGIC superfamily of the parasitoid wasp, Nasonia vitripennis, which is emerging as a highly useful model organism and is deployed as a biological control of insect pests. The wasp superfamily consists of 26 genes, which is the largest insect cysLGIC superfamily characterized, whereas Drosophila melanogaster, Apis mellifera and Tribolium castaneum have 23, 21 and 24, respectively. As with Apis, Drosophila and Tribolium, Nasonia possesses ion channels predicted to be gated by acetylcholine, gamma-amino butyric acid, glutamate and histamine, as well as orthologues of the Drosophila pH-sensitive chloride channel (pHCl), CG8916 and CG12344. Similar to other insects, wasp cysLGIC diversity is broadened by alternative splicing and RNA A-to-I editing, which may also serve to generate species-specific receptor isoforms. These findings on N. vitripennis enhance our understanding of cysLGIC functional genomics and provide a useful basis for the study of their function in the wasp model, as well as for the development of improved insecticides that spare a major beneficial insect species.

  8. Computational Identification of the Paralogs and Orthologs of Human Cytochrome P450 Superfamily and the Implication in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Xue, Danfeng; Li, Zhi-Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Yang, Yinxue; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2016-06-28

    The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily consisting of 57 functional genes is the most important group of Phase I drug metabolizing enzymes that oxidize a large number of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, including therapeutic drugs and environmental toxicants. The CYP superfamily has been shown to expand itself through gene duplication, and some of them become pseudogenes due to gene mutations. Orthologs and paralogs are homologous genes resulting from speciation or duplication, respectively. To explore the evolutionary and functional relationships of human CYPs, we conducted this bioinformatic study to identify their corresponding paralogs, homologs, and orthologs. The functional implications and implications in drug discovery and evolutionary biology were then discussed. GeneCards and Ensembl were used to identify the paralogs of human CYPs. We have used a panel of online databases to identify the orthologs of human CYP genes: NCBI, Ensembl Compara, GeneCards, OMA ("Orthologous MAtrix") Browser, PATHER, TreeFam, EggNOG, and Roundup. The results show that each human CYP has various numbers of paralogs and orthologs using GeneCards and Ensembl. For example, the paralogs of CYP2A6 include CYP2A7, 2A13, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 2F1, 2J2, 2R1, 2S1, 2U1, and 2W1; CYP11A1 has 6 paralogs including CYP11B1, 11B2, 24A1, 27A1, 27B1, and 27C1; CYP51A1 has only three paralogs: CYP26A1, 26B1, and 26C1; while CYP20A1 has no paralog. The majority of human CYPs are well conserved from plants, amphibians, fishes, or mammals to humans due to their important functions in physiology and xenobiotic disposition. The data from different approaches are also cross-validated and validated when experimental data are available. These findings facilitate our understanding of the evolutionary relationships and functional implications of the human CYP superfamily in drug discovery.

  9. Computational Identification of the Paralogs and Orthologs of Human Cytochrome P450 Superfamily and the Implication in Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Xue, Danfeng; Li, Zhi-Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Yang, Yinxue; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily consisting of 57 functional genes is the most important group of Phase I drug metabolizing enzymes that oxidize a large number of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, including therapeutic drugs and environmental toxicants. The CYP superfamily has been shown to expand itself through gene duplication, and some of them become pseudogenes due to gene mutations. Orthologs and paralogs are homologous genes resulting from speciation or duplication, respectively. To explore the evolutionary and functional relationships of human CYPs, we conducted this bioinformatic study to identify their corresponding paralogs, homologs, and orthologs. The functional implications and implications in drug discovery and evolutionary biology were then discussed. GeneCards and Ensembl were used to identify the paralogs of human CYPs. We have used a panel of online databases to identify the orthologs of human CYP genes: NCBI, Ensembl Compara, GeneCards, OMA (“Orthologous MAtrix”) Browser, PATHER, TreeFam, EggNOG, and Roundup. The results show that each human CYP has various numbers of paralogs and orthologs using GeneCards and Ensembl. For example, the paralogs of CYP2A6 include CYP2A7, 2A13, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 2F1, 2J2, 2R1, 2S1, 2U1, and 2W1; CYP11A1 has 6 paralogs including CYP11B1, 11B2, 24A1, 27A1, 27B1, and 27C1; CYP51A1 has only three paralogs: CYP26A1, 26B1, and 26C1; while CYP20A1 has no paralog. The majority of human CYPs are well conserved from plants, amphibians, fishes, or mammals to humans due to their important functions in physiology and xenobiotic disposition. The data from different approaches are also cross-validated and validated when experimental data are available. These findings facilitate our understanding of the evolutionary relationships and functional implications of the human CYP superfamily in drug discovery. PMID:27367670

  10. Modular evolution of egg case silk genes across orb-weaving spider superfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Garb, Jessica E.; Hayashi, Cheryl Y.

    2005-01-01

    Spider silk proteins (fibroins) are renowned for their extraordinary mechanical properties and biomimetic potential. Despite extensive evolutionary, ecological, and industrial interest in these fibroins, only a fraction of the known silk types have been characterized at the molecular level. Here we report cDNA and genomic sequences of the fibroin TuSp1, which appears to be the major component of tubuliform gland silk, a fiber exclusively synthesized by female spiders for egg case construction. We obtained TuSp1 sequences from 12 spider species that represent the extremes of phylogenetic diversity within the Orbicularia (orb-weaver superfamilies, Araneoidea and Deinopoidea) and finer scale sampling within genera. TuSp1 encodes tandem arrays of an ≈200-aa-long repeat unit and individual repeats are readily aligned, even among species that diverged >125 million years ago. Analyses of these repeats across species reveal the strong influence of concerted evolution, resulting in intragenic homogenization. However, deinopoid TuSp1 repeats also contain insertions of coding, minisatellite-like sequences, an apparent result of replication slippage and nonreciprocal recombination. Phylogenetic analyses of 37 spider fibroin sequences support the monophyly of TuSp1 within the spider fibroin gene family, consistent with a single origin of this ortholog group. The diversity of taxa and silks examined here confirms that repetitive architecture is a general feature of this gene family. Moreover, we show that TuSp1 provides a clear example of modular evolution across a range of phylogenetic levels. PMID:16061817

  11. Genome-wide identification and phylogenetic analysis of the AP2/ERF gene superfamily in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Ito, T M; Polido, P B; Rampim, M C; Kaschuk, G; Souza, S G H

    2014-09-26

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) plays an important role in the economy of more than 140 countries, but it is grown in areas with intermittent stressful soil and climatic conditions. The stress tolerance could be addressed by manipulating the ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factors because they orchestrate plant responses to environmental stress. We performed an in silico study on the ERFs in the expressed sequence tag database of C. sinensis to identify potential genes that regulate plant responses to stress. We identified 108 putative genes encoding protein sequences of the AP2/ERF superfamily distributed within 10 groups of amino acid sequences. Ninety-one genes were assembled from the ERF family containing only one AP2/ERF domain, 13 genes were assembled from the AP2 family containing two AP2/ERF domains, and four other genes were assembled from the RAV family containing one AP2/ERF domain and a B3 domain. Some conserved domains of the ERF family genes were disrupted into a few segments by introns. This irregular distribution of genes in the AP2/ERF superfamily in different plant species could be a result of genomic losses or duplication events in a common ancestor. The in silico gene expression revealed that 67% of AP2/ERF genes are expressed in tissues with usual plant development, and 14% were expressed in stressed tissues. Because the AP2/ERF superfamily is expressed in an orchestrated way, it is possible that the manipulation of only one gene may result in changes in the whole plant function, which could result in more tolerant crops.

  12. Overexpression of a CYP94 family gene CYP94C2b increases internode length and plant height in rice

    PubMed Central

    Kurotani, Ken-Ich; Hattori, Tsukaho; Takeda, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth is controlled by intrinsic developmental programmes and environmental cues. Jasmonate (JA) has important roles in both processes, by regulating cell division and differentiation, as well as in defense responses and senescence. We report an increase in rice plant height caused by overexpression of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP94C2b, which promoted deactivation of JA-Ile. The height increase occurred through enhanced elongation of internodes in the absence of concomitant cell elongation, unlike previous findings with coi1 knock-down plants. Thus, modulating JA metabolism can increase the number of elongated cells in an internode. Based on these and previous findings, we discuss the difference in the effects of CYP94C2b overexpression vs. coi1 knock-down. PMID:26251886

  13. Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy is caused by mutations in the novel gene CYP4V2.

    PubMed

    Li, Anren; Jiao, Xiaodong; Munier, Francis L; Schorderet, Daniel F; Yao, Wenliang; Iwata, Fumino; Hayakawa, Mutsuko; Kanai, Atsushi; Shy Chen, Muh; Alan Lewis, Richard; Heckenlively, John; Weleber, Richard G; Traboulsi, Elias I; Zhang, Qingjiong; Xiao, Xueshan; Kaiser-Kupfer, Muriel; Sergeev, Yuri V; Hejtmancik, J Fielding

    2004-05-01

    Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy (BCD) is an autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy characterized by multiple glistening intraretinal crystals scattered over the fundus, a characteristic degeneration of the retina, and sclerosis of the choroidal vessels, ultimately resulting in progressive night blindness and constriction of the visual field. The BCD region of chromosome 4q35.1 was refined to an interval flanked centromerically by D4S2924 by linkage and haplotype analysis; mutations were found in the novel CYP450 family member CYP4V2 in 23 of 25 unrelated patients with BCD tested. The CYP4V2 gene, transcribed from 11 exons spanning 19 kb, is expressed widely. Homology to other CYP450 proteins suggests that CYP4V2 may have a role in fatty acid and steroid metabolism, consistent with biochemical studies of patients with BCD.

  14. Bietti Crystalline Corneoretinal Dystrophy Is Caused by Mutations in the Novel Gene CYP4V2

    PubMed Central

    Li, Anren; Jiao, Xiaodong; Munier, Francis L.; Schorderet, Daniel F.; Yao, Wenliang; Iwata, Fumino; Hayakawa, Mutsuko; Kanai, Atsushi; Shy Chen, Muh; Alan Lewis, Richard; Heckenlively, John; Weleber, Richard G.; Traboulsi, Elias I.; Zhang, Qingjiong; Xiao, Xueshan; Kaiser-Kupfer, Muriel; Sergeev, Yuri V.; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding

    2004-01-01

    Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy (BCD) is an autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy characterized by multiple glistening intraretinal crystals scattered over the fundus, a characteristic degeneration of the retina, and sclerosis of the choroidal vessels, ultimately resulting in progressive night blindness and constriction of the visual field. The BCD region of chromosome 4q35.1 was refined to an interval flanked centromerically by D4S2924 by linkage and haplotype analysis; mutations were found in the novel CYP450 family member CYP4V2 in 23 of 25 unrelated patients with BCD tested. The CYP4V2 gene, transcribed from 11 exons spanning 19 kb, is expressed widely. Homology to other CYP450 proteins suggests that CYP4V2 may have a role in fatty acid and steroid metabolism, consistent with biochemical studies of patients with BCD. PMID:15042513

  15. Molecular characterization of cyp11a1 and cyp11b1 and their gene expression profile in pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis) during early gonadal development.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Martín; Fernandino, Juan I; Guilgur, Leonardo G; Strüssmann, Carlos A; Somoza, Gustavo M; Vizziano-Cantonnet, Denise

    2010-05-01

    Sex steroids are known to be involved in gonadal differentiation in fish, but whether androgens are early mediators of testis differentiation remains unclear. We studied the sex-related developmental variations in the gene expression of two key enzymes involved in steroids and androgen synthesis (cyp11a1 and cyp11b1) in trunks and isolated gonads of pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis) larvae during and after the sex determination period. Also, and in order to have a better characterization of this process we studied the expression of Sertoli (dmrt1, amh, sox9) and Leydig (nr5a1 or sf-1) cell markers as well as a gene with higher expression in females (cyp19a1a). No clear differences were observed in the expression of cyp11a1 and cyp11b1 during the temperature-sensitive window in the trunk of pejerrey larvae. Nevertheless, a clear increase of cyp11b1 was observed in isolated gonads taken from fish reared at the male producing temperature. In these gonads we also confirmed the trends of genes with higher expression in males (dmrt1, amh) and females (cyp19a1a) as previously described in larval trunks of pejerrey. Our results showed that the expression of cyp11b1 was positively associated with the morphological differentiation of the testis. Nevertheless the involvement of 11-oxygenated androgens during the temperature-sensitive window could not be clearly established. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COMT genes in Greenlandic Inuit and Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Indigenous Arctic population is of Asian descent, and their genetic background is different from the Caucasian populations. Relatively little is known about the specific genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in the activation and detoxification mechanisms of environmental contaminants in Inuit and its relation to health risk. The Greenlandic Inuit are highly exposed to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and an elucidation of gene–environment interactions in relation to health risks is needed. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine and compare the genotype and allele frequencies of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 Ile462Val (rs1048943), CYP1B1 Leu432Val (rs1056836) and catechol-O-methyltransferase COMT Val158Met (rs4680) in Greenlandic Inuit (n=254) and Europeans (n=262) and explore the possible relation between the genotypes and serum levels of POPs. Results The genotype and allele frequency distributions of the three genetic polymorphisms differed significantly between the Inuit and Europeans. For Inuit, the genotype distribution was more similar to those reported for Asian populations. We observed a significant difference in serum polychlorinated biphenyl (CB-153) and the pesticide 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p′-DDE) levels between Inuit and Europeans, and for Inuit also associations between the POP levels and genotypes for CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COMT. Conclusion Our data provide new information on gene polymorphisms in Greenlandic Inuit that might support evaluation of susceptibility to environmental contaminants and warrant further studies. PMID:23785672

  17. CYP709B3, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene involved in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Within the Arabidopsis genome, there are 272 cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) genes. However, the biological functions of the majority of these P450s remain unknown. The CYP709B family of P450s includes three gene members, CYP709B1, CYP709B2 and CYP709B3, which have high amino acid sequence similarity and lack reports elucidating biological functions. Results We identified T-DNA insertion-based null mutants of the CYP709B subfamily of genes. No obvious morphological phenotypes were exhibited under normal growth conditions. When the responses to ABA and salt stress were studied in these mutants, only the cyp709b3 mutant showed sensitivity to ABA and salt during germination. Under moderate salt treatment (150 mM NaCl), cyp709b3 showed a higher percentage of damaged seedlings, indicating a lower tolerance to salt stress. CYP709B3 was highly expressed in all analyzed tissues and especially high in seedlings and leaves. In contrast, CYP709B1 and CYP709B2 were highly expressed in siliques, but were at very low levels in other tissues. Under salt stress condition, CYP709B3 gene expression was induced after 24 hr and remained at high expression level. Expression of the wild type CYP709B3 gene in the cyp709b3 mutant fully complemented the salt intolerant phenotype. Furthermore, metabolite profiling analysis revealed some differences between wild type and cyp709b3 mutant plants, supporting the salt intolerance phenotype of the cyp709b3 mutant. Conclusions These results suggest that CYP709B3 plays a role in ABA and salt stress response and provides evidence to support the functions of cytochrome P450 enzymes in plant stress response. PMID:24164720

  18. Association of CYP1A1 gene polymorphism with chronic kidney disease: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Siddarth, Manushi; Datta, Sudip K; Ahmed, Rafat S; Banerjee, Basu D; Kalra, Om P; Tripathi, Ashok K

    2013-07-01

    CYP1A1 is an important xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme, present in liver and kidney. Expression of CYP1A1 enzyme increases manifold when kidney cells are exposed to nephrotoxins/chemicals leading to oxidative stress-induced cell damage. To study the association of CYP1A1 gene polymorphism in patients of chronic kidney disease with unknown etiology (CKDU), we recruited 334 CKDU patients and 334 age and sex matched healthy controls. CYP1A1*2A and *2C polymorphisms were studied by PCR-RFLP and allele specific-PCR respectively. Subjects carrying at least one mutant allele of CYP1A1*2A (TC, CC) and *2C (AG, GG) were shown to be associated with 1.4-2-fold increased risk of CKDU. Also, genotypic combinations of hetero-/homozygous mutants of CYP1A1*2A (TC, CC) with hetero-/homozygous mutant genotypes of CYP1A1*2C (AG, GG) i.e. TC/AG (p<0.01), TC/GG (p<0.05), CC/AG (p<0.05) and CC/GG (p<0.01) were associated with CKDU with an odd ratio ranging 1.8-3.3 times approximately. This study demonstrates association of CYP1A1 polymorphisms with CKDU. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Echinacea purpurea up-regulates CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K.; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Walker, Larry A.; Bouic, Patrick J.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanism underlying Echinacea-mediated induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in terms of human pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation. Crude extracts and fractions of Echinacea purpurea were tested for PXR activation in HepG2 cells by a reporter gene assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to determine their effects on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expressions. Capsules and fractions were risk ranked as high, intermediate and remote risk of drug-metabolizing enzymes induction based on EC50 values determined for respective CYPs. Fractions F1, F2 and capsule (2660) strongly activated PXR with 5-, 4- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, respectively. Echinacea preparations potentiated up-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 via PXR activation. Thus E. purpurea preparations cause herb–drug interaction by up-regulating CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and P-gp via PXR activation. PMID:25377539

  20. Echinacea purpurea up-regulates CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Bouic, Patrick J; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    1.This study investigated the mechanism underlying Echinacea-mediated induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in terms of human pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation. 2.Crude extracts and fractions of Echinacea purpurea were tested for PXR activation in HepG2 cells by a reporter gene assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to determine their effects on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expressions. Capsules and fractions were risk ranked as high, intermediate and remote risk of drug-metabolizing enzymes induction based on EC50 values determined for respective CYPs. 3. Fractions F1, F2 and capsule (2660) strongly activated PXR with 5-, 4- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, respectively. Echinacea preparations potentiated up-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 via PXR activation. 4.Thus E. purpurea preparations cause herb-drug interaction by up-regulating CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and P-gp via PXR activation.

  1. Diversification of a single ancestral gene into a successful toxin superfamily in highly venomous Australian funnel-web spiders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spiders have evolved pharmacologically complex venoms that serve to rapidly subdue prey and deter predators. The major toxic factors in most spider venoms are small, disulfide-rich peptides. While there is abundant evidence that snake venoms evolved by recruitment of genes encoding normal body proteins followed by extensive gene duplication accompanied by explosive structural and functional diversification, the evolutionary trajectory of spider-venom peptides is less clear. Results Here we present evidence of a spider-toxin superfamily encoding a high degree of sequence and functional diversity that has evolved via accelerated duplication and diversification of a single ancestral gene. The peptides within this toxin superfamily are translated as prepropeptides that are posttranslationally processed to yield the mature toxin. The N-terminal signal sequence, as well as the protease recognition site at the junction of the propeptide and mature toxin are conserved, whereas the remainder of the propeptide and mature toxin sequences are variable. All toxin transcripts within this superfamily exhibit a striking cysteine codon bias. We show that different pharmacological classes of toxins within this peptide superfamily evolved under different evolutionary selection pressures. Conclusions Overall, this study reinforces the hypothesis that spiders use a combinatorial peptide library strategy to evolve a complex cocktail of peptide toxins that target neuronal receptors and ion channels in prey and predators. We show that the ω-hexatoxins that target insect voltage-gated calcium channels evolved under the influence of positive Darwinian selection in an episodic fashion, whereas the κ-hexatoxins that target insect calcium-activated potassium channels appear to be under negative selection. A majority of the diversifying sites in the ω-hexatoxins are concentrated on the molecular surface of the toxins, thereby facilitating neofunctionalisation leading to new toxin

  2. A new CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimeric gene identified in an Italian woman suffering from classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia form

    PubMed Central

    Concolino, Paola; Mello, Enrica; Minucci, Angelo; Giardina, Emiliano; Zuppi, Cecilia; Toscano, Vincenzo; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2009-01-01

    Background More than 90% of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) cases are associated with mutations in the 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2) in the HLA class III area on the short arm of chromosome 6p21.3. In this region, a 30 kb deletion produces a non functional chimeric gene with its 5' and 3' ends corresponding to CYP21A1P pseudogene and CYP21A2, respectively. To date, five different CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimeric genes have been found and characterized in recent studies. In this paper, we describe a new CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimera (CH-6) found in an Italian CAH patient. Methods Southern blot analysis and CYP21A2 sequencing were performed on the patient. In addition, in order to isolate the new CH-6 chimeric gene, two different strategies were used. Results The CYP21A2 sequencing analysis showed that the patient was homozygote for the g.655C/A>G mutation and heterozygote for the p.P30L missense mutation. In addition, the promoter sequence revealed the presence, in heterozygosis, of 13 SNPs generally produced by microconversion events between gene and pseudogene. Southern blot analysis showed that the woman was heterozygote for the classic 30-kb deletion producing a new CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimeric gene (CH-6). The hybrid junction site was located between the end of intron 2 pseudogene, after the g.656C/A>G mutation, and the beginning of exon 3, before the 8 bp deletion. Consequently, CH-6 carries three mutations: the weak pseudogene promoter region, the p.P30L and the g.655C/A>G splice mutation. Conclusion We describe a new CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimera (CH-6), associated with the HLA-B15, DR13 haplotype, in a young Italian CAH patient. PMID:19624807

  3. Distribution of ABCB1, CYP3A5, CYP2C19, and P2RY12 gene polymorphisms in a Mexican Mestizos population.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Ramírez-Bello, Julián; de la Peña, Aurora; Calderón-Cruz, Beatriz; Peña-Duque, Marco Antonio; Martínez-Ríos, Marco Antonio; Ramírez-Fuentes, Silvestre; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Fragoso, José Manuel

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish the gene frequency of six polymorphisms of the ABCB1, CYP3A5, CYP2C19, and P2RY12 genes in a population resident of Mexico City. The proteins encoded by these genes have been associated with the absorption, and biotransformation of clopidogrel. The ABCB1 T3435C, CYP3A5 V3 A6986G, P2RY12 G52T, P2RY12 C34T, CYP2C19 V2 and V3 (positions G681A and G636A, respectively), polymorphisms were analyzed by 5' exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays in a group of 269 healthy unrelated Mexican Mestizo individuals. The CYP2C19 V3 G636A polymorphism was not detected in the Mexican Mestizos population. However, the studied population presented significant differences (P < 0.05) in the distribution of the T3435C, A6986G, G681A, G52T and C34T polymorphisms when compared to reported frequencies of Amerindian of South America, Caucasian, Asian, and African populations. In summary, the distribution of the ABCB1, CYP3A5, CYP2C19, and P2RY12 gene polymorphisms distinguishes to the Mexican Mestizos population from other ethnic groups.

  4. Lack of association between schizophrenia and the CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pirmohamed, M.; Wild, M.J.; Kitteringham, N.R.

    1996-04-09

    Approximately 5-10% of the Caucasian population lack the P450 isoform, CYP2D6. This polymorphism may be of importance in determining individual susceptibility to Parkinson`s disease. In this journal, Daniels et al. recently reported a negative association between the CYP2D6 gene locus and schizophrenia, a disease characterized by dopamine overactivity. It is important to exclude such an association because CYP2D6 is expressed in the brain and it is involved in dopamine catabolism. Between 1992 and 1993, we also performed a study similar to that, and reached the same conclusion. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Expression of TaCYP78A3, a gene encoding cytochrome P450 CYP78A3 protein in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), affects seed size.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng; Wang, Qian; Li, Zhanjie; Cheng, Huihui; Li, Zhaojie; Liu, Xiangli; Song, Weining; Appels, Rudi; Zhao, Huixian

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have described quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed size in wheat, but the relevant genes and molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we report the functional characterization of the wheat TaCYP78A3 gene and its effect on seed size. TaCYP78A3 encoded wheat cytochrome P450 CYP78A3, and was specifically expressed in wheat reproductive organs. TaCYP78A3 activity was positively correlated with the final seed size. Its silencing caused a reduction of cell number in the seed coat, resulting in an 11% decrease in wheat seed size, whereas TaCYP78A3 over-expression induced production of more cells in the seed coat, leading to an 11-48% increase in Arabidopsis seed size. In addition, the cell number in the final seed coat was determined by the TaCYP78A3 expression level, which affected the extent of integument cell proliferation in the developing ovule and seed. Unfortunately, TaCYP78A3 over-expression in Arabidopsis caused a reduced seed set due to an ovule developmental defect. Moreover, TaCYP78A3 over-expression affected embryo development by promoting embryo integument cell proliferation during seed development, which also ultimately affected the final seed size in Arabidopsis. In summary, our results indicated that TaCYP78A3 plays critical roles in influencing seed size by affecting the extent of integument cell proliferation. The present study provides direct evidence that TaCYP78A3 affects seed size in wheat, and contributes to an understanding of the cellular basis of the gene influencing seed development.

  6. The Association between Gene-Environment Interactions and Diseases Involving the Human GST Superfamily with SNP Variants.

    PubMed

    Hollman, Antoinesha L; Tchounwou, Paul B; Huang, Hung-Chung

    2016-03-29

    Exposure to environmental hazards has been associated with diseases in humans. The identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human populations exposed to different environmental hazards, is vital for detecting the genetic risks of some important human diseases. Several studies in this field have been conducted on glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), a phase II detoxification superfamily, to investigate its role in the occurrence of diseases. Human GSTs consist of cytosolic and microsomal superfamilies that are further divided into subfamilies. Based on scientific search engines and a review of the literature, we have found a large amount of published articles on human GST super- and subfamilies that have greatly assisted in our efforts to examine their role in health and disease. Because of its polymorphic variations in relation to environmental hazards such as air pollutants, cigarette smoke, pesticides, heavy metals, carcinogens, pharmaceutical drugs, and xenobiotics, GST is considered as a significant biomarker. This review examines the studies on gene-environment interactions related to various diseases with respect to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the GST superfamily. Overall, it can be concluded that interactions between GST genes and environmental factors play an important role in human diseases.

  7. The Association between Gene-Environment Interactions and Diseases Involving the Human GST Superfamily with SNP Variants

    PubMed Central

    Hollman, Antoinesha L.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Huang, Hung-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental hazards has been associated with diseases in humans. The identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human populations exposed to different environmental hazards, is vital for detecting the genetic risks of some important human diseases. Several studies in this field have been conducted on glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), a phase II detoxification superfamily, to investigate its role in the occurrence of diseases. Human GSTs consist of cytosolic and microsomal superfamilies that are further divided into subfamilies. Based on scientific search engines and a review of the literature, we have found a large amount of published articles on human GST super- and subfamilies that have greatly assisted in our efforts to examine their role in health and disease. Because of its polymorphic variations in relation to environmental hazards such as air pollutants, cigarette smoke, pesticides, heavy metals, carcinogens, pharmaceutical drugs, and xenobiotics, GST is considered as a significant biomarker. This review examines the studies on gene-environment interactions related to various diseases with respect to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the GST superfamily. Overall, it can be concluded that interactions between GST genes and environmental factors play an important role in human diseases. PMID:27043589

  8. The genes of all seven CYP3A isoenzymes identified in the equine genome are expressed in the airways of horses.

    PubMed

    Tydén, E; Löfgren, M; Hakhverdyan, M; Tjälve, H; Larsson, P

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the gene expression of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) isoenzymes in the tracheal and bronchial mucosa and in the lung of equines using TaqMan probes. The results show that all seven CYP3A isoforms identified in the equine genome, that is, CYP3A89, CYP3A93, CYP3A94, CYP3A95, CYP3A96, CYP3A97 and CYP3A129, are expressed in the airways of the investigated horses. Though in previous studies, CYP3A129 was found to be absent in equine intestinal mucosa and liver, this CYP3A isoform is expressed in the airways of horses. The gene expression of the CYP3A isoenzymes varied considerably between the individual horses studied. However, in most of the horses CYP3A89, CYP3A93, CYP3A96, CYP3A97 and CYP3A129 were expressed to a high extent, while CYP3A94 and CYP3A95 were expressed to a low extent in the different parts of the airways. The CYP3A isoenzymes present in the airways may play a role in the metabolic degradation of inhaled xenobiotics. In some instances, the metabolism may, however, result in bioactivation of the xenobiotics and subsequent tissue injury. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A Survey of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Gene Superfamily in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).

    PubMed

    Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Carmichael, Stephen N; Heumann, Jan; Taggart, John B; Gharbi, Karim; Bron, James E; Bekaert, Michaël; Sturm, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), are fish ectoparasites causing significant economic damage in the mariculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. The control of L. salmonis at fish farms relies to a large extent on treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. A problem related to chemical control is the potential for development of resistance, which in L. salmonis is documented for a number of drug classes including organophosphates, pyrethroids and avermectins. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily is found in all biota and includes a range of drug efflux transporters that can confer drug resistance to cancers and pathogens. Furthermore, some ABC transporters are recognised to be involved in conferral of insecticide resistance. While a number of studies have investigated ABC transporters in L. salmonis, no systematic analysis of the ABC gene family exists for this species. This study presents a genome-wide survey of ABC genes in L. salmonis for which, ABC superfamily members were identified through homology searching of the L. salmonis genome. In addition, ABC proteins were identified in a reference transcriptome of the parasite generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of a multi-stage RNA library. Searches of both genome and transcriptome allowed the identification of a total of 33 genes / transcripts coding for ABC proteins, of which 3 were represented only in the genome and 4 only in the transcriptome. Eighteen sequences were assigned to ABC subfamilies known to contain drug transporters, i.e. subfamilies B (4 sequences), C (11) and G (2). The results suggest that the ABC gene family of L. salmonis possesses fewer members than recorded for other arthropods. The present survey of the L. salmonis ABC gene superfamily will provide the basis for further research into potential roles of ABC transporters in the toxicity of salmon delousing agents and as potential mechanisms of drug resistance.

  10. A Survey of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Gene Superfamily in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    PubMed Central

    Heumann, Jan; Taggart, John B.; Gharbi, Karim; Bron, James E.; Bekaert, Michaël; Sturm, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), are fish ectoparasites causing significant economic damage in the mariculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. The control of L. salmonis at fish farms relies to a large extent on treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. A problem related to chemical control is the potential for development of resistance, which in L. salmonis is documented for a number of drug classes including organophosphates, pyrethroids and avermectins. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily is found in all biota and includes a range of drug efflux transporters that can confer drug resistance to cancers and pathogens. Furthermore, some ABC transporters are recognised to be involved in conferral of insecticide resistance. While a number of studies have investigated ABC transporters in L. salmonis, no systematic analysis of the ABC gene family exists for this species. This study presents a genome-wide survey of ABC genes in L. salmonis for which, ABC superfamily members were identified through homology searching of the L. salmonis genome. In addition, ABC proteins were identified in a reference transcriptome of the parasite generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of a multi-stage RNA library. Searches of both genome and transcriptome allowed the identification of a total of 33 genes / transcripts coding for ABC proteins, of which 3 were represented only in the genome and 4 only in the transcriptome. Eighteen sequences were assigned to ABC subfamilies known to contain drug transporters, i.e. subfamilies B (4 sequences), C (11) and G (2). The results suggest that the ABC gene family of L. salmonis possesses fewer members than recorded for other arthropods. The present survey of the L. salmonis ABC gene superfamily will provide the basis for further research into potential roles of ABC transporters in the toxicity of salmon delousing agents and as potential mechanisms of drug resistance. PMID:26418738

  11. Changes in aromatase (CYP19) gene promoter usage in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Demura, Masashi; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo; Ishizaki, Takeshi; Sasaki, Masato; Miyamori, Isamu; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Bulun, Serdar E

    2011-09-01

    In humans, aromatase (CYP19) gene expression is regulated via alternative promoters. Activation of each promoter gives rise to a CYP19 mRNA species with a unique 5'-untranslated region. Inhibition of aromatase has been reported to downregulate lung tumor growth. The genetic basis for CYP19 gene expression and aromatase activity in lung cancer remains poorly understood. We analyzed tissues from 15 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to evaluate CYP19 promoter usage and promoter-specific aromatase mRNA levels in NSCLC tumor tissues and adjacent non-malignant tissues. CYP19 promoter usage was determined by multiplex RT-PCR and aromatase mRNA levels were measured with real-time RT-PCR. In non-malignant tissues, aromatase mRNA was primarily derived from activation of CYP19 promoter I.4. Although promoter I.4 usage was also dominant in tumor tissues, I.4 activation was significantly lower compared with adjacent non-malignant tissues. Activity of promoters I.3, I.1 and I.7 was significantly higher in tumor tissues compared with non-malignant tissues. In 4 of 15 cases of non-small cell lung cancer, switching from CYP19 promoter I.4 to the alternative promoters II, I.1 or I.7 was observed. In 9 cases, there were significantly higher levels of aromatase mRNA in lung tumor tissues compared with adjacent non-malignant tissues. These findings suggest aberrant activation of alternative CYP19 promoters that may lead to upregulation of local aromatase expression in some cases of NSCLC. Further studies are needed to examine the impact of alternative CYP19 promoter usage on local estrogen levels and lung tumor growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene-gene interactions of CYP2A6 and MAOA polymorphisms on smoking behavior in Chinese male population.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xun; Guo, Song; Sun, Hongqiang; Song, Xuemei; Jiang, Zuonin; Sheng, Lixiang; Zhou, Dongfeng; Hu, Yonghua; Chen, Dafang

    2009-05-01

    Nicotine is the major psychoactive ingredient in tobacco, and is responsible for dependence through the nicotine-stimulated reward pathway mediated by the central dopaminergic system. Consequently, genetic polymorphisms in both nicotine metabolism and dopamine catabolism genes may influence smoking behavior, and interact with each other resulting in risk modulation. In this study, we investigated the association and multilocus gene-gene interactions of cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), catechol O-methyl transferase (COMT), and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) polymorphisms with smoking behavior in a community-based Chinese male population. The polymorphisms were genotyped in 203 current smokers, 66 former smokers, and 102 never smokers. Multivariate logistic regression models and the multifactor dimensionality reduction method were used to analyze the association and multilocus gene-gene interactions. Statistically significant trends were shown for increased risk of smoking initiation in participants with CYP2A6*1B/CYP2A6*1B genotypes compared with those with CYP2A6*1A/CYP2A6*1A genotypes [odds ratio (OR)=3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI)= 1.5-8.1], and participants with CYP2A6*1/CYP2A6*1 genotypes were at higher risk of smoking initiation (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.2-4.5) and smoking persistence (OR=4.0, 95% CI=1.5-10.3) than those who have CYP2A6*4C genotypes. Moreover, the best model involved a gene-gene interaction between MAOA and CYP2A6 was characterized by the multifactor dimensionality reduction method (64.11% accuracy, P<0.001), and indicated that carriers of the combined 1460 T/O genotype for MAOA EcoRV and CYP2A6*1/CYP2A6*1 genotypes were at higher risk of smoking (OR=15.4, 95% CI=4.5-52.5). These findings suggested a substantial influence of CYP2A6 polymorphism as well as the interaction with MAOA resulting in risk modulation on smoking behavior in Chinese male population.

  13. Cyp35a2 gene expression is involved in toxicity of fenitrothion in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Roh, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Jinhee

    2011-09-01

    In this study, the effect of organophosphorous (OP) pesticide, fenitrothion (FT), on the non-target organism was investigated using the soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Toxicity was investigated on multiple biological levels, from organism to molecular levels, such as, immoblity, growth, fertility, development, acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity and stress-response gene expressions. FT may provoke serious consequences on the C. elegans population, as it induced significant developmental disturbance. As expected, FT exposure inhibits AChE activity of C. elegans. The increased expression of the cytochrome p450 family protein 35A2 (cyp35a2) gene was also observed in FT exposed worms. To experimentally demonstrate the relationships between organism-level effects and the cyp35a2 gene expression in FT-exposed C. elegans, the integration of the gene expression with biochemical-, and organism level endpoints were attempted using a C. elegans cyp35a2 RNA interference (RNAi) and cyp35a2 mutant (gk317). The 24 h-EC50s of C. elegans on FT exposure were in the order of cyp35a2 RNAi in cyp35a2 mutant (gk317)>cyp35a2 mutant (gk317)>cyp35a2 RNAi in wildtype (N2)>wildtype (N2). The higher EC50 values of cyp35a2 RNAi and cyp35a2 mutant (gk317) compared to that of wildtype C. elegans strongly supported that cyp35a2 gene plays an important role in the toxicity of FT towards C. elegans. The experiments with cyp35a2 RNAi also indicated that the development disturbance and decreased AChE activity, which were observed in FT exposed wildtype C. elegans were significantly rescued in the cyp35a2 RNAi C. elegans. Overall results suggest that the cyp35a2 may be an important gene for exerting FT toxicity in C. elegans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Traditional Chinese Herbal Remedy Tian Xian Activates Pregnane X Receptor and Induces CYP3A Gene Expression in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lichti-Kaiser, Kristin; Staudinger, Jeff L.

    2008-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is activated by a myriad of clinically used compounds and natural products. Activation of PXR in liver regulates the expression genes encoding proteins that are intimately involved in the hepatic uptake, metabolism, and elimination of toxic compounds from our bodies. PXR-mediated herb-drug interactions can have undesirable effects in patients on combination therapy. This can be especially important in cancer patients that self-administer over-the-counter herbal remedies together with conventional anti-cancer chemotherapeutics. Tian xian is a traditional Chinese herbal anti-cancer remedy that activates human PXR in cell-based reporter gene assays. Moreover, tian xian alters the strength of interaction between the human PXR protein and transcriptional cofactor proteins. A novel line of humanized PXR mice are described and used here to show that tian xian increases expression of Cyp3a11 in primary cultures of rodent hepatocytes. Tian xian also induces expression of CYP3A4 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Taken together, these data indicate that co-administration of tian xian is likely contraindicated in patients undergoing anti-cancer therapy with conventional chemotherapeutic agents. These data are of particular importance due to the fact that this herbal remedy is currently marketed as an adjunct therapy that reduces the side-effects of conventional chemotherapy and is available without a prescription. Future studies should be conducted to determine the extent to which co-administration of this Chinese herbal remedy alters the pharmacokinetic and pharmocodynamic properties of conventional anti-cancer therapy. PMID:18474680

  15. Functional evaluation of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in the promoter regions of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 genes.

    PubMed

    Han, Weiguo; Pentecost, Brian T; Spivack, Simon D

    2003-07-01

    Interindividual variation in the expression of the carcinogen- and estrogen-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P4501B1 and 1A1 (CYP1B1 and CYP1A1) has been detected in human lung. To search for polymorphisms with functional consequences for CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 gene expression, we examined 1.5 kb of the promoter region of each gene. Genomic DNA from 21 Caucasian individuals was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for direct cycle sequencing. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for CYP1B1 and 13 SNPs for CYP1A1 were found. The majority of polymorphisms occurred as multiSNP combinations for individual subjects. The wild-type sequences were cloned into a luciferase reporter construct. The most frequent polymorphisms were then recreated by iterative site-directed mutagenesis, replicating single polymorphisms and multiSNP combinations. These wild-type and variant constructs were functionally evaluated in transient transfection experiments employing exposures to either the index polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) inducer benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a composite mixture of cigarette smoke extract (CSE), or the repressor chemopreventive agent trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene (reseveratrol). Results indicated that all wild-type and variant constructs responded in qualitatively concordant fashion to the inducers and to the repressor. The CYP1B1 haplotypes and the majority of CYP1A1 haplotypes were shown to have no functional consequence, as compared to those of the wild-type promoter sequences. Two constructs of composite polymorphisms of CYP1A1 appeared to result in a statistically significant increase in basal promoter activity (1.38- and 1.50-fold, respectively), but the degree of functional impact was judged unlikely to be biologically important in vivo. We conclude that the observed promoter region polymorphisms in these genes are common, but are of unclear functional consequence.

  16. Future Trends in the Pharmacogenomics of Brain Disorders and Dementia: Influence of APOE and CYP2D6 Variants

    PubMed Central

    Cacabelos, Ramón; Fernández-Novoa, Lucía; Martínez-Bouza, Rocío; McKay, Adam; Carril, Juan C.; Lombardi, Valter; Corzo, Lola; Carrera, Iván; Tellado, Iván; Nebril, Laura; Alcaraz, Margarita; Rodríguez, Susana; Casas, Ángela; Couceiro, Verónica; Álvarez, Antón

    2010-01-01

    About 80% of functional genes in the human genome are expressed in the brain and over 1,200 different genes have been associated with the pathogenesis of CNS disorders and dementia. Pharmacogenetic studies of psychotropic drug response have focused on determining the relationship between variations in specific candidate genes and the positive and adverse effects of drug treatment. Approximately, 18% of neuroleptics are substrates of CYP1A2 enzymes, 40% of CYP2D6, and 23% of CYP3A4; 24% of antidepressants are substrates of CYP1A2 enzymes, 5% of CYP2B6, 38% of CYP2C19, 85% of CYP2D6, and 38% of CYP3A4; 7% of benzodiazepines are substrates of CYP2C19 enzymes, 20% of CYP2D6, and 95% of CYP3A4. 10-20% of Western populations are defective in genes of the CYP superfamily; and the pharmacogenomic response of psychotropic drugs also depends on genetic variants associated with dementia. Prospective studies with anti-dementia drugs or with multifactorial strategies have revealed that the therapeutic response to conventional drugs in Alzheimer’s disease is genotype-specific. The disease-modifying effects (cognitive performance, biomarker modification) of therapeutic intervention are APOE-dependent, with APOE-4 carriers acting as the worst responders (APOE-3/3 > APOE-3/4 > APOE-4/4). APOE-CYP2D6 interactions also influence the therapeutic outcome in patients with dementia.

  17. Competitive Fitness of Phakopsora pachyrhizi Isolates with Mutations in the CYP51 and CYTB Genes.

    PubMed

    Klosowski, Ana C; Brahm, Lutz; Stammler, Gerd; De Mio, Louise L May

    2016-11-01

    Soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) in Brazil is mainly controlled with applications of fungicides, including demethylation inhibitors (DMI) and quinone outside inhibitors (QoI). Isolates with less sensitivity to DMI and QoI have been reported, and these have been found to have mutations in the CYP51 and CYTB genes, respectively. There have been no reports of fitness costs in isolates with mutations in CYP51 and CYTB, and the aim of this work was to compare the competitive ability of isolates with lower DMI or QoI sensitivities with that of sensitive (wild-type) isolates. Urediniospores of sensitive wild-type isolates and isolates with different CYP51 or CYTB alleles were mixed and inoculated on detached soybean leaves. After 3 weeks, urediniospores were harvested and used as inoculum for the next disease cycle. Frequencies of relevant target site mutations were monitored using the pyrosequencing method over four disease cycles. Isolates with lower DMI sensitivity and different CYP51 alleles had competitive disadvantages compared with a DMI-sensitive, wild-type CYP51 isolate. In contrast, the isolate with the F129L mutation in the CYTB gene competed equally well with a QoI-sensitive, wild-type CYTB isolate under the conditions of this experiment. The CYP51 and CYTB alleles were stable in all isolates over four disease cycles when cultivated alone.

  18. [The CYP1B1 and CYP2F1 genes polymorphisms frequency in three ethnic groups of Bashkortostan and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients].

    PubMed

    Korytina, G F; Akhmadishina, L Z; Viktorova, T V

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a multifactorial respiratory disorder. Members of the cytochrome P450 family catalyze the oxidative metabolism of exogenous chemicals and activate their substrates into reactive intermediates that may initiate lung injury. The aim of this study was to learn interethnic variation in frequency distribution patterns of CYP1B1 and CYP2F1 genes polymorphic markers and to analyse its association withchronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The polymorphic markers Leu432Val(CYP1B1) and c.14_15insC(CYP2F1) were studied at chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (Russian (N=169), Tatar (N=137)) and cases of healthy individuals (Russian (N=191), Tatar (N=198) and Bashkir (N=78)), residents of Bashkortostan by PCR-RFLP method. It was shown that the CYP2F1 gene genotype frequency distribution patterns differed between three ethnic groups (chi2 = 21.29, df=4, P = 0.0001), because of high frequency of c.14_15insC/c.14_15insC genotype in Tatars (6.38%). On the other hand, high frequency (39.74%) of normal/ c.14_15insC genotype was appeared in Bashkirs. Association analysis of CYP2F1 geneinsertion variant with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have shown high frequency (87.5%) of normal allele in Tatars patients with very severe stage and manifestation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after 55 years (chi2 = 3.964, df=1, P = 0.046; OR = = 2.268). It was shown that allele and genotype frequency distribution of Leu432ValCYP1B1 gene not differed between Russian, Tatar and Bashkir ethnic groups. We did not find any association of Leu432Val CYP1B1 gene with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  19. Genetic analyses of the chimeric CYP11B1/CYP11B2 gene in a Korean family with glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ihn Suk; Kim, Seul Young; Jang, Hye Won; Kim, Min Kyeong; Lee, Ju Hee; Lee, Yun Hyeong; Jo, Young Suk

    2010-09-01

    Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism (GRA) is an autosomal-dominant inheritable form of hyperaldosteronism with early onset hypertension. GRA is caused by unequal crossing-over of the steroid 11 beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) genes. As a result of chimeric gene duplication, aldosterone is ectopically synthesized in the adrenal zona fasciculata under the control of adrenocorticotropin. Here, we describe three cases of GRA in a Korean family. The proband-a 21-yr-old female-was incidentally found to have high blood pressure (170/108 mmHg). Her 46-yr-old father had been treated twice for cerebral hemorrhage at the ages of 29 and 39 yr. Her 15-yr-old brother had a 2-yr history of hypertension; however, he was never treated. Their laboratory test results showed normokalemia, hyporeninemia, hyperaldosteronism, and a high plasma aldosterone concentration-to-plasma renin activity ratio. Normal saline loading failed to suppress aldosterone secretion. However, dexamethasone administration effectively suppressed their plasma aldosterone concentrations. Following genetic analyses with PCR and direct sequencing to document the chimeric gene and crossover site, respectively, we identified CYP11B1/CYP11B2 and determined the breakpoint of unequal crossover to be located between intron 2 of CYP11B1 and exon 3 of CYP11B2.

  20. Interleukin-1 controls the constitutive expression of the Cyp7a1 gene by regulating the expression of Cyp7a1 transcriptional regulators in the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Misaki; Ashino, Takashi; Yoshida, Takemi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Degawa, Masakuni

    2011-01-01

    Our previous study using interleukin-1α/β-knockout (IL-1-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice demonstrated that IL-1 acts as a positive factor for constitutive gene expression of hepatic cytochrome P4507a1 (Cyp7a1). In this study, to clarify the role of IL-1 in the expression of the hepatic Cyp7a1 gene, we focused on Cyp7a1 transcriptional regulators such as α-fetoprotein transcription factor (FTF), liver X receptor α (LXRα), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) and small heterodimer partner (SHP) and examined the effects of IL-1 on their gene expression by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction using IL-1-KO and WT mice. We observed no significant differences between sex-matched IL-1-KO and WT mice with regard to gene expression levels of FTF, LXRα, and HNF4α, all of which are positive transcriptional regulators for the Cyp7a1 gene. However, interindividual differences in hepatic FTF and LXRα expression were closely dependent on the gene expression level(s) of hepatic IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), while interindividual differences in hepatic HNF4α were clearly correlated with the expression of IL-1, but not TNF-α. In contrast, the gene expression level of SHP, which is a negative transcriptional regulator of the Cyp7a1 gene through inhibition of FTF function, was higher in IL-1-KO mice than in sex-matched WT mice. These findings demonstrate that, like TNF-α, IL-1 positively controls the gene expression of Cyp7a1 transcriptional upregulators but, in contrast to the previously reported action of TNF-α, IL-1 also acts to downregulate SHP gene expression.

  1. [Analysis of CYP21A2 gene mutation in one case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Mei; Wu, Ben-Qing; Huang, Jin-Jie; Li, Bo; Fan, Yi; Lin, Lin-Hua; Yao, Qiu-Xuan; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Lian

    2013-11-01

    CYP21A2 gene mutations in a child with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and the child's parents, were detected in the study. The clinical features, treatment monitoring and molecular genetic mechanism of CAH are reviewed. In the study, DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples using the QIAGEN Blood DNA Mini Kit; a highly specific PCR primer for CYP21A2 gene was designed according to the sequence difference between CYP2lA2 gene and its pseudogene; the whole CYP2lA2 gene was amplified with PrimeSTAR DNA polymerase (Takara), and the amplification product was directly sequenced to detect and analyze CYP2lA2 gene mutation. The child was clinically diagnosed with CAH (21-hydroxylase deficiency, 21-OHD) at the age of 36 days, and the case was confirmed by genetic diagnosis at the age of 1.5 years. The proband had a homozygous mutation at c.293-13C in the second intron of CYP21 gene, while the parents had heterozygous mutations. Early diagnosis and standard treatment of CAH (21-OHD) should be performed to prevent salt-wasting crisis and reduce mortality; bone aging should be avoided to increase final adult height (FAH), and reproductive dysfunction due to oligospermia in adulthood should be avoided. These factors are helpful for improving prognosis and increasing FAH. Investigating the molecular genetic mechanism of CAH can improve recognition and optimize diagnosis of this disease. In addition, carrier diagnosis and genetic counseling for the proband family are of great significance.

  2. Influence of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 gene variants on antidepressant response in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Brandl, E J; Tiwari, A K; Zhou, X; Deluce, J; Kennedy, J L; Müller, D J; Richter, M A

    2014-04-01

    Numerous studies have reported on pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response in depression. In contrast, little is known of response predictors in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a disorder with among the lowest proportion of responders to medication (40-60%). Our study is the largest investigation to date (N=184) of treatment response and side effects to antidepressants in OCD based on metabolizer status for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. We observed significantly more failed medication trials in CYP2D6 non-extensive compared with extensive metabolizers (P=0.007). CYP2D6 metabolizer status was associated with side effects to venlafaxine (P=0.022). There were nonsignificant trends for association of CYP2D6 metabolizer status with response to fluoxetine (P=0.056) and of CYP2C19 metabolizer status with response to sertraline (P=0.064). Our study is the first to indicate that CYP genes may have a role in antidepressant response in OCD. More research is required for a future clinical application of genetic testing, which could lead to improved treatment outcomes.

  3. New CYP1 genes in the frog Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis: Induction patterns and effects of AHR agonists during development

    SciTech Connect

    Joensson, Maria E.; Berg, Cecilia; Goldstone, Jared V.; Stegeman, John J.

    2011-01-15

    The Xenopus tropicalis genome shows a single gene in each of the four cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) subfamilies that occur in vertebrates, designated as CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1D1. We cloned the cDNAs of these genes and examined their expression in untreated tadpoles and in tadpoles exposed to waterborne aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}NF), or indigo. We also examined the effects of PCB126 on expression of genes involved in stress response, cell proliferation, thyroid homeostasis, and prostaglandin synthesis. PCB126 induced CYP1A, CYP1B1, and CYP1C1 but had little effect on CYP1D1 (77-, 1.7-, 4.6- and 1.4-fold induction versus the control, respectively). {beta}NF induced CYP1A and CYP1C1 (26- and 2.5-fold), while, under conditions used, indigo tended to induce only CYP1A (1.9-fold). The extent of CYP1 induction by PCB126 and {beta}NF was positively correlated to the number of putative dioxin response elements 0-20 kb upstream of the start codons. No morphological effect was observed in tadpoles exposed to 1 nM-10 {mu}M PCB126 at two days post-fertilization (dpf) and screened 20 days later. However, in 14-dpf tadpoles a slight up-regulation of the genes for PCNA, transthyretin, HSC70, Cu-Zn SOD, and Cox-2 was observed two days after exposure to 1 {mu}M PCB126. This study of the full suite of CYP1 genes in an amphibian species reveals gene- and AHR agonist-specific differences in response, as well as a much lower sensitivity to CYP1 induction and short-term toxicity by PCB126 compared with in fish larvae. The single genes in each CYP1 subfamily may make X. tropicalis a useful model for mechanistic studies of CYP1 functions.

  4. New CYP1 genes in the frog Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis: Induction patterns and effects of AHR agonists during development

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Maria E.; Berg, Cecilia; Goldstone, Jared V.; Stegeman, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The Xenopus tropicalis genome shows a single gene in each of the four cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) subfamilies that occur in vertebrates, designated as CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1D1. We cloned the cDNAs of these genes and examined their expression in untreated tadpoles and in tadpoles exposed to waterborne aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), β-naphthoflavone (βNF), or indigo. We also examined the effects of PCB126 on expression of genes involved in stress response, cell proliferation, thyroid homeostasis, and prostaglandin synthesis. PCB126 induced CYP1A, CYP1B1, and CYP1C1 but had little effect on CYP1D1 (77-, 1.7-, 4.6- and 1.4-fold induction versus the control, respectively). βNF induced CYP1A and CYP1C1 (26- and 2.5-fold), while, under conditions used, indigo tended to induce only CYP1A (1.9-fold). The extent of CYP1 induction by PCB126 and βNF was positively correlated to the number of putative dioxin response elements 0–20 kb upstream of the start codons. No morphological effect was observed in tadpoles exposed to 1 nM-10 µM PCB126 at two days post-fertilization (dpf) and screened 20 days later. However, in 14-dpf tadpoles a slight up-regulation of the genes for PCNA, transthyretin, HSC70, Cu-Zn SOD, and Cox-2 was observed two days after exposure to 1 µM PCB126. This study of the full suite of CYP1 genes in an amphibian species reveals gene- and AHR agonist-specific differences in response, as well as a much lower sensitivity to CYP1 induction and short-term toxicity by PCB126 compared with in fish larvae. The single genes in each CYP1 subfamily may make X. tropicalis a useful model for mechanistic studies of CYP1 functions. PMID:20965207

  5. Digenic Inheritance of Early-Onset Glaucoma: CYP1B1, a Potential Modifier Gene

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Andrea L.; Billingsley, Gail; Buys, Yvonne; Levin, Alex V.; Priston, Megan; Trope, Graham; Williams-Lyn, Donna; Héon, Elise

    2002-01-01

    “Early-onset glaucoma” refers to genetically heterogeneous conditions for which glaucoma manifests at age 5–40 years and for which only a small subset is molecularly characterized. We studied the role of MYOC, CYP1B1, and PITX2 in a population (n=60) affected with juvenile or early-onset glaucoma from the greater Toronto area. By a combination of single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct cycle sequencing, MYOC mutations were detected in 8 (13.3%) of the 60 individuals, CYP1B1 mutations were detected in 3 (5%) of the 60 individuals, and no PITX2 mutations were detected. The range of phenotypic expression associated with MYOC and CYP1B1 mutations was greater than expected. MYOC mutations included cases of juvenile glaucoma with or without pigmentary glaucoma and mixed-mechanism glaucoma. CYP1B1 mutations involved cases of juvenile open-angle glaucoma, as well as cases of congenital glaucoma. The study of a family with autosomal dominant glaucoma showed the segregation of both MYOC and CYP1B1 mutations with disease; however, in this family, the mean age at onset of carriers of the MYOC mutation alone was 51 years (range 48–64 years), whereas carriers of both the MYOC and CYP1B1 mutations had an average age at onset of 27 years (range 23–38 years) (P=.001). This work emphasizes the genetic heterogeneity of juvenile glaucoma and suggests, for the first time, that (1) congenital glaucoma and juvenile glaucoma are allelic variants and (2) the spectrum of expression of MYOC and CYP1B1 mutations is greater than expected. We also propose that CYP1B1 may act as a modifier of MYOC expression and that these two genes may interact through a common pathway. PMID:11774072

  6. Partial cloning of CYP2C23a genes and hepatic protein expression in eight representative avian species.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K P; Kawai, Y K; Nakayama, S M M; Ikenaka, Y; Mizukawa, H; Takaesu, N; Ito, M; Ikushiro, S-I; Sakaki, T; Ishizuka, M

    2015-04-01

    Large interspecies differences in avian xenobiotic metabolism have been revealed by microsome-based studies, but specific enzyme isoforms in different bird species have not yet been compared. We have previously shown that CYP2C23 genes are the most induced CYP isoforms in chicken liver. In this study, we collected partial CYP2C23a gene sequences from eight avian species (ostrich, blue-eared pheasant, snowy owl, great-horned owl, Chilean flamingo, peregrin falcon, Humboldt penguin, and black-crowned night heron) selected to cover the whole avian lineage: Paleognathae, Galloanserae, and Neoaves. Genetic analysis showed that CYP2C23 genes of Galloanserae species (chicken and blue-eared pheasant) had unique characteristics. We found some duplicated genes (CYP2C23a and CYP2C23b) and two missing amino acid residues in Galloanserae compared to the other two lineages. The genes have lower homology than in other avian lineages, which suggests Galloanserae-specific rapid evolutionary changes. These genetic features suggested that the Galloanserae are not the most representative avian species, considering that the Neoaves comprise more than 95% of birds. Moreover, we succeeded in synthesizing an antipeptide polyclonal antibody against the region of CYP2C23 protein conserved in avians. However, comparative quantitation of CYP2C23 proteins in livers from six species showed that expression levels of these proteins differed no more than fourfold. Further study is needed to clarify the function of avian CYP2C23 proteins.

  7. New CYP2A6 gene deletion and conversion variants in a population of Black African descent.

    PubMed

    Mwenifumbo, Jill C; Zhou, Qian; Benowitz, Neal L; Sellers, Edward M; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2010-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) is a human enzyme best known for metabolizing nicotine and nitrosamine precarcinogens. Our aim was to discover and characterize new CYP2A6 alleles in a population of Black African descent. We used cloning, sequencing and genotyping of genomic DNA to discover new variants, and in vivo nicotine pharmacokinetic phenotyping to characterize the functional effect of the new alleles. Four new CYP2A6 alleles, CYP2A6*4G, *4H, *1B4 and *1L, were discovered and characterized in a population of Black African descent. The two new deletion alleles, CYP2A6*4G and *4H, are distinguished by different crossover junctions at 7.9 and 7.8 kb downstream of the CYP2A6 +1ATG start site, respectively; their combined allele frequency is 1.6%. The new gene conversion alleles, CYP2A6*1B4 and CYP2A6*1L, contain 27 and 10 bp of CYP2A7 sequence in the CYP2A6 3 -flanking region, respectively; their combined allele frequency is 7.3%. CYP2A6*4 appears to associate with lower CYP2A6 activity in vivo, while CYP2A6*1L does not; however, CYP2A6*1L confounds genotyping assays that use the 2A6R3 and 2A6R4 primers. As new variants are discovered, the relationships between CYP2A6 genotype, nicotine metabolism, smoking behaviors and tobacco-related cancer risk will be further clarified.

  8. The influence of CYP3A gene polymorphisms on cyclosporine dose requirement in renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Eng, H-S; Mohamed, Z; Calne, R; Lang, C C; Mohd, M A; Seet, W-T; Tan, S-Y

    2006-05-01

    Cyclosporine is a substrate of cytochrome P-450 3A (CYP3A) subfamily of enzymes and characterized by a narrow therapeutic range with wide interindividual variation in pharmacokinetics. A few single-nucleotide polymorphisms detected in CYP3A genes have been shown to correlate significantly with the CYP3A protein expression and activity. We therefore postulated that these polymorphisms could be responsible for some of the interindividual variation in cyclosporine pharmacokinetics. The objective of our study is to determine correlation if any between single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CYP3A5 and CYP3AP1 on cyclosporine dose requirement and concentration-to-dose ratio in renal allograft recipients. Cyclosporine-dependent renal allograft recipients were genotyped for CYP3A5 A6986G and CYP3AP1 G-44A. The cyclosporine dosages prescribed and the corresponding cyclosporine trough levels for each patient were recorded so that cyclosporine dose per weight (mg/kg/day) and concentration-to-dose ratio (C(0)/D, whereby C(0) is trough level and D is daily dose per weight) could be calculated. A total of 67 patients were recruited for our study. The dose requirement for 1, 3, and 6 months post-transplantation ranged 2.3-11.4, 1.0-9.0, and 1.4-7.2 mg/kg/day, respectively. Patients with *1*1*1*1 (n=5) CYP3A5- and CYP3AP1-linked genotypes needed higher dose of cyclosporine compared to patients with *1*3*1*3 (n = 27) and *3*3*3*3 (n = 33) linked genotypes in months 3 and 6 post-transplantation (P < 0.016). The identification of patients with *1*1*1*1 by CYP3A5 and CYP3AP1 genotyping may have a clinically significant and positive impact on patient outcome with reduced rejection rate by providing pretransplant pharmacogenetic information for optimization of cyclosporine A dosing.

  9. Renal function and vasomotor activity in mice lacking the Cyp4a14 gene.

    PubMed

    Fidelis, Paul; Wilson, Leticia; Thomas, Kayama; Villalobos, Mayra; Oyekan, Adebayo O

    2010-11-01

    The production of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in the kidney is thought to be involved in the control of renal vascular tone and tubular sodium and chloride reabsorption. Cytochrome (Cyp) P-450 enzymes of the Cyp4a family in the mouse, namely 4a10, -12 and 14, are involved in 20-HETE synthesis. Recent advances in the molecular genetics of the mouse have produced mice in which Cyp4a isoforms have been disrupted and the consequence of such an approach is examined. This study evaluated the effect of deletion of the Cyp4a14 gene on blood pressure, renal vascular responses and tubular function. When compared with the wild-type (WT) litter mates, systolic blood pressure was greater in Cyp4a14 null (KO) mice as were renal vascular responses to angiotensin II or phenyephrine, G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists, but not KCl, a non-GPCR agonist. Renal vascular responses to guanosine 5'-O-(gamma-thio)triphosphate, a non-hydrolyzable GTP analog, or NaF(4), an activator of G-proteins, were also enhanced. However, vasodilation to bradykinin or apocynin but not sodium nitroprusside was blunted in Cyp4a14 null (KO) kidneys. These changes in KO mice were accompanied by increased 20-HETE synthesis, reduced renal production of nitric oxide (NO), increased lipid hydroperoxides and increased apocynin-inhibitable vascular NADPH oxidase activity that was prevented by administration of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, suggesting endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling. Cyp4a14 KO mice also exhibited a diminished capacity to excrete an acute sodium load (0.9% NaCl, 2.5 mL/kg). These data suggest that deletion of the Cyp4a gene conferred a prohypertensive status via mechanisms involving increased 20-HETE synthesis and eNOS uncoupling leading to increased oxidative stress, enhanced vasoconstriction but diminished vasodilation as well as a defect in the renal excretory capacity in Cyp4a14 KO mice. These mechanisms suggest that the Cyp4a14-deficient mouse may be a

  10. Mapping of Gene Expression Reveals CYP27A1 as a Susceptibility Gene for Sporadic ALS

    PubMed Central

    van Rheenen, Wouter; Franke, Lude; Jansen, Ritsert C.; van Es, Michael A.; van Vught, Paul W. J.; Blauw, Hylke M.; Groen, Ewout J. N.; Horvath, Steve; Estrada, Karol; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Robberecht, Wim; Andersen, Peter M.; Melki, Judith; Meininger, Vincent; Hardiman, Orla; Landers, John E.; Brown, Robert H.; Shatunov, Aleksey; Shaw, Christopher E.; Leigh, P. Nigel; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Ophoff, Roel A.

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of upper and lower motor neurons. ALS is considered to be a complex trait and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a few susceptibility loci. However, many more causal loci remain to be discovered. Since it has been shown that genetic variants associated with complex traits are more likely to be eQTLs than frequency-matched variants from GWAS platforms, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide screening for eQTLs associated with ALS. In addition, we applied an eQTL analysis to finemap association loci. Expression profiles using peripheral blood of 323 sporadic ALS patients and 413 controls were mapped to genome-wide genotyping data. Subsequently, data from a two-stage GWAS (3,568 patients and 10,163 controls) were used to prioritize eQTLs identified in the first stage (162 ALS, 207 controls). These prioritized eQTLs were carried forward to the second sample with both gene-expression and genotyping data (161 ALS, 206 controls). Replicated eQTL SNPs were then tested for association in the second-stage GWAS data to find SNPs associated with disease, that survived correction for multiple testing. We thus identified twelve cis eQTLs with nominally significant associations in the second-stage GWAS data. Eight SNP-transcript pairs of highest significance (lowest p = 1.27×10−51) withstood multiple-testing correction in the second stage and modulated CYP27A1 gene expression. Additionally, we show that C9orf72 appears to be the only gene in the 9p21.2 locus that is regulated in cis, showing the potential of this approach in identifying causative genes in association loci in ALS. This study has identified candidate genes for sporadic ALS, most notably CYP27A1. Mutations in CYP27A1 are causal to cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis which can present as a clinical mimic of ALS with progressive upper motor neuron loss, making it a plausible susceptibility gene for

  11. Characterization and gonadal expression of FOXL2 relative to Cyp19a genes in spotted scat Scatophagus argus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huifen; Mu, Xingjiang; Gui, Lang; Su, Maoliang; Li, Hong; Zhang, Guang; Liu, Zhenhao; Zhang, Junbin

    2015-04-25

    In the present study, we cloned the full-length cDNAs of FOXL2, Cyp19a1a and Cyp19a1b and analyzed their expression patterns during gonadal development in spotted scat, Scatophagus argus. All three genes were expressed in ovaries and testes but showed sexual dimorphism. At early stages of gonadal development, the expression of FOXL2 in ovaries was higher than testes. FOXL2 expression deceased gradually as gonadal development continued, and reached the lowest level at the mature stage. Cyp19a1a and Cyp19a1b were expressed coordinately with FOXL2, except at the early vitellogenic stage in the ovary. The expression of FOXL2, Cyp19a1a and Cyp19a1b was mainly localized in granulosa cells of ovaries. In S. argus testes, strong expression of FOXL2 gene was observed in the interstitial cells including tubules and Leydig cells, while Cyp19a1a and Cyp19a1b were mainly expressed in Sertoli cells throughout gametogenesis. These results show that FOXL2 plays an essential role in sexual development, and imply that it may regulate Cyp19a1a and Cyp19a1b expression in S. argus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. GmCYP82A3, a Soybean Cytochrome P450 Family Gene Involved in the Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene Signaling Pathway, Enhances Plant Resistance to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qiang; Cui, Xiaoxia; Lin, Shuai; Gan, Shuping; Xing, Han; Dou, Daolong

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) represent a large and important enzyme superfamily in plants. They catalyze numerous monooxygenation/hydroxylation reactions in biochemical pathways, P450s are involved in a variety of metabolic pathways and participate in the homeostasis of phytohormones. The CYP82 family genes specifically reside in dicots and are usually induced by distinct environmental stresses. However, their functions are largely unknown, especially in soybean (Glycine max L.). Here, we report the function of GmCYP82A3, a gene from soybean CYP82 family. Its expression was induced by Phytophthora sojae infection, salinity and drought stresses, and treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or ethephon (ETH). Its expression levels were consistently high in resistant cultivars. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants overexpressing GmCYP82A3 exhibited strong resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora parasitica, and enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought stresses. Furthermore, transgenic plants were less sensitive to jasmonic acid (JA), and the enhanced resistance was accompanied with increased expression of the JA/ET signaling pathway-related genes. PMID:27588421

  13. Role of the CYP1A2 Gene Polymorphism on Early Ageing from Occupational Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Eshkoor, SA; Ismail, P; Rahman, SA; Moin, S; Adon, MY

    2013-01-01

    The ageing process is influenced by many internal and external factors. The toxic substances in the environment can cause genomic damages to cells, which increase the risk of early ageing. Furthermore, the cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene polymorphism is a susceptibility factor and may enhance the risk of DNA damage in cells. The current study was carried out to show whether occupational exposure could cause genotoxicity in cells carrying the CYP1A2 gene polymorphism, thus enhancing the likelihood of early ageing. This study was conducted on mechanical workshop workers and a control group by collecting buccal cells from their mouths. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) was used to identify the CYP1A2 gene polymorphism in the cells. In addition, three extra methods including micronuclei (MN) test, comet assay and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) were applied to determine the effects of gene polymorphisms on DNA damage and ageing from occupational exposure. The results showed that DNA damage in the cells carrying the mutated genotype was higher than the wild genotype. In addition, the difference in MN frequency (p = 0.001) and relative telomere length (p = 0.002) between workers and controls was significant (p <0.05) in the mutated genotype. The findings indicated a possible protective effect of gene polymorphism against early ageing, which was characterized by lack of a significant influence of CYP1A2 gene polymorphism on genetic material in the subjects (p >0.05). It was concluded that the CYP1A2 gene could be a contributing factor to prevent early ageing from occupational exposure. PMID:24778563

  14. Correlations of CYP2C9∗3/CYP2D6∗10/CYP3A5∗3 gene polymorphisms with efficacy of etanercept treatment for patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitor etanercept has been proven to be effective in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), while genetic polymorphism may affect drug metabolism or drug receptor, resulting in interindividual variability in drug disposition and efficacy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlations between CYP2C9∗3/CYP2D6∗10/CYP3A5∗3 gene polymorphisms and the efficacy of etanercept treatment for patients with AS. Methods: From March 2012 to June 2015, 312 AS patients (174 males and 138 females, mean age: 35.2 ± 5.83 years) from 18 to 56 years old were enrolled in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was applied to detect the allele and genotype frequencies of CYP2C9∗3, CYP2D6∗10, and CYP3A5∗3 gene polymorphisms. The joint swelling score, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) level of AS patients were compared before and after 24-week etanercept treatment. Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis (ASAS) and bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) scores were recorded to assess the efficacy of etanercept treatment. Results: The AS patients with wild-type ∗1/∗1 and heterozygous ∗1/∗3 genotypes of CYP2C9∗3 polymorphism accounted for 93.59% and 6.41%, respectively, without ∗3/∗3 genotype. The AS patients with wild-type CC, heterozygous CT, and mutation homozygous TT genotypes of CYP2D6∗10 polymorphism accounted for 19.23%, 39.10%, and 41.67%, respectively. The AS patients with wild-type ∗1/∗1, heterozygous ∗1/∗3, and mutation homozygous ∗3/∗3 genotypes of CYP3A5∗3 polymorphism accounted for 7.69%, 36.22%, and 56.09%, respectively. After 24-week treatment, AS patients with wild-type ∗1/∗1 genotype of CYP2C9∗3, CC genotype of CYP2D6∗10, and ∗3/∗3 genotype of CYP3A5∗3 polymorphisms had lower joint swelling score, ESR, and CRP level. The joint swelling

  15. Correlations of CYP2C9*3/CYP2D6*10/CYP3A5*3 gene polymorphisms with efficacy of etanercept treatment for patients with ankylosing spondylitis: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Yuan

    2017-03-01

    The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitor etanercept has been proven to be effective in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), while genetic polymorphism may affect drug metabolism or drug receptor, resulting in interindividual variability in drug disposition and efficacy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlations between CYP2C9*3/CYP2D6*10/CYP3A5*3 gene polymorphisms and the efficacy of etanercept treatment for patients with AS. From March 2012 to June 2015, 312 AS patients (174 males and 138 females, mean age: 35.2 ± 5.83 years) from 18 to 56 years old were enrolled in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was applied to detect the allele and genotype frequencies of CYP2C93, CYP2D610, and CYP3A53 gene polymorphisms. The joint swelling score, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) level of AS patients were compared before and after 24-week etanercept treatment. Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis (ASAS) and bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) scores were recorded to assess the efficacy of etanercept treatment. The AS patients with wild-type 1/1 and heterozygous 1/3 genotypes of CYP2C93 polymorphism accounted for 93.59% and 6.41%, respectively, without 3/3 genotype. The AS patients with wild-type CC, heterozygous CT, and mutation homozygous TT genotypes of CYP2D610 polymorphism accounted for 19.23%, 39.10%, and 41.67%, respectively. The AS patients with wild-type 1/1, heterozygous 1/3, and mutation homozygous 3/3 genotypes of CYP3A53 polymorphism accounted for 7.69%, 36.22%, and 56.09%, respectively. After 24-week treatment, AS patients with wild-type 1/1 genotype of CYP2C93, CC genotype of CYP2D610, and 3/3 genotype of CYP3A53 polymorphisms had lower joint swelling score, ESR, and CRP level. The joint swelling score, ESR, and CRP levels were significantly lower in the patients with CC genotype of CYP2D610 polymorphism than in CT and

  16. Variation in Genes Controlling Warfarin Disposition and Response in American Indian and Alaska Native People: CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, CYP4F11, GGCX

    PubMed Central

    Yracheta, Joseph; Dillard, Denise A.; Schilling, Brian; Khan, Burhan; Hopkins, Scarlett; Boyer, Bert; Black, Jynene; Wiener, Howard; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Gordon, Adam; Nickerson, Deborah; Tsai, Jesse M.; Farin, Federico M.; Thornton, Timothy A.; Rettie, Allan E.; Thummel, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pharmacogenetic testing is projected to improve health outcomes and reduce the cost of care by increasing therapeutic efficacy and minimizing drug toxicity. American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people historically have been excluded from pharmacogenetic research and its potential benefits, a deficiency we sought to address. The vitamin K antagonist warfarin is prescribed for prevention of thromboembolic events, although its narrow therapeutic index and wide inter-individual variability necessitate close monitoring of drug response. Therefore, we were interested in variation in CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, CYP4F11, and GGCX, which encode enzymes important for the activity of warfarin and synthesis of vitamin K dependent blood clotting factors. Methods We resequenced these genes in 188 AI/AN people in partnership with Southcentral Foundation (SCF) in Anchorage, AK and 94 Yup'ik people living in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of southwest Alaska to identify known or novel function-disrupting variation. We conducted genotyping for specific SNPs in larger cohorts of each study population (380 and 350, respectively). Results We identified high frequencies of the lower-warfarin dose VKORC1 haplotype (−1639G>A and 1173C>T) and the higher-warfarin dose CYP4F2*3 variant. We also identified two relatively common, novel, and potentially function-disrupting variants in CYP2C9 (M1L and N218I), which, along with CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*29, predict that a significant proportion of AI/AN people will have decreased CYP2C9 activity. Conclusions Overall, we predict a lower average warfarin dose requirement in AI/AN populations in Alaska than that seen in non-AI/AN populations of the US, a finding consistent with clinical experience in Alaska. PMID:25946405

  17. Structure of the human CD97 gene: Exon shuffling has generated a new type of seven-span transmembrane molecule related to the secretin receptor superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, J.; Van Lier, R.A.W.; Hartmann, E.

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on the structure and genetic mapping of the human CD97 gene, a homologue to the secretin receptor superfamily of cell surface proteins. The detailed organization of the gene, which maps to the short arm of chromosome 19, is given. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Cyp2c44 gene disruption exacerbated pulmonary hypertension and heart failure in female but not male mice

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sachindra Raj; Lakhkar, Anand; Dhagia, Vidhi; Zias, Ariadne L.; Soldatos, Vasiliki; Oshima, Kaori; Jiang, Houli; Gotlinger, Katherine; Capdevila, Jorge H.; Schwartzman, Michal L.; McMurtry, Ivan F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epoxyeicosatrienoicacids (EETs), synthesized from arachidonic acid by epoxygenases of the CYP2C and CYP2J gene subfamilies, contribute to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in mice. Despite their roles in HPV, it is controversial whether EETs mediate or ameliorate pulmonary hypertension (PH). A recent study showed that deficiency of Cyp2j did not protect male and female mice from hypoxia-induced PH. Since CYP2C44 is a functionally important epoxygenase, we hypothesized that knockout of the Cyp2c44 gene would protect both sexes of mice from hypoxia-induced PH. We tested this hypothesis in wild-type (WT) and Cyp2c44 knockout (Cyp2c44−/−) mice exposed to normoxia (room air) and hypoxia (10% O2) for 5 weeks. Exposure of WT and Cyp2c44−/− mice to hypoxia resulted in pulmonary vascular remodeling, increased pulmonary artery resistance, and decreased cardiac function in both sexes. However, in female Cyp2c44−/− mice, compared with WT mice, (1) pulmonary artery resistance and right ventricular hypertrophy were greater, (2) cardiac index was lower, (3) left ventricular and arterial stiffness were higher, and (4) plasma aldosterone levels were higher, but (5) there was no difference in levels of EET in lungs and heart. Paradoxically and unexpectedly, we found that Cyp2c44 disruption exacerbated hypoxia-induced PH in female but not male mice. We attribute exacerbated PH in female Cyp2c44−/− mice to elevated aldosterone and as-yet-unknown systemic factors. Therefore, we suggest a role for the human CYP2C genes in protecting women from severe PH and that this could be one of the underlying causes for a better 5-year survival rate in women than in men. PMID:27683613

  19. Variation in the CYP19A1 gene and risk of colon and rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Herrick, Jennifer S; Kadlubar, Susan; Caan, Bette J; Potter, John D; Wolff, Roger K

    2011-07-01

    CYP19A1, or aromatase, influences estrogen-metabolizing enzymes and may influence cancer risk. We examine variation in the CYP19A1 gene and risk of colorectal cancer using data from population-based case-control studies (colon n = 1,574 cases, 1,970 controls; rectal n = 791 cases, 999 controls). Four SNPs were statistically significantly associated with colon cancer and four were associated with rectal cancer. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, the AA genotype of rs12591359 was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer (OR 1.44 95% CI 1.16-1.80) and the AA genotype of rs2470144 was associated with a reduced risk of rectal cancer (OR 0.65 95% CI 0.50-0.84). Variants of CYP19A1 were associated with CIMP+ and CIMP+/KRAS2-mutated tumors. CT/TT genotypes of rs1961177 were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of a MSI+ colon tumor (OR 1.77 95% CI 1.26-2.37). We observed statistically significant interactions between genetic variation in NFκB1 and CYP19A1 for both colon and rectal cancer. Our data suggest the importance of CYP19A1 in the development of colon and rectal cancer and that estrogen may influence risk through an inflammation-related mechanism.

  20. CYP gene family variants as potential protective factors in drug addiction in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxing; Yang, Qi; Zheng, Wenkai; Ouyang, Yongri; Yang, Min; Wang, Fengjiao; Jin, Tianbo; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Zhenyuan

    2016-08-01

    There is growing evidence that genetic factors also contribute to drug addiction. The human cytochrome P450 has shown special interest because of pharmacokinetic variation in different individuals and populations, which is largely determined by the relevant genes. The present study aimed to investigate the polymorphism of the CYP/addicts relationship. We genotyped 13 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) from three genes, including 692 cases and 700 controls. Sequenom MassARRAY RS1000 (Sequenom, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) was used for SNP genotyping. Statistical analysis of the association between tSNPs and drug addiction was performed using the chi-squared test and SNP Stats software (http://bioinfo.iconcologia.net). The T/T genotype of rs2242480 in CYP3A4 was associated with decreased risk in the recessive model (p = 0.0002). Allele frequency at rs3743484 in CYP1A2 showed significant differences between addicts and controls (p = 0.046; odds ratio = 0.80; 95% confidence interval = 0.65-1.00). In genetic model analyses, the minor C allele of rs3743484 in CYP1A2 was associated with a reduced risk of drug addiction based on analysis using codominant and additive models (p = 0.027 dominant model; p =0.038 additive model). Our findings show that at allelic and genotypic level polymorphisms in CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 are significantly associated with a reduced risk of drug addiction in X'ian Han Chinese individuals. However, this result needs to be confirmed in additional studies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The pharmacogenetic control of antiplatelet response: candidate genes and CYP2C19.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yao; Lewis, Joshua P; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Scott, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin, clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor are antiplatelet agents for the prevention of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and other indications. Variability in response is observed to different degrees with these agents, which can translate to increased risks for adverse cardiovascular events. As such, potential pharmacogenetic determinants of antiplatelet pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical outcomes have been actively studied. This article provides an overview of the available antiplatelet pharmacogenetics literature. Evidence supporting the significance of candidate genes and their potential influence on antiplatelet response and clinical outcomes are summarized and evaluated. Additional focus is directed at CYP2C19 and clopidogrel response, including the availability of clinical testing and genotype-directed antiplatelet therapy. The reported aspirin response candidate genes have not been adequately replicated and few candidate genes have thus far been implicated in prasugrel or ticagrelor response. However, abundant data support the clinical validity of CYP2C19 and clopidogrel response variability among ACS/PCI patients. Although limited prospective trial data are available to support the utility of routine CYP2C19 testing, the increased risks for reduced clopidogrel efficacy among ACS/PCI patients that carry CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles should be considered when genotype results are available.

  2. The Pharmacogenetic Control of Antiplatelet Response: Candidate Genes and CYP2C19

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yao; Lewis, Joshua P.; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Scott, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aspirin, clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor are antiplatelet agents for the prevention of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and other indications. Variability in response is observed to different degrees with these agents, which can translate to increased risks for adverse cardiovascular events. As such, potential pharmacogenetic determinants of antiplatelet pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical outcomes have been actively studied. Areas covered This article provides an overview of the available antiplatelet pharmacogenetics literature. Evidence supporting the significance of candidate genes and their potential influence on antiplatelet response and clinical outcomes are summarized and evaluated. Additional focus is directed at CYP2C19 and clopidogrel response, including the availability of clinical testing and genotype-directed antiplatelet therapy. Expert opinion The reported aspirin response candidate genes have not been adequately replicated and few candidate genes have thus far been implicated in prasugrel or ticagrelor response. However, abundant data supports the clinical validity of CYP2C19 and clopidogrel response variability among ACS/PCI patients. Although limited prospective trial data are available to support the utility of routine CYP2C19 testing, the increased risks for reduced clopidogrel efficacy among ACS/PCI patients that carry CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles should be considered when genotype results are available. PMID:26173871

  3. Comprehensive Analysis of the CDPK-SnRK Superfamily Genes in Chinese Cabbage and Its Evolutionary Implications in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peng; Wang, Wenli; Duan, Weike; Li, Ying; Hou, Xilin

    2017-01-01

    The CDPK-SnRK (calcium-dependent protein kinase/Snf1-related protein kinase) gene superfamily plays important roles in signaling pathways for disease resistance and various stress responses, as indicated by emerging evidence. In this study, we constructed comparative analyses of gene structure, retention, expansion, whole-genome duplication (WGD) and expression patterns of CDPK-SnRK genes in Brassica rapa and their evolution in plants. A total of 49 BrCPKs, 14 BrCRKs, 3 BrPPCKs, 5 BrPEPRKs, and 56 BrSnRKs were identified in B. rapa. All BrCDPK-SnRK proteins had highly conserved kinase domains. By statistical analysis of the number of CDPK-SnRK genes in each species, we found that the expansion of the CDPK-SnRK gene family started from angiosperms. Segmental duplication played a predominant role in CDPK-SnRK gene expansion. The analysis showed that PEPRK was more preferentially retained than other subfamilies and that CPK was retained similarly to SnRK. Among the CPKs and SnRKs, CPKIII and SnRK1 genes were more preferentially retained than other groups. CRK was closest to CPK, which may share a common evolutionary origin. In addition, we identified 196 CPK genes and 252 SnRK genes in 6 species, and their different expansion and evolution types were discovered. Furthermore, the expression of BrCDPK-SnRK genes is dynamic in different tissues as well as in response to abiotic stresses, demonstrating their important roles in development in B. rapa. In summary, this study provides genome-wide insight into the evolutionary history and mechanisms of CDPK-SnRK genes following whole-genome triplication in B. rapa. PMID:28239387

  4. Pharmacogenetics of drug-drug interaction and drug-drug-gene interaction: a systematic review on CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6.

    PubMed

    Bahar, Muh Akbar; Setiawan, Didik; Hak, Eelko; Wilffert, Bob

    2017-05-01

    Currently, most guidelines on drug-drug interaction (DDI) neither consider the potential effect of genetic polymorphism in the strength of the interaction nor do they account for the complex interaction caused by the combination of DDI and drug-gene interaction (DGI) where there are multiple biotransformation pathways, which is referred to as drug-drug-gene interaction (DDGI). In this systematic review, we report the impact of pharmacogenetics on DDI and DDGI in which three major drug-metabolizing enzymes - CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 - are central. We observed that several DDI and DDGI are highly gene-dependent, leading to a different magnitude of interaction. Precision drug therapy should take pharmacogenetics into account when drug interactions in clinical practice are expected.

  5. Characterization of CYP76M5–8 Indicates Metabolic Plasticity within a Plant Biosynthetic Gene Cluster*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Hillwig, Matthew L.; Okada, Kazunori; Yamazaki, Kohei; Wu, Yisheng; Swaminathan, Sivakumar; Yamane, Hisakazu; Peters, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have revealed genomic clustering of enzymatic genes for particular biosynthetic pathways in plant specialized/secondary metabolism. Rice (Oryza sativa) carries two such clusters for production of antimicrobial diterpenoid phytoalexins, with the cluster on chromosome 2 containing four closely related/homologous members of the cytochrome P450 CYP76M subfamily (CYP76M5–8). Notably, the underlying evolutionary expansion of these CYP appears to have occurred after assembly of the ancestral biosynthetic gene cluster, suggesting separate roles. It has been demonstrated that CYP76M7 catalyzes C11α-hydroxylation of ent-cassadiene, and presumably mediates an early step in biosynthesis of the derived phytocassane class of phytoalexins. Here we report biochemical characterization of CYP76M5, -6, and -8. Our results indicate that CYP76M8 is a multifunctional/promiscuous hydroxylase, with CYP76M5 and -7 seeming to provide only redundant activity, while CYP76M6 seems to provide both redundant and novel activity, relative to CYP76M8. RNAi-mediated double knockdown of CYP76M7 and -8 suppresses elicitor inducible phytocassane production, indicating a role for these monooxygenases in phytocassane biosynthesis. In addition, our data suggests that CYP76M5, -6, and -8 may play redundant roles in production of the oryzalexin class of phytoalexins as well. Intriguingly, the preceding diterpene synthase for oryzalexin biosynthesis, unlike that for the phytocassanes, is not found in the chromosome 2 diterpenoid biosynthetic gene cluster. Accordingly, our results not only uncover a complex evolutionary history, but also further suggest some intriguing differences between plant biosynthetic gene clusters and the seemingly similar microbial operons. The implications for the underlying metabolic evolution of plants are then discussed. PMID:22215681

  6. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme, CYP46A1 genes polymorphism with senile cataract

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Syed Tasleem; Abbas, Shania; Chandra, Anu; Singh, Luxmi; Rizvi, Saliha; Mahdi, Farzana

    2017-01-01

    Background: Senile cataract is the most common type of cataract characterized by gradual progressive thickening of the lens of the eye. Previously, many studies investigated the association between genetic polymorphism and senile cataract. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D polymorphism is the potential risk factor for many eye-related diseases such as retinopathy and glaucoma. CYP46A1 enzyme converts cholesterol to 24S-hydroxycholesterol; human lens' membranes contain the highest cholesterol content. Defects in enzymes of cholesterol metabolism can be associated with cataracts. Hence, the present study was carried out to investigate the association of ACE and CYP46A1 genes polymorphism with senile cataract cases and controls. Materials and Methods: ACE (rs 4646994) and CYP46A1 (rs 754203) genes polymorphism in cases and controls were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: This study included 103 senile cataract cases (55 were males and 48 were females) and 102 controls (53 were males and 49 were females). Mean age of cases in this study was 52.02 ± 12.11 years while in control group 53.74 ± 11.87 years. Frequencies of ACE ID, DD, and II genotypes in senile cataract cases were 64.07%, 4.85%, and 31.06% and controls were 61.76%, 26.47%, and 11.76%, respectively. The CYP46A1 gene CT, CC, and TT genotype frequencies were 48.54%, 8.73%, and 42.71% in senile cataract cases and 28.43%, 3.92%, and 67.64% in healthy controls, respectively. ACE DD and II genotypes (P < 0.001,P = 0.0008) and CYP46A1 CT and TT genotypes (P = 0.003,P = 0.0003) were significantly associated with senile cataract cases compared to the controls. Conclusion: Findings of this study suggest that ACE and CYP46A1 genes polymorphism may be a predictive marker for early identification of population at risk of senile cataract. This potential role of ACE and CYP46A1 genes polymorphism as a marker of susceptibility to senile cataract needs

  7. CYP1A1, GCLC, AGT, AGTR1 gene-gene interactions in community-acquired pneumonia pulmonary complications.

    PubMed

    Salnikova, Lyubov E; Smelaya, Tamara V; Golubev, Arkadiy M; Rubanovich, Alexander V; Moroz, Viktor V

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to establish the possible contribution of functional gene polymorphisms in detoxification/oxidative stress and vascular remodeling pathways to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) susceptibility in the case-control study (350 CAP patients, 432 control subjects) and to predisposition to the development of CAP complications in the prospective study. All subjects were genotyped for 16 polymorphic variants in the 14 genes of xenobiotics detoxification CYP1A1, AhR, GSTM1, GSTT1, ABCB1, redox-status SOD2, CAT, GCLC, and vascular homeostasis ACE, AGT, AGTR1, NOS3, MTHFR, VEGFα. Risk of pulmonary complications (PC) in the single locus analysis was associated with CYP1A1, GCLC and AGTR1 genes. Extra PC (toxic shock syndrome and myocarditis) were not associated with these genes. We evaluated gene-gene interactions using multi-factor dimensionality reduction, and cumulative gene risk score approaches. The final model which included >5 risk alleles in the CYP1A1 (rs2606345, rs4646903, rs1048943), GCLC, AGT, and AGTR1 genes was associated with pleuritis, empyema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, all PC and acute respiratory failure (ARF). We considered CYP1A1, GCLC, AGT, AGTR1 gene set using Set Distiller mode implemented in GeneDecks for discovering gene-set relations via the degree of sharing descriptors within a given gene set. N-acetylcysteine and oxygen were defined by Set Distiller as the best descriptors for the gene set associated in the present study with PC and ARF. Results of the study are in line with literature data and suggest that genetically determined oxidative stress exacerbation may contribute to the progression of lung inflammation.

  8. Effect of Cyp27A1 gene dosage on atherosclerosis development in ApoE-knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Zurkinden, Line; Solcà, Curzio; Vögeli, Isabelle A.; Vogt, Bruno; Ackermann, Daniel; Erickson, Sandra K.; Frey, Felix J.; Sviridov, Dmitri; Escher, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    In humans, sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) deficiency leads to cholesterol deposition in tendons and vasculature. Thus, in addition to its role in bile acid synthesis, where it converts cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC), CYP27A1 may also be atheroprotective. Cyp27A1-deficient (Cyp27A1−/−) mice were crossed with apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice. Cyp27A1+/+/apoE−/− [ApoE-knockout (KO)], Cyp27A1+/−/apoE−/− heterozygous (het), and Cyp27A1−/−/apoE−/− [double-knockout (DKO)] mice were challenged with a Western diet (WD) for 3 and 6 mo. ApoE-KO mice fed a chow diet or a WD were used as the control. The severity of atherosclerosis in DKO mice was reduced 10-fold. Compared with the control, the DKO mice had no 27-OHC, total plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein (LDL/VLDL) concentrations were reduced 2-fold, and HDL was elevated 2-fold. Expression of hepatic CYP7A1, CYP3A, and CYP8B1 were 5- to 10-fold higher. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity increased 4-fold. Fecal cholesterol was increased. In contrast, het mice fed a WD developed accelerated atherosclerosis and severe skin lesions, possibly because of reduced reverse cholesterol transport due to diminished 27-OHC production. CYP27A1 activity is involved in the control of cholesterol homeostasis and development of atherosclerosis with a distinct gene dose-dependent effect.—Zurkinden, L., Solcà, C., Vögeli, I. A., Vogt, B., Ackermann, D., Erickson, S. K., Frey, F. J., Sviridov, D., Escher, G. Effect of Cyp27A1 gene dosage on atherosclerosis development in ApoE-knockout mice. PMID:24327605

  9. Genetic screening of non-classic CAH females with hyperandrogenemia identifies a novel CYP11B1 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Shammas, Christos; Byrou, Stefania; Phelan, Marie M; Toumba, Meropi; Stylianou, Charilaos; Skordis, Nicos; Neocleous, Vassos; Phylactou, Leonidas A

    2016-04-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an endocrine autosomal recessive disorder with various symptoms of diverse severity. Mild hyperandrogenemia is the most commonclinical feature in non-classic CAH patients and 95% of the cases are identified by mutations in the CYP21A2 gene. In the present study, the second most common cause for non-classic CAH (NC-CAH), 11β-hydroxylase deficiency due to mutations in the CYP11B1 gene, is investigated. Screening of the CYP21A2 and CYP11B1 genes by direct sequencing was carried out for the detection of possible genetic defects in patients with suspected CAH. It wasobserved that CYP11B1 variants co-exist only in rare cases along with mutations in CYP21A2 in patients clinically diagnosed with CAH. A total of 23 NC-CAH female patients out of 75 were identified with only one mutation in the CYP21A2 gene. The novel CYP11B1 gene mutation, p.Val484Asp, was identified in a patient with CAH in the heterozygous state. The structural characterization of the novel p.Val484Asp was found to likely cause distortion of the surrounding beta sheet and indirect destabilization of the cavity that occurs on the opposite face of the structural elements, leading to partial impairment of the enzymatic activity. CYP21A2 gene mutations are the most frequent genetic defects in cases of NC-CAH even when these patients are in the heterozygous state. These mutations have a diverse phenotype giving rise to a variable extent of cortisol synthesis impairment; it is also clear that CYP11B1 mutants are a rare type of defects causing CAH.

  10. Integrated bioinformatic and targeted deletion analyses of the SRS gene superfamily identify SRS29C as a negative regulator of Toxoplasma virulence.

    PubMed

    Wasmuth, James D; Pszenny, Viviana; Haile, Simon; Jansen, Emily M; Gast, Alexandra T; Sher, Alan; Boyle, Jon P; Boulanger, Martin J; Parkinson, John; Grigg, Michael E

    2012-11-13

    The Toxoplasma gondii SRS gene superfamily is structurally related to SRS29B (formerly SAG1), a surface adhesin that binds host cells and stimulates host immunity. Comparative genomic analyses of three Toxoplasma strains identified 182 SRS genes distributed across 14 chromosomes at 57 genomic loci. Eight distinct SRS subfamilies were resolved. A core 69 functional gene orthologs were identified, and strain-specific expansions and pseudogenization were common. Gene expression profiling demonstrated differential expression of SRS genes in a developmental-stage- and strain-specific fashion and identified nine SRS genes as priority targets for gene deletion among the tissue-encysting coccidia. A Δsag1 sag2A mutant was significantly attenuated in murine acute virulence and showed upregulated SRS29C (formerly SRS2) expression. Transgenic overexpression of SRS29C in the virulent RH parent was similarly attenuated. Together, these findings reveal SRS29C to be an important regulator of acute virulence in mice and demonstrate the power of integrated genomic analysis to guide experimental investigations. Parasitic species employ large gene families to subvert host immunity to enable pathogen colonization and cause disease. Toxoplasma gondii contains a large surface coat gene superfamily that encodes adhesins and virulence factors that facilitate infection in susceptible hosts. We generated an integrated bioinformatic resource to predict which genes from within this 182-gene superfamily of adhesin-encoding genes play an essential role in the host-pathogen interaction. Targeted gene deletion experiments with predicted candidate surface antigens identified SRS29C as an important negative regulator of acute virulence in murine models of Toxoplasma infection. Our integrated computational and experimental approach provides a comprehensive framework, or road map, for the assembly and discovery of additional key pathogenesis genes contained within other large surface coat gene

  11. The Y137H mutation of VvCYP51 gene confers the reduced sensitivity to tebuconazole in Villosiclava virens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Lin, Yang; Yin, Wei-Xiao; Peng, You-Liang; Schnabel, Guido; Huang, Jun-Bin; Luo, Chao-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Management of rice false smut disease caused by Villosiclava virens is dependent on demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides. Investigation of molecular mechanisms of resistance is therefore of upmost importance. In this study the gene encoding the target protein for DMI fungicides (VvCYP51) was cloned and investigated. The VvCYP51 gene in the resistant mutant revealed both a change from tyrosine to histidine at position 137 (Y137H) and elevated gene expression compared to the parental isolate. In order to determine which of these mechanisms was responsible for the reduced sensitivity to DMI fungicide tebuconazole, transformants expressing the mutated or the wild type VvCYP51 gene were generated. Transformants carrying the mutated gene were more resistant to tebuconazole compared to control transformants lacking the mutation, but the expression of the VvCYP51 gene was not significantly correlated with EC50 values. The wild type VvCYP51 protein exhibited stronger affinity for tebuconazole compared to the VvCYP51/Y137H in both molecular docking analysis and experimental binding assays. The UV-generated mutant as well as transformants expressing the VvCYP51/Y137H did not exhibit significant fitness penalties based on mycelial growth and spore germination, suggesting that isolates resistant to DMI fungicides based on the Y137H mutation may develop and be competitive in the field. PMID:26631591

  12. Non-functionalization of two CYP82E nicotine N-demethylase genes abolishes nornicotine formation in Nicotiana langsdorffii.

    PubMed

    Pakdeechanuan, Phattharaporn; Teoh, Seddon; Shoji, Tsubasa; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2012-12-01

    Nornicotine is formed from nicotine by nicotine N-demethylase, a CYP82E family monooxygenase, and accumulates to high levels in some tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultivars and many wild Nicotiana species. Nicotiana langsdorffii does not form nornicotine, whereas the closely related species N. alata accumulates this alkaloid abundantly. We show here that the two nicotine N-demethylase genes in N. langsdorffii have been inactivated by different molecular mechanisms. We identified four N. alata CYP82E genes that encode functional nicotine N-demethylases. In N. langsdorffii, however, one CYP82E gene encoding a functional enzyme was not expressed at all, whereas the other was weakly expressed but contained a one-nucleotide deletion in the first exon, yielding a truncated protein. Expression analysis of interspecific F(1) hybrids between N. alata and N. langsdorffii indicated that cis-acting polymorphisms abolish expression of the otherwise functional CYP82E gene in N. langsdorffii. Segregation analysis of tobacco alkaloids and individual CYP82E alleles in F(2) progeny revealed that duplicated CYP82E genes in both species are genetically linked, and provide genetic evidence that CYP82E genes are solely responsible for nornicotine formation in these wild Nicotiana species.

  13. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqin; Guo, Rongrong; Li, Jun; Singer, Stacy D; Zhang, Yucheng; Yin, Xiangjing; Zheng, Yi; Fan, Chonghui; Wang, Xiping

    2013-10-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) represent a protein superfamily encoding NAD(P)(+)-dependent enzymes that oxidize a wide range of endogenous and exogenous aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes and play a role in the response to environmental stress. In this study, a total of 39 ALDH genes from ten families were identified in the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) genome. Synteny analysis of the apple ALDH (MdALDH) genes indicated that segmental and tandem duplications, as well as whole genome duplications, have likely contributed to the expansion and evolution of these gene families in apple. Moreover, synteny analysis between apple and Arabidopsis demonstrated that several MdALDH genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes appeared before the divergence of lineages that led to apple and Arabidopsis. In addition, phylogenetic analysis, as well as comparisons of exon-intron and protein structures, provided further insight into both their evolutionary relationships and their putative functions. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the MdALDH genes demonstrated diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns, while their expression profiles under abiotic stress and various hormone treatments indicated that many MdALDH genes were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as different plant hormones. This genome-wide identification, as well as characterization of evolutionary relationships and expression profiles, of the apple MdALDH genes will not only be useful for the further analysis of ALDH genes and their roles in stress response, but may also aid in the future improvement of apple stress tolerance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Ancient Duplications and Expression Divergence in the Globin Gene Superfamily of Vertebrates: Insights from the Elephant Shark Genome and Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Opazo, Juan C.; Toloza-Villalobos, Jessica; Burmester, Thorsten; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Storz, Jay F.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analyses of vertebrate genomes continue to uncover a surprising diversity of genes in the globin gene superfamily, some of which have very restricted phyletic distributions despite their antiquity. Genomic analysis of the globin gene repertoire of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) should be especially informative about the duplicative origins and ancestral functions of vertebrate globins, as divergence between Chondrichthyes and bony vertebrates represents the most basal split within the jawed vertebrates. Here, we report a comparative genomic analysis of the vertebrate globin gene family that includes the complete globin gene repertoire of the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). Using genomic sequence data from representatives of all major vertebrate classes, integrated analyses of conserved synteny and phylogenetic relationships revealed that the last common ancestor of vertebrates possessed a repertoire of at least seven globin genes: single copies of androglobin and neuroglobin, four paralogous copies of globin X, and the single-copy progenitor of the entire set of vertebrate-specific globins. Combined with expression data, the genomic inventory of elephant shark globins yielded four especially surprising findings: 1) there is no trace of the neuroglobin gene (a highly conserved gene that is present in all other jawed vertebrates that have been examined to date), 2) myoglobin is highly expressed in heart, but not in skeletal muscle (reflecting a possible ancestral condition in vertebrates with single-circuit circulatory systems), 3) elephant shark possesses two highly divergent globin X paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in gonads, and 4) elephant shark possesses two structurally distinct α-globin paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in the brain. Expression profiles of elephant shark globin genes reveal distinct specializations of function relative to orthologs in bony vertebrates and suggest hypotheses about

  15. Ancient Duplications and Expression Divergence in the Globin Gene Superfamily of Vertebrates: Insights from the Elephant Shark Genome and Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Opazo, Juan C; Lee, Alison P; Hoffmann, Federico G; Toloza-Villalobos, Jessica; Burmester, Thorsten; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Storz, Jay F

    2015-07-01

    Comparative analyses of vertebrate genomes continue to uncover a surprising diversity of genes in the globin gene superfamily, some of which have very restricted phyletic distributions despite their antiquity. Genomic analysis of the globin gene repertoire of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) should be especially informative about the duplicative origins and ancestral functions of vertebrate globins, as divergence between Chondrichthyes and bony vertebrates represents the most basal split within the jawed vertebrates. Here, we report a comparative genomic analysis of the vertebrate globin gene family that includes the complete globin gene repertoire of the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). Using genomic sequence data from representatives of all major vertebrate classes, integrated analyses of conserved synteny and phylogenetic relationships revealed that the last common ancestor of vertebrates possessed a repertoire of at least seven globin genes: single copies of androglobin and neuroglobin, four paralogous copies of globin X, and the single-copy progenitor of the entire set of vertebrate-specific globins. Combined with expression data, the genomic inventory of elephant shark globins yielded four especially surprising findings: 1) there is no trace of the neuroglobin gene (a highly conserved gene that is present in all other jawed vertebrates that have been examined to date), 2) myoglobin is highly expressed in heart, but not in skeletal muscle (reflecting a possible ancestral condition in vertebrates with single-circuit circulatory systems), 3) elephant shark possesses two highly divergent globin X paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in gonads, and 4) elephant shark possesses two structurally distinct α-globin paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in the brain. Expression profiles of elephant shark globin genes reveal distinct specializations of function relative to orthologs in bony vertebrates and suggest hypotheses about

  16. Constitutional genetic variation at the human aromatase gene (Cyp19) and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Siegelmann-Danieli, N; Buetow, K H

    1999-01-01

    The activity of the aromatase enzyme, which converts androgens into oestrogens and has a major role in regulating oestrogen levels in the breast, is thought to be a contributing factor in the development of breast cancer. We undertook this study to assess the role of constitutional genetic variation in the human aromatase gene (Cyp19) in the development of this disease. Our genotyping of 348 cases with breast cancer and 145 controls (all Caucasian women) for a published tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism at intron 4 of the Cyp19 gene revealed the presence of six common and two rare alleles. Contingency table analysis revealed a significant difference in allelic distribution between cases and controls (χ2 5df = 13.52, P = 0.019). The allele measuring 171 bp was over-represented in cases; of 14 individuals homozygous for this allele, 13 were cases. These individuals had a higher incidence of cancer in family members and an earlier age at diagnosis than other cases. In sequencing Cyp19's coding exons and regulatory regions, we discovered a perfect association between a silent polymorphism (G→A at Val80) and the high-risk genotype. Our conclusion is that constitutional genetic variation at the Cyp19 locus is associated with the risk of developing breast cancer, with the 171-bp allele serving as the high-risk allele. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10027313

  17. Transcriptional regulation of the grape cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene CYP736B expression in response to Xylella fastidiosa infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) mediate synthesis and metabolism of many physiologically important primary and secondary compounds that are related to plant defense against a range of pathogenic microbes and insects. To determine if cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in defense response to Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) infection, we investigated expression and regulatory mechanisms of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP736B gene in both disease resistant and susceptible grapevines. Results Cloning of genomic DNA and cDNA revealed that the CYP736B gene was composed of two exons and one intron with GT as a donor site and AG as an acceptor site. CYP736B transcript was up-regulated in PD-resistant plants and down-regulated in PD-susceptible plants 6 weeks after Xf inoculation. However, CYP736B expression was very low in stem tissues at all evaluated time points. 5'RACE and 3'RACE sequence analyses revealed that there were three candidate transcription start sites (TSS) in the upstream region and three candidate polyadenylation (PolyA) sites in the downstream region of CYP736B. Usage frequencies of each transcription initiation site and each polyadenylation site varied depending on plant genotype, developmental stage, tissue, and treatment. These results demonstrate that expression of CYP736B is regulated developmentally and in response to Xf infection at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Multiple transcription start and polyadenylation sites contribute to regulation of CYP736B expression. Conclusions This report provides evidence that the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP736B gene is involved in defense response at a specific stage of Xf infection in grapevines; multiple transcription initiation and polyadenylation sites exist for CYP736B in grapevine; and coordinative and selective use of transcription initiation and polyadenylation sites play an important role in regulation of CYP736B expression during growth

  18. Interaction of the CYP1A1 gene polymorphism and smoking in non-small cell lung cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Xie, Y Q; Chen, J M; Liu, Y

    2016-01-04

    Many studies have shown that genetic factors, environmental factors, and bad living habits, especially smoking, are risk factors for lung cancer. However, not all smokers develop lung cancer, which may be related to different genetic backgrounds. Currently, most research has investigated the GSTM1, XRCC1, XRCC3, CYP2D6, and C188T genes. Little research has been done on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 gene, and results have varied. In addition, no results have been reported on the interactive effects of smoking and the CYP1A1 gene on lung cancer development. We used polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism to detect the CYP1A1 genotype, and investigate the effects of the CYP1A1 gene deletion and smoking alone, and in combination, on non-small cell lung cancer susceptibility. We enrolled 150 non-small cell lung cancer patients and 150 healthy control subjects. Subjects' smoking habits and CYP1A1 gene polymorphism were analyzed to investigate their role in the occurrence of lung cancer. The CYP1A1 gene deletion was found in 73.3% of non-small cell lung cancer patients and 20.0% of healthy subjects. The OR value was 2.28 (P < 0.05). Among smoking subjects, 77.8% exhibited non-small cell lung cancer, significantly higher than the 27.3% in non-smokers (P < 0.05). The OR value for the interaction of smoking and CYP1A1 gene deletion was 5.60, larger than the product of their individual OR values. The CYP1A1 gene deletion is a lung cancer risk factor, and interacts with smoking in non-small cell lung cancer development.

  19. Response of Last Instar Helicoverpa armígera Larvae to Bt Toxin Ingestion: Changes in the Development and in the CYP6AE14, CYP6B2 and CYP9A12 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Moralejo, Marian; Pérez-Hedo, Meritxell; Eizaguirre, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Bt crops are able to produce Cry proteins, which were originally present in Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria. Although Bt maize is very efficient against corn borers, Spanish crops are also attacked by the earworm H. armigera, which is less susceptible to Bt maize. Many mechanisms could be involved in this low susceptibility to the toxin, including the insect's metabolic resistance to toxins due to cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. This paper examines the response of last instar H. armigera larvae to feeding on a diet with Bt and non-Bt maize leaves in larval development and in the gene expression of three P450 cytochromes: CYP6AE14, CYP6B2 and CYP9A12. Larvae fed on sublethal amounts of the Bt toxin showed reduced food ingestion and reduced growth and weight, preventing most of them from achieving the critical weight and pupating; additionally, after feeding for one day on the Bt diet the larvae showed a slight increase in juvenile hormone II in the hemolymp. Larvae fed on the non-Bt diet showed the highest CYP6AE14, CYP6B2 and CYP9A12 expression one day after feeding on the non-Bt diet, and just two days later the expression decreased abruptly, a finding probably related to the developmental programme of the last instar. Moreover, although the response of P450 genes to plant allelochemicals and xenobiotics has been related in general to overexpression in the resistant insect, or induction of the genes when feeding takes place, the expression of the three genes studied was suppressed in the larvae feeding on the Bt toxin. The unexpected inhibitory effect of the Cry1Ab toxin in the P450 genes of H. armigera larvae should be thoroughly studied to determine whether this response is somehow related to the low susceptibility of the species to the Bt toxin. PMID:24910993

  20. The MrCYP52 Cytochrome P450 Monoxygenase Gene of Metarhizium robertsii Is Important for Utilizing Insect Epicuticular Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liangcai; Fang, Weiguo; Liao, Xinggang; Wang, Fengqing; Wei, Dongzhi; St. Leger, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Fungal pathogens of plants and insects infect their hosts by direct penetration of the cuticle. Plant and insect cuticles are covered by a hydrocarbon-rich waxy outer layer that represents the first barrier against infection. However, the fungal genes that underlie insect waxy layer degradation have received little attention. Here we characterize the single cytochrome P450 monoxygenase family 52 (MrCYP52) gene of the insect pathogen Metarhizium robertsii, and demonstrate that it encodes an enzyme required for efficient utilization of host hydrocarbons. Expressing a green florescent protein gene under control of the MrCYP52 promoter confirmed that MrCYP52 is up regulated on insect cuticle as well as by artificial media containing decane (C10), extracted cuticle hydrocarbons, and to a lesser extent long chain alkanes. Disrupting MrCYP52 resulted in reduced growth on epicuticular hydrocarbons and delayed developmental processes on insect cuticle, including germination and production of appressoria (infection structures). Extraction of alkanes from cuticle prevented induction of MrCYP52 and reduced growth. Insect bioassays against caterpillars (Galleria mellonella) confirmed that disruption of MrCYP52 significantly reduces virulence. However, MrCYP52 was dispensable for normal germination and appressorial formation in vitro when the fungus was supplied with nitrogenous nutrients. We conclude therefore that MrCYP52 mediates degradation of epicuticular hydrocarbons and these are an important nutrient source, but not a source of chemical signals that trigger infection processes. PMID:22194968

  1. [Measurement of gene expression of CYP mRNA in liver of rats exposed to toluene and 1-butanol vapors].

    PubMed

    Ishidao, Toru; Ishimatsu, Sumiyo; Hirohashi, Masami; Morimoto, Yasuo; Hori, Hajime

    2006-12-01

    A reduction of the biological half life of toluene in blood in the simultaneous exposure to toluene and alcohol vapors has been reported. To clarify the cause of this reduction, gene expression of CYP mRNA in liver of rats exposed to bi-component organic vapors was investigated. Wistar male rats were repeatedly exposed to 500 ppm of toluene and 300 ppm of 1-butanol vapors individually and simultaneously by inhalation 6 hours a day, five days a week for 4 weeks. After the exposure, the rats were sacrificed and the livers were collected and homogenized. RNA was extracted from the livers, and gene expression of CYP mRNA was observed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The gene expression of CYP3A2 in the simultaneous exposure group was significantly higher than that in the toluene exposure group. However, there was no significant difference in that of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2C11, CYP2E1 and CYP4A1.

  2. Cyp1B1 mRNA expression in correlation to cotinine levels with respect to the Cyp1B1 L432V gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Helmig, Simone; Seelinger, Jens Udo; Philipp-Gehlhaar, Monika; Döhrel, Juliane; Schneider, Joachim

    2010-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is involved in the activation of a broad spectrum of procarcinogens. An association of the Cyp1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism with cancer as well as an impact on the enzyme activity has been described. To study gene-environmental interactions we investigated the quantitative Cyp1B1 mRNA expression in smokers (N = 102) and non-smokers (N = 192) with regards to the Cyp1B1 L432V gene polymorphism. Tobacco smoke exposure was assessed by serum cotinine levels. Genotypes were analysed by melting curve analysis and quantification of Cyp1B1 mRNA by real-time PCR. In comparing Cyp1B1 expression, significant differences between the two homozygote genotypes *1/*1 and *3/*3 (0.105 ± 0.019; n = 26 vs. 0.051 ± 0.017; n = 14; P = 0.039) and between the heterozygote genotype *1/*3 and *3/*3 (0.121 ± 0.029; n = 55 vs. 0.051 ± 0.017; n = 14; P = 0.039) of smokers were revealed. According to the serum cotinine levels, three subgroups (low; medium; high) were build. The group "high" (0.248 ± 0.089; n = 32) showed proportionally high Cyp1B1 mRNA expression compared to "medium" (0.101 ± 0.024; n = 33), "low" (0.086 ± 0.015; n = 32) and non-smokers (0.084 ± 0.007; n = 176). This result was reflected in the homozygote *1/*1 and the heterozygote *1/*3 genotypes. In contrast the homozygote *3/*3 genotype was missing the high Cyp1B1 mRNA expression in the cotinine subgroup "high". Our results suggest that genotypes carrying the C-allele (*1/*1 and *1/*3) at Cyp1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism show a higher response to environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke than homozygote *3/*3 genotypes.

  3. Expression and Characterization of CYP52 Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Sophorolipid and Alkane Metabolism from Starmerella bombicola

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fong-Chin; Peter, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Three cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP52 gene family members were isolated from the sophorolipid-producing yeast Starmerella bombicola (former Candida bombicola), namely, CYP52E3, CYP52M1, and CYP52N1, and their open reading frames were cloned into the pYES2 vector for expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The functions of the recombinant proteins were analyzed with a variety of alkane and fatty acid substrates using microsome proteins or a whole-cell system. CYP52M1 was found to oxidize C16 to C20 fatty acids preferentially. It converted oleic acid (C18:1) more efficiently than stearic acid (C18:0) and linoleic acid (C18:2) and much more effectively than α-linolenic acid (C18:3). No products were detected when C10 to C12 fatty acids were used as the substrates. Moreover, CYP52M1 hydroxylated fatty acids at their ω- and ω-1 positions. CYP52N1 oxidized C14 to C20 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and preferentially oxidized palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. It only catalyzed ω-hydroxylation of fatty acids. Minor ω-hydroxylation activity against myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, and oleic acid was shown for CYP52E3. Furthermore, the three P450s were coassayed with glucosyltransferase UGTA1. UGTA1 glycosylated all hydroxyl fatty acids generated by CYP52E3, CYP52M1, and CYP52N1. The transformation efficiency of fatty acids into glucolipids by CYP52M1/UGTA1 was much higher than those by CYP52N1/UGTA1 and CYP52E3/UGTA1. Taken together, CYP52M1 is demonstrated to be involved in the biosynthesis of sophorolipid, whereas CYP52E3 and CYP52N1 might be involved in alkane metabolism in S. bombicola but downstream of the initial oxidation steps. PMID:24242247

  4. CACTA-superfamily transposable element is inserted in MYB transcription factor gene of soybean line producing variegated seeds.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fan; Di, Shaokang; Takahashi, Ryoji

    2015-08-01

    The R gene of soybean, presumably encoding a MYB transcription factor, controls seed coat color. The gene consists of multiple alleles, R (black), r-m (black spots and (or) concentric streaks on brown seed), and r (brown seed). This study was conducted to determine the structure of the MYB transcription factor gene in a near-isogenic line (NIL) having r-m allele. PCR amplification of a fragment of the candidate gene Glyma.09G235100 generated a fragment of about 1 kb in the soybean cultivar Clark, whereas a fragment of about 14 kb in addition to fragments of 1 and 1.4 kb were produced in L72-2040, a Clark 63 NIL with the r-m allele. Clark 63 is a NIL of Clark with the rxp and Rps1 alleles. A DNA fragment of 13 060 bp was inserted in the intron of Glyma.09G235100 in L72-2040. The fragment had the CACTA motif at both ends, imperfect terminal inverted repeats (TIR), inverse repetition of short sequence motifs close to the 5' and 3' ends, and a duplication of three nucleotides at the site of integration, indicating that it belongs to a CACTA-superfamily transposable element. We designated the element as Tgm11. Overall nucleotide sequence, motifs of TIR, and subterminal repeats were similar to those of Tgm1 and Tgs1, suggesting that these elements comprise a family.

  5. Decreased hippocampal volume and increased anxiety in a transgenic mouse model expressing the human CYP2C19 gene.

    PubMed

    Persson, A; Sim, S C; Virding, S; Onishchenko, N; Schulte, G; Ingelman-Sundberg, M

    2014-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, various psychoactive drugs, as well as endogenous steroids and cannabinoid-like compounds are metabolized by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19). Absence of this enzyme has been recently shown to associate with lower levels of depressive symptoms in human subjects. To investigate endogenous functions of CYP2C19 and its potential role in brain function, we have used a transgenic mouse model carrying the human CYP2C19 gene. Here, CYP2C19 was expressed in the developing fetal, but not adult brain and was associated with altered fetal brain morphology, where mice homozygous for the CYP2C19 transgenic insert had severely underdeveloped hippocampus and complete callosal agenesis and high neonatal lethality. CYP2C19 expression was also found in human fetal brain. In adult hemizygous mice we observed besides decreased hippocampal volume, an altered neuronal composition in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Reduced hippocampal volumes have been reported in several psychiatric disorders, supporting the relevance of this model. Here we found that adult hemizygous CYP2C19 transgenic mice demonstrate behavior indicative of increased stress and anxiety based on four different tests. We hypothesize that expression of the CYP2C19 enzyme prenatally may affect brain development by metabolizing endogenous compounds influencing this development. Furthermore, CYP2C19 polymorphism may have a role in interindividual susceptibility for psychiatric disorders.

  6. Pharmacotherapy Effects on Smoking Cessation Vary with Nicotine Metabolism Gene (CYP2A6)

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Timothy B.; Smith, Stevens S.; Piper, Megan E.; Martinez, Maribel; Saccone, Nancy; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Evidence suggests that both the nicotinic receptor α5 subunit (CHRNA5) and Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) genotypes influence smoking cessation success and response to pharmacotherapy. We examine the effect of CYP2A6 genotype on smoking cessation success and response to cessation pharmacotherapy, and combine these effects with those of CHRNA5 genotypes. Design Placebo-controlled randomized smoking cessation trial Setting Ambulatory care facility in Wisconsin, USA. Participants Smokers (N=709) of European ancestry were randomized to placebo, bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy, or combined bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy. Measurements Survival analysis was used to model time to relapse using nicotine metabolism derived from CYP2A6 genotype-based estimates. Slow metabolism is defined as the lowest quartile of estimated metabolic function. Findings CYP2A6-defined nicotine metabolic function moderated the effect of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy on smoking relapse over 90 days (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 2.81, 95%CI=1.32-5.99, p=0.0075), with pharmacotherapy significantly slowing relapse in fast (HR=0.39, 95%CI=0.28-0.55, p=1.97×10-8), but not slow, metabolizers (HR=1.09, 95%CI=0.55-2.17, p=0.80). Further, only the effect of nicotine replacement, and not bupropion, varies with CYP2A6-defined metabolic function. The effect of nicotine replacement on continuous abstinence is moderated by the combined genetic risks from CYP2A6 and CHRNA5 (interaction effect size=0.74, 95%CI=0.59-0.94, p=0.013). Conclusions Nicotine replacement therapy is effective amongst individuals with fast, but not slow, CYP2A6-defined nicotine metabolism. The effect of bupropion on relapse likelihood is unlikely affected by nicotine metabolism as estimated from CYP2A6 genotype. The variation in treatment responses amongst smokers with genes may guide future personalized smoking cessation interventions. PMID:24033696

  7. Significance and mechanism of CYP7a1 gene regulation during the acute phase of liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lisheng; Huang, Xiongfei; Meng, Zhipeng; Dong, Bingning; Shiah, Steven; Moore, David D; Huang, Wendong

    2009-02-01

    Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7a1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic pathway of bile acid synthesis. Expression of CYP7a1 is regulated by a negative feedback pathway of bile acid signaling. Previous studies have suggested that bile acid signaling is also required for normal liver regeneration, and CYP7a1 expression is strongly repressed after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH). Both the effect of CYP7a1 suppression on liver regrowth and the mechanism by which 70% PH suppresses CYP7a1 expression are unknown. Here we show that liver-specific overexpression of an exogenous CYP7a1 gene impaired liver regeneration after 70% PH, which was accompanied by increased hepatocyte apoptosis and liver injury. CYP7a1 expression was initially suppressed after 70% PH in an farnesoid X receptor/ small heterodimer partner-independent manner; however, both farnesoid X receptor and small heterodimer partner were required to regulate CYP7a1 expression at the later stage of liver regeneration. c-Jun N-terminus kinase and hepatocyte growth factor signaling pathways are activated during the acute phase of liver regeneration. We determined that hepatocyte growth factor and c-Jun N-terminus kinase pathways were involved in the suppressing of the CYP7a1 expression in the acute phase of live regeneration. Taken together, our results provide the significance that CYP7a1 suppression is required for liver protection after 70% PH and there are two distinct phases of CYP7a1 gene regulation during liver regeneration.

  8. Molecular Evolution of the CYP2D Subfamily in Primates: Purifying Selection on Substrate Recognition Sites without the Frequent or Long-Tract Gene Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Yasukochi, Yoshiki; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 gene is a member of the CYP2D gene subfamily, along with the CYP2D7P and CYP2D8P pseudogenes. Although the CYP2D6 enzyme has been studied extensively because of its clinical importance, the evolution of the CYP2D subfamily has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, the goal of this study was to reveal the evolutionary process of the human drug metabolic system. Here, we investigate molecular evolution of the CYP2D subfamily in primates by comparing 14 CYP2D sequences from humans to New World monkey genomes. Window analysis and statistical tests revealed that entire genomic sequences of paralogous genes were extensively homogenized by gene conversion during molecular evolution of CYP2D genes in primates. A neighbor-joining tree based on genomic sequences at the nonsubstrate recognition sites showed that CYP2D6 and CYP2D8 genes were clustered together due to gene conversion. In contrast, a phylogenetic tree using amino acid sequences at substrate recognition sites did not cluster the CYP2D6 and CYP2D8 genes, suggesting that the functional constraint on substrate specificity is one of the causes for purifying selection at the substrate recognition sites. Our results suggest that the CYP2D gene subfamily in primates has evolved to maintain the regioselectivity for a substrate hydroxylation activity between individual enzymes, even though extensive gene conversion has occurred across CYP2D coding sequences. PMID:25808902

  9. Characterization and expression of cyp19a gene in the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiaomu; Xiao, Hanbing; Tian, HaiFeng; Meng, Yan

    2016-02-01

    We cloned the full length cyp19a of Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus, determined its distribution in tissues and developing gonads, and analyzed the CpG methylation pattern of the cyp19a promoter. The results revealed isoforms of 1706 bp (G arom) and 1698 bp (B arom) in length, differing in the 5' flanking region, both encoding 502 amino acids. The G arom gene was observed mainly in the ovary and kidney, with little in other investigated tissues, while B arom expression was high in the brain, ovary, testis, and pituitary, with low or undetected expression in other examined tissues. Total aromatase expression was high in the ovary; moderate in the kidney, brain, testis, and pituitary; and low in the remaining tissues. G arom expression was significantly higher in the ovary than in the testis and gradually decreased with maturation of the salamander. A single injection of methyltestosterone or letrozole resulted in ovarian G arom expression decreasing over a 12-96 h period. A 1366 bp sequence of the cyp19a promoter was cloned and shown to be conserved in selected species. CpG methylation level was negatively correlated with cyp19a expression in the examined tissues and developing ovaries. Five and three CpG methylation sites positively correlated with DNA methylation levels in tissues and developing ovary, suggesting that they play an important role in regulating cyp19a expression. The aromatase gene showed two isoforms with distinct expression patterns, and the promoter methylation level at specific CpG sites was associated with variation in expression profiles of tissues and developing ovaries.

  10. Mammalian cytochrome CYP2E1 triggered differential gene regulation in response to trichloroethylene (TCE) in a transgenic poplar

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun Won; Wilkerson, Hui-Wen; Farin, Federico M.; Bammler, Theo K.; Beyer, Richard P.; Strand, Stuart E.

    2011-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an important environmental contaminant of soil, groundwater, and air. Studies of the metabolism of TCE by poplar trees suggest that cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved. Using poplar genome microarrays, we report a number of putative genes that are differentially expressed in response to TCE. In a previous study, transgenic hybrid poplar plants expressing mammalian cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) had increased metabolism of TCE. In the vector control plants for this construct, 24 h following TCE exposure, 517 genes were upregulated and 650 genes were downregulated over 2-fold when compared with the non-exposed vector control plants. However, in the transgenic CYP2E1 plant, line 78, 1,601 genes were upregulated and 1,705 genes were downregulated over 2-fold when compared with the non-exposed transgenic CYP2E1 plant. It appeared that the CYP2E1 transgenic hybrid poplar plants overexpressing mammalian CYP2E1 showed a larger number of differentially expressed transcripts, suggesting a metabolic pathway for TCE to metabolites had been initiated by activity of CYP2E1 on TCE. These results suggest that either the over-expression of the CYP2E1 gene or the abundance of TCE metabolites from CYP450 2E1 activity triggered a strong genetic response to TCE. Particularly, cytochrome p450s, glutathione S-transferases, glucosyltransferases, and ABC transporters in the CYP2E1 transgenic hybrid poplar plants were highly expressed compared with in vector controls. PMID:20213342

  11. Profiling deleterious non-synonymous SNPs of smoker's gene CYP1A1.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, A Sai; Khan, Imran; Farhan, Md; Thiagarajan, Padma

    2013-01-01

    CYP1A1 gene belongs to the cytochrome P450 family and is known better as smokers' gene due to its hyperactivation as a consequence of long term smoking. The expression of CYP1A1 induces polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon production in the lungs, which when over expressed, is known to cause smoking related diseases, such as cardiovascular pathologies, cancer, and diabetes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the simplest form of genetic variations that occur at a higher frequency, and are denoted as synonymous and non-synonymous SNPs on the basis of their effects on the amino acids. This study adopts a systematic in silico approach to predict the deleterious SNPs that are associated with disease conditions. It is inferred that four SNPs are highly deleterious, among which the SNP with rs17861094 is commonly predicted to be harmful by all tools. Hydrophobic (isoleucine) to hydrophilic (serine) amino acid variation was observed in the candidate gene. Hence, this investigation aims to characterize a candidate gene from 159 SNPs of CYP1A1.

  12. Genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analysis of the aspartic protease gene superfamily in grape

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aspartic proteases (APs) are a large family of proteolytic enzymes found in almost all organisms. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes, such as senescence, stress responses, programmed cell death, and reproduction. Prior to the present study, no grape AP gene(s) had been reported, and their research on woody species was very limited. Results In this study, a total of 50 AP genes (VvAP) were identified in the grape genome, among which 30 contained the complete ASP domain. Synteny analysis within grape indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the grape AP family. Additional analysis between grape and Arabidopsis demonstrated that several grape AP genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of grape and Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic relationships of the 30 VvAPs with the complete ASP domain and their Arabidopsis orthologs, as well as their gene and protein features were analyzed and their cellular localization was predicted. Moreover, expression profiles of VvAP genes in six different tissues were determined, and their transcript abundance under various stresses and hormone treatments were measured. Twenty-seven VvAP genes were expressed in at least one of the six tissues examined; nineteen VvAPs responded to at least one abiotic stress, 12 VvAPs responded to powdery mildew infection, and most of the VvAPs responded to SA and ABA treatments. Furthermore, integrated synteny and phylogenetic analysis identified orthologous AP genes between grape and Arabidopsis, providing a unique starting point for investigating the function of grape AP genes. Conclusions The genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analyses of grape AP genes provide a framework for future analysis of AP genes in defining their roles during stress response. Integrated synteny and phylogenetic analyses provide novel insight into the

  13. Gene response of CYP360A, CYP314, and GST and whole-organism changes in Daphnia magna exposed to ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Peng, Ying; Nie, Xiangping; Pan, Benben; Ku, Peijia; Bao, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    The fate and ecological impact of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in aquatic environments has gained increasingly concern recently. However, limited information is provided about the toxicity mechanism of NSAIDs to aquatic invertebrates. In the present study, we investigated the expression of CYP360A, CYP314, and GST genes involved in the detoxification process and the responses of their associated enzymes activity, as well as whole-organism changes in Daphnia magna exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of ibuprofen (IBU). Results showed that the total amount of eggs produced per female, total number of brood per female, and body length were significantly decreased under IBU exposure, suggesting the effects of chronic IBU exposure on growth and reproduction of D. magna cannot be ignored. In gene expression level, the CYP360A gene, homologue to CYP3A in mammalian, showed inhibition at low concentration of IBU (0.5μg·L(-1)) and induction at high concentration of IBU (50μg·L(-1)). GST gene also exhibited a similar performance to CYP3A. CYP314 displayed inhibition for short time exposure (6h) and induced with prolonged exposure time (48h) at low concentration of IBU (0.5μg·L(-1)). Erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) and aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) related to cytochrome oxidase P450 (CYPs) were inhibited for short time exposure (6h) to IBU and then activated with prolonged exposure time (48h) at low concentration of IBU (0.5μg·L(-1)), while EROD showed a dose-dependent pattern under IBU exposure. As for antioxidative system, induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was observed in short-term exposure to IBU. Meanwhile, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content increased with the increasing IBU concentration and the delayed exposure time, displaying obvious dose- and time-dependent pattern. In summary, IBU significantly altered some physiological and biochemical parameters and

  14. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6, CYP1A1, GSTM1 and p53 genes in a unique Siberian population of Tundra Nentsi.

    PubMed

    Duzhak, T; Mitrofanov, D; Ostashevskii, V; Gutkina, N; Chasovnikova, O; Posukh, O; Osipova, L; Lyakhovich, V V

    2000-08-01

    GSTM1*0/*0 genotypes and a high level of CYP1A1Val alleles. Further investigations of gene polymorphisms in isolated Northern native populations would be valuable in clarifying the origin of Northern natives. All this is important for comparative analyses of pharmacogenetic data in Mongoloid populations.

  15. CYP2J3 gene delivery up-regulated adiponectin expression via reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xizhen; Tu, Ling; Feng, Wenjing; Ma, Ben; Li, Rui; Zheng, Changlong; Li, Geng; Wang, Dao Wen

    2013-05-01

    Ample evidences demonstrate that cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid into epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which play crucial and diverse roles in cardiovascular homeostasis. We and others have identified that EETs exert a beneficial role on insulin resistance and diabetes. This study investigated the effects of CYP2J3 epoxygenase gene delivery on adiponectin expression in rats treated with high-fat (HF) diet. CYP2J3 gene delivery in vivo increased EET generation, enhanced adiponectin expression and secretion and accompanied by activation of adiponectin downstream signaling, and decreased insulin resistance as determined by plasma insulin levels, insulin resistance index and glucose tolerance test, as well as phosphorylation of protein kinase B in both liver and muscle. Furthermore, CYP2J3 overexpression prevented HF diet-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in adipose tissue of rats. Also, CYP2J3 gene transfection and exogenous administration of EETs inhibited thapsigargin-induced ER stress with increased adiponectin expression and secretion in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Thus, CYP2J3 gene delivery up-regulated adiponectin expression and excretion in adipose tissue of rats treated with HF diet through inhibition of ER stress, which can decrease adiponectin expression. These results further highlight the beneficial roles of the CYP epoxygenase 2J3 and its metabolites EETs on adiponectin expression and secretion.

  16. High-resolution melt analysis to detect sequence variations in highly homologous gene regions: application to CYP2B6.

    PubMed

    Twist, Greyson P; Gaedigk, Roger; Leeder, J Steven; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    High-resolution melt (HRM) analysis using 'release-on-demand' dyes, such as EvaGreen(®) has the potential to resolve complex genotypes in situations where genotype interpretation is complicated by the presence of pseudogenes or allelic variants in close proximity to the locus of interest. We explored the utility of HRM to genotype a SNP (785A>G, K262R, rs2279343) that is located within exon 5 of the CYP2B6 gene, which contributes to the metabolism of a number of clinically used drugs. Testing of 785A>G is challenging, but crucial for accurate genotype determination. This SNP is part of multiple known CYP2B6 haplotypes and located in a region that is identical to CYP2B7, a nonfunctional pseudogene. Because small CYP2B6-specific PCR amplicons bracketing 785A>G cannot be generated, we simultaneously amplified both genes. A panel of 235 liver tissue DNAs and five Coriell samples were assessed. Eight CYP2B6/CYP2B7 diplotype combinations were found and a novel variant 769G>A (D257N) was discovered. The frequency of 785G corresponded to those reported for Caucasians and African-Americans. Assay performance was confirmed by CYP2B6 and/or CYP2B7 sequence analysis in a subset of samples, using a preamplified CYP2B6-specific long-range-PCR amplicon as HRM template. Inclusion rather than exclusion of a homologous pseudogene allowed us to devise a sensitive, reliable and affordable assay to test this CYP2B6 SNP. This assay design may be utilized to overcome the challenges and limitations of other methods. Owing to the flexibility of HRM, this assay design can easily be adapted to other gene loci of interest.

  17. Association between CYP19 gene SNP rs2414096 polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jia-Li; Sun, Jing; Ge, Hui-Juan; Cao, Yun-Xia; Wu, Xiao-Ke; Liang, Feng-Jing; Sun, Hai-Xiang; Ke, Lu; Yi, Long; Wu, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong

    2009-12-16

    Several studies have reported the association of the SNP rs2414096 in the CYP19 gene with hyperandrogenism, which is one of the clinical manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). These studies suggest that SNP rs2414096 may be involved in the etiopathogenisis of PCOS. To investigate whetherthe CYP19 gene SNP rs2414096 polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to PCOS, we designed a case-controlled association study including 684 individuals. A case-controlled association study including 684 individuals (386 PCOS patients and 298 controls) was performed to assess the association of SNP rs2414096 with PCOS. Genotyping of SNP rs2414096 was conducted by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method that was performed on genomic DNA isolated from blood leucocytes. Results were analyzed in respect to clinical test results. The genotypic distributions of rs2414096 (GG, AG, AA) in the CYP19 gene (GG, AG, AA) in women with PCOS (0.363, 0.474, 0.163, respectively) were significantly different from that in controls (0.242, 0.500, 0.258, respectively) (P = 0.001). E2/T was different between the AA and GG genotypes. Age at menarche (AAM) and FSH were also significantly different among the GG, AG, and AA genotypes in women with PCOS (P = 0.0391 and 0.0118, respectively). No differences were observed in body mass index (BMI) and other serum hormone concentrations among the three genotypes, either in the PCOS patients or controls. Our data suggest that SNP rs2414096 in the CYP19 gene is associated with susceptibility to PCOS.

  18. Aromatase (CYP19) promoter gene polymorphism and risk of nonviral hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wang, Renwei; Govindarajan, Sugantha; Oppenheimer, Rowena; Zhang, Zhen Quan; Yu, Mimi C; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies suggest that sex hormones may induce or promote the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Androgens are converted to estrogens by the CYP19 gene product, aromatase. Hepatic aromatase level and activity have been shown to be markedly elevated in HCC. Aromatase expression in liver tumors is driven by a promoter upstream of CYP19 exon I.6. First, the authors identified an A/C polymorphism in the exon I.6 promoter of the CYP19 gene. To determine whether allelic variants in the CYP19 I.6 promoter differ in their ability to drive gene expression, we carried out an in vitro reporter gene assay. Then, the authors studied the association between this polymorphism and HCC risk in 2 complementary case-control studies: 1 in high-risk southern Guangxi, China, and another in low-risk US non-Asians of Los Angeles County. Transcriptional activity was 60% higher for promoter vectors carrying the rs10459592 C allele compared with those carrying an A allele (P = .007). In both study populations, among subjects negative for at-risk serologic markers of hepatitis B or C, there was a dose-dependent association between number of high activity C allele and risk of HCC (P(trend) = .014). Risk of HCC was significantly higher (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-4.31) in subjects homozygous for the C allele compared with those homozygous for the A allele. This study provides epidemiologic evidence for the role of hepatic aromatization of androgen into estrogen in the development of nonviral hepatitis-related HCC. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  19. Five novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP2C8 gene, one of which induces a frame-shift.

    PubMed

    Soyama, Akiko; Saito, Yoshiro; Komamura, Kazuo; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Kamakura, Shiro; Ozawa, Shogo; Sawada, Jun-ichi

    2002-01-01

    Five novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in exon 3 and introns 1, 3, 7, and 8 in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 gene from 54 Japanese individuals, who were administered the anti-arrhythmic drug amiodarone. The detected SNPs were as follows: 1) SNP, MPJ6_2C8014; GENE NAME, CYP2C8; ACCESSION NUMBER, NT_008769; LENGTH, 25 bases; 5'-ATTCAGAAATATC/TGAATCTATGTGT-3' 2) SNP, MPJ6_2C8015; GENE NAME, CYP2C8; ACCESSION NUMBER, NM_000770 and NT_008769; LENGTH, 25 bases; 5'-GGAGGAGTTGAGA/-AAAACCAAGGGT-3'. 3) SNP, MPJ6_2C8016; GENE NAME, CYP2C8; ACCESSION NUMBER, NT_008769; LENGTH, 25 bases; 5'-ATTTGTAAGATAT/-TGTTTAAAATTT-3' 4) SNP, MPJ6_2C8017; GENE NAME, CYP2C8; ACCESSION NUMBER, NT_008769; LENGTH, 25 bases; 5'-TTGGTTCCAACCC/TTCTAACAACACA-3' 5) SNP, MPJ6_2C8018; GENE NAME, CYP2C8; ACCESSION NUMBER, NT_008769; LENGTH, 25 bases; 5'-GATAGCAAATATA/GTCTCTTTTTGTA-3' Among these SNPs, MPJ6_2C8015 was expected to cause a frame-shift due to the deletion of adenine 471, resulting in amino acid alterations from codon 159 and an early stop codon at residue 177. Therefore, the variant enzyme is most likely to be inactive since it lacks 64% of the protein structure, including the heme-binding site and 5 out of 6 substrate recognition sites.

  20. Effect of Cyp27A1 gene dosage on atherosclerosis development in ApoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zurkinden, Line; Solcà, Curzio; Vögeli, Isabelle A; Vogt, Bruno; Ackermann, Daniel; Erickson, Sandra K; Frey, Felix J; Sviridov, Dmitri; Escher, Geneviève

    2014-03-01

    In humans, sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) deficiency leads to cholesterol deposition in tendons and vasculature. Thus, in addition to its role in bile acid synthesis, where it converts cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC), CYP27A1 may also be atheroprotective. Cyp27A1-deficient (Cyp27A1(-/-)) mice were crossed with apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice. Cyp27A1(+/+)/apoE(-/-) [ApoE-knockout (KO)], Cyp27A1(+/-)/apoE(-/-) heterozygous (het), and Cyp27A1(-/-)/apoE(-/-) [double-knockout (DKO)] mice were challenged with a Western diet (WD) for 3 and 6 mo. ApoE-KO mice fed a chow diet or a WD were used as the control. The severity of atherosclerosis in DKO mice was reduced 10-fold. Compared with the control, the DKO mice had no 27-OHC, total plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein (LDL/VLDL) concentrations were reduced 2-fold, and HDL was elevated 2-fold. Expression of hepatic CYP7A1, CYP3A, and CYP8B1 were 5- to 10-fold higher. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity increased 4-fold. Fecal cholesterol was increased. In contrast, het mice fed a WD developed accelerated atherosclerosis and severe skin lesions, possibly because of reduced reverse cholesterol transport due to diminished 27-OHC production. CYP27A1 activity is involved in the control of cholesterol homeostasis and development of atherosclerosis with a distinct gene dose-dependent effect.

  1. Three nicotine demethylase genes mediate nornicotine biosynthesis in Nicotiana tabacum L.: functional characterization of the CYP82E10 gene.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ramsey S; Bowen, Steven W; Keogh, Matthew R; Dewey, Ralph E

    2010-12-01

    In most tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants, nornicotine is a relatively minor alkaloid, comprising about 2-5% of the total pyridine alkaloid pool in the mature leaf. Changes in gene expression at an unstable locus, however, can give rise to plants that produce high levels of nornicotine, specifically during leaf senescence and curing. Minimizing the nornicotine content in tobacco is highly desirable, because this compound serves as the direct precursor in the synthesis of N'-nitrosonornicotine, a potent carcinogen in laboratory animals. Nornicotine is likely produced almost entirely via the N-demethylation of nicotine, in a process called nicotine conversion that is catalyzed by the enzyme nicotine N-demethylase (NND). Previous studies have identified CYP82E4 as the specific NND gene responsible for the unstable conversion phenomenon, and CYP82E5v2 as a putative minor NND gene. Here, by discovery and characterization of CYP82E10, a tobacco NND gene, is reported. PCR amplification studies showed that CYP82E10 originated from the N. sylvestris ancestral parent of modern tobacco. Using a chemical mutagenesis strategy, knockout mutations were induced and identified in all three tobacco NND genes. By generating a series of mutant NND genotypes, the relative contribution of each NND gene toward the nornicotine content of the plant was assessed. Plants possessing knockout mutations in all three genes displayed nornicotine phenotypes that were much lower (∼0.5% of total alkaloid content) than that found in conventional tobacco cultivars. The introduction of these mutations into commercial breeding lines promises to be a viable strategy for reducing the levels of one of the best characterized animal carcinogens found in tobacco products. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association study and expression analysis of CYP4A11 gene copy number variation in Chinese cattle

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingjuan; Lv, Jingqiao; Zhang, Liangzhi; Li, Mingxun; Zhou, Yang; Lan, Xianyong; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The identification of copy number variations (CNVs) allow us to explore genomic polymorphisms. In recent years, significant progress in understanding CNVs has been made in studies of human and animals, however, association and expression studies of CNVs are still in the early stage. It was previously reported that the Cytochrome P-450 4A11 (CYP4A11) gene is located within a copy number variable region (CNVR) that encompasses quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for economic traits like meat quality and milk production. So, this study was performed to determine the presence of CYP4A11 CNV in six distinct cattle breeds, identify its relationship with growth, and explore the biological effects of gene expression. For three CYP4A11 CNV types, Normal was more frequent than Gain or Loss. Association analysis revealed a positive effect of CYP4A11 copy number on growth traits (P < 0.05). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis revealed that more CYP4A11 copies increased the gene expression level. Moreover, overexpression of CYP4A11 in vitro revealed its effect on lipid deposit. The data provide evidence for the functional role of CYP4A11 CNV and provide the basis for future applications in cattle breeding. PMID:28492277

  3. CpG site degeneration triggered by the loss of functional constraint created a highly polymorphic macaque drug-metabolizing gene, CYP1A2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Elucidating the pattern of evolutionary changes in drug-metabolizing genes is an important subject not only for evolutionary but for biomedical research. We investigated the pattern of divergence and polymorphisms of macaque CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes, which are major drug-metabolizing genes in humans. In humans, CYP1A2 is specifically expressed in livers while CYP1A1 has a wider gene expression pattern in extrahepatic tissues. In contrast, macaque CYP1A2 is expressed at a much lower level than CYP1A1 in livers. Interestingly, a previous study has shown that Macaca fascicularis CYP1A2 harbored unusually high genetic diversity within species. Genomic regions showing high genetic diversity within species is occasionally interpreted as a result of balancing selection, where natural selection maintains highly diverged alleles with different functions. Nevertheless many other forces could create such signatures. Results We found that the CYP1A1/2 gene copy number and orientation has been highly conserved among mammalian genomes. The signature of gene conversion between CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 was detected, but the last gene conversion event in the simian primate lineage occurred before the Catarrhini-Platyrrhini divergence. The high genetic diversity of macaque CYP1A2 therefore cannot be explained by gene conversion between CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. By surveying CYP1A2 polymorphisms in total 91 M. fascicularis and M. mulatta, we found several null alleles segregating in these species, indicating functional constraint on CYP1A2 in macaques may have weakened after the divergence between humans and macaques. We propose that the high genetic diversity in macaque CYP1A2 is partly due to the degeneration of CpG sites, which had been maintained at a high level by purifying selection, and the rapid degeneration process was initiated by the loss of functional constraint on macaque CYP1A2. Conclusions Our findings show that the highly polymorphic CYP1A2 gene in macaques has not been

  4. Superfamily of genes encoding G protein-coupled receptors in the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, S-F; Yu, H-Y; Jiang, T-T; Gao, C-F; Shen, J-L

    2015-08-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest and most versatile superfamily of cell membrane proteins, which mediate various physiological processes including reproduction, development and behaviour. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most notorious insect pests, preferentially feeding on cruciferous plants. P. xylostella is not only one of the world's most widespread lepidopteran insects, but has also developed resistance to nearly all classes of insecticides. Although the mechanisms of insecticide resistance have been studied extensively in many insect species, few investigations have been carried out on GPCRs in P. xylostella. In the present study, we identified 95 putative GPCRs in the P. xylostella genome. The identified GPCRs were compared with their homologues in Bombyx mori and Drosophila melanogaster. Our results suggest that GPCRs in different insect species may have evolved by a birth-and-death process. One of the differences among compared insects is the duplication of short neuropeptide F receptor and adipokinetic hormone receptors in P. xylostella and B. mori. Another divergence is the decrease in quantity and diversity of the stress-tolerance gene, Mth, in P. xylostella. The evolution by the birth-and-death process is probably involved in adaptation to the feeding behaviour, reproduction and stress responses of P. xylostella. Some of the genes identified in the present study could be potential targets for the development of novel pesticides.

  5. Ciona intestinalis peroxinectin is a novel component of the peroxidase-cyclooxygenase gene superfamily upregulated by LPS.

    PubMed

    Vizzini, Aiti; Parrinello, Daniela; Sanfratello, Maria Antonietta; Mangano, Valentina; Parrinello, Nicolò; Cammarata, Matteo

    2013-09-01

    Peroxinectins function as hemoperoxidase and cell adhesion factor involved in invertebrate immune reaction. In this study, the ascidian (Ciona intestinalis) peroxinectin gene (CiPxt) and its expression during the inflammatory response have been examined. CiPxt is a new member of the peroxidase-cyclooxygenase gene superfamily that contains both the peroxidase domain and the integrin KGD (Lys-Gly-Asp) binding motif. A phylogenetic tree showed that CiPxt is very close to the chordate group and appears to be the outgroup of mammalian MPO, EPO and TPO clades. The CiPxt molecular structure model resulted superimposable to the human myeloperoxidase. The CiPxt mRNA expression is upregulated by LPS inoculation suggesting it is involved in C. intestinalis inflammatory response. The CiPxt was expressed in hemocytes (compartment/morula cells), vessel epithelium, and unilocular refractile granulocytes populating the inflamed tunic matrix and in the zones 7, 8 and 9 of the endostyle, a special pharynx organs homolog to the vertebrate thyroid gland.

  6. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 gene is related to circulating PCB118 levels in a population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Lars; Penell, Johanna; Syvänen, Anne-Christine; Axelsson, Tomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Lind, P. Monica

    2017-01-01

    Several of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. the dioxin-like PCBs, are known to induce the P450 enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah)-receptor. We evaluated if circulating levels of PCBs in a population sample were related to genetic variation in the genes encoding these CYPs. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), 21 SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genes were genotyped. Sixteen PCB congeners were analysed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Of the investigated relationships between SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 and six PCBs (congeners 118, 126, 156, 169, 170 and 206) that captures >80% of the variation of all PCBs measured, only the relationship between CYP1A1 rs2470893 was significantly related to PCB118 levels following strict adjustment for multiple testing (p=0.00011). However, there were several additional SNPs in the CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 that showed nominally significant associations with PCB118 levels (p-values in the 0.003–0.05 range). Further, several SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene were related to both PCB156 and PCB206 with p-values in the 0.005–0.05 range. Very few associations with p<0.05 were seen for PCB126, PCB169 or PCB170. Genetic variation in CYP1A1 was related to circulating PCB118 levels in the general elderly population. Genetic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 might also be associated with other PCBs. PMID:24926919

  7. Cell-mass structures expressing the aromatase gene Cyp19a1 lead to ovarian cavities in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Mawaribuchi, Shuuji; Ikeda, Nozomi; Fujitani, Kazuko; Ito, Yuzuru; Onuma, Yasuko; Komiya, Tohru; Takamatsu, Nobuhiko; Ito, Michihiko

    2014-10-01

    The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, has a ZZ/ZW-type sex-determination system. We previously reported that a W-linked gene, Dm-W, can determine development as a female. However, the mechanisms of early sex differentiation remain unclear. We used microarrays to screen for genes with sexually dimorphic expression in ZZ and ZW gonads during early sex differentiation in X laevis and found several steroidogenic genes. Importantly, the steroid 17α-hydroxylase gene Cyp17a1 and the aromatase gene Cyp19a1 were highly expressed in ZZ and ZW gonads, respectively, just after sex determination. At this stage, we found that Cyp17a1, Cyp19a1, or both were expressed in the ZZ and ZW gonads in a unique mass-in-line structure, in which several masses of cells, each surrounded by a basement membrane, were aligned along the anteroposterior axis. In fact, during sex differentiation, ovarian cavities formed inside each mass of Cyp17a1- and Cyp19a1-positive cells in the ZW gonads. However, the mass-in-line structure disappeared during testicular development in the ZZ testes. These results suggested that the mass-in-line structure found in both ZZ and ZW gonads just after sex determination might be formed in advance to produce ovarian cavities and then oocytes. Consequently, we propose a view that the default sex may be female in the morphological aspect of gonads in X laevis.

  8. A family-based association study identified CYP17 as a candidate gene for obesity susceptibility in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yan, H; Guo, Y; Yang, T-L; Zhao, L-J; Deng, H-W

    2012-08-06

    The cytochrome P450c17α gene (CYP17) encodes a key biosynthesis enzyme of estrogen, which is critical in regulating adipogenesis and adipocyte development in humans. We therefore hypothesized that CYP17 is a candidate gene for predicting obesity. In order to test this hypothesis, we performed a family-based association test to investigate the relationship between the CYP17 gene and obesity phenotypes in a large sample comprising 1873 subjects from 405 Caucasian nuclear families of European origin recruited by the Osteoporosis Research Center of Creighton University, USA. Both single SNPs and haplotypes were tested for associations with obesity-related phenotypes, including body mass index (BMI) and fat mass. We identified three SNPs to be significantly associated with BMI, including rs3740397, rs6163, and rs619824. We further characterized the linkage disequilibrium structure for CYP17 and found that the whole CYP17 gene was located in a single-linkage disequilibrium block. This block was observed to be significantly associated with BMI. A major haplotype in this block was significantly associated with both BMI and fat mass. In conclusion, we suggest that the CYP17 gene has an effect on obesity in the Caucasian population. Further independent studies will be needed to confirm our findings.

  9. Association between CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms and risk factors and susceptibility to laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng-Ju; Chen, Wei-Guan; Feng, Quan-Lin; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Man-Jie; Li, Ze-Qing

    2015-01-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) gene, a metabolic enzyme gene, and the susceptibility to laryngeal cancer among the Chinese Han population. In a case-control study, we investigated polymorphisms in the CYP1B1 gene (rs10012, rs1056827, and rs1056836) with a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (TaqMan). The study was conducted with 300 Chinese Han patients with laryngeal cancer and 300 healthy Chinese Han subjects in a control group. We also studied the interactions between genetic polymorphism and risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption in the pathogenesis of laryngeal cancer. There were statistically significant differences in the distributions of the rs1056827 and rs1056836 genotypes between the 2 groups. Regarding rs1056827, carriers of the T allele had a significantly higher risk of laryngeal cancer than the G-allele carriers (OR=1.4339, 95% CI: 1.1268-1.8247; P=0.0034). The difference was still statistically significant after adjusting for factors such as age, sex, smoking, and drinking (adjusted OR=1.743, 95% CI: 1.124-3.743, P<0.001). However, regarding rs1056836, the G allele carriers had a significantly lower risk of laryngeal cancer than the C allele carriers (OR=0.5557, 95% CI: 0.3787-0.8154; P=0.0027). The difference was statistically significant even after adjusting for factors such as age, sex, smoking, and drinking (adjusted OR=0.5641, 95% CI: 0.3212-0.8121, P=0.001). Subjects who carry the C-T-C haplotype have a significantly increased incidence of laryngeal cancer. We also found that CYP1B1 rs1056827 polymorphism had synergistic effects with smoking or alcohol consumption regarding the risk of laryngeal cancer. CYP1B1 gene polymorphism is closely related to the onset of laryngeal cancer. There is a mutually synergistic effect between smoking, alcohol consumption, and CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms regarding laryngeal cancer.

  10. Association between CYP1B1 Gene Polymorphisms and Risk Factors and Susceptibility to Laryngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peng-Ju; Chen, Wei-Guan; Feng, Quan-Lin; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Man-Jie; Li, Ze-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association between polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) gene, a metabolic enzyme gene, and the susceptibility to laryngeal cancer among the Chinese Han population. Material/Methods In a case-control study, we investigated polymorphisms in the CYP1B1 gene (rs10012, rs1056827, and rs1056836) with a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (TaqMan). The study was conducted with 300 Chinese Han patients with laryngeal cancer and 300 healthy Chinese Han subjects in a control group. We also studied the interactions between genetic polymorphism and risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption in the pathogenesis of laryngeal cancer. Results There were statistically significant differences in the distributions of the rs1056827 and rs1056836 genotypes between the 2 groups. Regarding rs1056827, carriers of the T allele had a significantly higher risk of laryngeal cancer than the G-allele carriers (OR=1.4339, 95% CI: 1.1268–1.8247; P=0.0034). The difference was still statistically significant after adjusting for factors such as age, sex, smoking, and drinking (adjusted OR=1.743, 95% CI: 1.124–3.743, P<0.001). However, regarding rs1056836, the G allele carriers had a significantly lower risk of laryngeal cancer than the C allele carriers (OR=0.5557, 95% CI: 0.3787–0.8154; P=0.0027). The difference was statistically significant even after adjusting for factors such as age, sex, smoking, and drinking (adjusted OR=0.5641, 95% CI: 0.3212–0.8121, P=0.001). Subjects who carry the C-T-C haplotype have a significantly increased incidence of laryngeal cancer. We also found that CYP1B1 rs1056827 polymorphism had synergistic effects with smoking or alcohol consumption regarding the risk of laryngeal cancer. Conclusions CYP1B1 gene polymorphism is closely related to the onset of laryngeal cancer. There is a mutually synergistic effect between smoking, alcohol consumption, and CYP1B1

  11. CYP2E1 impairs GLUT4 gene expression and function: NRF2 as a possible mediator.

    PubMed

    Armoni, M; Harel, C; Ramdas, M; Karnieli, E

    2014-06-01

    Impaired GLUT4 function/expression in insulin target tissues is well-documented in diabetes and obesity. Cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (CYP2E1) induces oxidative stress, leading to impaired insulin action. CYP2E1 knockout mice are protected against high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity; however the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. We examined whether CYP2E1 impairs GLUT4 gene expression and function in adipose and muscle cells. CYP2E1 overexpression in skeletal muscle-derived L6 cells inhibited insulin-stimulated Glut4 translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake, with the latter inhibition being blocked by vitamin E. CYP2E1 overexpression in L6 and primary rat adipose (PRA) cells suppressed GLUT4 gene expression at promoter and mRNA levels, whereas CYP2E1 silencing had opposite effects. In PRA, CYP2E1-induced suppression of GLUT4 expression was blocked by chlormethiazole (CYP2E1-specific inhibitor) and the antioxidants vitamin E and N-acetyl-l-cysteine. CYP2E1 effect was mediated by the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2), as evident from its complete reversal by a coexpressed dominant-negative, but not wild-type NRF2. GLUT4 transcription was suppressed by NRF2 overexpression, and enhanced by NRF2 silencing. Promoter and ChIP analysis showed a direct and specific binding of NRF2 to a 58-326 GLUT4 promoter region that was required to maintain CYP2E1 suppression; this binding was enhanced by CYP2E1 overexpression. We suggest a mechanism for CYP2E1 action that involves: a) suppression of GLUT4 gene expression that is mediated by NRF2; b) impairment of insulin-stimulated Glut4 translocation and function. CYP2E1 and NRF2 are introduced as negative regulators of GLUT4 expression and function in insulin-sensitive cells.

  12. Role of androgen metabolism genes CYP1B1, PSA/KLK3, and CYP11alpha in prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Mine S; Liu, Xin; Casey, Graham; Witte, John S

    2005-09-01

    Candidate genes involved with androgen metabolism have been hypothesized to affect the risk of prostate cancer. To further investigate this, we evaluated the relationship between prostate cancer and multiple potentially functional polymorphisms in three genes involved in androgen metabolism: CYP1B1 (two single nucleotide polymorphisms: 355G/T and 4326C/G), prostate-specific antigen (PSA/KLK3 (three single nucleotide polymorphisms: -158A/G, -4643G/A, and -5412C/T), and CYP11alpha [(tttta)(n) repeat], using a moderately large (n = 918) sibling-based case-control population. When looking at all subjects combined, no association was observed between any polymorphism-or their haplotypes-and prostate cancer risk. However, among men with more aggressive prostate cancer, the CYP1B1 355G/T variant was positively associated with disease: carrying one or two T alleles gave odds ratios (OR) of 1.90 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.09-3.31; P = 0.02] and 3.73 (95% CI, 1.39-10.0; P = 0.009), respectively. Similarly, carrying the CYP1B1 355T-4326C haplotype was positively associated with prostate cancer among men with high aggressive disease (P = 0.01). In addition, the PSA -158G/-158G genotype was positively associated with prostate cancer among men with less aggressive disease (OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.06-6.94; P = 0.04). Our findings suggest that CYP1B1 and PSA variants may affect the risk of prostate cancer and tumor aggressiveness.

  13. Molecular biology of the human cytosolic sulfotransferase gene superfamily implicated in the bioactivation of minoxidil and cholesterol in skin.

    PubMed

    Dooley, T P

    1999-08-01

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases (ST) catalyze the sulfation of various phenolic agents, catecholamines, thyroid hormones, steroids, drugs, and procarcinogens, usually resulting in the inactivation and subsequent excretion of the compound. My laboratory's efforts have focused on the cloning of the human phenol-sulfating (PST) members of this gene superfamily, implicated in the bioactivation of the hair growth stimulant, minoxidil. At least two major forms of human PST enzymes have been characterized biochemically, the phenol-preferring PST (P-PST), and the catecholamine-preferring PST (M-PST). Various cDNAs have been cloned representing alleles of 3 gene loci termed as STP1, STP2, and STM, which were all mapped precisely to a small region on human chromosome 16p and to the homologous region of mouse chromosome 7. Human cosmid genomic clones have been sequenced to determine the genomic organization for each of the 3 highly-related genes. All contain 7 coding exons, with conserved intron-exon boundaries, and presumptive alternative tissue-specific promoters. At least one of the 3 PST-encoding genes is responsible for forming minoxidil sulfate in the lower outer root sheath of anagen hair follicles. The steroid sulfating genes, STD and STE, have been cloned by other laboratories. The isozyme products of these genes sulfate DHEA and estrogens, respectively. I hypothesize that either STE or STD is involved in the formation of cholesterol sulfate (CS) in epidermal keratinocytes. CS has been demonstrated by other groups to be an activator of keratinocyte Protein Kinase Ceta, which subsequently results in the activation of epidermal transglutaminase and formation of the cornified envelop. STE or STD might also be involved in bioinactivation of estrogens and androgens within skin. Our recent unpublished results have focused on elucidating the patterns of ST gene expression in cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts derived from human skin using RT-PCR, to understand which of the

  14. Fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques (FISH) to detect changes in CYP19a gene expression of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Park, June-Woo; Tompsett, Amber; Zhang, Xiaowei; Newsted, John L.; Jones, Paul D.; Au, Doris; Kong, Richard; Wu, Rudolf S.S.; Giesy, John P. Hecker, Markus

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive in situ hybridization methodology using fluorescence-labeled riboprobes (FISH) that allows for the evaluation of gene expression profiles simultaneously in multiple target tissues of whole fish sections of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). To date FISH methods have been limited in their application due to autofluorescence of tissues, fixatives or other components of the hybridization procedure. An optimized FISH method, based on confocal fluorescence microscopy was developed to reduce the autofluorescence signal. Because of its tissue- and gender-specific expression and relevance in studies of endocrine disruption, gonadal aromatase (CYP19a) was used as a model gene. The in situ hybridization (ISH) system was validated in a test exposure with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole. The optimized FISH method revealed tissue-specific expression of the CYP19a gene. Furthermore, the assay could differentiate the abundance of CYP19a mRNA among cell types. Expression of CYP19a was primarily associated with early stage oocytes, and expression gradually decreased with increasing maturation. No expression of CYP19a mRNA was observed in other tissues such as brain, liver, or testes. Fadrozole (100 {mu}g/L) caused up-regulation of CYP19a expression, a trend that was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis on excised tissues. In a combination approach with gonad histology, it could be shown that the increase in CYP19a expression as measured by RT-PCR on a whole tissue basis was due to a combination of both increases in numbers of CYP19a-containing cells and an increase in the amount of CYP19a mRNA present in the cells.

  15. Genomic Landscape of Experimental Bladder Cancer in Rodents and Its Application to Human Bladder Cancer: Gene Amplification and Potential Overexpression of Cyp2a5/CYP2A6 Are Associated with the Invasive Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Kanemoto, Kazuhiro; Fukuta, Katsuhiro; Kawai, Noriyasu; Tozawa, Keiichi; Ochiai, Masako; Okamoto, Koji; Ohnami, Sumiko; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Kanai, Yae; Katoh, Masaru; Yasui, Takahiro; Kohri, Kenjiro; Kakizoe, Tadao; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Non-muscle invasive (superficial) bladder cancer is a low-grade malignancy with good prognosis, while muscle invasive (invasive) bladder cancer is a high-grade malignancy with poor prognosis. N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) induces superficial bladder cancers with papillary morphology in rats and invasive bladder cancers with infiltrating phenotype in mice. In this study, we analyzed genomic landscapes of rodent BBN-induced bladder cancers using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). While no significant copy number alterations were detected in superficial bladder tumors in rats, copy number gains in chromosomal regions 2D-E1, 7qA3, 9F2, and 11C-D were detected in invasive bladder tumors in mice. Amplification of representative genes located on 2D-E1 and 7qA3 chromosomal regions was confirmed by quantitative PCR. Cyp2a22 and Cyp2a5 genes but not Cyp2g1, Cyp2a12, and Rab4b genes on mouse chromosome 7qA3 were amplified in invasive bladder cancers. Although the human ortholog gene of Cyp2a22 has not been confirmed, the mouse Cyp2a5 gene is the ortholog of the human CYP2A6 gene located in chromosomal region 19q13.2, and CYP2A6 was identified by database search as one of the closest human homolog to mouse Cyp2a22. Considering a possibility that this region may be related to mouse 7qA3, we analyzed CYP2A6 copy number and expression in human bladder cancer using cell lines and resected tumor specimens. Although only one of eight cell lines showed more than one copy increase of the CYP2A6 gene, CYP2A6 amplification was detected in six out of 18 primary bladder tumors where it was associated with the invasive phenotype. Immunohistochemical analyses of 118 primary bladder tumors revealed that CYP2A6 protein expression was also higher in invasive tumors, especially in those of the scattered type. Together, these findings indicate that the amplification and overexpression of the CYP2A6 gene are characteristic of human bladder cancers with

  16. Association of the vitamin D metabolism gene CYP24A1 with coronary artery calcification

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Haiqing; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Ferguson, Jane F.; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Liu, Jie; Post, Wendy; O'Connell, Jeffery R.; Hixson, James E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Sun, Yan V.; Jhun, Mina A.; Wang, Xuexia; Mehta, Nehal N.; Li, Mingyao; Koller, Daniel L.; Hakonarson, Hakan; Keating, Brendan J.; Rader, Daniel J.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Mitchell, Braxton D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The Vitamin D endocrine system is essential for calcium homeostasis, and low levels of vitamin D metabolites have been associated with cardiovascular disease risk. We hypothesized that DNA sequence variation in genes regulating vitamin D metabolism and signaling pathways might influence variation in coronary artery calcification (CAC). Methods and Results We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GC, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and VDR and tested their association with CAC quantity, as measured by electron beam computed tomography. Initial association studies were carried out in a discovery sample comprised of 697 Amish subjects and SNPs nominally associated with CAC quantity (4 SNPs in CYP24A1, P = 0.008-0.00003) were then tested for association with CAC quantity in two independent cohorts of subjects of European Caucasian ancestry (Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) Study (n = 916) and The Penn Coronary Artery Calcification (PennCAC) sample (n = 2,061)). One of the four SNPs, rs2762939, was associated with CAC quantity in both GENOA (P = 0.007) and PennCAC (P = 0.01). In all three populations the rs2762939 C allele was associated with lower CAC quantity. Meta-analysis for the association of this SNP with CAC quantity across all three studies yielded a P value of 2.9 × 10-6. Conclusion A common SNP in the CYP24A1 gene was associated with CAC quantity in three independent populations. This result suggests a role for vitamin D metabolism in the development of CAC quantity. PMID:20847308

  17. Forward genetics identifies a requirement for the Izumo-like immunoglobulin superfamily spe-45 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Singaravelu, Gunasekaran; Rahimi, Sina; Krauchunas, Amber; Rizvi, Anam; Dharia, Sunny; Shakes, Diane; Smith, Harold; Golden, Andy; Singson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Fertilization is a conserved process in all sexually reproducing organisms whereby sperm bind and fuse with oocytes. Despite the importance of sperm-oocyte interactions in fertilization, the molecular underpinnings of this process are still not well understood. The only cognate ligand-receptor pair identified in the context of fertilization is sperm-surface Izumo and egg-surface Juno in mouse [1]. Here we describe a genetic screening strategy to isolate fertilization mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans in order to generate a more complete inventory of molecules required for gamete interactions. From this screening strategy, we identified, cloned, and characterized spe-45, a gene that encodes an Izumo-like immunoglobulin superfamily protein. Mammalian Izumo is required for male fertility and has the same basic mutant phenotype as spe-45. Worms lacking spe-45 function produce morphologically normal and motile sperm that cannot fuse with oocytes despite direct contact in the reproductive tract. The power of this screen to identify proteins with ancient sperm functions suggests that characterization of additional mutants from our screen may reveal other deeply conserved components in fertility pathways and complement studies in other organisms. PMID:26671668

  18. Molecular Analysis of CYP21A2 Gene Mutations among Iraqi Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Obaidi, Ruqayah G. Y.; Al-Zubaidi, Munib Ahmed K.; Oberkanins, Christian; Németh, Stefan; Al-Obaidi, Yusra G. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of autosomal recessive disorders. The most frequent one is 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Analyzing CYP21A2 gene mutations was so far not reported in Iraq. This work aims to analyze the spectrum and frequency of CYP21A2 mutations among Iraqi CAH patients. Sixty-two children were recruited from the Pediatric Endocrine Consultation Clinic, Children Welfare Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, from September 2014 till June 2015. Their ages ranged between one day and 15 years. They presented with salt wasting, simple virilization, or pseudoprecocious puberty. Cytogenetic study was performed for cases with ambiguous genitalia. Molecular analysis of CYP21A2 gene was done using the CAH StripAssay (ViennaLab Diagnostics) for detection of 11 point mutations and >50% of large gene deletions/conversions. Mutations were found in 42 (67.7%) patients; 31 (50%) patients were homozygotes, 9 (14.5%) were heterozygotes, and 2 (3.2%) were compound heterozygotes with 3 mutations, while 20 (32.3%) patients had none of the tested mutations. The most frequently detected mutations were large gene deletions/conversions found in 12 (19.4%) patients, followed by I2Splice and Q318X in 8 (12.9%) patients each, I172N in 5 (8.1%) patients, and V281L in 4 (6.5%) patients. Del 8 bp, P453S, and R483P were each found in one (1.6%) and complex alleles were found in 2 (3.2%). Four point mutations (P30L, Cluster E6, L307 frameshift, and R356W) were not identified in any patient. In conclusion, gene deletions/conversions and 7 point mutations were recorded in varying proportions, the former being the commonest, generally similar to what was reported in regional countries. PMID:27777794

  19. CYP1B1 gene analysis in primary congenital glaucoma Brazilian patients: novel mutations and association with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Della Paolera, Maurício; de Vasconcellos, José Paulo Cabral; Umbelino, Cristiano Caixeta; Kasahara, Niro; Rocha, Mylene Neves; Richeti, Flávio; Costa, Vital Paulino; Tavares, Anderson; de Melo, Mônica Barbosa

    2010-03-01

    To determine the spectrum of CYP1B1 gene mutations in Brazilian patients with primary congenital glaucoma, and to correlate the presence of alterations in the CYP1B1 gene sequence with clinical aspects of the disease. Thirty nonrelated patients with primary congenital glaucoma were studied. Molecular analysis consisted of the codifying region sequencing (exons 2 and 3) and intron/exon boundaries. CYP1B1 gene mutations were present in 9 (30%) of the 30 patients. The structural changes in the CYP1B1 gene previously described in the literature and observed in our study were Q19X, P437L, A443G, g.4340delG, g.7901_79013delGAGTGCAGGCAGA, g.8182delG, and g.8214_8215delG. Three new mutations were observed: 4635delT, 4523delC, and L378Q, in addition to 3793T→C, R48G, A119S, L432V, D449D, and N453S polymorphisms. Patients carrying CYP1B1 gene mutations needed more surgical procedures to control intraocular pressure, either when both eyes were evaluated (P=0.003) or when the worst eye of the patient was analyzed (P=0.011). In relation to the number of affected eyes, all patients with mutations (n=9/9) developed bilateral glaucoma, whereas 11/21 patients without mutations in the CYP1B1 gene had bilateral glaucoma (P=0.013). In this group of primary congenital glaucoma patients, a 30% mutation frequency in the CYP1B1 gene was observed. The presence of mutations was associated with a more severe form of the disease, requiring more surgeries for intraocular pressure control and with a higher rate of bilateral cases.

  20. Whole-Genome Duplications Spurred the Functional Diversification of the Globin Gene Superfamily in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Federico G.; Opazo, Juan C.; Storz, Jay F.

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that two successive rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) in the stem lineage of vertebrates provided genetic raw materials for the evolutionary innovation of many vertebrate-specific features. However, it has seldom been possible to trace such innovations to specific functional differences between paralogous gene products that derive from a WGD event. Here, we report genomic evidence for a direct link between WGD and key physiological innovations in the vertebrate oxygen transport system. Specifically, we demonstrate that key globin proteins that evolved specialized functions in different aspects of oxidative metabolism (hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytoglobin) represent paralogous products of two WGD events in the vertebrate common ancestor. Analysis of conserved macrosynteny between the genomes of vertebrates and amphioxus (subphylum Cephalochordata) revealed that homologous chromosomal segments defined by myoglobin + globin-E, cytoglobin, and the α-globin gene cluster each descend from the same linkage group in the reconstructed proto-karyotype of the chordate common ancestor. The physiological division of labor between the oxygen transport function of hemoglobin and the oxygen storage function of myoglobin played a pivotal role in the evolution of aerobic energy metabolism, supporting the hypothesis that WGDs helped fuel key innovations in vertebrate evolution. PMID:21965344

  1. Whole-genome duplications spurred the functional diversification of the globin gene superfamily in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Federico G; Opazo, Juan C; Storz, Jay F

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that two successive rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) in the stem lineage of vertebrates provided genetic raw materials for the evolutionary innovation of many vertebrate-specific features. However, it has seldom been possible to trace such innovations to specific functional differences between paralogous gene products that derive from a WGD event. Here, we report genomic evidence for a direct link between WGD and key physiological innovations in the vertebrate oxygen transport system. Specifically, we demonstrate that key globin proteins that evolved specialized functions in different aspects of oxidative metabolism (hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytoglobin) represent paralogous products of two WGD events in the vertebrate common ancestor. Analysis of conserved macrosynteny between the genomes of vertebrates and amphioxus (subphylum Cephalochordata) revealed that homologous chromosomal segments defined by myoglobin + globin-E, cytoglobin, and the α-globin gene cluster each descend from the same linkage group in the reconstructed proto-karyotype of the chordate common ancestor. The physiological division of labor between the oxygen transport function of hemoglobin and the oxygen storage function of myoglobin played a pivotal role in the evolution of aerobic energy metabolism, supporting the hypothesis that WGDs helped fuel key innovations in vertebrate evolution.

  2. Functional Analysis of the Tandem-Duplicated P450 Genes SPS/BUS/CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 in Glucosinolate Biosynthesis and Plant Development by Ds Transposition-Generated Double Mutants1

    PubMed Central

    Tantikanjana, Titima; Mikkelsen, Michael Dalgaard; Hussain, Mumtaz; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Sundaresan, Venkatesan

    2004-01-01

    A significant fraction (approximately 17%) of Arabidopsis genes are members of tandemly repeated families and pose a particular challenge for functional studies. We have used the Ac-Ds transposition system to generate single- and double-knockout mutants of two tandemly duplicated cytochrome P450 genes, SPS/BUS/CYP79F1 and CYP79F2. We have previously described the Arabidopsis supershoot mutants in CYP79F1 that exhibit massive overproliferation of shoots. Here we use a cytokinin-responsive reporter ARR5::uidA and an auxin-responsive reporter DR5::uidA in the sps/cyp79F1 mutant to show that increased levels of cytokinin, but not auxin, correlate well with the expression pattern of the SPS/CYP79F1 gene, supporting the involvement of this gene in cytokinin homeostasis. Further, we isolated Ds gene trap insertions in the CYP79F2 gene, and find these mutants to be defective mainly in the root system, consistent with a root-specific expression pattern. Finally, we generated double mutants in CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 using secondary transpositions, and demonstrate that the phenotypes are additive. Previous biochemical studies have suggested partially redundant functions for SPS/CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 in aliphatic glucosinolate synthesis. Our analysis shows that aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis is completely abolished in the double-knockout plants, providing genetic proof for the proposed biochemical functions of these genes. This study also provides further demonstration of how gluconisolate biosynthesis, regarded as secondary metabolism, is intricately linked with hormone homeostatis and hence with plant growth and development. PMID:15194821

  3. Construction and verification of CYP3A5 gene polymorphisms using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system to predict drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Zhong, Hua; Tang, Qing; Huang, Zhijun; Jing, Ningning; Smith, Julie; Miao, Rujia; Li, Yapei; Yuan, Hong

    2017-04-01

    The present study evaluated the ability of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system to predict the pharmacokinetic (PK) activity of a calcium channel blocker in patients with distinct cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) polymorphisms. The blood pressure lowering activity of amlodipine in 57 hypertensive patients with CYP3A5*1/*1, CYP3A5*1/*3, CYP3A5*4 and CYP3A5*6 polymorphisms was evaluated by the current study. Subsequently, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system for CYP3A5 gene polymorphisms was constructed to examine the PK activity of CYP3A5*1/*1, CYP3A5*4 and CYP3A5*6 polymorphisms. This system was used to predict the PK of amlodipine and was compared with the in vivo data from different gene polymorphism groups. The blood pressure lowering activity of amlodipine in hypertensive patients varied among CYP3A5 polymorphisms. The in vivo results demonstrated that CYP3A5*6 exhibited the highest metabolic rate, followed by CYP3A5*1/*1, CYP3A5*4 and CYP3A5*1/*3. The difference between CYP3A5*6 and CYP3A5*1/*1 was not statistically significant (P=0.5). In accordance with in vivo data, CYP3A5*1/*1 exhibited the highest in vitro metabolic rate, followed by CYP3A5*6 and CYP3A5*4. With the exception of the comparison between CYP3A5*6 and CYP3A5*1/*1, polymorphisms exhibited statistically significant differences compared with CYP3A5*1/*1 (P<0.05). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system may be a cost effective and potentially useful tool for assessing the PK activity of drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A5.

  4. Associations between polymorphisms in the AHR and CYP1A1-CYP1A2 gene regions and habitual caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    Josse, Andrea R; Da Costa, Laura A; Campos, Hannia; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2012-09-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) from populations of European descent identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1A2 (CYP1A1-CYP1A2) genes that are associated with habitual caffeine and coffee consumption. We examined whether these SNPs (AHR: rs6968865 and rs4410790; CYP1A1-CYP1A2: rs2472297 and rs2470893) and 6 additional tag SNPs in the AHR gene were associated with habitual caffeine consumption in a Costa Rican population. Subjects were from a case-control study of gene-diet interactions and myocardial infarction. Subjects with hypertension or missing information on smoking, caffeine intake, or genotype were excluded. Subjects were genotyped by using polymerase chain reaction with mass spectrometry-based detection, and caffeine intake was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Compared with subjects who consumed <100 mg caffeine/d, subjects who consumed >400 mg caffeine/d were more likely to be carriers of the T, C, or T allele for rs6968865, rs4410790, and rs2472297, respectively. The corresponding ORs and 95% CIs were 1.41 (1.03, 1.93), 1.41 (1.04, 1.92), and 1.55 (1.01, 2.36). Multivariate-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for rs6968865 were 1.44 (1.03, 2.00) for all subjects, 1.75 (1.16, 2.65) for nonsmokers, 1.15 (0.58, 2.30) for current smokers, 2.42 (1.45, 4.04) for subjects >57 y old, and 1.00 (0.65, 1.56) for subjects ≤57 y old. A similar effect modification was observed for rs4410790 but not for rs2472297. Our findings show that previous associations between SNPs in AHR and CYP1A1-CYP1A2 and caffeine and coffee consumption from GWASs in European populations are also observed in an ethnically distinct Costa Rican population, but age and smoking are important effect modifiers.

  5. Cloning of genomic sequences of three crustacean hyperglycemic hormone superfamily genes and elucidation of their roles of regulating insulin-like androgenic gland hormone gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Fajun; Bai, Hongkun; Zhang, Wenyi; Fu, Hongtuo; Jiang, Fengwei; Liang, Guoxia; Jin, Shubo; Sun, Shengming; Qiao, Hui

    2015-04-25

    The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) gene in crustaceans plays an important role in male sexual differentiation, metabolism, and growth. However, the upstream regulation of IAG signaling schemes remains poorly studied. In the present study, we cloned the 5' flanking sequence of IAG and full-length genomic sequences of gonad-inhibiting hormone (Mn-GIH), molt-inhibiting hormone (Mn-MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (Mn-CHH) in Macrobrachium nipponense. We identified the transcription factor-binding sites in the 5' flanking sequence of IAG and investigated the exon-intron patterns of the three CHH superfamily genes. Each CHH superfamily gene consisted of two introns separating three exons. Mn-GIH and Mn-MIH shared the same intron insertion sites, which differed from Mn-CHH. We provided DNA-level evidence for the type definition. We also identified two cAMP response elements in the 5' untranslated region. We further investigated the regulatory relationships between Mn-GIH, Mn-MIH, and Mn-CHH and IAG at the transcriptional level by injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). IAG transcription levels were significantly increased to 660.2%, 472.9%, and 112.4% of control levels in the Mn-GIH dsRNA, Mn-MIH dsRNA, and Mn-CHH dsRNA groups, respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that Mn-GIH and Mn-MIH, but not Mn-CHH, negatively regulate the expression of the IAG gene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 gene is related to circulating PCB118 levels in a population-based sample

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Lars; Penell, Johanna; Syvänen, Anne-Christine; Axelsson, Tomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia; Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van; Lind, P. Monica

    2014-08-15

    Several of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. the dioxin-like PCBs, are known to induce the P450 enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah)-receptor. We evaluated if circulating levels of PCBs in a population sample were related to genetic variation in the genes encoding these CYPs. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), 21 SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genes were genotyped. Sixteen PCB congeners were analysed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ HRMS). Of the investigated relationships between SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 and six PCBs (congeners 118, 126, 156, 169, 170 and 206) that captures >80% of the variation of all PCBs measured, only the relationship between CYP1A1 rs2470893 was significantly related to PCB118 levels following strict adjustment for multiple testing (p=0.00011). However, there were several additional SNPs in the CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 that showed nominally significant associations with PCB118 levels (p-values in the 0.003–0.05 range). Further, several SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene were related to both PCB156 and PCB206 with p-values in the 0.005–0.05 range. Very few associations with p<0.05 were seen for PCB126, PCB169 or PCB170. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 was related to circulating PCB118 levels in the general elderly population. Genetic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 might also be associated with other PCBs. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between PCBs and the genetic variation in the CYP genes. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly were analysed. • The PCB levels were evaluated versus 21 SNPs in three CYP genes. • PCB 118 was related to variation in the CYP1A1 gene.

  7. Sequencing and characterization of mixed function monooxygenase genes CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 of Mink (Mustela vison) to facilitate study of dioxin-like compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaowei; Moore, Jeremy N.; Newsted, John L.; Hecker, Markus Zwiernik, Matthew J.; Jones, Paul D.; Bursian, Steven J.

    2009-02-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to understand aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity in mink, cDNAs encoding for CYP1A1 and the CYP1A2 mixed function monooxygenases were cloned and characterized. In addition, the effects of selected dibenzofurans on the expression of these genes and the presence of their respective proteins (P4501A) were investigated, and then correlated with the catalytic activities of these proteins as measured by ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) activities. The predicted protein sequences for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 comprise 517 and 512 amino acid residues, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of the mink CYP1As with protein sequences of other mammals revealed high sequence homology with sea otter, seals and the dog, with amino acid identities ranging from 89 to 95% for CYP1A1 and 81 to 93% for CYP1A2. Since exposure to both 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) resulted in dose-dependent increases of CYP1A1 mRNA, CYP1A2 mRNA and CYP1A protein levels an underlying AhR-mediated mechanism is suggested. The up-regulation of CYP1A mRNA in liver was more consistent to the sum adipose TEQ concentration than to the liver TEQ concentration in minks treated with TCDF or PeCDF. The result suggested that the hepatic-sequestered fraction of PeCDF was biologically inactive to the induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of expansin superfamily in wild Arachis discloses a stress-responsive expansin-like B gene.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Larissa Arrais; Mota, Ana Paula Zotta; Araujo, Ana Claudia Guerra; de Alencar Figueiredo, Lucio Flavio; Pereira, Bruna Medeiros; de Passos Saraiva, Mario Alfredo; Silva, Raquel Bispo; Danchin, Etienne G J; Guimaraes, Patricia Messenberg; Brasileiro, Ana Cristina Miranda

    2017-02-27

    Expansins are plant cell wall-loosening proteins involved in adaptive responses to environmental stimuli and various developmental processes. The first genome-wide analysis of the expansin superfamily in the Arachis genus identified 40 members in A. duranensis and 44 in A. ipaënsis, the wild progenitors of cultivated peanut (A. hypogaea). These expansins were further characterized regarding their subfamily classification, distribution along the genomes, duplication events, molecular structure, and phylogeny. A RNA-seq expression analysis in different Arachis species showed that the majority of these expansins are modulated in response to diverse stresses such as water deficit, root-knot nematode (RKN) infection, and UV exposure, with an expansin-like B gene (AraEXLB8) displaying a highly distinct stress-responsive expression profile. Further analysis of the AraEXLB8 coding sequences showed high conservation across the Arachis genotypes, with eight haplotypes identified. The modulation of AraEXLB8 expression in response to the aforementioned stresses was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis in distinct Arachis genotypes, whilst in situ hybridization revealed transcripts in different root tissues according to the stress imposed. The overexpression of AraEXLB8 in soybean (Glycine max) composite plants remarkably decreased the number of galls in transformed hairy roots inoculated with RKN. This study improves the current understanding of the molecular evolution, divergence, and gene expression of expansins in Arachis, and provides molecular and functional insights into the role of expansin-like B, the less-studied plant expansin subfamily.

  9. Common variants of HMGCR, CETP, APOAI, ABCB1, CYP3A4, and CYP7A1 genes as predictors of lipid-lowering response to atorvastatin therapy.

    PubMed

    Poduri, Aruna; Khullar, Madhu; Bahl, Ajay; Sehrawat, B S; Sharma, Yashpaul; Talwar, Kewal K

    2010-10-01

    There is interindividual variation in lipid-lowering response to statins. The objective of this study was to investigate whether common variation in genes involved in lipid and statin metabolism modify the effect of statins on serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. We studied the association between 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes (HMGCR, CETP, APOAI, ABCB1, CYP3A4, CYP7A1) in response to atorvastatin therapy (20 mg/day) in 265 newly diagnosed CAD patients using multivariable adjusted general linear regression. Variant alleles of ABCB1 (-41A/G), HMGCR SNP29 G/T, rs5908A/G, rs12916C/T, and CYP7A1-204A/C polymorphisms were significantly associated with attenuated LDL-C reduction and variant alleles of CETP TaqI, -629C/A, and APOAI PstI polymorphisms were associated with higher increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. A three-loci interaction model consisting of CYP7A1rs892871AA/APOAIPstIP1P1/HMGCR rs12916CT was a better predictor for LDL-C lowering, when compared with single polymorphisms analysis on statin response. Variant genotypes of APOAI -2500C/T, CETP 405I/V, and ABCB1 3435C/T showed higher risk of myocardial infarction events (p < 0.05) in a 1-year follow-up of CAD patients. These results suggest that SNPs in lipid and statin pathway genes are associated with reduced LDL-C lowering by statins and identify individuals who may be resistant to maximal LDL-C lowering by statins.

  10. CYP2B6 gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms in an Italian population sample and relationship with nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Riccardi, Laura Natalia; Carano, Francesco; Bini, Carla; Ceccardi, Stefania; Ferri, Gianmarco; Pelotti, Susi

    2015-02-01

    The extensively polymorphic CYP2B6 gene metabolizes endogenous and exogenous compounds, among which are nicotine and bupropion, although its contribution to the systemic metabolism of nicotine still remains controversial. In the present study, the distribution of the CYP2B6 variant and genotype frequencies were analyzed in a sample of 202 Italian individuals who were also invited to answer the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND), in an effort to assess the involvement of CYP2B6 polymorphisms in nicotine dependence. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CYP2B6 were tested and seven different variants were identified showing frequencies similar to the European population. The reduced activity of the CYP2B6*6 variant was significantly (p=0.025) distributed among the nicotine-dependent individuals compared to non-nicotine dependents. Also, the CYP2B6*1/*6 genotype achieved statistical significance (p=0.016) within the nicotine-dependent individuals. The high occurrence of CYP2B6*6 carriers among nicotine-dependent individuals may suggest a possible involvement in nicotine dependence, with a potential impact on smoking cessation treatments tailored to the individual smoker's genotype.

  11. Regional rearrangements in chromosome 15q21 cause formation of cryptic promoters for the CYP19 (aromatase) gene.

    PubMed

    Demura, Masashi; Martin, Regina M; Shozu, Makio; Sebastian, Siby; Takayama, Kazuto; Hsu, Wei-Tong; Schultz, Roger A; Neely, Kirk; Bryant, Michael; Mendonca, Berenice B; Hanaki, Keiichi; Kanzaki, Susumu; Rhoads, David B; Misra, Madhusmita; Bulun, Serdar E

    2007-11-01

    Production of appropriate quantities of estrogen in various tissues is essential for human physiology. A single gene (CYP19), regulated via tissue-specific promoters, encodes the enzyme aromatase, which catalyzes the key step in estrogen biosynthesis. Aromatase excess syndrome is inherited as autosomal dominant and characterized by high systemic estrogen levels, short stature, prepubertal gynecomastia and testicular failure in males, and premature breast development and uterine pathology in females. The underlying genetic mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we characterize five distinct heterozygous rearrangements responsible for aromatase excess syndrome in three unrelated families and two individuals (nine patients). The constitutively active promoter of one of five ubiquitously expressed genes located within the 11.2 Mb region telomeric to the CYP19 gene in chromosome 15q21 cryptically upregulated aromatase expression in several tissues. Four distinct inversions reversed the transcriptional direction of the promoter of a gene (CGNL1, TMOD3, MAPK6 or TLN2), placing it upstream of the CYP19 coding region in the opposite strand, whereas a deletion moved the promoter of a fifth gene (DMXL2), normally transcribed from the same strand, closer to CYP19. The proximal breakpoints of inversions were located 17-185 kb upstream of the CYP19 coding region. Sequences at the breakpoints suggested that the inversions were caused by intrachromosomal nonhomologous recombination. Splicing the untranslated exon downstream of each promoter onto the identical junction upstream of the translation initiation site created CYP19 mRNA encoding functional aromatase protein. Taken together, small rearrangements may create cryptic promoters that direct inappropriate transcription of CYP19 or other critical genes.

  12. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expression and DNA adduct formation in normal human mammary epithelial cells exposed to benzo[a]pyrene in the absence or presence of chlorophyllin.

    PubMed

    John, Kaarthik; Divi, Rao L; Keshava, Channa; Orozco, Christine C; Schockley, Marie E; Richardson, Diana L; Poirier, Miriam C; Nath, Joginder; Weston, Ainsley

    2010-06-28

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is a potent pro-carcinogen and ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Here, we examined the induction and modulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and 10-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPdG) adduct formation in DNA from 20 primary normal human mammary epithelial cell (NHMEC) strains exposed to BP (4muM) in the absence or presence of chlorophyllin (5muM). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed strong induction of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by BP, with high levels of inter-individual variability. Variable BPdG formation was found in all strains by r7, t8-dihydroxy-t-9, 10 epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE)-DNA chemiluminescence assay (CIA). Chlorophyllin mitigated BP-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expression in all 20 strains when administered with BP. Chlorophyllin, administered prior to BP-exposure, mitigated CYP1A1 expression in 18/20 NHMEC strains (p<0.005) and CYP1B1 expression in 17/20 NHMEC strains (p<0.005). Maximum percent reductions of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expression and BPdG adduct formation were observed when cells were pre-dosed with chlorophyllin followed by administration of the carcinogen with chlorophyllin (p<0.005 for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression and p<0.0005 for BPdG adducts). Therefore, chlorophyllin is likely to be a good chemoprotective agent for a large proportion of the human population.

  13. In silico identification and characterization of the WRKY gene superfamily in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y; Yao, Z P; Ruan, M Y; Ye, Q J; Wang, R Q; Zhou, G Z; Luo, J

    2016-09-23

    The WRKY family is one of the most important transcription factor families in plants, involved in the regulation of a broad range of biological roles. The recent releases of whole-genome sequences of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) allow us to perform a genome-wide identification and characterization of the WRKY family. In this study, 61 CaWRKY proteins were identified in the pepper genome. Based on protein structural and phylogenetic analyses, these proteins were classified into four main groups (I, II, III, and NG), and Group II was further divided into five subgroups (IIa to IIe). Chromosome mapping analysis indicated that CaWRKY genes are distributed across all 12 chromosomes, although the location of four CaWRKYs (CaWRKY58-CaWRKY61) could not be identified. Two pairs of CaWRKYs located on chromosome 01 appear to be tandem duplications. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree showed a close evolutionary relationship of WRKYs in three species from Solanaceae. In conclusion, this comprehensive analysis of CaWRKYs will provide rich resources for further functional studies in pepper.

  14. Mutational Spectrum of CYP24A1 Gene in a Cohort of Italian Patients with Idiopathic Infantile Hypercalcemia.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Maddalena; Santangelo, Luisa; Diella, Sterpeta; Caridi, Gianluca; Argentiero, Lucia; D''Alessandro, Maria Michela; Martino, Marida; Stea, Emma Diletta; Ardissino, Gianluigi; Carbone, Vincenza; Pepe, Silvana; Scrutinio, Domenico; Maringhini, Silvio; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Grandaliano, Giuseppe; Giordano, Mario; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the CYP24A1 gene, which encodes the vitamin D-24 hydroxylase, have been recognized as a cause of elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations, hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in infants and adults. As only a case report describing 2 adult patients has been reported in Italian population, we report here the mutation analysis of CYP24A1 gene in an Italian cohort of 12 pediatric and adult patients with idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH). We performed mutational screening of CYP24A1 gene in a cohort of 12 Italian patients: 8 children with nephrocalcinosis, hypercalcemia and PTH levels <10 pg/ml and 4 adult patients with nephrolithiasis, mild hypercalcemia and PTH levels <10 pg/ml from 11 unrelated Italian families. Clinical and biochemical data were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes using standard methods, and whole coding sequence of CYP24A1 gene was analysed in all patients and family members by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. The potential pathogenicity of the newly identified missense mutations was evaluated by 3 different in silico approaches (Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant, Polyphen and Mutation Taster) and by comparative analysis in 14 different species using ClustalW software. CYP24A1 bi-allelic mutations were found in 8 individuals from 7 Italian families (7/11; 64%). Overall, 6 different CYP24A1 mutations, including one small deletion (p.Glu143del), 4 missense mutations (p.Leu148Pro; p.Arg396Trp; p.Pro503Leu; p.Glu383Gln) and one nonsense mutation (p.Tyr220*) were identified. Two out of 6 mutations (p.Tyr220* and p.Pro503Leu) were not previously described. Moreover, a new CYP24A1 variant was identified by genetic screening of asymptomatic controls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a CYP24A1 molecular analysis performed in an Italian cohort of adult and pediatric Italian patients. This study (1) confirms

  15. Antidepressant-induced akathisia-related homicides associated with diminishing mutations in metabolizing genes of the CYP450 family

    PubMed Central

    Lucire, Yolande; Crotty, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relation between variant alleles in 3 CYP450 genes (CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19), interacting drugs and akathisia in subjects referred to a forensic psychiatry practice in Sydney, Australia. Patients and methods: This paper concerns 10/129 subjects who had been referred to the first author’s practice for expert opinion or treatment. More than 120 subjects were diagnosed with akathisia/serotonin toxicity after taking psychiatric medication that had been prescribed for psychosocial distress. They were tested for variant alleles in CYP450 genes, which play a major role in Phase I metabolism of all antidepressant and many other medications. Eight had committed homicide and many more became extremely violent while on antidepressants. Ten representative case histories involving serious violence are presented in detail. Results: Variant CYP450 allele frequencies were higher in akathisia subjects compared with random primary care patients tested at the same facility. Ten subjects described in detail had variant alleles for one or more of their tested CYP450 genes. All but two were also on interacting drugs, herbals or illicit substances, impairing metabolism further. All those described were able to stop taking antidepressants and return to their previously normal personalities. Conclusion: The personal, medical, and legal problems arising from overuse of antidepressant medications and resulting toxicity raise the question: how can such toxicity events be understood and prevented? The authors suggest that the key lies in understanding the interplay between the subject’s CYP450 genotype, substrate drugs and doses, co-prescribed inhibitors and inducers and the age of the subject. The results presented here concerning a sample of persons given antidepressants for psychosocial distress demonstrate the extent to which the psychopharmacology industry has expanded its influence beyond its ability to cure. The roles of both regulatory agencies and drug

  16. OATPs, OATs and OCTs: the organic anion and cation transporters of the SLCO and SLC22A gene superfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Megan; Obaidat, Amanda; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    The human organic anion and cation transporters are classified within two SLC superfamilies. Superfamily SLCO (formerly SLC21A) consists of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), while the organic anion transporters (OATs) and the organic cation transporters (OCTs) are classified in the SLC22A superfamily. Individual members of each superfamily are expressed in essentially every epithelium throughout the body, where they play a significant role in drug absorption, distribution and elimination. Substrates of OATPs are mainly large hydrophobic organic anions, while OATs transport smaller and more hydrophilic organic anions and OCTs transport organic cations. In addition to endogenous substrates, such as steroids, hormones and neurotransmitters, numerous drugs and other xenobiotics are transported by these proteins, including statins, antivirals, antibiotics and anticancer drugs. Expression of OATPs, OATs and OCTs can be regulated at the protein or transcriptional level and appears to vary within each family by both protein and tissue type. All three superfamilies consist of 12 transmembrane domain proteins that have intracellular termini. Although no crystal structures have yet been determined, combinations of homology modelling and mutation experiments have been used to explore the mechanism of substrate recognition and transport. Several polymorphisms identified in members of these superfamilies have been shown to affect pharmacokinetics of their drug substrates, confirming the importance of these drug transporters for efficient pharmacological therapy. This review, unlike other reviews that focus on a single transporter family, briefly summarizes the current knowledge of all the functionally characterized human organic anion and cation drug uptake transporters of the SLCO and the SLC22A superfamilies. LINKED ARTICLES BJP recently published a themed section on Transporters. To view the papers in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011

  17. Distribution of alginate gene sequences in the Pseudomonas rRNA homology group I-Azomonas-Azotobacter lineage of superfamily B procaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Fialho, A M; Zielinski, N A; Fett, W F; Chakrabarty, A M; Berry, A

    1990-01-01

    Chromosomal DNA from group I Pseudomonas species, Azotobacter vinelandii, Azomonas macrocytogens, Xanthomonas campestris, Serpens flexibilis, and three enteric bacteria was screened for sequences homologous to four Pseudomonas aeruginosa alginate (alg) genes (algA, pmm, algD, and algR1). All the group I Pseudomonas species tested (including alginate producers and nonproducers) contained sequences homologous to all the P. aeruginosa alg genes used as probes, with the exception of P. stutzeri, which lacked algD. Azotobacter vinelandii also contained sequences homologous to all the alg gene probes tested, while Azomonas macrocytogenes DNA showed homology to all but algD. X. campestris contained sequences homologous to pmm and algR1 but not to algA or algD. The helical bacterium S. flexibilis showed homology to the algR1 gene, suggesting that an environmentally responsive regulatory gene similar to algR1 exists in S. flexibilis. Escherichia coli showed homology to the algD and algR1 genes, while Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumoniae failed to show homology with any of the P. aeruginosa alg genes. Since all the organisms tested are superfamily B procaryotes, these results suggest that within superfamily B, the alginate genes are distributed throughout the Pseudomonas group I-Azotobacter-Azomonas lineage, while only some alg genes have been retained in the Pseudomonas group V (Xanthomonas) and enteric lineages. Images PMID:1689562

  18. [Polymorphic markers of the CYP1B1 (4326C > G), CYP2F1 (c.14_15insC), CYP2J2 (-76G > T), and CYP2S1 (13106C > T and 13255A > G) genes and genetic predisposition to chronic respiratory diseases induced by smoking and occupational factors].

    PubMed

    Akhmadishina, L A; Korytina, G F; Victorova, T V

    2011-10-01

    The contribution of the polymorphic markers of cytochrome P450 genes to respiratory diseases caused by smoking and occupational factors has been assessed. For this purpose, PCR-RFLP analysis of the CYP1B1 (rs1056836, 4326C > G), CYP2F1 (rs11399890, c.14_15insC), CYP2J2 (rs890293, -76G > T), and CYP2S1 (rs34971233, 13106C > T and rs338583, 13255A > G) gene polymorphisms has been performed. The analysis has shown that the polymorphic variants of the CYP1B1 (rs1056836, 4326C > G) and CYP2F1 (rs11399890, c. 14_15insC) genes may contribute to the development of occupational chronic bronchitis. The proportion of CYP1B1* 1*3 heterozygotes in the group of patients with occupational chronic bronchitis is considerably greater than in the group of healthy workers (69.16% versus 53.29%; chi2 = 5.94, P = 0.02, P(cor) = 0.04, OR = 1.97, the 95% CI is 1.13-3.42). Patients with occupational chronic bronchitis and healthy workers significantly differed from each other in the frequency distribution of the genotypes ofthe CYP2F1 (rs11399890, c.14_15insC) polymorphic marker (chi2 = 6.18, d.f = 2, P = 0.05). The frequency of the wild type/ins heterozygous genotype for the CYP2F1 gene is higher in healthy workers (36.08%) than in patients (22.22%) (chi2 = 5.48, P = 0.02, P(cor) = 0.04, OR = 0.51, the 95% CI is 0.28-0.90). No association has been found between the CYP2J2 (rs890293, -76G > T) or CYP2S1 (rs34971233, 13106C > T, P466L and rs338583, 13255A > G) gene polymorphisms and respiratory diseases.

  19. Mutation spectrum of CYP1B1 and MYOC genes in Korean patients with primary congenital glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Jung; Suh, Wool; Park, Sung Chul; Kim, Chan Yun; Park, Ki Ho; Kook, Michael S.; Kim, Yong Yeon; Kim, Chang-Sik; Park, Chan Kee; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the incidence of cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and myocillin (MYOC) mutations in Korean patients with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). Methods Genomic DNA was collected from peripheral blood of 85 unrelated Korean patients who were diagnosed as having PCG by standard ophthalmological examinations and screened for mutations in the CYP1B1 and MYOC genes by using bi-directional sequencing. Results Among 85 patients with PCG, 22 patients (22/85; 25.9%) had either one (n=11) or two (n=11) mutant alleles of the CYP1B1 gene. Among 11 different CYP1B1 mutations identified, a frameshift mutation (c.970_971dupAT; p.T325SfsX104) was the most frequent mutant allele (6/33; 18.2%) while p.G329S and p.V419Gfs11X were novel. In the MYOC gene, two variants of unknown significance (p.L228S and p.E240G) were identified in two PCG patients (2/85; 2.4%), respectively. No patient had mutations in both genes. Conclusions Although CYP1B1 mutations are major causes of PCG in Korea, ~70% of PCG patients have neither CYP1B1 nor MYOC mutations suggesting a high degree of genetic heterogeneity. Furthermore, the fact that 11 out of 22 patients had only one mutant allele in the CYP1B1 gene necessitates further investigation for other genetic backgrounds underlying PCG. PMID:21850185

  20. Development of a PCR-based strategy for CYP2D6 genotyping including gene multiplication of worldwide potential use.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Pedro; Cáceres, Macarena; Pozo-Guisado, Eulalia; Wong, Ma-Li; Licinio, Julio; Llerena, Adrián

    2005-10-01

    There is growing consensus on the potential use of pharmacogenetics in clinical practice, and hopes have been expressed for application to the improvement of global health. However, two major challenges may lead to widening the "biotechnological gap" between the developing and the industrial world; first the unaffordability of some current technologies for poorer countries, and second the necessity of analyzing all described alleles for every clinical case due to the inability to predict the ethnic group of a given patient. Because of its role in the metabolism of a number of drugs, cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an excellent candidate for use in the optimization of drug therapy. CYP2D6 is a highly polymorphic gene locus with more than 50 variant alleles, and subjects can be classified as poor metabolizers (PM), extensive metabolizers (EM), or ultrarapid metabolizers (UM) of a given CYP2D6 substrate. Several strategies and methods for CYP2D6 genotyping exist. Some, however, are expensive and laborious. The aim of this study was to design a PCR-based genotyping methodology to allow rapid, straightforward, and inexpensive identification of 90%-95% of CYP2D6 PM or UM genotypes for routine clinical use, independent of the individual's ethnic group. CYP2D6 is amplified in initial extra long PCRs (XL-PCRs), which subsequently undergo fragment-length polymorphism analysis for the determination of carriers of CYP2D6 allelic variants. The same XL-PCRs are also used for the determination of CYP2D6 multiplication and 2D6*5 allele (abolished activity). The application of this new strategy for the detection of CYP2D6 mutated alleles and multiplications to routine clinical analysis will enable the PM and UM phenotypes to be predicted and identified at a reasonable cost in a large number of individuals at most locations.

  1. Development of a PCR-based strategy for CYP2D6 genotyping including gene multiplication of worldwide potential use.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Pedro; Cáceres, Macarena C; Pozo-Guisado, Eulalia; Wong, Ma-Li; Licinio, Julio; Llerena, Adrian

    2005-10-01

    There is growing consensus on the potential use of pharmacogenetics in clinical practice, and hopes have been expressed for application to the improvement of global health. However, two major challenges may lead to widening the "biotechnological gap" between the developing and the industrial world;first the unaffordability of some current technologies for poorer countries, and second the necessity of analyzing all described alleles for every clinical case due to the inability to predict the ethnic group of a given patient. Because of its role in the metabolism of a number of drugs, cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an excellent candidate for use in the optimization of drug therapy. CYP2D6 is a highly polymorphic gene locus with more than 50 variant alleles, and subjects can be classified as poor metabolizers (PM), extensive metabolizers (EM), or ultrarapid metabolizers (UM) of a given CYP2D6 substrate. Several strategies and methods for CYP2D6 genotyping exist. Some, however, are expensive and laborious. The aim of this study was to design a PCR-based genotyping methodology to allow rapid, straightforward, and inexpensive identification of 90%-95% of CYP2D6 PM or UM genotypes for routine clinical use, independent of the individual's ethnic group. CYP2D6 is amplified in initial extra long PCRs (XL-PCRs), which subsequently undergo fragment-length polymorphism analysis for the determination of carriers of CYP2D6 allelic variants. The same XL-PCRs are also used for the determination of CYP2D6 multiplication and 2D6*5 allele (abolished activity). The application of this new strategy for the detection of CYP2D6 mutated alleles and multiplications to routine clinical analysis will enable the PM and UM phenotypes to be predicted and identified at a reasonable cost in a large number of individuals at most locations.

  2. CYP99A3: Functional identification of a diterpene oxidase from the momilactone biosynthetic gene cluster in rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Hillwig, Matthew L.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Rice (Oryza sativa) produces momilactone diterpenoids as both phytoalexins and allelochemicals. Strikingly, the rice genome contains a biosynthetic gene cluster for momilactone production, located on rice chromosome 4, which contains two cytochromes P450 mono-oxygenases, CYP99A2 and CYP99A3, with undefined roles; although it has been previously shown that RNAi double knock-down of this pair of closely related CYP reduced momilactone accumulation. Here we attempted biochemical characterization of CYP99A2 and CYP99A3, which ultimately was achieved by complete gene recoding, enabling functional recombinant expression in bacteria. With these synthetic gene constructs it was possible to demonstrate that, while CYP99A2 does not exhibit significant activity with diterpene substrates, CYP99A3 catalyzes consecutive oxidations of the C19 methyl group of the momilactone precursor syn-pimara-7,15-diene to form, sequentially, syn-pimaradien-19-ol, syn-pimaradien-19-al and syn-pimaradien-19-oic acid. These are presumably intermediates in momilactone biosynthesis, as a C19 carboxylic acid moiety is required for formation of the core 19,6-γ-lactone ring structure. We further were able to detect syn-pimaradien-19-oic acid in rice plants, which indicates physiological relevance for the observed activity of CYP99A3. In addition, we found that CYP99A3 also oxidized syn-stemod-13(17)-ene at C19 to produce, sequentially, syn-stemoden-19-ol, syn-stemoden-19-al and syn-stemoden-19-oic acid, albeit with lower catalytic efficiency than with syn-pimaradiene. Although the CYP99A3 syn-stemodene derived products were not detected in planta, these results nevertheless provide a hint at the currently unknown metabolic fate of this diterpene in rice. Regardless of any wider role, our results strongly indicate that CYP99A3 acts as a multifunctional diterpene oxidase in momilactone biosynthesis. PMID:21175892

  3. Detection and molecular cloning of CYP74Q1 gene: identification of Ranunculus acris leaf divinyl ether synthase.

    PubMed

    Gorina, Svetlana S; Toporkova, Yana Y; Mukhtarova, Lucia S; Chechetkin, Ivan R; Khairutdinov, Bulat I; Gogolev, Yuri V; Grechkin, Alexander N

    2014-09-01

    Enzymes of the CYP74 family, including the divinyl ether synthase (DES), play important roles in plant cell signalling and defence. The potent DES activities have been detected before in the leaves of the meadow buttercup (Ranunculus acris L.) and few other Ranunculaceae species. The nature of these DESs and their genes remained unrevealed. The PCR with degenerate primers enabled to detect the transcript of unknown P450 gene assigned as CYP74Q1. Besides, two more CYP74Q1 isoforms with minimal sequence variations have been found. The full length recombinant CYP74Q1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The preferred substrates of this enzyme are the 13-hydroperoxides of α-linolenic and linoleic acids, which are converted to the divinyl ether oxylipins (ω5Z)-etherolenic acid, (9Z,11E)-12-[(1'Z,3'Z)-hexadienyloxy]-9,11-dodecadienoic acid, and (ω5Z)-etheroleic acid, (9Z,11E)-12-[(1'Z)-hexenyloxy]-9,11-dodecadienoic acid, respectively, as revealed by the data of mass spectrometry, NMR and UV spectroscopy. Thus, CYP74Q1 protein was identified as the R. acris DES (RaDES), a novel DES type and the opening member of new CYP74Q subfamily.

  4. Mutations in exons of the CYP17-II gene affect sex steroid concentration in male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruiqin; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Shi, Dan; Liu, Miao; Mu, Weijie; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Han, Weiguo; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuren; Liu, Qun

    2012-03-01

    As a specific gene of fish, cytochrome P450c17-II ( CYP17-II) gene plays a key role in the growth, development an reproduction level of fish. In this study, the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17-II gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-II gene of Japanese flounder. They were c.G594A (p.G188R), c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D). SNP1 (c.G594A), located in exon 4 of CYP17-II gene, was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI). Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI ( P < 0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG. SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-II gene. The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6. Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG. The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder. However, the SNP3 (c.G1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits. This study showed that CYP17-II gene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  5. Crude oil exposure results in oxidative stress-mediated dysfunctional development and reproduction in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus and modulates expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Yong Sung; Leung, Kenneth Mei-Yee; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil on the development and reproduction of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus through life-cycle experiments. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of WAF on this benthic organism by studying expression patterns of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. Development of T. japonicus was delayed and molting was interrupted in response to WAF exposure. Hatching rate was also significantly reduced in response to WAF exposure. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) were increased by WAF exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicated that WAF exposure resulted in oxidative stress, which in turn was associated with dysfunctional development and reproduction. To evaluate the involvement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, we cloned the entire repertoire of CYP genes in T. japonicus (n=52) and found that the CYP genes belonged to five different clans (i.e., Clans 2, 3, 4, mitochondrial, and 20). We then examined expression patterns of these 52 CYP genes in response to WAF exposure. Three TJ-CYP genes (CYP3024A2, CYP3024A3, and CYP3027C2) belonging to CYP clan 3 were significantly induced by WAF exposure in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. We identified aryl hydrocarbon responsive elements (AhRE), xenobiotic responsive elements (XREs), and metal response elements (MRE) in the promoter regions of these three CYP genes, suggesting that these genes are involved in detoxification of toxicants. Overall, our results indicate that WAF can trigger oxidative stress and thus induce dysfunctional development and reproduction in the copepod T. japonicus. Furthermore, we identified three TJ-CYP genes that represent potential biomarkers of oil pollution.

  6. Mice expressing the human CYP7A1 gene in the mouse CYP7A1 knock-out background lack induction of CYP7A1 expression by cholesterol feeding and have increased hypercholesterolemia when fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jean Y; Levy-Wilson, Beatriz; Goodart, Sheryl; Cooper, Allen D

    2002-11-08

    Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the pathway responsible for the formation of the majority of bile acids. Transcription of the gene is regulated by the size of the bile acid pool and dietary and hormonal factors. The farnesoid X receptor and the liver X receptor (LXR) are responsible for regulation by bile acids and cholesterol, respectively. To study the effects of dietary cholesterol and fat upon expression of the human CYP7A1 gene, mice were generated by crossing transgenic mice carrying the human CYP7A1 gene with mice that were homozygous knock-outs (CYP7A1(-/-)). The mice (mCYP7A1(-/-)/hCYP7A1) expressed the human gene at much higher levels than did the transgenics bred in the wild-type background. A diet containing 1% cholic acid reduced the expression of the human gene in mCYP7A1(-/-)/hCYP7A1 mice to undetectable levels. Cholestyramine (5%) increased the level of expression of the human gene and the mouse gene. Thus, farnesoid X receptor-mediated regulation was preserved. A diet containing 2% cholesterol increased expression of the mouse gene in wild-type mice, but it did not affect expression of the human gene in mCYP7A1(-/-)/hCYP7A1 mice. None of the diets altered the serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels in these mice; 1% cholic acid caused a redistribution of cholesterol from the high density lipoprotein to the low density lipoprotein density in the humanized mice but not in wild-type mice. A diet containing 30% saturated fat and 2% cholesterol caused a decrease in CYP7A1 levels in mCYP7A1(-/-)/hCYP7A1 mice. The serum cholesterol levels rose in all mice fed this diet. The increase was greater in the mCYP7A1(-/-)/hCYP7A1 mice. Together, these data suggest that the lack of an LXR element in the region from -56 to -49 of the human CYP7A1 promoter may account for some of the differences in response to diets between humans and rodents.

  7. The evolving doublecortin (DCX) superfamily.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Orly; Coquelle, Frédéric M; Peter, Bastian; Levy, Talia; Kaplan, Anna; Sapir, Tamar; Orr, Irit; Barkai, Naama; Eichele, Gregor; Bergmann, Sven

    2006-07-26

    Doublecortin (DCX) domains serve as protein-interaction platforms. Mutations in members of this protein superfamily are linked to several genetic diseases. Mutations in the human DCX gene result in abnormal neuronal migration, epilepsy, and mental retardation; mutations in RP1 are associated with a form of inherited blindness, and DCDC2 has been associated with dyslectic reading disabilities. The DCX-repeat gene family is composed of eleven paralogs in human and in mouse. Its evolution was followed across vertebrates, invertebrates, and was traced to unicellular organisms, thus enabling following evolutionary additions and losses of genes or domains. The N-terminal and C-terminal DCX domains have undergone sub-specialization and divergence. Developmental in situ hybridization data for nine genes was generated. In addition, a novel co-expression analysis for most human and mouse DCX superfamily-genes was performed using high-throughput expression data extracted from Unigene. We performed an in-depth study of a complete gene superfamily using several complimentary methods. This study reveals the existence and conservation of multiple members of the DCX superfamily in different species. Sequence analysis combined with expression analysis is likely to be a useful tool to predict correlations between human disease and mouse models. The sub-specialization of some members due to restricted expression patterns and sequence divergence may explain the successful addition of genes to this family throughout evolution.

  8. Analysis of the Functional Polymorphism in the Cytochrome P450 CYP2C8 Gene rs11572080 with Regard to Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ladero, José M.; Agúndez, José A. G.; Martínez, Carmen; Amo, Gemma; Ayuso, Pedro; García-Martín, Elena

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the known effects on drug metabolism and response, functional polymorphisms of genes coding for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) play a role in cancer. Genes coding for XME act as low-penetrance genes and confer modest but consistent and significant risks for a variety of cancers related to the interaction of environmental and genetic factors. Consistent evidence supports a role for polymorphisms of the cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 gene as a protecting factor for colorectal cancer susceptibility. It has been shown that CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 overlap in substrate specificity. Because CYP2C8 has the common functional polymorphisms rs11572080 and rs10509681 (CYP2C8*3), it could be speculated that part of the findings attributed to CYP2C9 polymorphisms may actually be related to the presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2C8 gene. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the role of the CYP2C8 polymorphism in colorectal cancer. We analyzed the influence of the CYP2C8*3 allele in the risk of developing colorectal cancer in genomic DNA from 153 individuals suffering colorectal cancer and from 298 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Our findings do not support any effect of the CYP2C8*3 allele (OR for carriers of functional CYP2C8 alleles = 0.50 (95% CI = 0.16–1.59; p = 0.233). The absence of a relative risk related to CYP2C8*3 did not vary depending on the tumor site. We conclude that the risk of developing colorectal cancer does not seem to be related to the commonest functional genetic variation in the CYP2C8 gene. PMID:23420707

  9. Cytochrome P450 gene, CYP4G51, modulates hydrocarbon production in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Fan, Yong-Liang; Bai, Yu; Li, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-09-01

    Terrestrial insects deposit a layer of hydrocarbons (HCs) as waterproofing agents on their epicuticle. The insect-specific CYP4G genes, subfamily members of P450, have been found in all insects with sequenced genomes to date. They are critical for HC biosynthesis in Drosophila; however, their functional roles in other insects including the piercing-sucking hemipterous aphids remain unknown. In this study, we presented the molecular characterization and a functional study of the CYP4G51 gene in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). CYP4G51 transcript was detectable across the whole life cycle of A. pisum, and was prominently expressed in the aphid head and abdominal cuticle. Up-regulation of CYP4G51 under desiccation stress was more significant in the third instar nymphs compared with the adults. Also, up-regulation of CYP4G51 was observed when the aphids fed on an artificial diet compared with those fed on the broad bean plant, and was positively correlated with a high level of cuticular HCs (CHCs). RNAi knockdown of CYP4G51 significantly reduced its expression and caused reductions in both internal and external HCs. A deficiency in CHCs resulted in aphids being more susceptible to desiccation, with increased mortality under desiccation stress. The current results confirm that CYP4G51 modulates HC biosynthesis to protect aphids from desiccation. Moreover, our data also indicate that saturated and straight-chain HCs play a major role in cuticular waterproofing in the pea aphid. A. pisum CYP4G51 could be considered as a novel RNAi target in the field of insect pest management.

  10. The highly polymorphic CYP6M7 cytochrome P450 gene partners with the directionally selected CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b genes to expand the pyrethroid resistance front in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus in Africa.

    PubMed

    Riveron, Jacob M; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Chanda, Emmanuel; Mzilahowa, Themba; Cuamba, Nelson; Irving, Helen; Barnes, Kayla G; Ndula, Miranda; Wondji, Charles S

    2014-09-27

    Pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus is rapidly expanding across Southern Africa. It remains unknown whether this resistance has a unique origin with the same molecular basis or is multifactorial. Knowledge of the origin, mechanisms and evolution of resistance are crucial to designing successful resistance management strategies. Here, we established the resistance profile of a Zambian An. funestus population at the northern range of the resistance front. Similar to other Southern African populations, Zambian An. funestus mosquitoes are resistant to pyrethroids and carbamate, but in contrast to populations in Mozambique and Malawi, these insects are also DDT resistant. Genome-wide microarray-based transcriptional profiling and qRT-PCR revealed that the cytochrome P450 gene CYP6M7 is responsible for extending pyrethroid resistance northwards. Indeed, CYP6M7 is more over-expressed in Zambia [fold-change (FC) 37.7; 13.2 for qRT-PCR] than CYP6P9a (FC15.6; 8.9 for qRT-PCR) and CYP6P9b (FC11.9; 6.5 for qRT-PCR), whereas CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b are more highly over-expressed in Malawi and Mozambique. Transgenic expression of CYP6M7 in Drosophila melanogaster coupled with in vitro assays using recombinant enzymes and assessments of kinetic properties demonstrated that CYP6M7 is as efficient as CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b in conferring pyrethroid resistance. Polymorphism patterns demonstrate that these genes are under contrasting selection forces: the exceptionally diverse CYP6M7 likely evolves neutrally, whereas CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b are directionally selected. The higher variability of CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b observed in Zambia supports their lesser role in resistance in this country. Pyrethroid resistance in Southern Africa probably has multiple origins under different evolutionary forces, which may necessitate the design of different resistance management strategies.

  11. Functional role and tobacco smoking effects on methylation of CYP1A1 gene in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Taku; Hashimoto, Yutaka; Yamamura, Soichiro; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Wong, Darryn K.; Shiina, Marisa; Imai-Sumida, Mitsuho; Majid, Shahana; Saini, Sharanjot; Shiina, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Koichi; Deng, Guoren; Dahiya, Rajvir; Tanaka, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 is a phase I enzyme that can activate various compounds into reactive forms and thus, may contribute to carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the expression, methylation status, and functional role of CYP1A1 on prostate cancer cells. Increased expression of CYP1A1 was observed in all cancer lines (PC-3, LNCaP, and DU145) compared to BPH-1 (P < 0.05); and was enhanced further by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment (P < 0.01). Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and sequencing of bisulfite-modified DNA of the xenobiotic response element (XRE) enhancer site XRE-1383 indicated promoter methylation as a regulator of CYP1A1 expression. In tissue, microarrays showed higher immunostaining of CYP1A1 in prostate cancer than normal and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH; P < 0.001), and methylation analyses in clinical specimens revealed significantly lower methylation levels in cancer compared to BPH at all enhancer sites analyzed (XRE-1383, XRE-983, XRE-895; P < 0.01). Interestingly, smoking affected the XRE-1383 site where the methylation level was much lower in cancer tissues from smokers than non-smokers (P < 0.05). CYP1A1 levels are thus increased in prostate cancer and to determine the functional effect of CYP1A1 on cells, we depleted the gene in LNCaP and DU145 by siRNA. We observe that CYP1A1 knockdown decreased cell proliferation (P < 0.05) and increased apoptosis (P < 0.01) in both cell lines. We analyzed genes affected by CYP1A1 silencing and found that apoptosis-related BCL2 was significantly down-regulated. This study supports an oncogenic role for CYP1A1 in prostate cancer via promoter hypomethylation that is influenced by tobacco smoking, indicating CYP1A1 to be a promising target for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:27203547

  12. Interindividual variability of CYP2C19-catalyzed drug metabolism due to differences in gene diplotypes and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase content.

    PubMed

    Shirasaka, Y; Chaudhry, A S; McDonald, M; Prasad, B; Wong, T; Calamia, J C; Fohner, A; Thornton, T A; Isoherranen, N; Unadkat, J D; Rettie, A E; Schuetz, E G; Thummel, K E

    2016-08-01

    Large interindividual variability has been observed in the metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates in vivo. The study aimed to evaluate sources of this variability in CYP2C19 activity, focusing on CYP2C19 diplotypes and the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR). CYP2C19 gene analysis was carried out on 347 human liver samples. CYP2C19 activity assayed using human liver microsomes confirmed a significant a priori predicted rank order for (S)-mephenytoin hydroxylase activity of CYP2C19*17/*17 > *1B/*17 > *1B/*1B > *2A/*17 > *1B/*2A > *2A/*2A diplotypes. In a multivariate analysis, the CYP2C19*2A allele and POR protein content were associated with CYP2C19 activity. Further analysis indicated a strong effect of the CYP2C19*2A, but not the *17, allele on both metabolic steps in the conversion of clopidogrel to its active metabolite. The present study demonstrates that interindividual variability in CYP2C19 activity is due to differences in both CYP2C19 protein content associated with gene diplotypes and the POR concentration.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 1 September 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.58.

  13. Interindividual variability of CYP2C19-catalyzed drug metabolism due to differences in gene diplotypes and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase content

    PubMed Central

    Shirasaka, Y; Chaudhry, A S; McDonald, M; Prasad, B; Wong, T; Calamia, J C; Fohner, A; Thornton, T A; Isoherranen, N; Unadkat, J D; Rettie, A E; Schuetz, E G; Thummel, K E

    2016-01-01

    Large interindividual variability has been observed in the metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates in vivo. The study aimed to evaluate sources of this variability in CYP2C19 activity, focusing on CYP2C19 diplotypes and the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR). CYP2C19 gene analysis was carried out on 347 human liver samples. CYP2C19 activity assayed using human liver microsomes confirmed a significant a priori predicted rank order for (S)-mephenytoin hydroxylase activity of CYP2C19*17/*17 > *1B/*17 > *1B/*1B > *2A/*17 > *1B/*2A > *2A/*2A diplotypes. In a multivariate analysis, the CYP2C19*2A allele and POR protein content were associated with CYP2C19 activity. Further analysis indicated a strong effect of the CYP2C19*2A, but not the *17, allele on both metabolic steps in the conversion of clopidogrel to its active metabolite. The present study demonstrates that interindividual variability in CYP2C19 activity is due to differences in both CYP2C19 protein content associated with gene diplotypes and the POR concentration. PMID:26323597

  14. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay for the detection of CYP21A2 gene deletions/duplications in congenital adrenal hyperplasia: first technical report.

    PubMed

    Concolino, Paola; Mello, Enrica; Toscano, Vincenzo; Ameglio, Franco; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2009-04-01

    More than 90% of the cases of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) are associated with mutations in 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2). Up to now, large CYP21A2 rearrangements have been mainly detected by Southern blot analysis, although more rapid methods have been alternatively proposed. In this paper, we report the use of a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method for easy and rapid detection of deletions/duplications in the CYP21A2 gene. We collected 18 CAH Italian patients previously analyzed by gene sequencing and Southern blot technique. In addition, a prenatal diagnosis study was performed. Of the 7 known subjects with CYP21A2 deletions and 2 with gene duplications previously characterized in our laboratory, all were successfully identified by the MLPA analysis. In the prenatal diagnosis study, the MLPA assay was able to identify the presence of a CYP21A2 gene duplication in the fetus, as well in other two family members. MLPA analysis represents a simple, rapid and sensitive tool for the detection of CYP21A2/CYP21A1P deletions/duplications in CAH molecular diagnosis. Compared to Southern blot, MLPA may be considered a high throughput analysis, allowing the simultaneous study of several samples in the same experiment and the investigation of both gene (CYP21A2) and pseudogene (CYP21A1P) in each patient.

  15. Indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activates CYP3A4 gene transcription through the human pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Takeshi; Aratsu, Yusuke; Sugawara, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Miyairi, Shinichi; Nagata, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Ban-Lan-Gen is the common name for the dried roots of indigo plants, including Polygonum tinctorium, Isatis indigotica, Isatis tinctoria, and Strobilanthes cusia. Ban-Lan-Gen is frequently used as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-viral for the treatment of hepatitis, influenza, and various types of inflammation. One of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP3A4, is responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics, including an estimated 60% of all clinically used drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ban-Lan-Gen on the transcriptional activation of the CYP3A4 gene. Ban-Lan-Gen extract increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Indirubin, one of the biologically active ingredients in the Ban-Lan-Gen, also dose-dependently increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Expression of short hairpin RNA for the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR-shRNA) inhibited CYP3A4 gene reporter activity, and overexpression of human PXR increased indirubin- and rifampicin-induced CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Furthermore, indirubin induced CYP3A4 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activated CYP3A4 gene transcription through the activation of the human PXR.

  16. Tag SNPs detect association of the CYP1B1 gene with primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Burdon, Kathryn P; Hewitt, Alex W; Mackey, David A; Mitchell, Paul; Craig, Jamie E

    2010-11-04

    The cytochrome p450 family 1 subfamily B (CYP1B1) gene is a well known cause of autosomal recessive primary congenital glaucoma. It has also been postulated as a modifier of disease severity in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), particularly in juvenile onset families. However, the role of common variation in the gene in relation to POAG has not been thoroughly explored. Seven tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including two coding variants (L432V and N543S), were genotyped in 860 POAG cases and 898 examined normal controls. Each SNP and haplotype was assessed for association with disease. In addition, a subset of 396 severe cases and 452 elderly controls were analyzed separately. There was no association of any individual SNP in the full data set. Two SNPs (rs162562 and rs10916) were nominally associated under a dominant model in the severe cases (p<0.05). A common haplotype (AGCAGCC) was also found to be nominally associated in both the full data set (p=0.048, OR [95%CI]=0.83 [0.69-0.90]) and more significantly in the severe cases (p=0.004, OR [95%CI]=0.68 [0.52-0.89]) which survives correction for multiple testing. Although no major effect of common variation at the CYP1B1 locus on POAG was found, there could be an effect of SNPs tagged by rs162562 and represented on the AGCAGCC haplotype.

  17. Role of activator protein-1 in the down-regulation of the human CYP2J2 gene in hypoxia.

    PubMed Central

    Marden, Nicole Y; Fiala-Beer, Eva; Xiang, Shi-Hua; Murray, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2J2 arachidonic acid epoxygenase gene was down-regulated at a pre-translational level in human hepatoma-derived HepG2 cells incubated in a hypoxic environment; under these conditions, the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA and protein was increased. The 5'-upstream region of the CYP2J2 gene was isolated by amplification of a 2341 bp fragment and putative regulatory elements that resembled activator protein-1 (AP-1)-like sequences were identified. From transient transfection analysis, c-Jun was found to strongly activate a CYP2J2 -luciferase reporter construct, but co-transfection with plasmids encoding c-Fos or c-Fos-related antigens, Fra-1 and -2, abrogated reporter activity. Using a series of deletion-reporter constructs, a c-Jun-responsive module was identified between bp -152 and -50 in CYP2J2 : this region contained an AP-1-like element between bp -56 and -63. The capacity of this element to interact directly with c-Jun, but not c-Fos, was confirmed by electromobility-shift assay analysis. Mutagenesis of the -56/-63 element abolished most, but not all, of the activation of CYP2J2 by c-Jun, thus implicating an additional site within the c-Jun-responsive region. The present results establish an important role for c-Jun in the control of CYP2J2 expression in liver cells. Activation of c-Fos expression by hypoxia promotes the formation of c-Jun/c-Fos heterodimers, which decrease the binding of c-Jun to the CYP2J2 upstream region, leading to gene down-regulation. PMID:12737630

  18. Role of zebrafish cytochrome P450 CYP1C genes in the reduced mesencephalic vein blood flow caused by activation of AHR2

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Akira; Stegeman, John J.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Harano, Ryo; Peterson, Richard E.; Hiraga, Takeo; Teraoka, Hiroki

    2011-06-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes various signs of toxicity in early life stages of vertebrates through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). We previously reported a sensitive and useful endpoint of TCDD developmental toxicity in zebrafish, namely a decrease in blood flow in the dorsal midbrain, but downstream genes involved in the effect are not known. The present study addressed the role of zebrafish cytochrome P450 1C (CYP1C) genes in association with a decrease in mesencephalic vein (MsV) blood flow. The CYP1C subfamily was recently discovered in fish and includes the paralogues CYP1C1 and CYP1C2, both of which are induced via AHR2 in zebrafish embryos. We used morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MO or morpholino) to block initiation of translation of the target genes. TCDD-induced mRNA expression of CYP1Cs and a decrease in MsV blood flow were both blocked by gene knockdown of AHR2. Gene knockdown of CYP1C1 by two different morpholinos and CYP1C2 by two different morpholinos, but not by their 5 nucleotide-mismatch controls, was effective in blocking reduced MsV blood flow caused by TCDD. The same CYP1C-MOs prevented reduction of blood flow in the MsV caused by {beta}-naphthoflavone (BNF), representing another class of AHR agonists. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed that mRNA expression of CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 was induced by TCDD most strongly in branchiogenic primordia and pectoral fin buds. In situ hybridization using head transverse sections showed that TCDD increased the expression of both CYP1Cs in endothelial cells of blood vessels, including the MsV. These results indicate a potential role of CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 in the local circulation failure induced by AHR2 activation in the dorsal midbrain of the zebrafish embryo. - Research Highlights: > We examine the roles of zebrafish CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 in TCDD developmental toxicity. > TCDD induces mRNA expression of both CYP1Cs in the mesencephalic vein. > Knockdown of each

  19. Association of CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to endometrial cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Zou, Yan-Feng; Sun, Guo-Ping; Su, Hong; Huang, Fen

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to quantitatively summarize the association of CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk. Data were collected from the following electronic databases: PubMed,Elsevier Science Direct, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang, with the last report up to June 2010. Meta-analysis was conducted in a fixed/random effect model. Out of the 715 papers retrieved 12 studies (3605 cases and 5692 controls) on the association of CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms with endometrial cancer risk in different ethnic groups were identified. Meta-analysis was performed for CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms: R48G (C/G, five studies), L432V (C/G, 12 studies), N453S (A/G, four studies), and A119S (G/T, five studies). We did not detect any association of CYP1B1 gene A119S polymorphism with endometrial cancer. An association of CYP1B1 gene R48G polymorphism with endometrial cancer was found [GG vs. GC+CC: odds ratio (OR)=0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-0.73, P<0.0001; GG vs. CC: OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.23-0.91, P=0.03]. We found that CYP1B1 gene L432V polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer (G vs. C: OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.06-1.43, P=0.007; GC+GG vs. CC:OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.08-1.43, P=0.003; GC vs. CC: OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.04-1.29, P=0.009). Moreover, we detected the association of CYP1B1 gene N453S polymorphism with endometrial cancer (G vs. A: OR=0.82,95% CI: 0.72-0.94, P=0.005; GA vs. AA: OR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.69-0.95, P=0.01). In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides strong evidence that CYP1B1 gene R48G, L432V, and N453S polymorphisms are associated with endometrial cancer risk, but not A119S.

  20. Orphan nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a key role in hepatic cannabinoid receptor type 1-mediated induction of CYP7A1 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Jeong, Won-IL; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chiang, John Y.L.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are primarily synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and have important roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homoeostasis. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel transcriptional regulator of CYP7A1 expression. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) signalling induced ERRγ-mediated transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. Overexpression of ERRγ increased CYP7A1 expression in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated CYP7A1 expression. Deletion analysis of the CYP7A1 gene promoter and a ChIP assay revealed an ERRγ -binding site on the CYP7A1 gene promoter. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) inhibited the transcriptional activity of ERRγ and thus regulated CYP7A1 expression. Overexpression of ERRγ led to increased bile acid levels, whereas an inverse agonist of ERRγ, GSK5182, reduced CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis. Finally, GSK5182 significantly reduced hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis in alcohol-treated mice. These results provide the molecular mechanism linking ERRγ and bile acid metabolism. PMID:26348907

  1. Orphan nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a key role in hepatic cannabinoid receptor type 1-mediated induction of CYP7A1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Jeong, Won-Il; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chiang, John Y L; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Bile acids are primarily synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and have important roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homoeostasis. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel transcriptional regulator of CYP7A1 expression. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) signalling induced ERRγ-mediated transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. Overexpression of ERRγ increased CYP7A1 expression in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated CYP7A1 expression. Deletion analysis of the CYP7A1 gene promoter and a ChIP assay revealed an ERRγ-binding site on the CYP7A1 gene promoter. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) inhibited the transcriptional activity of ERRγ and thus regulated CYP7A1 expression. Overexpression of ERRγ led to increased bile acid levels, whereas an inverse agonist of ERRγ, GSK5182, reduced CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis. Finally, GSK5182 significantly reduced hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis in alcohol-treated mice. These results provide the molecular mechanism linking ERRγ and bile acid metabolism. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  2. Arabidopsis CYP98A3 Mediating Aromatic 3-Hydroxylation. Developmental Regulation of the Gene, and Expression in Yeast1

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Ramesh B.; Xia, Qun; Kartha, Cyril J.; Kurylo, Eugen; Hirji, Rozina N.; Datla, Raju; Selvaraj, Gopalan

    2002-01-01

    The general phenylpropanoid pathways generate a wide array of aromatic secondary metabolites that range from monolignols, which are ubiquitous in all plants, to sinapine, which is confined to crucifer seeds. The biosynthesis of these compounds involves hydroxylated and methoxylated cinnamyl acid, aldehyde, or alcohol intermediates. Of the three enzymes originally proposed to hydroxylate the 4-, 3-, and 5-positions of the aromatic ring, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), which converts trans-cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid, is the best characterized and is also the archetypal plant P450 monooxygenase. Ferulic acid 5-hydroxylase (F5H), a P450 that catalyzes 5-hydroxylation, has also been studied, but the presumptive 3-hydroxylase converting p-coumarate to caffeate has been elusive. We have found that Arabidopsis CYP98A3, also a P450, could hydroxylate p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid in vivo when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, albeit very slowly. CYP98A3 transcript was found in Arabidopsis stem and silique, resembling both C4H and F5H in this respect. CYP98A3 showed further resemblance to C4H in being highly active in root, but differed from F5H in this regard. In transgenic Arabidopsis, the promoters of CYP98A3 and C4H showed wound inducibility and a comparable developmental regulation throughout the life cycle, except in seeds, where the CYP98A3 promoter construct was inactive while remaining active in silique walls. Within stem and root tissue, the gene product and the promoter activity of CYP98A3 were most abundant in lignifying cells. Collectively, these studies show involvement of CYP98A3 in the general phenylpropanoid metabolism, and suggest a downstream function for CYP98A3 relative to the broader and upstream role of C4H. PMID:12226501

  3. Glucagon and cAMP inhibit cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene expression in human hepatocytes: discordant regulation of bile acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Song, Kwang-Hoon; Chiang, John Y L

    2006-01-01

    The gene encoding cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is tightly regulated to control bile acid synthesis and maintain lipid homeostasis. Recent studies in mice suggest that bile acid synthesis is regulated by the fasted-to-fed cycle, and fasting induces CYP7A1 gene expression in parallel to the induction of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). How glucagon regulates CYP7A1 gene expression in the human liver is not clear. Here we show that glucagon and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) strongly repressed CYP7A1 mRNA expression in human primary hepatocytes. Reporter assays confirmed that cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibited human CYP7A1 gene transcription, in contrast to their stimulation of the PEPCK gene. Mutagenesis analysis identified a PKA-responsive region located within the previously identified HNF4alpha binding site in the human CYP7A1 promoter. Glucagon and cAMP increased HNF4alpha phosphorylation and reduced the amount of HNF4alpha present in CYP7A1 chromatin. Our findings suggest that glucagon inhibited CYP7A1 gene expression via PKA phosphorylation of HNF4alpha, which lost its ability to bind the CYP7A1 gene and resulted in inhibition of human CYP7A1 gene transcription. In conclusion, this study unveils a species difference in nutrient regulation of the human and mouse CYP7A1 gene and suggests a discordant regulation of bile acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis by glucagon in human livers during fasting.

  4. Expression and Sequence Evolution of Aromatase cyp19a1 and Other Sexual Development Genes in East African Cichlid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Böhne, Astrid; Heule, Corina; Boileau, Nicolas; Salzburger, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Sex determination mechanisms are highly variable across teleost fishes and sexual development is often plastic. Nevertheless, downstream factors establishing the two sexes are presumably conserved. Here, we study sequence evolution and gene expression of core genes of sexual development in a prime model system in evolutionary biology, the East African cichlid fishes. Using the available five cichlid genomes, we test for signs of positive selection in 28 genes including duplicates from the teleost whole-genome duplication, and examine the expression of these candidate genes in three cichlid species. We then focus on a particularly striking case, the A- and B-copies of the aromatase cyp19a1, and detect different evolutionary trajectories: cyp19a1A evolved under strong positive selection, whereas cyp19a1B remained conserved at the protein level, yet is subject to regulatory changes at its transcription start sites. Importantly, we find shifts in gene expression in both copies. Cyp19a1 is considered the most conserved ovary-factor in vertebrates, and in all teleosts investigated so far, cyp19a1A and cyp19a1B are expressed in ovaries and the brain, respectively. This is not the case in cichlids, where we find new expression patterns in two derived lineages: the A-copy gained a novel testis-function in the Ectodine lineage, whereas the B-copy is overexpressed in the testis of the speciest-richest cichlid group, the Haplochromini. This suggests that even key factors of sexual development, including the sex steroid pathway, are not conserved in fish, supporting the idea that flexibility in sexual determination and differentiation may be a driving force of speciation. PMID:23883521

  5. Variant alleles of the CYP1B1 gene are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background CYP1B1 is a P450 enzyme which is involved in the activation of pro-carcinogens to carcinogens as well as sex hormone metabolism. Because differences in the activity of the enzyme have been correlated with variant alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), it represents an attractive candidate gene for studies into colorectal cancer susceptibility. Methods We genotyped 597 cancer patients and 597controls for three CYP1B1 SNPs, which have previously been shown to be associated with altered enzymatic activity. Using the three SNPs, eight different haplotypes were constructed. The haplotype frequencies were estimated in cases and controls and then compared. The odds ratio for each tumour type, associated with each haplotype was estimated, with reference to the most common haplotype observed in the controls. Results The three SNPs rs10012, rs1056827 and rs1056836 alone did not provide any significant evidence of association with colorectal cancer risk. Haplotypes of rs1056827 and rs10012 or rs1056827 and rs1056836 revealed an association with colorectal cancer which was significantly stronger in the homozygous carriers. One haplotype was under represented in the colorectal cancer patient group compared to the control population suggesting a protective effect. Conclusion Genetic variants within the CYP1B1 that are associated with altered function appear to influence susceptibility to a colorectal cancer in Poland. Three haplotypes were associated with altered cancer risk; one conferred protection and two were associated with an increased risk of disease. These observations should be confirmed in other populations. PMID:20701755

  6. The cytochrome P450 genes of channel catfish: their involvement in disease defense responses as revealed by meta-analysis of RNA-Seq datasets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) encode one of the most diverse enzyme superfamily in nature. They catalyze oxidative reactions of endogenous molecules and exogenous chemicals. Methods: We identifiedCYPs genes through in silico analysis using EST, RNA-Seq and genome databases of channel catfish.Phylogenetic ...

  7. Isolation and characterization of the CYP2D6 gene in Felidae with comparison to other mammals.

    PubMed

    Schenekar, Tamara; Winkler, Kathrin A; Troyer, Jennifer L; Weiss, Steven

    2011-02-01

    The highly polymorphic CYP2D6 protein metabolizes about 25% of commonly used drugs and underlies a broad spectrum of drug responses among individuals. In contrast to extensive knowledge on the human CYP2D6 gene, little is known about the gene in non-human mammals. CYP2D6 mRNA from 23 cats (Felidae) spanning seven species were compared to available CYPD6 sequences in ten additional mammals and multiple allelic variants in humans. A relatively high mean dN/dS ratio (0.565) was observed, especially within Felidae. Pairwise dN/dS ratios were non-monotonically distributed with respect to evolutionary distance suggesting either positive selection or retention of slightly deleterious mutations. Positive selection on specific codons, most notably in regions involved in substrate recognition and membrane anchoring is supported and the possible influence of diet on specific amino acid changes in substrate binding sites is discussed.

  8. An in vivo and in vitro comparison of CYP gene induction in mice using liver slices and quantitative RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Martignoni, Marcella; de Kanter, Ruben; Grossi, Pietro; Saturno, Grazia; Barbaria, Elena; Monshouwer, Mario

    2006-02-01

    The scope of this study was to compare in vitro and in vivo cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene induction in mice, using liver slices as an in vitro model. We have chosen to study mice to be able to better interpret CYP induction during long-term safety studies in this species. Mouse liver slices were incubated with beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF), phenobarbital (PB) or dexamethasone (DEX) for 24 h. In addition, in an in vivo study, mice were treated with the same compounds for three days. The mRNA expression of cyp1a1, cyp1a2, cyp2b10 and cyp3a11, which are important for drug metabolism and inducible by xenobiotics, were investigated in vivo and in vitro by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Both in mouse liver slices and in vivo, betaNF was found to be a potent inducer of cyp1a1 and to a lesser extent of cyp1a2. All three compounds induced cyp2b10 mRNA levels, while the cyp3a11 mRNA level was induced only by DEX. Overall, these data demonstrated a good predictive in vitro-in vivo correlation of CYP induction.

  9. CYP1B1-mediated Pathobiology of Primary Congenital Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Qadri, Rizwana; Dada, Tanuj

    2015-01-01

    CYP1B1 is a dioxin-inducible enzyme belonging to the cytochrome P450 superfamily. It has been observed to be important in a variety of developmental processes including in utero development of ocular structures. Owing to its role in the developmental biology of eye, its dysfunction can lead to ocular developmental defects. This has been found to be true and CYP1B1 mutations have been observed in a majority of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) patients from all over the globe. Primary congenital glaucoma is an irreversibly blinding childhood disorder (onset at birth or early infancy) typified by anomalous development of trabecular meshwork (TM). How CYP1B1 causes PCG is not known; however, some basic investigations have been reported. Understanding the CYP1B1 mediated etiopathomechanism of PCG is very important to identify targets for therapy and preventive management. In this perspective, we will make an effort to reconstruct the pathomechanism of PCG in the light of already reported information about the disease and the CYP1B1 gene. How to cite this article: Faiq MA, Dada R, Qadri R, Dada T. CYP1 B1-mediated Pathobiology of Primary Congenital Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(3):77-80.

  10. CYP1B1-mediated Pathobiology of Primary Congenital Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Qadri, Rizwana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT CYP1B1 is a dioxin-inducible enzyme belonging to the cytochrome P450 superfamily. It has been observed to be important in a variety of developmental processes including in utero development of ocular structures. Owing to its role in the developmental biology of eye, its dysfunction can lead to ocular developmental defects. This has been found to be true and CYP1B1 mutations have been observed in a majority of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) patients from all over the globe. Primary congenital glaucoma is an irreversibly blinding childhood disorder (onset at birth or early infancy) typified by anomalous development of trabecular meshwork (TM). How CYP1B1 causes PCG is not known; however, some basic investigations have been reported. Understanding the CYP1B1 mediated etiopathomechanism of PCG is very important to identify targets for therapy and preventive management. In this perspective, we will make an effort to reconstruct the pathomechanism of PCG in the light of already reported information about the disease and the CYP1B1 gene. How to cite this article: Faiq MA, Dada R, Qadri R, Dada T. CYP1 B1-mediated Pathobiology of Primary Congenital Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(3):77-80. PMID:26997841

  11. Cytochrome P450 gene CYP337 and heritability of fitness traits in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

    PubMed

    de Jong, M A; Wong, S C; Lehtonen, R; Hanski, I

    2014-04-01

    Fitness-related life history traits often show substantial heritable genetic variation in natural populations, but knowledge of the genetic architecture of these traits is limited. In the Glanville fritillary butterfly, we measured the heritability of key life history traits in a large outdoor population cage during 2 years and generations and combined this experiment with an association study of a set of candidate genes. The genes were selected on the basis of previous genomic and transcriptomic studies and have been linked to the physiology and life history of this or other arthropod species. Heritability was high and significant for two traits, post-diapause larval development time (h(2) = 0.37) and lifetime egg (and larval) production (h(2) = 0.62); the latter is closely related to lifetime reproductive success and therefore fitness. We discovered a strong association between genetic polymorphism in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP337 and lifetime egg production, which accounted for 14% of the additive variance in egg production. This gene belongs to a group of cytochrome P450 genes that have a well-documented role in host plant adaptations in Lepidoptera and other insects and is likely to play an important role in the ecology and microevolution of the Glanville fritillary. This study provides a prime example of a gene associated with heritable fitness variation, measured under semi-natural ecological conditions.

  12. The impact of Cytochrome P450 CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genes on suicide attempt and suicide risk-a European multicentre study on treatment-resistant major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Höfer, Peter; Schosser, Alexandra; Calati, Raffaella; Serretti, Alessandro; Massat, Isabelle; Kocabas, Neslihan Aygun; Konstantinidis, Anastasios; Linotte, Sylvie; Mendlewicz, Julien; Souery, Daniel; Zohar, Joseph; Juven-Wetzler, Alzbeta; Montgomery, Stuart; Kasper, Siegfried

    2013-08-01

    Recently published data have reported associations between cytochrome P450 metabolizer status and suicidality. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of genetic polymorphisms of the cytochrome P450 genes on suicide risk and/or a personal history of suicide attempts. Two hundred forty-three major depressive disorder patients were collected in the context of a European multicentre resistant depression study and treated with antidepressants at adequate doses for at least 4 weeks. Suicidality was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Treatment response was defined as HAM-D ≤ 17 and remission as HAM-D ≤ 7 after 4 weeks of treatment with antidepressants at adequate dose. Genotyping was performed for all relevant variations of the CYP1A2 gene (*1A, *1F, *1C, *1 J, *1 K), the CYP2C9 gene (*2, *3), the CYP2C19 gene (*2, *17) and the CYP2D6 gene (*3, *4, *5, *6, *9, *19, *XN). No association between both suicide risk and personal history of suicide attempts, and the above mentioned metabolic profiles were found after multiple testing corrections. In conclusion, the investigated cytochrome gene polymorphisms do not seem to be associated with suicide risk and/or a personal history of suicide attempts, though methodological and sample size limitations do not allow definitive conclusions.

  13. Evolution of enzyme superfamilies.

    PubMed

    Glasner, Margaret E; Gerlt, John A; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2006-10-01

    Enzyme evolution is often constrained by aspects of catalysis. Sets of homologous proteins that catalyze different overall reactions but share an aspect of catalysis, such as a common partial reaction, are called mechanistically diverse superfamilies. The common mechanistic steps and structural characteristics of several of these superfamilies, including the enolase, Nudix, amidohydrolase, and haloacid dehalogenase superfamilies have been characterized. In addition, studies of mechanistically diverse superfamilies are helping to elucidate mechanisms of functional diversification, such as catalytic promiscuity. Understanding how enzyme superfamilies evolve is vital for accurate genome annotation, predicting protein functions, and protein engineering.

  14. [Relationship between CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in coke oven workers].

    PubMed

    Nie, Ji-sheng; Zhang, Hong-mei; Sun, Jian-ya; Zeng, Ping; Zhang, Ling; Niu, Qiao

    2009-05-01

    To study the associations of CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms with levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene among coke oven workers. 223 male workers from a coke plant (76, 82 and 65 workers in oven top group, oven-side group and oven-bottom group respectively) and 119 controls without occupational polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure were selected. The MspI gene polymorphism in CYP1A1 3' flanking region and the genotypes at I462V site in exon 7 of CYP1A1 were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and allele specific amplification (ASA). The urinary 1-hydroxypyrene of coke oven workers in oven-top, oven-side and oven-bottom (3.77+/-0.64, 3.57+/-0.49, 3.26+/-0.80 micromol/mol Cr) were significantly higher than controls (2.80+/-1.02 micromol/mol Cr) (P<0.01). The urinary 1-hydroxypyrene was not significantly different among MspI genotypes in CYP1A1 3' flanking region (P>0.05). In oven-top group and oven-side group, the subjects with Val/Val genotype in exon 7 of CYP1A1 had significantly higher urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels than those with Ile/Val or Ile/Ile genotype, and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene of Ile-Val genotype were also significantly higher than Ile/Ile genotype (P<0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the coke oven workers (OR in oven top group, oven-side group and oven-bottom group was 24.926, 4.226 and 6.729 respectively) and subjects with m2/m2 genotype in CYP1A1 3' flanking region (OR=4.031) or with Val/Val or Ile/Val genotype in exon 7 of CYP1A1 (OR were 5.524 and 3.811) had elevated urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (greater than 95 percentile of control group, 3.876 micromol/mol Cr). BAP concentration of work environment contributes to the elevated urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels, and the exposed BAP levels were regulated by the CYP1A1 MspI and I462V genotypes. Genetic polymorphism of CYP1A1 gene could be a susceptible biomarker in coke oven workers which was involved in the individual susceptibility

  15. Diversity in protein domain superfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sayoni; Dawson, Natalie L; Orengo, Christine A

    2015-01-01

    Whilst ∼93% of domain superfamilies appear to be relatively structurally and functionally conserved based on the available data from the CATH-Gene3D domain classification resource, the remainder are much more diverse. In this review, we consider how domains in some of the most ubiquitous and promiscuous superfamilies have evolved, in particular the plasticity in their functional sites and surfaces which expands the repertoire of molecules they interact with and actions performed on them. To what extent can we identify a core function for these superfamilies which would allow us to develop a ‘domain grammar of function’ whereby a protein's biological role can be proposed from its constituent domains? Clearly the first step is to understand the extent to which these components vary and how changes in their molecular make-up modifies function. PMID:26451979

  16. The EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding protein super-family: a genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns in the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Girard, F; Venail, J; Schwaller, B; Celio, M R

    2015-05-21

    In mice, 249 putative members of the superfamily of EF-hand domain Ca(2+)-binding proteins, manifesting great diversity in structure, cellular localization and functions have been identified. Three members in particular, namely, calbindin-D28K, calretinin and parvalbumin, are widely used as markers for specific neuronal subpopulations in different regions of the brain. The aim of the present study was to compile a comprehensive atlas of the gene-expression profiles of the entire EF-hand gene superfamily in the murine brain. This was achieved by a meticulous examination of the in-situ hybridization images in the Allen Brain Atlas database. Topographically, our analysis focused on the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex (barrel cortex in the primary somatosensory area), basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, midbrain, pons and medulla, and on clearly identifiable sub-structures within each of these areas. The expression profiles of four family-members, namely hippocalcin-like 4, neurocalcin-δ, plastin 3 and tescalcin, that have not been hitherto reported, at either the mRNA (in-situ-hybridization) or the protein (immunohistochemical) levels, are now presented for the first time. The fruit of our analysis is a document in which the gene-expression profiles of all members of the EF-hand family genes are compared, and in which future possible neuronal markers for specific cells/brain areas are identified. The assembled information could afford functional clues to investigators, conducive to further experimental pursuit.

  17. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 on the induction of activity and expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes in the liver of rats under the influence of indole-3-carbinol.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, L V; Tutel'yan, V A; Trusov, N V; Guseva, G V; Aksenov, I V

    2014-01-01

    Supplementation of the ration with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in doses of 0.3 and 1 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks had no effect on ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD) activity and expression of the CYP1A1 gene in male Wistar rats, but caused a dose-dependent increase in methoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (MROD) activity of CYP1A2 (by 28 and 73%, respectively) without significant changes in CYP1A2 mRNA expression. ω-3 PUFA had no effect on the indole-3-carbinol-induced (20 mg/kg body weight over the last 7 days of the experiment) EROD activity and expression of CYP1A1 mRNA. The indole-3-carbinol-induced MROD activity was shown to increase by 6.2 times in rats not receiving ω-3 PUFA and only by 3.9 and 2.7 times in animals receiving ω-3 PUFA. The indole-3-carbinol-induced expression of CYP1A2 mRNA slightly increased in animals receiving ω-3 PUFA. Our results suggest that the effect of ω-3 PUFA on the induced and basal activity of CYP1A2 is not related to modulation of CYP1A2 gene expression.

  18. The human serum amyloid A protein (SAA) superfamily gene cluster: Mapping to chromosome 11p15. 1 by physical and genetic linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sellar, G.C.; Jordan, S.A.; Whitehead, A.S. ); Bickmore, W.A.; Fantes, J.A.; Van Heyningen, V. )

    1994-01-15

    The human serum amyloid A protein (SAA) family comprises a number of small, hepatically produced, differentially expressed apolipoproteins encoded by genes localized on the short arm of chromosome 11. SAA1 and SAA2 are highly related genes that together encode the acute-phase SAAs; SAA3 is a pseudogene; and SAA4 is a low-level constitutively expressed gene encoding constitutive SAA. The authors have used a combination of physical and genetic mapping techniques to provide evidence that the SAA gene superfamily comprises a cluster of closely linked genes localized to 11p15.1. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis placed SAA 1 to within 350 kb of the previously linked SAA2 and SAA4 genes. SAA locus-specific polymerase chain reaction amplification from a panel of somatic cell hybrids carrying defined regions of chromosome 11p mapped all four loci to 11p15.1pter. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using a cosmid probe carrying the SAA2 and SAA4 genes refined the localization of these genes (and SAA1) to 11p15.1. To order SAA3 on the genetic map, a highly polymorphic (CA)[sub n] dinucleotide repeat within SAA3 was typed through the CEPH reference families. In accordance with the physical localization of SAAs 1, 2, and 4, SAA3 maps to the 11p15.1 region proximal to the parathyroid hormone (PTH) locus ([theta] = 0.02; lod = 12.020) and distal to D11S455 ([theta] = 0.058, lod = 8.274). To provide further evidence of an SAA superfamily gene cluster, an NcoI restriction fragment length polymorphism in the SAA2 gene was also typed through the CEPH reference panel. Two-point lod score analysis gave [theta] = 0.001, with lod = 10.82 between SAA3 and SAA2, thereby firmly confirming close linkage between all known SAA superfamily members on chromosome 11p15.1. 41 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Gene-environment interaction in Parkinson’s disease: coffee, ADORA2A, and CYP1A2

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Yu-Hsuan; Lill, Christina M.; Lee, Pei-Chen; Hansen, Johnni; Lassen, Christina Funch; Bertram, Lars; Greene, Naomi; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Ritz, Beate

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Drinking caffeinated coffee has been reported to protect against Parkinson’s disease (PD). Caffeine is an adenosine A2A receptor (encoded by the gene ADORA2A) antagonist that increases dopaminergic neurotransmission and Cytochrome P450 1A2 (gene: CYP1A2) metabolizes caffeine, thus gene polymorphisms in ADORA2A and CYP1A2 may influence the effect coffee consumption has on PD risk. Methods In a population-based case control study (PASIDA) in Denmark (1,556 PD patients and 1,606 birth year- and sex- matched controls), we assessed interactions between lifetime coffee consumption and three polymorphisms in ADORA2A and CYP1A2 for all subjects and incident and prevalent PD cases separately using logistic regression models. We also conducted a meta-analysis combining our results with those from previous studies. Results We estimated statistically significant interactions for ADORA2A rs5760423 and heavy vs. light coffee consumption in incident (OR interaction=0.66 [0.46–0.94], p=0.02) but not prevalent PD. We did not observe interactions for CYP1A2 rs762551 and rs2472304 in incident or prevalent PD. In meta-analyses, PD associations with daily coffee consumption were strongest among carriers of variant alleles in both ADORA2A and CYP1A2. Conclusion We corroborated results from a previous report that described interactions between ADORA2A and CYP1A2 polymorphisms and coffee consumption. Our results also suggest that survivor bias may affect results of studies that enrol prevalent PD cases. PMID:28135712

  20. IL-1 regulates the Cyp7a1 gene and serum total cholesterol level at steady state in mice.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Misaki; Ashino, Takashi; Yoshida, Takemi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Sekimoto, Masashi; Degawa, Masakuni

    2009-02-06

    We examined the role of hepatic interleukin (IL)-1alpha/beta in serum total cholesterol homeostasis using male and female IL-1-knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. Serum total cholesterol level was higher in males than in females in WT and KO mice. The difference between sexes was closely correlated with the difference in gene expression level of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), a rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. No significant sex difference in gene expression level of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis, was observed in WT mice. Interestingly, the gene expression level of hepatic Cyp7a1 was lower in KO mice than in sex-matched WT mice, while the serum total cholesterol level was the opposite. The present findings demonstrate that IL-1alpha and IL-1beta are positive regulators for the Cyp7a1 gene in steady-state mice and that Cyp7a1 is one of the factors that mediate the difference in serum total cholesterol level between sexes.

  1. Zebularine upregulates expression of CYP genes through inhibition of DNMT1 and PKR in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kazuaki; Aizawa, Kazuko; Aung, Kyaw Htet; Yamauchi, Junji; Tanoue, Akito

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is one of the major reasons cited for drug withdrawal. Therefore, it is of extreme importance to detect human hepatotoxic candidates as early as possible during the drug development process. In this study, we aimed to enhance hepatocyte functions such as CYP gene expression in HepG2 cells, one of the most extensively used cell lines in evaluating hepatotoxicity of chemicals and drugs. We found that zebularine, a potent inhibitor of DNA methylation, remarkably upregulates the expression of CYP genes in HepG2 cells. In addition, we revealed that the upregulation of CYP gene expression by zebularine was mediated through the inhibition of both DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). Furthermore, HepG2 cells treated with zebularine were more sensitive than control cells to drug toxicity. Taken together, our results show that zebularine may make HepG2 cells high-functioning and thus could be useful for evaluating the hepatotoxicity of chemicals and drugs speedily and accurately in in-vitro systems. The finding that zebularine upregulates CYP gene expression through DNMT1 and PKR modulation sheds light on the mechanisms controlling hepatocyte function and thus may aid in the development of new in-vitro systems using high-functioning hepatocytes. PMID:28112215

  2. 3-Methylcholanthrene elicits DNA adduct formation in the CYP1A1 promoter region and attenuates reporter gene expression in rat H4IIE cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, Bhagavatula . E-mail: bmoorthy@bcm.tmc.edu; Muthiah, Kathirvel; Fazili, Inayat S.; Kondraganti, Sudha R.; Wang Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Jiang Weiwu

    2007-03-23

    Cytochrome CYP1A (CYP1A) enzymes catalyze bioactivation of 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) to genotoxic metabolites. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CYP1A2 catalyzes formation of MC-DNA adducts that are preferentially formed in the promoter region of CYP1A1, resulting in modulation of CYP1A1 gene expression. MC bound covalently to plasmid DNA (50 {mu}g) containing human CYP1A1 promoter (pGL3-1A1), when incubated with wild-type (WT) liver microsomes (2 mg) and NAPPH 37 {sup o}C for 2 h, giving rise to 9 adducts, as determined by {sup 32}P-postlabeling. Eighty percent of adducts was located in the promoter region. Transient transfection of the adducted plasmids into rat hepatoma (H4IIE) cells for 16 h, followed by MC (1 {mu}M) treatment for 24 h inhibited reporter (luciferase) gene expression by 75%, compared to unadducted controls. Our results suggest that CYP1A2 plays a key role in sequence-specific MC-DNA adduct formation in the CYP1A1 promoter region, leading to attenuation of CYP1A1 gene expression.

  3. The CYP2A3 gene product catalyzes coumarin 7-hydroxylation in human liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamano, Shigeru; Tatsuno, Jun; Gonzalez, F.J. )

    1990-02-06

    Three cDNAs, designated IIA3, IIA3v, and IIA4, coding for P450s in the CYP2A gene subfamily were isolated from a {lambda}gt11 library prepared from human hepatic mRNA. Only three nucleotide differences and a single amino acid difference, Leu{sup 160}{yields}His, were found between IIA3 and IIA3v, indicating that they are probably allelic variants. IIA4 displayed 94% amino acid similarity with IIA3 and IIA3v. The three cDNAs were inserted into vaccinia virus, and recombinant viruses were used to infect human hepatoma Hep G2 cells. Only IIA3 was able to produce an enzyme that had a reduced CO-bound spectrum with a {lambda}{sub max} at 450 nm. This expressed enzyme was able to carry out coumarin 7-hydroxylation and ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation. cDNA-expressed IIA3v and IIA4 failed to incorporate heme and were enzymatically inactive. Analysis of IIA proteins in human liver microsomes, using antibody against rat IIA2, revealed two proteins of 49 and 50 kDa, the former of which appeared to correlate with human microsomal coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. A more striking correlation was found between IIa mRNA and enzyme activity. The rat antibody was able to completely abolish coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity in 12 liver samples. These data establish that the CYP2A3 gene product is primarily responsible for coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity in human liver. The level of expression of this activity varied up to 40-fold between livers. Levels of IIA mRNA also varied significantly between liver specimens, and three specimens had no detectable mRNA.

  4. Tag SNPs detect association of the CYP1B1 gene with primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Alex W.; Mackey, David A.; Mitchell, Paul; Craig, Jamie E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The cytochrome p450 family 1 subfamily B (CYP1B1) gene is a well known cause of autosomal recessive primary congenital glaucoma. It has also been postulated as a modifier of disease severity in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), particularly in juvenile onset families. However, the role of common variation in the gene in relation to POAG has not been thoroughly explored. Methods Seven tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including two coding variants (L432V and N543S), were genotyped in 860 POAG cases and 898 examined normal controls. Each SNP and haplotype was assessed for association with disease. In addition, a subset of 396 severe cases and 452 elderly controls were analyzed separately. Results There was no association of any individual SNP in the full data set. Two SNPs (rs162562 and rs10916) were nominally associated under a dominant model in the severe cases (p<0.05). A common haplotype (AGCAGCC) was also found to be nominally associated in both the full data set (p=0.048, OR [95%CI]=0.83 [0.69–0.90]) and more significantly in the severe cases (p=0.004, OR [95%CI]=0.68 [0.52–0.89]) which survives correction for multiple testing. Conclusions Although no major effect of common variation at the CYP1B1 locus on POAG was found, there could be an effect of SNPs tagged by rs162562 and represented on the AGCAGCC haplotype. PMID:21139974

  5. Skinfold thickness and blood pressure across C-344T polymorphism of CYP11B2 gene.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Schiavon, Laura; Guglielmi, Francesco; Pagnin, Elisa; Bascelli, Anna; Basso, Giancarlo; Mazza, Alberto; Martini, Bortolo; Bolzon, Monica; Guidotti, Federica; Caffi, Sandro; Rizzato, Enzo; Pessina, Achille C

    2007-09-01

    To ascertain whether body adiposity is associated with the C-344T polymorphism of the CYP11B2 gene codifying for aldosterone synthase. A cross-sectional epidemiological evaluation of a highly homogeneous unselected general population of Caucasians. Lifestyle, medical history, anthropometrics, subscapular, triceps and suprailiac skinfold thickness, lying blood pressure and biochemical measures were recorded in a population-based study among 1386 unselected subjects (56.5% women) living in a secluded valley. All were genotyped for C-344T allele status. Continuous variables were compared across genotypes with analysis of covariance and correlations evaluated using the Pearson method. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated for the TT and CT genotype versus the CC homozygotes and compared with the T-carriers with a logistic model. The C-344T genotypic frequency did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In women, higher values of triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were found in the CC homozygotes than in the T-carriers. In this sex, skinfold thickness also directly correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the T-carriers only. The logistic regression for the dependent variable arterial hypertension showed an influence of triceps [OR 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.12, P=0.006], subscapular (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.20, P<0.0001) and suprailiac (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.15, P=0.03) skinfold in T-carrier women only. These relationships were not detectable in men. The aldosterone-to-renin ratios were comparable across genotypes and sexes. The C-344T polymorphism of the CYP11B2 gene seems to exert a sex-specific influence on body adiposity, independent of adrenal aldosterone.

  6. Caffeine Induces High Expression of cyp-35A Family Genes and Inhibits the Early Larval Development in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hyemin; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Gong, Joomi; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Intake of caffeine during pregnancy can cause retardation of fetal development. Although the significant influence of caffeine on animal development is widely recognized, much remains unknown about its mode of action because of its pleiotropic effects on living organisms. In the present study, by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, the effects of caffeine on development were examined. Brood size, embryonic lethality, and percent larval development were investigated, and caffeine was found to inhibit the development of C. elegans at most of the stages in a dosage-dependent fashion. Upon treatment with 30 mM caffeine, the majority (86.1 ± 3.4%) of the L1 larvae were irreversibly arrested without further development. In contrast, many of the late-stage larvae survived and grew to adults when exposed to the same 30 mM caffeine. These results suggest that early-stage larvae are more susceptible to caffeine than later-stage larvae. To understand the metabolic responses to caffeine treatment, the levels of expression of cytochrome P450 (cyp) genes were examined with or without caffeine treatment using comparative micro-array, and it was found that the expression of 24 cyp genes was increased by more than 2-fold (p < 0.05). Among them, induction of the cyp-35A gene family was the most prominent. Interestingly, depletion of the cyp-35A family genes one-by-one or in combination through RNA interference resulted in partial rescue from early larval developmental arrest caused by caffeine treatment, suggesting that the high-level induction of cyp-35A family genes can be fatal to the development of early-stage larvae. PMID:25591395

  7. The ras superfamily proteins.

    PubMed

    Chardin, P

    1988-07-01

    Several recent discoveries indicate that the ras genes, frequently activated to a transforming potential in some human tumours, belong to a large family that can be divided into three main branches: the first branch represented by the ras, ral and rap genes; the second branch, by the rho genes; and the third branch, by the rab genes. The C-terminal end of the encoded proteins always includes a cystein, which may become fatty-acylated, suggesting a sub-membrane localization. The ras superfamily proteins share four regions of high homology corresponding to the GTP binding site; however, even in these regions, significant differences are found, suggesting that the various proteins may possess slightly different biochemical properties. Recent reports show that some of these proteins play an essential role in the control of physical processes such as cell motility, membrane ruffling, endocytosis and exocytosis. Nevertheless, the characterization of the proteins directly interacting with the ras or ras-related gene-products will be required to precisely understand their function.

  8. Association of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid mutation with polymorphism in CYP2E1 gene in oral carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rahul; Mehrotra, Divya; Catapano, Carlo; Choubey, Vimal; Sarin, Rajiv; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Singh, Stuti

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral carcinogenesis is a complex process affected by genetic as well as environmental factors. CYP2E1 gene is involved in metabolism of number of compounds and carcinogens. Its normal functioning is required for homeostasis of free radical. Mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) is 10–100 times more susceptible to damage than nuclear DNA. Mitochondrial DNA large scale deletions are well documented in oral cancer. However, the relationship between CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms and mtDNA damage is still not documented in literature. Materials and Methods Case–control study involving 50 subjects was carried out. Deoxyribonucleic acid extraction was done from study subject tissue samples. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was done to confirm CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms. The PCR amplification was done for mtDNA 4977 bp deletion. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 11.5 with χ2 tests. Results c1c1 and DD polymorphisms are prevalent in North Indian population having oral cancer. These polymorphisms are significantly associated with mtDNA 4977 bp deletion. Conclusion Mitochondrial DNA damage induced by wild CYP2E1 forms and imperfect DNA repair in mtDNA may act synergistically to greatly enhance oral cancer risk. PMID:25756024

  9. Structure and expression of the rat epididymal secretory protein I gene. An androgen-regulated member of the lipocalin superfamily with a rare splice donor site.

    PubMed Central

    Girotti, M; Jones, R; Emery, D C; Chia, W; Hall, L

    1992-01-01

    The complete rat epididymal secretory protein I (ESP I) gene was isolated from a genomic library constructed in bacteriophage lambda Charon 4A. The complete nucleotide sequence of the gene and its immediate 5' and 3' flanking sequences were determined. Interesting features include the presence of a rare, but functional, splice donor site (...GC) and the presence of a putative androgen-receptor-binding element. A detailed analysis of ESP I regulation was carried out after castration and subsequent testosterone treatment, demonstrating the requirement for androgens. Efferent-duct ligation and cryptorchism, on the other hand, had no effect on the steady-state concentrations of ESP I transcripts. Comparison of the exon/intron organization of the ESP I gene with those of members of the lipocalin superfamily provides strong support for a common ancestral origin. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1731756

  10. Novel and prevalent CYP11B1 gene mutations in Turkish patients with 11-β hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kandemir, Nurgun; Yilmaz, Didem Yucel; Gonc, E Nazli; Ozon, Alev; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer; Dursun, Ali; Ozgul, R Koksal

    2017-01-01

    11β-Hydroxylase deficiency is the second most frequent type of congenital adrenal hyperplasia and is more common in those of Turkish descent than in other populations. The purpose of this study is to examine the spectrum of CYP11B1 gene mutations in Turkish patients with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency. Twenty-eight patients from 24 families, ages ranging from 0.1 to 7 years, were included in the study. Clinical diagnosis was based on virilization and high levels of 11-deoxycortisol. Twenty-six cases exhibited the classical and 2 cases the non-classical form. Mutation screening of 9 CYP11B1 exons was performed by direct DNA sequence analysis, specifically amplifying CYP11B1 gene fragments while avoiding simultaneous amplification of homologous CYP11B2 gene sequences. Seventeen different mutations were detected, 6 of which are novel (p.Gln189Hisfs*70, p.Glu198Gly, p.Thr318Lys, p.Gly446Ser, IVS8+5G>C and exon 3-5 del). All of the identified mutations resulted in the classical form with severe virilization, except for the p.Gly446Ser mutation, which caused a late-onset type of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency. The c.954G>A;p.Thr318Thr mutation was the most common in our cohort, with an allele frequency of 14.6%.Of the CYP11B1 gene mutations detected, 75% were found in exons 3, 5 and 7 and the half of the mutations were nonsense, splice site, deletion or insertion mutations, causing severe virilization in female patients. The findings are important for genetic counseling and the prenatal diagnosis of Turkish patients with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin D insufficiency in Arabs and South Asians positively associates with polymorphisms in GC and CYP2R1 genes.

    PubMed

    Elkum, Naser; Alkayal, Fadi; Noronha, Fiona; Ali, Maisa M; Melhem, Motasem; Al-Arouj, Monira; Bennakhi, Abdullah; Behbehani, Kazem; Alsmadi, Osama; Abubaker, Jehad

    2014-01-01

    A number of genetic studies have reported an association between vitamin D related genes such as group-specific component gene (GC), Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily R, polypeptide 1 (CYP2R1) and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase/nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide synthetase 1 (DHCR7/NADSYN1) and serum levels of the active form of Vitamin D, 25 (OH) D among African Americans, Caucasians, and Chinese. Little is known about how genetic variations associate with, or contribute to, 25(OH)D levels in Arabs populations. Allele frequencies of 18 SNPs derived from CYP2R1, GC, and DHCR7/NADSYN1 genes in 1549 individuals (Arabs, South Asians, and Southeast Asians living in Kuwait) were determined using real time genotyping assays. Serum levels of 25(OH)D were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay. GC gene polymorphisms (rs17467825, rs3755967, rs2282679, rs7041 and rs2298850) were found to be associated with 25(OH)D serum levels in Arabs and South Asians. Two of the CYP2R1 SNPs (rs10500804 and rs12794714) and one of GC SNPs (rs1155563) were found to be significantly associated with 25(OH)D serum levels only in people of Arab origin. Across all three ethnicities none of the SNPs of DHCR7/NADSYN1 were associated with serum 25(OH)D levels and none of the 18 SNPs were significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D levels in people from South East Asia. Our data show for the first time significant association between the GC (rs2282679 and rs7041), CYP2R1 (rs10741657) SNPs and 25(OH)D levels. This supports their roles in vitamin D Insufficiency in Arab and South Asian populations respectively. Interestingly, two of the CYP2R1 SNPs (rs10500804 and rs12794714) and one GC SNP (rs1155563) were found to correlate with vitamin D in Arab population exclusively signifying their importance in this population.

  12. Ultraviolet B radiation induces impaired lifecycle traits and modulates expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Lee, Min-Chul; Park, Jun Chul; Kim, Hui-Su; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation at the developmental, reproductive, and molecular levels in aquatic invertebrates, we measured UV-B-induced acute toxicity, impairments in developmental and reproductive traits, and UV-B interaction with the entire family of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in the intertidal benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus. We found a significant, dose-dependent reduction (P<0.05) in the survival of T. japonicus that began as a developmental delay and decreased fecundity. The 48h LD10 and LD50 were 1.35 and 1.84kJ/m(2), and the CYP inhibitor (PBO) elevated mortality, confirming the involvement of CYP genes in UV-B induced toxicity. Low-dose UV-B (1.5kJ/m(2)) induced developmental delays, and higher doses (6-18kJ/m(2)) caused reproductive impairments in ovigerous females. The significant up-regulation of CYP genes belonging to clans 2/3/MT/4/20 in T. japonicus exposed to UV-B (12kJ/m(2)) confirmed molecular interaction between UV-B and CYP genes. Moreover, orphan CYPs, such as CYP20A1, provide good insight on the deorphanization of invertebrate CYPs. Overall, these results demonstrate the involvement of UV-B radiation in the expression of all the CYP genes in T. japonicus and their susceptibility to UV-B radiation. This will provide a better understanding of the mechanistic effects of UV-B in copepods through the predicted AhR-mediated up-regulation of CYP genes.

  13. Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 gene (CYP1A2) in colorectal cancer patients and controls: allele frequencies, linkage disequilibrium and influence on caffeine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sachse, Christoph; Bhambra, Upinder; Smith, Gillian; Lightfoot, Tracy J; Barrett, Jennifer H; Scollay, Jenna; Garner, R Colin; Boobis, Alan R; Wolf, C Roland; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2003-01-01

    Aim Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the cytochrome P450 enzyme 1A2 gene (CYP1A2) have been reported. Here, frequencies, linkage disequilibrium and phenotypic consequences of six SNPs are described. Methods From genomic DNA, 114 British Caucasians (49 colorectal cancer cases and 65 controls) were genotyped for the CYP1A2 polymorphisms −3858G→A (allele CYP1A2*1C), −2464T→delT (CYP1A2*1D), −740T→G (CYP1A2*1E and *1G), −164A→C (CYP1A2*1F), 63C→G (CYP1A2*2), and 1545T→C (alleles CYP1A2*1B, *1G, *1H and *3), using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism assays. All patients and controls were phenotyped for CYP1A2 by h.p.l.c. analysis of urinary caffeine metabolites. Results In 114 samples, the most frequent CYP1A2 SNPs were 1545T→C (38.2% of tested chromosomes), −164A→C (CYP1A2*1F, 33.3%) and −2464T→delT (CYP1A2*1D, 4.82%). The SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium: the most frequent constellations were found to be −3858G/−2464T/−740T/−164A/63C/1545T (61.8%), −3858G/−2464T/−740T/−164C/63C/1545C (33.3%), and −3858G/−2464delT/−740T/−164A/63C/1545C (3.51%), with no significant frequency differences between cases and controls. In the phenotype analysis, lower caffeine metabolic ratios were detected in cases than in controls. This was significant in smokers (n = 14, P = 0.020), and in a subgroup of 15 matched case-control pairs (P = 0.007), but it was not significant in nonsmokers (n = 100, P = 0.39). There was no detectable association between CYP1A2 genotype and caffeine phenotype. Conclusions (i) CYP1A2 polymorphisms are in linkage disequilibrium. Therefore, only −164A→C (CYP1A2*1F) and −2464T→delT (CYP1A2*1D) need to be analysed in the routine assessment of CYP1A2 genotype; (ii) in vivo CYP1A2 activity is lower in colorectal cancer patients than in controls, and (iii) CYP1A2 genotype had no effect on phenotype (based on the caffeine metabolite ratio). However, this

  14. Transcriptional response elements in the promoter of CYP6B1, an insect P450 gene regulated by plant chemicals.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rebecca A; Niamsup, Hataichanoke; Berenbaum, May R; Schuler, Mary A

    2003-02-17

    Papilio polyxenes, a lepidopteran continually exposed to toxic furanocoumarins in its hostplants, owes its tolerance to these compounds to the transcriptional induction of the CYP6B1 gene encoding a P450 capable of metabolizing linear furanocoumarins, such as xanthotoxin, at high rates. Transient expression of various lengths of wild-type and mutant CYP6B1v3 promoter in lepidopteran Sf9 cells defines a positive element (XRE-xan) from -136 to -119 required for both basal and xanthotoxin-inducible transcription and a negative element from -228 to -146 that represses basal transcription. Fusion of the CYP6B1v3 XRE-xan element to the Drosophila melanogaster Eip28/29 core promoter indicates that the XRE-xan functions in conjunction with its own core promoter but not with a heterologous core promoter. Sequence searches of the CYP6B1v3 proximal promoter region revealed a number of putative elements (XRE-AhR, ARE, OCT-1, EcRE, C/EBP, Inr) sharing sequence similarity with those in other regulated vertebrate and insect promoters. Mutation of TGAC nucleotides shared by the overlapping EcRE/ARE/XRE-xan indicates that this sequence is essential for basal and regulated transcription of this gene. Mutagenesis in the non-overlapping region of the EcRE indicates it modulates basal transcription. These findings are incorporated into a working model for regulation of this toxin-inducible promoter.

  15. Role of CYP1B1, MYOC, OPTN and OPTC genes in adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma: predominance of CYP1B1 mutations in Indian patients

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraj, Manjunath G.; Gupta, Santosh K.; Qamar, Imteyaz; Ali, Abdullah Mahmood; Bajaj, Vineeta; Ramesh, T.K.; Prakash, D. Ravi; Shetty, Jyoti S.; Dorairaj, Syril K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in the CYP1B1, MYOC, OPTN, and WDR36 genes result in glaucoma. Given its expression in the optic nerve, it is likely a mutation in the OPTC gene is also involved in initiating glaucoma. This study was designed to evaluate the involvement of the CYP1B1, MYOC, OPTN, and OPTC genes in the etiology of adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) found in 251 Indian patients. Methods Blood samples were obtained from individuals for DNA isolation. A combination of polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism, allele-specific PCR, and DNA sequencing techniques were used to detect mutations in four genes. Four microsatellite markers from the CYP1B1 candidate region and three intragenic CYP1B1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to determine the origin of the most common CYP1B1 mutations. Results Three previously known mutations (Pro193Leu, Glu229Lys, and Arg368His) and one novel (Met292Lys) mutation were found in the CYP1B1 gene. Frequencies of the most common mutations, Glu229Lys and Arg368His, in patients were 5.12% and 3.98%, respectively. The Glu229Lys and Arg368His mutations were also found in normal controls at frequencies of 5% and 2%, respectively, suggesting that these mutations might be polymorphic variants in our population. The absence of allele sharing for D2S177, D2S1346, D2S2974, and D2S2331 markers and three intragenic CYP1B1 SNPs in patients suggested multiple origins for the Glu229Lys and Arg368His variants. Two of 251 (0.8%) patients had the Gln48His mutation in MYOC. There was no difference in the frequency of a MYOC -83G>A promoter polymorphism between patients and controls. A novel OPTN mutation, Thr202Arg, was detected in one of 251 (0.4%) patients. The OPTN variant Met98Lys was detected in similar frequencies in patients and controls. No mutation was detected in OPTC. Taken together, 3.59% (9/251) of our POAG patients had mutations in the CYP1B1, MYOC, and OPTN genes. Conclusions This is the

  16. Variations in the 3'UTR of the CYP21A2 Gene in Heterozygous Females with Hyperandrogenaemia.

    PubMed

    Neocleous, Vassos; Fanis, Pavlos; Toumba, Meropi; Phedonos, Alexia A P; Picolos, Michalis; Andreou, Elena; Kyriakides, Tassos C; Tanteles, George A; Shammas, Christos; Phylactou, Leonidas A; Skordis, Nicos

    2017-01-01

    Heterozygosity for CYP21A2 mutations in females is possibly related to increased risk of developing clinical hyperandrogenism. The present study was designed to seek evidence on the phenotype-genotype correlation in female children, adolescents, and women with CYP21A2 mutations and variants in the 3'UTR region of the gene. Sixty-six patients out of the 169 were identified as carriers of CYP21A2 mutations. Higher values of stimulated 17 hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) levels were found in the carriers of the p.Val281Leu mutation compared to the carriers of other mutations (mean: 24.7 nmol/l versus 15.6 nmol/l). The haplotype of the (∗)52C>T, (∗)440C>T, and (∗)443T>C in the 3'UTR was identical in all heterozygous patients with p.Val281Leu and the haplotype of the (∗)12C>T and (∗)52C>T was identical in all heterozygous patients with the p.Gln318(∗). In conclusion, hyperandrogenaemic females are likely to bear heterozygous CYP21A2 mutations. Carriers of the mild p.Val281Leu mutation are at higher risk of developing hyperandrogenism than the carriers of more severe mutations. The identification of variants in the 3'UTR of CYP21A2 in combination with the heterozygous mutation may be associated with the mild form of nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia and reveal the importance of analyzing the CYP21A2 untranslated regions for the appropriate management of this category of patients.

  17. Variations in the 3′UTR of the CYP21A2 Gene in Heterozygous Females with Hyperandrogenaemia

    PubMed Central

    Neocleous, Vassos; Fanis, Pavlos; Toumba, Meropi; Phedonos, Alexia A. P.; Picolos, Michalis; Andreou, Elena; Kyriakides, Tassos C.; Tanteles, George A.; Shammas, Christos; Phylactou, Leonidas A.

    2017-01-01

    Heterozygosity for CYP21A2 mutations in females is possibly related to increased risk of developing clinical hyperandrogenism. The present study was designed to seek evidence on the phenotype-genotype correlation in female children, adolescents, and women with CYP21A2 mutations and variants in the 3′UTR region of the gene. Sixty-six patients out of the 169 were identified as carriers of CYP21A2 mutations. Higher values of stimulated 17 hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) levels were found in the carriers of the p.Val281Leu mutation compared to the carriers of other mutations (mean: 24.7 nmol/l versus 15.6 nmol/l). The haplotype of the ∗52C>T, ∗440C>T, and ∗443T>C in the 3′UTR was identical in all heterozygous patients with p.Val281Leu and the haplotype of the ∗12C>T and ∗52C>T was identical in all heterozygous patients with the p.Gln318∗. In conclusion, hyperandrogenaemic females are likely to bear heterozygous CYP21A2 mutations. Carriers of the mild p.Val281Leu mutation are at higher risk of developing hyperandrogenism than the carriers of more severe mutations. The identification of variants in the 3′UTR of CYP21A2 in combination with the heterozygous mutation may be associated with the mild form of nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia and reveal the importance of analyzing the CYP21A2 untranslated regions for the appropriate management of this category of patients. PMID:28487735

  18. Temperature effects on sex determination and ontogenetic gene expression of the aromatases cyp19a and cyp19b, and the estrogen receptors esr1 and esr2 in atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    PubMed

    van Nes, Solveig; Andersen, Øivind

    2006-12-01

    The aromatase (CYP19) and estrogen receptor (ESR) play important roles in the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation of lower vertebrates. Several studies have proven these mechanisms to be temperature sensitive, which can influence the direction of phenotypic gender development. A temperature study was conducted to examine the effect of temperature on the sex differentiation in farmed Atlantic halibut. Sexually undifferentiated larvae were exposed to 7 degrees C, 10 degrees C, or 13 degrees C during gonadal differentiation. Temperature effects on the transcription rate of the aromatase genes cyp19a (ovary type) and cyp19b (brain type) and the ESR genes esr1 and esr2 were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. With increasing temperatures, both cyp19a mRNA levels and the female incidence showed a decreasing trend, thus strongly indicating a relation between the expression of cyp19a and morphological ovary differentiation. In contrast to cyp19a, the levels of cyp19b, esr1, and esr2 mRNA strongly increased in all temperature groups throughout the study period, and did not show obvious temperature-related expression patterns. The present data provide evidence that posthatching temperature exposure significantly affects the expression of cyp19a mRNA during the developmental period and that high temperature possibly influences genetic sex determination in Atlantic halibut. Though, the female incidence never exceeded 50%, suggesting that only the homogametic (XX) female is thermolabile. So whereas temperature treatment is not likely suitable for direct feminization in halibut, the possibility for high-temperature production of XX neomales for broodstock to obtain all-female offspring by crossing with XX females is suggested.

  19. The effect of UGT1A9, CYP2B6 and CYP2C9 genes polymorphism on individual differences in propofol pharmacokinetics among Polish patients undergoing general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Mikstacki, Adam; Zakerska-Banaszak, Oliwia; Skrzypczak-Zielinska, Marzena; Tamowicz, Barbara; Prendecki, Michał; Dorszewska, Jolanta; Molinska-Glura, Marta; Waszak, Malgorzata; Slomski, Ryszard

    2017-05-01

    Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is one of the safest and most commonly used anaesthetic agents for intravenous general anaesthesia. However, in clinical practice, a large inter-individual variability in response to propofol is observed. To limit the risk of adverse effects, pharmacogenetic investigations are recommended. The aim of our study was to verify the impact of genetic changes c.516G>T in the CYP2B6, c.98T>C in the UGT1A9 and c.1075A>C in the CYP2C9 genes on the individual propofol pharmacokinetic profile in the Polish patients undergoing general anaesthesia. Eighty-five patients from the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Regional Hospital in Poznan, Poland, anaesthetised with propofol for surgery, were enrolled in the study. We have genotyped CYP2B6, UGT1A9 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms with the use of pyrosequencing. HPLC measurements of propofol plasma concentration were applied for a pharmacokinetic analysis of the anaesthetic. We identified poor (20), intermediate (42) and rapid (23) metabolisers of propofol, which constituted 24%, 49% and 27% of the group, respectively. Homozygotes c.516 T/T in the CYP2B6 gene were statistically more often found in the rapid metabolisers group (p < 0.05). However, polymorphisms c.98T>C in the UGT1A9 and c.1075A>C in the CYP2C9 genes did not affect the pharmacokinetic profile of propofol. The mean propofol retention time (MRT) correlated with the patient's body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05). From all the analysed changes, only polymorphism c.516G>T in the CYP2B6 gene and BMI affect the metabolism rate of propofol and may play an important role in the optimisation of propofol anaesthesia.

  20. Dioxin-dependent activation of murine Cyp1a-1 gene transcription requires protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, F; Owens, R A; Nebert, D W; Puga, A

    1992-01-01

    Transcriptional activation of the murine Cyp1a-1 (cytochrome P(1)450) gene by inducers such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (dioxin) requires the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor and the interaction of an inducer-receptor complex with one or more of the Ah-responsive elements (AhREs) located about 1 kb upstream from the transcriptional initiation site. We find that treatment of mouse hepatoma Hepa-1 cells with 2-aminopurine, an inhibitor of protein kinase activity, inhibits CYP1A1 mRNA induction by TCDD as well as the concomitant increase in CYP1A1 enzyme activity. Formation of DNA-protein complexes between the Ah receptor and its AhRE target is also inhibited by 2-aminopurine, as determined by gel mobility shift assays. Phosphorylation is required for the formation of Ah receptor-specific complexes, since in vitro dephosphorylation of nuclear extracts from TCDD-treated Hepa-1 cells abolishes the capacity of the Ah receptor to form specific complexes with its cognate AhRE sequences. To determine whether any one of several known protein kinases was involved in the transcriptional regulation of the Cyp1a-1 gene, we treated Hepa-1 cells with nine other protein kinase inhibitors prior to induction with TCDD; nuclear extracts from these cells were analyzed for their capacity to form specific DNA-protein complexes. Only extracts from cells treated with staurosporine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, were unable to form these complexes. In addition, staurosporine completely inhibited CYP1A1 mRNA induction by TCDD. Depletion of protein kinase C by prolonged treatment with phorbol ester led to the complete suppression of CYP1A1 mRNA induction by TCDD. We conclude that (i) phosphorylation is necessary for the formation of a transcriptional complex and for transcriptional activation of the Cyp1a-1 gene; (ii) the phosphorylation site(s) exists on at least one of the proteins constituting the transcriptional complex, possibly the Ah receptor itself; and (iii) the

  1. Evolution and association analysis of GmCYP78A10 gene with seed size/weight and pod number in soybean.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Yinhui; Zhang, Haowei; Sun, Genlou; Zhang, Wenming; Qiu, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Seed-size/weight traits, controlled by multiple genes in soybean, play an important role in determining seed yield. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling the seed size and weight in soybean remain unclear. In Arabidopsis, P450/CYP78A gene family has been proved extremely relevant to seed size (such as AtCYP78A5, AtCYP78A6 and AtCYP78A9). We found that a soybean GmCYP78A10 gene underwent artificial selection during soybean breeding. The GmCYP78A10a allele mainly distributed in wild soybean (Glycine soja), but has been eliminated in the cultivars during early stage of soybean breeding, while the GmCYP78A10b allele has been accumulated and become the predominant allele in cultivated soybean (G. max). ANOVA analysis showed that the mean seed weight, seed width and seed thickness of soybean varieties with GmCYP78A10b allele was significantly heavier/bigger than those with GmCYP78A10a allele (P < 0.01). The allele could explain 7.2 % variation in seed weight. The pod number of the soybeans with GmCYP78A10b allele significantly decreased compared to those with GmCYP78A10a allele (P < 0.01, R(2) = 5.8 %), while other agronomic traits including seed weight/plant were not significantly affected by these two alleles. We speculated that during the early stage of soybean breeding, breeders selected big seed carrying GmCYP78A10b allele, but lowered pod number simultaneously. Overall, the selection did not cause the significantly change in soybean seed yield. Our results suggests that the soybean GmCYP78A10 gene may have a similar function to those genes belonging to P450/CYP78A subfamily in Arabidopsis and provides new information for the genetic control of seed size in soybean.

  2. Sterol 14alpha-demethylase activity in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is associated with an unusual member of the CYP51 gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, David C; Fowler, Kay; Kieser, Tobias; Manning, Nigel; Podust, Larissa M; Waterman, Michael R; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2002-01-01

    The annotation of the genome sequence of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) revealed a cytochrome P450 (CYP) resembling various sterol 14alpha-demethylases (CYP51). The putative CYP open reading frame (SC7E4.20) was cloned with a tetrahistidine tag appended to the C-terminus and expressed in Escherichia coli. Protein purified to electrophoretic homogeneity was observed to bind the 14-methylated sterols lanosterol and 24-methylene-24,25-dihydrolanosterol (24-MDL). Reconstitution experiments with E. coli reductase partners confirmed activity in 14alpha-demethylation for 24-MDL, but not lanosterol. An S. coelicolor A3(2) mutant containing a transposon insertion in the CYP51 gene, which will abolish synthesis of the functional haemoprotein, was isolated as a viable strain, the first time a CYP51 has been identified as non-essential. The role of this CYP in bacteria is intriguing. No sterol product was detected in non-saponifiable cell extracts of the parent S. coelicolor A3(2) strain or of the mutant. S. coelicolor A3(2) CYP51 contains very few of the conserved CYP51 residues and, even though it can catalyse 14alpha-demethylation, it probably has another function in Streptomyces. We propose that it is a member of a new CYP51 subfamily. PMID:12023899

  3. The CYP701B1 of Physcomitrella patens is an ent-kaurene oxidase that resists inhibition by uniconazole-P.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Sho; Katsumata, Takumi; Natsume, Masahiro; Kawaide, Hiroshi

    2011-06-23

    The moss Physcomitrella patens produces both ent-kaurene and ent-kaurenoic acid, which are intermediates of gibberellin biosynthesis in flowering plants. The CYP701 superfamily of cytochrome P450s functions as ent-kaurene oxidases in the biosynthesis of ent-kaurenoic acid. A candidate gene encoding ent-kaurene oxidase in P. patens, CYP701B1, was cloned and heterologously expressed in yeast to examine enzyme activities in vitro. The recombinant CYP701B1 protein catalyzed the oxidation reaction from ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid. CYP701B1 activity was highly resistant to the ent-kaurene oxidase inhibitor uniconazole-P (IC(50) 64 μM), even though the activity of Arabidopsis ent-kaurene oxidase (CYP701A3) was sensitive (IC(50) 0.26 μM).

  4. The role of PON1 and CYP2D6 genes in susceptibility to organophosphorus chronic intoxication in Egyptian patients.

    PubMed

    Tawfik Khattab, Amr Mohamed; Zayed, Abeer Ahmed; Ahmed, Asmaa Ismail; AbdelAal, Aly Gamaleldin; Mekdad, Alaa AbdelHamid

    2016-03-01

    symptoms of intoxication and duration of exposure, provided that all workers were exposed for at least 3 years. PON1 192RR genotype and CYP2D6 1934A allele were found to be related to the susceptibility to organophosphate chronic toxicity in Egyptians. Larger scale gene-environmental interaction studies are recommended to confirm results and Genotyping is recommended during selection of agricultural pesticide workers to exclude high risk group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of the Cyp1B1 L432V gene polymorphism and exposure to tobacco smoke on Cyp1B1 mRNA expression in human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Helmig, Simone; Hadzaad, Bahar; Döhrel, Juliane; Schneider, Joachim

    2009-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), a phase I enzyme, is involved in the activation of a broad spectrum of procarcinogens. An association of the Cyp1B1 L432V polymorphism with diverse types of cancer, as well as an impact on the catalytic activity of the enzyme, has been described. To show the functional impact of the allelic variant Cyp1B1*3, we investigated the quantitative Cyp1B1 mRNA expression in a population of smokers, nonsmokers, and ex-smokers and determined their genotypes. Detection of the L432V polymorphism in exon 3 of the Cyp1B1 gene was performed by rapid capillary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with melting curve analysis. For quantitative comparison of Cyp1B1 mRNA levels, real-time PCR was performed using SYBR Green fluorescence in a LightCycler system. Calculations of expression were made with the 2(-DeltaDeltaCT) method. In comparing relative Cyp1B1 mRNA expression, highly significant differences between the two homozygote genotypes *1/*1 and *3/*3 (0.185 +/- 0.027, n = 118 versus 0.071 +/- 0.013, n = 56; p = 0.000), as well as between the heterozygote genotype *1/*3 and the homozygote genotype *3/*3 (0.178 +/- 0.025, n = 171 versus 0.071 +/- 0.013, n = 56; p = 0.000), were revealed. Significant differences between the genotypes were also detected within the subgroups of smokers, nonsmokers, and ex-smokers. No significant differences were determined in comparing the relative Cyp1B1 mRNA expression with regard to tobacco smoke exposure. Our results suggest that genotypes carrying the C allele (*1/*1 and *1/*3) at Cyp1B1 L432V polymorphism have a significantly higher Cyp1B1 mRNA expression compared with the genotype without the C allele (*3/*3). Gene expression of Cyp1B1 mRNA cannot be used as a biomarker for exposure of tobacco smoke.

  6. Integrated Bioinformatic and Targeted Deletion Analyses of the SRS Gene Superfamily Identify SRS29C as a Negative Regulator of Toxoplasma Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Wasmuth, James D.; Pszenny, Viviana; Haile, Simon; Jansen, Emily M.; Gast, Alexandra T.; Sher, Alan; Boyle, Jon P.; Boulanger, Martin J.; Parkinson, John; Grigg, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Toxoplasma gondii SRS gene superfamily is structurally related to SRS29B (formerly SAG1), a surface adhesin that binds host cells and stimulates host immunity. Comparative genomic analyses of three Toxoplasma strains identified 182 SRS genes distributed across 14 chromosomes at 57 genomic loci. Eight distinct SRS subfamilies were resolved. A core 69 functional gene orthologs were identified, and strain-specific expansions and pseudogenization were common. Gene expression profiling demonstrated differential expression of SRS genes in a developmental-stage- and strain-specific fashion and identified nine SRS genes as priority targets for gene deletion among the tissue-encysting coccidia. A Δsag1 ∆sag2A mutant was significantly attenuated in murine acute virulence and showed upregulated SRS29C (formerly SRS2) expression. Transgenic overexpression of SRS29C in the virulent RH parent was similarly attenuated. Together, these findings reveal SRS29C to be an important regulator of acute virulence in mice and demonstrate the power of integrated genomic analysis to guide experimental investigations. PMID:23149485

  7. Simultaneous detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variations in the CYP2D6 gene by multiplex polymerase chain reaction combined with capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hsiao-Wei; Tsai, I-Lin; Chen, Guan-Yuan; Kuo, Chun-Ting; Wei, Ming-Feng; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Chen, Wei J; Shen, Li-Jiuan; Kuo, Ching-Hua

    2013-02-06

    CYP2D6 (cytochrome P450 2D6) is one of the most important enzymes involved in drug metabolism, and CYP2D6 gene variants may cause toxic effects of therapeutic drugs or treatment failure. In this research, a rapid and simple method for genotyping the most common mutant alleles in the Asian population (CYP2D6*1/*1, CYP2D6*1/*10, CYP2D6*10/*10, CYP2D6*1/*5, CYP2D6*5/*10, and CYP2D6*5/*5) was developed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) combined with capillary electrophoresis (CE). We designed a second mismatch nucleotide next to the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site in allele-specific primers to increase the difference in PCR amplification. Besides, we established simulation equations to predict the CYP2D6 genotypes by analyzing the DNA patterns in the CE chromatograms. The multiplex PCR combined with CE method was applied to test 50 patients, and all of the test results were compared with the DNA sequencing method, long-PCR method and real-time PCR method. The correlation of the analytical results between the proposed method and other methods were higher than 90%, and the proposed method is superior to other methods for being able to simultaneous detection of SNPs and copy number variations (CNV). Furthermore, we compared the plasma concentration of aripiprazole (a CYP2D6 substrate) and its major metabolites with the genotype of 25 patients. The results demonstrate the proposed genotyping method is effective for estimating the activity of the CYP2D6 enzyme and shows potential for application in personalized medicine. Similar approach can be applied to simultaneous detection of SNPs and CNVs of other genes.

  8. Alteration of Panax ginseng saponin composition by overexpression and RNA interference of the protopanaxadiol 6-hydroxylase gene (CYP716A53v2).

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Bum; Chun, Ju-Hyeon; Ban, Yong-Wook; Han, Jung Yeon; Choi, Yong Eui

    2016-01-01

    The roots of Panax ginseng contain noble tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins derived from dammarenediol-II. Dammarene-type ginsenosides are classified into the protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT) groups based on their triterpene aglycone structures. Two cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes (CYP716A47 and CYP716A53v2) are critical for the production of PPD and PPT aglycones, respectively. CYP716A53v2 is a protopanaxadiol 6-hydroxylase that catalyzes PPT production from PPD in P. ginseng. We constructed transgenic P. ginseng lines overexpressing or silencing (via RNA interference) the CYP716A53v2 gene and analyzed changes in their ginsenoside profiles. Overexpression of CYP716A53v2 led to increased accumulation of CYP716A53v2 mRNA in all transgenic roots compared to nontransgenic roots. Conversely, silencing of CYP716A53v2 mRNA in RNAi transgenic roots resulted in reduced CYP716A53v2 transcription. HPLC analysis revealed that transgenic roots overexpressing CYP716A53v2 contained higher levels of PPT-group ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, and Rf) but lower levels of PPD-group ginsenosides (Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd). By contrast, RNAi transgenic roots contained lower levels of PPT-group compounds and higher levels of PPD-group compounds. The production of PPD- and PPT-group ginsenosides can be altered by changing the expression of CYP716A53v2 in transgenic P. ginseng. The biological activities of PPD-group ginsenosides are known to differ from those of the PPT group. Thus, increasing or decreasing the levels of PPT-group ginsenosides in transgenic P. ginseng may yield new medicinal uses for transgenic P. ginseng.

  9. [FREQUENCY OF POLYMORPHISM OF VKORC1 AND CYP2C9 GENES IN TWO REGIONS OF GEORGIA].

    PubMed

    Jokhadze, T; Kakauridze, N; Buadze, T; Gaiozishvili, M; Lezhava, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research was to study the frequency of VKROC1 and CYP2C9 genes different alleles for healthy donors and for patients with thrombosis, in two regions of Georgia - in Samegrelo and in Tbilisi and to reveal the interdependence of the studied genes products in the treatment of thrombosis with warfarin. Warfarin is an anticoagulant, causing the inactivation of the VKORC1 gene product, which is one of the clotting factors. The protein product of CYP2C9 gene is involved in the metabolism of warfarin. Genotyping of blood samples for studied genes alleles was carried out using a tube scanner (ESE Quant Tube Scaner), allowing to identify SNPs. In the studied group of patients with thrombosis from Samegrelo region the wild-type homozygotes by the gene VKORC1 were - 90%; heterozygotes - 10%; mutant homozygotes have not met at all. In the studied group of patients with thrombosis from Tbilisi, also predominated homozygous wild type (60%); heterozygotes were - 40%; mutant homozygotes were not met. The genotypes of healthy donors fromTbilisi does not differed from the same indicator of of Samegrelo (homozygous "wild" AA - 37%; genotype AB - 47%; and mutant genotype - BB - 16%). In patients with thrombosis, from Samegrelo, wild-tipe homozygotes and heterozygotes by CYP2C9 gene were almost the same rate (51% and 49% -, respectively); mutant homozygotes were not revealed. In patients from Tbilisi, the frequency of wild-type homozygotes was 70%, heterozygotes and mutant homozygotes was 20% and 10% - respectively. The ratio of the frequencies of CYP2C9 gene alleles in healthy donors from Tbilisi and Samegrelo is not different - wild-type homozygotes - 77%; heterozygotes - 23%; mutant homozygotes in both regions were not met. VKORC1 and / or CYP2C9 genes polymorphisms are presented in a number of clinical dosing algorithms and in prospective clinical trials. It is revealed the significant variation of genotypes in patients with thrombosis (in both studied regions), which

  10. Enhancement of carotenoid production by disrupting the C22-sterol desaturase gene (CYP61) in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is a basidiomycetous yeast that synthesizes astaxanthin, which is a carotenoid with a great biotechnological impact. The ergosterol and carotenoid synthesis pathways are derived from the mevalonate pathway, and in both pathways, cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved. Results In this study, we isolated and described the X. dendrorhous CYP61 gene, which encodes a cytochrome P450 involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. This gene is composed of nine exons and encodes a 526 amino acid polypeptide that shares significant percentages of identity and similitude with the C22-sterol desaturase, CYP61, from other fungi. Mutants derived from different parental strains were obtained by disrupting the CYP61 gene with an antibiotic selection marker. These mutants were not able to produce ergosterol and accumulated ergosta-5,8,22-trien-3-ol and ergosta-5,8-dien-3-ol. Interestingly, all of the mutants had a more intense red color phenotype than their respective parental strains. The carotenoid composition was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by RP-HPLC, revealing that the carotenoid content was higher in the mutant strains without major changes in their composition. The expression of the HMGR gene, which encodes an enzyme involved in the mevalonate pathway (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase), was analyzed by RT-qPCR showing that its transcript levels are higher in the CYP61 mutants. Conclusions These results suggest that in X. dendrorhous, ergosterol regulates HMGR gene expression by a negative feedback mechanism and in this way; it contributes in the regulation of the carotenoid biosynthesis. PMID:23075035

  11. CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms and their relevance for poisoning due to amfetamines, opioid analgesics and antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Haufroid, Vincent; Hantson, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is a member of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily involved in the biotransformation of drugs and substances of abuse encountered in clinical toxicology. Among the CYP superfamily, the CYP2D6 gene is considered as the most polymorphic as more than 105 different alleles have been identified so far. CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms have the potential to affect the toxicity of their substrates. This review will focus specifically on CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms and their relevance for poisoning due to amfetamines, opioid analgesics and antidepressants in humans. PubMed (up to August 2013) was searched with the following selection criteria: 'CYP2D6 AND (toxicology OR poisoning OR intoxication OR overdose)'. Of the 454 citations retrieved, only 46 papers dealt with the impact of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on poisoning due to amfetamines, opioid analgesics and antidepressants. amfetamines. While some in vitro studies suggest that CYP2D6-mediated metabolites of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamfetamine (MDMA) are substantially more cytotoxic compared with unchanged MDMA, it is not yet confirmed in human cases of MDMA intoxication that extensive/ultra-rapid CYP2D6 metabolisers could be at higher risk. This would also apply to methamfetamine exposure and the related cardiac and central nervous system toxicity. Opioid analgesics. CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolisers are more likely to experience the adverse effects of codeine and tramadol. Opioid analgesics that do not rely on CYP2D6 for therapeutic activity, such as morphine and hydromorphone, may therefore be a better alternative to codeine and tramadol, with the limitation that these drugs have their own set of adverse reactions. Antidepressants. CYP2D6 poor metabolisers are generally more prone to adverse effects. Among them, the four drugs with the highest level of evidence are amitriptyline, nortriptyline, venlafaxine and fluoxetine. Further data are needed, however, for doxepin and paroxetine, while citalopram

  12. Arabidopsis CYP86A2 represses Pseudomonas syringae type III genes and is required for cuticle development

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fangming; Mark Goodwin, S; Xiao, Yanmei; Sun, Zhaoyu; Baker, Douglas; Tang, Xiaoyan; Jenks, Matthew A; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2004-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae relies on type III secretion system to deliver effector proteins into the host cell for parasitism. Type III genes are induced in planta, but host factors affecting the induction are poorly understood. Here we report on the identification of an Arabidopsis mutant, att1 (for aberrant induction of type three genes), that greatly enhances the expression of bacterial type III genes avrPto and hrpL. att1 plants display enhanced disease severity to a virulent strain of P. syringae, suggesting a role of ATT1 in disease resistance. ATT1 encodes CYP86A2, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase catalyzing fatty acid oxidation. The cutin content is reduced to 30% in att1, indicating that CYP86A2 plays a major role in the biosynthesis of extracellular lipids. att1 has a loose cuticle membrane ultrastructure and shows increased permeability to water vapor, demonstrating the importance of the cuticle membrane in controlling water loss. The enhanced avrPto-luc expression is specific to att1, but not another cuticle mutant, wax2. The results suggest that certain cutin-related fatty acids synthesized by CYP86A2 may repress bacterial type III gene expression in the intercellular spaces. PMID:15241470

  13. shk1-D, a dwarf Arabidopsis mutant caused by activation of the CYP72C1 gene, has altered brassinosteroid levels.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Naoki; Nakazawa, Miki; Shibata, Kyomi; Yokota, Takao; Ishikawa, Akie; Suzuki, Kumiko; Kawashima, Mika; Ichikawa, Takanari; Shimada, Hiroaki; Matsui, Minami

    2005-04-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroidal hormones that regulate plant growth and development. An Arabidopsis dwarf mutant, shrink1-D (shk1-D), was isolated and the phenotype was shown to be caused by activation of the CYP72C1 gene. CYP72C1 is a member of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene family similar to BAS1/CYP734A1 that regulates BR inactivation. shk1-D has short hypocotyls in both light and dark, and short petioles and siliques. The seeds are also shortened along the longitudinal axis indicating CYP72C1 controls cell elongation. The expression of CPD, TCH4 and BAS1 were altered in CYP72C1 overexpression transgenic lines and endogenous levels of castasterone, 6-deoxocastasterone and 6-deoxotyphasterol were also altered. Unlike BAS1/CYP734A1 the expression of CYP72C1 was not changed by application of exogenous brassinolide. We propose that CYP72C1 controls BR homeostasis by modulating the concentration of BRs.

  14. CYP7A1 Gene Polymorphism Located in the 5′ Upstream Region Modifies the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Iwanicki, Tomasz; Balcerzyk, Anna; Niemiec, Pawel; Nowak, Tomasz; Ochalska-Tyka, Anna; Krauze, Jolanta; Kosiorz-Gorczynska, Sylwia; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Zak, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Background. 7-Alpha cholesterol hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the first enzyme of classic conversion pathway leading from cholesterol to bile acids synthesis, is encoded by CYP7A1 gene. Its single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence serum lipid levels and may be related to impaired lipid profile leading to coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the present study was to analyze the possible association between the rs7833904 CYP7A1 polymorphism and premature CAD. Material and Methods. Serum lipid levels and rs7833904 SNP were determined in 419 subjects: 200 patients with premature CAD and 219 age and sex matched controls. Results. The A allele carrier state was associated with CAD (OR = 1.76, 95% CI; 1.14–2.71, P = 0.014). The effect was even stronger in the male subgroups (OR = 2.16, 95% CI; 1.28–3.65, P = 0.003). There was no effect in the females. Risk factors of CAD and clinical phenotype of atherosclerosis were not associated with genotype variants of the rs7833904 SNP. Lipid profiles also did not differ significantly between individual genotypes. Conclusion. The CYP7A1 rs7833904 polymorphism may modify the risk of CAD. This effect is especially strong in male subjects. The studied polymorphism does not significantly influence serum lipid levels, in the present study. PMID:25944972

  15. Down-regulation of the CYP19A1 gene in cumulus cells of infertile women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Ionara Diniz E S; Donabella, Flávia Capello; Ribas, Cristiana Padovan; Meola, Juliana; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; de Paz, Cláudia Cristina Paro; Navarro, Paula A

    2015-05-01

    Aromatase plays a fundamental role in the establishment of oocyte quality, which might be compromised in infertile women with endometriosis. The expression of the CYP19A1 gene (that encodes aromatase) was compared in cumulus cells and oestradiol concentrations in the follicular fluid of infertile women with and without endometriosis submitted to ovarian stimulation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Cumulus cells were isolated and the expression of the CYP19A1 was quantitated through real-time polymerase chain reaction. Oestradiol concentrations in follicular fluid were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. A lower expression of the CYP19A1 in the cumulus cells of infertile women with endometriosis was observed compared with controls (0.17 ± 0.13 and 0.56 ± 0.12, respectively), and no significant difference in the follicular fluid oestradiol concentrations was observed between groups. Our results show reduced expression of the CYP19A1 in cumulus cells of infertile women with endometriosis, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis-related infertility.

  16. CYP7A1 gene polymorphism located in the 5' upstream region modifies the risk of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Iwanicki, Tomasz; Balcerzyk, Anna; Niemiec, Pawel; Nowak, Tomasz; Ochalska-Tyka, Anna; Krauze, Jolanta; Kosiorz-Gorczynska, Sylwia; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Zak, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    7-Alpha cholesterol hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the first enzyme of classic conversion pathway leading from cholesterol to bile acids synthesis, is encoded by CYP7A1 gene. Its single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence serum lipid levels and may be related to impaired lipid profile leading to coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the present study was to analyze the possible association between the rs7833904 CYP7A1 polymorphism and premature CAD. Serum lipid levels and rs7833904 SNP were determined in 419 subjects: 200 patients with premature CAD and 219 age and sex matched controls. The A allele carrier state was associated with CAD (OR = 1.76, 95% CI; 1.14-2.71, P = 0.014). The effect was even stronger in the male subgroups (OR = 2.16, 95% CI; 1.28-3.65, P = 0.003). There was no effect in the females. Risk factors of CAD and clinical phenotype of atherosclerosis were not associated with genotype variants of the rs7833904 SNP. Lipid profiles also did not differ significantly between individual genotypes. The CYP7A1 rs7833904 polymorphism may modify the risk of CAD. This effect is especially strong in male subjects. The studied polymorphism does not significantly influence serum lipid levels, in the present study.

  17. Cytogenetic damage in Turkish coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Association with CYP1A1, CYP1B1, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Ada, Ahmet Oguz; Demiroglu, Canan; Yilmazer, Meltem; Suzen, Halit Sinan; Demirbag, Ali Eba; Efe, Sibel; Alemdar, Yilmaz; Iscan, Mumtaz; Burgaz, Sema

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (CA) and cytochalasin-blocked micronuclei (CBMN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes from Turkish coke oven workers and the influence of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms on these biomarkers. Cytogenetic analysis showed that occupational exposure significantly increased the CA and CBMN frequencies. Gene polymorphisms, on the other hand, did not affect CA or CBMN in either exposed or control subjects. However, due to the limited sample size, our findings need to be verified in future studies with a larger sample.

  18. Phylogenetic Comparison of F-Box (FBX) Gene Superfamily within the Plant Kingdom Reveals Divergent Evolutionary Histories Indicative of Genomic Drift

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Zhihua; Zou, Cheng; Shiu, Shin-Han; Vierstra, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of multigene families has been hypothesized as a major contributor to the evolution of complex traits and speciation. To help understand how such multigene families arose and diverged during plant evolution, we examined the phylogenetic relationships of F-Box (FBX) genes, one of the largest and most polymorphic superfamilies known in the plant kingdom. FBX proteins comprise the target recognition subunit of SCF-type ubiquitin-protein ligases, where they individually recruit specific substrates for ubiquitylation. Through the extensive analysis of 10,811 FBX loci from 18 plant species, ranging from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to numerous monocots and eudicots, we discovered strikingly diverse evolutionary histories. The number of FBX loci varies widely and appears independent of the growth habit and life cycle of land plants, with a little as 198 predicted for Carica papaya to as many as 1350 predicted for Arabidopsis lyrata. This number differs substantially even among closely related species, with evidence for extensive gains/losses. Despite this extraordinary inter-species variation, one subset of FBX genes was conserved among most species examined. Together with evidence of strong purifying selection and expression, the ligases synthesized from these conserved loci likely direct essential ubiquitylation events. Another subset was much more lineage specific, showed more relaxed purifying selection, and was enriched in loci with little or no evidence of expression, suggesting that they either control more limited, species-specific processes or arose from genomic drift and thus may provide reservoirs for evolutionary innovation. Numerous FBX loci were also predicted to be pseudogenes with their numbers tightly correlated with the total number of FBX genes in each species. Taken together, it appears that the FBX superfamily has independently undergone substantial birth/death in many plant lineages, with its size and rapid evolution potentially

  19. Major-histocompatibility-complex gene markers and restriction-fragment analysis of steroid 21-hydroxylase (CYP21) and complement C4 genes in classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients in a single population.

    PubMed Central

    Partanen, J; Koskimies, S; Sipilä, I; Lipsanen, V

    1989-01-01

    The gene CYP21B, encoding the steroid 21-hydroxylase enzyme of adrenal steroid biosynthesis, has been mapped to the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Deficiency of this enzyme leads to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report the phenotypes of the HLA and complement C4 and Bf genes, which are closely linked to the CYP21B gene, together with a detailed analysis of the CYP21 and C4 RFLP, in 17 Finnish families with CAH. The RFLP analysis with six restriction enzymes suggested that, altogether, 35% of the affected chromosomes had a CYP21B + C4B gene deletion, 9% an obvious gene conversion of the CYP21B gene to a CYP21A-like gene, and 3% a CYP21A + C4B duplication. The remaining 53% gave the RFLP patterns also found in nonaffected chromosomes. We also found that a 14.0-kb EcoRI RFLP marker of the CYP21 genes was strongly associated with the presence of a short C4B gene, suggesting that some of the RFLP markers found with the CYP21 probe may actually derive from C4B gene polymorphism. Three particular MHC haplotypes, each with a characteristic RFLP pattern, were found in many unrelated families. These three haplotypes accounted for 59% of the affected chromosomes in our study group, the rest (41%) of the affected chromosomes being distributed among various subtypes. The results suggest that, within a single, well-defined population such as in Finland, only a few CYP21B gene defects may constitute a substantial part of the affected chromosomes. This finding will help in genetic studies of CAH in such populations. Images Figure 2 PMID:2565078

  20. CYP3A5 Gene Variation Influences Cyclosporine A Metabolite Formation and Renal Cyclosporine Disposition

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Songmao; Tasnif, Yasar; Hebert, Mary F.; Davis, Connie L.; Shitara, Yoshihisa; Calamia, Justina C.; Lin, Yvonne S.; Shen, Danny D.; Thummel, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Higher concentrations of AM19 and AM1c9, secondary metabolites of cyclosporine A (CsA), have been associated with nephrotoxicity in organ transplant patients. The risk of renal toxicity may depend upon the accumulation of CsA and its metabolites in the renal tissue. We evaluated the hypothesis that CYP3A5 genotype, and inferred enzyme expression, affects systemic CsA metabolite exposure and intra-renal CsA accumulation. Methods An oral dose of CsA was administered to 24 healthy volunteers who were selected based on their CYP3A5 genotype. CsA and its six main metabolites in whole blood and urine were measured by LC-MS. In vitro incubations of CsA, AM1, AM9 and AM1c with recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were performed to evaluate the formation pathways of AM19 and AM1c9. Results The mean CsA oral clearance was similar between CYP3A5 expressors and nonexpressors. However, compared to CYP3A5 nonexpressors, the average blood AUC for AM19 and AM1c9 was 47.4% and 51.3% higher in CYP3A5 expressors (P = 0.040 and 0.011, respectively), corresponding to 30% higher AUCmetabolite/AUCCsA ratios for AM19 and AM1c9 in CYP3A5 expressors. The mean apparent urinary CsA clearance, based on a 48-hour collection, was 20.4% lower in CYP3A5 expressors compared to CYP3A5 nonexpressors (4.2 ± 1.0 and 5.3 ± 1.3 mL/min, respectively, P = 0.037), which is suggestive of CYP3A5-dependent intra-renal CsA metabolism. Conclusions At steady-state, intra-renal accumulation of CsA and its secondary metabolites should depend on the CYP3A5 genotype of the liver and kidneys. This may contribute to inter-patient variability in the risk of CsA-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:23354298

  1. Identification of novel CYP4V2 gene mutations in 92 Chinese families with Bietti’s crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiao Hong; Guo, Hong; Xu, Hai Wei; Li, Qi You; Jin, Xin; Bai, Yun; Li, Shi Ying

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the spectrum of CYP4V2 gene mutations in 92 unrelated Chinese probands with Bietti’s crystalline dystrophy (BCD) and to describe the molecular and clinical characteristics of four novel CYP4V2 mutations associated with BCD. Methods All study participants underwent a complete ophthalmological examination. Mutational screening of CYP4V2 coding regions and flanking intron sequences was examined via directional Sanger sequencing, with allele separation confirmed by screening other family members. Subsequent in silico analysis of the mutational consequence on protein function was undertaken, with the impact of the novel mutation on pre-mRNA splicing examined via RT–PCR. Results Fifteen disease-causing variants were identified in 92 probands with BCD, including four novel mutations and eleven previously reported mutations. The most prevalent mutation was c.802_810del17insGC, which was detected in 69 unrelated families, with an allele frequency of 52.7% (97/184). Homozygosity was revealed in 35 unrelated families, and compound heterozygosity was observed in 43 subjects. Four patients harbored four novel variants, with these mutations cosegregated within all affected individuals and were not found in unaffected family members and 100 unrelated controls. Transcriptional analysis of a novel splice mutation revealed altered RNA splicing. In silico analysis predicted that the missense variant, p.Tyr343Asp, disrupted the CYP4V2 surface electrostatic potential distribution and spatial conformation. Among the patients with four novel mutations, genotype did not always correlate with age at onset, disease course, or electroretinogram (ERG) changes, with phenotypic variations even noted within the same genotype. Conclusions The c.802_810del17insCG mutation was the most common mutation in the 92 Chinese probands with BCD examined. Four novel mutations were identified, contributing to the spectrum of CYP4V2 mutations associated with BCD, with no clear link

  2. Evolutionary history and functional divergence of the cytochrome P450 gene superfamily between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species uncover effects of whole genome and tandem duplications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingyin; Tehrim, Sadia; Wang, Linhai; Dossa, Komivi; Zhang, Xiurong; Ke, Tao; Liao, Boshou

    2017-09-18

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) superfamily is involved in the biosynthesis of various primary and secondary metabolites. However, little is known about the effects of whole genome duplication (WGD) and tandem duplication (TD) events on the evolutionary history and functional divergence of P450s in Brassica after splitting from a common ancestor with Arabidopsis thaliana. Using Hidden Markov Model search and manual curation, we detected that Brassica species have nearly 1.4-fold as many P450 members as A. thaliana. Most P450s in A. thaliana and Brassica species were located on pseudo-chromosomes. The inferred phylogeny indicated that all P450s were clustered into two different subgroups. Analysis of WGD event revealed that different P450 gene families had appeared after evolutionary events of species. For the TD event analyses, the P450s from TD events in Brassica species can be divided into ancient and recent parts. Our comparison of influence of WGD and TD events on the P450 gene superfamily between A. thaliana and Brassica species indicated that the family-specific evolution in the Brassica lineage can be attributed to both WGD and TD, whereas WGD was recognized as the major mechanism for the recent evolution of the P450 super gene family. Expression analysis of P450s from A. thaliana and Brassica species indicated that WGD-type P450s showed the same expression pattern but completely different expression with TD-type P450s across different tissues in Brassica species. Selection force analysis suggested that P450 orthologous gene pairs between A. thaliana and Brassica species underwent negative selection, but no significant differences were found between P450 orthologous gene pairs in A. thaliana-B. rapa and A. thaliana-B. oleracea lineages, as well as in different subgenomes in B. rapa or B. oleracea compared with A. thaliana. This study is the first to investigate the effects of WGD and TD on the evolutionary history and functional divergence of P450

  3. Characterization of cDNAs of the human pregnancy-specific beta1-glycoprotein family, a new subfamily of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Q.X.; Tease, L.A.; Shupert, W.L.; Chan, W.Y. )

    1990-03-20

    Three highly homologous cDNAs encoding human pregnancy-specific {beta}1-glycoprotein (SP1) were isolated from a human placental cDNA library. These cDNAs share >90% nucleotide homology in their coding sequences, and >79% of the encoded amino acids are homologous. Proteins encoded by these cDNAs are very similar to members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family and contain repeating domains, conserved disulfided bridges, and {beta}-sheet structure typical of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. However, the high degree of sequence homology and relatively lesser degree of glycosylation among the SP1 proteins suggest that they exist as a unique family instead of being members of the CEA family. Both soluble and potentially membrane-bound forms of SP1 proteins were present in the placenta. Northern blot analysis using specific probes confirmed the expression of multiple mRNA species in human term placenta.

  4. Superfamily 2 helicases

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Alicia K.; Raney, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Superfamily 2 helicases are involved in all aspects of RNA metabolism, and many steps in DNA metabolism. This review focuses on the basic mechanistic, structural and biological properties of each of the families of helicases within superfamily 2. There are ten separate families of helicases within superfamily 2, each playing specific roles in nucleic acid metabolism. The mechanisms of action are diverse, as well as the effect on the nucleic acid. Some families translocate on single-stranded nucleic acid and unwind duplexes, some unwind double-stranded nucleic acids without translocation, and some translocate on double-stranded or single-stranded nucleic acids without unwinding. PMID:22652765

  5. Polymorphisms and haplotypes of the CYP2B6 detoxification gene in the predisposition of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and induction of its cytogenetic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Daraki, Aggeliki; Kakosaiou, Katerina; Zachaki, Sophia; Sambani, Constantina; Aleporou-Marinou, Vassiliki; Kollia, Panagoula; Manola, Kalliopi N

    2016-11-01

    CYP2B6 is a polymorphic detoxification gene which plays a vital role in the degradation of genotoxic compounds. In this study we hypothesized that inadequate detoxification due to CYP2B6 polymorphisms may contribute to AML. To evaluate the potential impact of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on AML development and induction of its specific chromosomal abnormalities we studied C(777)A and A(785)G polymorphisms for the first time in AML. Furthermore, we investigated the co-existence of the above polymorphisms with G(516)T polymorphism to determine the CYP2B6 high-risk haplotypes in AML susceptibility. Our study included 619 AML patients and 430 healthy donors. Concerning C(777)A CYP2B6 polymorphism, no significant difference was found between patients and controls. However, A(785)G CYP2B6 polymorphism showed a statistically higher frequency of the variant genotypes in patients (48.2%), mainly in secondary AML patients (49.1%) than in controls (26.1%). Moreover, an increased frequency of the variant genotypes was found in those with abnormal karyotypes, especially with -7/del(7q), -5/del(5q), +8, inv(16) and t(8;21). The combination of the three CYP2B6 polymorphisms (G(516)T, C(777)A & A(785)G) revealed seven haplotypes. Four out of six haplotypes with at least one mutant allele were significantly associated with an increased risk for AML. Interestingly, T516A777G785 haplotype, where the three mutant alleles co-existed, had ~3-fold increased risk to be found in patients than controls. The association between haplotypes and cytogenetic aberrations revealed a positive correlation between specific CYP2B6 haplotypes and AML cytogenetic abnormalities. Our data suggest that A(785)G CYP2B6 gene polymorphism and specific CYP2B6 haplotypes may contribute to AML and its specific chromosomal aberrations.

  6. Ligand-dependent regulation of the activity of the orphan nuclear receptor, small heterodimer partner (SHP), in the repression of bile acid biosynthetic CYP7A1 and CYP8B1 genes.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ji; Choi, Sung-E; Seok, Sun Mi; Yang, Linda; Zuercher, William J; Xu, Yong; Willson, Timothy M; Xu, H Eric; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2011-07-01

    Small heterodimer partner (SHP) plays important roles in diverse biological processes by directly interacting with transcription factors and inhibiting their activities. SHP has been designated an orphan nuclear receptor, but whether its activity can be modulated by ligands has been a long-standing question. Recently, retinoid-related molecules, including 4-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-3-chlorocinnamic acid (3Cl-AHPC), were shown to bind to SHP and enhance apoptosis. We have examined whether 3Cl-AHPC acts as an agonist and increases SHP activity in the repression of bile acid biosynthetic CYP7A1 and CYP8B1 genes and delineated the underlying mechanisms. Contrary to this expectation, micromolar concentrations of 3Cl-AHPC increased CYP7A1 expression but indirectly via p38 kinase signaling. Nanomolar concentrations, however, repressed CYP7A1 expression and decreased bile acid levels in HepG2 cells, and little repression was observed when SHP was down-regulated by small hairpin RNA. Mechanistic studies revealed that 3Cl-AHPC bound to SHP, increased the interaction of SHP with liver receptor homologue (LRH)-1, a hepatic activator for CYP7A1 and CYP8B1 genes, and with repressive cofactors, Brahma, mammalian Sin3a, and histone deacetylase-1, and, subsequently, increased the occupancy of SHP and these cofactors at the promoters. Mutation of Leu-100, predicted to contact 3Cl-AHPC within the SHP ligand binding pocket by molecular modeling, severely impaired the increased interaction with LRH-1, and repression of LRH-1 activity mediated by 3Cl-AHPC. 3Cl-AHPC repressed SHP metabolic target genes in a gene-specific manner in human primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. These data suggest that SHP may act as a ligand-regulated receptor in metabolic pathways. Modulation of SHP activity by synthetic ligands may be a useful therapeutic strategy.

  7. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on hepatic gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP1A1 and CYP3A4) in juvenile sole (Solea solea).

    PubMed

    Cocci, Paolo; Mosconi, Gilberto; Palermo, Francesco Alessandro

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the modulatory effects of the xenoestrogen 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and β gene expression patterns in relation to the detoxification pathways mediated by cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP1A1 and CYP3A4). Waterborne 4-NP-induced effects were compared with those of 10(-8)M 17β-estradiol (E2) by using in vivo dose-response experiments carried out with juvenile sole (Solea solea). Compared to the controls, significantly higher levels of PPARα mRNAs were found in fish treated with E2 or 4-NP (10(-6)M) 3 d after exposure; the highest dose of 4-NP also caused up-regulation of retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) transcript levels. On the contrary, PPARβ gene expression was not modulated by E2 or 4-NP. Our data show that 4-NP-induced PPARα mRNA levels coincide with suppression of CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 expression similarly to E2. The results from these in vivo studies suggest the presence of cross-talk between nuclear receptor-mediated signaling pathways and PPARα that may result in modulation of CYP450 isoforms expression following 4-NP treatment in sole liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of a CYP19 Gene Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Associated with a Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bei; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Huang, Ding; Liu, Fen; Dong, Chun-Lan; Wang, Ting; Meng, Ya-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: An imbalance in sex hormone ratios has been identified in coronary heart disease (CHD), and as a key enzyme in the conversion of androgen to estrogen, aromatase plays an important role in the balance of sex hormone levels. However, there is a paucity of research into the potential roles of aromatase in CHD. In this study, we investigated associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP19 gene, which encodes aromatase, and CHD. Methods: We collected 1706 blood samples from CHD patients and control participants and used propensity score matching techniques to match case and control groups with respect to confounding factors. In a final study population, including 596 individuals, we conducted a case–control study to identify associations between three SNPs in CYP19 and CHD using χ2 or Fisher exact tests, and binary logistic regression analysis. Differences in lipid levels and parameters of echocardiography among individuals with different genotypes were assessed by one-way analysis of variance. Results: The distributions of rs2289105 alleles in the CYP19 gene differed significantly between the CHD and control groups (p = 0.014), and the heterozygote CT genotype was associated with a significantly lower risk of CHD compared to the homozygous wild-type CC genotype (p = 0.0063 and odds ratio = 0.575). However, blood lipid levels and echocardiographic parameters among individuals with different genotypes did not differ between the CHD and control groups. Conclusions: The CT genotype of the rs2289105 polymorphism in the CYP19 gene is associated with a decreased risk of CHD and may be a genetic marker of protection from CHD. PMID:26562495

  9. Identification and Characterization of CYP9A40 from the Tobacco Cutworm Moth (Spodoptera litura), a Cytochrome P450 Gene Induced by Plant Allelochemicals and Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Long; Staehelin, Christian; Xia, Qing-Qing; Su, Yi-Juan; Zeng, Ren-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) of insects play crucial roles in the metabolism of endogenous and dietary compounds. Tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura), an important agricultural pest, causes severe yield losses in many crops. In this study, we identified CYP9A40, a novel P450 gene of S. litura, and investigated its expression profile and potential role in detoxification of plant allelochemicals and insecticides. The cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding 529 amino acid residues. CYP9A40 transcripts were found to be accumulated during various development stages of S. litura and were highest in fifth and sixth instar larvae. CYP9A40 was mainly expressed in the midgut and fat body. Larval consumption of xenobiotics, namely plant allelochemicals (quercetin and cinnamic acid) and insecticides (deltamethrin and methoxyfenozide) induced accumulation of CYP9A40 transcripts in the midgut and fat body. Injection of dsCYP9A40 (silencing of CYP9A40 by RNA interference) significantly increased the susceptibility of S. litura larvae to the tested plant allelochemicals and insecticides. These results indicate that CYP9A40 expression in S. litura is related to consumption of xenobiotics and suggest that CYP9A40 is involved in detoxification of these compounds. PMID:26393579

  10. Identification and Characterization of CYP9A40 from the Tobacco Cutworm Moth (Spodoptera litura), a Cytochrome P450 Gene Induced by Plant Allelochemicals and Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Long; Staehelin, Christian; Xia, Qing-Qing; Su, Yi-Juan; Zeng, Ren-Sen

    2015-09-18

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) of insects play crucial roles in the metabolism of endogenous and dietary compounds. Tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura), an important agricultural pest, causes severe yield losses in many crops. In this study, we identified CYP9A40, a novel P450 gene of S. litura, and investigated its expression profile and potential role in detoxification of plant allelochemicals and insecticides. The cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding 529 amino acid residues. CYP9A40 transcripts were found to be accumulated during various development stages of S. litura and were highest in fifth and sixth instar larvae. CYP9A40 was mainly expressed in the midgut and fat body. Larval consumption of xenobiotics, namely plant allelochemicals (quercetin and cinnamic acid) and insecticides (deltamethrin and methoxyfenozide) induced accumulation of CYP9A40 transcripts in the midgut and fat body. Injection of dsCYP9A40 (silencing of CYP9A40 by RNA interference) significantly increased the susceptibility of S. litura larvae to the tested plant allelochemicals and insecticides. These results indicate that CYP9A40 expression in S. litura is related to consumption of xenobiotics and suggest that CYP9A40 is involved in detoxification of these compounds.

  11. Regulation of CYP1A1 gene expression by the antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Thomas D; Köhle, Christoph; Buckler, Felicitas; Schmohl, Stefan; Braeuning, Albert; Schmiechen, Alexander; Schwarz, Michael; Münzel, Peter A

    2006-07-01

    CYP1A1, a major phase I enzyme, plays an important role in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and in the chemical activation of xenobiotics to carcinogenic derivatives. The phenolic antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), often used as a food preservative, is generally considered to act only as a mono-functional inducer of phase II enzymes, thereby exerting chemo-protection. However, we recently observed that tBHQ elevated the activity of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) response element (DRE)-driven luciferase reporter in human colon carcinoma cells (Caco-2). Therefore, we studied the effects of tBHQ on the activity of a DRE-driven reporter, CYP1A1 mRNA expression, and CYP1A enzyme activity in Caco-2 cells and human HepG2 hepatoma cells. We found tBHQ caused induction of reporter activity and CYP1A1 expression and activity in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Moreover, tBHQ combined with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increased reporter activity and mRNA expression in Caco-2 cells in an additive manner. By contrast, tBHQ decreased TCDD-mediated induction of reporter activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Resveratrol, an AhR antagonist, repressed the induction of CYP1A1 by tBHQ. Cotransfection of HepG2 cells with a dominant negative AhR nuclear translocator mutant abolished the tBHQ-induced CYP1A1 reporter activity. These findings indicate that CYP1A1 may be induced by the antioxidant tBHQ via an AhR-dependent mechanism.

  12. CYP4F2 (rs2108622) Gene Polymorphism Association with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kriauciuniene, Loresa; Balciuniene, Vilma Jurate; Buteikiene, Dovile; Miniauskiene, Goda; Liutkeviciene, Rasa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in elderly individuals where aetiology and pathophysiology of age-related macular degeneration are not absolutely clear. Purpose. To determine the frequency of the genotype of rs2108622 in patients with early and exudative age-related macular degeneration. Methods. The study enrolled 190 patients with early age-related macular degeneration, 181 patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (eAMD), and a random sample of 210 subjects from the general population (control group). The genotyping of rs2108622 was carried out using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Results. The analysis of rs2108622 gene polymorphism did not reveal any differences in the distribution of C/C, C/T, and T/T genotypes between the early AMD group, the eAMD group, and the control group. The CYP4F2 (1347C>T) T/T genotype was more frequent in males with eAMD compared to females (10.2% versus 0.8%; p = 0.0052); also T/T genotype was less frequently present in eAMD females compared to healthy control females (0.8% versus 6.2%; p = 0.027). Conclusion. Rs2108622 gene polymorphism had no predominant effect on the development of early AMD and eAMD. The T/T genotype was more frequent in males with eAMD compared to females and less frequently present in eAMD females compared to healthy females. PMID:27652291

  13. A multigenic approach to evaluate genetic variants of PLCE1, LXRs, MMPs, TIMP, and CYP genes in gallbladder cancer predisposition.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kiran Lata; Rai, Rajani; Srivastava, Anshika; Sharma, Aarti; Misra, Sanjeev; Kumar, Ashok; Mittal, Balraj

    2014-09-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a violent neoplasm associated with late diagnosis, unsatisfactory treatment, and poor prognosis. The disease shows complex interplay between multiple genetic variants. We analyzed 15 polymorphisms in nine genes involved in various pathways to find out combinations of genetic variants contributing to GBC risk. The genes included in the study were matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-2), cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1, CYP1B1, phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1), liver X receptor (LXR)-alpha, and LXR-beta. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP and TaqMan probes. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 16. Multilocus analysis was performed by Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) to gene-gene interactions in modifying GBC risk. In silico analysis was done using various bioinformatics tools (F-SNP, FAST-SNP). Single locus analysis showed association of MMP-2 (-735 C > T, -1306 C > T), MMP-7 - 181 A > G, MMP-9 (P574R, R668Q), TIMP-2 - 418 G > C, CYP1A1-MspI, CYP1A1-Ile462Val, PLCE1 (rs2274223 A > G, rs7922612 T > C) and LXR-beta T > C (rs3546355 G > A, rs2695121 T > C) polymorphisms with GBC risk (p < 0.05) whereas CYP1B1 and LXR-α variants were not associated with GBC risk. Multidimensional reduction analysis revealed LXR-β (rs3546355 G > A, rs2695121 T > C), MMP-2 (-1306 C > T), MMP-9 (R668Q), and PLCE1 rs2274223 A > G to be key players in GBC causation (p < 0.001, CVC = 7/10). The results were further supported by independent CART analysis (p < 0.001). In silico analysis of associated variants suggested change in splicing or transcriptional regulation. Interactome and STRING analysis showed network of associated genes. The study found PLCE1 and LXR-β network interactions as important contributory factors for genetic predisposition in gallbladder

  14. The human granzyme A (HFSP, CTLA3) gene maps to 5q11-q12 and defines a new locus of the serine protease superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, T.M.; Lichter, P. ); Wekerle, H.; Zimmer, M.; Jenne, D.E. )

    1993-11-01

    Human granzyme A (HFSP, Hanukah factor serine protease; CTLA3, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated serine esterase-3), a homodimeric, trypsin-like serine protease of 60 kDa found in granules of cytolytic T cells and natural killer cells, is implicated in lymphocyte-mediated target cell lysis. It contributes to DNA fragmentation in perforin (PRF1)-lysed target cells through an unknown mechanism. The authors have isolated a cosmid clone for the functional gene of human granzyme A and established its complete exon-intron map of 10 kb. Using an 11-kb subfragment of the cloned genomic DNA as a probe, they have identified the chromosomal position of human granzyme A on 5q11-q12. Thus, the human granzyme A gene falls into a region of homology between human chromosome 5 and mouse chromosome 13, band D, where the mouse granzyme A gene has been located previously. The granzyme A gene is not linked to known members of the large superfamily of serine proteases. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Association of CYP2J2 gene polymorphisms with ischemic stroke and stroke subtypes in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Si-Yang; Xing, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Yang; Deng, Ben-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose: Ischemic stroke (IS) is the main cause of mortality and disability among the old people in China and is a multifactorial disease influenced by many factors including genetic factors like the allele for CYP 2J2. It has been demonstrated that CYP2J2 polymorphisms alter the transcriptional activity. However, studies on the association between CYP2J2-50G/T polymorphism and IS have reported conflicting results. Thus, our study aimed to examine the association between 4 variants in the CYP2J2 gene and the risk of IS and its subtypes, in the Chinese population. Materials and Methods: In this study, genotyping was performed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing for 202 IS patients and 206 age- and sex-matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence interval (CI) were estimated by multivariate logistic regression and PCR results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the association of CYP2J2–50G>T polymorphism with the risk of IS in Chinese population by calculating pooled OR. Results: We found this polymorphism was significantly associated with IS (17.82% vs. 10.68%, P = 0.039). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that GT genotype was associated with a significantly high risk of IS (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.21–4.45, P = 0. 011) after adjustment for other confounding factors such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, smoking habit, family history, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein levels. We also found a significant association of GT genotype with small artery occlusion (SAA) (P < 0.05; OR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.043–4.72). Meta-analysis results also showed that the GT genotype carriers had a negative effect on the risk of IS in Chinese population with overall OR of 1.40 (95% CI: 1.06–1.84). Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggested that polymorphism in −50G/T position of CYP2J2 gene might be a risk factor for IS in Chinese

  16. Elevated levels of CYP94 family gene expression alleviate the jasmonate response and enhance salt tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Kurotani, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Kenji; Hatanaka, Saki; Toda, Yosuke; Ogawa, Daisuke; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Tashita, Ryo; Suzuki, Takeshi; Ueda, Minoru; Hattori, Tsukaho; Takeda, Shin

    2015-04-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate and its conjugates (JAs) have important roles in growth control, leaf senescence and defense responses against insects and microbial attacks. JA biosynthesis is induced by several stresses, including mechanical wounding, pathogen attacks, drought and salinity stresses. However, the roles of JAs under abiotic stress conditions are unclear. Here we report that increased expression of the Cyt P450 family gene CYP94C2b enhanced viability of rice plants under saline conditions. This gene encodes an enzyme closely related to CYP94C1 that catalyzes conversion of bioactive jasmonate-isoleucine (JA-Ile) into 12OH-JA-Ile and 12COOH-JA-Ile. Inactivation of JA was facilitated in a rice line with enhanced CYP94C2b expression, and responses to exogenous JA and wounding were alleviated. Moreover, salt stress-induced leaf senescence but not natural senescence was delayed in the transgenic rice. These results suggest that bioactive JAs have a negative effect on viability under salt stress conditions and demonstrate that manipulating JA metabolism confers enhanced salt tolerance in rice.

  17. Molecular Cloning and Expression Profile of a Halloween Gene Encoding Cyp307A1 From the Seabuckthorn Carpenterworm, Holcocerus hippophaecolus

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiao; Zhang, Haolin; Li, Juan; Sheng, Xia; Zong, Shixiang; Luo, Youqing; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Weng, Qiang; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    20-Hydroxyecdyone, an active form of ecdysteroid, is the key hormone in insect growth and development. Halloween genes encode ecdysteroidogenic enzymes, including cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. CYP307A1 (spook) is accepted as an enzyme acting in the so-called ‘black box’ that includes a series of hypothetical and unproven reactions that finally result in the oxidation of 7-dehydrocholesterol to diketol. In this study, the Holcocerus hippophaecolus Hua (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) CYP307A1 (HhSpo) gene was identified and characterized. The obtained cDNA sequence was 2084 base pairs with an open reading frame of 537 animo acids, in which existed conserved motifs of CYP450 enzymes. The transcript profiles of HhSpo were analyzed in various tissues of final instar larvae. The highest expression was observed in the prothoracic gland, while expression level was low but significant in other tissues. These results suggest that the sequence character and expression profile of HhSpo were well conserved and provided the basic information for its functional analysis. PMID:23909572

  18. Molecular cloning and expression profile of a Halloween gene encoding Cyp307A1 from the seabuckthorn carpenterworm, Holcocerus hippophaecolus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiao; Zhang, Haolin; Li, Juan; Sheng, Xia; Zong, Shixiang; Luo, Youqing; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Weng, Qiang; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    20-Hydroxyecdyone, an active form of ecdysteroid, is the key hormone in insect growth and development. Halloween genes encode ecdysteroidogenic enzymes, including cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. CYP307A1 (spook) is accepted as an enzyme acting in the so-called 'black box' that includes a series of hypothetical and unproven reactions that finally result in the oxidation of 7-dehydrocholesterol to diketol. In this study, the Holcocerus hippophaecolus Hua (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) CYP307A1 (HhSpo) gene was identified and characterized. The obtained cDNA sequence was 2084 base pairs with an open reading frame of 537 animo acids, in which existed conserved motifs of CYP450 enzymes. The transcript profiles of HhSpo were analyzed in various tissues of final instar larvae. The highest expression was observed in the prothoracic gland, while expression level was low but significant in other tissues. These results suggest that the sequence character and expression profile of HhSpo were well conserved and provided the basic information for its functional analysis.

  19. Genetic variants of the CYP1B1 gene as predictors of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gu, Cheng-Yuan; Qin, Xiao-Jian; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhu, Yu; Wan, Fang-Ning; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Sun, Li-Jiang; Zhu, Yao; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2016-07-01

    Clinically localized prostate cancer is curative. Nevertheless many patients suffered from biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Mounting evidence suggest that estrogen and xenobiotic carcinogens play an essential role in progression of prostate cancervia oxidative estrogen metabolism. CYP1B1 is an enzyme involved in the hydroxylation of estrogens, a reaction of key relevance in estrogen metabolism. Given the role of CYP1B1 in the oxidative metabolism of endogenous/exogenous estrogen and compounds, CYP1B1 polymorphisms have the potential to modify its expression and subsequently lead to progression. We hypothesize that genetic variants of the CYP1B1 gene may influence clinical outcome in clinically localized prostate cancer patients. In this cohort study, we genotyped 9 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the CYP1B1 gene in 312 patients treated with RP. For replication, these SNPs were genotyped in an independent cohort of 426 patients. The expression level of CYP1B1 in the adjacent normal prostate tissues was quantified by reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models were utilized to identify SNPs that correlated with BCR. CYP1B1 rs1056836 was significantly associated with BCR (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40-0.89, P = 0.002) and relative CYP1B1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest inherited genetic variation in the CYP1B1 gene may contribute to variable clinical outcomes for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer.

  20. Evolutionary Changes in Gene Expression, Coding Sequence and Copy-Number at the Cyp6g1 Locus Contribute to Resistance to Multiple Insecticides in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Harrop, Thomas W. R.; Sztal, Tamar; Lumb, Christopher; Good, Robert T.; Daborn, Phillip J.; Batterham, Philip; Chung, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Widespread use of insecticides has led to insecticide resistance in many populations of insects. In some populations, resistance has evolved to multiple pesticides. In Drosophila melanogaster, resistance to multiple classes of insecticide is due to the overexpression of a single cytochrome P450 gene, Cyp6g1. Overexpression of Cyp6g1 appears to have evolved in parallel in Drosophila simulans, a sibling species of D. melanogaster, where it is also associated with insecticide resistance. However, it is not known whether the ability of the CYP6G1 enzyme to provide resistance to multiple insecticides evolved recently in D. melanogaster or if this function is present in all Drosophila species. Here we show that duplication of the Cyp6g1 gene occurred at least four times during the evolution of different Drosophila species, and the ability of CYP6G1 to confer resistance to multiple insecticides exists in D. melanogaster and D. simulans but not in Drosophila willistoni or Drosophila virilis. In D. virilis, which has multiple copies of Cyp6g1, one copy confers resistance to DDT and another to nitenpyram, suggesting that the divergence of protein sequence between copies subsequent to the duplication affected the activity of the enzyme. All orthologs tested conferred resistance to one or more insecticides, suggesting that CYP6G1 had the capacity to provide resistance to anthropogenic chemicals before they existed. Finally, we show that expression of Cyp6g1 in the Malpighian tubules, which contributes to DDT resistance in D. melanogaster, is specific to the D. melanogaster–D. simulans lineage. Our results suggest that a combination of gene duplication, regulatory changes and protein coding changes has taken place at the Cyp6g1 locus during evolution and this locus may play a role in providing resistance to different environmental toxins in different Drosophila species. PMID:24416303

  1. Genetic variants of the CYP1B1 gene as predictors of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Cheng-Yuan; Qin, Xiao-Jian; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhu, Yu; Wan, Fang-Ning; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Sun, Li-Jiang; Zhu, Yao; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Clinically localized prostate cancer is curative. Nevertheless many patients suffered from biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Mounting evidence suggest that estrogen and xenobiotic carcinogens play an essential role in progression of prostate cancervia oxidative estrogen metabolism. CYP1B1 is an enzyme involved in the hydroxylation of estrogens, a reaction of key relevance in estrogen metabolism. Given the role of CYP1B1 in the oxidative metabolism of endogenous/exogenous estrogen and compounds, CYP1B1 polymorphisms have the potential to modify its expression and subsequently lead to progression. We hypothesize that genetic variants of the CYP1B1 gene may influence clinical outcome in clinically localized prostate cancer patients. In this cohort study, we genotyped 9 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the CYP1B1 gene in 312 patients treated with RP. For replication, these SNPs were genotyped in an independent cohort of 426 patients. The expression level of CYP1B1 in the adjacent normal prostate tissues was quantified by reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models were utilized to identify SNPs that correlated with BCR. CYP1B1 rs1056836 was significantly associated with BCR (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40–0.89, P = 0.002) and relative CYP1B1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest inherited genetic variation in the CYP1B1 gene may contribute to variable clinical outcomes for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. PMID:27399092

  2. The Cytochrome P450 gene CYP6P12 confers pyrethroid resistance in kdr-free Malaysian populations of the dengue vector Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Ishak, Intan H.; Riveron, Jacob M.; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S.; Stott, Rob; Longbottom, Joshua; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Control of Aedes albopictus, major dengue and chikungunya vector, is threatened by growing cases of insecticide resistance. The mechanisms driving this resistance remain poorly characterised. This study investigated the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in Malaysian populations of Ae. albopictus. Microarray-based transcription profiling revealed that metabolic resistance (cytochrome P450 up-regulation) and possibly a reduced penetration mechanism (consistent over-expression of cuticular protein genes) were associated with pyrethroid resistance. CYP6P12 over-expression was strongly associated with pyrethroid resistance whereas CYP6N3 was rather consistently over-expressed across carbamate and DDT resistant populations. Other detoxification genes also up-regulated in permethrin resistant mosquitoes included a glucuronosyltransferase (AAEL014279-RA) and the glutathione-S transferases GSTS1 and GSTT3. Functional analyses further supported that CYP6P12 contributes to pyrethroid resistance in Ae. albopictus as transgenic expression of CYP6P12 in Drosophila was sufficient to confer pyrethroid resistance in these flies. Furthermore, molecular docking simulations predicted CYP6P12 possessing enzymatic activity towards pyrethroids. Patterns of polymorphism suggested early sign of selection acting on CYP6P12 but not on CYP6N3. The major role played by P450 in the absence of kdr mutations suggests that addition of the synergist PBO to pyrethroids could improve the efficacy of this insecticide class and overcome resistance in field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27094778

  3. A novel CYP17A1 deletion causes a functional knockout of the steroid enzyme 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase in a Turkish family and illustrates the precise role of the CYP17A1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Camats, Núria; Üstyol, Ala; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Dick, Bernhard; Flück, Christa E

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A novel homozygous long-range deletion of the CYP17A1 gene abolished protein expression and caused the severest form of 17-hydroxylase deficiency in one kindred of a Turkish family. The affected subjects presented with 46,XY sex reversal and 46,XX lack of pubertal development as well as severe hypertension. PMID:26509008

  4. Relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genes and the bone mineral density and serum lipid profiles in postmenopausal Japanese women taking hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Quan, Jinhua; Yahata, Tetsuro; Tamura, Nozomi; Nagata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    The genetic variations of the genes encoding cytochrome P-450 enzymes are considered to play an important role in the metabolism of estradiol. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytochrome P-450 genes, lumbar bone mineral density (BMD), and serum lipids and to determine the effects of hormone therapy (HT). The participants were 124 Japanese women who had been diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis and were taking HT for 12 months. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genes were characterized. Lumbar BMD and the levels of serum lipids were measured before and after HT. A single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 3 of CYP1B1 was found to be significantly associated with the effect of HT on BMD and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol both in univariate and multivariate analyses. In the women with the GG genotype of L432V, the responses to HT of BMD and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol markedly decreased. The serum follicle-stimulating hormone level after HT was significantly higher in the women with the GG genotype of L432V. These results suggest that the L432V polymorphism in the CYP1B1 gene could therefore be used to predict the effect of HT on lumbar BMD and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in Japanese women.

  5. Vitamin D Insufficiency in Arabs and South Asians Positively Associates with Polymorphisms in GC and CYP2R1 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Elkum, Naser; Alkayal, Fadi; Noronha, Fiona; Ali, Maisa M.; Melhem, Motasem; Al-Arouj, Monira; Bennakhi, Abdullah; Behbehani, Kazem; Alsmadi, Osama; Abubaker, Jehad

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of genetic studies have reported an association between vitamin D related genes such as group-specific component gene (GC), Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily R, polypeptide 1 (CYP2R1) and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase/nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide synthetase 1 (DHCR7/NADSYN1) and serum levels of the active form of Vitamin D, 25 (OH) D among African Americans, Caucasians, and Chinese. Little is known about how genetic variations associate with, or contribute to, 25(OH)D levels in Arabs populations. Methods Allele frequencies of 18 SNPs derived from CYP2R1, GC, and DHCR7/NADSYN1 genes in 1549 individuals (Arabs, South Asians, and Southeast Asians living in Kuwait) were determined using real time genotyping assays. Serum levels of 25(OH)D were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay. Results GC gene polymorphisms (rs17467825, rs3755967, rs2282679, rs7041 and rs2298850) were found to be associated with 25(OH)D serum levels in Arabs and South Asians. Two of the CYP2R1 SNPs (rs10500804 and rs12794714) and one of GC SNPs (rs1155563) were found to be significantly associated with 25(OH)D serum levels only in people of Arab origin. Across all three ethnicities none of the SNPs of DHCR7/NADSYN1 were associated with serum 25(OH)D levels and none of the 18 SNPs were significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D levels in people from South East Asia. Conclusion Our data show for the first time significant association between the GC (rs2282679 and rs7041), CYP2R1 (rs10741657) SNPs and 25(OH)D levels. This supports their roles in vitamin D Insufficiency in Arab and South Asian populations respectively. Interestingly, two of the CYP2R1 SNPs (rs10500804 and rs12794714) and one GC SNP (rs1155563) were found to correlate with vitamin D in Arab population exclusively signifying their importance in this population. PMID:25405862

  6. Two Novel CYP11B1 Gene Mutations in Patients from Two Croatian Families with 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Dumic, Katja; Yuen, Tony; Grubic, Zorana; Kusec, Vesna; Barisic, Ingeborg; New, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD) is the second most common cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Mutations in the CYP11B1 gene, which encodes steroid 11β-hydroxylase, are responsible for this autosomal recessive disorder. Here, we describe the molecular genetics of two previously reported male siblings in whom diagnosis of 11β-OHD has been established based on their hormonal profiles displaying high levels of 11-deoxycortisol and hyperandrogenism. Both patients are compound heterozygous for a novel p.E67fs (c.199delG) mutation in exon 1 and a p.R448H (c.1343G>A) mutation in exon 8. We also report the biochemical and molecular genetics data of one new 11β-OHD patient. Sequencing of the CYP11B1 gene reveals that this patient is compound heterozygous for a novel, previously undescribed p.R141Q (c.422G>A) mutation in exon 3 and a p.T318R (c.953C>G) mutation in exon 5. All three patients are of Croatian (Slavic) origin and there is no self-reported consanguinity in these two families. Results of our investigation confirm that most of the CYP11B1 mutations are private. In order to elucidate the molecular basis for 11β-OHD in the Croatian/Slavic population, it is imperative to perform CYP11B1 genetic analysis in more patients from this region, since so far only four patients from three unrelated Croatian families have been analyzed. PMID:24987415

  7. Cloning, expression pattern and promoter functional analysis of cyp19a1a gene in miiuy croaker.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Pan; Lv, Zhenming; Wu, Changwen; Gui, Jianfang; Lou, Bao

    2017-09-05

    Gonadal-specific aromatase encoded by cyp19a1a is the important enzyme controlling estrogen biosynthesis in teleosts. In the present study, the cDNA sequence of cyp19a1a was cloned and characterized from miiuy croaker Miichthys miiuy. The cDNA encoded a protein of 519 amino acids with five structural regions. Higher identities of amino acid sequences and conserved structural regions were found between Mmcyp19a1a and other cyp19a1a genes. In addition, Mmcyp19a1a was clustered together with other seawater fishes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Mmcyp19a1a was localized exclusively in the cytoplasmic of thecal and granulosa cells surrounding the oocytes. Both the protein and mRNA levels of Mmcyp19a1a were increased significantly at the stage III follicles (mid-vitellogenic) and then decreased along with vitellogenesis. Interestingly, strong immunoreactive signals were also detected in the supporting cells of connective tissues during ovarian development. A 1777bp promoter fragment of Mmcyp19a1a was also isolated, and functional analysis using an EGFP reporter fusion in zebrafish larvae presented positive signals in the above of yolk sac, where is the region of pronephros and germ plasm occur. The Mmcyp19a1a:EGFP expression pattern was generally consistent with the endogenous cyp19a1a genesis. These results indicate that the Mmcyp19a1a gene plays an important role during vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation. The constructor of Mmcyp19a1a:EGFP may provide a useful tool for genetic analysis of gonad development in teleost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phylogeny of the bacterial superfamily of Crp-Fnr transcription regulators: exploiting the metabolic spectrum by controlling alternative gene programs

    SciTech Connect

    Korner, Heinz; Sofia, Heidi J. ); Zumft, Walter G.

    2003-12-30

    The Crp-Fnr regulators, named after the first two identified members, are DNA-binding proteins which predominantly function as positive transcription factors, though roles of repressors are also important. Among over 1200 proteins with an N-terminally-located nucleotide-binding domain similar to the cAMP receptor protein, the distinctive additional trait of the Crp-Fnr superfamily is a C-terminally-located helix-turn-helix motif for DNA binding. From a curated database of 369 family members exhibiting both features, we provide a protein tree of Crp-Fnr proteins according to their phylogenetic relationships. This results in the assembly of the regulators ArcR, CooA, CprK, Crp, Dnr, FixK, Flp, Fnr, FnrBac, FnrN, MalR, NnrR, NtcA, PrfA, and YeiL and their homologues in distinct clusters. Lead members and representatives of these groups are described, placing emphasis on the less well known regulators and target processes. Several more groups consist of sequence-derived proteins of unknown physiological role; some of them are tight clusters of highly similar members. The Crp-Fnr regulators stand out in responding to a broad spectrum of intracellular and exogenous signals such as cyclic AMP, anoxia, the redox state, oxidative and nitrosative stress, nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), 2-oxoglutarate, or temperature. To accomplish their roles Crp-Fnr members have intrinsic sensory modules allowing the binding of allosteric effector molecules, or have prosthetic groups for the interaction with the signal. The regulatory adaptability and structural flexibility represented in the Crp-Fnr scaffold has led to the evolution of an important group of physiologically versatile transcription factors.

  9. The Cytochrome P450 superfamily complement (CYPome) in the annelid Capitella teleta.

    PubMed

    Dejong, Chris A; Wilson, Joanna Y

    2014-01-01

    The Cytochrome P450 super family (CYP) is responsible for a wide range of functions in metazoans, having roles in both exogenous and endogenous substrate metabolism. Annelids are known to metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and produce estrogen. CYPs are postulated to be key enzymes in these processes in annelids. In this study, the CYP complement (CYPome) of the annelid Capitella teleta has been robustly identified and annotated with the genome assembly available. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to understand the evolutionary relationships between CYPs in C. teleta and other species. Predictions of which CYPs are potentially involved in both PAH metabolism and steroidogensis were made based on phylogeny. Annotation of 84 full length and 12 partial CYP sequences predicted a total of 96 functional CYPs in C. teleta. A further 13 CYP fragments were found but these may be pseudogenes. The C. teleta CYPome contained 24 novel CYP families and seven novel CYP subfamilies within existing families. A phylogenetic analysis identified that the C. teleta sequences were found in 9 of the 11 metazoan CYP clans. Two CYPs, CYP3071A1 and CYP3072A1, did not cluster with any metazoan CYP clans. We found xenobiotic response elements (XREs) upstream of C. teleta CYPs related to vertebrate CYP1 (CYP3060A1, CYP3061A1) and from families with reported transcriptional upregulation in response to PAH exposure (CYP4, CYP331). C. teleta had a CYP51A1 with ∼65% identity to vertebrate CYP51A1 sequences and has been predicted to have lanosterol 14 α-demethylase activity. CYP376A1, CYP3068A1, CYP3069A1, and CYP3070A1 were the most appropriate candidates for steroidogenesis genes based on their phylogeny and warrant further analyses, though no specific aromatase (estrogen synthesis) candidates were found. Presence of XREs upstream of C. teleta CYPs may indicate a functional aryl hydrocarbon receptor in C. teleta and candidate CYPs for studies of PAH metabolism.

  10. Elevated expression of steroidogenesis pathway genes; CYP17, GATA6 and StAR in prenatally androgenized rats.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Marziyeh Salehi; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Zarkesh, Maryam; Ghasemi, Asghar; Zadeh-Vakili, Azita

    2016-11-15

    It is believed that excess androgen exposure of the fetus, via altered gene expression, causes hyperandrogenism a key feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to evaluate expression of Cytochrome P450-17 (CYP17), GATA-binding protein (GAGT6) and Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), genes of adult female rats prenatally exposed to androgen excess, closely reflect endocrine and ovarian disturbances of PCOS in women, by comparing them during different phases of estrus cycle with those of non-treated rats. Both the adult prenatally testosterone exposed and control rats (n=23, each) were divided into four groups based on their observed vaginal smear (proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus) and the relative expression of CYP17, GATA6 and StAR genes was measured in ovarian theca cells using Cyber-green Real-Time PCR. Serum sex steroid hormones and gonadotropins levels were measured using the ELISA method; a comparison of these two groups showed that there was an overall increase in the studied genes (CYP17; 2.39 fold change, 95% CI: 1.23-3.55; P<0.05, GATA6; 2.08 fold change, 95% CI: 1.62-2.55; P<0.0001, and StAR; 1.4 fold change, 95% CI: 1.02-1.78; P<0.05), despite variations in different phases with maximum elevation for all genes in diestrus. The changes observed may impair the normal development of ovaries that mediate the programming of adult PCOS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Localization of the CYP2D gene locus to human chromosome 22q13. 1 by polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gouch, A.C.; Howell, S.M.; Bryant, S.P.; Spurr, N.K. ); Smith, C.A.D.; Wolf, C.R. )

    1993-02-01

    Using a combination of somatic cell hybrids, in situ hybridization, and linkage mapping, we have been able to localize the cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 gene to chromosome 22 in the region q13.1. Linkage analysis, using locus-specific primers, showed a maximum sex-average lod score of 8.12 ([theta] = 0.00) between the marker pH130 (D22S64) and CYPsD6, of 6.92 ([theta] - 0.00) between the marker KI839 (D22S95) and CYP2D6, and 4.80 ([theta] = 0.036) between the platelet-derived growth factor [beta] subunit gene (PDGFB) and CYP2D6. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Concomitance of oncogenic HPV types, CHEK2 gene mutations, and CYP1B1 gene polymorphism as an increased risk factor for malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Constantinou, Maria; Pietrusiński, Michał; Kępczyński, Łukasz; Jędrzejczyk, Adam; Rożniecki, Marek; Marks, Piotr; Kałużewski, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Urinary bladder carcinoma ranks the fourth position in malignancy incidence rates in men (6.1%) and the 17th position in women (1.6%). In general, neoplastic diseases should be approached from two perspectives: prevention with implementation of prophylactic measures and early diagnostics. Prophylactics is possible in the preclinical phase of neoplasm, being both justified and plausible in patients from high–risk groups. Thus, it is particularly important to select such groups, not only by referring to environmental carcinogenic factors (occupational and extra–occupational) but also from genetic predisposition, which may be conductive for neoplasm formation. The mutations / polymorphisms of CHEK2 and CYP1B1 genes predispose to neoplasm via multiorgan mechanisms, while the human papilloma virus (HPV) may participate in the neoplastic transformation as an environmental factor. Material and methods 131 patients with diagnosed urinary bladder cancer were qualified to the study. Mutations/polymorphisms of CHEK2 (IVS2 + 1G > A gene, 1100delC, del5395, I157T) and CYP1B1– 355T/T were identified by the PCR in DNA isolated directly from the tumor and from peripheral blood. The ELISA test was used for the studies of 37 HPV genotypes in DNA, isolated tumour tissue. Results 11 mutations of CHEK2 gene were found, 355T/T polymorphism if CYP1B1 gene occurred in 18 patients (12.9%). Oncogenic HPV was found in 36 (29.3%), out of 123 examined patients. Conclusions The concomitance of CHEK2 gene mutations or 355T/T polymorphism of CYP1B1 gene and the presence of oncogenic HPV types statistically significantly correlates with histological malignancy grades of urinary bladder carcinoma. PMID:24578981

  13. Characterisation of the legume SERK-NIK gene superfamily including splice variants: Implications for development and defence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (SERK) genes are part of the regulation of diverse signalling events in plants. Current evidence shows SERK proteins function both in developmental and defence signalling pathways, which occur in response to both peptide and steroid ligands. SERKs are generally present as small gene families in plants, with five SERK genes in Arabidopsis. Knowledge gained primarily through work on Arabidopsis SERKs indicates that these proteins probably interact with a wide range of other receptor kinases and form a fundamental part of many essential signalling pathways. The SERK1 gene of the model legume, Medicago truncatula functions in somatic and zygotic embryogenesis, and during many phases of plant development, including nodule and lateral root formation. However, other SERK genes in M. truncatula and other legumes are largely unidentified and their functions unknown. Results To aid the understanding of signalling pathways in M. truncatula, we have identified and annotated the SERK genes in this species. Using degenerate PCR and database mining, eight more SERK-like genes have been identified and these have been shown to be expressed. The amplification and sequencing of several different PCR products from one of these genes is consistent with the presence of splice variants. Four of the eight additional genes identified are upregulated in cultured leaf tissue grown on embryogenic medium. The sequence information obtained from M. truncatula was used to identify SERK family genes in the recently sequenced soybean (Glycine max) genome. Conclusions A total of nine SERK or SERK-like genes have been identified in M. truncatula and potentially 17 in soybean. Five M. truncatula SERK genes arose from duplication events not evident in soybean and Lotus. The presence of splice variants has not been previously reported in a SERK gene. Upregulation of four newly identified SERK genes (in addition to the previously described MtSERK1) in

  14. Increased prevalence of functional minor allele variants of drug metabolizing CYP2B6 and CYP2D6 genes in Roma population samples.

    PubMed

    Weber, Agnes; Szalai, Renata; Sipeky, Csilla; Magyari, Lili; Melegh, Marton; Jaromi, Luca; Matyas, Petra; Duga, Balazs; Kovesdi, Erzsebet; Hadzsiev, Kinga; Melegh, Bela

    2015-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 2B6 and 2D6 are important enzymes in human drug metabolism. These phase I enzymes are known to contribute the biotransformation of clinically important pharmaceuticals, including antidepressants, anticancer and anxiolytic drugs. The aim of this work was to determine the pharmacogenetic profile of CYP2B6 and CYP2D6 in Roma and Hungarian population samples. A study population of 426 healthy Roma and 431 healthy Hungarian subjects were characterized for CYP2B6 c.516G>T, CYP2D6 c.100C>T and c.1846G>A polymorphisms using predesigned TaqMan Drug Metabolism Genotyping Real Time-PCR assays. We found significant differences in the presence of CYP2B6 c.516G>T (p<0.001), CYP2D6 c.100C>T (p=0.003) and c.1846G>A (p=0.022) between Hungarian and Roma population. The 516T allele frequency was 33.6% in the Roma group, 21.4% in Hungarians, whereas the minor CYP2D6 100T allele was present in 26.6% in Romas and 20.5% in Hungarians. The 1864A allele frequency was 22.5% in Roma and 18.1% in Hungarian samples. A significant increase was found in genotype frequencies for homozygous minor allele carrier Roma participants compared to Hungarians for CYP2B6 516TT and CYP2D6 100TT. The following CYP2D6 genotypes were identified in Roma samples: *1/*1 (55.4%), *1/*4 (2.1%), *1/*10 (3.1%), *4/*10 (38.7%), *10/*10 (0.7%). Our results demonstrate an increased minor allele frequency for CYP2B6 and CYP2D6 polymorphisms in Roma samples that implies clinical significance in this ethnic group. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of mutations in the CYP21A2 gene: genotype-phenotype correlation in Slovenian couples with conceiving problems

    PubMed Central

    Fijavž, L; Zagradišnik, B; Kokalj Vokač, N

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to compare the CYP 21A2 genetic profiles of couples with unexplained fertility problems (UFP) with genetic profiles of healthy controls (HCs). Furthermore, we analyzed associations between mutations in the CYP21A2 gene and various clinical and laboratory parameters. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used in 638 probands with UFP and 200 HCs. Statistic analysis with χ2 was used to study the association of mutations with infertility. The effect of mutations on particular clinical and laboratory parameters was assessed with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. With regard to the CYP21A2 gene, 0.6% of probands with UFP and 0.5% of HCs were positive for the c.290-13A/C>G mutation; 0.6% of probands with UFP and 1.5% of HCs were positive for the p.I172N mutation; there were no probands with UFP positive for the p.P30L mutation, whereas 0.5% of HCs were; and 0.2% of probands with UFP and 0.5% of HCs were found to have the p.V281L mutation. We found a significant association between c.290-13A/C>G mutation and the frequency of significant hormone deviations (χ2 = 6.997, p = 0.008). Similar association was also observed between the c.29013A/C>G mutation and the frequency of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (χ2 = 16.775, p = 0.000). Our findings indicate that no significant difference in the prevalence of CYP 21A2 mutations can be found in probands with UFP when compared with HCs without infertility history. The results also imply the significant association of the c.290-13A/ C>G mutation in the CYP21A2 gene, not only with the frequency of PCOS, but also with the frequency of significant hormone deviations. PMID:27785393

  16. Tumour necrosis factor superfamily member 11 gene promoter polymorphisms modulate promoter activity and influence bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mencej, Simona; Albagha, Omar M E; Prezelj, Janez; Kocjan, Tomaz; Marc, Janja

    2008-06-01

    Tumour necrosis factor superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11) gene, that codes for receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand, is one of the candidate genes for the genetic susceptibility to osteoporosis. As variations in the TNFSF11 gene promoter could alter its expression, the aim of the study was to evaluate the functional influence of three polymorphisms in the promoter and to investigate their association with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers in postmenopausal women. A total of 404 postmenopausal women were genotyped for the presence of TNFSF11 gene promoter polymorphisms -290C>T, -643C>T and -693G>C. Two common haplotypes, CCG and TTC, which occur in 44.3 and 49.3% of subjects respectively, were subjected to functional analysis. Amplified fragments were cloned into pGL3-basic reporter plasmid, which was co-transfected with pRL-TK plasmid into HEK293 cells. Dual luciferase reporter assay was performed. BMD and biochemical markers were measured. Reporter gene analysis showed significantly higher luciferase activity in CCG than in TTC haplotype (P=0.018). Both showed association with lumbar spine BMD (BMD-ls; P=0.005 and 0.007 for TTC and CCG respectively), whereas in femoral neck there was no association with BMD. In postmenopausal osteoporosis, association with BMD-ls was established in -290C>T, -643C>T and -693G>C (P values: 0.001, 0.041 and 0.013 respectively). Association with femoral neck BMD was shown in -693G>C (P=0.049). No association was found with biochemical markers in any of the groups. Our results suggest that in postmenopausal osteoporosis, TNFSF11 gene promoter polymorphisms -290C>T, -643C>T and -693G>C play a functional role in the genetic regulation of BMD.

  17. Effects of norfloxacin on hepatic genes expression of P450 isoforms (CYP1A and CYP3A), GST and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in Swordtail fish (Xiphophorus Helleri).

    PubMed

    Liang, Ximei; Wang, Lan; Ou, Ruikang; Nie, Xiangping; Yang, YuFeng; Wang, Fang; Li, Kaibin

    2015-10-01

    The presence of antibiotics including norfloxacin in the aquatic environment may cause adverse effects in non-target organisms. But the toxic mechanisms of fluoroquinolone to fish species are still not completely elucidated. Thus, it is essential to investigate the response of fish to the exposure of fluoroquinolone at molecular or cellular level for better and earlier prediction of these environmental pollutants toxicity. The sub-chronic toxic effects of norfloxacin (NOR) on swordtail fish (Xiphophoru s helleri) were investigated by measuring mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and their corresponding enzyme activities (including ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, erythromycin N-demethylase and GST. Results showed that NOR significantly affected the expression of CYP1A, CYP3A, GST and P-gp genes in swordtails. The gene expressions were more responsive to NOR exposure than their corresponding enzyme activities. Moreover, sexual differences were found in gene expression and enzyme activities of swordtails exposed to NOR. Females displayed more dramatic changes than males. The study further demonstrated that the combined biochemical and molecular parameters were considered as useful biomarkers to improve our understanding of potential ecotoxicological risks of NOR exposure to aquatic organisms.

  18. Functional variants in CYP1B1, KRAS and MTHFR genes are associated with shorter telomere length in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cerne, Jasmina Z; Pohar-Perme, Maja; Cerkovnik, Petra; Gersak, Ksenija; Novakovic, Srdjan

    2015-07-01

    Estrogens and antioxidants indirectly alleviate telomere attrition. However, available clinical data on the association between hormone exposure and telomere length are inconclusive. In the present study, we examined the effects of exogenous estrogen use and of some genetic factors implicated in estrogen metabolism and oxidative stress response on mean leukocyte telomere length. We studied 259 postmenopausal women. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1B1 (rs1056836), COMT (rs4680), GSTP1 (rs1695), MnSOD (rs4880), KRAS (rs61764370), and MTHFR (rs1801133 and rs1801131) polymorphisms. Mean leukocyte telomere length was measured using a quantitative real-time PCR assay. In multivariate analysis we found no association between oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and mean leukocyte telomere length. The presence of variant alleles in CYP1B1, KRAS and MTHFR genes was statistically significantly associated with shorter mean leukocyte telomere length. Further, the data provided evidence for the effect modification of the association between HRT and mean leukocyte telomere length by the CYP1B1, KRAS and MTHFR genotypes. Our findings suggest that functionally relevant genetic variants within estrogen and folate metabolic pathways may influence telomere length. We propose these genetic factors should be taken into consideration when interpreting associations between hormone exposure and telomere length.

  19. Novel splice-affecting variants in CYP27A1 gene in two Chilean patients with Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, Susan V.; Preiss, Yudith; Suazo, José; Vega, Javier Andrés; Angellotti, Isidora; Lagos, Carlos F.; Rivera, Enzo; Kleinsteuber, Karin; Campion, Javier; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Maiz, Alberto; Santos, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX), a rare lipid storage disorder, is caused by recessive loss-of-function mutations of the 27-sterol hydroxylase (CYP27A1), producing an alteration of the synthesis of bile acids, with an accumulation of cholestanol. Clinical characteristics include juvenile cataracts, diarrhea, tendon xanthomas, cognitive impairment and other neurological manifestations. Early diagnosis is critical, because treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid may prevent neurological damage. We studied the CYP27A1 gene in two Chilean CTX patients by sequencing its nine exons, exon-intron boundaries, and cDNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Patient 1 is a compound heterozygote for the novel substitution c.256-1G > T that causes exon 2 skipping, leading to a premature stop codon in exon 3, and for the previously-known pathogenic mutation c.1183C > T (p.Arg395Cys). Patient 2 is homozygous for the novel mutation c.1185-1G > A that causes exon 7 skipping and the generation of a premature stop codon in exon 8, leading to the loss of the crucial adrenoxin binding domain of CYP27A1. PMID:25983621

  20. Novel splice-affecting variants in CYP27A1 gene in two Chilean patients with Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis.

    PubMed

    Smalley, Susan V; Preiss, Yudith; Suazo, José; Vega, Javier Andrés; Angellotti, Isidora; Lagos, Carlos F; Rivera, Enzo; Kleinsteuber, Karin; Campion, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo; Maiz, Alberto; Santos, José Luis

    2015-03-01

    Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX), a rare lipid storage disorder, is caused by recessive loss-of-function mutations of the 27-sterol hydroxylase (CYP27A1), producing an alteration of the synthesis of bile acids, with an accumulation of cholestanol. Clinical characteristics include juvenile cataracts, diarrhea, tendon xanthomas, cognitive impairment and other neurological manifestations. Early diagnosis is critical, because treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid may prevent neurological damage. We studied the CYP27A1 gene in two Chilean CTX patients by sequencing its nine exons, exon-intron boundaries, and cDNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Patient 1 is a compound heterozygote for the novel substitution c.256-1G > T that causes exon 2 skipping, leading to a premature stop codon in exon 3, and for the previously-known pathogenic mutation c.1183C > T (p.Arg395Cys). Patient 2 is homozygous for the novel mutation c.1185-1G > A that causes exon 7 skipping and the generation of a premature stop codon in exon 8, leading to the loss of the crucial adrenoxin binding domain of CYP27A1.

  1. Significant association between common polymorphisms in the aromatase gene CYP19A1 and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mullin, B H; Carter, K W; Lewis, J R; Ingley, E; Wilson, S G; Prince, R L

    2011-12-01

    17β-Estradiol is important in maintaining bone structure, and regulation of its synthesis plays an important role in the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We and others have demonstrated associations between variation in the CYP19A1 gene (encoding aromatase) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) phenotypes in women. In the present study 33 tag polymorphisms were genotyped across the CYP19A1 gene in a population of 1,185 Caucasian postmenopausal women to test the association between sequence variations, total DXA hip aBMD, and circulating 17β-estradiol levels. An in silico bioinformatics analysis was performed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with aBMD to identify putative functional effects, while linkage disequilibrium analysis of these SNPs was undertaken with previously published sequence variants. Five SNPs located in the central third of the gene were strongly associated with total-hip aBMD after adjustment for age (P = 0.006-0.013). A haplotype analysis of these five SNPs revealed an association between the haplotype C-G-G-G-C and increased aBMD (P = 0.008) and the haplotype A-A-A-A-A and a decreased aBMD (P = 0.021). The haplotype frequency was 9.0% for C-G-G-G-C and 15.4% for A-A-A-A-A, with the variation in mean total-hip aBMD explained by the haplotype analyses being 5% and 7%, respectively. None of these polymorphisms was significantly associated with circulating 17β-estradiol levels. In conclusion, common genetic variations within the CYP19A1 gene are significantly associated with aBMD in postmenopausal Caucasian women.

  2. Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A1 and 17 genes are not associated with acne vulgaris in the Polish population

    PubMed Central

    Zabłotna, Monika; Dobosz-Kawałko, Magdalena; Michajłowski, Igor; Mędrzycka-Dąbrowska, Wioletta; Nowicki, Roman; Sokołowska-Wojdyło, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The pathogenesis of acne is complex, multifactorial and not well understood. The genetic background of this dermatosis is well documented. Aim To assess the frequency of –34 T > C single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter of the CYP17 gene as well as m1 (+6,235 T > C) and m2 (+4,889 A > G) mutation in the coding region CYP1A1 gene acne patients from the Northern Polish population. Material and methods The study included 115 acne patients and 94 healthy controls (aged over 20) without acne in anamnesis. The CYP1A1 polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to analyze m1 mutation and allele-specific PCR in the case of m2 mutation. The CYP17 polymorphism was analyzed by RFLP. The results were evaluated by the Pearson's χ2 test. Results There were no statistically significant associations between allele and genotype frequencies between the acne and the control group. Conclusions We did not confirm the role of the CYP1A1 and CYP17 gene as predictor factors for acne development in the Polish population. PMID:26759538

  3. Evolutionary and expression analysis of a MADS-box gene superfamily involved in ovule development of seeded and seedless grapevines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yin, Xiangjing; Cheng, Chenxia; Wang, Hao; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Xiaozhao; Zhao, Jiao; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xiping

    2015-06-01

    MADS-box transcription factors are involved in many aspects of plant growth and development, such as floral organ determination, fruit ripening, and embryonic development. Yet not much is known about grape (Vitis vinifera) MADS-box genes in a relatively comprehensive genomic and functional way during ovule development. Accordingly, we identified 54 grape MADS-box genes, aiming to enhance our understanding of grape MADS-box genes from both evolutionary and functional perspectives. Synteny analysis indicated that both segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the grape MADS-box family. Furthermore, synteny analysis between the grape and Arabidopsis genomes suggested that several grape MADS-box genes arose before divergence of the two species. Phylogenetic analysis and comparisons of exon-intron structures provided further insight into the evolutionary relationships between the genes, as well as their putative functions. Based on phylogenetic tree analysis, grape MADS-box genes were divided into type I and type II subgroups. Tissue-specific expression analysis suggested roles in both vegetative and reproductive tissue development. Expression analysis of the MADS-box genes following gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment revealed their response to GA3 treatment and that seedlessness caused by GA3 treatment underwent a different mechanism from that of normal ovule abortion. Expression profiling of MADS-box genes from six cultivars suggests their function in ovule development and may represent potential ovule identity genes involved in parthenocarpy. The results presented provide a few candidate genes involved in ovule development for future study, which may be useful in seedlessness-related molecular breeding programs.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms of genes coding to alcohol-metabolizing enzymes in western Mexicans: association of CYP2E1*c2/CYP2E1*5B allele with cirrhosis and liver function.

    PubMed

    García-Bañuelos, Jesús; Panduro, Arturo; Gordillo-Bastidas, Daniela; Gordillo-Bastidas, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Gurrola-Díaz, Carmen M; Sánchez-Enríquez, Sergio; Ruiz-Madrigal, Bertha; Bastidas-Ramírez, Blanca Estela

    2012-03-01

    Alcoholic cirrhosis constitutes a major public health problem in the world where ADH1B, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 polymorphisms could be playing an important role. We determined ADH1B*2, ALDH2*2, and CYP2E1*c2 allele frequencies in healthy control individuals (C) and patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) from western Mexico. Ninety C and 41 patients with AC were studied. Genotype and allele frequency were determined through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Polymorphic allele distribution in AC was 1.6%ADH1B*2, 0.0%ALDH2*2, and 19.5%CYP2E1*c2; in C: 6.1%ADH1B*2, 0%ALDH2*2, and 10.6%CYP2E1*c2. CYP2E1*c2 polymorphic allele and c1/c2 genotype frequency were significantly higher (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively) in patients with AC when compared to C. Patients with AC, carrying the CYP2E1*c2 allele, exhibited more decompensated liver functioning evaluated by total bilirubin and prothrombin time, than c1 allele carrying patients (p < 0.05). Cirrhosis severity, assessed by Child's Pugh score and mortality, was higher in patients carrying the c2 allele, although not statistically significant. In this study, CYP2E1*c2 allele was associated with susceptibility to AC; meanwhile, ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 alleles were not. CYP2E1*c2 allele was associated with AC severity, which could probably be attributed to the oxidative stress promoted by this polymorphic form. Further studies to clearly establish CYP2E1*c2 clinical relevance in the development of alcohol-induced liver damage and its usefulness as a probable prognostic marker, should be performed. Also, increasing the number of patients and including a control group conformed by alcoholic patients free of liver damage may render more conclusive results. These findings contribute to the understanding of the influence of gene variations in AC development among populations, alcohol metabolism, and pharmacogenetics. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Variants in the CYP7B1 gene region do not affect natural resistance to HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Manuela; Biasin, Mara; Pontremoli, Chiara; Cagliani, Rachele; Saulle, Irma; Trabattoni, Daria; Vichi, Francesca; Lo Caputo, Sergio; Mazzotta, Francesco; Aguilar-Jimenez, Wbeimar; Rugeles, Maria Teresa; Cedeno, Samandhy; Sanchez, Jorge; Brander, Christian; Clerici, Mario

    2015-09-24

    The genetic bases of natural resistance to HIV-1 infection remain largely unknown. Recently, two genome-wide association studies suggested a role for variants within or in the vicinity of the CYP7B1 gene in modulating HIV susceptibility. CYP7B1 is an appealing candidate for this due to its contribution to antiviral immune responses. We analyzed the frequency of two previously described CYP7B1 variants (rs6996198 and rs10808739) in three independent cohorts of HIV-1 infected subjects and HIV-1 exposed seronegative individuals (HESN). rs6996198 and rs10808739 were genotyped in three case/control cohorts of sexually-exposed HESN and HIV-1-infected individuals from Italy, Peru and Colombia. Comparison of the allele and genotype frequencies of the two SNPs under different models showed that the only significant difference was seen for rs6996198 in the Peruvian sample (nominal p = 0.048, dominant model). For this variant, a random-effect meta-analysis yielded non-significant results (dominant model, p = 0.78) and revealed substantial heterogeneity among cohorts. No significant effect of the rs10808739 allelic status on HIV-1 infection susceptibility (additive model, p = 0.30) emerged from the meta-analysis. Although our study had limited power to detect association due to the small sample size, comparisons among the three cohorts revealed very similar allelic and genotypic frequencies in HESN and HIV-1 positive subjects. Overall, these data indicate that the two GWAS-defined variants in the CYP7B1 region do not strongly influence HIV-1 infection susceptibility.

  6. Inherited amplification of an active gene in the cytochrome P450 CYP2D locus as a cause of ultrarapid metabolism of debrisoquine

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, I.; Lundqvist, E.; Ingelman-Sundberg, M. ); Bertilsson, L.; Dahl, M.L.; Sjoeqvist, F. )

    1993-11-15

    Deficient hydroxylation of debrisoquine is an autosomal recessive trait that affects [approx]7% of the Caucasian population. These individuals (poor metabolizers) carry deficient:CYP2D6 gene variants and have an impaired metabolism of several commonly used drugs. The opposite phenomenon also exists, and certain individuals metabolize the drugs very rapidly, resulting in subtherapeutic plasma concentrations at normal doses. In the present study, the authors have investigated the molecular genetic basis for ultrarapid metabolism of debrisoquine. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the CYP2D locus in two families with very rapid metabolism of debrisoquine [metabolic ratio (MR) for debrisoquine = 0.01-0.1] revealed the variant CYP2D6 gene CYP2D6L. EcoRI RFLP and Xba I pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analyses showed that this gene had been amplified 12-fold in three members (father and his two children) of one of the families, and two copies were present among members of the other family. The CYP2D6L gene had an open reading frame and carried two mutations causing amino acid substitutions: one in exon 6, yielding an Arg-296[yields]Cys exchange and one in exon 9 causing Ser-486[yields]Thr. The MR of subjects carrying one copy of the CYP2D6L gene did not significantly differ from that of those with the wild-type gene, indicating that the structural alterations were not of importance for the catalytic properties of the gene product. Examination of the MR among subjects carrying wild-type CYP2D6, CYP2D6L, or deficient alleles revealed a relationship between the number of active genes and MR. The data show the principle of inherited amplification of an active gene. Furthermore, the finding of a specific haplotype with two or more active CYP2D6 genes allows genotyping for ultrarapid drug metabolizers. This genotyping could be of predictive value for individualized and more efficient drug therapy.

  7. Expression of three novel cytochrome P450 (CYP) and antioxidative genes from the polychaete, Perinereis nuntia exposed to water accommodated fraction (WAF) of Iranian crude oil and benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Shim, Won Joon; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2013-09-01

    To report a novel CYP genes and to evaluate its potency as a biomarker for oil pollution, we cloned three CYP genes and measured their expression profiles under controlled lab conditions using real-time reverse transcription PCR (real-time RT-PCR) after exposure of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of Iranian crude oil and benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P) as a positive control. Of these, CYP432A1 (CYP3 clan) gene was significantly induced by B[α]P exposure, indicating that the CYP3 clan gene would play an important role in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolisms, particularly for B[α]P in this species. However, the Perinereis nuntia CYP431A1 mRNA, a CYP2 clan gene, was sensitively expressed to WAF exposure with other two CYP genes. As one of Phase II detoxification enzymes, the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes also upregulated with other antioxidant genes (SOD and CAT), indicating that WAF-exposed P. nuntia was properly responding to this kind of chemical stress. Thus, three CYP genes from the polychaete, P. nuntia have a potential as a biomarker in monitoring of the marine sediment after an oil spill accident.

  8. CYP1B1 mRNA inducibility due to benzo(a)pyrene is modified by the CYP1B1 L432V gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Helmig, Simone; Wenzel, Sibylle; Maxeiner, Hagen; Schneider, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a primary component of tobacco smoke, is activated by cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1). Smokers homozygous for the C-allele (*1/*1) at the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism have shown increased CYP1B1 expression, compared to smokers homozygous for the G-allele *3/*3. Since no difference has been shown in CYP1B1 expression between both genotypes in non-smokers, we assumed that the genetic impact is produced in combination with an exogenous induction (e.g. BaP). To confirm this theory and to quantify the effect, we induced human leucocytes with increasing BaP concentrations and determined CYP1B1 mRNA expression with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We incubated human leucocytes from 27 healthy donors with BaP concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 250 µM. We identified the CYP1B1 genotypes by melting curve analysis and assessed relative CYP1B1 mRNA expression using real-time PCR. Expression was related to β-2-microglobulin with the 2(-ΔΔCT) method. Inducibility of CYP1B1 mRNA by BaP was higher in leucocytes carrying the CYP1B1*1/*1 genotype than in leucocytes carrying the CYP1B1*3/*3 genotype (P = 0.012). We revealed significant differences, with BaP concentrations of 2.5 µM (P = 0.0094), 5 µM (P = 0.027), 10 µM (P = 0.0006), 25 µM (P = 0.0007) and 50 µM (P = 0.017). Homozygous carriers of the C-allele (*1/*1) at the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism show a higher response to environmental factors, such as carcinogenic BaP, than homozygous carriers of the G-allele *3/*3.

  9. Up-regulation of the alligator CYP3A77 gene by toxaphene and dexamethasone and its short term effect on plasma testosterone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, M P; Kohno, S; Blumberg, B; Iguchi, T; Guillette, L J

    2006-06-30

    In this study we describe an alligator hepatic CYP3A gene, CYP3A77, which is inducible by dexamethasone and toxaphene. CYP3A plays a broad role in biotransforming both exogenous compounds and endogenous hormones such as testosterone and estradiol. Alligators collected from sites in Florida that are contaminated with organochlorine compounds exhibit differences in sex steroid concentrations. Many organochlorine compounds induce CYP3A expression in other vertebrates; hence, CYP3A induction by organochlorine contaminants could increase biotransformation and clearance of sex steroids by CYP3A and provide a plausible mechanism for the lowering of endogenous sex steroid concentrations in alligator plasma. We used real time PCR to examine whether known and suspected CYP3A inducers (dexamethasone, metyrapone, rifampicin, and toxaphene) up-regulate steady state levels of hepatic CYP3A77 transcript to determine if induction patterns in female juvenile alligators are similar to those reported in other vertebrates and whether toxaphene, an organochlorine compound found in high concentrations in Lake Apopka alligators, induces this gene. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), progesterone receptor (PR), and steroid-xenobiotic receptor (SXR) transcripts were also measured to determine whether any of these nuclear receptors are also regulated by these compounds in alligators. Dexamethasone (4.2-fold) and toxaphene (3.5-fold) significantly induced CYP3A77 gene transcript, whereas rifampicin (2.8-fold) and metyrapone (2.1-fold) up-regulated ERbeta after 24h. None of the compounds significantly up-regulated AR, ERalpha, GR, PR, or SXR over this time period. Plasma testosterone (T) did not change significantly after 24h in alligators from any of the treatment groups. Dexamethasone treated animals exhibited a strong relationship between the 24h plasma T concentrations and CYP3A77 (R(2)=0.9, positive

  10. Genomic origin, expression differentiation and regulation of multiple genes encoding CYP83A1, a key enzyme for core glucosinolate biosynthesis, from the allotetraploid Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Meenu; Augustine, Rehna; Majee, Manoj; Pradhan, Akshay K; Bisht, Naveen C

    2015-03-01

    The multiple BjuCYP83A1 genes formed as a result of polyploidy have retained cell-, tissue-, and condition-specific transcriptional sub-functionalization to control the complex aliphatic glucosinolates biosynthesis in the allotetraploid Brassica juncea. Glucosinolates along with their breakdown products are associated with diverse roles in plant metabolism, plant defense and animal nutrition. CYP83A1 is a key enzyme that oxidizes aliphatic aldoximes to aci-nitro compounds in the complex aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we reported the isolation of four CYP83A1 genes named BjuCYP83A1-1, -2, -3, and -4 from allotetraploid Brassica juncea (AABB genome), an economically important oilseed crop of Brassica genus. The deduced BjuCYP83A1 proteins shared 85.7-88.4 % of sequence identity with A. thaliana AtCYP83A1 and 84.2-95.8 % among themselves. Phylogenetic and divergence analysis revealed that the four BjuCYP83A1 proteins are evolutionary conserved and have evolved via duplication and hybridization of two relatively simpler diploid Brassica genomes namely B. rapa (AA genome) and B. nigra (BB genome), and have retained high level of sequence conservation following allopolyploidization. Ectopic over-expression of BjuCYP83A1-1 in A. thaliana showed that it is involved mainly in the synthesis of C4 aliphatic glucosinolates. Detailed expression analysis using real-time qRT-PCR in B. juncea and PromoterBjuCYP83A1-GUS lines in A. thaliana confirmed that the four BjuCYP83A1 genes have retained ubiquitous, overlapping but distinct expression profiles in different tissue and cell types of B. juncea, and in response to various elicitor treatments and environmental conditions. Taken together, this study demonstrated that transcriptional sub-functionalization and coordinated roles of multiple BjuCYP83A1 genes control the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in the allotetraploid B. juncea, and provide a framework for metabolic engineering of

  11. A Kidney-specific genetic control module in mice governs endocrine regulation of the cytochrome P450 gene Cyp27b1 essential for vitamin D3 activation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Mark B; Benkusky, Nancy A; Kaufmann, Martin; Lee, Seong Min; Onal, Melda; Jones, Glenville; Pike, J Wesley

    2017-08-14

    The vitamin D endocrine system regulates mineral homeostasis through its activities in the intestine, kidney, and bone. Terminal activation of vitamin D3 to its hormonal form, 1,25(OH)2D3, occurs in the kidney via the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP27B1. Despite its importance in vitamin D metabolism, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the gene for this enzyme, Cyp27b1, are unknown. Here, we identified a kidney-specific control module governed by a renal cell-specific chromatin structure located distal to Cyp27b1 that mediates unique basal and parathyroid hormone (PTH)-, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-, and 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated regulation of Cyp27b1 expression. Selective genomic deletion of key components within this module in mice resulted in loss of either PTH induction or FGF23 and 1,25(OH)2D3 suppression of Cyp27b1 gene expression; the former loss caused a debilitating skeletal phenotype, whereas the latter conferred a quasi-normal bone mineral phenotype through compensatory homeostatic mechanisms involving Cyp24a1 We found that Cyp27b1 is also expressed at low levels in non-renal cells, in which transcription was modulated exclusively by local factors via a process that was unaffected by deletion of the kidney-specific module. These results reveal that differential regulation of Cyp27b1 expression represents a mechanism whereby 1,25(OH)2D3 can fulfill separate functional roles: first in the kidney to control mineral homeostasis and second in extra-renal cells to regulate target genes linked to specific biological responses. Furthermore, we conclude that these mouse models open new avenues for the study of vitamin D metabolism and its involvement in therapeutic strategies for human health and disease. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Contribution of a common variant in the promoter of the 1-α-hydroxylase gene (CYP27B1) to fracture risk in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J; Nguyen, Tuan V; Au, Amy; Bullock, Martyn; Cameron, Ian; Cumming, Robert; Chen, Jian Sheng; March, Lyn M; Seibel, Markus J; Sambrook, Philip N

    2011-02-01

    CYP27B1 encodes mitochondrial 1α-hydroxylase, which converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D to its active 1,25-dihydroxylated metabolite. We tested the hypothesis that common variants in the CYP27B1 promoter are associated with fracture risk. The study was designed as a population-based genetic association study, which involved 153 men and 596 women aged 65-101 years, who had been followed for 2.2 years (range 0.1-5.5) between 1999 and 2006. During the follow-up period, the incidence of fragility fractures was ascertained. Bone ultrasound attenuation (BUA) was measured in all individuals, as were serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations; 86% subjects had vitamin D insufficiency. Genotypes were determined for the -1260C>A (rs10877012) and +2838T>C (rs4646536) CYP27B1 polymorphisms. A reporter gene assay was used to assess functional expression of the -1260C>A CYP27B1 variants. The association between genotypes and fracture risk was analyzed by Cox's proportional hazards model. We found that genotypic distribution of CYP27B1 -1260 and CYP27B1 +2838 polymorphisms was consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law. The two polymorphisms were in high linkage disequilibrium, with D' = 0.96 and r² = 0.94. Each C allele of the CYP27B1 -1260 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of fracture (hazard ratio = 1.34, 95% CI 1.03-1.73), after adjustment for age, sex, number of falls, and BUA. In transient transfection studies, a reporter gene downstream of the -1260(A)-containing promoter was more highly expressed than that containing the C allele. These data suggest that a common but functional variation within the CYP27B1 promoter gene is associated with fracture risk in the elderly.

  13. Cyp15F1: a novel cytochrome P450 gene linked to juvenile hormone-dependent caste differention in the termite Reticulitermes flavipes.

    PubMed

    Tarver, Matthew R; Coy, Monique R; Scharf, Michael E

    2012-07-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that jointly utilize juvenile hormone (JH), pheromones, and other semiochemicals to regulate caste differentiation and achieve caste homeostasis. Prior EST sequencing from the symbiont-free gut transcriptome of Reticulitermes flavipes unexpectedly revealed a number of unique cytochrome P450 (Cyp) transcripts, including fragments of a Cyp15 family gene (Cyp15F1) with homology to other insect Cyp15s that participate in JH biosynthesis. The present study investigated the role of Cyp15F1 in termite caste polyphenism and specifically tested the hypothesis that it plays a role in JH-dependent caste differentiation. After assembling the full-length Cyp15F1 cDNA sequence, we (i) determined its mRNA tissue expression profile, (ii) investigated mRNA expression changes in response to JH and the caste-regulatory primer pheromones γ-cadinene (CAD) and γ-cadinenal (ALD), and (iii) used RNA interference (RNAi) in combination with caste differentiation bioassays to investigate gene function at the phenotype level. Cyp15F1 has ubiquitous whole-body expression (including gut tissue); is rapidly and sustainably induced from 3 h to 48 h by JH, CAD, and ALD; and functions at least in part by facilitating JH-dependent soldier caste differentiation. These findings provide the second example of a termite caste regulatory gene identified through the use of RNAi, and significantly build upon our understanding of termite caste homeostatic mechanisms. These results also reinforce the concept of environmental caste determination in termites by revealing how primer pheromones, as socioenvironmental factors, can directly influence Cyp15 expression and caste differentiation.

  14. Distribution of CYP2D6 Alleles and Phenotypes in the Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Sortica, Vinicius A.; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; de Moraes, Maria Elizabete; Pena, Sergio D. J.; dos Santos, Ândrea K. Ribeiro; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The CYP2D6 enzyme is one of the most important members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. This enzyme metabolizes approximately 25% of currently prescribed medications. The CYP2D6 gene presents a high allele heterogeneity that determines great inter-individual variation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of CYP2D6 alleles, genotypes and predicted phenotypes in Brazilians. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms and CYP2D6 duplications/multiplications were genotyped by TaqMan assays in 1020 individuals from North, Northeast, South, and Southeast Brazil. Eighteen CYP2D6 alleles were identified in the Brazilian population. The CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*2 alleles were the most frequent and widely distributed in different geographical regions of Brazil. The highest number of CYPD6 alleles observed was six and the frequency of individuals with more than two copies ranged from 6.3% (in Southern Brazil) to 10.2% (Northern Brazil). The analysis of molecular variance showed that CYP2D6 is homogeneously distributed across different Brazilian regions and most of the differences can be attributed to inter-individual differences. The most frequent predicted metabolic status was EM (83.5%). Overall 2.5% and 3.7% of Brazilians were PMs and UMs respectively. Genomic ancestry proportions differ only in the prevalence of intermediate metabolizers. The IM predicted phenotype is associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry and a lower proportion of European ancestry in Brazilians. PM and UM classes did not vary among regions and/or ancestry proportions therefore unique CYP2D6 testing guidelines for Brazilians are possible and could potentially avoid ineffective or adverse events outcomes due to drug prescriptions. PMID:25329392

  15. Distribution of CYP2D6 alleles and phenotypes in the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Deise C; Genro, Júlia P; Sortica, Vinicius A; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; de Moraes, Maria Elizabete; Pena, Sergio D J; dos Santos, Andrea K Ribeiro; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Hutz, Mara H

    2014-01-01

    The CYP2D6 enzyme is one of the most important members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. This enzyme metabolizes approximately 25% of currently prescribed medications. The CYP2D6 gene presents a high allele heterogeneity that determines great inter-individual variation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of CYP2D6 alleles, genotypes and predicted phenotypes in Brazilians. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms and CYP2D6 duplications/multiplications were genotyped by TaqMan assays in 1020 individuals from North, Northeast, South, and Southeast Brazil. Eighteen CYP2D6 alleles were identified in the Brazilian population. The CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*2 alleles were the most frequent and widely distributed in different geographical regions of Brazil. The highest number of CYPD6 alleles observed was six and the frequency of individuals with more than two copies ranged from 6.3% (in Southern Brazil) to 10.2% (Northern Brazil). The analysis of molecular variance showed that CYP2D6 is homogeneously distributed across different Brazilian regions and most of the differences can be attributed to inter-individual differences. The most frequent predicted metabolic status was EM (83.5%). Overall 2.5% and 3.7% of Brazilians were PMs and UMs respectively. Genomic ancestry proportions differ only in the prevalence of intermediate metabolizers. The IM predicted phenotype is associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry and a lower proportion of European ancestry in Brazilians. PM and UM classes did not vary among regions and/or ancestry proportions therefore unique CYP2D6 testing guidelines for Brazilians are possible and could potentially avoid ineffective or adverse events outcomes due to drug prescriptions.

  16. Understanding CYP2D6 and its role in tamoxifen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Smith, Edith Caroline

    2013-11-01

    The gene CYP2D6 has an extremely important role in drug metabolism. "Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6" is the official name of CYP2D6. The gene is located at position 13.1 on the long (q) arm of chromosome 21 and encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases that are heavily involved in drug metabolism (Genetics Home Reference, 2013), and many drugs are activated into their biologically active compounds. Because of numerous polymorphisms, the gene also has significant person-to-person variability. To date, more than 80 distinct CYP2D6 alleles and specific types and frequencies have been associated with different ethnic groups. CYP2D6*4 is the most common variant allele in Caucasians and, in that population, has a frequency of about 25%. On the other hand, CYP2D6*10 is common in the Asian population (Stearns & Rae, 2008).

  17. Repression of multiple CYP2D genes in mouse primary hepatocytes with a single siRNA construct.

    PubMed

    Elraghy, Omaima; Baldwin, William S

    2015-01-01

    The Cyp2d subfamily is the second most abun-dant subfamily of hepatic drug-metabolizing CYPs. In mice, there are nine Cyp2d members that are believed to have redundant catalytic activity. We are testing and optimizing the ability of one short interfering RNA (siRNA) construct to knockdown the expression of multiple mouse Cyp2ds in primary hepatocytes. Expression of Cyp2d10, Cyp2d11, Cyp2d22, and Cyp2d26 was observed in the primary male mouse hepatocytes. Cyp2d9, which is male-specific and growth hormone-dependent, was not expressed in male primary hepatocytes, potentially because of its dependence on pulsatile growth hormone release from the anterior pituitary. Several different siRNAs at different concentrations and with different reagents were used to knockdown Cyp2d expression. siRNA constructs designed to repress only one construct often mildly repressed several Cyp2d isoforms. A construct designed to knockdown every Cyp2d isoform provided the best results, especially when incubated with transfection reagents designed specifically for primary cell culture. Interestingly, a construct designed to knockdown all Cyp2d isoforms, except Cyp2d10, caused a 2.5× increase in Cyp2d10 expression, presumably because of a compensatory response. However, while RNA expression is repressed 24 h after siRNA treatment, associated changes in Cyp2d-mediated metabolism are tenuous. Overall, this study provides data on the expression of murine Cyp2ds in primary cell lines, valuable information on designing siRNAs for silencing multiple murine CYPs, and potential pros and cons of using siRNA as a tool for repressing Cyp2d and estimating Cyp2d's role in murine xenobiotic metabolism.

  18. Plant disease resistance genes encode members of an ancient and diverse protein family within the nucleotide-binding superfamily.

    PubMed

    Meyers, B C; Dickerman, A W; Michelmore, R W; Sivaramakrishnan, S; Sobral, B W; Young, N D

    1999-11-01

    The nucleotide binding site (NBS) is a characteristic domain of many plant resistance gene products. An increasing number of NBS-encoding sequences are being identified through gene cloning, PCR amplification with degenerate primers, and genome sequencing projects. The NBS domain was analyzed from 14 known plant resistance genes and more than 400 homologs, representing 26 genera of monocotyledonous, dicotyle-donous and one coniferous species. Two distinct groups of diverse sequences were identified, indicating divergence during evolution and an ancient origin for these sequences. One group was comprised of sequences encoding an N-terminal domain with Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor homology (TIR), including the known resistance genes, N, M, L6, RPP1 and RPP5. Surprisingly, this group was entirely absent from monocot species in searches of both random genomic sequences and large collections of ESTs. A second group contained monocot and dicot sequences, including the known resistance genes, RPS2, RPM1, I2, Mi, Dm3, Pi-B, Xa1, RPP8, RPS5 and Prf. Amino acid signatures in the conserved motifs comprising the NBS domain clearly distinguished these two groups. The Arabidopsis genome is estimated to contain approximately 200 genes that encode related NBS motifs; TIR sequences were more abundant and outnumber non-TIR sequences threefold. The Arabidopsis NBS sequences currently in the databases are located in approximately 21 genomic clusters and 14 isolated loci. NBS-encoding sequences may be more prevalent in rice. The wide distribution of these sequences in the plant kingdom and their prevalence in the Arabidopsis and rice genomes indicate that they are ancient, diverse and common in plants. Sequence inferences suggest that these genes encode a novel class of nucleotide-binding proteins.

  19. Involvement of CAR and PXR in the transcriptional regulation of CYP2B6 gene expression by ingredients from herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cong; Luo, Mengyue; Jiang, Huidi; Yu, Lushan; Zeng, Su

    2015-01-01

    1. Induction of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes can affect drug efficacy and cause toxicity. However, so far, limited information is available regarding the molecular mechanism how herbal medicines induce human CYP2B6, which metabolizes many of the clinically used therapeutics and activates several pro-carcinogens or toxicants. Accumulated evidence suggests that the human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR) and the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) play important roles in trans-activation of CYP2B6. In this study, we investigated the effects of 68 Chinese herbal ingredients on the receptor specificity of hPXR/hCAR-mediated CYP2B6 induction by luciferase reporter gene assays in transiently transfected HepG2 cells and on the expression of CYP2B6 in LS174T cells. 2. The HepG2 cells were transiently transfected with human CYP2B6 luciferase promoter reporter plasmids along with hPXR or hCAR3. The results indicated that apigenin (Api), curcumol (Cur) and praeruptorin A (Pra A) were identified as potent activators of hPXR, and Pra A was also a ligand of hCAR. 3. Furthermore, CYP2B6 mRNA expression in LS174T cells treated with the three herbal ingredients was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. By combining western blot and LC-MS/MS, CYP2B6 protein expression and catalytic activity induced by the three herbal ingredients were measured. 4. Our observation showed Api and Cur up-regulated CYP2B6 expression by transactivation of hPXR, and Pra A acted as the ligand of both hPXR and hCAR to induce CYP2B6 expression.

  20. Differential vitamin D 24-hydroxylase/CYP24A1 gene promoter methylation in endothelium from benign and malignant human prostate

    PubMed Central

    Karpf, Adam R; Omilian, Angela R; Bshara, Wiam; Tian, Lili; Tangrea, Michael A; Morrison, Carl D; Johnson, Candace S

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations occur in tumor-associated vessels in the tumor microenvironment. Methylation of the CYP24A1 gene promoter differs in endothelial cells isolated from tumors and non-tumor microenvironments in mice. The epigenetic makeup of endothelial cells of human tumor-associated vasculature is unknown due to difficulty of isolating endothelial cells populations from a heterogeneous tissue microenvironment. To ascertain CYP24A1 promoter methylation in tumor-associated endothelium, we utilized laser microdissection guided by CD31 immunohistochemistry to procure endothelial cells from human prostate tumor specimens. Prostate tissues were obtained following robotic radical prostatectomy from men with clinically localized prostate cancer. Adjacent histologically benign prostate tissues were used to compare endothelium from benign versus tumor microenvironments. Sodium bisulfite sequencing of CYP24A1 promoter region showed that the average CYP24A1 promoter methylation in the endothelium was 20% from the tumor microenvironment compared with 8.2% in the benign microenvironment (p < 0.05). A 2-fold to 17-fold increase in CYP24A1 promoter methylation was observed in the prostate tumor endothelium compared with the matched benign prostate endothelium in four patient samples, while CYP24A1 promoter methylation remained unchanged in two patient samples. In addition, there is no correlation of the level of CYP24A1 promoter methylation in prostate tumor-associated endothelium with that of epithelium/stroma. This study demonstrates that the CYP24A1 promoter is methylated in tumor-associated endothelium, indicating that epigenetic alterations in CYP24A1 may play a role in determining the phenotype of tumor-associated vasculature in the prostate tumor microenvironment. PMID:21725204

  1. A Major Facilitator Superfamily protein encoded by TcMucK gene is not required for cuticle pigmentation, growth and development in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Mun, Seulgi; Noh, Mi Young; Osanai-Futahashi, Mizuko; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2014-06-01

    Insect cuticle pigmentation and sclerotization (tanning) are vital physiological processes for insect growth, development and survival. We have previously identified several colorless precursor molecules as well as enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and processing to yield the mature intensely colored body cuticle pigments. A recent study indicated that the Bombyx mori (silkmoth) gene, BmMucK, which encodes a protein orthologous to a Culex pipiens quiquefasciatus (Southern house mosquito) cis,cis, muconate transporter, is a member of the "Major Facilitator Superfamily" (MFS) of transporter proteins and is associated with the appearance of pigmented body segments of naturally occurring body color mutants of B. mori. While RNA interference of the BmMucK gene failed to result in any observable phenotype, RNAi using a dsRNA for an orthologous gene from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, was reported to result in molting defects and darkening of the cuticle and some body parts, leading to the suggestion that orthologs of MucK genes may differ in their functions among insects. To verify the role and essentiality of the ortholog of this gene in development and body pigmentation function in T. castaneum we obtained cDNAs for the orthologous gene (TcMucK) from RNA isolated from the GA-1 wild-type strain of T. castaneum. The sequence of a 1524 nucleotides-long cDNA for TcMucK which encodes the putatively full-length protein, was assembled from two overlapping RT-PCR fragments and the expression profile of this gene during development was analyzed by real-time PCR. This cDNA encodes a 55.8 kDa protein consisting of 507 amino acid residues and includes 11 putative transmembrane segments. Transcripts of TcMucK were detected throughout all of the developmental stages analyzed. The function of this gene was explored by injection of two different double-stranded RNAs targeting different regions of the TcMucK gene (dsTcMucKs) into young larvae to down

  2. No evidence of association between mutant alleles of the CYP27B1 gene and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ban, Maria; Caillier, Stacy; Mero, Inger-Lise; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Celius, Elisabeth G; Aarseth, Jan; Torkildsen, Øivind; Harbo, Hanne F; Oksenberg, Jorge; Hauser, Stephen L; Sawcer, Stephen; Compston, Alastair

    2013-03-01

    An association has previously been reported between susceptibility to multiple sclerosis and the rare mutant alleles of the CYP27B1 gene responsible for autosomal recessive vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1 (VDDR1). In an attempt to replicate this finding, we screened 495 multiplex families and 2,092 single affected families, together with 4,594 cases and 3,583 controls (a total of 17,073 individuals) but were unable to find any evidence supporting this putative association. Our data do not indicate that mutations responsible for VDDR1 influence the risk of developing multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2013 American Neurological Association.

  3. CYP1B1 gene mutations causing primary congenital glaucoma in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bouyacoub, Yosra; Ben Yahia, Salim; Abroug, Nesrine; Kahloun, Rim; Kefi, Rym; Khairallah, Moncef; Abdelhak, Sonia

    2014-07-01

    Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is responsible for a significant proportion of childhood blindness in Tunisia. Early prevention based on genetic diagnosis is therefore required. This study sought to determine the frequency of CYP1B1 (cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1) mutations in 18 PCG patients, recruited from Central and Southern of Tunisia. Genomic DNA was extracted and the coding regions of CYP1B1 were analysed by direct sequencing. A phylogenetic network of CYP1B1 haplotypes was drawn using the median-joining algorithm. Sequence analysis revealed a "tetra-allelic mutation" (two novel mutations, p.F231I and p.P437A in the homozygous state) in one patient. The healthy members of his family carried those variations on the same allele. Two previously described mutations p.G61E and c.535delG were also identified in the homozygous state in seven and two probands, respectively. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified and used to generate haplotypes. Our results showed that the CYP1B1 mutations were present in 55% of Tunisian PCG patients' alleles. Haplotype analysis allowed us to define the proto-haplotype and to confirm historical migratory flows. Establishment of PCG genetic aetiology in Tunisia will improve genetic diagnosis and counselling.

  4. Use of CYP52A2A promoter to increase gene expression in yeast

    DOEpatents

    Craft, David L.; Wilson, C. Ron; Eirich, Dudley; Zhang, Yeyan

    2004-01-06

    A nucleic acid sequence including a CYP promoter operably linked to nucleic acid encoding a heterologous protein is provided to increase transcription of the nucleic acid. Expression vectors and host cells containing the nucleic acid sequence are also provided. The methods and compositions described herein are especially useful in the production of polycarboxylic acids by yeast cells.

  5. Interaction between variants in the CYP2C9 and POR genes and the risk of sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycaemia: A GoDARTS Study.

    PubMed

    Dujic, Tanja; Zhou, Kaixin; Donnelly, Louise A; Leese, Graham; Palmer, Colin N A; Pearson, Ewan R

    2017-06-28

    Data on the association of CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms with sulfonylurea (SU)-induced hypoglycaemia (SH) are inconsistent. Recent studies showed that variants in the P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene could affect CYP2C9 activity. In this study, we explored the effects of POR*28 and combined CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 genotypes on SH and the efficacy of SU treatment in type 2 diabetes. A total of 1770 patients were included in the analysis of SU efficacy, assessed as the combined outcome of the HbA1c reduction and the prescribed SU daily dose. Sixty-nine patients with severe SH were compared with 311 control patients. The number of CYP2C9 deficient alleles was associated with nearly three-fold higher odds of hypoglycaemia (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.30-6.09; P = .009) and better response to SU treatment (β, -0.218; SE, 0.074; P = .003) only in patients carrying the POR*1/*1 genotype. Our results indicate that interaction between CYP2C9 and POR genes may be an important determinant of efficacy and severe adverse effects of SU treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The human orphan nuclear receptor PXR is activated by compounds that regulate CYP3A4 gene expression and cause drug interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, J M; McKee, D D; Watson, M A; Willson, T M; Moore, J T; Kliewer, S A

    1998-01-01

    The cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase 3A4 (CYP3A4) is responsible for the oxidative metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics including an estimated 60% of all clinically used drugs. Although expression of the CYP3A4 gene is known to be induced in response to a variety of compounds, the mechanism underlying this induction, which represents a basis for drug interactions in patients, has remained unclear. We report the identification of a human (h) orphan nuclear receptor, termed the pregnane X receptor (PXR), that binds to a response element in the CYP3A4 promoter and is activated by a range of drugs known to induce CYP3A4 expression. Comparison of hPXR with the recently cloned mouse PXR reveals marked differences in their activation by certain drugs, which may account in part for the species-specific effects of compounds on CYP3A gene expression. These findings provide a molecular explanation for the ability of disparate chemicals to induce CYP3A4 levels and, furthermore, provide a basis for developing in vitro assays to aid in predicting whether drugs will interact in humans. PMID:9727070

  7. Alternative Splicing in the Cytochrome P450 Superfamily Expands Protein Diversity to Augment Gene Function and Redirect Human Drug Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Annalora, Andrew J; Marcus, Craig B; Iversen, Patrick L

    2017-04-01

    The human genome encodes 57 cytochrome P450 genes, whose enzyme products metabolize hundreds of drugs, thousands of xenobiotics, and unknown numbers of endogenous compounds, including steroids, retinoids, and eicosanoids. Indeed, P450 genes are the first line of defense against daily environmental chemical challenges in a manner that parallels the immune system. Several National Institutes of Health databases, including PubMed, AceView, and Ensembl, were queried to establish a comprehensive analysis of the full human P450 transcriptome. This review describes a remarkable diversification of the 57 human P450 genes, which may be alternatively processed into nearly 1000 distinct mRNA transcripts to shape an individual's P450 proteome. Important P450 splice variants from families 1A, 1B, 2C, 2D, 3A, 4F, 19A, and 24A have now been documented, with some displaying alternative subcellular distribution or catalytic function directly linked to a disease pathology. The expansion of P450 transcript diversity involves tissue-specific splicing factors, transformation-sensitive alternate splicing, trans-splicing between gene transcripts, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and epigenetic regulation of alternate splicing. Homeostatic regulation of variant P450 expression is influenced also by nuclear receptor signaling, suppression of nonsense-mediated decay or premature termination codons, mitochondrial dysfunction, or host infection. This review focuses on emergent aspects of the adaptive gene-splicing process, which when viewed through the lens of P450-nuclear receptor gene interactions, resembles a primitive immune-like system that can rapidly monitor, respond, and diversify to acclimate to fluctuations in endo-xenobiotic exposure. Insights gained from this review should aid future drug discovery and improve therapeutic management of personalized drug regimens. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  8. Comparative study of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily in the glycophyte Arabidopsis thaliana and Eutrema halophytes

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Quancan; Bartels, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Stresses such as drought or salinity induce the generation of reactive oxygen species, which subsequently cause excessive accumulation of aldehydes in plant cells. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are considered as ‘aldehyde scavengers’ to eliminate toxic aldehydes caused by oxidative stress. The completion of the genome sequencing projects of the halophytes Eutrema parvulum and E. salsugineum has paved the way to explore the relationships and the roles of ALDH genes in the glycophyte Arabidopsis thaliana and halophyte model plants. Methods Protein sequences of all plant ALDH families were used as queries to search E. parvulum and E. salsugineum genome databases. Evolutionary analyses compared the phylogenetic relationships of ALDHs from A. thaliana and Eutrema. Expression patterns of several stress-associated ALDH genes were investigated under different salt conditions using reverse transcription–PCR. Putative cis-elements in the promoters of ALDH10A8 from A. thaliana and E. salsugineum were compared in silico. Key Results Sixteen and 17 members of ten ALDH families were identified from E. parvulum and E. salsugineum genomes, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of ALDH protein sequences indicated that Eutrema ALDHs are closely related to those of Arabidopsis, and members within these species possess nearly identical exon–intron structures. Gene expression analysis under different salt conditions showed that most of the ALDH genes have similar expression profiles in Arabidopsis and E. salsugineum, except for ALDH7B4 and ALDH10A8. In silico analysis of promoter regions of ALDH10A8 revealed different distributions of cis-elements in E. salsugineum and Arabidopsis. Conclusions Genomic organization, copy number, sub-cellular localization and expression profiles of ALDH genes are conserved in Arabidopsis, E. parvulum and E. salsugineum. The different expression patterns of ALDH7B4 and ALDH10A8 in Arabidopsis and E. salsugineum suggest that E

  9. VDBP, CYP27B1, and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Gene Polymorphism Analyses in a Group of Sicilian Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Agnello, L; Scazzone, C; Lo Sasso, B; Bellia, C; Bivona, G; Realmuto, S; Brighina, F; Schillaci, R; Ragonese, P; Salemi, G; Ciaccio, Marcello

    2017-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of central nervous system regarded as one of the most common causes of neurological disability in young adults. The exact etiology of MS is not yet known, although epidemiological data indicate that both genetic susceptibility and environmental exposure are involved. A poor vitamin D status has been proposed as the most attractive environmental factor. Several evidence have highlighted the importance of mutations in vitamin D-regulating genes for vitamin D status. The purpose of our study was to assess the genetic variants of VDBP and CYP27B1 in MS patients and in a control group. A total of 192 subjects, including 100 MS patients and 92 healthy controls, were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured in MS patients and controls by high-performance liquid chromatography. We did not observe any statically significant difference in the distribution of genotypic VDBP variants between the study groups. 25(OH)D plasma levels were significantly higher in the control group versus MS patients; MS patients who carried Gc2 showed lower 25(OH)D plasma levels and those who carried Gc1f showed higher levels. We observed only wild-type allele for CYP27B1 mutations analyzed both in MS patients and in the control group. In conclusion, our findings do not support a role of an independent effect of the investigated vitamin D-related gene variants, VDBP and CYP27B1, in the risk of MS.

  10. Characterization of the Bacteroides fragilis bfr Gene Product Identifies a Bacterial DPS-Like Protein and Suggests Evolutionary Links in the Ferritin Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Gauss, George H.; Reott, Michael A.; Rocha, Edson R.; Young, Mark J.; Douglas, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    A factor contributing to the pathogenicity of Bacteroides fragilis, the most common anaerobic species isolated from clinical infections, is the bacterium's extreme aerotolerance, which allows survival in oxygenated tissues prior to anaerobic abscess formation. We investigated the role of the bacterioferritin-related (bfr) gene in the B. fragilis oxidative stress response. The bfr mRNA levels are increased in stationary phase or in response to O2 or iron. In addition, bfr null mutants exhibit reduced aerotolerance, and the bfr gene product protects DNA from hydroxyl radical cleavage in vitro. Crystallographic studies revealed a protein with a dodecameric structure and greater similarity to an archaeal DNA protection in starved cells (DPS)-like protein than to the 24-subunit bacterioferritins. Similarity to the DPS-like (DPSL) protein extends to the subunit and includes a pair of conserved cysteine residues juxtaposed to a buried dimetal binding site within the four-helix bundle. Compared to archaeal DPSLs, however, this bacterial DPSL protein contains several unique features, including a significantly different conformation in the C-terminal tail that alters the number and location of pores leading to the central cavity and a conserved metal binding site on the interior surface of the dodecamer. Combined, these characteristics confirm this new class of miniferritin in the bacterial domain, delineate the similarities and differences between bacterial DPSL proteins and their archaeal homologs, allow corrected annotations for B. fragilis bfr and other dpsl genes within the bacterial domain, and suggest an evolutionary link within the ferritin superfamily that connects dodecameric DPS to the (bacterio)ferritin 24-mer. PMID:22020642

  11. Inventory and general analysis of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Pang, Kaiyuan; Li, Yanjiao; Liu, Menghan; Meng, Zhaodong; Yu, Yanli

    2013-09-10

    The metabolic functions of ATP-binding cassette (or ABC) proteins, one of the largest families of proteins presented in all organisms, have been investigated in many protozoan, animal and plant species. To facilitate more systematic and complicated studies on maize ABC proteins in the future, we present the first complete inventory of these proteins, including 130 open reading frames (ORFs), and provide general descriptions of their classifications, basic structures, typical functions, evolution track analysis and expression profiles. The 130 ORFs were assigned to eight subfamilies based on their structures and homological features. Five of these subfamilies consist of 109 proteins, containing transmembrane domains (TM) performing as transporters. The rest three subfamilies contain 21 soluble proteins involved in various functions other than molecular transport. A comparison of ABC proteins among nine selected species revealed either convergence or divergence in each of the ABC subfamilies. Generally, plant genomes contain far more ABC genes than animal genomes. The expression profiles and evolution track of each maize ABC gene were further investigated, the results of which could provide clues for analyzing their functions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments (PCR) were conducted to detect induced expression in select ABC genes under several common stresses. This investigation provides valuable information for future research on stress tolerance in plants and potential strategies for enhancing maize production under stressful conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Endocrine Disruption in Human Placenta: Expression of the Dioxin-Inducible Enzyme, Cyp1a1, Is Correlated With That of Thyroid Hormone-Regulated Genes

    PubMed Central

    Geromini, Katherine; McKinley Brewer, Judy; Bansal, Ruby; Abdelouahab, Nadia; Langlois, Marie-France; Takser, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    Context: Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for normal development; therefore, disruption of TH action by a number of industrial chemicals is critical to identify. Several chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls are metabolized by the dioxin-inducible enzyme CYP1A1; some of their metabolites can interact with the TH receptor. In animals, this mechanism is reflected by a strong correlation between the expression of CYP1A1 mRNA and TH-regulated mRNAs. If this mechanism occurs in humans, we expect that CYP1A1 expression will be positively correlated with the expression of genes regulated by TH. Objective: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that CYP1A1 mRNA expression is correlated with TH-regulated mRNAs in human placenta. Methods: One hundred sixty-four placental samples from pregnancies with no thyroid disease were obtained from the GESTE study (Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada). Maternal and cord blood TH levels were measured at birth. The mRNA levels of CYP1A1 and placental TH receptor targets [placental lactogen (PL) and GH-V] were quantitated by quantitative PCR. Results: CYP1A1 mRNA abundance varied 5-fold across 132 placental samples that had detectable CYP1A1 mRNA. CYP1A1 mRNA was positively correlated with PL (r = 0.64; P < .0001) and GH-V (P < .0001, r = 0.62) mRNA. PL and GH-V mRNA were correlated with each other (r = 0.95; P < .0001), suggesting a common activator. The mRNAs not regulated by TH were not correlated with CYP1A1 expression. Conclusions: CYP1A1 mRNA expression is strongly associated with the expression of TH-regulated target gene mRNAs in human placenta, consistent with the endocrine-disrupting action of metabolites produced by CYP