Science.gov

Sample records for cyp3a enzyme activity

  1. Prediction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity using haplotype tag SNPs in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Perera, MA; Thirumaran, RK; Cox, NJ; Hanauer, S; Das, S; Brimer-Cline, C; Lamba, V; Schuetz, EG; Ratain, MJ; Di Rienzo, A

    2009-01-01

    The CYP3A locus encodes hepatic enzymes that metabolize many clinically used drugs. However, there is marked interindividual variability in enzyme expression and clearance of drugs metabolized by these enzymes. We utilized comparative genomics and computational prediction of transcriptional factor binding sites to evaluate regions within CYP3A that were most likely to contribute to this variation. We then used a haplotype tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) approach to evaluate the entire locus with the fewest number of maximally informative SNPs. We investigated the association between these htSNPs and in vivo CYP3A enzyme activity using a single-point IV midazolam clearance assay. We found associations between the midazolam phenotype and age, diagnosis of hypertension and one htSNP (141689) located upstream of CYP3A4. 141689 lies near the xenobiotic responsive enhancer module (XREM) regulatory region of CYP3A4. Cell-based studies show increased transcriptional activation with the minor allele at 141689, in agreement with the in vivo association study findings. This study marks the first systematic evaluation of coding and noncoding variation that may contribute to CYP3A phenotypic variability. PMID:18825162

  2. Effects of mammalian CYP3A inducers on CYP3A-related enzyme activities in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus): Possible implications for the establishment of a fish CYP3A induction model.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Yang, Xian-Le; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Lin, Mao; Yu, Wen-Juan; Hu, Kun

    2008-01-01

    Unexpected drug-drug interactions in fish are generally associated with the induction of CYP3A activity and may lead to the formation of drug residues and thus threaten the safety of fishery products. However, little information is available about CYP3A induction in fish. In the present study, we determined the in vivo and in vitro effects of typical mammalian CYP3A inducers (rifampicin, phenobarbital and dexamethasone) on CYP3A-related enzyme activities in a freshwater teleost, the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Our results showed that the response to rifampicin was similar for grass carp liver cell line (GCL), liver microsomes and the primary hepatocytes of grass carp, as indicated by the activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND). When erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) and 6beta-testosterone hydroxylase (6beta-TOH) were taken into consideration, the GCL displayed a greater capacity for conducting CYP3A metabolism and induction than the C. idellus kidney cell line (CIK). Using erythromycin and testosterone as substrates, we demonstrated that CYP3A catalysis exhibited non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics in GCL cells, and that V(max)/K(m) values were significantly increased due to rifampicin-treatment. Overall, this study may have implications for the use of GCL as a CYP3A induction model to identify physiological changes in fish as well as the similarities or differences between fish and mammals.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity in healthy Faroese adults

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum Halling, Jonrit; Damkier, Per; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Brosen, Kim

    2007-10-15

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is, along with other cytochrome P450 enzymes, involved in the metabolism of environmental pollutants and is highly inducible by these substances. A commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, 1,1,1,-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl), 2-(p'-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT) and 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE) are known to induce CYP3A4 activity through activation of nuclear receptors, such as the pregnane X receptor. However, this induction of CYP3A4 has not yet been investigated in humans. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the variability of the CYP3A4 phenotype in regard to increased concentrations of PCBs and other persistent organohalogen pollutants (POPs) in healthy Faroese adults. In 310 randomly selected Faroese residents aged 18-60 years, the CYP3A4 activity was determined based on the urinary 6{beta}-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6{beta}-OHC/FC) ratio. POP exposures were assessed by measuring their concentrations in serum lipid. The results showed a unimodal distribution of the 6{beta}-OHC/FC ratio with values ranging from 0.58 to 27.38. Women had a slightly higher 6{beta}-OHC/FC ratio than men (p = 0.07). Confounder-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed significant associations between 6{beta}-OHC/FC ratios and {sigma}PCB, PCB-TEQ and p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and HCB, respectively, but the associations were statistically significant for men only.

  4. Effects of triazole fungicides on androgenic disruption and CYP3A4 enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xuan; Pan, Liumeng; Wang, Jiaying; Lu, Liping; Yan, Weilin; Zhu, Yanye; Xu, Yiwen; Guo, Ming; Zhuang, Shulin

    2017-03-01

    Triazole fungicides are widely used as broad-spectrum fungicides, non-steroidal antiestrogens and for various industrial applications. Their residues have been frequently detected in multiple environmental and human matrices. The increasingly reported toxicity incidents have led triazole fungicides as emerging contaminants of environmental and public health concern. However, whether triazole fungicides behave as endocrine disruptors by directly mimicking environmental androgens/antiandrogens or exerting potential androgenic disruption indirectly through the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme activity is yet an unresolved question. We herein evaluated five commonly used triazole fungicides including bitertanol, hexaconazole, penconazole, tebuconazole and uniconazole for the androgenic and anti-androgenic activity using two-hybrid recombinant human androgen receptor (AR) yeast bioassay and comparatively evaluated their effects on enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 by P450-Glo™ CYP3A4 bioassay. All five fungicides showed moderate anti-androgenic activity toward human AR with the IC50 ranging from 9.34 μM to 79.85 μM. The anti-androgenic activity remained no significant change after the metabolism mediated by human liver microsomes. These fungicides significantly inhibited the activity of CYP3A4 at the environmental relevant concentrations and the potency ranks as tebuconazole > uniconazole > hexaconazole > penconazole > bitertanol with the corresponding IC50 of 0.81 μM, 0.93 μM, 1.27 μM, 2.22 μM, and 2.74 μM, respectively. We found that their anti-androgenic activity and the inhibition potency toward CYP3A4 inhibition was significantly correlated (R(2) between 0.83 and 0.97, p < 0.001). Our results indicated that the risk assessment of triazole pesticides and structurally similar chemicals should fully consider potential androgenic disrupting effects and the influences on the activity of CYP450s.

  5. Expression and Activity of CYP3A Enzymes in the Liver of Piglets Fed Dairy- or Soy-Based Formula in Comparison to Breast Feeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have published previous data showing that feeding soy protein isolate, the major protein source in soy-infant formula, to rats during early development results in increased expression and activity of the major liver enzyme involved in breakdown and removal of pediatric medications, CYP3A. This s...

  6. A non-destructive BFCOD assay for in vivo measurement of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzyme activity in fish embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Oziolor, Elias M; Carey, Alexis N; Matson, Cole W

    2017-08-01

    There is increasing interest in quantifying the exposure and effects of anthropogenic contaminants in fish. Determination of exposures in wild fish is routinely performed, but methods to investigate potential effects are less established. One of the most relevant approaches would be the use of in vivo assays, but existing assays are often limited to in vitro determination of enzyme activity. Many pharmaceuticals and some persistent pollutants activate, and are metabolized by cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A), which make it a relevant and desirable target for biomarker research. We altered the established 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin-O-debenzylation (BFCOD) in vitro protocol for CYP3A activity determination, developing a rapid and inexpensive method to measure in vivo (and in ovo) CYP3A activity in two fish systems: Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) early life stages. Even with very low concentrations of 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin (BFC, 0.06 µM or 20 µg/L), we were able to detect significant induction in CYP3A activity in embryos of F. grandis, as well as in larvae of D. rerio in response to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and fluoranthene (FL) exposures. Because of concerns regarding the possible contribution of CYP1A to BFCOD activity from previous research, we have used a CYP1A post-translational inhibitor (FL) in order to calculate the contribution of CYP1A to the BFCOD assay. We also dosed with benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and showed significant induction of CYP1A activity, with no concurrent increase in CYP3A activity. In this paper, we have taken an established in vitro CYP3A activity assay, and utilized the reaction in a novel way to allow for the non-destructive determination of CYP3A. In summary, we describe a sensitive, cheap, fast and easy modified BFCOD assay for in ovo and in vivo determination of CYP3A activity for use in moderate throughput early-life-stage fish experiments.

  7. Characterization of the rhesus monkey CYP3A64 enzyme: species comparisons of CYP3A substrate specificity and kinetics using baculovirus-expressed recombinant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Carr, Brian; Norcross, Ryan; Fang, Yulin; Lu, Ping; Rodrigues, A David; Shou, Magang; Rushmore, Tom; Booth-Genthe, Catherine

    2006-10-01

    The rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is a primate species used extensively as a preclinical safety species in drug development. In this report, we describe the cloning, expression, and characterization of CYP3A64 (AY334551), a CYP3A4 homolog expressed in rhesus liver. The deduced amino acid sequence was found to be 93% similar to human CYP3A4, 83% similar to human CYP3A5, and identical to the previously reported cynomolgus monkey CYP3A8 (Komori et al., 1992). The substrate specificity of CYP3A64 for testosterone (0-250 microM), midazolam (0-200 microM), nifedipine (0-200 microM), and 7-benzoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (0-200 microM) were compared with recombinant enzymes from rat (CYP3A1, CYP3A2), dog (CYP3A12, CYP3A26), rabbit (CYP3A6), and human (CYP3A4, CYP3A5). Immunoinhibition and chemical inhibition of CYP3A64 was demonstrated using the inhibitory monoclonal antibody (MAb) 10-1-1 (anti-3A4) and ketoconazole (0-10 microM). The utility of CYP3A64 to be used as a standard in monkey induction assays was shown and the concentration of CYP3A64 protein in rhesus liver microsomes was estimated to be 72 pmol/mg protein. In summary, these results support the utilization of rhesus monkey CYP3A64 for in vitro drug metabolism studies and provide a more complete understanding of CYP3A substrate specificities and species differences in metabolic capabilities.

  8. High frequency and founder effect of the CYP3A4*20 loss-of-function allele in the Spanish population classifies CYP3A4 as a polymorphic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Apellániz-Ruiz, M; Inglada-Pérez, L; Naranjo, M E G; Sánchez, L; Mancikova, V; Currás-Freixes, M; de Cubas, A A; Comino-Méndez, I; Triki, S; Rebai, A; Rasool, M; Moya, G; Grazina, M; Opocher, G; Cascón, A; Taboada-Echalar, P; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Carracedo, A; Robledo, M; Llerena, A; Rodríguez-Antona, C

    2015-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is a key drug-metabolizing enzyme. Loss-of-function variants have been reported as rare events, and the first demonstration of a CYP3A4 protein lacking functional activity is caused by CYP3A4*20 allele. Here we characterized the world distribution and origin of CYP3A4*20 mutation. CYP3A4*20 was determined in more than 4000 individuals representing different populations, and haplotype analysis was performed using CYP3A polymorphisms and microsatellite markers. CYP3A4*20 allele was present in 1.2% of the Spanish population (up to 3.8% in specific regions), and all CYP3A4*20 carriers had a common haplotype. This is compatible with a Spanish founder effect and classifies CYP3A4 as a polymorphic enzyme. This constitutes the first description of a CYP3A4 loss-of-function variant with high frequency in a population. CYP3A4*20 results together with the key role of CYP3A4 in drug metabolism support screening for rare CYP3A4 functional alleles among subjects with adverse drug events in certain populations.

  9. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Inhibit the Cytochrome P450 Enzyme, CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Ramy; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Gu, Zonglin; Yang, Zaixing; Weber, Jeffrey K; Li, Hu; Leifer, Klaus; Zhao, Yichen; Toprak, Muhammet S; Zhou, Ruhong; Fadeel, Bengt

    2016-02-22

    We report a detailed computational and experimental study of the interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP3A4. Dose-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated conversion of the model compound, testosterone, to its major metabolite, 6β-hydroxy testosterone was noted. Evidence for a direct interaction between SWCNTs and CYP3A4 was also provided. The inhibition of enzyme activity was alleviated when SWCNTs were pre-coated with bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, covalent functionalization of SWCNTs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains mitigated the inhibition of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that inhibition of the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 is mainly due to blocking of the exit channel for substrates/products through a complex binding mechanism. This work suggests that SWCNTs could interfere with metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics and provides a molecular mechanism for this toxicity. Our study also suggests means to reduce this toxicity, eg., by surface modification.

  10. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Inhibit the Cytochrome P450 Enzyme, CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Ramy; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Gu, Zonglin; Yang, Zaixing; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Li, Hu; Leifer, Klaus; Zhao, Yichen; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Zhou, Ruhong; Fadeel, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    We report a detailed computational and experimental study of the interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP3A4. Dose-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated conversion of the model compound, testosterone, to its major metabolite, 6β-hydroxy testosterone was noted. Evidence for a direct interaction between SWCNTs and CYP3A4 was also provided. The inhibition of enzyme activity was alleviated when SWCNTs were pre-coated with bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, covalent functionalization of SWCNTs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains mitigated the inhibition of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that inhibition of the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 is mainly due to blocking of the exit channel for substrates/products through a complex binding mechanism. This work suggests that SWCNTs could interfere with metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics and provides a molecular mechanism for this toxicity. Our study also suggests means to reduce this toxicity, eg., by surface modification. PMID:26899743

  11. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Inhibit the Cytochrome P450 Enzyme, CYP3A4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Ramy; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Gu, Zonglin; Yang, Zaixing; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Li, Hu; Leifer, Klaus; Zhao, Yichen; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Zhou, Ruhong; Fadeel, Bengt

    2016-02-01

    We report a detailed computational and experimental study of the interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP3A4. Dose-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated conversion of the model compound, testosterone, to its major metabolite, 6β-hydroxy testosterone was noted. Evidence for a direct interaction between SWCNTs and CYP3A4 was also provided. The inhibition of enzyme activity was alleviated when SWCNTs were pre-coated with bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, covalent functionalization of SWCNTs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains mitigated the inhibition of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that inhibition of the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 is mainly due to blocking of the exit channel for substrates/products through a complex binding mechanism. This work suggests that SWCNTs could interfere with metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics and provides a molecular mechanism for this toxicity. Our study also suggests means to reduce this toxicity, eg., by surface modification.

  12. Sex difference in induction of hepatic CYP2B and CYP3A subfamily enzymes by nicardipine and nifedipine in rats.

    PubMed

    Konno, Yoshihiro; Sekimoto, Masashi; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Degawa, Masakuni

    2004-04-01

    Male and female of F344 rats were treated per os with nicardipine (Nic) and nifedipine (Nif), and changes in the levels of mRNA and protein of hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, CYP2B1, CYP2B2, CYP3A1, CYP3A2, CYP3A9, and CYP3A18 were examined. Furthermore, hepatic microsomal activities for pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (PROD) and nifedipine oxidation, which are mainly mediated by CYP2B and CYP3A subfamily enzymes, respectively, were measured. Analyses of RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed that Nic and Nif induced predominantly CYP3A and CYP2B enzymes, respectively. As for the gene activation of CYP2B enzymes, especially CYP2B1, Nif showed high capacity in both sexes of rats, whereas Nic did a definite capacity in the males but little in the females. Gene activations of CYP3A1, CYP3A2, and CYP3A18 by Nic occurred in both sexes of rats, although that of CYP3A9 did only in the male rats. Although gene activations of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 by Nif were observed in both sexes of rats, a slight activation of the CYP3A9 gene occurred only in female rats, and the CYP3A18 gene activation, in neither male nor female rats. Thus, changes in levels of the mRNA or protein of CYP2B and CYP3A enzymes, especially CYP2B1 and CYP3A2, were closely correlated with those in hepatic PROD and nifedipine oxidation activities, respectively. The present findings demonstrate for the first time the sex difference in the Nic- and Nif-mediated induction of hepatic P450 enzymes in rats and further indicate that Nic and Nif show different specificities and sex dependencies in the induction of hepatic P450 enzymes.

  13. Effect of Chinese herbs on CYP3A4 activity and expression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lau, C; Mooiman, K D; Maas-Bakker, R F; Beijnen, J H; Schellens, J H M; Meijerman, I

    2013-09-16

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has become more popular among cancer patients in the Western world, who often use Chinese herbs as adjuvant therapy to reduce the adverse effects of conventional chemotherapy. However, pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions between Chinese herbs and anticancer drugs can occur and have dramatic consequences for these patients. Currently, only a few possible PK interactions between Chinese herbs and conventional Western drugs have been documented. Since the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) contributes to most of the PK interactions with (anticancer) drugs, the effect of four Chinese herbs (Oldenlandia diffusa, Codonopsis tangshen, Rehmannia glutinosa and Astragalus propinquus) on the activity and expression of CYP3A4 was investigated in vitro. Ethanol and water-ethanol extracts of the four Chinese herbs were prepared from raw material. CYP3A4 inhibition was assessed by the use of Supersomes™ in a fluorescence assay. Furthermore, CYP3A4 induction was evaluated in a human pregnane X receptor (hPXR)-mediated CYP3A4 reporter gene assay and a quantitative real time PCR assay, both in human colon adenocarcinoma-derived LS180 cells (LS180). Extracts of Oldenlandia diffusa, Codonopsis tangshen, Rehmannia glutinosa and Astragalus propinquus inhibited CYP3A4 in human CYP3A4 Supersomes™ (IC50 values: 17-83 µg/mL). Oldenlandia diffusa and Rehmannia glutinosa significantly induced PXR-mediated CYP3A4 (p<0.001). Oldenlandia diffusa also significantly induced CYP3A4 mRNA levels (p<0.001 at 250 µg/mL). Concomitant use of Oldenlandia diffusa and Rehmannia glutinosa could result in induction of CYP3A4, leading to a reduced efficacy of drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates and have a narrow therapeutic window. Because of the possible enhanced toxicity caused by CYP3A4 inhibition, clinical effects of CYP3A4 inhibition by Astragalus propinquus and Codonopsis tangshen must also be taken into account. In conclusion, herb-drug interactions

  14. Mitotane induces CYP3A4 expression via activation of the steroid and xenobiotic receptor.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Akira; Igarashi-Migitaka, Junko; Koibuchi, Noriyuki; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2013-03-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease with an extremely poor prognosis. Mitotane alone or in combination with other cytotoxic drugs is a common therapeutic option for ACC. In addition to its adrenolytic function, mitotane has been known for decades to increase the metabolic clearance of glucocorticoids. It was recently shown that the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib is also rapidly metabolized in patients treated with mitotane, indicating that mitotane engages in clinically relevant drug interactions. Although the precise mechanism of these interactions is not well understood, cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase 3A4 (CYP3A4) is a key enzyme to inactivate both glucocorticoids and sunitinib. The nuclear receptor steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR (NR1I2)) is one of the key transcriptional regulators of CYP3A4 gene expression in the liver and intestine. A variety of xenobiotics bind to SXR and stimulate transcription of xenobiotic-response elements (XREs) located in the CYP3A4 gene promoter. In this study, we evaluated the effects of mitotane on SXR-mediated transcription in vitro by luciferase reporter analysis, SXR-steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1) interactions, quantitative real-time PCR analysis of CYP3A4 expression, SXR knockdown, and CYP3A4 enzyme activity assays using human hepatocyte-derived cells. We found that mitotane activated SXR-mediated transcription of the XREs. Mitotane recruited SRC1 to the ligand-binding domain of SXR. Mitotane increased CYP3A4 mRNA levels, which was attenuated by SXR knockdown. Finally, we showed that mitotane increased CYP3A4 enzyme activity. We conclude that mitotane can induce CYP3A4 gene expression and suggest that mitotane is used cautiously due to its drug-drug interactions.

  15. Development of a highly sensitive cytotoxicity assay system for CYP3A4-mediated metabolic activation.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Hiroko; Fukami, Tatsuki; Iwamura, Atsushi; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Drug-induced hepatotoxicity, which is a rare but serious adverse reaction to a large number of pharmaceutical drugs, is sometimes associated with reactive metabolites produced by drug-metabolizing enzymes. In the present study, we constructed a cell-based system to evaluate the cytotoxicity of reactive metabolites produced by CYP3A4 using human hepatoma cells infected with an adenovirus vector expressing human CYP3A4 (AdCYP3A4). When seven hepatoma cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, HLE, HLF, Huh6, Huh7, and Fa2N4 cells) were infected with AdCYP3A4, HepG2 cells showed the highest CYP3A4 protein expression and testosterone 6β-hydroxylase activity (670 pmol · min(-1) · mg(-1)). With the use of AdCYP3A4-infected HepG2 cells, the cytotoxicities of 23 drugs were evaluated by the 2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium monosodium salt assay, and the cell viability when treated with 11 drugs (amiodarone, desipramine, felbamate, isoniazid, labetalol, leflunomide, nefazodone, nitrofurantoin, tacrine, terbinafine, and tolcapone) was significantly decreased. Moreover, the transfection of siRNA for nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to decrease the cellular expression level of Nrf2 exacerbated the cytotoxicity of some drugs (troglitazone, flutamide, acetaminophen, clozapine, terbinafine, and desipramine), suggesting that the genes regulated by Nrf2 are associated with the detoxification of the cytotoxicities mediated by CYP3A4. We constructed a highly sensitive cell-based system to detect the drug-induced cytotoxicity mediated by CYP3A4. This system would be beneficial in preclinical screening in drug development and increase our understanding of the drug-induced cytotoxicity associated with CYP3A4.

  16. Effect of simultaneous induction and inhibition of CYP3A by St John's Wort and ritonavir on CYP3A activity.

    PubMed

    Hafner, V; Jäger, M; Matthée, A-K; Ding, R; Burhenne, J; Haefeli, W E; Mikus, G

    2010-02-01

    We aimed to assess the effect of coadministration and withdrawal of a potent cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) inhibitor (ritonavir) and a potent CYP3A inducer (St John's wort) on CYP3A enzyme activity in an open, fixed-sequence study design. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of midazolam: (i) at baseline, (ii) after a single dose of either St John's wort or ritonavir (each n = 6), (iii) after 14 days of coadministration of ritonavir (300 mg b.i.d.) and St John's wort (300 mg t.i.d.), and (iv) at 2 days after cessation of both St John's wort and ritonavir. Combined administration of inducer and inhibitor resulted in a predominance of enzyme inhibition: coadministration of St John's wort and ritonavir with intravenous administration of midazolam resulted in an increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC)(0-8 h) of midazolam to 180% of baseline value, whereas with orally administered midazolam, the AUC(0-6 h) increased to 412% of baseline value (P < 0.05 for each). After cessation of the coadministered drugs, the AUC(0-6 h) of orally administered midazolam decreased to 6% of the level observed during combined administration, and the AUC(0-8 h) of intravenously administered midazolam decreased to 33% of the values observed during combined administration (P < 0.001 for each). Induction may be unmasked after the withdrawal of a combination of a potent CYP3A inhibitor and a potent CYP3A inducer, leading to substantial drops in drug exposure of CYP3A substrates. This may require substantial dose adjustments, particularly of orally administered drugs.

  17. Effects of metronidazole on hepatic CYP3A4 activity.

    PubMed

    Haas, C E; Kaufman, D C; DiCenzo, R C

    2001-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of a short course of oral metronidazole, commonly used for bowel-preparation regimens, on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity, as measured by the [14C N-methyl]-erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) in healthy volunteers. Prospective, nonrandomized, interventional study University-affiliated, community, teaching hospital. Five healthy male volunteers. Subjects underwent a baseline ERMBT in the morning before receiving three oral doses of metronidazole 500 mg administered at 3 P.M., 7 P.M., and 11 P.M. Repeat ERMBTs were performed at 24, 72, and 96 hours after the initial ERMBT. Changes in ERMBT values were compared with baseline results using Freidman's repeated-measures analysis of variance on ranks. The ERMBT values did not change significantly compared with baseline (p=0.82). Median (range) ERMBT values expressed as a percentage of baseline at 24, 72, and 96 hours were 110.3 (96.2-136.9), 101.3 (99.3-115.0), and 101.8 (95.5-116.3), respectively A short course of oral metronidazole does not result in a significant change in hepatic CYP3A4 activity as measured by the ERMBT.

  18. Ligand Diversity of Human and Chimpanzee CYP3A4: Activation of Human CYP3A4 by Lithocholic Acid Results from Positive SelectionS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Qiu, Huan; Oezguen, Numan; Herlyn, Holger; Halpert, James R.; Wojnowski, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    For currently unknown reasons, the evolution of CYP3A4 underwent acceleration in the human lineage after the split from chimpanzee. We investigated the significance of this event by comparing Escherichia coli-expressed CYP3A4 from humans, chimpanzee, and their most recent common ancestor. The expression level of chimpanzee CYP3A4 was ∼50% of the human CYP3A4, whereas ancestral CYP3A4 did not express in E. coli. Steady-state kinetic analysis with 7-benzyloxyquinoline, 7-benzyloxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin (7-BFC), and testosterone showed no significant differences between human and chimpanzee CYP3A4. Upon addition of α-naphthoflavone (25 μM), human CYP3A4 showed a slightly decreased substrate concentration at which 50% of the maximal rate Vmax is reached for 7-BFC, whereas chimpanzee CYP3A4 showed a >2-fold increase. No significant differences in inhibition/activation were found for a panel of 43 drugs and endogenous compounds, suggesting that the wide substrate spectrum of human CYP3A4 precedes the human-chimpanzee split. A striking exception was the hepatotoxic secondary bile acid lithocholic acid, which at saturation caused a 5-fold increase in 7-BFC debenzylation by human CYP3A4 but not by chimpanzee CYP3A4. Mutagenesis of human CYP3A4 revealed that at least four of the six amino acids positively selected in the human lineage contribute to the activating effect of lithocholic acid. In summary, the wide functional conservation between chimpanzee and human CYP3A4 raises the prospect that phylogenetically more distant primate species such as rhesus and squirrel monkey represent suitable models of the human counterpart. Positive selection on the human CYP3A4 may have been triggered by an increased load of dietary steroids, which led to a novel defense mechanism against cholestasis. PMID:19299527

  19. Bush mint (Hyptis suaveolens) and spreading hogweed (Boerhavia diffusa) medicinal plant extracts differentially affect activities of CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ekow Thomford, Nicholas; Dzobo, Kevin; Adu, Faustina; Chirikure, Shadreck; Wonkam, Ambroise; Dandara, Collet

    2017-09-20

    Hyptis suaveolens (L) Poit and Boerhavia diffusa Linn are medicinal herbal plants commonly found in the tropics and sub-tropics. They are used to treat various conditions among them boils, dyslipidaemia, eczema, malaria, jaundice and gonorrhoea. Thus, the herbal medicinal extracts are now found as part of some commercial herbal formulations. There has not been adequate characterisation of these medicinal herbs on their effects on drug metabolising enzymes. To investigate the effects of extracts of Hyptis suaveolens (HS) and Boerhavia diffusa (BD) on activity of drug metabolizing enzymes, CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, as well predict their potential for herb-drug interaction. A secondary aim was to identify constituent compounds such as polyphenolics, in the crude extract preparations of Hyptis suaveolens and Boerhavia diffusa and measure them for activity. CYP450 inhibition assays using recombinant CYP450 (rCYP) and fluorescence screening employing individual isozymes (CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) were used to determine reversible- and time-dependent inhibition (TDI) profiles of extracts of Hyptis suaveolens and Boerhavia diffusa. Inhibition kinetic parameters, Ki and Kinact were also estimated. UPLC-MS employing a Synapt G2 (ESI negative) coupled to a PDA detector was used to identify polyphenolic compounds in crude extracts of Hyptis suaveolens and Boerhavia diffusa. The inhibitory potency of Hyptis suaveolens and Boerhavia diffusa extracts varied among the different enzymes, with CYP1A2 (3.68 ± 0.10µg/mL) being the least inhibited by HS compared to CYP2D6 (1.39 ± 0.01µg/mL) and CYP3A4 (2.36 ± 0.57µg/mL). BD was most potent on CYP3A4 (7.36 ± 0.94µg/mL) compared to both CYP2D6 (17.79 ± 1.02µg/mL) and CYP1A2 (9.48 ± 0.78µg/mL). Extracts of Hyptis suaveolens and Boerhavia diffusa exhibited TDIs on all CYPs. The most prominent phenolic candidates identified in both medicinal herbs using UPLC-MS analysis included caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin, citric acid

  20. Metabolic pathways of inhaled glucocorticoids by the CYP3A enzymes.

    PubMed

    Moore, Chad D; Roberts, Jessica K; Orton, Christopher R; Murai, Takahiro; Fidler, Trevor P; Reilly, Christopher A; Ward, Robert M; Yost, Garold S

    2013-02-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, for which the mainstay treatment has been inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs). Despite the widespread use of these drugs, approximately 30% of asthma sufferers exhibit some degree of steroid insensitivity or are refractory to inhaled GCs. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is interpatient variability in the clearance of these compounds. The objective of this research is to determine how metabolism of GCs by the CYP3A family of enzymes could affect their effectiveness in asthmatic patients. In this work, the metabolism of four frequently prescribed inhaled GCs, triamcinolone acetonide, flunisolide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate, by the CYP3A family of enzymes was studied to identify differences in their rates of clearance and to identify their metabolites. Both interenzyme and interdrug variability in rates of metabolism and metabolic fate were observed. CYP3A4 was the most efficient metabolic catalyst for all the compounds, and CYP3A7 had the slowest rates. CYP3A5, which is particularly relevant to GC metabolism in the lungs, was also shown to efficiently metabolize triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate. In contrast, flunisolide was only metabolized via CYP3A4, with no significant turnover by CYP3A5 or CYP3A7. Common metabolites included 6β-hydroxylation and Δ(6)-dehydrogenation for triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and flunisolide. The structure of Δ(6)-flunisolide was unambiguously established by NMR analysis. Metabolism also occurred on the D-ring substituents, including the 21-carboxy metabolites for triamcinolone acetonide and flunisolide. The novel metabolite 21-nortriamcinolone acetonide was also identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR analysis.

  1. Metabolic Pathways of Inhaled Glucocorticoids by the CYP3A Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Chad D.; Roberts, Jessica K.; Orton, Christopher R.; Murai, Takahiro; Fidler, Trevor P.; Reilly, Christopher A.; Ward, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, for which the mainstay treatment has been inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs). Despite the widespread use of these drugs, approximately 30% of asthma sufferers exhibit some degree of steroid insensitivity or are refractory to inhaled GCs. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is interpatient variability in the clearance of these compounds. The objective of this research is to determine how metabolism of GCs by the CYP3A family of enzymes could affect their effectiveness in asthmatic patients. In this work, the metabolism of four frequently prescribed inhaled GCs, triamcinolone acetonide, flunisolide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate, by the CYP3A family of enzymes was studied to identify differences in their rates of clearance and to identify their metabolites. Both interenzyme and interdrug variability in rates of metabolism and metabolic fate were observed. CYP3A4 was the most efficient metabolic catalyst for all the compounds, and CYP3A7 had the slowest rates. CYP3A5, which is particularly relevant to GC metabolism in the lungs, was also shown to efficiently metabolize triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate. In contrast, flunisolide was only metabolized via CYP3A4, with no significant turnover by CYP3A5 or CYP3A7. Common metabolites included 6β-hydroxylation and Δ6-dehydrogenation for triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and flunisolide. The structure of Δ6-flunisolide was unambiguously established by NMR analysis. Metabolism also occurred on the D-ring substituents, including the 21-carboxy metabolites for triamcinolone acetonide and flunisolide. The novel metabolite 21-nortriamcinolone acetonide was also identified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and NMR analysis. PMID:23143891

  2. Allosteric activation of midazolam CYP3A5 hydroxylase activity by icotinib - Enhancement by ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, XiaoMei; Zhang, TianHong; Yue, SiJia; Wang, Juan; Luo, Huan; Zhang, YunXia; Li, Zheng; Che, JinJing; Yang, HaiYing; Li, Hua; Zhu, MingShe; Lu, Chuang

    2016-12-01

    Icotinib (ICO), a novel small molecule and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was developed and approved recently in China for non-small cell lung cancer. During screening for CYP inhibition potential in human liver microsomes (HLM), heterotropic activation toward CYP3A5 was revealed. Activation by icotinib was observed with CYP3A-mediated midazolam hydroxylase activity in HLM (∼40% over the baseline) or recombinant human CYP3A5 (rhCYP3A5) (∼70% over the baseline), but not in the other major CYPs including rhCYP3A4. When co-incubated with selective CYP3A4 inhibitor CYP3cide or monoclonal human CYP3A4 inhibitory antibody in HLM, the activation was extended to ∼60%, suggesting CYP3A5 might be the isozyme involved. Further, the relative activation was enhanced to ∼270% in rhCYP3A5 in the presence of ketoconazole. The activation was substrate and pathway dependent and observed only in the formation of 1'-OH-midazolam, and not 4-OH-midazolam, 6β-OH-testosterone, or oxidized nifedipine. The activation requires the presence of cytochrome b5 and it is only observed in the liver microsomes of dogs, monkeys, and humans, but not in rats and mice. Kinetic analyses of 1'-OH-midazolam formation showed that ICO increased the Vmax values in HLM and rhCYP3A5 with no significant changes in Km values. By adding CYP3cide with ICO to the incubation, the Vmax values increased 2-fold over the CYP3cide control. Addition of ketoconazole with ICO alone or ICO plus CYP3cide resulted in an increase in Vmax values and decrease in Km values compared to their controls. This phenomenon may be attributed to a new mechanism of CYP3A5 heterotropic activation, which warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sesamin: A Naturally Occurring Lignan Inhibits CYP3A4 by Antagonizing the Pregnane X Receptor Activation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun-Ping; Ma, Chia-Yun; Liu, Cheng-Ling; Lin, Yu-Hsien; Hu, Miao-Lin; Chen, Jih-Jung; Hung, Dong-Zong; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Huang, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    Inconsistent expression and regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) are common causes of adverse drug effects in some drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (TI). An important cytochrome, cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), is predominantly regulated by a nuclear receptor, pregnane X receptor (PXR). Sesamin, a major lignan constituent in sesame seeds and oil, exhibits a variety of biological functions; however, the effect of sesamin on the modulation of CYP3A4 is not well understood. In this study, the effects of sesamin on the PXR-CYP3A4 pathway were characterized, as well as the underlying mechanisms of those effects. Sesamin potently attenuated CYP3A4 induction in a dose-dependent manner by blocking the activation of PXR. The PXR inducer-mediated inhibition of CYP3A4 was further evidenced by the ability of sesamin to attenuate the effects of several PXR ligands in the CYP3A4 reporter assay. Further mechanistic studies showed that sesamin inhibited PXR by interrupting the interacting with coregulators. These results may lead to the development of new therapeutic and dietary approaches to reduce the frequency of inducer-drug interaction. Sesamin was established as a novel inhibitor of PXR and may be useful for modulating DMEs expression and drug efficacies. Modification of CYP3A4 expression and activity by consumption of sesamin may have important implications for drug safety.

  4. Effects of vercirnon on the activity of CYP3A4, CYP2C19 and CYP2C8 enzymes and BCRP and OATP1B1 transporters using probe substrates.

    PubMed

    Haberer, Lynda J; McSherry, Iain; Cargill, Anna; McCarthy, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Vercirnon is a CCR9 chemokine receptor antagonist being developed for the treatment of Crohn's disease. As a variety of concomitant medications are often required for the treatment of Crohn's disease, it is important to characterise the drug interaction profile of vercirnon. To confirm the results of previous in vitro inhibition studies, this study assessed the in vivo effect of vercirnon on the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP3A4, CYP2C19 and CYP2C8) and drug transport proteins (BCRP and OATP1B1) using probe substrates. This was an open-label, single-sequence, repeat-dose study conducted in 24 healthy adult subjects. On days 1-4, subjects received probe substrates (midazolam, pioglitazone, omeprazole and rosuvastatin; in that order), followed by administration of vercirnon 500 mg twice daily (BID) on days 5-14. On days 11-14, in addition to vercirnon 500 mg BID, subjects also received probe substrates as on days 1-4. Blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis of probe substrates, vercirnon and two of its metabolites. Geometric least-squares mean ratios (90 % confidence interval) of area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity for probe administered with vercirnon (test) compared with probe alone (reference) for midazolam, pioglitazone, omeprazole and rosuvastatin were 0.92 (0.85, 0.99), 1.01 (0.95, 1.07), 0.99 (0.76,1.31) and 0.98 (0.88, 1.09), respectively. Co-administration of probe substrates midazolam, pioglitazone, omeprazole, and rosuvastatin following repeat dosing of vercirnon 500 mg BID demonstrated vercirnon had no clinically significant effect on CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C19 enzyme activity or BCRP or OATP1B1 transporter activity.

  5. The computational model to predict accurately inhibitory activity for inhibitors towards CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Jing-Fang; Chou, Kuo-Chen; Wei, Dong-Qing

    2010-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a superfamily of enzymes with oxidative function responsible for the metabolism of xenobiotics especially drug metabolism. CYP3A4, an extensive studied CYP isoform, plays crucial role in the metabolism of structurally diverse drugs. Furthermore, the drug-drug interaction resulted from the inhibition of CYP3A4 activity is of extreme importance for the treatment of disease and the development of new drug. In this study, using the method of the support vector machine (SVM) and three descriptors selected from the 153 descriptors we construct the models that can predict accurately the inhibitory effect of a compound on the activity of CYP3A4. By optimizing the parameters related to SVM, the cross validation correlation efficient of the model can achieve 0.71, which is higher than those of other models obtained using Artifical Neutral Network (ANN) and Partial least square (PLS) methods to our knowledge, and thus our model can present the important application in assessment of the potential toxicity of a drug as well as prediction of drug-drug interactions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Induction of hepatic CYP3A enzymes by pregnancy-related hormones: studies in human hepatocytes and hepatic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Ioannis; Grepper, Susan; Unadkat, Jashvant D

    2013-02-01

    CYP3A activity is induced by approximately 2-fold during the third trimester of human pregnancy. Placental growth hormone (PGH), estrogens (primarily 17β-estradiol), cortisol, and progesterone have the potential to modulate CYP3A activity. Therefore, we determined whether the elevated plasma concentrations of these hormones during pregnancy induce hepatic CYP3A expression. We incubated sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH) from premenopausal female donors (n = 2) with the physiologic (unbound, 1× total) and the 10× total third trimester hormone plasma concentrations (individually and in combination) and determined their effect on CYP3A activity and the transcripts of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and the respective hormone receptors (growth hormone receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, and estrogen receptor alpha). Of all the hormones, cortisol was the most potent inducer of CYP3A activity and CYP3A4, CYP3A5 mRNA expression. The combination of PGH/growth hormone and cortisol induced CYP3A activity and expression significantly more than did cortisol alone. When incubated with the unbound or total plasma concentration of all the hormones, CYP3A activity in SCHH was induced to an extent comparable to that observed in vivo during the third trimester. These hormones had only a modest effect on the mRNA expression of the hormone receptors. The pattern of induction observed in SCHH was reproduced in HepaRG cells but not in HuH7/HepG2 cells. SCHH or HepaRG cells could be used to determine the mechanistic basis of CYP3A induction during pregnancy and to predict the magnitude of induction likely to be observed during the first and second trimesters, when phenotyping studies to measure in vivo CYP3A activity are logistically difficult to perform.

  7. Modulation of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 metabolic activities by Ferula asafetida resin

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I.; Al-Thukair, Areej A.; Alam, Mohd Aftab; Abbas, Fawkeya A.; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M.; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A.

    2014-01-01

    Present study investigated the potential effects of Ferula asafetida resin on metabolic activities of human drug metabolizing enzymes: CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. Dextromethorphan (DEX) was used as a marker to assess metabolic activities of these enzymes, based on its CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 mediated metabolism to dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. In vitro study was conducted by incubating DEX with human liver microsomes and NADPH in the presence or absence of Asafetida alcoholic extract. For clinical study, healthy human volunteers received a single dose of DEX alone (phase-I) and repeated the same dose after a washout period and four-day Asafetida treatment (phase-II). Asafetida showed a concentration dependent inhibition on DOR formation (in vitro) and a 33% increase in DEX/DOR urinary metabolic ratio in clinical study. For CYP3A4, formation of 3-MM in microsomes was increased at low Asafetida concentrations (10, 25 and 50 μg/ml) but slightly inhibited at the concentration of 100 μg/ml. On the other hand, in vivo observations revealed that Asafetida significantly increased DEX/3-MM urinary metabolic ratio. The findings of this study suggest that Asafetida may have a significant effect on CYP3A4 metabolic activity. Therefore, using Ferula asafetida with CYP3A4 drug substrates should be cautioned especially those with narrow therapeutic index such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus and carbamazepine. PMID:25561870

  8. Different effects of dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists on CYP3A4 enzyme of human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zongling; Wang, Mingli; Zou, Sulan; Chen, Rong

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigated inhibitory effects of 1,4-dihydropyridines (1,4-DHPs) calcium channel antagonists (1,4-DHP-CCAs) on cytochromeP450 3A4 (CYP3A4) of human liver microsomes and further explored importance of 1,4-DHPs molecular structural descriptors. Partial Least Squares method was applied to probe the quantitative relationships between the 1,4-DHPs molecular structural descriptors and its inhibitory actions, which demonstrated that different 1,4-DHP-CCAs could inhibit CYP3A4 enzyme's activity differently. The K (i) values of nicardipine, lercandipine, cilnidipine, nitrendipine, lacidipine, nifedipine, felodipine were 10.13, 10.17, 11.44, 23.90, 29.34, 29.06 and 32.64 μmol L⁻¹, respectively. It is suggested that the 1,4-DHPs molecular structural descriptors are the most important for its inhibitory effects based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) formula. The LogP was positively correlated to the K (i), whereas molecular weight and molecule volume were negatively correlated. It is concluded that analysis of K (i) of 1,4-DHPs derivatives on the CYP3A4 activity may apply for the QSAR formula at the initial stage of clinical application of new drugs.

  9. Indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activates CYP3A4 gene transcription through the human pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Takeshi; Aratsu, Yusuke; Sugawara, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Miyairi, Shinichi; Nagata, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Ban-Lan-Gen is the common name for the dried roots of indigo plants, including Polygonum tinctorium, Isatis indigotica, Isatis tinctoria, and Strobilanthes cusia. Ban-Lan-Gen is frequently used as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-viral for the treatment of hepatitis, influenza, and various types of inflammation. One of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP3A4, is responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics, including an estimated 60% of all clinically used drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ban-Lan-Gen on the transcriptional activation of the CYP3A4 gene. Ban-Lan-Gen extract increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Indirubin, one of the biologically active ingredients in the Ban-Lan-Gen, also dose-dependently increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Expression of short hairpin RNA for the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR-shRNA) inhibited CYP3A4 gene reporter activity, and overexpression of human PXR increased indirubin- and rifampicin-induced CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Furthermore, indirubin induced CYP3A4 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activated CYP3A4 gene transcription through the activation of the human PXR.

  10. Potent inhibition by star fruit of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Muneaki; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Ogikubo, Tetsuya; Yamasaki, Keishi; Iwakiri, Tomomi; Okumura, Manabu; Kodama, Hirofumi; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2004-06-01

    There has been very limited information on the capacities of tropical fruits to inhibit human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. Thus, the inhibitory effects of tropical fruits on midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity of CYP3A in human liver microsomes were evaluated. Eight tropical fruits such as common papaw, dragon fruit, kiwi fruit, mango, passion fruit, pomegranate, rambutan, and star fruit were tested. We also examined the inhibition of CYP3A activity by grapefruit (white) and Valencia orange as controls. The juice of star fruit showed the most potent inhibition of CYP3A. The addition of a star fruit juice (5.0%, v/v) resulted in the almost complete inhibition of midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity (residual activity of 0.1%). In the case of grape-fruit, the residual activity was 14.7%. The inhibition depended on the amount of fruit juice added to the incubation mixture (0.2-6.0%, v/v). The elongation of the preincubation period of a juice from star fruit (1.25 or 2.5%, v/v) with the microsomal fraction did not alter the CYP3A inhibition, suggesting that the star fruit did not contain a mechanism-based inhibitor. Thus, we discovered filtered extracts of star fruit juice to be inhibitors of human CYP3A activity in vitro.

  11. Severe Vincristine-induced Neuropathic Pain in a CYP3A5 Nonexpressor With Reduced CYP3A4/5 Activity: Case Study.

    PubMed

    Bosilkovska, Marija; Ing Lorenzini, Kuntheavy; Uppugunduri, Chakradhara Rao S; Desmeules, Jules; Daali, Youssef; Escher, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a frequent vincristine-induced adverse effect. Vincristine is a substrate of P-glycoprotein and is metabolized by the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A5 and 3A4 isoforms, with CYP3A5 contributing to 75% of the intrinsic clearance of vincristine. Alterations in the function of these proteins may lead to an increase in vincristine toxicity. CYP3A5 nonexpressor status has been associated with vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. The severity of neuropathy has been reported to be inversely correlated to vincristine metabolite concentrations. Recently, the presence of a mutation in the CEP72 gene, which encodes for a protein involved in microtubule formation, has also been associated with vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. However, a clear correlation between genetic polymorphisms and vincristine toxicity has not been established. Here we report the case of a 21-year old patient in whom severe neuropathic pain developed after vincristine treatment. The patient was a CYP3A5 nonexpressor and presented with reduced CYP3A4/5 functional activity, a likely reason for the occurrence of the adverse event, as genotyping showed that his status was wild type for the ABCB1 and CEP72 genes. CYP phenotype and genotype may explain the occurrence of severe neuropathy in some patients treated with vincristine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CYP3A4 inhibition by Psoralea corylifolia and its major components in human recombinant enzyme, differentiated human hepatoma HuH-7 and HepaRG cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yitong; Flynn, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Psoralea corylifolia (P. corylifolia) is a medicinal plant used primarily in herbal dietary supplements to treat skin diseases, such as vitiligo and psoriasis. Case reports of liver toxicity have recently emerged from its use, which often includes co-administration with other herbal products. In this study, CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity of P. corylifolia and its major components were evaluated in human recombinant CYP3A4 enzyme, differentiated human hepatoma HuH-7 and HepaRG cells. LC/MS-TOF was used to identify the major components of P. corylifolia fruit methanol-water extract. P. corylifolia and its major bioactive components psoralen and isopsoralen were then incubated with human recombinant CYP3A4 (10 min) or differentiated HuH-7 and HepaRG cells (24 h) prior to CYP3A4 activity and cytotoxicity assays. P. corylifolia extract, psoralen, and isopsoralen concentration dependently inhibited CYP3A4 activity with different potency in the three in vitro systems. No cytotoxicity was observed at any concentration tested. In vitro CYP3A4 inhibition by P. corylifolia and its major components suggests potential drug-dietary supplement interactions that warrant further investigations in vivo.

  13. The effects of CYP2D6 and CYP3A activities on the pharmacokinetics of immediate release oxycodone

    PubMed Central

    Samer, CF; Daali, Y; Wagner, M; Hopfgartner, G; Eap, CB; Rebsamen, MC; Rossier, MF; Hochstrasser, D; Dayer, P; Desmeules, JA

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is high interindividual variability in the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes catalysing the oxidation of oxycodone [cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 and 3A], due to genetic polymorphisms and/or drug–drug interactions. The effects of CYP2D6 and/or CYP3A activity modulation on the pharmacokinetics of oxycodone remains poorly explored. Experimental approach: A randomized crossover double-blind placebo-controlled study was performed with 10 healthy volunteers genotyped for CYP2D6 [six extensive (EM), two deficient (PM/IM) and two ultrarapid metabolizers (UM)]. The volunteers randomly received on five different occasions: oxycodone 0.2 mg·kg−1 and placebo; oxycodone and quinidine (CYP2D6 inhibitor); oxycodone and ketoconazole (CYP3A inhibitor); oxycodone and quinidine+ketoconazole; placebo. Blood samples for plasma concentrations of oxycodone and metabolites (oxymorphone, noroxycodone and noroxymorphone) were collected for 24 h after dosing. Phenotyping for CYP2D6 (with dextromethorphan) and CYP3A (with midazolam) were assessed at each session. Key results: CYP2D6 activity was correlated with oxymorphone and noroxymorphone AUCs and Cmax (−0.71 < Spearman correlation coefficient ρs < −0.92). Oxymorphone Cmax was 62% and 75% lower in PM than EM and UM. Noroxymorphone Cmax reduction was even more pronounced (90%). In UM, oxymorphone and noroxymorphone concentrations increased whereas noroxycodone exposure was halved. Blocking CYP2D6 (with quinidine) reduced oxymorphone and noroxymorphone Cmax by 40% and 80%, and increased noroxycodone AUC∞ by 70%. Blocking CYP3A4 (with ketoconazole) tripled oxymorphone AUC∞ and reduced noroxycodone and noroxymorphone AUCs by 80%. Shunting to CYP2D6 pathway was observed after CYP3A4 inhibition. Conclusions and implications: Drug–drug interactions via CYP2D6 and CYP3A affected oxycodone pharmacokinetics and its magnitude depended on CYP2D6 genotype. PMID:20590587

  14. Labeled Content of Two Furanocoumarins in Dietary Supplements Correlates with neither Actual Content nor CYP3A Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    VanderMolen, Karen M.; Ainslie, Garrett R.; Paine, Mary F.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are a multi-billion dollar business, with yearly profit increases. Allegedly safe, these supplements are marketed to a variety of niches, encompassing claims from immune support to weight loss. Six sports nutrition supplements were acquired that were labeled to contain the furanocoumarin(s) bergamottin and/or 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), both of which are potent irreversible inhibitors of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Both furanocoumarins are typically present in grapefruit juice, which has been shown to inhibit intestinal CYP3A, perpetrating an increase in the systemic exposure of certain concomitant ‘victim’ drugs. The acquired supplements were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to both a photodiode array (PDA) detector and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS). Contrary to the product labeling, four of the supplements contained no detectable quantities of either furanocoumarin (LOD 0.060 μg/capsule), while two of the supplements contained minimal amounts (one contained 12.13 (± 0.23) μg bergamottin and 65.51 (± 0.64) μg DHB per capsule; the other contained 2.705 (± 0.069) μg bergamottin per capsule and no detectable quantities of DHB). A CYP3A inhibition bioassay was used to assess whether the actual content of the furanocoumarins correlated with CYP3A inhibitory activity. Despite the low amounts of bergamottin and DHB, CYP3A inhibition by the supplements was greater than could be accounted for by the two furanocoumarins. The additional activity suggests the presence of other potent or highly abundant CYP3A inhibitors. PMID:24951959

  15. Altered CYP2C9 Activity Following Modulation of CYP3A4 Levels in Human Hepatocytes: an Example of Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tweedie, Donald J.; Chan, Tom S.; Tracy, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) protein-protein interactions resulting in modulation of enzyme activities have been well documented using recombinant isoforms. This interaction has been less clearly demonstrated in a more physiologic in vitro system such as human hepatocytes. As an expansion of earlier work (Subramanian et al., 2010), in which recombinant CYP2C9 activity decreased with increasing levels of CYP3A4, the current study modulated CYP3A4 content in human hepatocytes to determine the impact on CYP2C9. Modulation of CYP3A4 levels in situ was enabled by the use of a long-term human hepatocyte culture model (HepatoPac) shown to retain phenotypic hepatocyte function over a number of weeks. The extended period of culture allowed time for knockdown of CYP3A4 protein by small interfering RNA (siRNA) with subsequent recovery, as well as upregulation through induction with a recovery period. CYP3A4 gene silencing resulted in a 60% decrease in CYP3A4 activity and protein levels with a concomitant 74% increase in CYP2C9 activity, with no change in CYP2C9 mRNA levels. Upon removal of siRNA, both CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 activities returned to pre-knockdown levels. Importantly, modulation of CYP3A4 protein levels had no impact on cytochrome P450 reductase activities or levels. However, the possibility for competition for limiting reductase cannot be ruled out. Interestingly, lowering CYP3A4 levels also increased UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 activity. These studies clearly demonstrate that alterations in CYP3A4 levels can modulate CYP2C9 activity in situ and suggest that further studies are warranted to evaluate the possible clinical consequences of these findings. PMID:25157098

  16. Effect of quercetin on CYP3A activity in Chinese healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Duan, Kai-Ming; Wang, Sai-Ying; Ouyang, Wen; Mao, Yan-Mei; Yang, Li-Jun

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of quercetin on CYP3A activity in vivo. An open, randomized, 2-period crossover experiment was performed in 18 healthy male volunteers. Genotyped data were available from a total of 165 participants. The allelic frequency was 52.5%. Every volunteer ingested orally 500 mg quercetin or placebo once a day for 13 consecutive days. On day 14, a single 7.5-mg midazolam tablet was administrated orally. The plasma concentrations of midazolam and 1-OH-midazolam were determined over 24 hours. The results showed that coadministration of quercetin in CYP3A5*1/*1 and CYP3A5*1/*3 individuals significantly decreased the area under the curve (AUC(0-12 h)) of midazolam (160.88 ± 45.58 ng·h/mL vs 188.07 ± 65.75 ng·h/mL, P < .05), significantly decreased the AUC(0-∞) of midazolam (165.46 ± 47.15 ng·h/mL vs 211.84 ± 75.80 ng·h/mL, P < .01), shortened t(1/2) (2.06 ± 0.51 h vs 2.75 ± 0.89 h, P < .01), and decreased t(max) significantly (0.48 ± 0.36 h vs 1.06 ± 0.69 h, P < .01), respectively. In conclusion, quercetin significantly induced CYP3A activity to substrate midazolam, and the induction was partly related to the CYP3A5 genotype, being more prominent in CYP3A5*1/*1 and CYP3A5*1/*3 individuals.

  17. Limited sampling strategy in rats to predict the inhibited activities of hepatic CYP3A.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue-Hui; Jiao, Jian-Jie; Zhang, Cai-Li; Lou, Jian-Shi; Liu, Chang-Xiao

    2009-07-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to evaluate feasibility of a limited sampling strategy (LSS) to predict the systemic clearance of midazolam (MDZ), which is a hepatic CYP3A activity phenotyping probe. Groups of rats pretreated with or without serial doses of ketoconazole, which is a selective inhibitor on CYP3A, were used as training set. Linear regression analysis and a Jack-knife validation procedure were performed based on plasma MDZ concentrations at specific time points after sublingual vein injection of MDZ to establish the most informative LSS equations for accurately estimating the clearance of MDZ. Another group of rats in the same setting was used as the validation set to confirm the individual values of estimated clearance (Clest) that were derived from the predictive equations developed in the training set. LSS that were derived from one, two or three sampling times, namely 90 min, 60-90 min, 30-60-90 min and 30-60-120 min, gave the best correlation and acceptable errors between the values of observed clearance (Clobs) and Clest and were chosen to evaluate hepatic CYP3A activity. Our results supported the hypothesis that using limited plasma sampling is simpler than the usual method of estimating CYP3A phenotyping by predicting the systemic clearance of MDZ when the hepatic activity of CYP3A is reduced in the rat. This experimental design offers opportunities to reduce animal use in the study of drug metabolism.

  18. Differential expression of human cytochrome P450 enzymes from the CYP3A subfamily in the brains of alcoholic subjects and drug-free controls.

    PubMed

    Booth Depaz, Iris M; Toselli, Francesca; Wilce, Peter A; Gillam, Elizabeth M J

    2013-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of most commonly used drugs. Among these enzymes, CYP3A forms mediate the clearance of around 40-50% of drugs and may also play roles in the biotransformation of endogenous compounds. CYP3A forms are expressed both in the liver and extrahepatically. However, little is known about the expression of CYP3A proteins in specific regions of the human brain. In this study, form-selective antibodies raised to CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were used to characterize the expression of these forms in the human brain. Both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 immunoreactivity were found to varying extents in the microsomal fractions of cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, amygdala, and cerebellum. However, only CYP3A4 expression was observed in the mitochondrial fractions of these brain regions. N-terminal sequencing confirmed the principal antigen detected by the anti-CYP3A4 antibody in cortical microsomes to be CYP3A4. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 expression was primarily localized in the soma and axonal hillock of neurons and varied according to cell type and cell layer within brain regions. Finally, analysis of the frontal cortex of chronic alcohol abusers revealed elevated expression of CYP3A4 in microsomal but not mitochondrial fractions; CYP3A5 expression was unchanged. The site-specific expression of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in the human brain may have implications for the role of these enzymes in both normal brain physiology and the response to drugs.

  19. Curcuminoids inhibit multiple human cytochromes P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes, while piperine is a relatively selective CYP3A4 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Volak, Laurie P.; Ghirmai, Senait; Cashman, John R.; Court, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Curcuminoid extract and piperine are being evaluated for beneficial effects in Alzheimer’s disease, among other intractable disorders. Consequently, we studied the potential for herb-drug interactions involving cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes. The curcuminoid extract inhibited SULT > CYP2C19 > CYP2B6 > UGT > CYP2C9 > CYP3A activities with IC50 values ranging from 0.99 ± 0.04 to 25.3 ± 1.3 μM, while CYP2D6, CYP1A2, and CYP2E1 activities were less affected (IC50 values >60 μM). Inhibition of CYP3A activity by curcuminoid extract was consistent with competitive inhibition (Ki = 11.0 ± 1.3 μM), while inhibition of both CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 activities were consistent with mixed competitive-noncompetitive inhibition (10.6 ± 1.1 μM and 7.8 ± 0.9 μM, respectively). Piperine was a relatively selective noncompetitive inhibitor of CYP3A (IC50 5.5 ± 0.7 μM, Ki = 5.4 ± 0.3 μM) with less effect on other enzymes evaluated (IC50 >29 μM). Curcuminoid extract and piperine inhibited recombinant CYP3A4 much more potently (by >5-fold) than CYP3A5. Pure synthetic curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) were also evaluated for their effects on CYP3A, CYP2C9, UGT, and SULT activities. All three curcuminoids had similar effects on CYP3A, UGT, and SULT activity, but demethoxycurcumin (IC50 = 8.8 ± 1.2 μM) was more active against CYP2C9 than either curcumin or bisdemethoxycurcumin (IC50 >50 μM). Based on these data and expected tissue concentrations of inhibitors, we predict that an orally administered curcuminoid/piperine combination is most likely to inhibit CYP3A, CYP2C9, UGT, and SULT metabolism within the intestinal mucosa. PMID:18480186

  20. The relative contributions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 to the metabolism of vinorelbine.

    PubMed

    Topletz, Ariel R; Dennison, Jennifer B; Barbuch, Robert J; Hadden, Chad E; Hall, Stephen D; Renbarger, Jamie L

    2013-09-01

    Vinorelbine is a semisynthetic vinca alkaloid used in the treatment of advanced breast and non-small cell lung cancers. Vincristine, a related vinca alkaloid, is 9-fold more efficiently metabolized by CYP3A5 than by CYP3A4 in vitro. This study quantified the relative contribution of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 to the metabolism of vinorelbine in vitro using cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450s (P450s) and human liver microsomes (HLMs). CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were identified as the P450s capable of oxidizing vinorelbine using a panel of human enzymes and selective P450 inhibitors in HLMs. For CYP3A4 coexpressed with cytochrome b5 (CYP3A4+b5) and CYP3A5+b5, the Michaelis-Menten constants for vinorelbine were 2.6 and 3.6 μM, respectively, but the Vmax of 1.4 pmol/min/pmol was common to both enzymes. In HLMs, the intrinsic clearance of vinorelbine metabolism was highly correlated with CYP3A4 activity, and there was no significant difference in intrinsic clearance between CYP3A5 high and low expressers. When radiolabeled vinorelbine substrate was used, there were clear qualitative differences in metabolite formation fingerprints between CYP3A4+b5 and CYP3A5+b5 as determined by NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. One major metabolite (M2), a didehydro-vinorelbine, was present in both recombinant and microsomal systems but was more abundant in CYP3A4+b5 incubations. We conclude that despite the equivalent efficiency of recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in vinorelbine metabolism the polymorphic expression of CYP3A5, as shown by the kinetics with HLMs, may have a minimal effect on systemic clearance of vinorelbine.

  1. Endosulfan induces CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by activating the pregnane X receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Casabar, Richard C.T.; Das, Parikshit C.; DeKrey, Gregory K.; Gardiner, Catherine S.; Cao Yan; Rose, Randy L.; Wallace, Andrew D.

    2010-06-15

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide commonly used in agriculture. Endosulfan has affects on vertebrate xenobiotic metabolism pathways that may be mediated, in part, by its ability to activate the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) which can elevate expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. This study examined the dose-dependency and receptor specificity of CYP induction in vitro and in vivo. The HepG2 cell line was transiently transfected with CYP2B6- and CYP3A4-luciferase promoter reporter plasmids along with human PXR (hPXR) or hCAR expression vectors. In the presence of hPXR, endosulfan-alpha exposure caused significant induction of CYP2B6 (16-fold) and CYP3A4 (11-fold) promoter activities over control at 10 {mu}M. The metabolite endosulfan sulfate also induced CYP2B6 (12-fold) and CYP3A4 (6-fold) promoter activities over control at 10 {mu}M. In the presence of hCAR-3, endosulfan-alpha induced CYP2B6 (2-fold) promoter activity at 10 {mu}M, but not at lower concentrations. These data indicate that endosulfan-alpha significantly activates hPXR strongly and hCAR weakly. Using western blot analysis of human hepatocytes, the lowest concentrations at which CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 protein levels were found to be significantly elevated by endosulfan-alpha were 1.0 {mu}M and 10 {mu}M, respectively. In mPXR-null/hPXR-transgenic mice, endosulfan-alpha exposure (2.5 mg/kg/day) caused a significant reduction of tribromoethanol-induced sleep times by approximately 50%, whereas no significant change in sleep times was observed in PXR-null mice. These data support the role of endosulfan-alpha as a strong activator of PXR and inducer of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, which may impact metabolism of CYP2B6 or CYP3A4 substrates.

  2. Size and surface modification of amorphous silica particles determine their effects on the activity of human CYP3A4 in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Shunji; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Morishita, Yuki; Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Uji, Miyuki; Nagano, Kazuya; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2014-12-01

    Because of their useful chemical and physical properties, nanomaterials are widely used around the world - for example, as additives in food and medicines - and such uses are expected to become more prevalent in the future. Therefore, collecting information about the effects of nanomaterials on metabolic enzymes is important. Here, we examined the effects of amorphous silica particles with various sizes and surface modifications on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity by means of two different in vitro assays. Silica nanoparticles with diameters of 30 and 70 nm (nSP30 and nSP70, respectively) tended to inhibit CYP3A4 activity in human liver microsomes (HLMs), but the inhibitory activity of both types of nanoparticles was decreased by carboxyl modification. In contrast, amine-modified nSP70 activated CYP3A4 activity. In HepG2 cells, nSP30 inhibited CYP3A4 activity more strongly than the larger silica particles did. Taken together, these results suggest that the size and surface characteristics of the silica particles determined their effects on CYP3A4 activity and that it may be possible to develop silica particles that do not have undesirable effects on metabolic enzymes by altering their size and surface characteristics.

  3. Genetic polymorphisms and drug interactions modulating CYP2D6 and CYP3A activities have a major effect on oxycodone analgesic efficacy and safety

    PubMed Central

    Samer, CF; Daali, Y; Wagner, M; Hopfgartner, G; Eap, CB; Rebsamen, MC; Rossier, MF; Hochstrasser, D; Dayer, P; Desmeules, JA

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: The major drug-metabolizing enzymes for the oxidation of oxycodone are CYP2D6 and CYP3A. A high interindividual variability in the activity of these enzymes because of genetic polymorphisms and/or drug–drug interactions is well established. The possible role of an active metabolite in the pharmacodynamics of oxycodone has been questioned and the importance of CYP3A-mediated effects on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oxycodone has been poorly explored. Experimental approach: We conducted a randomized crossover (five arms) double-blind placebo-controlled study in 10 healthy volunteers genotyped for CYP2D6. Oral oxycodone (0.2 mg·kg−1) was given alone or after inhibition of CYP2D6 (with quinidine) and/or of CYP3A (with ketoconazole). Experimental pain (cold pressor test, electrical stimulation, thermode), pupil size, psychomotor effects and toxicity were assessed. Key results: CYP2D6 activity was correlated with oxycodone experimental pain assessment. CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers experienced increased pharmacodynamic effects, whereas cold pressor test and pupil size were unchanged in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, relative to extensive metabolizers. CYP2D6 blockade reduced subjective pain threshold (SPT) for oxycodone by 30% and the response was similar to placebo. CYP3A4 blockade had a major effect on all pharmacodynamic assessments and SPT increased by 15%. Oxymorphone Cmax was correlated with SPT assessment (ρS= 0.7) and the only independent positive predictor of SPT. Side-effects were observed after CYP3A4 blockade and/or in CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers. Conclusions and implications: The modulation of CYP2D6 and CYP3A activities had clear effects on oxycodone pharmacodynamics and these effects were dependent on CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism. PMID:20590588

  4. Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) Activity by Extracts from 57 Plants Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).

    PubMed

    Ashour, Mohamed L; Youssef, Fadia S; Gad, Haidy A; Wink, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Herbal medicine is widely used all over the world for treating various health disorders. It is employed either alone or in combination with synthetic drugs or plants to be more effective. The assessment of the effect of both water and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 in vitro for the first time. The inhibition of cytochrome P450 activity was evaluated using a luminescence assay. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to correlate the inhibitory activity with the main secondary metabolites present in the plant extracts. Molecular modeling studies on CYP3A4 (PDB ID 4NY4) were carried out with 38 major compounds present in the most active plant extracts to validate the observed inhibitory effect. Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis paniculata, Arctium lappa, Areca catechu, Bupleurum marginatum, Chrysanthemum indicum, Dysosma versipellis, and Spatholobus suberectus inhibited CYP3A4 is more than 85% (at a dose of 100 μg/mL). The corresponding methanol extracts of A. catechu, A. paniculata, A. catechu, Mahonia bealei, and Sanguisorba officinalis inhibited the enzyme by more than 50%. Molecular modeling studies revealed that two polyphenols, namely hesperidin and rutin, revealed the highest fitting scores in the active sites of the CYP3A4 with binding energies equal to -74.09 and -71.34 kcal/mol, respectively. These results provide evidence that many TCM plants can inhibit CYP3A4, which might cause a potential interference with the metabolism of other concomitantly administered herbs or drugs. In this study, the inhibitory activity of the aqueous and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 was tested in vitro for the first time.Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis paniculata, Arctium lappa, Areca catechu, Bupleurum marginatum, Dysosma

  5. Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) Activity by Extracts from 57 Plants Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)

    PubMed Central

    Ashour, Mohamed L; Youssef, Fadia S; Gad, Haidy A; Wink, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicine is widely used all over the world for treating various health disorders. It is employed either alone or in combination with synthetic drugs or plants to be more effective. Objective: The assessment of the effect of both water and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 in vitro for the first time. Materials and Methods: The inhibition of cytochrome P450 activity was evaluated using a luminescence assay. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to correlate the inhibitory activity with the main secondary metabolites present in the plant extracts. Molecular modeling studies on CYP3A4 (PDB ID 4NY4) were carried out with 38 major compounds present in the most active plant extracts to validate the observed inhibitory effect. Results: Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis paniculata, Arctium lappa, Areca catechu, Bupleurum marginatum, Chrysanthemum indicum, Dysosma versipellis, and Spatholobus suberectus inhibited CYP3A4 is more than 85% (at a dose of 100 μg/mL). The corresponding methanol extracts of A. catechu, A. paniculata, A. catechu, Mahonia bealei, and Sanguisorba officinalis inhibited the enzyme by more than 50%. Molecular modeling studies revealed that two polyphenols, namely hesperidin and rutin, revealed the highest fitting scores in the active sites of the CYP3A4 with binding energies equal to -74.09 and -71.34 kcal/mol, respectively. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that many TCM plants can inhibit CYP3A4, which might cause a potential interference with the metabolism of other concomitantly administered herbs or drugs. SUMMARY In this study, the inhibitory activity of the aqueous and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 was tested in vitro for the first time.Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis

  6. Effect of danshen extract on the activity of CYP3A4 in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Furong; Wang, Guangji; Zhang, Rong; Sun, Jianguo; Jiang, Jian; Ma, Yueming

    2010-01-01

    AIMS To assess the effect of danshen extract on CYP3A4 activity using midazolam as an in vivo probe. METHODS A sequential, open-label, two-period pharmacokinetic interaction study design was used to compare midazolam pharmacokinetic parameters before and after 14 days of administration of danshen tablets. Twelve healthy volunteers received a single oral dose (15 mg) of midazolam followed by danshen tablets (four tablets orally, three times a day) for 14 days. On the last day of the study they received four danshen tablets with a 15 mg midazolam tablet and plasma concentrations of midazolam and its corresponding metabolite 1–hydroxylmidazolam were measured prior to and after the administration of danshen tablets periodically for 12 h. RESULTS The 90% confidence intervals of Cmax,t1/2, CL/F and AUC(0,∞) of midazolam before and after administration of danshen tablets were (0.559, 0.849), (0.908, 1.142), (1.086, 1.688) and (0.592, 0.921), respectively; and those of Cmax, t1/2 and AUC(0,∞) of 1-hydroxylmidazolam after vs. before administration of danshen tablets were (0.633, 0.923), (0.801, 1.210) and (0.573, 0.980), respectively. Ratios of geometric LS means of Cmax(1OHMid) : Cmax(Mid) and AUCmax(1OHMid) : AUCmax(Mid) (after vs. before 14-day danshen) were 1.072 and 1.035, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that multiple dose administration of danshen tablets may induce CYP3A4 in the gut. Accordingly, caution should be taken when danshen products are used in combination with therapeutic drugs metabolized by CYP3A. PMID:20565457

  7. An investigation of the interaction between halofantrine, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4: studies with human liver microsomes and heterologous enzyme expression systems.

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, R C; Jones, B C; Smith, D A; Kitteringham, N R; Park, B K

    1995-01-01

    1. We have assessed the interaction of the antimalarial halofantrine with cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in vitro, with the use of microsomes from human liver and recombinant cell lines. 2. Rac-halofantrine was a potent inhibitor (IC50 = 1.06 microM, Ki = 4.3 microM) of the 1-hydroxylation of bufuralol, a marker for CYP2D6 activity. Of a group of structurally related antimalarials tested, only quinidine (IC50 = 0.04 microM) was more potent. 3. Microsomes prepared from recombinant CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 cell lines were shown to catalyse halofantrine N-debutylation. 4. The metabolism of halofantrine to its N-desbutyl metabolite by human liver microsomes showed no correlation with CYP2D6 genotypic or phenotypic status and there was no consistent inhibition by quinidine. 5. The rate of halofantrine metabolism showed a significant correlation with both CYP3A4 protein levels (r = 0.88, P = 0.01) and the rate of felodipine metabolism (r = 0.86, P = 0.013), a marker substrate for CYP3A4 activity. Inhibition studies showed that ketoconazole is a potent inhibitor of halofantrine metabolism (IC50 = 1.57 microM). 6. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that halofantrine is a potent inhibitor of CYP2D6 in vitro and can also be metabolised by the enzyme. However, in human liver microsomes it appears to be metabolised largely by CYP3A4. PMID:8554939

  8. Enhancement of CYP3A4 activity in Hep G2 cells by lentiviral transfection of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Tsai-Shin; Yang, Kai-Chiang; Chiou, Ling-Ling; Huang, Guan-Tarn; Lee, Hsuan-Shu

    2014-01-01

    Human hepatoma cell lines are commonly used as alternatives to primary hepatocytes for the study of drug metabolism in vitro. However, the phase I cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities in these cell lines occur at a much lower level than their corresponding activities in primary hepatocytes, and thus these cell lines may not accurately predict drug metabolism. In the present study, we selected hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha (HNF1α) from six transcriptional regulators for lentiviral transfection into Hep G2 cells to optimally increase their expression of the CYP3A4 enzyme, which is the major CYP enzyme in the human body. We subsequently found that HNF1α-transfected Hep G2 enhanced the CYP3A4 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner and the activity was noted to increase with time and peaked 7 days. With a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100, CYP3A4 expression increased 19-fold and enzyme activity more than doubled at day 7. With higher MOI (1,000 to 3,000), the activity increased 8- to 10-fold; however, it was noted the higher MOI, the higher cell death rate and lower cell survival. Furthermore, the CYP3A4 activity in the HNF1α-transfected cells could be induced by CYP3A4-specific inducer, rifampicin, and metabolized nifedipine in a dose-dependent manner. With an MOI of 3,000, nifedipine-metabolizing activity was 6-fold of control and as high as 66% of primary hepatocytes. In conclusion, forceful delivery of selected transcriptional regulators into human hepatoma cells might be a valuable method to enhance the CYP activity for a more accurate determination of drug metabolism in vitro.

  9. Differential gene expression of CYP3A isoforms in equine liver and intestines.

    PubMed

    Tydén, E; Löfgren, M; Pegolo, S; Capolongo, F; Tjälve, H; Larsson, P

    2012-12-01

    Recently, seven CYP3A isoforms - CYP3A89, CYP3A93, CYP3A94, CYP3A95, CYP3A96, CYP3A97 and CYP129 - have been isolated from the horse genome. In this study, we have examined the hepatic and intestinal gene expression of these CYP3A isoforms using TaqMan probes. We have also studied the enzyme activity using luciferin-isopropyl acetal (LIPA) as a substrate. The results show a differential gene expression of the CYP3A isoforms in the liver and intestines in horses. In the liver, CYP3A89, CYP3A94, CYP3A96 and CYP3A97 were highly expressed, while in the intestine there were only two dominating isoforms, CYP3A93 and CYP3A96. The isoform CYP3A129 was not detected in the liver or the intestine, although this gene consists of a complete set of exons and should therefore code for a functional protein. It is possible that this gene is expressed in tissues other than the liver and intestines. In the intestine, both CYP3A96 and CYP3A93 showed the highest gene expression in the duodenum and the proximal parts of the jejunum. This correlated with a high protein expression in these tissues. Studies of the enzyme activity showed the same K(m) for the LIPA substrate in the liver and the intestine, while the maximum velocity (V(max)) in the liver was higher than in the intestine. Our finding of a differential gene expression of the CYP3A isoforms in the liver and the intestines contributes to a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Effect of brivaracetam on CYP3A activity, measured by oral midazolam.

    PubMed

    Stockis, Armel; Watanabe, Shikiko; Scheen, André J

    2015-05-01

    Brivaracetam is a synaptic vesicle protein 2A ligand in phase III development for epilepsy. A phase I, open-label, randomized study was conducted in 42 healthy male participants to assess the effect of brivaracetam on CYP3A activity using midazolam as a probe. Participants were randomized to oral brivaracetam 5, 50, or 150 mg/day from Day 8 to Day 14. A single oral dose (7.5 mg) of midazolam was administered on Days 1, 13, and 20, and full pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained. For all brivaracetam doses, the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves from 0 to infinity (AUCinf ) for midazolam and 1'-hydroxymidazolam were similar on Days 13 and 20 compared with Day 1. Following brivaracetam 150 mg/day, the Day 13/Day 1 AUCinf ratio (90% confidence interval) was 1.09 (0.97, 1.21) and 1.04 (0.93, 1.17) for midazolam and 1'-hydroxymidazolam, respectively. For the Day 20/Day 1 comparison, the corresponding AUCinf ratios were 1.10 (0.98, 1.23) and 1.07 (0.97, 1.18). Maximum midazolam plasma concentration was increased on both Day 13 and Day 20 vs. Day 1 but the relevance of this finding was unclear. This study indicates that brivaracetam up to 150 mg/day has no significant inducing or inhibiting effect on CYP3A activity. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. Coadministration of Pinellia ternata Can Significantly Reduce Aconitum carmichaelii to Inhibit CYP3A Activity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinjun; Cheng, Zaixing; Zhu, Lijun; Lu, Linlin; Zhang, Guiyu; Wang, Ying; Xu, Ying; Lin, Na; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2014-01-01

    Chuanwu (CW), the mother root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx., is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating traumatic injuries, rheumatoid arthritis, and tumors. CW coadministered with banxia (BX), the root of Pinellia ternata, is also widely prescribed in clinical practice. However, the mechanism of this combination is yet deciphered. Current study aimed to investigate the effects of CW, including raw chuanwu (RCW) and processed chuanwu (PCW) alone, as well as CW coadministered with BX on CYP3A activity. Buspirone (BP) and testosterone (Tes) were used as specific probe substrates in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. CYP3A activity was determined by the metabolites formation ratios from the substrates. Compared with those in the control group, the metabolites formation ratios significantly decreased in the RCW and PCW alone groups, accompanied by a marked decrease in CYP3A protein and mRNA levels. However, there was a significant increase in those ratios in the RCW-BX and PCW-BX groups compared to the RCW and PCW alone groups. The results indicated that both RCW and PCW can inhibit CYP3A activity in rats because of downregulation of CYP3A protein and mRNA levels. Decreases in CYP3A activity can be reversed by coadministration with BX. PMID:25371696

  12. Midazolam microdose to determine systemic and pre-systemic metabolic CYP3A activity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hohmann, Nicolas; Kocheise, Franziska; Carls, Alexandra; Burhenne, Jürgen; Haefeli, Walter E; Mikus, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Aim We aimed to establish a method to assess systemic and pre-systemic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity using ineffective microgram doses of midazolam. Methods In an open, one sequence, crossover study, 16 healthy participants received intravenous and oral midazolam at microgram (0.001 mg intravenous and 0.003 mg oral) and regular milligram (1 mg intravenous and 3 mg oral) doses to assess the linearity of plasma and urine pharmacokinetics. Results Dose-normalized AUC and Cmax were 37.1 ng ml−1 h [95% CI 35.5, 40.6] and 39.1 ng ml−1 [95% CI 30.4, 50.2] for the microdose and 39.0 ng ml−1 h [95% CI 36.1, 42.1] and 37.1 ng ml−1 [95% CI 26.9, 51.3] for the milligram dose. CLmet was 253 ml min−1 [95% CI 201, 318] vs. 278 ml min−1 [95% CI 248, 311] for intravenous doses and 1880 ml min−1 [95% CI 1590, 2230] vs. 2050 ml min−1 [95% CI 1720, 2450] for oral doses. Oral bioavailability of a midazolam microdose was 23.4% [95% CI 20.0, 27.3] vs. 20.9% [95% CI 17.1, 25.5] after the regular dose. Hepatic and gut extraction ratios for microgram doses were 0.44 [95% CI 0.39, 0.49] and 0.53 [95% CI 0.45, 0.63] and compared well with those for milligram doses (0.43 [95% CI 0.37, 0.49] and 0.61 [95% CI 0.53, 0.70]). Conclusion The pharmacokinetics of an intravenous midazolam microdose is linear to the applied regular doses and can be used to assess safely systemic CYP3A activity and, in combination with oral microdoses, pre-systemic CYP3A activity. PMID:25588320

  13. Echinacea purpurea up-regulates CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K.; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Walker, Larry A.; Bouic, Patrick J.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanism underlying Echinacea-mediated induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in terms of human pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation. Crude extracts and fractions of Echinacea purpurea were tested for PXR activation in HepG2 cells by a reporter gene assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to determine their effects on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expressions. Capsules and fractions were risk ranked as high, intermediate and remote risk of drug-metabolizing enzymes induction based on EC50 values determined for respective CYPs. Fractions F1, F2 and capsule (2660) strongly activated PXR with 5-, 4- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, respectively. Echinacea preparations potentiated up-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 via PXR activation. Thus E. purpurea preparations cause herb–drug interaction by up-regulating CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and P-gp via PXR activation. PMID:25377539

  14. Echinacea purpurea up-regulates CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Bouic, Patrick J; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    1.This study investigated the mechanism underlying Echinacea-mediated induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in terms of human pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation. 2.Crude extracts and fractions of Echinacea purpurea were tested for PXR activation in HepG2 cells by a reporter gene assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to determine their effects on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expressions. Capsules and fractions were risk ranked as high, intermediate and remote risk of drug-metabolizing enzymes induction based on EC50 values determined for respective CYPs. 3. Fractions F1, F2 and capsule (2660) strongly activated PXR with 5-, 4- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, respectively. Echinacea preparations potentiated up-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 via PXR activation. 4.Thus E. purpurea preparations cause herb-drug interaction by up-regulating CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and P-gp via PXR activation.

  15. Rifampicin-Activated Human Pregnane X Receptor and CYP3A4 Induction Enhance Acetaminophen-Induced ToxicityS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie; Ma, Xiaochao; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Idle, Jeffrey R.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is safe at therapeutic levels but causes hepatotoxicity via N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine-induced oxidative stress upon overdose. To determine the effect of human (h) pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation and CYP3A4 induction on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, mice humanized for PXR and CYP3A4 (TgCYP3A4/hPXR) were treated with APAP and rifampicin. Human PXR activation and CYP3A4 induction enhanced APAP-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities elevated in serum, and hepatic necrosis after coadministration of rifampicin and APAP, compared with APAP administration alone. In contrast, hPXR mice, wild-type mice, and Pxr-null mice exhibited significantly lower ALT/AST levels compared with TgCYP3A4/hPXR mice after APAP administration. Toxicity was coincident with depletion of hepatic glutathione and increased production of hydrogen peroxide, suggesting increased oxidative stress upon hPXR activation. Moreover, mRNA analysis demonstrated that CYP3A4 and other PXR target genes were significantly induced by rifampicin treatment. Urinary metabolomic analysis indicated that cysteine-APAP and its metabolite S-(5-acetylamino-2-hydroxyphenyl)mercaptopyruvic acid were the major contributors to the toxic phenotype. Quantification of plasma APAP metabolites indicated that the APAP dimer formed coincident with increased oxidative stress. In addition, serum metabolomics revealed reduction of lysophosphatidylcholine in the APAP-treated groups. These findings demonstrated that human PXR is involved in regulation of APAP-induced toxicity through CYP3A4-mediated hepatic metabolism of APAP in the presence of PXR ligands. PMID:19460945

  16. Rifampicin-activated human pregnane X receptor and CYP3A4 induction enhance acetaminophen-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Ma, Xiaochao; Krausz, Kristopher W; Idle, Jeffrey R; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2009-08-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is safe at therapeutic levels but causes hepatotoxicity via N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine-induced oxidative stress upon overdose. To determine the effect of human (h) pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation and CYP3A4 induction on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, mice humanized for PXR and CYP3A4 (TgCYP3A4/hPXR) were treated with APAP and rifampicin. Human PXR activation and CYP3A4 induction enhanced APAP-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities elevated in serum, and hepatic necrosis after coadministration of rifampicin and APAP, compared with APAP administration alone. In contrast, hPXR mice, wild-type mice, and Pxr-null mice exhibited significantly lower ALT/AST levels compared with TgCYP3A4/hPXR mice after APAP administration. Toxicity was coincident with depletion of hepatic glutathione and increased production of hydrogen peroxide, suggesting increased oxidative stress upon hPXR activation. Moreover, mRNA analysis demonstrated that CYP3A4 and other PXR target genes were significantly induced by rifampicin treatment. Urinary metabolomic analysis indicated that cysteine-APAP and its metabolite S-(5-acetylamino-2-hydroxyphenyl)mercaptopyruvic acid were the major contributors to the toxic phenotype. Quantification of plasma APAP metabolites indicated that the APAP dimer formed coincident with increased oxidative stress. In addition, serum metabolomics revealed reduction of lysophosphatidylcholine in the APAP-treated groups. These findings demonstrated that human PXR is involved in regulation of APAP-induced toxicity through CYP3A4-mediated hepatic metabolism of APAP in the presence of PXR ligands.

  17. In vitro assessment of time-dependent inhibitory effects on CYP2C8 and CYP3A activity by fourteen protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Filppula, Anne M; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Backman, Janne T

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that several protein kinase inhibitors are time-dependent inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A. We screened 14 kinase inhibitors for time-dependent inhibition of CYP2C8 and CYP3A. Amodiaquine N-deethylation and midazolam 1'-hydroxylation were used as marker reactions for CYP2C8 and CYP3A activity, respectively. A screening, IC50 shift, and mechanism-based inhibition were assessed with human liver microsomes. In the screening, bosutinib isomer 1, crizotinib, dasatinib, erlotinib, gefitinib, lestaurtinib, nilotinib, pazopanib, saracatinib, sorafenib, and sunitinib exhibited an increased inhibition of CYP3A after a 30-min preincubation with NADPH, as compared with no preincubation. Axitinib and vandetanib tested negative for time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A and CYP2C8, and bosutinib was the only inhibitor causing time-dependent inhibition of CYP2C8. The inhibitory mechanism by bosutinib was consistent with weak mechanism-based inhibition, and its inactivation variables, inhibitor concentration that supports half-maximal rate of inactivation (KI) and maximal inactivation rate (kinact), were 54.8 µM and 0.018 1/min. As several of the tested inhibitors were reported to cause mechanism-based inactivation of CYP3A4 during the progress of this work, detailed experiments with these were not completed. However, lestaurtinib and saracatinib were identified as mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP3A. The KI and kinact of lestaurtinib and saracatinib were 30.7 µM and 0.040 1/min, and 12.6 µM and 0.096 1/min, respectively. Inhibition of CYP2C8 by bosutinib was predicted to have no clinical relevance, whereas therapeutic lestaurtinib and saracatinib concentrations were predicted to increase the plasma exposure to CYP3A-dependent substrates by ≥2.7-fold. The liability of kinase inhibitors to affect CYP enzymes by time-dependent inhibition may have long-lasting consequences and result in clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. Copyright © 2014

  18. Experimental Adjustment on Drug Interactions through Intestinal CYP3A Activity in Rat: Impacts of Kampo Medicines Repeat Administered.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Natsumi; Yamaguchi, Yuriko; Hou, Xiao-Long; Takahashi, Kyoko; Takahashi, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    TO PROVIDE THE INFORMATION THAT IS NECESSARY FOR MAKING THE PROPER USE OF KAMPO MEDICINES, WE HAVE PROPOSED THE ADEQUATE METHODOLOGY FOCUSED ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: (i) kampo medicines emphasize the effects produced by the combination of herbal drugs rather than the individual effect of any single herb and (ii) Intestinal CYP3A has become a key factor for the bioavailability of orally administrated drugs. In the present study, we investigated both the in vivo and in vitro effects of Saireito and Hochuekkito (kampo formulas) on CYP3A activities. From our study, oral pre-treatment with Saireito or Hochuekkito did not affect the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine after intravenous administration to rats. When nifedipine was administered to rat intrajejunum, a significant decrease of AUC was showed by pre-treatment with both kampo formulas. Saireito pre-treatment led to 80% decrease in C(max) of nifedipine. Saireito caused significant increases in both protein expression and metabolic activity of CYP3A in intestinal microsome, whereas it had no effect on CYP3A in hepatic microsome. Our result also showed that this affect of Saireito can be gone by wash-out with 1 week. These findings demonstrated that Saireito may induce CYP3A activity of intestine but not of liver in rats. When resources for research are limited, well-designed scientific studies except clinical trials also have many advantages.

  19. Experimental Adjustment on Drug Interactions through Intestinal CYP3A Activity in Rat: Impacts of Kampo Medicines Repeat Administered

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Natsumi; Yamaguchi, Yuriko; Hou, Xiao-Long; Takahashi, Kyoko; Takahashi, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    To provide the information that is necessary for making the proper use of kampo medicines, we have proposed the adequate methodology focused on the following issues: (i) kampo medicines emphasize the effects produced by the combination of herbal drugs rather than the individual effect of any single herb and (ii) Intestinal CYP3A has become a key factor for the bioavailability of orally administrated drugs. In the present study, we investigated both the in vivo and in vitro effects of Saireito and Hochuekkito (kampo formulas) on CYP3A activities. From our study, oral pre-treatment with Saireito or Hochuekkito did not affect the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine after intravenous administration to rats. When nifedipine was administered to rat intrajejunum, a significant decrease of AUC was showed by pre-treatment with both kampo formulas. Saireito pre-treatment led to 80% decrease in Cmax of nifedipine. Saireito caused significant increases in both protein expression and metabolic activity of CYP3A in intestinal microsome, whereas it had no effect on CYP3A in hepatic microsome. Our result also showed that this affect of Saireito can be gone by wash-out with 1 week. These findings demonstrated that Saireito may induce CYP3A activity of intestine but not of liver in rats. When resources for research are limited, well-designed scientific studies except clinical trials also have many advantages. PMID:19884115

  20. Associations of the CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A4*1G polymorphisms with the pharmacokinetics of oral midazolam and the urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio as markers of CYP3A activity in healthy male Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chan, S W; Xiao, Y; Hu, M; Yin, O Q P; Chu, T T W; Fok, B S P; Lee, V H L; Tomlinson, B

    2016-10-01

    The oral plasma clearance of midazolam and the ratio of 6β-hydroxycortisol (6β-OHF) to cortisol (F) in urine are two potential markers for evaluating CYP3A activity in vivo. We assessed the influence of two common CYP3A polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of oral midazolam and urinary ratio of 6β-OHF/F in healthy Chinese. Single oral 15 mg doses of midazolam were given to 20 healthy male Chinese subjects who were genotyped for the CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A4*1G polymorphisms. The plasma concentrations of midazolam were determined by LC/MS/MS. Morning urine samples were collected after overnight fasting, and urine F and 6β-OHF concentrations were measured using UPLC. There were no significant correlations between the pharmacokinetic parameters of midazolam and urinary ratios of 6β-OHF/F. The CYP3A polymorphisms examined had no significant associations with the urinary ratios of 6β-OHF/F or the pharmacokinetics of midazolam. However, diplotype analysis suggested that CYP3A5 expressers with the CYP3A4*1/*1G genotype (n = 3) had significantly lower midazolam AUC0-∞ values (210·0 ± 33·5 vs. 313·9 ± 204·6 h∙ng/mL, P = 0·044) and higher CL/F values (1·16 ± 0·16 vs. 0·88 ± 0·48 L/h/kg, P = 0·005) compared to subjects with the CYP3A4*1/*1 genotype (n = 4), which is consistent with some previous studies with tacrolimus. There were no significant associations between midazolam pharmacokinetic parameters and urinary ratios of 6β-OHF/F and the two CYP3A polymorphisms were not associated with the urinary ratios of 6β-OHF/F or midazolam pharmacokinetic parameters. The possible association of CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A4*1G polymorphisms on CYP3A activity and their potential interaction require confirmation in a larger study. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Oral intake of curcumin markedly activated CYP 3A4: in vivo and ex-vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Huang, Ching-Ya; Yang, Shih-Ying; Peng, Yu-Hsuan; Yu, Chung-Ping; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, a specific secondary metabolite of Curcuma species, has potentials for a variety of beneficial health effects. It is nowadays used as a dietary supplement. Everolimus (EVL) is an immunosuppressant indicated for allograft rejection and cancer therapy, but with narrow therapeutic window. EVL is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). This study investigated the effect of coadministration of curcumin on the pharmacokinetics of EVL in rats and the underlying mechanisms. EVL (0.5 mg/kg) was orally administered without and with 50 and 100 mg/kg of curcumin, respectively, in rats. Blood samples were collected at specific time points and EVL concentrations in blood were determined by QMS® immunoassay. The underlying mechanisms were evaluated using cell model and recombinant CYP 3A4 isozyme. The results indicated that 50 and 100 mg/kg of curcumin significantly decreased the AUC0-540 of EVL by 70.6% and 71.5%, respectively, and both dosages reduced the Cmax of EVL by 76.7%. Mechanism studies revealed that CYP3A4 was markedly activated by curcumin metabolites, which apparently overrode the inhibition effects of curcumin on P-gp. In conclusion, oral intake of curcumin significantly decreased the bioavailability of EVL, a probe substrate of P-gp/CYP 3A4, mainly through marked activation on CYP 3A4. PMID:25300360

  2. Simultaneous evaluation of substrate-dependent CYP3A inhibition using a CYP3A probe substrates cocktail.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunyoung; Shon, Jong Cheol; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon

    2016-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A (CYP3A) is an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of therapeutic drugs such as midazolam, nifedipine, testosterone and triazolam. It is involved in 40% of all cases of P450-mediated metabolism of marketed drugs. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the CYP3A-mediated drug interaction potential of new chemical entities (NCEs). In the past, one P450 isoform-specific probe substrate has been used at a time to evaluate the degree of inhibition of P450 isoforms by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). However, CYP3A enzymes have been shown to have a multi-substrate binding site. Therefore, multiple CYP3A substrates should be used to evaluate precisely the drug interaction potential of NCEs with the enzyme CYP3A. In this study, a method of screening NCEs for their potential to inhibit by CYP3A enzyme activity was developed. It involves the employment of a CYP3A substrate cocktail (including midazolam, testosterone and nifedipine). The concentration of each CYP3A probe substrate in vitro was optimized (0.1 μm for midazolam, 2 μm for testosterone and 2 μm for nifedipine) to minimize mutual drug interactions among probe substrates. The method was validated by comparing inhibition data obtained from the incubation of CYP3A with each individual substrate with data from incubation with a cocktail of all three substrates. The CYP3A inhibition profiles from the substrate cocktail approach were similar to those from the individual substrates approach. This new method could be an effective tool for the robust and accurate screening of the CYP3A inhibition potential of NCEs in drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. [A limited sampling strategy of phenotyping probe midazolam to predict inhibited activities of hepatic CYP3A in rats].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue-hui; Jiao, Jian-jie; Zhang, Cai-li; Lou, Jian-shi; Liu, Chang-xiao

    2008-09-01

    The present study was to evaluate feasibility of a limited sampling strategy (LSS) in the prediction of inhibited hepatic CYP3A activity with systemic clearance of midazolam (MDZ), a hepatic CYP3A activity phenotyping probe. Rats were pretreated with a serial doses of ketoconazole, a selective inhibitor on CYP3A. Blood samples were collected and detected for MDZ at specified time points after intravenous injection of MDZ. Stepwise regression analysis and a Jack-knife validation procedures were performed in one group of rats as training set to establish the most informative LSS model for accurately estimating the clearance of MDZ. Another group of rats with same treatment was used as validation set to estimate the individual clearance based on predictive equations derived from the training set. Bland-Altman plots showed a good agreement between the systemic clearance calculated from DAS (CLobs) and corresponding parameter that was derived from three LSS models (CLest). LSS models derived from two or three sampling time points, including 60, 90 min, 30, 60, 90 min and 30, 60, 120 min, exhibited a good accuracy and acceptable error for estimating the CLobs of MDZ to evaluate hepatic CYP3A activity, especially the 60, 90 min LSS model is most accurate and convenient. The results supported that limited plasma sampling to predict the systemic clearance of MDZ is easier than the usual method for estimating CYP3A phenotyping when the hepatic activity of CYP3A is reduced in the rat. The present study provided theoretical basis and laboratory evidence for LSS to clinically evaluate metabolizing function of liver and

  4. Neo-nicotinoid metabolic activation and inactivation established with coupled nicotinic receptor-CYP3A4 and -aldehyde oxidase systems.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hideo; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Casida, John E

    2006-02-20

    Two important enzymes in metabolism of the principal neo-nicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid are liver microsomal CYP3 A4 and cytosolic aldehyde oxidase (AOX). CYP3A4 oxidation at several molecular sites and AOX reduction at the nitro substituent result in either an increase (activation) or decrease (inactivation) of agonist potency at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), both insect and vertebrate alpha 4beta 2. This study evaluates activation or inactivation of 11 neo-nicotinoids in a continuous two-step system coupling metabolism and receptor binding. For metabolism, the neo-nicotinoid is incubated with CYP3A4 and NADPH or AOX with the cosubstrate N-methyl-nicotinamide, terminating the reaction with ketoconazole or menadione, respectively, to inhibit further conversion. For receptor assay, either the Drosophila nAChR and [(3)H]imidacloprid or the alpha4 beta2 nicotinic receptor and [(3)H](-)-nicotine are added to determine changes in neo-nicotinoid potency. With the Drosophila nAChR assay, the N-methyl compounds N-methyl-imidacloprid and thiamethoxam are activated 4.5-29-fold by CYP3 A4 whereas nine other neo-nicotinoids are not changed in potency. With the vertebrate alpha4 beta2 nAChR, AOX enhances imidacloprid potency but CYP3 A4 does not. The AOX system coupled with the Drosophila receptor strongly inactivates clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, desmethyl-thiamethoxam, and thiamethoxam with some inactivation of nitenpyram and nithiazine, and little or no effect on four other compounds.

  5. Inhibitory effects of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 by Labisia pumila extracts.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yan; Tiong, Kai Hung; Abd-Rashid, Badrul Amini; Ismail, Zakiah; Ismail, Rusli; Mak, Joon Wah; Ong, Chin Eng

    2012-09-28

    Labisa pumila (LP), popularly known with its local name, Kacip Fatimah, is a well known herb grown in Indochina and Southeast Asia and is traditionally used to regain energy after giving birth in women. The propensity of LP to cause drug-herb interaction via cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system has not been investigated. To evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effects of various LP extracts (aqueous, ethanol, dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane) on cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8), CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 activities. Probe substrate-based high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were established for CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 whereas a fluorescence-based enzyme assay was established for CYP2C8. The metabolite formations were examined after incubation of probe substrate with respective CYP isoform in the present or absent of LP extracts. The inhibitory effect of LP was characterized with kinetic parameters IC(50) and K(i) values. LP extracts showed differential effect of CYP activities with the order of inhibitory potency as follows: dichloromethane>hexane>ethanol>aqueous. This differential effect was only observed in CYP2C isoforms but not CYP3A4. Both the hexane and DCM extracts exhibited moderate to potent inhibition towards CYP2C activities in different modes including non-competitive, competive and mixed-type. The DCM effect was notably strong for CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 showing K(i) values of below 1 μg/ml. The selectivity of LP for CYP2C isoforms rather than CYP3A4 may be attributed to the presence of relatively small, lipophilic yet slightly polar compounds within the LP extracts. The results of our study revealed that phytoconstituents contained in LP, particularly in hexane and dichloromethane extracts, were able to selectively inhibit CYP2C isoforms. The inactivation was characterized by low K(i) values, in particular, in CYP2C8 and CYP2C9. These in vitro data indicate that LB preparations contain constituents that can potently inhibit CYP2C activities and

  6. Inhibition of CYP3A mRNA and protein expression, and enzymatic activity, by enrofloxacin in chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, H-F; Gao, Z-X; Cheng, Y-Y

    2010-12-01

    This study was to investigate the effect of enrofloxacin (EF) on CYP3A in chicken by using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunodetected. The treated chickens were given 5, 25 and 125 mg/kg of EF while the control chickens were treated with the same volume saline. There was no significant difference between the low dose group and controls in the concentration of hepatic microsome protein and total CYP content, while the middle and high dose EF caused the down regulation. Depression of the CYP3A activity, mRNA and protein were observed in treated chickens, and the inhibition degree was different from each group. It was concluded that EF caused the inhibition of CYP3A both in genetic transcription and protein levels. But the inhibition metabolism still needs further researches. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Identification of endocrine disrupting chemicals activating SXR-mediated transactivation of CYP3A and CYP7A1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tingting; Cong, Shuyan; Sun, Shiying; Sun, Hongmiao; Zou, Renlong; Wang, Shengli; Wang, Chunyu; Jiao, Jiao; Goto, Kiminobu; Nawata, Hajime; Yanase, Toshihiko; Zhao, Yue

    2013-01-05

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have emerged as a major public health issue because of their potentially disruptive effects on physiological hormonal actions. SXR (steroid xenobiotic receptor), also known as NR1I2, regulates CYP3A expression in response to exogenous chemicals, such as EDCs, after binding to SXRE (SXR response element). In our study, luciferase assay showed that 14 out of 55 EDCs could enhance SXR-mediated rat or human CYP3A gene transcription nearly evenly, and could also activate rat CYP7A1 gene transcription by cross-interaction of SXR and LXRE (LXRα response element). SXR diffused in the nucleus without ligand, whereas intranuclear foci of liganded SXR were produced. Furthermore, endogenous mRNA expression of CYP3A4 gene was enhanced by the 14 positive EDCs. Our results suggested a probable mechanism of EDCs disrupting the steroid or xenobiotic metabolism homeostasis via SXR.

  8. Phenotype-genotype variability in the human CYP3A locus as assessed by the probe drug quinine and analyses of variant CYP3A4 alleles

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Antona, Cristina . E-mail: cristina.rodriguez-antona@cnio.es; Sayi, Jane G.; Gustafsson, Lars L.; Bertilsson, Leif; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2005-12-09

    The human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzymes, which metabolize 50% of currently used therapeutic drugs, exhibit great interindividual differences in activity that have a major impact on drug treatment outcome, but hitherto no genetic background importantly contributing to this variation has been identified. In this study we show that CYP3A4 mRNA and hnRNA contents with a few exceptions vary in parallel in human liver, suggesting that mechanisms affecting CYP3A4 transcription, such as promoter polymorphisms, are relevant for interindividual differences in CYP3A4 expression. Tanzanian (n = 143) healthy volunteers were phenotyped using quinine as a CYP3A probe and the results were used for association studies with CYP3A4 genotypes. Carriers of CYP3A4*1B had a significantly lower activity than those with CYP3A4*1 whereas no differences were seen for five other SNPs investigated. Nuclear proteins from the B16A2 hepatoma cells were found to bind with less affinity to the CYP3A4*1B element around -392 bp as compared to CYP3A4*1. The data indicate the existence of a genetic CYP3A4 polymorphism with functional importance for interindividual differences in enzyme expression.

  9. Influence of various polymorphic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) on drug metabolic activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuan; Pan, Li Qiang; Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ~70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication.

  10. Influence of Various Polymorphic Variants of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) on Drug Metabolic Activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ∼70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication. PMID:22719896

  11. Cytochrome b5 is a major determinant of human cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Colin J; McLaughlin, Lesley A; Scheer, Nico; Stanley, Lesley A; Wolf, C Roland

    2015-04-01

    The cytochrome P450-dependent mono-oxygenase system is responsible for the metabolism and disposition of chemopreventive agents, chemical toxins and carcinogens, and >80% of therapeutic drugs. Cytochrome P450 (P450) activity is regulated transcriptionally and by the rate of electron transfer from P450 reductase. In vitro studies have demonstrated that cytochrome b5 (Cyb5) also modulates P450 function. We recently showed that hepatic deletion of Cyb5 in the mouse (HBN) markedly alters in vivo drug pharmacokinetics; a key outstanding question is whether Cyb5 modulates the activity of the major human P450s in drug disposition in vivo. To address this, we crossed mice humanized for CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 with mice carrying a hepatic Cyb5 deletion. In vitro triazolam 4-hydroxylation (probe reaction for CYP3A4) was reduced by >50% in hepatic microsomes from CYP3A4-HBN mice compared with controls. Similar reductions in debrisoquine 4-hydroxylation and metoprolol α-hydroxylation were observed using CYP2D6-HBN microsomes, indicating a significant role for Cyb5 in the activity of both enzymes. This effect was confirmed by the concentration-dependent restoration of CYP3A4-mediated triazolam turnover and CYP2D6-mediated bufuralol and debrisoquine turnover on addition of Escherichia coli membranes containing recombinant Cyb5. In vivo, the peak plasma concentration and area under the concentration time curve from 0 to 8 hours (AUC0-8 h) of triazolam were increased 4- and 5.7-fold, respectively, in CYP3A4-HBN mice. Similarly, the pharmacokinetics of bufuralol and debrisoquine were significantly altered in CYP2D6-HBN mice, the AUC0-8 h being increased ∼1.5-fold and clearance decreased by 40-60%. These data demonstrate that Cyb5 can be a major determinant of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 activity in vivo, with a potential impact on the metabolism, efficacy, and side effects of numerous therapeutic drugs.

  12. Dried chicory root modifies the activity and expression of porcine hepatic CYP3A but not 2C--effect of in vitro and in vivo exposure.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Zamaratskaia, Galia; Andersen, Bente; Ekstrand, Bo

    2012-11-01

    Hepatic cytochrome P450 expression and activity are dependent on many factors, including dietary ingredients. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effect of chicory root on hepatic CYP3A and 2C in male pigs. Chicory feeding increased the expression of CYP3A29 mRNA but not CYP2C33. Correspondingly, CYP3A activity was increased by chicory feeding, while CYP2C activity was not affected. Additionally, the in vitro effect of chicory extract on the CYP3A activity was investigated. It was shown that CYP3A activity in the microsomes from male pigs was inhibited, but this effect was eliminated by pre-incubation. In both male and female pigs the CYP3A activity was increased in the presence of chicory after pre-incubation. Furthermore, gender-related differences in mRNA expression and activity were observed. CYP3A mRNA expression was greater in female pigs; this was not reflected on activity. For CYP2C, no difference in mRNA expression was observed, while CYP2C activity was greater in female pigs. Surprisingly, the expression of the constitutive androstane receptor, pregnane X receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor did not differ with feed or gender. In conclusion, chicory root modifies the expression and activity of CYP3A in vivo and in vitro, while CYP2C is not affected.

  13. Species differences in in vitro and in vivo small intestinal metabolism of CYP3A substrates.

    PubMed

    Komura, Hiroshi; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2008-05-01

    Intestinal first-pass metabolism has a great impact on the bioavailability of CYP3A substrates in humans, and the in vivo impact has quantitatively been evaluated using CYP3A inhibitors or inducers. In vitro and in vivo preclinical investigations for intestinal metabolism are essential in clarifying pharmacokinetic behavior in animal species and predicting the effect of intestinal metabolism in the human. In this review, we will discuss species differences in intestinal CYP3A enzymes, and CYP3A-mdediated intestinal elimination. Identical CYP3A4 enzyme is expressed in human intestine and liver, but different CYP3A enzymes in both tissues of the mouse and rat are found, that is, respective intestinal enzyme is considered as cyp3a13 and CYP3A62. There is little information on CYP3A enzymes in the monkey and dog intestine, unlike the liver. In vitro metabolic activities of midazolam and nisoldipine are higher in the human and monkey than in the rat. In vivo assessment of cyclosporine, midazolam, nifedipine, tacrolimus, and verapamil has been reported in various species (monkey, rat, mouse, and/or dog) including the human. For midazolam, the monkey shows significant in vivo intestinal metabolism, as evidenced in the human. The monkey might be an appropriate animal model for evaluating small intestinal first-pass metabolism of CYP3A substrates.

  14. Human exposure to triclosan via toothpaste does not change CYP3A4 activity or plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Allmyr, Mats; Panagiotidis, Georgios; Sparve, Erik; Diczfalusy, Ulf; Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla

    2009-11-01

    Triclosan is an antibacterial compound commonly used in cosmetics and personal care products for everyday use. As previously shown, triclosan is found in the plasma, urine and milk from large parts of different human populations. Recent studies have revealed that triclosan is able to activate the human pregnane X receptor in vitro and thus possibly affecting metabolism of drugs in humans via the induction of CYP3A4. Besides, triclosan has been shown to affect thyroid hormonal levels in rats in vivo. In the present study, we investigated if an everyday exposure to triclosan via triclosan-containing toothpaste for 14 days in 12 adult humans caused an increase in plasma 4beta-hydroxycholesterol, indicative of CYP3A4 induction, and/or alterations in thyroid hormonal status. The plasma triclosan concentrations increased from 0.009-0.81 ng/g to 26-296 ng/g (ranges) upon exposure. Despite this, there were no significant changes in plasma levels of either plasma 4beta-hydroxycholesterol or thyroid hormones during the exposure. This indicates that the normal use of triclosan-containing toothpaste is not likely to alter metabolism of drugs via CYP3A4 induction or cause adverse events because of thyroid disturbances in humans.

  15. Influence of Panax ginseng on Cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) Activity in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Malati, Christine Y.; Robertson, Sarah M.; Hunt, Jennifer D.; Chairez, Cheryl; Alfaro, Raul M.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Penzak, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    A number of herbal preparations have been shown to interact with prescription medications secondary to modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and/or P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of Panax ginseng on CYP3A and P-gp function using the probe substrates midazolam and fexofenadine, respectively. Twelve healthy subjects (8 males) completed this open label, single sequence pharmacokinetic study. Healthy volunteers received single oral doses of midazolam 8 mg and fexofenadine 120 mg, before and after 28 days of P. ginseng 500 mg twice daily. Midazolam and fexofenadine pharmacokinetic parameter values were calculated and compared pre-and post P. ginseng administration. Geometric mean ratios (post-ginseng/pre-ginseng) for midazolam area under the concentration vs. time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-∞), half life (T1/2), and maximum concentration (Cmax) were significantly reduced at 0.66 (0.55 – 0.78), 0.71 (0.53 – 0.90), and 0.74 (0.56 – 0.93), respectively. Conversely, fexofenadine pharmacokinetics were unaltered by P. ginseng administration. Based on these results, Panax ginseng appeared to induce CYP3A activity in the liver and possibly the gastrointestinal tract. Patients taking Panax ginseng in combination with CYP3A substrates with narrow therapeutic ranges should be monitored closely for adequate therapeutic response to the substrate medication. PMID:21646440

  16. Supplementation with goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), but not kava kava (Piper methysticum), inhibits human CYP3A activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gurley, B J; Swain, A; Hubbard, M A; Hartsfield, F; Thaden, J; Williams, D K; Gentry, W B; Tong, Y

    2008-01-01

    The effects of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and kava kava (Piper methysticum) supplementation on human CYP3A activity were evaluated using midazolam (MDZ) as a phenotypic probe. Sixteen healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either goldenseal or kava kava for 14 days. Each supplementation phase was followed by a 30-day washout period. MDZ (8 mg, per os) was administered before and after each phase, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using standard non-compartmental methods. Comparisons of pre- and post-supplementation MDZ pharmacokinetic parameters revealed significant inhibition of CYP3A by goldenseal (AUC(0-infinity), 107.9+/-43.3 vs 175.3+/-74.8 ng x h/ml; Cl/F/kg, 1.26+/-0.59 vs 0.81+/-0.45 l/h/kg; T(1/2), 2.01+/-0.42 vs 3.15+/-1.12 h; Cmax, 50.6+/-26.9 vs 71.2+/-50.5 ng/ml). MDZ disposition was not affected by kava kava supplementation. These findings suggest that significant herb-drug interactions may result from the concomitant ingestion of goldenseal and CYP3A substrates.

  17. Variability in Expression of CYP3A5 in Human Fetal Liver.

    PubMed

    Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Pearce, Robin E; Gaedigk, Roger; Calamia, Justina C; Shuster, Diana L; Thummel, Kenneth E; Leeder, J Steven

    2015-08-01

    Members of the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) subfamily of drug metabolizing enzymes exhibit developmental changes in expression in human liver characterized by a transition between CYP3A7 and CYP3A4 over the first few years of life. In contrast, the developmental expression of CYP3A5 is less well understood due to polymorphic expression of the enzyme in human tissues as a result of the prevalence of the CYP3A5*3 allele, which leads to alternative splicing. We further explored the expression of CYP3A5 and the impact of alternative splicing on the variability of CYP3A5 functional activity in a large bank of human prenatal liver samples (7 to 32 weeks of age postconception). The expression of normally spliced CYP3A5 mRNA in all human fetal liver samples varied 235-fold whereas CYP3A5 SV1 mRNA was only detected in fetal liver samples with at least one CYP3A5*3 allele. Formation of 1'-OH midazolam (MDZ) varied 79-fold, and the ratio of 1'-OH MDZ to 4-OH MDZ varied 8-fold and depended on the presence or absence of the CYP3A5*3 allele. Formation of 4-OH MDZ was significantly associated with 1'-OH MDZ (r(2) = 0.76, P < 0.0001) but varied (36-fold) independently of CYP3A5 genotype or expression. The substantial interindividual variability that remains even after stratification for CYP3A5 genotype suggests that factors such as environmental exposure and epigenetic alterations act in addition to genetic variation to contribute to the variability of CYP3A5 expression in human prenatal liver.

  18. Effects of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins on the expression and catalytic activities of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 in primary human hepatocytes and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Srovnalova, Alzbeta; Svecarova, Michaela; Zapletalova, Michaela Kopecna; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Bachleda, Petr; Anzenbacherova, Eva; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2014-01-22

    Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins are pharmacologically active constituents of various berry fruits, such as blueberry and cranberry. These compounds are also contained in massively used nutritional supplements based on extracts or dry matter from berry fruits. The current study evaluated the effects of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins on the expression and catalytic activity of major drug-metabolizing enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and human liver microsomes. Expression of mRNA was quantified by qRT-PCR. Expression of proteins was evaluated by Western blotting and immunochemiluminescence. The catalytic activity of CYP enzymes was measured by HPLC using specific enzyme substrates. Tested anthocyanidins (6) and anthocyanins (21) did not induce the expression of mRNA and protein of CYP2C9, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 genes in human hepatocytes. Catalytic activities of CYP2C9, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 enzymes were inhibited by all anthocyanidins to different extents (e.g., delphinidin inhibits CYP3A4 by >90% at 100 μM with IC50 = 32 μM). Of 21 anthocyanins tested, only cyanidin-3-O-rhamnoside (CYP3A4 by >75% at 100 μM with IC50 = 44 μM) and two glycosides of delphinidin significantly inhibited examined cytochromes P450. It may be concluded that in the ranges of common ingestion of either food or dietary supplement an induction or significant inhibition of CYP2C9, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 activity is most probably not expected.

  19. Prediction of time-dependent CYP3A4 drug-drug interactions by physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling: impact of inactivation parameters and enzyme turnover.

    PubMed

    Rowland Yeo, K; Walsky, R L; Jamei, M; Rostami-Hodjegan, A; Tucker, G T

    2011-06-14

    Predicting the magnitude of time-dependent metabolic drug-drug (mDDIs) interactions involving cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) from in vitro data requires accurate knowledge of the inactivation parameters of the inhibitor (K(I), k(inact)) and of the turnover of the enzyme (k(deg)) in both the gut and the liver. We have predicted the magnitude of mDDIs observed in 29 in vivo studies involving six CYP3A4 probe substrates and five mechanism based inhibitors of CYP3A4 of variable potency (azithromycin, clarithromycin, diltiazem, erythromycin and verapamil). Inactivation parameters determined anew in a single laboratory under standardised conditions together with data from substrate and inhibitor files within the Simcyp Simulator (Version 9.3) were used to determine a value of the hepatic k(deg) (0.0193 or 0.0077h(-1)) most appropriate for the prediction of mDDIs involving time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4. The higher value resulted in decreased bias (geometric mean fold error - 1.05 versus 1.30) and increased precision (root mean squared error - 1.29 versus 2.30) of predictions of mean ratios of AUC in the absence and presence of inhibitor. Depending on the k(deg) value used (0.0193 versus 0.0077h(-1)), predicted mean ratios of AUC were within 2-fold of the observed values for all (100%) and 27 (93%) of the 29 studies, respectively and within 1.5-fold for 24 (83%) and 17 (59%) of the 29 studies, respectively. Comprehensive PBPK models were applied for accurate assessment of the potential for mDDIs involving time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 using a hepatic k(deg) value of 0.0193h(-1) in conjunction with inactivation parameters determined by the conventional experimental approach.

  20. Interactions between CYP3A4 and Dietary Polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Kerem, Zohar

    2015-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) catalyze oxidative reactions of a broad spectrum of substrates and play a critical role in the metabolism of xenobiotics, such as drugs and dietary compounds. CYP3A4 is known to be the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of drugs and most other xenobiotics. Dietary compounds, of which polyphenolics are the most studied, have been shown to interact with CYP3A4 and alter its expression and activity. Traditionally, the liver was considered the prime site of CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolic extraction, but in vitro and in vivo studies now suggest that the small intestine can be of equal or even greater importance for the metabolism of polyphenolics and drugs. Recent studies have pointed to the role of gut microbiota in the metabolic fate of polyphenolics in human, suggesting their involvement in the complex interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4. Last but not least, all the above suggests that coadministration of drugs and foods that are rich in polyphenols is expected to stimulate undesirable clinical consequences. This review focuses on interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4 as they relate to structural considerations, food-drug interactions, and potential negative consequences of interactions between CYP3A4 and polyphenols. PMID:26180597

  1. Click chemistry mediated Eu-tagging: activity-based specific quantification and simultaneous activity evaluation of CYP3A4 using 153Eu species-unspecific isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yong; Yan, Xiaowen; Li, Zhaoxin; Yang, Limin; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qiuquan

    2014-04-15

    P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is one of the most important isoforms in the human cytochrome P450 superfamily. It was used as an example in this proof-of-concept study in order to demonstrate an activity-based labeling and then click chemistry (CC) mediated element-tagging strategy for simultaneously specific quantification and activity measurement of an enzyme using species-unspecific isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SUID ICPMS). A dual functional hexynylated 17α-ethynylestradiol activity-based probe was synthesized for specifically labeling CYP3A4 and then CC-mediated Eu-tagging with an azido-DOTA-Eu complex for CYP3A4 quantification and activity measurement in human liver microsome and serum samples using (153)Eu SUID ICPMS. The LOD (3σ) of CYP3A4 reached 20.3 fmol when monitoring (151/153)Eu ICPMS signals, in addition to the merits of specificity and simultaneous activity measurement achieved. We believe that this activity-based CC-mediated element-tagging strategy will liberate more potential advantages of ICPMS in bioanalysis.

  2. An in vitro system for measuring genotoxicity mediated by human CYP3A4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fasullo, Michael; Freedland, Julian; St John, Nicholas; Cera, Cinzia; Egner, Patricia; Hartog, Matthew; Ding, Xinxin

    2017-05-01

    P450 activity is required to metabolically activate many chemical carcinogens, rendering them highly genotoxic. CYP3A4 is the most abundantly expressed P450 enzyme in the liver, accounting for most drug metabolism and constituting 50% of all hepatic P450 activity. CYP3A4 is also expressed in extrahepatic tissues, including the intestine. However, the role of CYP3A4 in activating chemical carcinogens into potent genotoxins is unclear. To facilitate efforts to determine whether CYP3A4, per se, can activate carcinogens into potent genotoxins, we expressed human CYP3A4 in the DNA-repair mutant (rad4 rad51) strain of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and tested the novel, recombinant yeast strain for ability to report CYP3A4-mediated genotoxicity of a well-known genotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ). Yeast microsomes containing human CYP3A4, but not those that do not contain CYP3A4, were active in hydroxylation of diclofenac, a known CYP3A4 substrate drug, a result confirming CYP3A4 activity in the recombinant yeast strain. In cells exposed to AFB1 , the expression of CYP3A4 supported DNA adduct formation, chromosome rearrangements, cell death, and expression of the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, Rnr3, a marker of DNA damage. Expression of CYP3A4 also conferred sensitivity in rad4 rad51 mutants exposed to colon carcinogen, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). These data confirm the ability of human CYP3A4 to mediate the genotoxicity of AFB1 , and illustrate the usefulness of the CYP3A4-expressing, DNA-repair mutant yeast strain for screening other chemical compounds that are CYP3A4 substrates, for potential genotoxicity. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:217-227, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Acetaminophen analog N-acetyl-m-aminophenol, but not its reactive metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine induces CYP3A activity via inhibition of protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Santoh, Masataka; Sanoh, Seigo; Ohtsuki, Yuya; Ejiri, Yoko; Kotake, Yaichiro; Ohta, Shigeru

    2017-05-06

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A subfamily members are known to metabolize various types of drugs, highlighting the importance of understanding drug-drug interactions (DDI) depending on CYP3A induction or inhibition. While transcriptional regulation of CYP3A members is widely understood, post-translational regulation needs to be elucidated. We previously reported that acetaminophen (APAP) induces CYP3A activity via inhibition of protein degradation and proposed a novel DDI concept. N-Acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), the reactive metabolite of APAP formed by CYP, is known to cause adverse events related to depletion of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH). We aimed to inspect whether NAPQI rather than APAP itself could cause the inhibitory effects on protein degradation. We found that N-acetyl-l-cysteine, the precursor of GSH, and 1-aminobenzotriazole, a nonselective CYP inhibitor, had no effect on CYP3A1/23 protein levels affected by APAP. Thus, we used APAP analogs to test CYP3A1/23 mRNA levels, protein levels, and CYP3A activity. We found N-acetyl-m-aminophenol (AMAP), a regioisomer of APAP, has the same inhibitory effects of CYP3A1/23 protein degradation, while p-acetamidobenzoic acid (PAcBA), a carboxy-substituted form of APAP, shows no inhibitory effects. AMAP and PAcBA cannot be oxidized to quinone imine forms such as NAPQI, so the inhibitory effects could depend on the specific chemical structure of APAP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cecropin B Represses CYP3A29 Expression through Activation of the TLR2/4-NF-κB/PXR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Li, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiliang; Jin, Xiue; Shi, Deshi; Wang, Jun; Bi, Dingren

    2016-01-01

    Cecropins are peptide antibiotics used as drugs and feed additives. Cecropin B can inhibit the expression of CYP3A29, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to determine the mechanisms responsible for the effects of cecropin B on CYP3A29 expression, focusing on the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NF-κB pathways. Our results indicated that the CYP3A29 expression was inhibited by cecropin B, which was regulated by pregnane X receptor (PXR) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cecropin B-induced NF-κB activation played a pivotal role in the suppression of CYP3A29 through disrupting the association of the PXR/retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR-α) complex with DNA sequences. NF-κB p65 directly interacted with the DNA-binding domain of PXR, suppressed its expression, and inhibited its transactivation, leading to the downregulation of the PXR-regulated CYP3A29 expression. Furthermore, cecropin B activated pig liver cells by interacting with TLRs 2 and 4, which modulated NF-κB-mediated signaling pathways. In conclusion, cecropin B inhibited the expression of CYP3A29 in a TLR/NF-κB/PXR-dependent manner, which should be considered in future development of cecropins and other antimicrobial peptides. PMID:27296244

  5. The human orphan nuclear receptor PXR is activated by compounds that regulate CYP3A4 gene expression and cause drug interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, J M; McKee, D D; Watson, M A; Willson, T M; Moore, J T; Kliewer, S A

    1998-01-01

    The cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase 3A4 (CYP3A4) is responsible for the oxidative metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics including an estimated 60% of all clinically used drugs. Although expression of the CYP3A4 gene is known to be induced in response to a variety of compounds, the mechanism underlying this induction, which represents a basis for drug interactions in patients, has remained unclear. We report the identification of a human (h) orphan nuclear receptor, termed the pregnane X receptor (PXR), that binds to a response element in the CYP3A4 promoter and is activated by a range of drugs known to induce CYP3A4 expression. Comparison of hPXR with the recently cloned mouse PXR reveals marked differences in their activation by certain drugs, which may account in part for the species-specific effects of compounds on CYP3A gene expression. These findings provide a molecular explanation for the ability of disparate chemicals to induce CYP3A4 levels and, furthermore, provide a basis for developing in vitro assays to aid in predicting whether drugs will interact in humans. PMID:9727070

  6. Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.; Pandey, Amit V.

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), metabolizes 50% of drugs in clinical use and requires NADPH-P450 reductase (POR). {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. {yields} We are reporting that mutations in POR may reduce CYP3A4 activity. {yields} POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X lost 99%, while A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% CYP3A4 activity. {yields} Reduction of CYP3A4 activity may cause increased risk of drug toxicities/adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major P450 present in human liver metabolizes approximately half the drugs in clinical use and requires electrons supplied from NADPH through NADPH-P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. In this study we examined the effect of mutations in POR on CYP3A4 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified CYP3A4 to perform kinetic studies. We are reporting that mutations in POR identified in patients with disordered steroidogenesis/Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) may reduce CYP3A4 activity, potentially affecting drug metabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had more than 99% loss of CYP3A4 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% activity. Loss of CYP3A4 activity may result in increased risk of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations.

  7. Modulation of acute steroidogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and CYP3A/PXR in salmon interrenal tissues by tributyltin and the second messenger activator, forskolin.

    PubMed

    Pavlikova, Nela; Kortner, Trond M; Arukwe, Augustine

    2010-04-29

    There are uncertainties regarding the role of sex steroids in sexual development and reproduction of gastropods, leading to the recent doubts as to whether organotin compounds do inhibit steroidogenic enzymes in these species. These doubts have led us to suspect that organotin compounds may affect other target molecules, particularly signal transduction molecules or secondary mediators of steroid hormone and lipid synthesis/metabolism. Therefore, we have studied the effects of TBT exposure through food on acute steroidogenesis, PPARs and CYP3A responses in the presence and absence of a cyclic AMP (cAMP) activator, forskolin. Two experiments were performed. Firstly, juvenile salmon were force-fed once with diet containing TBT doses (0.1, 1 and 10mg/kg fish) dissolved in ethanol and sampled after 72h. Secondly, fish exposed to solvent control and 10mg/kg TBT for 72h were transferred to new tanks and exposed to waterborne forskolin (200microg/L) for 2 and 4h. Our data show that juvenile salmon force-fed TBT showed modulations of multiple biological responses in interrenal tissues that include, steroidogenesis (cAMP/PKA activities; StAR and P450scc mRNA, and plasma cortisol), and mRNA for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms (alpha, beta, gamma), acyl-CoA oxidase-1 (ACOX1) and CYP3A/PXR (pregnan X receptor). In addition, forskolin produced differential effects on these responses both singly and also in combination with TBT. Overall, combined forskolin and TBT exposure produced higher effects compared with TBT exposure alone, for most of the responses (cortisol, PPARbeta, ACOX1 and CYP3A). Interestingly, forskolin produced PPAR isoform-specific effects when given singly or in combination with TBT. Several TBT mediated toxicity in fish that includes thymus reduction, decrease in numbers of lymphocytes, inhibition of gonad development and masculinization, including the imposex phenomenon have been reported. When these effects are considered with the

  8. Fentanyl Enhances Hepatotoxicity of Paclitaxel via Inhibition of CYP3A4 and ABCB1 Transport Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jia-Hao; Bi, Bing-Tian; Feng, Kun-Yao; Huang, Wan; Zeng, Wei-An

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl, a potent opioid analgesic that is used to treat cancer pain, is commonly administered with paclitaxel in advanced tumors. However, the effect of fentanyl on the hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel and its potential mechanism of action is not well studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fentanyl on the hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel and its potential mechanisms of action. Pharmacokinetic parameters of paclitaxel were tested using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and mouse liver histopathology were examined. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of anti-carcinogens was examined using 1-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT), and the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 was detected by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the expression of ABCB1 and the activity of ABCB1 ATPase and CYP3A4 were also examined. In this study, the co-administration of fentanyl and paclitaxel prolonged the half-life (t1/2) of paclitaxel from 1.455 hours to 2.344 hours and decreased the clearance (CL) from 10.997 ml/h to 7.014 ml/h in mice. Fentanyl significantly increased the levels of ALT in mice to 88.2 U/L, which is more than 2-fold higher than the level detected in the control group, and it increased the histological damage in mouse livers. Furthermore, fentanyl enhanced the cytotoxicity of anti-carcinogens that are ABCB1 substrates and increased the accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123. Additionally, fentanyl stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity and inhibited CYP3A4 activity in the liver microsomes of mice. Our study indicates that the obvious hepatotoxicity during this co-administration was due to the inhibition of CYP3A4 activity and ABCB1 transport activity. These findings suggested that the accumulation-induced hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel when it is combined with fentanyl should be avoided. PMID:26633878

  9. Cooperative binding of midazolam with testosterone and alpha-naphthoflavone within the CYP3A4 active site: a NMR T1 paramagnetic relaxation study.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Michael D; Wen, Bo; Allen, Kyle E; Roberts, Arthur G; Schuman, Jason T; Campbell, A Patricia; Kunze, Kent L; Nelson, Sidney D

    2005-11-01

    Recent studies have indicated that CYP3A4 exhibits non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics for numerous substrates. Both homo- and heterotropic activation have been reported, and kinetic models have suggested multiple substrates within the active site. We provide some of the first physicochemical data supporting the hypothesis of allosteric substrate binding within the CYP3A4 active site. Midazolam (MDZ) is metabolized by CYP3A4 to two hydroxylated metabolites, 1'- and 4-hydroxymidazolam. Incubations using purified CYP3A4 and MDZ showed that both alpha-naphthoflavone (alpha-NF) and testosterone affect the ratio of formation rates of 1'- and 4-hydroxymidazolam. Similar to previous reports, alpha-NF was found to promote formation of 1'-hydroxymidazolam, while testosterone stimulated formation of 4-hydroxymidazolam. NMR was used to measure the closest approach of individual MDZ protons to the paramagnetic heme iron of CYP3A4 using paramagnetic T(1) relaxation measurements. Solutions of 0.2 microM CYP3A4 with 500 microM MDZ resulted in calculated distances between 7.4 and 8.3 A for all monitored MDZ protons. The distances were statistically equivalent for all protons except C3-H and were consistent with the rotation within the active site or sliding parallel to the heme plane. When 50 microM alpha-NF was added, proton-heme iron distances ranged from 7.3 to 10.0 A. Consistent with kinetics of activation, the 1' position was situated closest to the heme, while the fluorophenyl 5-H proton was the furthest. Proton-heme iron distances for MDZ with CYP3A4 and 50 microM testosterone ranged from 7.7 to 9.0 A, with the flourophenyl 5-H proton furthest from the heme iron and the C4-H closest to the heme, also consistent with kinetic observations. When titrated with CYP3A4 in the presence of MDZ, testosterone and alpha-NF resonances themselves exhibited significant broadening and enhanced relaxation rates, indicating that these effector molecules were also bound within the CYP3A4 active

  10. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and characterisation of the second identified CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A78 from koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Crittenden, Tamara A; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2011-11-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. Previously, we cloned and characterised the CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4B gene subfamilies from marsupials and demonstrated important species-differences in both activity and tissue expression of these CYP enzymes. Recently, we isolated the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. Here we have cloned and characterised the second identified member of marsupial CYP3A gene subfamily, CYP3A78 from the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). In addition, we have examined the gender-differences in microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity (a CYP3A marker) and CYP3A protein expression across test marsupial species. Significant differences in hepatic erythromycin N-demethylation activity were observed between male and female koalas, with the activity detected in female koalas being 2.5-fold higher compared to that in male koalas (p<0.01). No gender-differences were observed in tammar wallaby or Eastern grey kangaroo. Immunoblot analysis utilising anti-human CYP3A4 antibody detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test male and female marsupials including the koala, tammar wallaby, and Eastern grey kangaroo, with no gender-differences detected across test marsupials. A 1610 bp koala hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A78, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches. It displays 64% nucleotide and 57% amino acid sequence identity to the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. The CYP3A78 cDNA encodes a protein of 515 amino acids, shares approximately 68% nucleotide and 56% amino acid sequence identity to human CYP3A4, and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding koala hepatic CYP3A78 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP

  11. Binary and ternary combinations of anti-HIV protease inhibitors: effect on gene expression and functional activity of CYP3A4 and efflux transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kwatra, Deep; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Khurana, Varun; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of binary and ternary combinations of anti-HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) on the expression of metabolizing enzyme (CYP3A4) and efflux transporters [multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP)] in a model intestinal cell line (LS-180). Methods LS-180 cells were treated with various combinations of PIs (amprenavir, indinavir, saquinavir and lopinavir), and the mRNA expression levels of metabolizing enzyme and efflux transporters were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The alteration of gene expression was further correlated to the expression of nuclear hormone receptor PXR. Uptake of fluorescent and radioactive substrates was carried out to study the functional activity of these proteins. Cytotoxicity and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assays were carried out to measure stress responses. Results Binary and ternary combinations of PIs appeared to modulate the expression of CYP3A4, MRP2, P-gp and BCRP in a considerable manner. Unlike the individual PIs, their binary combinations showed much greater induction of metabolizing enzyme and efflux proteins. However, such pronounced induction was not observed in the presence of ternary combinations. The observed trend of altered mRNA expression was found to correlate well with the change in expression levels of PXR. The gene expression was found to correlate with activity assays. Lack of cytotoxicity and ATP activity was observed in the treatment samples, suggesting that these alterations in expression levels were probably not stress responses. Conclusions In the present study, we demonstrated that combinations of drugs can have serious consequences toward the treatment of HIV infection by altering their bioavailability and disposition. PMID:24399676

  12. The Traditional Chinese Herbal Remedy Tian Xian Activates Pregnane X Receptor and Induces CYP3A Gene Expression in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lichti-Kaiser, Kristin; Staudinger, Jeff L.

    2008-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is activated by a myriad of clinically used compounds and natural products. Activation of PXR in liver regulates the expression genes encoding proteins that are intimately involved in the hepatic uptake, metabolism, and elimination of toxic compounds from our bodies. PXR-mediated herb-drug interactions can have undesirable effects in patients on combination therapy. This can be especially important in cancer patients that self-administer over-the-counter herbal remedies together with conventional anti-cancer chemotherapeutics. Tian xian is a traditional Chinese herbal anti-cancer remedy that activates human PXR in cell-based reporter gene assays. Moreover, tian xian alters the strength of interaction between the human PXR protein and transcriptional cofactor proteins. A novel line of humanized PXR mice are described and used here to show that tian xian increases expression of Cyp3a11 in primary cultures of rodent hepatocytes. Tian xian also induces expression of CYP3A4 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Taken together, these data indicate that co-administration of tian xian is likely contraindicated in patients undergoing anti-cancer therapy with conventional chemotherapeutic agents. These data are of particular importance due to the fact that this herbal remedy is currently marketed as an adjunct therapy that reduces the side-effects of conventional chemotherapy and is available without a prescription. Future studies should be conducted to determine the extent to which co-administration of this Chinese herbal remedy alters the pharmacokinetic and pharmocodynamic properties of conventional anti-cancer therapy. PMID:18474680

  13. Effects of Decreased Vitamin D and Accumulated Uremic Toxin on Human CYP3A4 Activity in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Nagano, Yui; Hosoda, Satomi; Shiraishi, Asuka; Miyoshi, Ayaka; Hiraoka, Shima; Furukubo, Taku; Izumi, Satoshi; Yamakawa, Tomoyuki; Minegaki, Tetsuya; Nishiguchi, Kohshi

    2013-01-01

    In patients with end-stage renal disease, not only renal clearance but also hepatic clearance is known to be impaired. For instance, the concentration of erythromycin, a substrate of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), has been reported to be elevated in patients with end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the reason for the decrease in hepatic clearance in patients with end-stage renal disease. Deproteinized pooled sera were used to assess the effects of low-molecular-weight uremic toxins on CYP3A4 activity in human liver microsomes and human LS180 cells. Four uremic toxins (3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid, hippuric acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and 3-indoxyl sulfate) present at high concentrations in uremic serum were also studied. Simultaneous treatment of uremic serum (less than 10%) or uremic toxins did not affect testosterone 6β-hydroxylation in human liver microsomes. On the other hand, pretreatment of each serum activates CYP3A4 in LS180 cells, and the increased CYP3A4 activity in uremic serum-treated cells was smaller than normal serum-treated cells. In addition, CYP3A4 and CYP24A1 mRNA levels also increased in LS180 cells exposed to normal serum, and this effect was reduced in uremic serum-treated cells and in cells exposed to uremic serum added to normal serum. Furthermore, addition of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to uremic serum partially restored the serum effect on CYP3A4 expression. The present study suggests that the decrease of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and the accumulation of uremic toxins contributed to the decreased hepatic clearance of CYP3A4 substrates in patients with end-stage renal disease. PMID:23965431

  14. Thalidomide-induced limb abnormalities in a humanized CYP3A mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Akita, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Satoh, Daisuke; Ohta, Ryo; Abe, Satoshi; Takehara, Shoko; Kazuki, Kanako; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kamataki, Tetsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Thalidomide is a teratogen in humans but not in rodents. It causes multiple birth defects including malformations of limbs, ears, and other organs. However, the species-specific mechanism of thalidomide teratogenicity is not completely understood. Reproduction of the human teratogenicity of thalidomide in rodents has previously failed because of the lack of a model reflecting human drug metabolism. In addition, because the maternal metabolic effect cannot be eliminated, the migration of unchanged thalidomide to embryos is suppressed, and the metabolic activation is insufficient to develop teratogenicity. Previously, we generated transchromosomic mice containing a human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A cluster in which the endogenous mouse Cyp3a genes were deleted. Here, we determined whether human CYP3A or mouse Cyp3a enzyme expression was related to the species difference in a whole embryo culture system using humanized CYP3A mouse embryos. Thalidomide-treated embryos with the human CYP3A gene cluster showed limb abnormalities, and human CYP3A was expressed in the placenta, suggesting that human CYP3A in the placenta may contribute to the teratogenicity of thalidomide. These data suggest that the humanized CYP3A mouse is a useful model to predict embryonic toxicity in humans. PMID:26903378

  15. Thalidomide-induced limb abnormalities in a humanized CYP3A mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Akita, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Satoh, Daisuke; Ohta, Ryo; Abe, Satoshi; Takehara, Shoko; Kazuki, Kanako; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kamataki, Tetsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2016-02-23

    Thalidomide is a teratogen in humans but not in rodents. It causes multiple birth defects including malformations of limbs, ears, and other organs. However, the species-specific mechanism of thalidomide teratogenicity is not completely understood. Reproduction of the human teratogenicity of thalidomide in rodents has previously failed because of the lack of a model reflecting human drug metabolism. In addition, because the maternal metabolic effect cannot be eliminated, the migration of unchanged thalidomide to embryos is suppressed, and the metabolic activation is insufficient to develop teratogenicity. Previously, we generated transchromosomic mice containing a human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A cluster in which the endogenous mouse Cyp3a genes were deleted. Here, we determined whether human CYP3A or mouse Cyp3a enzyme expression was related to the species difference in a whole embryo culture system using humanized CYP3A mouse embryos. Thalidomide-treated embryos with the human CYP3A gene cluster showed limb abnormalities, and human CYP3A was expressed in the placenta, suggesting that human CYP3A in the placenta may contribute to the teratogenicity of thalidomide. These data suggest that the humanized CYP3A mouse is a useful model to predict embryonic toxicity in humans.

  16. The revised human liver cytochrome P450 "Pie": absolute protein quantification of CYP4F and CYP3A enzymes using targeted quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Scott; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2014-08-01

    The CYP4F subfamily of enzymes has been identified recently to be involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds (arachidonic acid and leukotriene B4), nutrients (vitamins K1 and E), and xenobiotics (pafuramidine and fingolimod). CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B are reported to be expressed in the human liver. However, absolute concentrations of these enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and their interindividual variability have yet to be determined because of the lack of specific antibodies. Here, an liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted quantitative proteomic approach was employed to determine the absolute protein concentrations of CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B compared with CYP3A in two panels of HLMs (n = 31). As a result, the human hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) "pie" has been revised to include the contribution of CYP4F enzymes, which amounts to 15% of the total hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. CYP4F3B displayed low interindividual variability (3.3-fold) in the HLM panels whereas CYP4F2 displayed large variability (21-fold). However, CYP4F2 variability decreased to 3.4-fold if the two donors with the lowest expression were excluded. In contrast, CYP3A exhibited 29-fold interindividual variability in the same HLM panels. The proposed marker reaction for CYP4F enzymes pafuramidine/DB289 M1 formation did not correlate with CYP4F protein content, suggesting alternate metabolic pathways for DB289 M1 formation in HLMs. In conclusion, CYP4F enzymes are highly expressed in the human liver and their physiologic and pharmacologic roles warrant further investigation.

  17. Endosulfan-alpha Induces CYP26 and CYP3A4 by Activating the Pregnane X Receptor But Not the Constitutive Androstane Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    activity of CYP3A4 (r2 = 0.54). Ticlopidine (5 jtM), a potent mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP2B6, and ketoconazole (10 jtM), a selective CYP3A4 inhibitor...the total metabolism of endosulfan-oa in HLMs and was used to validate the percent inhibition (% I) by ticlopidine and ketoconazole in this study. Five...of the six HLMs in this study showed a good correlation between the % I with ticlopidine and ketoconazole in the same incubation and the combined

  18. A high-fat high-energy diet influences hepatic CYP3A expression and activity in low-birth-weight developing female rats.

    PubMed

    Ni, Shao-Qing; Lou, Yin; Wang, Xiu-Min; Shen, Zheng; Wang, Jue; Zhao, Zheng-Yan; Zeng, Su

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a high-fat, high-energy (HFHE) diet on the hepatic expression of CYP3A in low-birthweight developing female rats. Pregnant rats were divided into nourished and undernourished groups. The offspring of the nourished rats were defined as the normal-birth-weight (NBW) group, and those of undernourished rats were defined as the low-birth-weight (LBW) group. According to their birth weights and diets, the rats were subdivided into the following four groups: NBW-normal diet (NN) group; NBW-HFHE (NH) group; LBW-normal diet (LN) group; and LBW-HFHE (LH) group. Liver samples were isolated on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 56 and 84 after birth. The CYP3A1 mRNA levels in the LH group on days 3, 56 and 84 were significantly higher than those of the NN group (P<0.05). CYP3A1 expression was significantly higher in the LH group than that in the NH group on days 21, 28 and 84 (P<0.05). CYP3A1 mRNA expression was higher in the LH group than that in the LN group on days 3 and 21 (P<0.05). No zonal CYP3A1 expression pattern was observed in the LH developmental group. The LH group had significantly higher mean activity than the LN group on days 7, 14, 28 and 56. Our results indicated that an HFHE diet can result in alterations of CYP3A expression in a developmental LBW rat model.

  19. Progressive decline in tacrolimus clearance after renal transplantation is partially explained by decreasing CYP3A4 activity and increasing haematocrit

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Hylke; Vanhove, Thomas; de Loor, Henriëtte; Verbeke, Kristin; Kuypers, Dirk R J

    2015-01-01

    Aims The long-term disposition of tacrolimus following kidney transplantation is characterized by a gradual decrease in dose requirements and increase in dose-corrected exposure. This phenomenon has been attributed to a progressive decline in cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity, although this has never been demonstrated in vivo. Methods Sixty-five tacrolimus- and 10 cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients underwent pharmacokinetic testing at day 7 and months 1, 3, 6 and 12 after transplantation, including 8-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for tacrolimus or cyclosporine and assessment of CYP3A4 activity using oral and intravenous midazolam (MDZ) drug probes. Results Tacrolimus clearance decreased gradually throughout the entire first year but only in CYP3A5*3/*3 homozygous recipients (25.6 ± 11.1 l h–1 at day 7; 17 ± 9.1 l h–1 at month 12; P < 0.001). In mixed model analysis, decreasing CYP3A4 activity, measured by apparent oral MDZ clearance (924 ± 443 ml min–1 at day 7 vs. 730 ± 344 ml min–1 at month 1; P < 0.001), explained 55.4% of the decline in tacrolimus clearance in the first month. CYP3A4 activity decreased by 18.9 ml min–1 for every milligram of methylprednisolone dose tapering within the first month; beyond this point it remained stable. A gradual rise in haematocrit throughout the entire first year explained 31.7% of the decrease in tacrolimus clearance in the first month and 23.6% of the decrease between months 1 and 12. Cyclosporine clearance did not change over time. Conclusions The maturation of tacrolimus disposition in the first year after renal transplantation observed in CYP3A5*3/*3 homozygous patients can partly be explained by a (steroid tapering-related) decline in CYP3A4 activity and a progressive increase in haematocrit. PMID:26114223

  20. Progressive decline in tacrolimus clearance after renal transplantation is partially explained by decreasing CYP3A4 activity and increasing haematocrit.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Hylke; Vanhove, Thomas; de Loor, Henriëtte; Verbeke, Kristin; Kuypers, Dirk R J

    2015-09-01

    The long-term disposition of tacrolimus following kidney transplantation is characterized by a gradual decrease in dose requirements and increase in dose-corrected exposure. This phenomenon has been attributed to a progressive decline in cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity, although this has never been demonstrated in vivo. Sixty-five tacrolimus- and 10 cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients underwent pharmacokinetic testing at day 7 and months 1, 3, 6 and 12 after transplantation, including 8-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for tacrolimus or cyclosporine and assessment of CYP3A4 activity using oral and intravenous midazolam (MDZ) drug probes. Tacrolimus clearance decreased gradually throughout the entire first year but only in CYP3A5*3/*3 homozygous recipients (25.6 ± 11.1 l h(-1) at day 7; 17 ± 9.1 l h(-1) at month 12; P < 0.001). In mixed model analysis, decreasing CYP3A4 activity, measured by apparent oral MDZ clearance (924 ± 443 ml min(-1) at day 7 vs. 730 ± 344 ml min(-1) at month 1; P < 0.001), explained 55.4% of the decline in tacrolimus clearance in the first month. CYP3A4 activity decreased by 18.9 ml min(-1) for every milligram of methylprednisolone dose tapering within the first month; beyond this point it remained stable. A gradual rise in haematocrit throughout the entire first year explained 31.7% of the decrease in tacrolimus clearance in the first month and 23.6% of the decrease between months 1 and 12. Cyclosporine clearance did not change over time. The maturation of tacrolimus disposition in the first year after renal transplantation observed in CYP3A5*3/*3 homozygous patients can partly be explained by a (steroid tapering-related) decline in CYP3A4 activity and a progressive increase in haematocrit. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Modeling chemical interaction profiles: II. Molecular docking, spectral data-activity relationship, and structure-activity relationship models for potent and weak inhibitors of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 isozyme.

    PubMed

    Tie, Yunfeng; McPhail, Brooks; Hong, Huixiao; Pearce, Bruce A; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Ge, Weigong; Buzatu, Dan A; Wilkes, Jon G; Fuscoe, James C; Tong, Weida; Fowler, Bruce A; Beger, Richard D; Demchuk, Eugene

    2012-03-15

    Polypharmacy increasingly has become a topic of public health concern, particularly as the U.S. population ages. Drug labels often contain insufficient information to enable the clinician to safely use multiple drugs. Because many of the drugs are bio-transformed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, inhibition of CYP activity has long been associated with potentially adverse health effects. In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty pertaining to CYP-mediated drug-drug/chemical interactions, an interagency collaborative group developed a consensus approach to prioritizing information concerning CYP inhibition. The consensus involved computational molecular docking, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR), and structure-activity relationship (SAR) models that addressed the clinical potency of CYP inhibition. The models were built upon chemicals that were categorized as either potent or weak inhibitors of the CYP3A4 isozyme. The categorization was carried out using information from clinical trials because currently available in vitro high-throughput screening data were not fully representative of the in vivo potency of inhibition. During categorization it was found that compounds, which break the Lipinski rule of five by molecular weight, were about twice more likely to be inhibitors of CYP3A4 compared to those, which obey the rule. Similarly, among inhibitors that break the rule, potent inhibitors were 2-3 times more frequent. The molecular docking classification relied on logistic regression, by which the docking scores from different docking algorithms, CYP3A4 three-dimensional structures, and binding sites on them were combined in a unified probabilistic model. The SDAR models employed a multiple linear regression approach applied to binned 1D ¹³C-NMR and 1D ¹⁵N-NMR spectral descriptors. Structure-based and physical-chemical descriptors were used as the basis for developing SAR models by the decision forest method. Thirty-three potent inhibitors and 88 weak

  2. Characterization of equine cytochrome P450: role of CYP3A in the metabolism of diazepam.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, S M M; Ikenaka, Y; Hayami, A; Mizukawa, H; Darwish, W S; Watanabe, K P; Kawai, Y K; Ishizuka, M

    2016-10-01

    Research on drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in large animal species including the horse is scarce because of the challenges in conducting in vivo studies. The metabolic reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are central to drug pharmacokinetics. This study elucidated the characteristics of equine CYPs using diazepam (DZP) as a model compound as this drug is widely used as an anesthetic and sedative in horses, and is principally metabolized by CYPs. Diazepam metabolic activities were measured in vitro using horse and rat liver microsomes to clarify the species differences in enzyme kinetic parameters of each metabolite (temazepam [TMZ], nordiazepam [NDZ], p-hydroxydiazepam [p-OH-DZP], and oxazepam [OXZ]). In both species microsomes, TMZ was the major metabolite, but the formation rate of p-OH-DZP was significantly less in the horse. Inhibition assays with a CYP-specific inhibitors and antibody suggested that CYP3A was the main enzyme responsible for DZP metabolism in horse. Four recombinant equine CYP3A isoforms expressed in Cos-7 cells showed that CYP3A96, CYP3A94, and CYP3A89 were important for TMZ formation, whereas CYP3A97 exhibited more limited activity. Phylogenetic analysis suggested diversification of CYP3As in each mammalian order. Further study is needed to elucidate functional characteristics of each equine CYP3A isoform for effective use of diazepam in horses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Inhibitory effects of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 by extracts and alkaloids of Gelsemium elegans roots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinghao; Wu, Shuisheng; Chen, Zhichun; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Wanli

    2015-05-26

    Gelsemium elegans (GE), widely distributed in East Asia, South East Asia and Northern America, is a kind of well-known toxic plant throughout the world. Yet it has been used as a Chinese folk medicine for treatment of malignant tumors, pain, rheumatic arthritis, psoriasis and immune function. The present study was to investigate the potential inhibitory effects of G. elegans (GE) roots on four major cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoforms (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4) in vitro. Four extracts (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, EtOAc and aqueous) of GE and two commercially available alkaloids (koumine and humantenmine) were screened for their CYP isoforms inhibitory activity. Four enzyme inhibition assays were examined according to the method of the literature. Phenacetin, coumarin, chlorzoxazone and testosterone were used as probe substrates in order to determine CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 catalytic activity, respectively. Each probe substrate was incubated with or without each extract and active constituent for corresponding isoform, followed by determination of the kinetics parameters, IC50 and Ki, to characterize inhibitory effects. GE dichloromethane extract selectively inhibited activities of CYP2E1 (IC50=29.04µg/ml) and CYP2A6 (IC50=46.84µg/ml), with Ki of 10.16 and 19.33µg/ml, respectively. In the case of alkaloids, koumine exhibited significant inhibitory effects on CYP2E1 while humantenmine showed more potent inhibition on CYP2E1 and CYP2A6 (IC50 of 47.44, 18.34 and 45.87µg/ml, Ki of 31.20, 35.06 and 52.06µg/ml, respectively). Because of their relatively high Ki values, the active constituents in GE dichloromethane extract were analyzed. The UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS data showed that GE dichloromethane extract contains 6 kinds of indole alkaloids (koumine, humantenmine, humantenine, humantenirine, N-methoxytaberpsychine, and sempervirine). As for CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, the negligible inhibitions were observed. G. elegans extracts inhibited several CYP450

  4. Identification of the active components in Shenmai injection that differentially affect Cyp3a4-mediated 1'-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation of midazolam.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Caiwen; He, Fang; Xia, Chunhua; Zhang, Hong; Xiong, Yuqing

    2013-04-01

    Shenmai injection (SMI) is a popular herbal preparation that is widely used for the treatment of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and viral myocarditis. In our previous study, SMI was shown to differentially affect CYP3A4-mediated 1'-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation of midazolam (MDZ). The present study was conducted to identify the active components in SMI responsible for the differential effects on MDZ metabolism, using in vitro incubation systems (rat and human liver microsomes and a recombinant CYP3A4 system) to measure 1'-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation of MDZ. First, different fractions of SMI were obtained by gradient elution on an solid phase extraction system and individually tested for their effects on MDZ metabolism. The results demonstrated that lipid-soluble constituents were likely to be the predominant active components of SMI. Second, the possible active components were gradually separated on an high-performance liquid chromatography system under different conditions and individually tested in vitro for their effects on MDZ metabolism. Third, the active component obtained in the above experiment was collected and subjected to structural analysis, and identified as panaxytriol (PXT). Finally, it was validated that PXT had significant differential effects on 1'-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation of MDZ in various in vitro systems that were similar to those of SMI. We conclude that PXT is the constituent of SMI responsible for the differential effects on CYP3A4-mediated 1'-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation of MDZ.

  5. CYP3A activity based on plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol during the early postpartum period has an effect on the plasma disposition of amlodipine.

    PubMed

    Naito, Takafumi; Kubono, Naoko; Ishida, Takuya; Deguchi, Shuhei; Sugihara, Masahisa; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Kawakami, Junichi

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol as an endogenous marker of CYP3A4/5 activity in early postpartum women and its impact on the plasma disposition of amlodipine. Twenty-seven early postpartum women treated with amlodipine for pregnancy-induced hypertension were enrolled. The plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol and its ratio to cholesterol in postpartum and in non-perinatal women were evaluated. The predose plasma concentration of amlodipine was determined at steady state. The medians of the plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol concentration at day 0-3 and 8-21 after delivery were 146 and 161 ng/mL, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol between the postpartum periods. The plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol and its ratio to cholesterol in postpartum women were significantly higher than those in non-perinatal women. A large individual variability was observed in the dose-normalized plasma concentration of amlodipine in early postpartum women. A weak negative correlation was observed between the dose-normalized plasma concentration of amlodipine and the plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol. In conclusion, early postpartum women possessed higher CYP3A activity based on plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol and had a large pharmacokinetic variability in amlodipine. CYP3A activity during the early postpartum period had an effect on the plasma disposition of amlodipine.

  6. Development of an optimized cytotoxicity assay system for CYP3A4-mediated metabolic activation via modified piggyBac transposition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lizhen; Zou, Shuxiang; Deng, Jifeng; Dai, Tianming; Jiang, Jingwei; Jia, Ying; Dai, Renke; Xie, Shuilin

    2016-04-01

    Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is often caused by cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolism of drugs into reactive metabolites. Assessment of hepatotoxicity induced by bioactive compounds is hampered by low CYP expression within in vitro cell lines. To overcome this limitation, piggyBac transposition and monoclonal expansion were used to generate a HepG2 cell line with stable and homogenously high expression of CYP3A4, a prominent CYP isoform. Our studies demonstrate the generated line's constant CYP3A4 expression and activity for over 40 cell passages; to date, it has been in subculture for more than a year without addition of Puromycin. This cell line was utilized to evaluate cytotoxicity of two bioactive (troglitazone and acetaminophen) and two non-bioactive (citrate and galactosamine) compounds by MTT assay. Cell viability significantly decreased upon treatment with bioactive drugs. Moreover, cell lines used in the present study were more sensitive to toxic effects of troglitazone than previously reported. Therefore, this HepG2 cell-based assay system may provide a suitable hepatic model for predicting CYP3A4-mediated hepatotoxicity during preclinical drug development.

  7. Variability of CYP3A7 expression in human fetal liver.

    PubMed

    Leeder, J Steven; Gaedigk, Roger; Marcucci, Kenda A; Gaedigk, Andrea; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Schindel, Bradley P; Pearce, Robin E

    2005-08-01

    Fetal liver CYP3A7 plays an important role in placental estriol synthesis during pregnancy, yet little is known concerning the extent or consequences of variability in expression. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the variability in CYP3A7 expression using several phenotypic measures in a panel of 54 fetal livers ranging in age from 76 days to 32 weeks gestation. CYP3A7 mRNA expression was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, whereas immunoreactive CYP3A7 was determined using an affinity-purified antipeptide antibody. Variability in catalytic activity was evaluated using testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) as substrates. Across the entire panel, CYP3A7 was the most abundant CYP3A mRNA species present and varied 634-fold from 151 to 95,700 transcripts/ng total RNA, corrected for 18S ribosomal RNA. CYP3A4 expression was minimal based on mRNA expression (1000-fold lower than CYP3A7) and the ratio of testosterone 2alpha- (T2alphaH) to 6beta- (T6betaH) hydroxylation. T2alphaH and T6betaH were highly correlated (r(2) = 0.859), and the correlation increased (r(2) = 0.974) in livers with CYP3A5*3/*3 genotypes implying that the same enzyme (CYP3A7) generated both products. Overall, T2alphaH and DHEA16alphaH activities varied 175- and 250-fold, respectively. A subset of five samples had extremely low mRNA, protein, and catalytic activity, possibly due to pathology affecting fetal viability (anencephaly, porencephaly). In the remaining samples, T2alphaH activity varied 6.7-fold (358 +/- 142, range 97 to 643 pmol/min/mg) and DHEA16alphaH activity varied 6.2-fold (8.07 +/- 2.87, range 2.41 to 14.9 nmol/min/mg). Observed variability in CYP3A7 activity was not related to CYP3A7*2, and alternative regulatory mechanisms require further investigation.

  8. Alprazolam as an in vivo probe for studying induction of CYP3A in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Tatsuyuki; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Kozakai, Kazumasa; Tsuneto, Yumi; Uno, Yasuhiro; Utoh, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kume, Toshiyuki

    2010-10-01

    Induction of the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme is a major concern in the drug discovery processes. To predict the clinical significance of enzyme induction, it is helpful to investigate pharmacokinetic alterations of a coadministered drug in a suitable animal model. In this study, we focus on the induction of CYP3A, which is involved in the metabolism of approximately 50% of marketed drugs and is inducible in both the liver and intestine. As a marker substrate for CYP3A activity, alprazolam (APZ) was selected and characterized using recombinant CYP3A enzymes expressed in Escherichia coli. Both human CYP3A4 and its cynomolgus P450 ortholog predominantly catalyzed APZ 4-hydroxylation with sigmoidal kinetics. When administered intravenously and orally to cynomolgus monkeys, APZ had moderate clearance; its first-pass extraction ratio after oral dosing was estimated to be 0.09 in the liver and 0.45 in the intestine. Pretreatment with multiple doses of rifampicin (20 mg/kg p.o. for 5 days), a known CYP3A inducer, significantly decreased plasma concentrations of APZ after intravenous and oral administrations (0.5 mg/kg), and first-pass extraction ratios were increased to 0.39 in the liver and 0.63 in the intestine. The results were comparable to those obtained in clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) reports related to CYP3A induction, although the rate of recovery of CYP3A activity seemed to be slower than rates estimated in clinical studies. In conclusion, pharmacokinetic studies using APZ as a probe in monkeys may provide useful information regarding the prediction of clinical DDIs due to CYP3A induction.

  9. [Effects of isorhamnetin on CYP3A4 and herb-drug interaction].

    PubMed

    Ding, Li-li; Zhang, Jing-jing; Dou, Wei

    2012-08-01

    The study is to report the investigation of the effects of isorhamnetin on CYP3A4 and herb-drug interaction. A reporter gene assay is used to test pregnane X receptor transactivation action, qRT-PCR and a luminescence-based assay were applied to determine mRNA induction and enzyme activity of CYP3A4 after isorhamnetin treatment. The interaction of irinotecan and isorhamnetin was assessed by inhibition assay of cell proliferation. Isorhamnetin at 1, 10 and 25 micromol x L(-1) transactivated the CYP3A4 reporter construct and upregulated CYP3A4 mRNA as well in a dose-dependent manner. However, isorhamnetin had no effect on enzyme activity of CYP3A4 and irinotecan HepG2 cytotoxicity. In conclusion, activation of PXR by isorhamnetin played a role in the upregulation of CYP3A4 mRNA. Moreover, joint action of isorhamnetin with other drugs may not be associated with the herb-drug interaction.

  10. Modeling chemical interaction profiles: I. Spectral data-activity relationship and structure-activity relationship models for inhibitors and non-inhibitors of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Brooks; Tie, Yunfeng; Hong, Huixiao; Pearce, Bruce A; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Ge, Weigong; Valerio, Luis G; Fuscoe, James C; Tong, Weida; Buzatu, Dan A; Wilkes, Jon G; Fowler, Bruce A; Demchuk, Eugene; Beger, Richard D

    2012-03-15

    An interagency collaboration was established to model chemical interactions that may cause adverse health effects when an exposure to a mixture of chemicals occurs. Many of these chemicals--drugs, pesticides, and environmental pollutants--interact at the level of metabolic biotransformations mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. In the present work, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR) and structure-activity relationship (SAR) approaches were used to develop machine-learning classifiers of inhibitors and non-inhibitors of the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes. The models were built upon 602 reference pharmaceutical compounds whose interactions have been deduced from clinical data, and 100 additional chemicals that were used to evaluate model performance in an external validation (EV) test. SDAR is an innovative modeling approach that relies on discriminant analysis applied to binned nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral descriptors. In the present work, both 1D ¹³C and 1D ¹⁵N-NMR spectra were used together in a novel implementation of the SDAR technique. It was found that increasing the binning size of 1D ¹³C-NMR and ¹⁵N-NMR spectra caused an increase in the tenfold cross-validation (CV) performance in terms of both the rate of correct classification and sensitivity. The results of SDAR modeling were verified using SAR. For SAR modeling, a decision forest approach involving from 6 to 17 Mold2 descriptors in a tree was used. Average rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in a hundred CV tests were 60% and 61% for CYP3A4, and 62% and 70% for CYP2D6, respectively. The rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in the EV test were 73% and 86% for CYP3A4, and 76% and 90% for CYP2D6, respectively. Thus, both SDAR and SAR methods demonstrated a comparable performance in modeling a large set of structurally diverse data. Based on unique NMR structural descriptors, the new SDAR modeling method complements the existing SAR

  11. Effect of CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, and CYP3A combined genotypes on tamoxifen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sanchez Spitman, A B; Moes, D J A R; Gelderblom, H; Dezentje, V O; Swen, J J; Guchelaar, H J

    2017-08-28

    Tamoxifen is one of the cornerstones of endocrine therapy for breast cancer. Recently, the decreased activity CYP3A4*22 allele and the loss of function CYP3A5*3 allele have been described as potential factors that could help to explain the inter-patient variability in tamoxifen metabolism. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, and CYP3A combined genotypes on tamoxifen metabolism. DNA from 667 women enrolled in the CYPTAM study (NTR1509) was genotyped (CYP2D6, CYP3A4*22, and CYP3A5*3). Tamoxifen and metabolite concentrations were measured in serum, and metabolic ratios were calculated. The effect of the CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, and CYP3A combined genotypes in addition to the CYP2D6 genotypes was examined by multiple linear regression analysis. CYP3A4*22 carriers reached significant higher concentrations of tamoxifen, N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen compared to non-carriers, whereas a tendency toward increased endoxifen levels was observed (p = 0.088). The metabolic ratio tamoxifen/N-desmethyl-tamoxifen was significantly higher in CYP3A4*22 individuals (0.59 vs. 0.52, p < 0.001). At the same time, CYP3A4*22 genotype contributed to improving the inter-variability [R (2) of the (log-transformed) metabolic ratio tamoxifen/N-desmethyl-tamoxifen improved from 21.8 to 23.9%, p < 0.001]. CYP3A5*3 marginally improved the explained variability of the (log transformed) metabolic ratio 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen/endoxifen (from 44.9 to 46.2%, p < 0.038). Our data demonstrate that CYP3A genotype has a minor effect to explaining the variability between patients in tamoxifen metabolism and has no added value in addition to CYP2D6 genotype.

  12. CYP3A activity in severe liver cirrhosis correlates with Child–Pugh and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores

    PubMed Central

    Albarmawi, Albader; Czock, David; Gauss, Annika; Ehehalt, Robert; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Burhenne, Jürgen; Ganten, Tom M; Sauer, Peter; Haefeli, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    Aims Impaired liver function often necessitates drug dose adjustment to avoid excessive drug accumulation and adverse events, but a marker for the extent of the required adjustment is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Child–Pugh (CP) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores correlate with drug clearance. Methods Midazolam was used as a CYP3A probe and its pharmacokinetics were analyzed in 24 patients with mild to severe liver cirrhosis (n = 4, 10 and 10 with CP class A, B and C, respectively) and six patients without liver disease. Results Both scores correlated well with unbound midazolam clearance (CLu), unbound midazolam fraction and half-life (all P < 0.01), whereas the unbound steady-state volume of distribution was not significantly changed. In patients with severe liver cirrhosis unbound midazolam clearance was only 14% of controls (CP C: CLu = 843 ± 346 l h−1, MELD ≥ 15: CLu = 805 ± 474 l h−1, controls: CLu = 5815 ± 2649 l h−1, P < 0.01). Conclusion The correlation with unbound midazolam clearance suggests that either score predicts the metabolic capacity of CYP3A, the most relevant drug metabolizing enzyme subfamily in humans. PMID:23772874

  13. Contribution of baicalin on the plasma protein binding displacement and CYP3A activity inhibition to the pharmacokinetic changes of nifedipine in rats in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhen-Yu; Tian, Xin; Gao, Jie; Li, Hong-Meng; Jia, Lin-Jing; Qiao, Hai-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Baicalin purified from the root of Radix scutellariae is widely used in clinical practices. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of baicalin on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine, a CYP3A probe substrate, in rats in vivo and in vitro. In a randomised, three-period crossover study, significant changes in the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine (2 mg/kg) were observed after treatment with a low (0.225 g/kg) or high (0.45 g/kg) dose of baicalin in rats. In the low- and high-dose groups of baicalin-treated rats, C max of total nifedipine decreased by 40%±14% (P<0.01) and 65%±14% (P<0.01), AUC0-∞ decreased by 41%±8% (P<0.01) and 63%±7% (P<0.01), Vd increased by 85%±43% (P<0.01) and 224%±231% (P<0.01), and CL increased by 97%±78% (P<0.01) and 242%±135% (P<0.01), respectively. Plasma protein binding experiments in vivo showed that C max of unbound nifedipine significantly increased by 25%±19% (P<0.01) and 44%±29% (P<0.01), respectively, and there was a good correlation between the unbound nifedipine (%) and baicalin concentrations (P<0.01). Furthermore, in vitro results revealed that baicalin was a competitive displacer of nifedipine from plasma proteins. In vitro incubation experiments demonstrated that baicalin could also competitively inhibit CYP3A activity in rat liver microsomes in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetic changes of nifedipine may be modulated by the inhibitory effects of baicalin on plasma protein binding and CYP3A-mediated metabolism.

  14. Contribution of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 to the formation of the active nortilidine from the prodrug tilidine

    PubMed Central

    Grün, Barbara; Merkel, Ulrike; Riedel, Klaus-Dieter; Weiss, Johanna; Mikus, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To investigate in vivo the effect of the CYP2C19 genotype on the pharmacokinetics of tilidine and the contribution of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 to the formation of nortilidine using potent CYP3A4 inhibition by ritonavir. METHODS Fourteen healthy volunteers (seven CYP2C19 poor and seven ultrarapid metabolizers) received ritonavir orally (300 mg twice daily) for 3 days or placebo, together with a single oral dose of tilidine and naloxone (100 mg and 4 mg, respectively). Blood samples and urine were collected for 72 h. Noncompartmental analysis was performed to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of tilidine, nortilidine, bisnortilidine and ritonavir. RESULTS Tilidine exposure increased sevenfold and terminal elimination half-life fivefold during ritonavir treatment, but no significant differences were observed between the CYP2C19 genotypes. During ritonavir treatment, nortilidine area under the concentration–time curve was on average doubled, with no differences between CYP2C19 poor metabolizers [2242 h ng ml−1 (95% confidence interval 1811–2674) vs. 996 h ng ml−1 (95% confidence interval 872–1119)] and ultrarapid metabolizers [2074 h ng ml−1 (95% confidence interval 1353–2795) vs. 1059 h ng ml−1 (95% confidence interval 789–1330)]. The plasma concentration–time curve of the secondary metabolite, bisnortilidine, showed a threefold increase of time to reach maximal observed plasma concentration; however, area under the concentration–time curve was not altered by ritonavir. CONCLUSIONS The sequential metabolism of tilidine is inhibited by the potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, ritonavir, independent of the CYP2C19 genotype, with a twofold increase in the exposure of the active nortilidine. PMID:22381043

  15. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and identification of the first CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A70 from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Height, Tamara A; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2012-09-15

    Australian marsupials are unique fauna that have evolved and adapted to unique environments and thus it is likely that their detoxification systems differ considerably from those of well-studied eutherian mammals. Knowledge of these processes in marsupials is therefore vital to understanding the consequences of exposure to xenobiotics. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of both xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. In this study we have cloned and characterized CYP3A70, the first identified member of the CYP3A gene subfamily from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). A 1665 base pair kangaroo hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A70, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches, which encodes a protein of 506 amino acids. The CYP3A70 cDNA shares approximately 71% nucleotide and 65% amino acid sequence homology to human CYP3A4 and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Transfection of the CYP3A70 cDNAs into 293T cells resulted in stable cell lines expressing a CYP3A immuno-reactive protein that was recognized by a goat anti-human CYP3A4 polyclonal antibody. The anti-human CYP3A4 antibody also detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, wallaby, and wombat, with multiple CYP3A immunoreactive bands observed in kangaroo and wallaby tissues. Relatively, very low CYP catalytic activity was detected for the kangaroo CYP3A70 cDNA-expressed proteins (19.6 relative luminescent units/μg protein), which may be due to low protein expression levels. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding the Eastern kangaroo hepatic CYP3A70 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP3A enzymes in marsupials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The activity, protein, and mRNA expression of CYP2E1 and CYP3A1 in rats after exposure to acute and chronic high altitude hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangyang; Wang, Xuejun; Li, Yongping; Zhu, Junbo; Su, Xiaodong; Yao, Xingchen; Fan, Xueru; Duan, Yabin

    2014-12-01

    The effects of exposure to acute and chronic high altitude hypoxia on the activity and expression of CYP2E1 and CYP3A1 were examined in rats. Rats were divided into low altitude (LA, 400 m), acute moderate altitude hypoxia (AMH, 2800 m), chronic moderate altitude hypoxia (CMH, 2800 m), acute high altitude hypoxia (AHH, 4300 m), and chronic high altitude hypoxia groups (CHH, 4300 m). Probe drugs were administrated orally to all five groups. Then the serum concentration of probe drug and its metabolite was determined by RP-HPLC. The activity of CYP2E1 and CYP3A1 was evaluated using the ratio of the metabolite to chlorzoxazone and testosterone, respectively. ELISA and real-time PCR were used to analyze the protein and mRNA expression of CYP2E1 and CYP3A1 in liver microsomes, respectively. Chronic high altitude hypoxia caused significant decreases in the activity and protein and mRNA expression of rat CYP2E1 and CYP3A1 in vivo. Acute high altitude hypoxia was not found to change the activity, protein or mRNA expression of rat CYP2E1 or CYP3A1. This study showed significant changes in the activity and protein and mRNA expression of CYP2E1 or CYP3A1 in rats after exposure to chronic high altitude hypoxia.

  17. CYP3A4 intronic SNP rs35599367 (CYP3A4*22) alters RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danxin; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) metabolizes 30-50% of clinically used drugs. Large interperson variability in CYP3A4 activity affects response to CYP3A4 substrate drugs. We had demonstrated that an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism rs35599367 (CYP3A4*22, located in intron 6) reduces mRNA/protein expression; however, the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Here we show that CYP3A4*22 is associated with a two-fold or greater increase in formation of a nonfunctional CYP3A4 alternative splice variant with partial intron 6 retention in human liver (P=0.006), but not in small intestines. Consistent with this observation, in-vitro transfection experiments with a CYP3A4 minigene (spanning from intron 5 to intron 7) demonstrated that plasmids carrying the rs35599367 minor T allele caused significantly greater intron 6 retention than the C allele in liver derived HepG2 cells, but not in intestine-derived LS-174T cells. These results indicate that tissue-specific increased formation of nonfunctional alternative splice variant causes reduced CYP3A4 mRNA/protein expression in CYP3A4*22 carriers.

  18. Mechanism of ritonavir changes in methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: II. Ritonavir effects on CYP3A and P-glycoprotein activities.

    PubMed

    Kharasch, E D; Bedynek, P S; Walker, A; Whittington, D; Hoffer, C

    2008-10-01

    Ritonavir diminishes methadone plasma concentrations, an effect attributed to CYP3A induction, but the actual mechanisms are unknown. We determined short-term (2-day) and steady-state (2-week) ritonavir effects on intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4/5 (probed with intravenous (IV) and oral alfentanil (ALF) and with miosis) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (fexofenadine), and on methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in healthy volunteers. Acute ritonavir increased the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)(0-infinity)/dose ratio (ritonavir/control) for oral ALF 25-fold. Steady-state ritonavir increased the AUC(0-Infinity)/dose ratio for IV and oral ALF 4- and 10-fold, respectively; reduced hepatic extraction (from 0.26 to 0.07) and intestinal extraction (from 0.51 to 0); and increased bioavailability (from 37 to 95%). Acute ritonavir inhibits first-pass CYP3A > 96%. Chronic ritonavir inhibits hepatic CYP3A (> 70%) and first-pass CYP3A (> 90%). Acute and steady-state ritonavir increased the fexofenadine AUC(0-infinity) 2.8- and 1.4-fold, respectively, suggesting P-gp inhibition. Steady-state compared with acute ritonavir caused mild apparent induction of P-gp and hepatic CYP3A, but net inhibition still predominated. Ritonavir inhibited both intestinal and hepatic CYP3A and drug transport. ALF miosis noninvasively determined CYP3A inhibition by ritonavir.

  19. [Furanocoumarins contents and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) inhibitory activities of various processed fruit peel products: outflow of 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin during processing treatment of peel].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Masaru; Toda, Hikaru; Sunagane, Nobuyoshi; Ohta, Takafumi

    2011-01-01

    Furanocoumarins (FCs) such as bergamottin (BG) and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHBG) contained in grapefruits are known to be cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors. These are contained in larger quantity in peel than in pulp, and therefore, processed peel products possibly have strong CYP3A4 inhibitory activity. The CYP3A4 inhibitory potency of these processed peel products, however, remains to be elucidated. The FC content and CYP3A inhibitory activities of various processed fruit peel products were investigated. CYP3A inhibitory activities of crystallized grapefruit peel, grapefruit marmalade, lemon peel and bitter orange slice were close to that of 100% grapefruit juice, while the activities of yuzu slice, pomelo (buntan) marmalade and crystallized iyokan peel were very weak, 1/8-1/20 of 100% grapefruit juice. The maximum BG content was 5.6 µg/g in lemon peel. The maximum DHBG content was 7.2 µg/g in crystallized grapefruit peel, about 1/30 that of raw peel. Grapefruit marmalade and crystallized grapefruit peel contained similar amounts of FCs to 100% grapefruit juice, but FCs were not detected in pomelo (buntan) marmalade or crystallized iyokan peel. Good correlation (r=0.78) was observed between the FC contents of these peel products and those CYP3A inhibitory activities. Preparation of homemade grapefruit marmalade and crystallized peel revealed that considerably lower DHBG content in these products and lower CYP3A inhibitory activity than anticipated were attributable to outflow of DHBG to broth during boiling of the raw peel.

  20. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C. B.; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum. PMID:27594838

  1. Inhibitory effects of pomelo on the metabolism of tacrolimus and the activities of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Kanoko; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Itoh, Suwako; Koyabu, Noriko; Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Murakami, Hideyasu; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2004-08-01

    We recently reported a case of increase in the blood level of tacrolimus following intake of pomelo in a renal transplant recipient. To clarify the mechanism of this increase in the blood level of tacrolimus, we investigated the effect of pomelo juice extract on the activities of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein, in comparison with that of extract of grapefruit juice (GFJ). The 10% ethyl acetate extracts of the juice of three pomelos of different origins (Banpeiyu, pomelo I; Hirado Buntan, pomelo II; and Tosa Buntan, pomelo III) and GFJ significantly inhibited 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone in human liver microsomes by 76.4, 67.2, 37.5, and 83.9%, respectively. The extract of pomelo I was as potent as that of GFJ. The metabolism of tacrolimus itself was also inhibited by the extract of pomelo I, as well as that of GFJ. Furthermore, the inhibition of both 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone and metabolism of tacrolimus by pomelo I and GFJ was preincubation time-dependent. On the other hand, the extract of pomelo I had little effect on the transcellular transport of tacrolimus or [(3)H]digoxin across a monolayer of LLC-GA5-COL150 cells (a porcine kidney epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1, transfected with human MDR1 cDNA and overexpressing human P-glycoprotein). In conclusion, pomelo constituents inhibit the activity of CYP3A4 and may thereby produce an increase in the blood level of tacrolimus.

  2. Rapid LC-MS/MS method for the determination of 4-hydroxycholesterol/cholesterol ratio in serum as endogenous biomarker for CYP3A activity in human and foals.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Mahmoud; Siegmund, Werner; Oswald, Stefan

    2016-10-15

    Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP) enzymes are involved in the elimination of many drugs and are known to be regulated by several environmental factors. Thus, it was the aim of this study to develop and validate an analytical method allowing estimation of the hepatic CYP3A enzyme activity using the 4-hydroxycholesterol to cholesterol ratio as an endogenous biomarker in serum. Both compounds were isolated from the biological matrix by liquid-liquid extraction using n-hexane after saponification with ethanolic sodium methoxide solution (2M) to cleave the steroids from their esterified forms without any kind of further derivatization. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed-phase column (SupelcoAcsentis(®), C8) within 7min using an isocratic elution with ammonium acetate 5mM (pH=3.8, 10%) and acetonitrile (90%) at a flow rate of 300μl/min. d6-cholesterol and d7-4β-hydroxycholesterol were used as internal standards. Detection was done on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using the following mass transitions: 369.3/161.5, 369.3/147.1 and 369.3/95.2 for cholesterol; 385.2/367.4, 385.2/109.1 for 4-hydroxycholesterol; 374.4/152.7 and 392.2/108.9 for d6-cholesterol and d7-4-hydroxycholesterol, respectively as the internal standards. The method was validated according to current bioanalytical guidelines considering selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, stability. The analytical range was 5-250 and 50-1000ng/ml, for 4-hydroxycholesterol and cholesterol, respectively. The method was shown to be selective for both compounds with good linearity over the selected range (r>0.99) as well as good within- and between day accuracy (error: -1.2-3.7% for 4-hydroxycholesterol and -7.7-9.5% for cholesterol) and within- and between day precision (2.1-14.6% for 4-hydroxycholesterol and 1.1-14.9% for cholesterol). Recovery was found to be over 80% for both analytes while significant stability issues could not be observed. Finally, the validated assay was applied

  3. CYP3A5 Genotype and Time to Reach Tacrolimus Therapeutic Levels in Renal Transplant Children.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Elías, A C; García-Roca, P; Velásquez-Jones, L; Valverde, S; Varela-Fascinetto, G; Medeiros, M

    2016-03-01

    CYP3A5 gene polymorphism rs776746 has been associated with lower tacrolimus dose requirements and bioavailability in both adults and children. This variant causes a loss of CYP3A5 activity owing to a splice site variant leading to a truncated inactive enzyme. The aim of this study was to determine if the rs776746 gene polymorphism is related to the time to reach tacrolimus therapeutic levels in renal transplant children. A prospective study was performed in renal transplant children receiving tacrolimus as part of their immunosuppressive regime. CYP3A5 genotype was determined by direct sequencing. Tacrolimus trough levels and serum creatinine at 1 week and 1 month after renal transplantation was obtained from clinical chart. A total of 42 patients were included; 19 (45.2%) were female, 23 (54.8%) received living-donor transplants, and 21 patients expressed CYP3A5*1/*1 or CYP3A5*1/*3. Tacrolimus dose was higher in expressers at week 1 (0.13 vs 0.10 mg/kg/d; P = .011), and week 4 after transplantation (0.17 vs 0.09 mg/kg/d; P < .0001). At 4 weeks after renal transplantation, only 9 patients from the expressers group (42.8%) had levels ≥7 ng/mL, in contrast to 18 in the nonexpressers group (85.7%; Fisher exact P = .008). Tacrolimus dose was significant higher in functional CYP3A5 expressers. Only 42.8% of such expressers had tacrolimus trough levels ≥7 ng/mL at 1 month after transplantation despite dose adjustments. Long-term follow up is needed to address the consequences of early post-transplantation bioavailability differences due to CYP3A5 genotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Contribution of Baicalin on the Plasma Protein Binding Displacement and CYP3A Activity Inhibition to the Pharmacokinetic Changes of Nifedipine in Rats In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Li, Hong-Meng; Jia, Lin-Jing; Qiao, Hai-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Baicalin purified from the root of Radix scutellariae is widely used in clinical practices. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of baicalin on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine, a CYP3A probe substrate, in rats in vivo and in vitro. In a randomised, three-period crossover study, significant changes in the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine (2 mg/kg) were observed after treatment with a low (0.225 g/kg) or high (0.45 g/kg) dose of baicalin in rats. In the low- and high-dose groups of baicalin-treated rats, Cmax of total nifedipine decreased by 40%±14% (P<0.01) and 65%±14% (P<0.01), AUC0–∞ decreased by 41%±8% (P<0.01) and 63%±7% (P<0.01), Vd increased by 85%±43% (P<0.01) and 224%±231% (P<0.01), and CL increased by 97%±78% (P<0.01) and 242%±135% (P<0.01), respectively. Plasma protein binding experiments in vivo showed that Cmax of unbound nifedipine significantly increased by 25%±19% (P<0.01) and 44%±29% (P<0.01), respectively, and there was a good correlation between the unbound nifedipine (%) and baicalin concentrations (P<0.01). Furthermore, in vitro results revealed that baicalin was a competitive displacer of nifedipine from plasma proteins. In vitro incubation experiments demonstrated that baicalin could also competitively inhibit CYP3A activity in rat liver microsomes in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetic changes of nifedipine may be modulated by the inhibitory effects of baicalin on plasma protein binding and CYP3A–mediated metabolism. PMID:24498050

  5. BDE47 induces rat CYP3A1 by targeting the transcriptional regulation of miR-23b

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Zhan; Ji, Minghui; Yang, Hongbao; Cromie, Meghan; Gu, Jun; Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Yu, Yongquan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the liver and is involved in the metabolism of over 50% of xenobiotics. Our previous studies revealed that 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) could induce rat CYP3A1 expression, but the molecular basis remains unclear. Using in silico analysis, we identified a potential miR-23b recognition element (MRE23b) in the 3′-UTR region of CYP3A1 mRNA, which was verified by the luciferase assay. The miR-23b mimic and inhibitor significantly down- and up-regulated the expression of CYP3A1, respectively. Additionally, BDE47 significantly down-regulated the expression of miR-23b in rats and in hepatic H4IIE cells. Induction or blockage of CYP3A1 by a miR-23b inhibitor or mimic could correspondingly alter BDE47-induced expression of CYP3A1 and cytotoxicity in H4IIE cells. Furthermore, LV-anti-miR-23b significantly decreased endogenous levels of miR-23b and increased the expression and activity of CYP3A1 in rat liver. LV-anti-miR-23b also significantly increased the hydroxylated metabolites of BDE47 (3-OH-BDE47, 4-OH-BDE42, and 4′-OH-BDE49) in rat serum. In conclusion, we first found that BDE47 induced rat CYP3A1 expression by targeting the transcriptional regulation of miR-23b. This study helps provide a better understanding of CYP3A regulation and offers novel clues for the role of miRNAs in the metabolism and distribution of environmental pollutants. PMID:27546062

  6. BDE47 induces rat CYP3A1 by targeting the transcriptional regulation of miR-23b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Zhan; Ji, Minghui; Yang, Hongbao; Cromie, Meghan; Gu, Jun; Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Yu, Yongquan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the liver and is involved in the metabolism of over 50% of xenobiotics. Our previous studies revealed that 2,2‧,4,4‧-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) could induce rat CYP3A1 expression, but the molecular basis remains unclear. Using in silico analysis, we identified a potential miR-23b recognition element (MRE23b) in the 3‧-UTR region of CYP3A1 mRNA, which was verified by the luciferase assay. The miR-23b mimic and inhibitor significantly down- and up-regulated the expression of CYP3A1, respectively. Additionally, BDE47 significantly down-regulated the expression of miR-23b in rats and in hepatic H4IIE cells. Induction or blockage of CYP3A1 by a miR-23b inhibitor or mimic could correspondingly alter BDE47-induced expression of CYP3A1 and cytotoxicity in H4IIE cells. Furthermore, LV-anti-miR-23b significantly decreased endogenous levels of miR-23b and increased the expression and activity of CYP3A1 in rat liver. LV-anti-miR-23b also significantly increased the hydroxylated metabolites of BDE47 (3-OH-BDE47, 4-OH-BDE42, and 4‧-OH-BDE49) in rat serum. In conclusion, we first found that BDE47 induced rat CYP3A1 expression by targeting the transcriptional regulation of miR-23b. This study helps provide a better understanding of CYP3A regulation and offers novel clues for the role of miRNAs in the metabolism and distribution of environmental pollutants.

  7. Involvement of CYP3A in the metabolism of eplerenone in humans and dogs: differential metabolism by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5.

    PubMed

    Cook, Chyung S; Berry, Loren M; Kim, David H; Burton, Earl G; Hribar, Jeremy D; Zhang, Liming

    2002-12-01

    In vitro studies were conducted to identify the major metabolites of eplerenone (EP) and the cytochrome p450 (p450) isozymes involved in its primary oxidative metabolism in humans and dogs. The major in vitro metabolites were identified as 6 beta-hydroxy EP and 21-hydroxy EP in both humans and dogs. EP was metabolized by cDNA-expressed human CYP3A4 and dog CYP3A12 but only minimally by human CYP3A5. In human microsomes, inhibition of total metabolism by the CYP3A-selective inhibitors ketoconazole, troleandomycin, and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, each at 10 micro M concentration, was 83 to 95%, whereas inhibition with inhibitors selective for other p450 isozymes was minimal. In dog liver microsomes, the percentages of inhibition were 53 to 76% with the CYP3A-selective inhibitors. A monoclonal anti-CYP3A4 antibody inhibited EP metabolism by 84%, whereas other monoclonal antibodies had minimal effects. The formation of 6 beta-hydroxy and 21-hydroxy metabolites in human liver microsomes was best correlated with CYP3A-selective dextromethorphan N-demethylation and testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation activities. EP moderately inhibited only CYP3A (testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase) activity in human liver microsomes by 23, 34 and 45% at concentrations of 30, 100, and 300 micro M, respectively. With human microsomes, the V(max) and K(m) for 6 beta-hydroxylation and 21-hydroxylation were 0.973 nmol/min/mg and 217 micro M, and 0.143 nmol/min/mg and 211 micro M, respectively. The human hepatic clearance calculated from total in vitro EP metabolism was 2.30 ml/min/kg, which agrees with in vivo data. In conclusion, 6 beta- and 21-hydroxylation of EP is primarily catalyzed by CYP3A4 in humans and CYP3A12 in dogs. Also, it is unlikely that EP would substantially inhibit the metabolism of other drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A4 or other p450 isoforms.

  8. Effects of 17beta-estradiol and testosterone on hepatic mRNA/protein levels and catalytic activities of CYP2M1, CYP2K1, and CYP3A27 in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Buhler, D R; Miranda, C L; Henderson, M C; Yang, Y H; Lee, S J; Wang-Buhler, J L

    2000-10-15

    There is growing concern that exposure to chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine systems of wildlife and humans, causing reproductive problems or other adverse effects. The expression of many cytochrome P450s (CYPs) is under hormonal control, hence, levels of these enzymes can be affected by exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Previous research has reported that treatment of fish and other animals with the estrogenic and androgenic hormones 17beta-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) alters the P450 content or enzyme activities in the treated animals. However, the results of many of these studies are either incomplete or in disagreement and in most cases the effect on specific P450 forms has not been determined. Therefore, to better understand the effects of gonadal hormones on the expression of P450s and their associated enzyme activities, it was of interest to undertake a comprehensive investigation of the transcriptional and translational expression of three constitutive hepatic P450s in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following hormone exposure. Accordingly, juvenile trout were injected intraperitoneally with propylene glycol vehicle and the most active estrogenic and androgenic hormones E2 (3 mg/kg) or T (3 mg/kg) on days 1, 4, 7, 13, and 15 and euthanized on day 19. After treatment with E2, hepatic microsomes showed significantly lower levels (percentage of control) in total P450 contents (52%), lauric acid hydroxylase (32%), and 6beta-progesterone hydroxylase activities (27%), [(3)H]aflatoxin-DNA binding (31%), and the protein levels of individual cytochrome P450s (CYPs) LMC1 (CYP2M1), LMC2, (CYP2K1), and LMC5 (CYP3A27) (average for three isoforms a reduction to 29% of control values) with only minor differences between sexes. Treatment with T had either no effect or resulted in small increases in total P450 in males (42%), in lauric acid hydroxylase in females (24%), and in 6beta-progesterone hydroxylase activity in males (21

  9. Impact of CYP3A4*1B and CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine and sirolimus in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Żochowska, Dorota; Wyzgał, Janusz; Pączek, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine, CsA) and mTOR inhibitors (sirolimus, SRL) - immunosuppressants used to prevent allograft rejection after renal transplantation - have a narrow therapeutic index and show considerable inter-individual pharmacokinetic differences. Differences in expression and activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 3A5 affect these pharmacokinetics; cytochrome activity differences are associated with CYP genetic polymorphisms. This study evaluated the effects of polymorphisms in CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 on immunosuppressive drug-dose adjusted trough blood concentrations. One hundred renal transplant recipients were genotyped for CYP3A4*1B and CYP3A5*3 using PCR-RFLP. Blood concentrations of CsA and SRL were determined by EMIT and HPLC/UV, respectively. The allelic frequencies of CYP3A4*1B and CYP3A5*3 in the study group were 2.5% and 96.5%, respectively. The mean cyclosporine dose in CYP3A4*1/*1B subjects was 455.04±128.68 mg/day vs. 261.68±64.72 mg/day in CYP3A4*1/*1 subjects (p<0.001). The mean cyclosporine dose-adjusted trough blood concentrations (ng/ml per mg/kg body weight) in CYP3A4*1/*1B subjects were lower than in the CYP3A4*1/*1 group (37.06±10.38 vs. 44.63±13.99; p<0.218). The mean cyclosporine dose in CYP3A5*1/*3 subjects was 400.65±164.97 mg/day vs. 263.52±64.39 mg/day in CYP3A5*3/*3 subjects (p<0.022). No association was detected between sirolimus trough blood concentration (C0) or dose requirement, and CYP3A4 or CYP3A5 genotype. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 may underlie inter-individual differences in cyclosporine pharmacokinetics after renal transplantation. Patients with at least 1 functional CYP3A5*1 or CYP3A4*1B allele require significantly higher doses of cyclosporine to reach target drug levels compared to patients with the CYP3A4*1 or CYP3A5*3 alleles.

  10. Patients with CYP3A4∗1G genetic polymorphism consumed significantly lower amount of sufentanil in general anesthesia during lung resection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huidong; Chen, Minghao; Wang, Xiaodong; Yu, Songyang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract CYP3A4, an isoform of cytochrome P450 enzymes, is responsible for the metabolism of 45% to 60% of currently prescribed drugs. It has been shown that CYP3A4∗1G, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), affects the enzymatic activity of CYP3A4. Sufentanil, a synthetic opioid commonly used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, analgesia, and sedation, is mainly metabolized by CYP3A4. So far, the impact of CYP3A4∗1G on sufentanil metabolism has not been investigated. In the present study, we first determined the frequency of CYP3A4∗1G polymorphism in patients of Chinese Han nationality who underwent lung resection, and then compared the amount of sufentanil used in general anesthesia during the surgical procedure between wild type and mutant patients. DNA sequencing was performed to genotype the CYP3A4∗1G allele in 191 patients. The sufentanil dosages consumed in general anesthesia were recorded and compared between wild-type and mutant patients. The frequency of the CYP3A4∗1G variant allele was 0.202 (77/382). No significant difference was observed in age, body weight, or operation time between wild-type and mutant patients. The amount of sufentanil consumed by patients with the point mutation was significantly lower than that in the wild type group. No significant difference in sufentanil dosages was observed between females and males within wild type or within mutant group. High frequency of CYP3A4∗1G variants was detected in patients of Chinese Han nationality. Significantly lower amount of sufentanil was consumed in mutant patients compared with wild type subjects, likely a result of impaired CYP3A4 activity due to the point mutation. These findings suggest genotyping of CYP3A4 might be of value in providing guidance for the use of sufentanil. PMID:28121959

  11. Effects of salvianolic acid B and tanshinone IIA on the pharmacokinetics of losartan in rats by regulating the activities and expression of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hai; Wang, Yujie; Yu, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Yongfang

    2016-03-02

    Losartan (LST) is a common chemical drug used to treat high blood pressure and reduce the risk of stroke in certain people with heart disease. Danshen, prepared from the dried root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been widely used for prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. There are more than 35 formulations containing Danshen indexed in the 2010 Chinese Pharmacopoeia, which are often combined with LST to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the clinic. The effects of the two major components of Danshen, salvianolic acid B (SA-B) and tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite, EXP3174, in rats were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: LST, LST+SA-B and LST+Tan IIA, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated after oral administration of LST, LST+SA-B and LST+Tan IIA. It was found that there are significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters among the three groups: Cmax, t1/2, AUC, AUMC in the LST+SA-B group was smaller than those in group LST, while larger in group LST+Tan IIA. Further, the effects of SA-B and Tan IIA on the metabolism of losartan was also investigated using rat liver microsomes in vitro. The results indicated that SA-B can induce the metabolism of LST, while Tan IIA can inhibit the metabolism of LST in rat liver microsomes in vitro by regulating activities of CYP450 enzymes. In addition, the effect of SA-B and Tan IIA on CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 expression was studied in Chang liver cells by western-blotting and Real-time PCR. It was concluded that the two components of Danshen, SA-B and Tan IIA have different influences on the metabolism of LST: SA-B can obviously speed up the metabolism of LST by inducing CYP3A4/CYP2C9 activities and expression, however, Tan IIA can slow down the metabolism of LST by inhibiting CYP3A4/CYP2C

  12. Dual effects of ketoconazole cis-enantiomers on CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes and HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Novotná, Aneta; Krasulová, Kristýna; Bartoňková, Iveta; Korhoňová, Martina; Bachleda, Petr; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Antifungal drug ketoconazole causes severe drug-drug interactions by influencing gene expression and catalytic activity of major drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 CYP3A4. Ketoconazole is administered in the form of racemic mixture of two cis-enantiomers, i.e. (+)-ketoconazole and (-)-ketoconazole. Many enantiopure drugs were introduced to human pharmacotherapy in last two decades. In the current paper, we have examined the effects of ketoconazole cis-enantiomers on the expression of CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells and on catalytic activity of CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. We show that both ketoconazole enantiomers induce CYP3A4 mRNA and protein in human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Gene reporter assays revealed partial agonist activity of ketoconazole enantiomers towards pregnane X receptor PXR. Catalytic activity of CYP3A4/5 towards two prototypic substrates of CYP3A enzymes, testosterone and midazolam, was determined in presence of both (+)-ketoconazole and (-)-ketoconazole in human liver microsomes. Overall, both ketoconazole cis-enantiomers induced CYP3A4 in human cells and inhibited CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. While interaction of ketoconazole with PXR and induction of CYP3A4 did not display enantiospecific pattern, inhibition of CYP3A4 catalytic activity by ketoconazole differed for ketoconazole cis-enantiomers ((+)-ketoconazole IC₅₀ 1.69 µM, Ki 0.92 µM for testosterone, IC₅₀ 1.46 µM, Ki 2.52 µM for midazolam; (-)-ketoconazole IC₅₀ 0.90 µM, Ki 0.17 µM for testosterone, IC₅₀ 1.04 µM, Ki 1.51 µM for midazolam).

  13. Cloning and characterization of a novel CYP3A1 allelic variant: analysis of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 sex-hormone-dependent expression reveals that the CYP3A2 gene is regulated by testosterone.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, V; Lechner, M C

    1992-02-14

    A clone was isolated from a cDNA library constructed from phenobarbital-treated Wistar rat liver and proven to correspond to the full-length mRNA of a polymorphic variant of Sprague-Dawley CYP3A1. Eight nucleotide differences were detected in a single 76-nucleotide stretch and confirmed to be present in the genomic clone. They are seated in a region implicated in the definition of a substrate binding domain of the native P450. Three out of the eight nucleotide changes are nonconservative, implicating the replacement of Thr/Ala 207, Phe/Ile 213, and Ile/Val 232. This is the first report of an allelic variant of CYP3A1, a new example of interstrain P450 variability. The CYP3A subfamily is composed of several genes coding for active testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylases which are expressed in the liver. CYP3A genes are under strong and distinct developmental regulation. Conversely to CYP3A1, transiently expressed in immature animals, CYP3A2 is constitutively expressed in the liver early after birth and characterized by an extinction in the adult females. Castration of 90-day-old male rats causes a drastic reduction (80%) of CYP3A2 mRNA relative abundance. Administration of testosterone propionate restores the physiological levels of CYP3A2 mRNA characteristic of the male rat liver. Our results demonstrate the existence of a direct relationship between the male hormonal status and the constitutive expression of rat liver CYP3A2.

  14. Whole-exome sequencing reveals defective CYP3A4 variants predictive of paclitaxel dose-limiting neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Apellániz-Ruiz, María; Lee, Mi-Young; Sánchez-Barroso, Lara; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Gerardo; Calvo, Isabel; García-Estévez, Laura; Sereno, María; García-Donás, Jesús; Castelo, Beatriz; Guerra, Eva; Leandro-García, Luis J; Cascón, Alberto; Johansson, Inger; Robledo, Mercedes; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Rodríguez-Antona, Cristina

    2015-01-15

    Paclitaxel, a widely used chemotherapeutic drug, can cause peripheral neuropathies leading to dose reductions and treatment suspensions and decreasing the quality of life of patients. It has been suggested that genetic variants altering paclitaxel pharmacokinetics increase neuropathy risk, but the major causes of interindividual differences in susceptibility to paclitaxel toxicity remain unexplained. We carried out a whole-exome sequencing (WES) study to identify genetic susceptibility variants associated with paclitaxel neuropathy. Blood samples from 8 patients with severe paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy were selected for WES. An independent cohort of 228 cancer patients with complete paclitaxel neuropathy data was used for variant screening by DHPLC and association analysis. HEK293 cells were used for heterologous expression and characterization of two novel CYP3A4 enzymes. WES revealed 2 patients with rare CYP3A4 variants, a premature stop codon (CYP3A4*20 allele) and a novel missense variant (CYP3A4*25, p.P389S) causing reduced enzyme expression. Screening for CYP3A4 variants in the independent cohort revealed three additional CYP3A4*20 carriers, and two patients with missense variants exhibiting diminished enzyme activity (CYP3A4*8 and the novel CYP3A4*27 allele, p.L475V). Relative to CYP3A4 wild-type patients, those carrying CYP3A4 defective variants had more severe neuropathy (2- and 1.3-fold higher risk of neuropathy for loss-of-function and missense variants, respectively, P = 0.045) and higher probability of neuropathy-induced paclitaxel treatment modifications (7- and 3-fold higher risk for loss-of-function and missense variants, respectively, P = 5.9 × 10(-5)). This is the first description of a genetic marker associated with paclitaxel treatment modifications caused by neuropathy. CYP3A4 defective variants may provide a basis for paclitaxel treatment individualization. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Heterologous Expression of Equine CYP3A94 and Investigation of a Tunable System to Regulate Co-Expressed NADPH P450 Oxidoreductase Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dettwiler, Ramona; Schmitz, Andrea L.; Plattet, Philippe; Zielinski, Jana; Mevissen, Meike

    2014-01-01

    The activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes depends on the enzyme NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR). The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of the equine CYP3A94 using a system that allows to regulate the POR protein levels in mammalian cells. CYP3A94 and the equine POR were heterologously expressed in V79 cells. In the system used, the POR protein regulation is based on a destabilizing domain (DD) that transfers its instability to a fused protein. The resulting fusion protein is therefore degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Addition of “Shield-1” prevents the DD fusion protein from degradation. The change of POR levels at different Shield-1 concentrations was demonstrated by cytochrome c reduction, Western immunoblot analysis, and immunocytochemistry. The alteration of CYP3A94 activity was investigated using a substrate (BFC) known to detect CYP3A4 activity. Equine CYP3A94 was demonstrated to be metabolically active and its activity could be significantly elevated by co-expression of POR. Cytochrome c reduction was significantly increased in V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR cells compared to V79-CYP3A94 cells. Surprisingly, incubation with different Shield-1 concentrations resulted in a decrease in POR protein shown by Western immunoblot analysis. Cytochrome c reduction did not change significantly, but the CYP3A94 activity decreased more than 4-fold after incubation with 500 nM and 1 µM Shield-1 for 24 hours. No differences were obtained when V79-CYP3A94 POR cells with and without Shield-1 were compared. The basal activity levels of V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR cells were unexpectedly high, indicating that DD/POR is not degraded without Shield-1. Shield-1 decreased POR protein levels and CYP3A94 activity suggesting that Shield-1 might impair POR activity by an unknown mechanism. Although regulation of POR with the pPTuner system could not be obtained, the cell line V79-CYP3A94/DD-POR system can be used for further experiments to characterize the equine CYP3A

  16. Effect of CYP3A4∗1G and CYP3A5∗3 Polymorphisms on Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Ticagrelor in Healthy Chinese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuaibing; Shi, Xiangfen; Tian, Xin; Zhang, Xiaojian; Sun, Zhiyong; Miao, Liyan

    2017-01-01

    Ticagrelor is the first reversible, direct-acting, potent P2Y12 receptor antagonist in management of acute coronary syndromes. It is rapidly absorbed and extensively metabolized. AR-C124910XX, the major active metabolite, antagonizes the P2Y12 receptor at approximately equal potency. The metabolism of ticagrelor to AR-C124910XX involves CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. CYP3A polymorphisms have been well documented, and CYP3A4∗1G (g.20230G>A, rs2242480) and CYP3A5∗3 (g.6986A>G, rs776746) are the most important single nucleotide polymorphisms in Chinese. Genetic differences in CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 expression in human volunteers and patients might affect the clearance of ticagrelor or AR-C124910XX in vivo resulting in subsequent variable patient response. Thus, this study is designed to explore the effects of CYP3A4∗1G and CYP3A5∗3 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmcodynamics of ticagrelor in healthy Chinese subjects. The results indicated that the CYP3A4∗1G polymorphism significantly influenced the pharmacokinetics of AR-C124910XX, and it may be more important than CYP3A5∗3 with respect to influencing ticagrelor pharmacokinetics by increasing CYP3A4 activity. However, the significant effect of CYP3A4∗1G polymorphism on AR-C124910XX plasma levels did not translate into detectable effect on inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, it seems not necessary to adjust the dosage of ticagrelor according to the CYP3A4 or 3A5 genotype. PMID:28408884

  17. In vitro metabolism of testosterone in the horse liver and involvement of equine CYPs 3A89, 3A94 and 3A95.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, A; Zielinski, J; Dick, B; Mevissen, M

    2014-08-01

    Testosterone (TES) 6-β-hydroxylation is a significant metabolic step in the biotransformation of TES in human liver microsomes and reflects cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4/5 specific metabolic activity. Several CYP3A enzymes have been annotated in the horse genome, but functional characterization is missing. This descriptive study investigates TES metabolism in the horse liver in vitro and the qualitative contribution of three CYP3A isoforms of the horse. Metabolism of TES was investigated by using equine hepatocyte primary cultures and liver microsomes. Chemical inhibitors were used to determine the CYPs involved in TES biotransformation in equine microsomes. Single CYPs 3A89, 3A94, and 3A95, recombinantly expressed in V79 hamster lung fibroblasts, were incubated with TES and the fluorescent metabolite 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BFC). The effect of ketoconazole and troleandomycin was evaluated on single CYPs. Testosterone metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and confirmed by GC/MS. In hepatocyte primary cultures, the most abundant metabolite was androstenedione (AS), whereas in liver microsomes, 6-β-hydroxytestosterone showed the largest peak. Formation of 6-β-hydroxytestosterone and 11-β-hydroxytestosterone in liver microsomes was inhibited by ketoconazole, troleandomycin, and quercetin. Equine recombinant CYP3A95 catalyzed 11-β-hydroxylation of testosterone (TES). Metabolism of BFC was significantly inhibited by ketoconazole in CYP3A95, whereas troleandomycin affected the activities of CYP3A94 and CYP3A95. Both inhibitors had no significant effect on CYP3A89. Metabolic reactions and effects of inhibitors differed between the equine CYP3A isoforms investigated. This has to be considered in future in vitro studies.

  18. Grapefruit juice intake does not enhance but rather protects against aflatoxin B1-induced liver DNA damage through a reduction in hepatic CYP3A activity.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Takano, Hiroki; Guo, Lian Q; Nagata, Kiyoshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2004-02-01

    Influence of grapefruit juice intake on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced liver DNA damage was examined using a Comet assay in F344 rats given 5 mg/kg AFB1 by gavage. Rats allowed free access to grapefruit juice for 5 days prior to AFB1 administration resulted in clearly reduced DNA damage in liver, to 65% of the level in rats that did not receive grapefruit juice. Furthermore, rats treated with grapefruit juice extract (100 mg/kg per os) for 5 days prior to AFB1 treatment also reduced the DNA damage to 74% of the level in rats that did not receive grapefruit juice. No significant differences in the portal blood and liver concentrations of AFB1 were observed between grapefruit juice intake rats and the controls. In an Ames assay with AFB1 using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, lower numbers of revertant colonies were detected with hepatic microsomes prepared from rats administered grapefruit juice, compared with those from control rats. Microsomal testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation was also lower with rats given grapefruit juice than with control rats. Immunoblot analyses showed a significant decrease in hepatic CYP3A content, but not CYP1A and CYP2C content, in microsomes of grapefruit juice-treated rats than in non-treated rats. No significant difference in hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and glutathione content was observed in the two groups. GSTA5 protein was not detected in hepatic cytosol of the two groups. In microsomal systems, grapefruit juice extract inhibited AFB1-induced mutagenesis in the presence of a microsomal activation system from livers of humans as well as rats. These results suggest that grapefruit juice intake suppresses AFB1-induced liver DNA damage through inactivation of the metabolic activation potency for AFB1 in rat liver.

  19. Trans-chromosomic mice containing a human CYP3A cluster for prediction of xenobiotic metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Aueviriyavit, Sasitorn; Oshima, Takeshi; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi; Tsukazaki, Yasuko; Senda, Naoto; Kawakami, Hiroki; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Abe, Satoshi; Takiguchi, Masato; Hoshiya, Hidetoshi; Kajitani, Naoyo; Takehara, Shoko; Kubo, Kinya; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Chiba, Kan; Tomizuka, Kazuma; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2013-02-01

    Human CYP3A is the most abundant P450 isozyme present in the human liver and small intestine, and metabolizes around 50% of medical drugs on the market. The human CYP3A subfamily comprises four members (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, CYP3A43) encoded on human chromosome 7. However, transgenic mouse lines carrying the entire human CYP3A cluster have not been constructed because of limitations in conventional cloning techniques. Here, we show that the introduction of a human artificial chromosome (HAC) containing the entire genomic human CYP3A locus recapitulates tissue- and stage-specific expression of human CYP3A genes and xenobiotic metabolism in mice. About 700 kb of the entire CYP3A genomic segment was cloned into a HAC (CYP3A-HAC), and trans-chromosomic (Tc) mice carrying a single copy of germline-transmittable CYP3A-HAC were generated via a chromosome-engineering technique. The tissue- and stage-specific expression profiles of CYP3A genes were consistent with those seen in humans. We further generated mice carrying the CYP3A-HAC in the background homozygous for targeted deletion of most endogenous Cyp3a genes. In this mouse strain with 'fully humanized' CYP3A genes, the kinetics of triazolam metabolism, CYP3A-mediated mechanism-based inactivation effects and formation of fetal-specific metabolites of dehydroepiandrosterone observed in humans were well reproduced. Thus, these mice are likely to be valuable in evaluating novel drugs metabolized by CYP3A enzymes and in studying the regulation of human CYP3A gene expression. Furthermore, this system can also be used for generating Tc mice carrying other human metabolic genes.

  20. Evaluation of CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity using DMSO-treated human hepatoma HuH-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yitong; Flynn, Thomas J; Xia, Menghang; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L; Ferguson, Martine S

    2015-10-01

    A human hepatoma cell line (HuH-7) was evaluated as a metabolically competent cell model to investigate cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibition, induction, and hepatotoxicity. First, CYP3A4 gene expression and activity were determined in HuH-7 cells under three culture conditions: 1-week culture, 3-week culture, or 1 % dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. HuH-7 cells treated with DMSO for 2 weeks after confluence expressed the highest CYP3A4 gene expression and activity compared to the other two culture conditions. Furthermore, CYP3A4 activity in DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells was compared to that in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2/C3A) and human bipotent progenitor cell line (HepaRG), which yielded the following ranking: HepaRG > DMSO-treated HuH-7 > HepG2/C3A cells. The effects of three known CYP3A4 inhibitors were evaluated using DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells. CYP3A4 enzyme inhibition in HuH-7 cells was further compared to human recombinant CYP3A4, indicating similar potency for reversible inhibitors (IC 50 within 2.5-fold), but different potency for the irreversible inhibitor. Next, induction of CYP3A4 activity was compared between DMSO-treated HuH-7 and HepaRG cells using two known inducers. DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells yielded minimal CYP3A4 induction compared to that in the HepaRG cells after 48-h treatments. Finally, the cytotoxicity of five known hepatotoxicants was evaluated in DMSO-treated HuH-7, HepG2/C3A, and HepaRG cells, and significant differences in cytotoxic sensitivity were observed. Overall, DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells are a valuable model for medium- or high-throughput screening of chemicals for CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity.

  1. Cellular localization and functional significance of CYP3A4 in the human epileptic brain

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Chaitali; Marchi, Nicola; Desai, Nirav K.; Puvenna, Vikram; Hossain, Mohammed; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Alexopoulos, Andreas V.; Janigro, Damir

    2011-01-01

    Summary Purpose Compelling evidence supports the presence of P450 enzymes (CYPs) in the central nervous system (CNS). However, little information is available on the localization and function of CYPs in the drug-resistant epileptic brain. We have evaluated the pattern of expression of the specific enzyme CYP3A4 and studied its co-localization with MDR1. We also determined whether an association exists between CYP3A4 expression and cell survival. Methods Brain specimens were obtained from eight patients undergoing resection to relieve drug-resistant seizures or to remove a cavernous angioma. Each specimen was partitioned for either immunostaining or primary culture of human endothelial cells and astrocytes. Immunostaining was performed using anti-CYP3A4, MDR1, GFAP, or NeuN antibodies. High performance liquid chromatography–ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) analysis was used to quantify carbamazepine (CBZ) metabolism by these cells. CYP3A4 expression was correlated to DAPI condensation, a marker of cell viability. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells were transfected with CYP3A4 to further evaluate the link between CYP3A4 levels, CBZ metabolism, and cell viability. Key Findings CYP3A4 was expressed by blood–brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells and by the majority of neurons (75 ± 10%). Fluorescent immunostaining showed coexpression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 in endothelial cells and neurons. CYP3A4 expression inversely correlated with DAPI nuclear condensation. CYP3A4 overexpression in HEK cells conferred resistance to cytotoxic levels of carbamazepine. CYP3A4 levels positively correlated with the amount of CBZ metabolized. Significance CYP3A4 brain expression is not only associated with drug metabolism but may also represent a cytoprotective mechanism. Coexpression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 may be involved in cell survival in the diseased brain. PMID:21294720

  2. In Vitro Evaluation of Reversible and Time-Dependent Inhibitory Effects of Kalanchoe crenata on CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 Activities.

    PubMed

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Bouic, Patrick J; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Kalanchoe crenata popularly known as "dog's liver" is used in most African countries for the treatment of chronic diseases such as diabetes, asthma and HIV/AIDS related infections. The evaluation of K. crenata for herb-drug interactions has not been reported. This study therefore aims to evaluate the risk of K. crenata for herb-drug interaction in vitro. Crude methanol and fractions of K. crenata were incubated and preincubated with recombinant human CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Comparative studies were conducted in both human liver microsomes and recombinant human CYP to ascertain the inhibition profile of the crude extract and the various fractions. The cocktail approach of recombinant human CYPs was conducted to confirm the inhibition potential of the fractions in the presence of other CYPs. The results showed significant time-dependent inhibition of tested samples on CYP3A4 with crude methanol (39KC), fractions 45A, 45B and 45D given IC50 fold decrease of 3.29, 2.26, 1.91 and 1.49, respective. Time dependent kinetic assessment of 39KC and 45D showed KI and kinact values for 39KC as 1.77 µg/mL and 0.091 min(-1) while that of 45D were 6.45 µg/mL and 0.024 min(-1), respectively. Determination of kinact based on IC50 calculations yielded 0.015 and 0.04 min(-1) for 39KC and 45D, respectively. Cocktail approach exhibited fold decreases in IC50 for all test fractions on CYP3A4 within the ranges of 2.10 - 4.10. At least one phytoconstituent in the crude methanol extract of Kalanchoe crenata is a reversible and time-dependent inhibitor of CYP3A4.

  3. Functional polymorphisms in the CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP21A2 genes in the risk for hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Coto, Eliecer; Tavira, Beatriz; Marín, Rafael; Ortega, Francisco; López-Larrea, Carlos; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Ortiz, Alberto; Díaz, Marta; Corao, Ana I; Alonso, Belén; Alvarez, Victoria

    2010-07-02

    An intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CYP3A5 gene (CYP3A5*3; SNP rs776746) affects RNA splicing and enzymatic activity. The CYP3A5*3 frequency increased with distance from the equator and natural selection has been proposed to explain the worldwide distribution of this allele. CYP3A activity has been related with the risk for hypertension in pregnancy, a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women, and CYP3A5*3 could reduce the risk for this disease in populations from regions with high sodium and water availability. The CYP3A5 genotype was related with blood pressure in the general population, but the effect on the risk for hypertension in pregnancy has not been evaluated.We compared the allele and genotype frequencies of three functional SNPs in the CYP3A5 (rs776746), CYP3A4 (rs2740574), and CYP21A2 (rs6471) genes between pregnant women who developed hypertension (n = 250) or who remained normotensive (control group, n = 250). In addition, we sequenced the full CYP3A5 coding sequence in 40 women from the two groups to determine whether some gene variants could explain the risk for hypertensive pregnancies in our population.Allele and genotype frequencies did not differ between hypertensive and normotensive women for the three CYP variants. We did not find CYP3A5 nucleotide changes that could explain a higher risk for hypertension in pregnancy. Our data suggests that the variation in CYP3A5, CYP3A4, and CYP21A2 did not contribute to the risk for hypertension in pregnancy in our population.

  4. Ambient tonicity and intestinal cytochrome CYP3A.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Andrew I; Ito, Shinya

    2010-08-01

    Recently-discovered tonicity-dependence of human CYP3A expression in vitro may be a novel mechanism of CYP3A regulation in the intestinal epithelia, which exists in a dynamic osmotic environment influenced by food intake. A combination of focused and comprehensive literature searches to identify any relevant reports using Medline (from 1950 to 7 November 2009) through the OVID system. An update on current knowledge on osmotic environment in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its impact on intestinal CYP3A expression and function with special emphasis on the tonicity-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5). In vitro hypertonicity of ambient osmotic environment in cultured human cells increases expression of CYP3A through transcriptional enhancement by osmosensitive NFAT5. Although post-prandial osmolality in the GI lumen in vivo is substantially increased, NFAT5 activation has not been reported. Similarly, high-salt diet increases intestinal CYP3A function in humans, but it is not known whether these changes are mediated directly by NFAT5.

  5. The influence of CYP3A gene polymorphisms on cyclosporine dose requirement in renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Eng, H-S; Mohamed, Z; Calne, R; Lang, C C; Mohd, M A; Seet, W-T; Tan, S-Y

    2006-05-01

    Cyclosporine is a substrate of cytochrome P-450 3A (CYP3A) subfamily of enzymes and characterized by a narrow therapeutic range with wide interindividual variation in pharmacokinetics. A few single-nucleotide polymorphisms detected in CYP3A genes have been shown to correlate significantly with the CYP3A protein expression and activity. We therefore postulated that these polymorphisms could be responsible for some of the interindividual variation in cyclosporine pharmacokinetics. The objective of our study is to determine correlation if any between single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CYP3A5 and CYP3AP1 on cyclosporine dose requirement and concentration-to-dose ratio in renal allograft recipients. Cyclosporine-dependent renal allograft recipients were genotyped for CYP3A5 A6986G and CYP3AP1 G-44A. The cyclosporine dosages prescribed and the corresponding cyclosporine trough levels for each patient were recorded so that cyclosporine dose per weight (mg/kg/day) and concentration-to-dose ratio (C(0)/D, whereby C(0) is trough level and D is daily dose per weight) could be calculated. A total of 67 patients were recruited for our study. The dose requirement for 1, 3, and 6 months post-transplantation ranged 2.3-11.4, 1.0-9.0, and 1.4-7.2 mg/kg/day, respectively. Patients with *1*1*1*1 (n=5) CYP3A5- and CYP3AP1-linked genotypes needed higher dose of cyclosporine compared to patients with *1*3*1*3 (n = 27) and *3*3*3*3 (n = 33) linked genotypes in months 3 and 6 post-transplantation (P < 0.016). The identification of patients with *1*1*1*1 by CYP3A5 and CYP3AP1 genotyping may have a clinically significant and positive impact on patient outcome with reduced rejection rate by providing pretransplant pharmacogenetic information for optimization of cyclosporine A dosing.

  6. Identification of CYP3A7 for glyburide metabolism in human fetal livers.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Diana L; Risler, Linda J; Prasad, Bhagwat; Calamia, Justina C; Voellinger, Jenna L; Kelly, Edward J; Unadkat, Jashvant D; Hebert, Mary F; Shen, Danny D; Thummel, Kenneth E; Mao, Qingcheng

    2014-12-15

    Glyburide is commonly prescribed for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus; however, fetal exposure to glyburide is not well understood and may have short- and long-term consequences for the health of the child. Glyburide can cross the placenta; fetal concentrations at term are nearly comparable to maternal levels. Whether or not glyburide is metabolized in the fetus and by what mechanisms has yet to be determined. In this study, we determined the kinetic parameters for glyburide depletion by CYP3A isoenzymes; characterized glyburide metabolism by human fetal liver tissues collected during the first or early second trimester of pregnancy; and identified the major enzyme responsible for glyburide metabolism in human fetal livers. CYP3A4 had the highest metabolic capacity towards glyburide, followed by CYP3A7 and CYP3A5 (Clint,u=37.1, 13.0, and 8.7ml/min/nmol P450, respectively). M5 was the predominant metabolite generated by CYP3A7 and human fetal liver microsomes (HFLMs) with approximately 96% relative abundance. M5 was also the dominant metabolite generated by CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and adult liver microsomes; however, M1-M4 were also present, with up to 15% relative abundance. CYP3A7 protein levels in HFLMs were highly correlated with glyburide Clint, 16α-OH DHEA formation, and 4'-OH midazolam formation. Likewise, glyburide Clint was highly correlated with 16α-OH DHEA formation. Fetal demographics as well as CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 genotype did not alter CYP3A7 protein levels or glyburide Clint. These results indicate that human fetal livers metabolize glyburide predominantly to M5 and that CYP3A7 is the major enzyme responsible for glyburide metabolism in human fetal livers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Food-drug interactions via human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A).

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ken-ichi

    2004-01-01

    Food-drug interactions have been reported to occur in various systems in the body. The causes of these interactions are mainly divided into pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic processes. Among these processes, drug metabolism plays a crucial role in drug interactions. Metabolic food-drug interactions occur when a certain food alters the activity of a drug-metabolizing enzyme, leading to a modulation of the pharmacokinetics of drugs metabolized by the enzyme. A variety of interactions have been documented so far. Foods consisting of complex chemical mixtures, such as fruits, alcoholic beverages, teas, and herbs, possess the ability to inhibit or induce the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. According to results obtained thus far, cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) appears to be a key enzyme in food-drug interactions. For example, interactions of grapefruit juice with felodipine and cyclosporine, red wine with cyclosporine, and St John's wort with various medicines including cyclosporine, have been demonstrated. The results indicate the requirement of dosage adjustment to maintain drug concentrations within their therapeutic windows. The CYP3A4-related interaction by food components may be related to the high level of expression of CYP3A4 in the small intestine, as well as its broad substrate specificity, as CYP3A4 is responsible for the metabolism of more than 50% of clinical pharmaceuticals. This review article summarizes the findings obtained to date concerning food-drug interactions and their clinical implications. It seems likely that more information regarding such interactions will accumulate in the future, and awareness is necessary for achieving optimal drug therapy.

  8. Acetaminophen induces accumulation of functional rat CYP3A via polyubiquitination dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Santoh, Masataka; Sanoh, Seigo; Takagi, Masashi; Ejiri, Yoko; Kotake, Yaichiro; Ohta, Shigeru

    2016-02-22

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is extensively used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug. APAP is partly metabolized to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine, a reactive metabolite, by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2E1 and 3A4. Some reports have indicated that CYP3A protein production and its metabolic activity are induced by APAP in rats in vivo. The CYP3A subfamily is believed to be transcriptionally regulated by chemical compounds. However, the mechanism underlying these responses is not completely understood. To clarify these mechanisms, we assessed the effects of APAP on CYP3A1/23 protein levels according to mRNA synthesis and protein degradation in rat hepatocyte spheroids, a model of liver tissue, in vivo. APAP induced CYP3A1/23 protein levels and metabolic activity. However, no change in CYP3A1/23 mRNA levels was observed. Moreover, APAP prolonged the half-life of CYP3A1/23 protein. CYP3A is known to be degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. APAP significantly was found to decrease levels of polyubiquitinated CYP3A1/23 and glycoprotein 78, an E3 ligase of CYP3A1/23. These findings demonstrate that APAP induces accumulation of functional CYP3A protein via inhibition of protein degradation. Our findings may lead to the determination of novel drug-drug interactions with APAP.

  9. Impact of POR*28 on the clinical pharmacokinetics of CYP3A phenotyping probes midazolam and erythromycin.

    PubMed

    Elens, Laure; Nieuweboer, Annemieke J M; Clarke, Stephen J; Charles, Kellie A; de Graan, Anne-Joy M; Haufroid, Vincent; van Gelder, Teun; Mathijssen, Ron H J; van Schaik, Ron H N

    2013-03-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is essential for cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity in humans. The POR*28 allele (A503V) has been shown to impact on in-vitro CYP-mediated metabolism, including CYP3A isoenzymes. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo impact of the POR*28 allele on the pharmacokinetics of the classic CYP3A phenotyping probes midazolam and erythromycin. Whereas midazolam is metabolized by both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, erythromycin is exclusively oxidized by CYP3A4. To assess CYP3A activity, 108 cancer patients received midazolam and 45 others underwent the erythromycin breath test. Patients were genotyped for POR*28, CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A5*3. In patients expressing CYP3A5, POR*28 carriers showed 45% lower midazolam metabolic ratios compared with POR*1/*1 patients (P<0.001). This is in line with a lower CYP3A5 activity toward midazolam for POR*28 carriers. In CYP3A5 nonexpressers, POR*28 had no influence on midazolam pharmacokinetics. For erythromycin, POR*28 carriership did not influence its metabolism. Our data show that the POR*28 allele is associated with a lower in vivo CYP3A5 activity, but has no effects on CYP3A4-mediated erythromycin and midazolam metabolism.

  10. Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in rats in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Qin, Mengnan; Hang, Pengzhou; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zhiren; Liu, Gaofeng

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on the activities of the drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 1A2, 2 C9, 2D6 and 3A4 in rats. The activities of CYP1A2, 2 C9, 2D6 and 3A4 were measured using specific probe drugs. After pretreatment for 1 week with PNS or physiological saline (control group), probe drugs caffeine (10 mg/kg; CYP1A2 activity), tolbutamide (15 mg/kg; CYP2C9 activity), metoprolol (20 mg/kg; CYP2D6 activity) and dapsone (10 mg/kg; CYP3A4 activity) were administered to rats by intraperitoneal injection. The blood was then collected at different times for ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The data showed that PNS exhibited an induction effect on CYP1A2 by decreasing caffeine C(max) (36.3%, p < 0.01) and AUC(0-∞) (22.77%, p < 0.05) and increasing CL/F (27.03%, p < 0.05) compared with those of the control group. Western blot analysis was used to detect the effect of PNS on the protein level of CYP1A2, and the results showed that PNS could upregulate the protein expression of CYP1A2. However, no significant changes in CYP2C9, 2D6 or 3A4 activities were observed. In conclusion, the results indicate that PNS could induce CYP1A2, which may affect the disposition of medicines primarily dependent on the CYP1A2 pathway. Our work may be the basis of related herb-drug interactions in the clinic. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in human renal cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murray, G I; McFadyen, M C E; Mitchell, R T; Cheung, Y-L; Kerr, A C; Melvin, W T

    1999-01-01

    Renal cell cancer is the main malignant tumour of the kidney and has an increasing incidence. This type of tumour has a poor prognosis and shows intrinsic resistance to several anti-cancer drugs. The CYP3A P450 family, which consists of three closely related forms, is involved in the oxidative activation and deactivation of a variety of carcinogens and several anti-cancer drugs. In this study the presence and cellular localization of CYP3A has been investigated using a combination of immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in renal cell cancer and corresponding normal kidney. CYP3A was consistently expressed in both renal call cancer and in normal kidney. In renal cell cancer, CYP3A was localized to tumour cells and in normal kidney the predominant cellular localization of CYP3A was to proximal tubular epithelial cells. RT-PCR showed that both CYP3A5 mRNA and CYP3A7 mRNA were consistently present in both tumour and normal samples, while CYP3A4 mRNA was present in 65% of tumours and 90% of normal samples. This study indicates that individual members of the CYP3A family are expressed in renal cell cancer. The presence of CYP3A in renal cell cancer might be important in the metabolic potentiation as well as the detoxification of chemotherapeutic agents used to renal cancer. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10206301

  12. Predicting the "First dose in children" of CYP3A-metabolized drugs: Evaluation of scaling approaches and insights into the CYP3A7-CYP3A4 switch at young ages.

    PubMed

    Strougo, Ashley; Yassen, Ashraf; Monnereau, Claire; Danhof, Meindert; Freijer, Jan

    2014-09-01

    First-dose-in-children relies on the prediction of clearance from adults for which little information is available on the accuracy of the scaling-approaches applied. For CYP3A-metabolized compounds, scaling of clearance is further challenged by different isoforms and by the CYP3A7 to CYP3A4 switch at young ages. This investigation aimed to evaluate the accuracy of two frequently used scaling approaches and to gain insights into the ontogeny of CYP3A. Hence, a literature database was compiled containing 203 clearance values from term-neonates to adults for 18 CYP3A-metabolized compounds. The clearances in adults were scaled to children using (i) allometric scaling plus maturation function and (ii) a mechanistic approach based on the well-stirred model. Three maturation functions were separately evaluated. In children >3 months, all approaches were interchangeable heeding the maturation function applied and biases were mostly observed in children <3 months. The results from a sensitivity analysis indicate that these biases are possibly caused by disregarding the CYP3A7 activity which could account for up to 86% of the metabolism in term-neonates. Only the mechanistic approach using an overall-CYP3A maturation function led to unbiased predictions of clearances across all ages. The current investigation adds to the predictions of the first-dose-in-children of compounds (partially) metabolized by CYP3A. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Unexpected contribution of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP11B2 and CYP21, as well as CYP3A4 in xenobiotic androgen elimination - insights from metandienone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Parr, Maria Kristina; Zöllner, Andy; Fusshöller, Gregor; Opfermann, Georg; Schlörer, Nils; Zorio, Mirela; Bureik, Matthias; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2012-09-18

    The metabolism of a variety of anabolic steroids frequently misused for doping purposes has been investigated in the last years. This research mainly focused on main and long-term metabolites suitable for detection, but detailed clearance mechanisms have rarely been elucidated. Recent studies on metandienone focused on the identification of 17β-hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-18-norandrosta-1,4,13-trien-3-one (20βOH-NorMD) as long-term metabolite, however, the metabolic pathway of its generation remained unclear. Metandienone and its Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement product 17,17-dimethyl-18-norandrosta-1,4,13-trien-3-one (NorMD) were hydroxylated by different human cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs). Some of their hydroxylation products were chemically synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry to allow for their trace detection in urine samples. Following oral administration of metandienone or NorMD in one human volunteer each the post administration urines were checked for the presence of those hydroxylated metabolites using GC-MS/MS analysis. The human mitochondrial steroid hydroxylating enzymes CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 were capable to metabolize metandienone leading to the formation of 11β-hydroxymetandienone and 18-hydroxymetandienone. Following Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement, the resulting products could be assigned to 20βOH-NorMD and 11βOH-NorMD. The contribution of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 in human metabolism of metandienone was confirmed by analysis of post-administration samples of metandienone and NorMD. Combined with the results from a previous study, enzymatic pathways were identified that involve CYP21 and CYP3A4 in the hydroxylation of NorMD, while CYP21, CYP3A4 and CYP11B2 take part in 20βOH-NorMD generation from MD. The current study represents a valuable contribution to the elucidation of clearance mechanisms of anabolic steroids and also indicates that mainly non-liver CYPs seem to be involved in these processes.

  14. GW4064, an Agonist of Farnesoid X Receptor, Represses CYP3A4 Expression in Human Hepatocytes by Inducing Small Heterodimer Partner Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Pan, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) functions as a regulator of bile acid and lipid homeostasis and is recognized as a promising therapeutic target for metabolic diseases. The biologic function of FXR is mediated in part by a small heterodimer partner (SHP); ligand-activated FXR enhances SHP expression, and SHP in turn represses the activity of multiple transcription factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of FXR activation on expression of the major drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. The effects of 3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-4-(3′-carboxy-2-chlorostilben-4-yl)oxymethyl-5-isopropylisoxazole (GW4064), a synthetic agonist of FXR, on the expression and activity of CYP3A4 were examined in primary human hepatocytes by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and S9 phenotyping. In human hepatocytes, treatment of GW4064 (1 μM) for 48 hours resulted in a 75% decrease in CYP3A4 mRNA expression and a 25% decrease in CYP3A4 activity, accompanied by ∼3-fold increase in SHP mRNA expression. In HepG2 cells, SHP repressed transactivation of CYP3A4 promoter by pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and glucocorticoid receptor. Interestingly, GW4064 did not repress expression of CYP2B6, another target gene of PXR and CAR; GW4064 enhanced CYP2B6 promoter activity. In conclusion, GW4064 represses CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes, potentially through upregulation of SHP expression and subsequent repression of CYP3A4 promoter activity. Clinically significant drug-drug interaction involving FXR agonists and CYP3A4 substrates may occur. PMID:25725071

  15. Applying Stable Isotope Labeled Amino Acids in Micropatterned Hepatocyte Co-Culture to Directly Determine the Degradation Rate Constant for CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryan H; Shahidi-Latham, Sheerin; Wong, Susan; Chang, Jae H

    2017-03-13

    The rate of enzyme degradation (kdeg) is an important input parameter for the prediction of clinical drug-drug-interactions (DDI) that result from mechanism-based inactivation or induction of cytochrome P450s. Currently, a large range of reported estimates for CYP3A4 enzyme degradation exists, and consequently, large uncertainty exists in steady-state predictions for DDI. In the current investigations, stable isotope labeled amino acids in culture (SILAC) was applied to a long-lived primary human hepatocyte culture, HepatoPac, to directly monitor the degradation of CYP3A4. This approach allowed selective isotope labeling of a population of de novo synthesized CYP3A4, and specific quantification of proteins with mass spectrometry to determine the CYP3A4 degradation within the hepatocytes. The kdeg estimate was 0.026 ± 0.005 h- 1. This value was reproduced by cultures derived across four individual donors. For these cultures, data indicated that CYP3A4 mRNA and total protein expression (i.e. labeled and not labeled P450s), and activity were stable over the period where degradation had been determined. This kdeg value for CYP3A4 was in good agreement with recently reported values that used alternate analytical approaches, but also employed micropatterned primary human hepatocytes as the in vitro model.

  16. Time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 by sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Masubuchi, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Yuki

    2013-11-01

    Drug-drug interactions associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely known. A major interaction by SSRIs is the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated hepatic drug metabolism. The SSRI, sertraline, is also reported to increase the blood concentration of co-administered drugs. The potency of sertraline directly to inhibit hepatic drug metabolism is relatively weak compared with the other SSRIs, implying that additional mechanisms are involved in the interactions. The study examined whether sertraline produces time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 and/or other P450 enzymes. Incubation of human liver microsomes with sertraline in the presence of NADPH resulted in marked decreases in testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activities, indicating that sertraline metabolism leads to CYP3A4 inactivation. This inactivation required NADPH and was not protected by glutathione. No significant inactivation was observed for other P450 enzymes. Spectroscopic evaluation revealed that microsomes with and without sertraline in the presence of NADPH gave a Soret peak at 455 nm, suggesting the formation of metabolic intermediate (MI) complexes of sertraline metabolite(s) with the reduced form of P450. This is the first report indicating that sertraline produced time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4, which may be associated with MI complex formation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Isolation of CYP3A4 Inhibitors from the Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Recent investigation on drug interaction has shown that some foods and herbal medicines increase the oral availability of a variety of CYP3A4 substrates, which is caused by the reduction of CYP3A4 in intestinal epithelium. During the course of our investigation on CYP3A4 interaction, we found that the commercially available dietary supplement made from black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) showed CYP3A4 inhibition. Black cohosh has been used for the treatment of menopausal and post-menopausal symptoms as a dietary supplement. Bioassay-guided isolation from the supplement afforded six active principles, which were identified as cycloartanoid triterpene glycosides. PMID:15937564

  18. Regulation of CYP3A4 by pregnane X receptor: The role of nuclear receptors competing for response element binding

    SciTech Connect

    Istrate, Monica A.; Nussler, Andreas K.; Eichelbaum, Michel; Burk, Oliver

    2010-03-19

    Induction of the major drug metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 by xenobiotics contributes to the pronounced interindividual variability of its expression and often results in clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. It is mainly mediated by PXR, which regulates CYP3A4 expression by binding to several specific elements in the 5' upstream regulatory region of the gene. Induction itself shows a marked interindividual variability, whose underlying determinants are only partly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of nuclear receptor binding to PXR response elements in CYP3A4, as a potential non-genetic mechanism contributing to interindividual variability of induction. By in vitro DNA binding experiments, we showed that several nuclear receptors bind efficiently to the proximal promoter ER6 and distal xenobiotic-responsive enhancer module DR3 motifs. TR{alpha}1, TR{beta}1, COUP-TFI, and COUP-TFII further demonstrated dose-dependent repression of PXR-mediated CYP3A4 enhancer/promoter reporter activity in transient transfection in the presence and absence of the PXR inducer rifampin, while VDR showed this effect only in the absence of treatment. By combining functional in vitro characterization with hepatic expression analysis, we predict that TR{alpha}1, TR{beta}1, COUP-TFI, and COUP-TFII show a strong potential for the repression of PXR-mediated activation of CYP3A4 in vivo. In summary, our results demonstrate that nuclear receptor binding to PXR response elements interferes with PXR-mediated expression and induction of CYP3A4 and thereby contributes to the interindividual variability of induction.

  19. Impact of fraction unbound, CYP3A, and CYP2D6 in vivo activities, and other potential covariates to the clearance of tramadol enantiomers in patients with neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Natália V; Lauretti, Gabriela R; Coelho, Eduardo B; Godoy, Ana Leonor P C; Neves, Daniel V; Lanchote, Vera L

    2016-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of tramadol is characterized by a large interindividual variability, which is partially attributed to polymorphic CYP2D6 metabolism. The contribution of CYP3A, CYP2B6, fraction unbound, and other potential covariates remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of in vivo activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 and 3A as well as other potential covariates (CYP2B6 genotype to the SNP g.15631G>T, fraction unbound, age, body weight, creatinine clearance) to the enantioselective pharmacokinetics of tramadol. Thirty patients with neuropathic pain and phenotyped as CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers were treated with a single oral dose of 100 mg tramadol. Multiple linear regressions were performed to determine the contribution of CYP activities and other potential covariates to the clearance of tramadol enantiomers. The apparent total clearances were 44.9 (19.1-102-2) L/h and 55.2 (14.8-126.0) L/h for (+)- and (-)-tramadol, respectively [data presented as median (minimum-maximum)]. Between 79 and 83% of the overall variation in apparent clearance of tramadol enantiomers was explained by fraction unbound, CYP2D6, and CYP3A in vivo activities and body weight. Fraction unbound explained 47 and 41% of the variation in clearance of (+)-tramadol and (-)-tramadol, respectively. Individually, CYP2D6 and CYP3A activities were shown to have moderate contribution on clearance of tramadol enantiomers (11-16% and 11-18%, respectively). In conclusion, factors affecting fraction unbound of drugs (such as hyperglycemia or co-administration of drugs highly bound to plasma proteins) should be monitored, because this parameter dominates the elimination of tramadol enantiomers. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  20. Epigallocatechin gallate induces a hepatospecific decrease in the CYP3A expression level by altering intestinal flora.

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Ogawa, Sosuke; Hirobe, Ryuta; Kon, Risako; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Yamashita, Marin; Mizukami, Nanaho; Kaneko, Miho; Wakui, Nobuyuki; Machida, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2017-03-30

    In previous studies, we showed that a high-dose intake of green tea polyphenol (GP) induced a hepatospecific decrease in the expression and activity of the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). In this study, we examined whether this decrease in CYP3A expression is induced by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is the main component of GP. After a diet containing 1.5% EGCG was given to mice, the hepatic CYP3A expression was measured. The level of intestinal bacteria of Clostridium spp., the concentration of lithocholic acid (LCA) in the feces, and the level of the translocation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) to the nucleus in the liver were examined. A decrease in the CYP3A expression level was observed beginning on the second day of the treatment with EGCG. The level of translocation of PXR to the nucleus was significantly lower in the EGCG group. The fecal level of LCA was clearly decreased by the EGCG treatment. The level of intestinal bacteria of Clostridium spp. was also decreased by the EGCG treatment. It is clear that the hepatospecific decrease in the CYP3A expression level observed after a high-dose intake of GP was caused by EGCG. Because EGCG, which is not absorbed from the intestine, causes a decrease in the level of LCA-producing bacteria in the colon, the level of LCA in the liver decreases, resulting in a decrease in the nuclear translocation of PXR, which in turn leads to the observed decrease in the expression level of CYP3A. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Commonly Used Excipients on the Expression of CYP3A4 in Colon and Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Leslie; Lynch, Caitlin; Haidar, Sam; Polli, James; Wang, Hongbing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this investigation was to assess whether common pharmaceutical excipients regulate the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human colon and liver cells. Methods Nineteen commonly used excipients were evaluated using a panel of experiments including cell-based human PXR activation assays, real-time RT-PCR assays for CYP3A4 mRNA expression, and immunoblot analysis of CYP3A4 protein expression in immortalized human liver cells (HepG2 and Fa2N4), human primary hepatocytes, and the intestinal LS174T cell models. Results No excipient activated human PXR or practically induced CYP3A4. However, three excipients (polysorbate 80, pregelatinized starch, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) tended to decrease mRNA and protein expression across experimental models. Conclusion This study represents the first investigation of the potential role of excipients in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Findings imply that some excipients may hold potential for excipient-drug interactions by repression of CYP3A4 expression. PMID:20503067

  2. Molecular population genetics of human CYP3A locus: signatures of positive selection and implications for evolutionary environmental medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoping; Wang, Haijian; Zhou, Gangqiao; Zhang, Xiumei; Dong, Xiaojia; Zhi, Lianteng; Jin, Li; He, Fuchu

    2009-10-01

    The human CYP3A gene cluster codes for cytochrome P450 (CYP) subfamily enzymes that catalyze the metabolism of various exogenous and endogenous chemicals and is an obvious candidate for evolutionary and environmental genomic study. Functional variants in the CYP3A locus may have undergone a selective sweep in response to various environmental conditions. The goal of this study was to profile the allelic structure across the human CYP3A locus and investigate natural selection on that locus. From the CYP3A locus spanning 231 kb, we resequenced 54 genomic DNA fragments (a total of 43,675 bases) spanning four genes (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, and CYP3A43) and two pseudogenes (CYP3AP1 and CYP3AP2), and randomly selected intergenic regions at the CYP3A locus in Africans (24 individuals), Caucasians (24 individuals), and Chinese (29 individuals). We comprehensively investigated the nucleotide diversity and haplotype structure and examined the possible role of natural selection in shaping the sequence variation throughout the gene cluster. Neutrality tests with Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D* and F*, and Fay and Wu's H indicated possible roles of positive selection on the entire CYP3A locus in non-Africans. Sliding-window analyses of nucleotide diversity and frequency spectrum, as well as haplotype diversity and phylogenetically inferred haplotype structure, revealed that CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 had recently undergone or were undergoing a selective sweep in all three populations, whereas CYP3A43 and CYP3A5 were undergoing a selective sweep in non-Africans and Caucasians, respectively. The refined allelic architecture and selection spectrum for the human CYP3A locus highlight that evolutionary dynamics of molecular adaptation may underlie the phenotypic variation of the xenobiotic disposition system and varied predisposition to complex disorders in which xenobiotics play a role.

  3. Interaction between Darunavir and Etravirine Is Partly Mediated by CYP3A5 Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Belkhir, Leïla; Elens, Laure; Zech, Francis; Panin, Nadtha; Vincent, Anne; Yombi, Jean Cyr

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact of the loss-of-function CYP3A5*3 allele (rs776746, 6986A>G SNP) on darunavir (DRV) plasma concentrations. Methods 135 HIV-1 infected patients treated with DRV-based therapy were included in the study and plasma samples were obtained immediately before drug intake in order to determine DRV trough concentrations using an ultra performance liquid chromatography method (UPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD). Noteworthy is the fact that in 16 (11.9%) patients, etravirine (ETR) was combined with DRV. CYP3A5 genotypes were determined using real time PCR method (TaqMan® genotyping assay). The patients were then classified into CYP3A5 expressors (CYP3A5*1 allele carriers) and non-expressors (CYP3A5*3 homozygous). Subsequently, the association between DRV plasma trough concentration ([DRV]plasma) and CYP3A5 genotype-based expression status was analyzed. Results 45% of the patients were classified as CYP3A5 expressors. In the whole cohort, mean [DRV]plasma was not different between CYP3A5 expressors and non-expressors (1894ng/ml [CI95%: 1566–2290] versus 1737ng/ml [CI95%: 1468–2057], p = 0.43). However, in the subgroup of the 16 patients receiving DRV combined with ETR, a significantly lower [DRV]plasma was observed for CYP3A5 expressors when compared to non-expressors (1385ng/ml [CI95%:886.3–2165] versus 3141ng/ml [CI95%:2042–4831], p = 0.007). Conclusions Interaction between DRV and ETR is partly mediated by CYP3A5 polymorphism with lower DRV plasma trough concentrations in CYP3A5 expressors suggesting a specific ETR-driven CYP3A5 activation only in CYP3A5 expressors. Consequently, these patients might be more at risk of infra-therapeutic [DRV]plasma. This potentially important observation is a good illustration of a genotype-based drug interaction, which could also have considerable consequences if translated to other CYP3A5-metabolized drugs. Further investigations are thus needed to confirm this association and to explore its

  4. CYP3A genotypes and treatment response in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Aplenc, Richard; Glatfelter, Wendy; Han, Peggy; Rappaport, Eric; La, Mei; Cnaan, Avital; Blackwood, M Anne; Lange, Beverly; Rebbeck, Timothy

    2003-07-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common paediatric cancer with a cure rate of approximately 80%. Relapse occurs despite treatment stratification based on clinical criteria. Relapse risk in ALL may be related to simple nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of enzymes that metabolize chemotherapeutic agents. We evaluated whether SNPs in the cytochrome P450 3A family (CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A5*6) were associated with relapse risk on a national Children's Cancer Group (CCG) paediatric ALL trial (CCG-1891). CCG-1891 enrolled 1204 patients, and obtained both relapse and toxicity data prospectively. One hundred and twenty-four relapsed patients and 409 non-relapsed patients were assayed for each SNP. CYP3A variants were not associated with an increased risk of relapse. However, patients with the CYP3A4*1B and CYP3A5*3 genotypes had a decreased risk of peripheral neuropathy that was statistically significant on univariate analysis. After correction for multiple comparisons, the association between CYP3A*1B and CYP3A5*3 genotypes approached, but did not reach, statistical significance. CYP3 genotypes may not significantly modify the risk of relapse in childhood ALL, but may modify the risk of toxicity.

  5. Investigation of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 Interactions of Withania somnifera and Centella asiatica in Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Savai, Jay; Varghese, Alice; Pandita, Nancy; Chintamaneni, Meena

    2015-05-01

    Withania somnifera is commonly used as a rejuvenator, whereas Centella asiatica is well known for its anxiolytic and nootropic effects. The present study aims at investigating the effect of crude extracts and principal phytoconstituents of both the medicinal plants with CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes (HLM). Phytoconstituents were quantified in the crude extracts of both the medicinal plants using reverse phase HPLC. Crude extracts and phytoconstituents of W. somnifera showed no significant interaction with both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes in HLM. Of the crude extracts of C. asiatica screened in vitro, methanolic extract showed potent noncompetitive inhibition of only CYP3A4 enzyme (Ki-64.36 ± 1.82 µg/mL), whereas ethanol solution extract showed potent noncompetitive inhibition of only CYP2D6 enzyme (Ki-36.3 ± 0.44 µg/mL). The flavonoids, quercetin, and kaempferol showed potent (IC50 values less than 100 μM) inhibition of CYP3A4 activity, whereas quercetin alone showed potent inhibition of CYP2D6 activity in HLM. Because methanolic extract of C. asiatica showed a relatively high percentage content of quercetin and kaempferol than ethanol solution extract, the inhibitory effect of methanolic extract on CYP3A4 enzyme activity could be attributed to the flavonoids. Thus, co-administration of the alcoholic extracts of C. asiatica with drugs that are substrates of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes may lead to undesirable herb-drug interactions in humans.

  6. The Effect of Ritonavir on Human CYP2B6 Catalytic Activity: Heme Modification Contributes to the Mechanism-Based Inactivation of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by Ritonavir

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsia-lien; D’Agostino, Jaime; Kenaan, Cesar; Calinski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism-based inactivation of human CYP2B6 by ritonavir (RTV) in a reconstituted system was investigated. The inactivation is time, concentration, and NADPH dependent and exhibits a KI of 0.9 μM, a kinact of 0.05 min−1, and a partition ratio of approximately 3. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis showed that the protonated molecular ion of RTV exhibits an m/z at 721 and its two major metabolites are an oxidation product with MH+ at m/z 737 and a deacylated product with MH+ at m/z 580. Inactivation of CYP2B6 by incubation with 10 μM RTV for 10 min resulted in an approximately 50% loss of catalytic activity and native heme, but no modification of the apoprotein was observed. RTV was found to be a potent mixed-type reversible inhibitor (Ki = 0.33 μM) and a type II ligand (spectral dissociation constant-Ks = 0.85 μM) of CYP2B6. Although previous studies have demonstrated that RTV is a potent mechanism-based inactivator of CYP3A4, the molecular mechanism responsible for the inactivation has not been determined. Here, we provide evidence that RTV inactivation of CYP3A4 is due to heme destruction with the formation of a heme-protein adduct. Similar to CYP2B6, there is no significant modification of the apoprotein. Furthermore, LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that both CYP3A4 and human liver microsomes form an RTV-glutathione conjugate having a MH+ at m/z 858 during metabolism of RTV, suggesting the formation of an isocyanate intermediate leading to formation of the conjugate. PMID:23886699

  7. The effect of ritonavir on human CYP2B6 catalytic activity: heme modification contributes to the mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by ritonavir.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsia-lien; D'Agostino, Jaime; Kenaan, Cesar; Calinski, Diane; Hollenberg, Paul F

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism-based inactivation of human CYP2B6 by ritonavir (RTV) in a reconstituted system was investigated. The inactivation is time, concentration, and NADPH dependent and exhibits a K(I) of 0.9 μM, a k(inact) of 0.05 min⁻¹, and a partition ratio of approximately 3. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis showed that the protonated molecular ion of RTV exhibits an m/z at 721 and its two major metabolites are an oxidation product with MH⁺ at m/z 737 and a deacylated product with MH⁺ at m/z 580. Inactivation of CYP2B6 by incubation with 10 μM RTV for 10 min resulted in an approximately 50% loss of catalytic activity and native heme, but no modification of the apoprotein was observed. RTV was found to be a potent mixed-type reversible inhibitor (K(i) = 0.33 μM) and a type II ligand (spectral dissociation constant-K(s) = 0.85 μM) of CYP2B6. Although previous studies have demonstrated that RTV is a potent mechanism-based inactivator of CYP3A4, the molecular mechanism responsible for the inactivation has not been determined. Here, we provide evidence that RTV inactivation of CYP3A4 is due to heme destruction with the formation of a heme-protein adduct. Similar to CYP2B6, there is no significant modification of the apoprotein. Furthermore, LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that both CYP3A4 and human liver microsomes form an RTV-glutathione conjugate having a MH⁺ at m/z 858 during metabolism of RTV, suggesting the formation of an isocyanate intermediate leading to formation of the conjugate.

  8. Arsenite decreases CYP3A23 induction in cultured rat hepatocytes by transcriptional and translational mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Noreault, Trisha L.; Nichols, Ralph C.; Trask, Heidi W.; Wrighton, Steven A.; Sinclair, Peter R.; Evans, Ronald M.; Sinclair, Jacqueline F. . E-mail: JSINC@dartmouth.edu

    2005-12-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring, worldwide contaminant implicated in numerous pathological conditions in humans, including cancer and several forms of liver disease. One of the contributing factors to these disorders may be the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) levels by arsenic. In rat and human hepatocyte cultures, arsenic, in the form of arsenite, decreases the induction of several CYPs. The present study investigated whether arsenite utilizes transcriptional or post-transcriptional mechanisms to decrease CYP3A23 in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. In these cultures, a 6-h treatment with 5 {mu}M arsenite abolished dexamethasone (DEX)-mediated induction of CYP3A23 protein and activity, but did not inhibit general protein synthesis. However, arsenite treatment only reduced DEX-induced levels of CYP3A23 mRNA by 30%. The effects of arsenite on CYP3A23 transcription were examined using a luciferase reporter construct containing 1.4 kb of the CYP3A23 promoter. Arsenite caused a 30% decrease in DEX-induced luciferase expression of this reporter. Since arsenite abolished induction of CYP3A23 protein, but caused only a small decrease in CYP3A23 mRNA, the effects of arsenite on translation of CYP3A23 mRNA were investigated. Polysomal distribution analysis showed that arsenite decreased translation by decreasing the DEX-mediated increase in CYP3A23 mRNA association with polyribosomes. Arsenite did not decrease intracellular glutathione or increase lipid peroxidation, suggesting that the effect of arsenite on CYP3A23 does not involve oxidative stress. Overall, the results suggest that low-level arsenite decreases both transcription and translation of CYP3A23 in primary rat hepatocyte cultures.

  9. CYP3A isoforms in Ewing's sarcoma tumours: an immunohistochemical study with clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Zia, Hamid; Murray, Graeme I; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Leeder, J Steven; Anwar, Ahmed E; Bui, Marilyn M; Ahmed, Atif A

    2015-04-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of bone and soft tissue with high incidence of metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases are a family of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds, including anti-cancer drugs, and have been implicated in the aggressive behaviour of various malignancies. Tumour samples and clinical information including age, sex, tumour site, tumour size, clinical stage and survival were collected from 36 adult and paediatric patients with Ewing's sarcoma family tumours. Tissue microarrays slides were processed for immunohistochemical labelling for CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 using liver sections as positive control. The intensity of staining was scored as negative, low or high expression and was analysed statistically for any association with patients' clinical information. Four cases were later excluded due to inadequate viable tissue. CYP3A4 staining was present in 26 (81%) cases with high expression noted in 13 (40%) of 32 cases. High expression was significantly associated with distant metastases (P < 0.05). CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 were expressed in 5 and 13 cases respectively (15.6%, 40.6%). There was no association between the expression of CYP3A isoforms and age, sex, tumour size, or location (pelvic or extra-pelvic). None of the biomarkers showed any correlation with overall or disease-free survival. In conclusion, expression of CYP3A isoforms is noted in Ewing's sarcoma tumours and high CYP3A4 expression may be associated with metastasis. Additional studies are needed to further investigate the role of CYP3A4 in the prognosis of these tumours.

  10. Pregnane X receptor-mediated induction of Cyp3a by black cohosh

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Guo, De-an; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    Black cohosh (BC) has been widely applied for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. However, increasing concerns about herb-drug interactions demand the need for studies on the influence of BC on cytochromes 450. Cyp3a11 in liver was induced by 7-fold in wild-type mice treated with 500mg/kg black cohosh for 28 days compared to the control group as assessed by quantitative real-time PCR; no difference was found in small intestine and kidney, suggesting that up-regulation of Cyp3a11 by black cohosh was liver-specific. Western blot, activity assays and pharmacokinetic analyses established dose- and time-dependent induction of Cyp3a11. To determine the mechanism of Cyp3a11 induction, including the role of pregnane X receptor (PXR) in vivo and in vitro respectively, Pxr-null, PXR-humanized and double transgenic CYP3A4/hPXR mice, and cell-based luciferase assays were employed, thus we established that mouse PXR played a direct role in the induction of Cyp3a11; human PXR was not activated by black cohosh. Overall, these findings demonstrate that induction of Cyp3a11 is liver-specific and involved only mouse PXR, not the human counterpart. Thus, the incidence of herb-drug interaction in the patients administered black cohosh may not be mediated by human PXR and CYP3A4. PMID:20979450

  11. Pregnane X receptor-mediated induction of Cyp3a by black cohosh.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W; Guo, De-an; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2011-02-01

    Black cohosh (BC) has been widely applied for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. However, increasing concerns about herb-drug interactions demand the need for studies on the influence of BC on cytochrome 450. Cyp3a11 in liver was induced by 7-fold in wild-type mice treated with 500 mg/kg black cohosh for 28 days compared with the control group as assessed by quantitative real-time PCR; no difference was found in small intestine and kidney, suggesting that up-regulation of Cyp3a11 by black cohosh was liver-specific. Western blot, activity assays, and pharmacokinetic analyses established dose- and time-dependent induction of Cyp3a11. To determine the mechanism of Cyp3a11 induction, including the role of pregnane X receptor (PXR) in vivo and in vitro, respectively, in Pxr-null, PXR-humanized, and double transgenic CYP3A4/hPXR mice, cell-based luciferase assays were employed revealing that mouse PXR played a direct role in the induction of Cyp3a11; human PXR was not activated by black cohosh. Overall, these findings demonstrate that induction of Cyp3a11 is liver-specific and involved only mouse PXR, not the human counterpart. Thus, the incidence of herb-drug interaction in patients administered black cohosh may not be mediated by human PXR and CYP3A4.

  12. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing phase I enzymes CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in Han, Uighur, Hui and Mongolian Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Jinliang; Xia, Dongya; Jia, Lihui; Guo, Tao

    2012-07-01

    We randomly evaluated 672 unrelated, healthy Chinese volunteers (136 Han, 214 Uighur, 164 Hui and 158 Mongolian) to compare CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 allele frequencies. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes and genotyped for CYP3A4*5, CYP3A4*18, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*13, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 and CYP2D6*10 by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP). Our results showed that there is no significant difference in the distribution of CYP2C19*3 and CYP3A4*18 genotypes in the Han, Uighur, Hui and Mongolian Chinese populations. The CYP2C9*13/*13 and CYP3A4*5 genotypes were not observed in any of the four Chinese populations. We found a higher incidence of the CYP2C9*2 allele in Uighur populations, compared to the Han, Hui and Mongolian populations. The incidence of the CYP2C19*2 allele in the Han population was not significantly different from that in the Uighur, Hui or Mongolian populations; however, the Uighur population showed significantly lower rates of this allele than the Hui and Mongolian populations, and the Mongolian population had a significantly lower incidence of this allele than the Hui population. There was no significant difference in the presence of the CYP2D6*10 allele in the Mongolian, Han or Hui populations. However, the Uighur population showed significantly lower rates of this allele than the other three populations. These findings provide basic genetic information for further pharmacogenomic investigations in the Chinese population.

  13. CYP3A4/5 polymorphisms affect the blood level of cyclosporine and tacrolimus in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan-ying; Teng, Rui-chen; Zhu, Huai-jun; Fang, Yun

    2013-06-01

    Both cyclosporine and tacrolimus display a narrow therapeutic index as well as high interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. We approached the effect of the CYP3A4*18B and CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms and haplotypes on the whole blood cyclosporine or tacrolimus concentration in Chinese renal transplant patients during the first month after transplantation. A total of 83 recipients receiving tacrolimus or cyclosporine was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The whole blood concentration was measured by enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique. Both CYP3A4*18B and CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms affected the tacrolimus dose-adjusted trough concentration (C0/D). The tacrolimus C0/D was higher in carriers of haplotype GG compared with the non-carriers. The cyclosporine dose-adjusted 2-hour post-dose concentrations (C2/D), dose-adjusted C0 + C2 ((C0 + C2)/D) and C2/C0 during Days 15 - 21 displayed significant difference among the three genotypes. Statistical difference was observed between CYP3A4*1/*1 and CYP3A4*18B/*18B groups and between CYP3A4*1/*18B and CYP3A4*18B/*18B groups, but no difference was detected between CYP3A4*1/*1 and CYP3A4*1/*18B groups. No difference was found in C0/D among the three genotypes of CYP3A4*18B polymorphism, and neither CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms nor CYP3A haplotype-derived genotypes affected the cyclosporine dose-adjusted concentration. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A4*18B may be partly responsible in large interindividual variability of cyclosporine and tacrolimus blood levels in Chinese renal transplant patients during the first month after transplantation. A patient carried combined genotype of CYP3A4*1/*1-CYP3A5* 3/*3 might require lower tacrolimus doses to achieve target concentration levels. Genotyping of CYP3A4*18B and CYP3A5*3 before transplantation is of benefit in determining a suitable initial dose for each patient.

  14. Association of plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol with CYP3A5 polymorphism and plasma concentration of indoxyl sulfate in stable kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yosuke; Itoh, Hiroki; Fujioka, Takashi; Sato, Fuminori; Kawasaki, Kanako; Sato, Yukie; Sato, Yuhki; Ohno, Keiko; Mimata, Hiromitsu; Kishino, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown that renal failure decreases CYP3A activity and that uremic toxins may play a role via transcriptional or translational modifications of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes and direct inhibition of P450-mediated metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between CYP3A activity (using plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol as a biomarker) and clinical characteristics including plasma concentrations of indoxyl sulfate (3-INDS) and indole-3-acetic acid (3-IAA) in stable kidney transplant recipients. Forty-five Japanese kidney transplant recipients who underwent transplantation more than 90 days prior to the study were included. Morning blood samples were collected and plasma concentrations of 4β-hydroxycholesterol, 3-INDS, and 3-IAA were measured. Plasma concentrations of 4β-hydroxycholesterol were 57.1 ± 11.2, 42.1 ± 11.8, and 34.5 ± 7.3 ng/ml in recipients with CYP3A5*1/*1 (n = 5), *1/*3 (n = 15), and *3/*3 (n = 25) genotypes, respectively, with significant differences between three genotypes. A significant correlation was observed between plasma concentrations of 4β-hydroxycholesterol and 3-INDS but not 3-IAA. Multiple regression analysis identified the number of CYP3A5*3 alleles in genotype, plasma concentration of 3-INDS, and body weight as independent variables associated with plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol. In conclusion, these results suggest that CYP3A5 polymorphism and plasma concentration of 3-INDS may account for the interindividual variability of CYP3A activity, and that plasma concentration of 3-INDS may partially explain the gap in CYP3A activity that cannot be explained by genetic contribution in patients with renal failure.

  15. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on hepatic gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP1A1 and CYP3A4) in juvenile sole (Solea solea).

    PubMed

    Cocci, Paolo; Mosconi, Gilberto; Palermo, Francesco Alessandro

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the modulatory effects of the xenoestrogen 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and β gene expression patterns in relation to the detoxification pathways mediated by cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP1A1 and CYP3A4). Waterborne 4-NP-induced effects were compared with those of 10(-8)M 17β-estradiol (E2) by using in vivo dose-response experiments carried out with juvenile sole (Solea solea). Compared to the controls, significantly higher levels of PPARα mRNAs were found in fish treated with E2 or 4-NP (10(-6)M) 3 d after exposure; the highest dose of 4-NP also caused up-regulation of retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) transcript levels. On the contrary, PPARβ gene expression was not modulated by E2 or 4-NP. Our data show that 4-NP-induced PPARα mRNA levels coincide with suppression of CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 expression similarly to E2. The results from these in vivo studies suggest the presence of cross-talk between nuclear receptor-mediated signaling pathways and PPARα that may result in modulation of CYP450 isoforms expression following 4-NP treatment in sole liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Semi-Mechanistic Metabolism Model of CYP3A Substrates in Pregnancy: Predicting Changes in Midazolam and Nifedipine Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Quinney, S K; Mohamed, A N; Hebert, M F; Haas, D M; Clark, S; Umans, J G; Caritis, S N; Li, L

    2012-01-01

    Physiological changes in pregnancy, including changes in body composition and metabolic enzyme activity, can alter drug pharmacokinetics. A semi-mechanistic metabolism model was developed to describe the pharmacokinetics of two cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) substrates, midazolam and nifedipine, in obstetrics patients. The model parameters were optimized to fit the data of oral midazolam pharmacokinetics in pregnant women, by increasing CYP3A-induced hepatic metabolism 1.6-fold in the model with no change in gut wall metabolism. Fetal metabolism had a negligible effect on maternal plasma drug concentrations. Validation of the model was performed by applying changes in volume of distribution and metabolism, consistent with those observed for midazolam, to the pharmacokinetics parameters of immediate-release nifedipine in healthy volunteers. The predicted steady-state areas under the concentration–time curve (AUCs) for nifedipine were within 15% of the data observed in pregnant women undergoing treatment for preterm labor. This model predicts the pharmacokinetics of two CYP3A substrates in pregnancy, and may be applicable to other CYP3A substrates as well. PMID:23835882

  17. Molecular cloning, expression, and initial characterization of members of the CYP3A family in horses.

    PubMed

    Knych, Heather K DiMaio; McKemie, Daniel S; Stanley, Scott D

    2010-10-01

    The use of performance-enhancing drugs in the horse racing industry combined with the need for more rational approaches in the use of therapeutic agents in equids necessitates additional studies on the spectrum, content, and catalytic activities of hepatic cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in this species. In this study, three cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenases in the 3A family were cloned from, sequenced, and expressed in a baculovirus expression system. The proteins were designated CYP3A89, CYP3A96, and CYP3A97. Expression studies produced various results among the three proteins. CYP3A89 appears to undergo post-translational modification, producing a truncated protein, and although metabolically active, CYP3A97 did not have a detectable P450 spectrum. Expression of CYP3A96 produced a full-length, catalytically active protein. CYP3A96 catalyzed testosterone, and nifedipine metabolism was 20- and 10-fold slower, respectively, compared with the human counterpart, CYP3A4. Relative hepatic expression levels of each member of the CYP3A family, determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, varied more than 1000-fold in individual horses. The results demonstrate substantial interspecies variability in metabolism of substrates by members of the CYP3A family in the horse and human and support the need to fully characterize 450-mediated metabolism in equids. These studies provide a framework for screening therapeutically useful drugs and provide a method for determination of metabolites of illegal performance-enhancing drugs without the time and expense of either in vivo studies or obtaining liver samples for in vitro analysis.

  18. High-dose green tea polyphenol intake decreases CYP3A expression in a liver-specific manner with increases in blood substrate drug concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Ogawa, Sosuke; Hirobe, Ryuta; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Kon, Risako; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2016-06-30

    In recent years, the intake of functional foods containing high-doses of green tea polyphenols (GP) has been increasing. In this study, the long-term safety of high-dose GP was assessed from a pharmacokinetic point of view by focusing on the drug-metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 (CYP). Mice were fed a diet containing 3% GP for 4weeks, and the CYP expression levels and activity were determined. The GP-treated group showed a significant decrease in the hepatic CYP3A and an increase in the hepatic CYP2C expression compared with the control group. CYP1A, CYP2D, and CYP2E expression were not different between the GP-treated and the control groups. In the small intestine, there were no differences in the CYP3A protein levels between the groups. The increase in the plasma triazolam concentration in the GP-treated group was observed. Although no changes were found in the hepatic CYP3A levels in mice receiving a diet containing 0.1% GP for 4weeks, a significant decrease was seen in the hepatic CYP3A level in mice receiving a diet containing 3% GP for only 1week. This study revealed that the intake of a high-dose GP results in a liver-specific decrease in the CYP3A expression level. The results also indicated that the effects of GP on CYP3A were not observed following the intake of a low-dose GP. In the future, caution should be taken in cases when functional foods containing a high-dose GP are concomitantly consumed with a CYP3A substrate drug.

  19. Population pharmacokinetic modelling to assess the impact of CYP2D6 and CYP3A metabolic phenotypes on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen and endoxifen

    PubMed Central

    ter Heine, Rob; Binkhorst, Lisette; de Graan, Anne Joy M; de Bruijn, Peter; Beijnen, Jos H; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Huitema, Alwin D R

    2014-01-01

    Aims Tamoxifen is considered a pro-drug of its active metabolite endoxifen. The major metabolic enzymes involved in endoxifen formation are CYP2D6 and CYP3A. There is considerable evidence that variability in activity of these enzymes influences endoxifen exposure and thereby may influence the clinical outcome of tamoxifen treatment. We aimed to quantify the impact of metabolic phenotype on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen and endoxifen. Methods We assessed the CYP2D6 and CYP3A metabolic phenotypes in 40 breast cancer patients on tamoxifen treatment with a single dose of dextromethorphan as a dual phenotypic probe for CYP2D6 and CYP3A. The pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan, tamoxifen and their relevant metabolites were analyzed using non-linear mixed effects modelling. Results Population pharmacokinetic models were developed for dextromethorphan, tamoxifen and their metabolites. In the final model for tamoxifen, the dextromethorphan derived metabolic phenotypes for CYP2D6 as well as CYP3A significantly (P < 0.0001) explained 54% of the observed variability in endoxifen formation (inter-individual variability reduced from 55% to 25%). Conclusions We have shown that not only CYP2D6, but also CYP3A enzyme activity influences the tamoxifen to endoxifen conversion in breast cancer patients. Our developed model may be used to assess separately the impact of CYP2D6 and CYP3A mediated drug–drug interactions with tamoxifen without the necessity of administering this anti-oestrogenic drug and to support Bayesian guided therapeutic drug monitoring of tamoxifen in routine clinical practice. PMID:24697814

  20. The Influence of Standardized Valeriana officinalis Extract on the CYP3A1 Gene Expression by Nuclear Receptors in In Vivo Model

    PubMed Central

    Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M.; Karasiewicz, Monika; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

  1. CYP3A5 Gene Variation Influences Cyclosporine A Metabolite Formation and Renal Cyclosporine Disposition

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Songmao; Tasnif, Yasar; Hebert, Mary F.; Davis, Connie L.; Shitara, Yoshihisa; Calamia, Justina C.; Lin, Yvonne S.; Shen, Danny D.; Thummel, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Higher concentrations of AM19 and AM1c9, secondary metabolites of cyclosporine A (CsA), have been associated with nephrotoxicity in organ transplant patients. The risk of renal toxicity may depend upon the accumulation of CsA and its metabolites in the renal tissue. We evaluated the hypothesis that CYP3A5 genotype, and inferred enzyme expression, affects systemic CsA metabolite exposure and intra-renal CsA accumulation. Methods An oral dose of CsA was administered to 24 healthy volunteers who were selected based on their CYP3A5 genotype. CsA and its six main metabolites in whole blood and urine were measured by LC-MS. In vitro incubations of CsA, AM1, AM9 and AM1c with recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were performed to evaluate the formation pathways of AM19 and AM1c9. Results The mean CsA oral clearance was similar between CYP3A5 expressors and nonexpressors. However, compared to CYP3A5 nonexpressors, the average blood AUC for AM19 and AM1c9 was 47.4% and 51.3% higher in CYP3A5 expressors (P = 0.040 and 0.011, respectively), corresponding to 30% higher AUCmetabolite/AUCCsA ratios for AM19 and AM1c9 in CYP3A5 expressors. The mean apparent urinary CsA clearance, based on a 48-hour collection, was 20.4% lower in CYP3A5 expressors compared to CYP3A5 nonexpressors (4.2 ± 1.0 and 5.3 ± 1.3 mL/min, respectively, P = 0.037), which is suggestive of CYP3A5-dependent intra-renal CsA metabolism. Conclusions At steady-state, intra-renal accumulation of CsA and its secondary metabolites should depend on the CYP3A5 genotype of the liver and kidneys. This may contribute to inter-patient variability in the risk of CsA-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:23354298

  2. Comparative human-horse sequence analysis of the CYP3A subfamily gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, A; Demmel, S; Peters, L M; Leeb, T; Mevissen, M; Haase, B

    2010-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP450s) represent a superfamily of haem-thiolate proteins. CYP450s are most abundant in the liver, a major site of drug metabolism, and play key roles in the metabolism of a variety of substrates, including drugs and environmental contaminants. Interaction of two or more different drugs with the same enzyme can account for adverse effects and failure of therapy. Human CYP3A4 metabolizes about 50% of all known drugs, but little is known about the orthologous CYP450s in horses. We report here the genomic organization of the equine CYP3A gene cluster as well as a comparative analysis with the human CYP3A gene cluster. The equine CYP450 genes of the 3A family are located on ECA 13 between 6.97-7.53 Mb, in a region syntenic to HSA 7 99.05-99.35 Mb. Seven potential, closely linked equine CYP3A genes were found, in contrast to only four genes in the human genome. RNA was isolated from an equine liver sample, and the approximately 1.5-kb coding sequence of six CYP3A genes could be amplified by RT-PCR. Sequencing of the RT-PCR products revealed numerous hitherto unknown single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these six CYP3A genes, and one 6-bp deletion compared to the reference sequence (EquCab2.0). The presence of the variants was confirmed in a sample of genomic DNA from the same horse. In conclusion, orthologous genes for the CYP3A family exist in horses, but their number differs from those of the human CYP3A gene family. CYP450 genes of the same family show high homology within and between mammalian species, but can be highly polymorphic.

  3. Construction and verification of CYP3A5 gene polymorphisms using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system to predict drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Zhong, Hua; Tang, Qing; Huang, Zhijun; Jing, Ningning; Smith, Julie; Miao, Rujia; Li, Yapei; Yuan, Hong

    2017-04-01

    The present study evaluated the ability of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system to predict the pharmacokinetic (PK) activity of a calcium channel blocker in patients with distinct cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) polymorphisms. The blood pressure lowering activity of amlodipine in 57 hypertensive patients with CYP3A5*1/*1, CYP3A5*1/*3, CYP3A5*4 and CYP3A5*6 polymorphisms was evaluated by the current study. Subsequently, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system for CYP3A5 gene polymorphisms was constructed to examine the PK activity of CYP3A5*1/*1, CYP3A5*4 and CYP3A5*6 polymorphisms. This system was used to predict the PK of amlodipine and was compared with the in vivo data from different gene polymorphism groups. The blood pressure lowering activity of amlodipine in hypertensive patients varied among CYP3A5 polymorphisms. The in vivo results demonstrated that CYP3A5*6 exhibited the highest metabolic rate, followed by CYP3A5*1/*1, CYP3A5*4 and CYP3A5*1/*3. The difference between CYP3A5*6 and CYP3A5*1/*1 was not statistically significant (P=0.5). In accordance with in vivo data, CYP3A5*1/*1 exhibited the highest in vitro metabolic rate, followed by CYP3A5*6 and CYP3A5*4. With the exception of the comparison between CYP3A5*6 and CYP3A5*1/*1, polymorphisms exhibited statistically significant differences compared with CYP3A5*1/*1 (P<0.05). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system may be a cost effective and potentially useful tool for assessing the PK activity of drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A5.

  4. Grapefruit juice increases felodipine oral availability in humans by decreasing intestinal CYP3A protein expression.

    PubMed Central

    Lown, K S; Bailey, D G; Fontana, R J; Janardan, S K; Adair, C H; Fortlage, L A; Brown, M B; Guo, W; Watkins, P B

    1997-01-01

    The increase in oral availability of felodipine and other commonly used medications when taken with grapefruit juice has been assumed to be due to inhibition of CYP3A4, a cytochrome P450 that is present in liver and intestine. To evaluate the effect of repeated grapefruit juice ingestion on CYP3A4 expression, 10 healthy men were given 8 oz of grapefruit juice three times a day for 6 d. Before and after receiving grapefruit juice, small bowel and colon mucosal biopsies were obtained endoscopically, oral felodipine kinetics were determined, and liver CYP3A4 activity was measured with the [14C N-methyl] erythromycin breath test in each subject. Grapefruit juice did not alter liver CYP3A4 activity, colon levels of CYP3A5, or small bowel concentrations of P-glycoprotein, villin, CYP1A1, and CYP2D6. In contrast, the concentration of CYP3A4 in small bowel epithelia (enterocytes) fell 62% (P = 0.0006) with no corresponding change in CYP3A4 mRNA levels. In addition, enterocyte concentrations of CYP3A4 measured before grapefruit juice consumption correlated with the increase in Cmax when felodipine was taken with either the 1st or the 16th glass of grapefruit juice relative to water (r = 0. 67, P = 0.043, and r = 0.71, P = 0.022, respectively). We conclude that a mechanism for the effect of grapefruit juice on oral felodipine kinetics is its selective downregulation of CYP3A4 in the small intestine. PMID:9153299

  5. DEC1 binding to the proximal promoter of CYP3A4 ascribes to the downregulation of CYP3A4 expression by IL-6 in primary human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gang, Cao; Wei, Liu; Jing, Xiong; Gang, Hu; Ruini, Chen; Rui, Ning; Wei, Shang; Jian, Yang; Bingfang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we provided molecular evidences that IL-6 contributed to the decreased capacity of oxidative biotransformation in human liver by suppressing the expression of CYP3A4. After human hepatocytes were treated with IL-6, DEC1 expression rapidly increased, and subsequently, the CYP3A4 expression decreased continuously. Furthermore, the repression of CYP3A4 by IL-6 occurred after the increase of DEC1 in primary human hepatocytes. In HepG2 cells, knockdown of DEC1 increased the CYP3A4 expression and its enzymatic activity. In addition, it partially abolished the decreased CYP3A4 expression as well as its enzymatic activity induced by IL-6. Consistent with this, overexpression of DEC1 markedly reduced the CYP3A4 promoter activity and the CYP3A4 expression as well as its enzymatic activity. Using sequential truncation and site directed mutagenesis of CYP3A4 proximal promoter with DEC1 construct, we showed that DEC1 specifically bound to CCCTGC sequence in the proximal promoter of CYP3A4, which was validated by EMSA and ChIP assay. These findings suggest that the repression of CYP3A4 by IL-6 is achieved through increasing the DEC1 expression in human hepatocytes, the increased DEC1 binds to the CCCTGC sequence in the promoter of CYP3A4 to form CCCTGC-DEC1 complex, and the complex downregulates the CYP3A4 expression and its enzymatic activity. PMID:22728071

  6. Intestinal CYP3A4 and Midazolam Disposition in vivo Associate with VDR Polymorphisms and Show Seasonal Variation

    PubMed Central

    Thirumaran, Ranjit K.; Lamba, Jatinder K.; Kim, Richard B.; Urquhart, Brad L.; Gregor, Jamie C.; Chande, Nilesh; Fan, Yiping; Qi, An; Cheng, Cheng; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Hall, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D, whose levels vary seasonally with sunlight, is activated to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 that binds the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and transcriptionally regulates intestinal CYP3A4 expression. We genotyped VDR polymorphisms and determined their associations with intestinal CYP3A4 and with midazolam pharmacokinetics, and whether intestinal CYP3A4 levels/activity varied seasonally. The VDR BsmIG>A (rs1544410) polymorphism was significantly associated with CYP3A4 jejunal expression/activity, withCYP3A4 duodenal mRNA, and with midazolam area under the curve (AUC). Intestinal CYP3A4 expression/activity was significantly higher in biopsies with the VDR promoter polymorphisms Cdx2-3731G>A and GATA-1012A>G that increase VDR activation of target genes. Duodenal CYP3A4 mRNA was significantly higher between April and September than between October and March. Midazolam p.o. AUC and oral bioavailability trended higher October through March compared to April through September. These data suggest VDR polymorphisms are predictors of intestinal CYP3A4, and that CYP3A4 intestinal expression varies seasonally - likely related to annual changes in UV sunlight and vitamin D levels. PMID:22484315

  7. Intestinal CYP3A4 and midazolam disposition in vivo associate with VDR polymorphisms and show seasonal variation.

    PubMed

    Thirumaran, Ranjit K; Lamba, Jatinder K; Kim, Richard B; Urquhart, Brad L; Gregor, Jamie C; Chande, Nilesh; Fan, Yiping; Qi, An; Cheng, Cheng; Thummel, Kenneth E; Hall, Stephen D; Schuetz, Erin G

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin D, whose levels vary seasonally with sunlight, is activated to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) that binds the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and transcriptionally regulates intestinal CYP3A4 expression. We genotyped VDR polymorphisms and determined their associations with intestinal CYP3A4 and with midazolam pharmacokinetics, and whether intestinal CYP3A4 levels/activity varied seasonally. The VDR BsmIG > A (rs1544410) polymorphism was significantly associated with CYP3A4 jejunal expression/activity, with CYP3A4 duodenal mRNA, and with midazolam area under the curve (AUC). Intestinal CYP3A4 expression/activity was significantly higher in biopsies with the VDR promoter polymorphisms Cdx2-3731G > A and GATA-1012A > G that increase VDR activation of target genes. Duodenal CYP3A4 mRNA was significantly higher between April and September than between October and March. Midazolam p.o. AUC and oral bioavailability trended higher October through March compared to April through September. These data suggest VDR polymorphisms are predictors of intestinal CYP3A4, and that CYP3A4 intestinal expression varies seasonally--likely related to annual changes in UV sunlight and vitamin D levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The independent contribution of miRNAs to the missing heritability in CYP3A4/5 functionality and the metabolism of atorvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ju-E; Ren, Bin; Tang, Lan; Tang, Qian-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Li, Xin; Bai, Xue; Zhong, Wan-Ping; Meng, Jin-Xiu; Lin, Hao-Ming; Wu, Hong; Chen, Ji-Yan; Zhong, Shi-Long

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the independent contribution of miRNAs to the missing heritability in CYP3A4/5 functionality and atorvastatin metabolism, the relationships among three levels of factors, namely (1) clinical characteristics, CYP3A4/5 genotypes, and miRNAs, (2) CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 mRNAs, and (3) CYP3A activity, as well as their individual impacts on atorvastatin metabolism, were assessed in 55 human liver tissues. MiR-27b, miR-206, and CYP3A4 mRNA respectively accounted for 20.0%, 5.8%, and 9.5% of the interindividual variations in CYP3A activity. MiR-142 was an independent contributor to the expressions of CYP3A4 mRNA (partial R2 = 0.12, P = 0.002) and CYP3A5 mRNA (partial R2 = 0.09, P = 0.005) but not CYP3A activity or atorvastatin metabolism. CYP3A activity was a unique independent predictor of variability of atorvastatin metabolism, explaining the majority of the variance in reduction of atorvastatin (60.0%) and formation of ortho-hydroxy atorvastatin (78.8%) and para-hydroxy atorvastatin (83.9%). MiR-27b and miR-206 were found to repress CYP3A4 gene expression and CYP3A activity by directly binding to CYP3A4 3′-UTR, while miR-142 was found to indirectly repress CYP3A activity. Our study indicates that miRNAs play significant roles in bridging the gap between epigenetic effects and missing heritability in CYP3A functionality. PMID:27211076

  9. Automated extraction of information from the literature on chemical-CYP3A4 interactions.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chunlai; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2007-01-01

    A text mining system is presented for automatically extracting information from the literature on chemical-CYP3A4 interactions (i.e., substrate, induction, inhibition). The system identifies chemicals and CYP3A4 forms according to a combination of name dictionaries and context features. In addition, it transforms sentences into multiple simple clauses each containing a single event and extracts information on chemical-CYP3A4 interactions using a simple but effective pattern matching method based on the order of three keywords (chemicals, CYP3A4, key verbs). Using this system, 2990 relations including 2700 identified interactions with CYP3A4 for 600 chemicals were extracted from a corpus of 2900 PubMed abstracts. In an evaluation test using 100 randomly selected abstracts, it achieved 87.4% recall and 92.3% precision for identification of the chemical name and 85.2% recall and 92.0% precision for the extraction of chemical-CYP3A4 interactions, respectively. This system will be applicable to interactions of chemicals with any functional proteins, such as enzymes and transporters, simply by changing the list of key verbs.

  10. The effects on metabolic clearance when administering a potent CYP3A autoinducer with the prototypic CYP3A inhibitor, ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun A; Willis, Brian A; Annes, William F; Lowe, Stephen L; Friedrich, Stuart; de la Peña, Amparo; Zhang, Wei; Brown, Thomas; Wise, Stephen D; Hall, Stephen D

    2012-10-01

    Ketoconazole is recognized as the prototypical CYP3A inhibitor and is often used to determine the metabolic CYP3A liabilities of new chemical entities in preclinical and clinical studies. Ketoconazole has been commercially available for approximately 30 years and was marketed before drug-metabolizing enzymes were well characterized; consequently, little is known about its metabolic profile. Semagacestat, a γ-secretase inhibitor investigated as a potential therapy for Alzheimer's disease, was determined to be a potent CYP3A autoinducer in human hepatocytes. Two human studies were conducted to assess the induction potential of semagacestat. In the first study (study 1, n = 20), semagacestat increased the mean apparent clearance (CL/F) of oral midazolam (76-324 l/h) and nifedipine (63-229 l/h) as predicted from hepatocytes. In a second (steady-state) study (study 2, n = 20), semagacestat CL/F increased from 22 after a single dose to 31 l/h. Ketoconazole decreased semagacestat CL/F by 32% after a single dose of semagacestat [geometric means ratio estimate, 0.68; 90% confidence interval (CI). 0.64, 0.73] and 46% at steady state (geometric means ratio estimate. 0.54; 90% CI, 0.51, 0.58). Ketoconazole area under the concentration-time curve over 8 h decreased 49% from first to last day of semagacestat dosing. Semagacestat significantly increases the oral clearance of CYP3A substrates, confirming its inducer designation. More importantly, when administered with a potent CYP3A inducer at steady state, ketoconazole's plasma exposure decreased, indicating that it may also be cleared by CYP3A, other inducible enzymes or transporters, or both.

  11. Exploring the possible metabolism mediated interaction of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract with CYP3A4 and CYP2D6.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Subrata; Ponnusankar, Sivasankaran; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Ota, Sarda; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2011-10-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice) is used very widely in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine, and it is a popular flavor ingredient of drinks, sweets and candies. Its medicinal uses include treating bronchitis, dry cough, respiratory infections, liver disorders and diabetes. Glycyrrhizin is normally considered to be its biologically active marker, so a rapid RP-HPLC method was developed for the quantitative estimation of glycyrrhizin in the extract. The effect of the standardized extract and its marker on drug metabolizing enzymes was evaluated through CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibition assays to evaluate the safety through its drug interaction potential. The inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes was analysed by the fluorescent product formation method. In the CYP450-CO assay, the interaction potential of the standardized extract and pooled microsomes (percentage inhibition 23.23 ± 1.84%), was found to be less than the standard inhibitor. In the fluorimetric assay, G. glabra extracts showed higher IC(50) values than their positive inhibitors, ketoconazole and quinidine for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, respectively. Furthermore, the interaction potential of the plant extract was greater than the pure compound. The results demonstrate that G. glabra and its principle bioactive compound, glycyrrhizin, when co-administered with conventional medicines showed only a weak interaction potential with drug metabolizing enzymes. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. In vitro metabolism of the opioid tilidine and interaction of tilidine and nortilidine with CYP3A4, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Johanna; Sawa, Evelyn; Riedel, Klaus-Dieter; Haefeli, Walter Emil; Mikus, Gerd

    2008-09-01

    Tilidine is one of the most widely used narcotics in Germany and Belgium. The compound's active metabolite nortilidine easily penetrates the blood-brain barrier and activates the mu-opioid receptor. Thus far, the enzymes involved in tilidine metabolism are unknown. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify the cytochrome P450 isozymes (CYPs) involved in N-demethylation of tilidine in vitro. We used human liver microsomes as well as recombinant CYPs to investigate the demethylation of tilidine to nortilidine and quantified nortilidine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Inhibition of CYPs was quantified with commercial kits. Moreover, inhibition of ABCB1 and ABCG2 was investigated. Our results demonstrated that N-demethylation of tilidine to nortilidine followed a Michaelis-Menten kinetic with a K(m) value of 36 +/- 13 microM and a v(max) value of 85 +/- 18 nmol/mg/h. This metabolic step was inhibited by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 inhibitors. Investigations with recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 confirmed that the demethylation of tilidine occurs via these two CYPs. Inhibition assays demonstrated that tilidine and nortilidine can also inhibit CYP3A4, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, ABCB1, but not ABCG2, whereas inhibition of CYP2D6 and possibly also of CYP3A4 might be clinically relevant. By calculating the metabolic clearance based on the in vitro and published in vivo data, CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 were identified as the main elimination routes of tilidine. In vivo, drug-drug interactions of tilidine with CYP3A4 or CYP2C19 inhibitors are to be anticipated, whereas substrates of CYP2C19, ABCB1, or ABCG2 will presumably not be influenced by tilidine or nortilidine.

  13. Effect of Curcuma longa on CYP2D6- and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of dextromethorphan in human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Al-Jenoobi, Fahad Ibrahim; Al-Thukair, Areej A; Alam, Mohd Aftab; Abbas, Fawkeya A; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A

    2015-03-01

    Effect of Curcuma longa rhizome powder and its ethanolic extract on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 metabolic activity was investigated in vitro using human liver microsomes and clinically in healthy human subjects. Dextromethorphan (DEX) was used as common probe for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 was evaluated through in vitro study; where microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of Curcuma extract. In clinical study phase-I, six healthy human subjects received a single dose (30 mg) of DEX syrup, and in phase-II DEX syrup was administered with Curcuma powder. The enzyme CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 mediated O- and N-demethylation of dextromethorphan into dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Curcuma extract significantly inhibited the formation of DOR and 3-MM, in a dose-dependent and linear fashion. The 100 μg/ml dose of curcuma extract produced highest inhibition, which was about 70 % for DOR and 80 % for 3-MM. Curcuma significantly increases the urine metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR but the change in DEX/3-MM ratio was statistically insignificant. Present findings suggested that curcuma significantly inhibits the activity of CYP2D6 in in vitro as well as in vivo; which indicates that curcuma has potential to interact with CYP2D6 substrates.

  14. MicroRNAs regulate CYP3A4 expression via direct and indirect targeting.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yu-Zhuo; Gao, Wenqing; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2009-10-01

    CYP3A4 metabolizes many drugs on the market. Although transcriptional regulation of CYP3A4 is known to be tightly controlled by some nuclear receptors (NR) including vitamin D receptor (VDR/NR1I1), posttranscriptional regulation of CYP3A4 remains elusive. In this study, we show that noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) may control posttranscriptional and transcriptional regulation of CYP3A4 by directly targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of CYP3A4 and indirectly targeting the 3'UTR of VDR, respectively. Luciferase reporter assays showed that CYP3A4 3'UTR-luciferase activity was significantly decreased in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with plasmid that expressed microRNA-27b (miR-27b) or mouse microRNA-298 (mmu-miR-298), whereas the activity was unchanged in cells transfected with plasmid that expressed microRNA-122a or microRNA-328. Disruption of the corresponding miRNA response element (MRE) within CYP3A4 3'UTR led to a 2- to 3-fold increase in luciferase activity. Immunoblot analyses indicated that CYP3A4 protein was down-regulated over 30% by miR-27b and mmu-miR-298 in LS-180 and PANC1 cells. The decrease in CYP3A4 protein expression was associated with significantly decreased CYP3A4 mRNA levels, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analyses. Likewise, interactions of miR-27b or mmu-miR-298 with VDR 3'UTR were supported by luciferase reporter assays. The mmu-miR-298 MRE site is well conserved within the 3'UTR of mouse, rat, and human VDR. Down-regulation of VDR by the two miRNAs was supported by immunoblot and qPCR analyses. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-27b or mmu-miR-298 in PANC1 cells led to a lower sensitivity to cyclophosphamide. Together, these findings suggest that CYP3A4 gene expression may be regulated by miRNAs at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level.

  15. Transfected MDCK cell line with enhanced expression of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein as a model to study their role in drug transport and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Deep; Budda, Balasubramanyam; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-07-02

    The aim of this study was to characterize and utilize MDCK cell line expressing CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein as an in vitro model for evaluating drug-herb and drug-drug of abuse interactions. MDCK cell line simultaneously expressing P-gp and CYP3A4 (MMC) was developed and characterized by using expression and activity studies. Cellular transport study of 200 μM cortisol was performed to determine their combined activity. The study was carried across MDCK-WT, MDCK-MDR1 and MMC cell lines. Similar studies were also carried out in the presence of 50 μM naringin and 3 μM morphine. Samples were analyzed by HPLC for drug and its CYP3A4 metabolite. PCR, qPCR and Western blot studies confirmed the enhanced expression of the proteins in the transfected cells. The Vivid CYP3A4 assay and ketoconazole inhibition studies further confirmed the presence of active protein. Apical to basal transport of cortisol was found to be 10- and 3-fold lower in MMC as compared to MDCK-WT and MDCK-MDR1 respectively. Higher amount of metabolite was formed in MMC than in MDCK-WT, indicating enhanced expression of CYP3A4. Highest cortisol metabolite formation was observed in MMC cell line due to the combined activities of CYP3A4 and P-gp. Transport of cortisol increased 5-fold in the presence of naringin in MMC and doubled in MDCK-MDR1. Cortisol transport in MMC was significantly lower than that in MDCK-WT in the presence of naringin. The permeability increased 3-fold in the presence of morphine, which is a weaker inhibitor of CYP3A4. Formation of 6β-hydroxy cortisol was found to decrease in the presence of morphine and naringin. This new model cell line with its enhanced CYP3A4 and P-gp levels in addition to short culture time can serve as an invaluable model to study drug-drug interactions. This cell line can also be used to study the combined contribution of efflux transporter and metabolizing enzymes toward drug-drug interactions.

  16. TRANSFECTED MDCK CELL LINE WITH ENHANCED EXPRESSION OF CYP3A4 AND P-GLYCOPROTEIN AS A MODEL TO STUDY THEIR ROLE IN DRUG TRANSPORT AND METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Kwatra, Deep; Budda, Balasubramanyam; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and utilize MDCK cell line expressing CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein as an in vitro model for evaluating drug-herb and drug-drugs of abuse interactions. MDCK cell line simultaneously expressing P-gp and CYP3A4 (MMC) was developed and characterized by using expression and activity studies. Cellular transport study of 200 μM cortisol was performed to determine their combined activity. The study was carried across MDCK-WT, MDCK-MDR1 and MMC cell lines. Similar studies were also carried out in the presence of 50 μM naringin and 3 μM morphine. Samples were analyzed by HPLC for drug and its CYP3A4 metabolite. PCR, qPCR and western blot studies confirmed the enhanced expression of the proteins in the transfected cells. The vivid CYP3A4 assay and ketoconazole inhibition studies further confirmed the presence of active protein. Apical to basal transport of cortisol was found to be ten and three fold lower in MMC as compared to WT and MDCKMDR1 respectively. Higher amount of metabolite was formed in MMC than in MDCK-WT indicating enhanced expression of CYP3A4. Highest cortisol metabolite formation was observed in MMC cell line due to the combined metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and P-gp. Transport of cortisol increased fivefold in presence of naringin in MMC and doubled in MDCKMDR1. Cortisol transport in MMC was significantly lower than that in WT in presence of naringin. The permeability increased three fold in presence of morphine which is a weaker inhibitor of CYP3A4. Formation of 6β-hydroxy cortisol was found to decrease in presence of morphine and naringin. This new model cell line with its enhanced CYP3A4 and P-gp levels in addition to short culture time can serve as an invaluable model to study drug-drug interactions. This cell line can also be used to study the combined contribution of efflux transporter and metabolizing enzymes towards drug-drug interactions. PMID:22676443

  17. Sertraline-induced potentiation of the CYP3A4-dependent neurotoxicity of carbamazepine: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Chaitali; Hossain, Mohammad; Spriggs, Addison; Ghosh, Arnab; Grant, Gerald A; Marchi, Nicola; Perucca, Emilio; Janigro, Damir

    2015-03-01

    Drug toxicity is a hurdle to drug development and to clinical translation of basic research. Antiepileptic drugs such as carbamazepine (CBZ) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as sertraline (SRT) are commonly co-prescribed to patients with epilepsy and comorbid depression. Because SRT may interfere with cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity and CYPs have been implicated in the conversion of CBZ to reactive cytotoxic metabolites, we investigated in vitro models to determine whether SRT affects the neurotoxic potential of CBZ and the mechanisms involved. Human fetal brain-derived dopaminergic neurons, human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), and embryonic kidney (HEK) cells were used to evaluate cytotoxicity of CBZ and SRT individually and in combination. Nitrite and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured with drug exposure. To validate the role of CYP3A4 in causing neurotoxicity, drug metabolism was compared to cell death in HEK CYP3A4 overexpressed and cells pretreated with the CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole. In all cellular systems tested, exposure to CBZ (127 μM) or SRT (5 μM) alone caused negligible cytotoxicity. By contrast CBZ, tested at a much lower concentration (17 μM) in combination with SRT (5 μM), produced prominent cytotoxicity within 15 min exposure. In neurons and HBMECs, cytotoxicity was associated with increased nitrite levels, suggesting involvement of free radicals as a pathogenetic mechanism. Pretreatment of HBMECs with reduced GSH or with the GSH precursor N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevented cytotoxic response. In HEK cells, the cytotoxic response to the CBZ + SRT combination correlated with the rate of CBZ biotransformation and production of 2-hydroxy CBZ, further suggesting a causative role of reactive metabolites. In the same system, cytotoxicity was potentiated by overexpression of CYP3A4, and prevented by CYP3A4 inhibitor. These results demonstrate an unexpected neurotoxic interaction between CBZ and SRT, apparently

  18. Sertraline-induced potentiation of the CYP3A4-dependent neurotoxicity of carbamazepine: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Chaitali; Hossain, Mohammad; Spriggs, Addison; Ghosh, Arnab; Grant, Gerald A.; Marchi, Nicola; Perucca, Emilio; Janigro, Damir

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Drug toxicity is a hurdle to drug development and to clinical translation of basic research. Antiepileptic drugs such as carbamazepine (CBZ) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as sertraline (SRT) are commonly co-prescribed to patients with epilepsy and comorbid depression. Because SRT may interfere with cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity and CYPs have been implicated in the conversion of CBZ to reactive cytotoxic metabolites, we investigated in vitro models to determine whether SRT affects the neurotoxic potential of CBZ and the mechanisms involved. Methods Human fetal brain-derived dopaminergic neurons, human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), and embryonic kidney (HEK) cells were used to evaluate cytotoxicity of CBZ and SRT individually and in combination. Nitrite and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured with drug exposure. To validate the role of CYP3A4 in causing neurotoxicity, drug metabolism was compared to cell death in HEK CYP3A4 overex-pressed and cells pretreated with the CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole. Results In all cellular systems tested, exposure to CBZ (127 μM) or SRT (5 μM) alone caused negligible cytotoxicity. By contrast CBZ, tested at a much lower concentration (17 μM) in combination with SRT (5 μM), produced prominent cytotoxicity within 15 min exposure. In neurons and HBMECs, cytotoxicity was associated with increased nitrite levels, suggesting involvement of free radicals as a pathogenetic mechanism. Pretreatment of HBMECs with reduced GSH or with the GSH precursor N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevented cytotoxic response. In HEK cells, the cytotoxic response to the CBZ + SRT combination correlated with the rate of CBZ biotransformation and production of 2-hydroxy CBZ, further suggesting a causative role of reactive metabolites. In the same system, cytotoxicity was potentiated by overexpression of CYP3A4, and prevented by CYP3A4 inhibitor. Significance These results demonstrate an unexpected

  19. Evaluation of calibration curve-based approaches to predict clinical inducers and noninducers of CYP3A4 with plated human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J George; Ho, Thuy; Callendrello, Alanna L; Clark, Robert J; Santone, Elizabeth A; Kinsman, Sarah; Xiao, Deqing; Fox, Lisa G; Einolf, Heidi J; Stresser, David M

    2014-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) induction is often considered a liability in drug development. Using calibration curve-based approaches, we assessed the induction parameters R3 (a term indicating the amount of P450 induction in the liver, expressed as a ratio between 0 and 1), relative induction score, Cmax/EC50, and area under the curve (AUC)/F2 (the concentration causing 2-fold increase from baseline of the dose-response curve), derived from concentration-response curves of CYP3A4 mRNA and enzyme activity data in vitro, as predictors of CYP3A4 induction potential in vivo. Plated cryopreserved human hepatocytes from three donors were treated with 20 test compounds, including several clinical inducers and noninducers of CYP3A4. After the 2-day treatment, CYP3A4 mRNA levels and testosterone 6β-hydroxylase activity were determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, respectively. Our results demonstrated a strong and predictive relationship between the extent of midazolam AUC change in humans and the various parameters calculated from both CYP3A4 mRNA and enzyme activity. The relationships exhibited with non-midazolam in vivo probes, in aggregate, were unsatisfactory. In general, the models yielded better fits when unbound rather than total plasma Cmax was used to calculate the induction parameters, as evidenced by higher R(2) and lower root mean square error (RMSE) and geometric mean fold error. With midazolam, the R3 cut-off value of 0.9, as suggested by US Food and Drug Administration guidance, effectively categorized strong inducers but was less effective in classifying midrange or weak inducers. This study supports the use of calibration curves generated from in vitro mRNA induction response curves to predict CYP3A4 induction potential in human. With the caveat that most compounds evaluated here were not strong inhibitors of enzyme activity, testosterone 6β-hydroxylase activity was

  20. Testosterone metabolism of equine single CYPs of the 3A subfamily compared to the human CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, S; Büchi, M; Zielinski, J; Peduto, N; Mevissen, M

    2017-02-24

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are responsible for the phase I metabolism of drugs, xenobiotics and endogenous substances. Knowledge of single CYPs and their substrates is important for drug metabolism, helps to predict adverse effects and may prevent reduced drug efficacy in polypharmacy. In this study, three equine isoenzymes of the 3A subfamily, the equine flavoprotein NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase (POR), and the cytochrome b5 (CYB5) were cloned, sequenced and heterologously expressed in a baculovirus expression system. Testosterone, the standard compound for characterization of the human CYP3A4, was used to characterize the newly expressed equine CYPs. The metabolite pattern was similar in equine and the human CYPs, but the amounts of metabolites were isoform-dependent. All equine CYPs produced 2-hydroxytestosterone (2-OH-TES), a metabolite never described in equines. The main metabolite of CYP3A4 6β-hydroxytestosterone (6β-OH-TES) was measured in CYPs 3A95 and 3A97 with levels close to the detection limit. Ketoconazole inhibited 2-OH-TES in the human CYP3A4 and the equine CYP3A94 and CYP3A97 completely, whereas a 70% inhibition was found in CYP3A95. Testosterone 6β- and 2-hydroxylation was significantly different in the equine CYPs compared to CYP3A4. The expression of single equine CYPs allows characterizing drug metabolism and may allow prevention of drug-drug interactions.

  1. Moringa oleifera leaf extracts inhibit 6β-hydroxylation of testosterone by CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Monera, Tsitsi G.; Wolfe, Alan R.; Maponga, Charles C.; Benet, Leslie Z.; Guglielmo, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Background Moringa oleifera is a tropical tree often used as a herbal medicine, including by people who test positive for HIV. Since herbal constituents may interact with drugs via inhibition of metabolizing enzymes, we investigated the effects of extracts of M. oleifera on the CYP3A4-mediated 6ß-hydroxylation of testosterone. Methods Methanolic and aqueous leaf and root of extracts of M. oleifera with concentrations between 0.01 and 10 mg/ml were incubated with testosterone and mixed-sex human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH. Metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested with HepG2 cells using the MTT formazan assay. Results Significant CYP3A4 inhibitory effects were found, with IC50 values of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/ml for leaf-methanol and leaf-water extracts, respectively. Root extracts were less active. Cytotoxicity was observed only with the leaf-water extract (IC50 = 6 mg/ml). Conclusions Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the potential of M. oleifera for clinically significant interactions with antiretroviral and other drugs. PMID:19745507

  2. Moringa oleifera leaf extracts inhibit 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone by CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Monera, Tsitsi G; Wolfe, Alan R; Maponga, Charles C; Benet, Leslie Z; Guglielmo, Joseph

    2008-10-01

    Moringa oleifera is a tropical tree often used as a herbal medicine, including by people who test positive for HIV. Since herbal constituents may interact with drugs via inhibition of metabolizing enzymes, we investigated the effects of extracts of M. oleifera on the CYP3A4-mediated 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone. Methanolic and aqueous leaf and root of extracts of M. oleifera with concentrations between 0.01 and 10 mg/ml were incubated with testosterone and mixed-sex human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH. Metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested with HepG2 cells using the MTT formazan assay. Significant CYP3A4 inhibitory effects were found, with IC50 values of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/ml for leaf-methanol and leaf-water extracts, respectively. Root extracts were less active. Cytotoxicity was observed only with the leaf-water extract (IC50 = 6 mg/ml). Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the potential of M. oleifera for clinically significant interactions with antiretroviral and other drugs.

  3. Tamoxifen-associated hot flash severity is inversely correlated with endoxifen concentration and CYP3A4*22.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Simon D; Teft, Wendy A; Choi, Yun-Hee; Winquist, Eric; Kim, Richard B

    2014-06-01

    Tamoxifen use is often limited in some patients due to adverse effects including severe hot flash symptoms. Tamoxifen undergoes hepatic bioactivation by CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 to form the active metabolite endoxifen. It remains unclear whether the extent of attained endoxifen level or genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes is associated with the frequency and severity of hot flashes. We conducted a prospective study using self-reported surveys to assess tamoxifen side effects experienced during the week prior to clinic visits of 132 female breast cancer patients on tamoxifen therapy, and hot flash severity scores were tabulated. At the time of clinic visit, blood samples were obtained to determine tamoxifen and its metabolite levels and to determine CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 genotypes. The majority of participants (77 %) experienced hot flashes, with 11 % experiencing severe or very severe symptoms. We observed an inverse correlation between endoxifen concentration and hot flash severity score following adjustment for age, BMI, and menopausal status in patients with non-zero scores (p < 0.001). Interestingly, CYP2D6 genotype was not significantly associated with hot flash scores in patients on no known inhibitory medications. However, CYP3A4*22 carriers were less likely to have hot flashes with an odds ratio of 8.87 (p < 0.01) even when compared to a cohort with similar endoxifen levels. Our data demonstrate that patients with higher endoxifen levels tended to predict lower hot flash severity scores. Importantly, this is the first study to show CYP3A4*22 genotype as an independent predictor of hot flash severity during tamoxifen therapy.

  4. PXR-Mediated Upregulation of CYP3A Expression by Herb Compound Praeruptorin C from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling; Wu, Qian; Li, Yu-Hua; Wang, Yi-Tao; Bi, Hui-Chang

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that Praeruptorin C effectively transactivated the mRNA, protein expression, and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 via the CAR-mediated pathway, but whether and how PC could affect the expression and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 via PXR pathway remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, the effect of PC on the CYP3A gene expression was investigated in mice primary hepatocytes after knockdown of PXR by transient transfection of PXR siRNA, and the gene expression, protein expression, and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 in the LS174T cells with PXR overexpression were determined by real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and LC-MS/MS-based CYP3A4 substrate assay, respectively. We found that the level of CYP3a11 gene expression in mouse primary hepatocytes was significantly increased by praeruptorin C, but such an induction was suppressed after knockdown of pregnane X receptor by its siRNA. In PXR-overexpressed LS174T cells, PC significantly enhanced CYP3A4 mRNA, protein expression, and functional activity through PXR-mediated pathway; conversely, no such increase was found in the untransfected cells. These findings suggest that PC can significantly upregulate CYP3A level via the PXR-mediated pathway, and this should be taken into consideration to predict any potential herb-drug interactions between PC, Qianhu, and the other coadministered drugs.

  5. PXR-Mediated Upregulation of CYP3A Expression by Herb Compound Praeruptorin C from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ling; Wu, Qian; Li, Yu-Hua; Wang, Yi-Tao; Bi, Hui-Chang

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that Praeruptorin C effectively transactivated the mRNA, protein expression, and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 via the CAR-mediated pathway, but whether and how PC could affect the expression and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 via PXR pathway remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, the effect of PC on the CYP3A gene expression was investigated in mice primary hepatocytes after knockdown of PXR by transient transfection of PXR siRNA, and the gene expression, protein expression, and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 in the LS174T cells with PXR overexpression were determined by real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and LC-MS/MS-based CYP3A4 substrate assay, respectively. We found that the level of CYP3a11 gene expression in mouse primary hepatocytes was significantly increased by praeruptorin C, but such an induction was suppressed after knockdown of pregnane X receptor by its siRNA. In PXR-overexpressed LS174T cells, PC significantly enhanced CYP3A4 mRNA, protein expression, and functional activity through PXR-mediated pathway; conversely, no such increase was found in the untransfected cells. These findings suggest that PC can significantly upregulate CYP3A level via the PXR-mediated pathway, and this should be taken into consideration to predict any potential herb-drug interactions between PC, Qianhu, and the other coadministered drugs. PMID:24379885

  6. Pretreatment with turmeric modulates the inhibitory influence of cisplatin and paclitaxel on CYP2E1 and CYP3A1/2 in isolated rat hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Enas M; EL-Maraghy, Shohda A; Teleb, Zakaria A; Shaheen, Amira A

    2014-09-05

    Previous animal studies have shown that turmeric can significantly modulate the activity of several drug metabolizing enzymes, this may dramatically affect the bioavailability of several drugs resulting in over dose or less therapeutic effects. This study was directed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of cisplatin and paclitaxel on two CYP450 enzymes namely CYP2E1 and CYP3A1/2 in hepatic microsomes isolated from normal and turmeric pretreated rats. Cisplatin and paclitaxel were added by different concentrations to hepatic microsomes isolated from untreated and turmeric (100 mg/kg/day) pretreated rats for 15 days after receiving pyrazole or dexamethasone for induction of CYP2E1 and CYP3A1/2 respectively. The kinetic potency of these drugs as CYP inhibitors was determined by analysis of Lineweaver-Burk plot. Addition of cisplatin or paclitaxel by (10, 50 and 100 μM) to hepatic microsomes from normal or turmeric pretreated rats caused a concentration dependent inhibition of CYP2E1, with an evidence of less inhibition in turmeric pretreated microsomes particularly at higher concentration. Both drugs at 100 μM displayed a mixed type of inhibition of CYP2E1 in normal or turmeric pretreated microsomes where paclitaxel was the most potent inhibitor. Cisplatin (10, 50 and 100 μM) caused a concentration dependant inhibition of CYP3A1/2 that was enhanced by turmeric pretreatment. The inhibition of CYP3A1/2 by cisplatin (100 μM) was in non-competitive manner with a smaller Ki value in turmeric pretreated microsomes. The inhibitory influence of paclitaxel (10, 50 and 100 μM) on CYP3A1/2 decreased with increasing the drug concentration and this inhibition was augmented by turmeric pretreatment. Interestingly, the inhibition of this enzyme by paclitaxel (10 μM) was switched from mixed type in normal microsomes to competitive manner in turmeric pretreated ones with a marked reduction of Ki values reflecting greater inhibitory influence of paclitaxel on CYP3A1/2 by turmeric

  7. Effect of proteasome inhibition on toxicity and CYP3A23 induction in cultured rat hepatocytes: Comparison with arsenite

    SciTech Connect

    Noreault-Conti, Trisha L.; Jacobs, Judith M.; Trask, Heidi W.; Wrighton, Steven A.; Sinclair, Jacqueline F.; Nichols, Ralph C. . E-mail: ralph.c.nichols@dartmouth.edu

    2006-12-15

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that acute exposure of primary rat hepatocyte cultures to non-toxic concentrations of arsenite causes major decreases in the DEX-mediated induction of CYP3A23 protein, with minor decreases in CYP3A23 mRNA. To elucidate the mechanism for these effects of arsenite, the effects of arsenite and proteasome inhibition, separately and in combination, on induction of CYP3A23 protein were compared. The proteasome inhibitor, MG132, inhibited proteasome activity, but also decreased CYP3A23 mRNA and protein. Lactacystin, another proteasome inhibitor, decreased CYP3A23 protein without affecting CYP3A23 mRNA at a concentration that effectively inhibited proteasome activity. This result, suggesting that the action of lactacystin is similar to arsenite and was post-transcriptional, was confirmed by the finding that lactacystin decreased association of DEX-induced CYP3A23 mRNA with polyribosomes. Both MG132 and lactacystin inhibited total protein synthesis, but did not affect MTT reduction. Arsenite had no effect on ubiquitination of proteins, nor did arsenite significantly affect proteasomal activity. These results suggest that arsenite and lactacystin act by similar mechanisms to inhibit translation of CYP3A23.

  8. Optical Isomers of Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin and Fluvastatin Enantiospecifically Activate Pregnane X Receptor PXR and Induce CYP2A6, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 in Human Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Korhonova, Martina; Doricakova, Aneta; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    Atorvastatin, fluvastatin and rosuvastatin are drugs used for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. They cause numerous drug-drug interactions by inhibiting and inducing drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450. These three statins exist in four optical forms, but they are currently used as enantiopure drugs, i.e., only one single enantiomer. There are numerous evidences that efficacy, adverse effects and toxicity of drugs may be enantiospecific. Therefore, we investigated the effects of optical isomers of atorvastatin, fluvastatin and rosuvastatin on the expression of drug-metabolizing P450s in primary human hepatocytes, using western blots and RT-PCR for measurement of proteins and mRNAs, respectively. The activity of P450 transcriptional regulators, including pregnane X receptor (PXR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), was assessed by gene reporter assays and EMSA. Transcriptional activity of AhR was not influenced by any statin tested. Basal transcriptional activity of GR was not affected by tested statins, but dexamethasone-inducible activity of GR was dose-dependently and enantioselectively inhibited by fluvastatin. Basal and ligand-inducible transcriptional activity of PXR was dose-dependently influenced by all tested statins, and the potency and efficacy between individual optical isomers varied depending on statin and optical isomer. The expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in human hepatocytes was not influenced by tested statins. All statins induced CYP2A6, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, and the effects on CYP2C9 were rather modulatory. The effects varied between statins and enantiomers and induction potency decreased in order: atorvastatin (RR>RS = SR>SS) > fluvastatin (SR>RS = SS>RR) > rosuvastatin (only RS active). The data presented here might be of toxicological and clinical importance.

  9. Optical Isomers of Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin and Fluvastatin Enantiospecifically Activate Pregnane X Receptor PXR and Induce CYP2A6, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Korhonova, Martina; Doricakova, Aneta; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    Atorvastatin, fluvastatin and rosuvastatin are drugs used for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. They cause numerous drug-drug interactions by inhibiting and inducing drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450. These three statins exist in four optical forms, but they are currently used as enantiopure drugs, i.e., only one single enantiomer. There are numerous evidences that efficacy, adverse effects and toxicity of drugs may be enantiospecific. Therefore, we investigated the effects of optical isomers of atorvastatin, fluvastatin and rosuvastatin on the expression of drug-metabolizing P450s in primary human hepatocytes, using western blots and RT-PCR for measurement of proteins and mRNAs, respectively. The activity of P450 transcriptional regulators, including pregnane X receptor (PXR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), was assessed by gene reporter assays and EMSA. Transcriptional activity of AhR was not influenced by any statin tested. Basal transcriptional activity of GR was not affected by tested statins, but dexamethasone-inducible activity of GR was dose-dependently and enantioselectively inhibited by fluvastatin. Basal and ligand-inducible transcriptional activity of PXR was dose-dependently influenced by all tested statins, and the potency and efficacy between individual optical isomers varied depending on statin and optical isomer. The expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in human hepatocytes was not influenced by tested statins. All statins induced CYP2A6, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, and the effects on CYP2C9 were rather modulatory. The effects varied between statins and enantiomers and induction potency decreased in order: atorvastatin (RR>RS = SR>SS) > fluvastatin (SR>RS = SS>RR) >> rosuvastatin (only RS active). The data presented here might be of toxicological and clinical importance. PMID:26366873

  10. Omeprazole and lansoprazole enantiomers induce CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes and cell lines via glucocorticoid receptor and pregnane X receptor axis.

    PubMed

    Novotna, Aneta; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    Benzimidazole drugs lansoprazole and omeprazole are used for treatment of various gastrointestinal pathologies. Both compounds cause drug-drug interactions because they activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor and induce CYP1A genes. In the current paper, we examined the effects of lansoprazole and omeprazole enantiomers on the expression of key drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes and human cancer cell lines. Lansoprazole enantiomers, but not omeprazole, were equipotent inducers of CYP3A4 mRNA in HepG2 cells. All forms (S-, R-, rac-) of lansoprazole and omeprazole induced CYP3A4 mRNA and protein in human hepatocytes. The quantitative profiles of CYP3A4 induction by individual forms of lansoprazole and omeprazole exerted enantiospecific patterns. Lansoprazole dose-dependently activated pregnane X receptor PXR in gene reporter assays, and slightly modulated rifampicin-inducible PXR activity, with similar potency for each enantiomer. Omeprazole dose-dependently activated PXR and inhibited rifampicin-inducible PXR activity. The effects of S-omeprazole were much stronger as compared to those of R-omeprazole. All forms of lansoprazole, but not omeprazole, slightly activated glucocorticoid receptor and augmented dexamethasone-induced GR transcriptional activity. Omeprazole and lansoprazole influenced basal and ligand inducible expression of tyrosine aminotransferase, a GR-target gene, in HepG2 cells and human hepatocytes. Overall, we demonstrate here that omeprazole and lansoprazole enantiomers induce CYP3A4 in HepG2 cells and human hepatocytes. The induction comprises differential interactions of omeprazole and lansoprazole with transcriptional regulators PXR and GR, and some of the effects were enantiospecific. The data presented here might be of toxicological and clinical importance, since the effects occurred in therapeutically relevant concentrations.

  11. The role of CYP3A4 in the biotransformation of bile acids and therapeutic implication for cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kong-Nan; Chen, Chen

    2014-01-01

    CYP3A4 is a major cytochrome P450. It catalyses a broad range of substrates including xenobiotics such as clinically used drugs and endogenous compounds bile acids. Its function to detoxify bile acids could be used for treating cholestasis, which is a condition characterised by accumulation of bile acids. Although bile acids have important physiological functions, they are very toxic when their concentrations are excessively high. The accumulated bile acids in cholestasis can cause liver and other tissue injuries. Thus, control of the concentrations of bile acids is critical for treatment of cholestasis. CYP3A4 is responsively upregulated in cholestasis mediated by the nuclear receptors farnesol X receptor (FXR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) as a defence mechanism. However, the regulation of CYP3A4 is complicated by estrogen, which is increased in cholestasis and down regulates CYP3A4 expression. The activity of CYP3A4 is also inhibited by accumulated bile acids due to their property of detergent effect. In some cholestasis cases, genetic polymorphisms of the CYP3A4 and PXR genes may interfere with the adaptive response. Further stimulation of CYP3A4 activity in cholestasis could be an effective approach for treatment of the disease. In this review, we summarise recent progress about the roles of CYP3A4 in the metabolism of bile acids, its regulation and possible implication in the treatment of cholestasis. PMID:25332983

  12. Stereospecific Metabolism of Itraconazole by CYP3A4: Dioxolane Ring Scission of Azole Antifungals

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chi-Chi; Shi, Wei; Lutz, Justin D.; Kunze, Kent L.; Liu, Jun O.; Nelson, Wendel L.

    2012-01-01

    Itraconazole (ITZ) is a mixture of four cis-stereoisomers that inhibit CYP3A4 potently and coordinate CYP3A4 heme via the triazole nitrogen. However, (2R,4S,2′R)-ITZ and (2R,4S,2′S)-ITZ also undergo stereoselective sequential metabolism by CYP3A4 at a site distant from the triazole ring to 3′-OH-ITZ, keto-ITZ, and N-desalkyl-ITZ. This stereoselective metabolism demonstrates specific interactions of ITZ within the CYP3A4 active site. To further investigate this process, the binding and metabolism of the four trans-ITZ stereoisomers by CYP3A4 were characterized. All four trans-ITZ stereoisomers were tight binding inhibitors of CYP3A4-mediated midazolam hydroxylation (IC50 16–26 nM), and each gave a type II spectrum upon binding to CYP3A4. However, instead of formation of 3′-OH-ITZ, they were oxidized at the dioxolane ring, leading to ring scission and formation of two new metabolites of ITZ. These two metabolites were also formed from the four cis-ITZ stereoisomers, although not as efficiently. The catalytic rates of dioxolane ring scission were similar to the dissociation rates of ITZ stereoisomers from CYP3A4, suggesting that the heme iron is reduced while the triazole moiety coordinates to it and no dissociation of ITZ is necessary before catalysis. The triazole containing metabolite [1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)ethanone] also inhibited CYP3A4 (IC50 >15 μM) and showed type II binding with CYP3A4. The dioxolane ring scission appears to be clinically relevant because this metabolite was detected in urine samples from subjects that had been administered the mixture of cis-ITZ isomers. These data suggest that the dioxolane ring scission is a metabolic pathway for drugs that contain this moiety. PMID:22106171

  13. Flavonoids and polymer derivatives as CYP3A4 inhibitors for improved oral drug bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Fasinu, Pius; Choonara, Yahya E; Khan, Riaz A; Du Toit, Lisa C; Kumar, Pradeep; Ndesendo, Valence M K; Pillay, Viness

    2013-02-01

    Molecular modeling computations were utilized to generate pharmaceutical grade CYP3A4-enzyme inhibitors. In vitro metabolism of felodipine in human intestinal and liver microsomes (HLM and HIM) was optimized yielding a Michaelis-Menten plot from where the K(m) and V(max) values were estimated by nonlinear regression. The flavonoids, naringin, naringenin, and quercetin, were subsequently incubated with felodipine at the determined K(m) value in HLM. Comparing results obtained from a known CYP3A4 inhibitor, verapamil, the flavonoids inhibited felodipine metabolism. In-depth computational analysis of these flavonoids in terms of CYP3A4 binding, sequencing, and affinity, computational biomimetism was employed to validate the potential CYP3A4 inhibitors. The modeled compounds were comparatively evaluated by incubation with felodipine in both HLM and HIM. Results showed that the polymers 8-arm-PEG, o-(2-aminoethyl)-o-methyl-PEG, 4-arm-PEG (molecular weight = 10,000 g/mol and 20,000 g/mol, respectively), and poly(l-lysine) were able to inhibit the felodipine metabolism with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values ranging from 7.22 to 30.0 μM (HLM) and 5.78 to 41.03 μM (HIM). Molecular docking confirmed drug-enzyme interactions by computing the free energies of binding (ΔE) and inhibition constants (K(i)) of the docked compounds utilizing a Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm. Comparative correlations between the computed and experimental K(i) values were obtained. Computational modeling of CYP3A4 inhibitors provided a suitable strategy to screen pharmaceutical grade compounds that may potentially inhibit presystemic CYP3A4-dependent drug metabolism with the prospect of improving oral drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Managing the Risk of CYP3A Induction in Drug Development: A Strategic Approach.

    PubMed

    Jones, Barry C; Rollison, Helen; Johansson, Susanne; Kanebratt, Kajsa P; Lambert, Craig; Vishwanathan, Karthick; Andersson, Tommy B

    2017-01-01

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (P450) can impact the efficacy and safety of drug molecules upon multiple dosing with coadministered drugs. This strategy is focused on CYP3A since the majority of clinically relevant cases of P450 induction are related to these enzymes. However, the in vitro evaluation of induction is applicable to other P450 enzymes; however, the in vivo relevance cannot be assessed because the scarcity of relevant clinical data. In the preclinical phase, compounds are screened using pregnane X receptor reporter gene assay, and if necessary structure-activity relationships (SAR) are developed. When projects progress toward the clinical phase, induction studies in a hepatocyte-derived model using HepaRG cells will generate enough robust data to assess the compound's induction liability in vivo. The sensitive CYP3A biomarker 4β-hydroxycholesterol is built into the early clinical phase I studies for all candidates since rare cases of in vivo induction have been found without any induction alerts from the currently used in vitro methods. Using this model, the AstraZeneca induction strategy integrates in vitro assays and in vivo studies to make a comprehensive assessment of the induction potential of new chemical entities. Convincing data that support the validity of both the in vitro models and the use of the biomarker can be found in the scientific literature. However, regulatory authorities recommend the use of primary human hepatocytes and do not advise the use of sensitive biomarkers. Therefore, primary human hepatocytes and midazolam studies will be conducted during the clinical program as required for regulatory submission.

  15. CYP3A4*18 polymorphisms and anti-hepatitis A virus seroprevalence.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Fazlina; Che Hamzah, Nor Aizal; Mustaffa, Nazri; Hua, Gan Siew

    2011-01-01

    CYP3A4 is the major cytochrome in humans which shows reduced activity in chronic liver disease as well as in hepatic cirrhosis. The detection of this polymorphism may give an indication on the prognosis of patients having chronic viral hepatitis with superimposed hepatitis A infection. The aim of this study is to correlate the seroprevalence of anti-HAV antibodies in chronic liver disease patients having CYP3A4*18 polymorphisms. This is a prospective study where patients (n=119) blood was tested for anti-HAVIgG and CYP3A4*18 polymorphism. The overall anti-HAV seroprevalence was 88.2%. The etiology of CLD was hepatitis B in 96 patients (80.7%) and hepatitis C in 23 patients (19.3%). There was a significant increase in the age of the prevalence of this disease after 30 years of age (p=0.008). CYP3A4*18 polymorphism was detected in 3 (2.5%) of the patients with chronic liver disease. However, there was no significant association between CP3A4*18 mutation and anti-HAV serology. Age was the most important factor in determining anti-HAV positivity. It is concluded that CYP3A4*18 genetic polymorphism does not play a main role in influencing the seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis A among chronic viral hepatitis B and C liver disease patients.

  16. Relevance of in vitro and clinical data for predicting CYP3A4-mediated herb-drug interactions in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Goey, Andrew K L; Mooiman, Kim D; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; Meijerman, Irma

    2013-11-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) by cancer patients is increasing. Concomitant use of CAM and anticancer drugs could lead to serious safety issues in patients. CAM have the potential to cause pharmacokinetic interactions with anticancer drugs, leading to either increased or decreased plasma levels of anticancer drugs. This could result in unexpected toxicities or a reduced efficacy. Significant pharmacokinetic interactions have already been shown between St. John's Wort (SJW) and the anticancer drugs imatinib and irinotecan. Most pharmacokinetic CAM-drug interactions, involve drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, in particular CYP3A4. The effect of CAM on CYP3A4 activity and expression can be assessed in vitro. However, no data have been reported yet regarding the relevance of these in vitro data for the prediction of CAM-anticancer drug interactions in clinical practice. To address this issue, a literature research was performed to evaluate the relevance of in vitro data to predict clinical effects of CAM frequently used by cancer patients: SJW, milk thistle, garlic and Panax ginseng (P. ginseng). Furthermore, in clinical studies the sensitive CYP3A4 substrate probe midazolam is often used to determine pharmacokinetic interactions. Results of these clinical studies with midazolam are used to predict pharmacokinetic interactions with other drugs metabolized by CYP3A4. Therefore, this review also explored whether clinical trials with midazolam are useful to predict clinical pharmacokinetic CAM-anticancer drug interactions. In vitro data of SJW have shown CYP3A4 inhibition after short-term exposure and induction after long-term exposure. In clinical studies using midazolam or anticancer drugs (irinotecan and imatinib) as known CYP3A4 substrates in combination with SJW, decreased plasma levels of these drugs were observed, which was expected as a consequence of CYP3A4 induction. For garlic, no effect on CYP3A4 has been shown in vitro

  17. The contribution of human OCT1, OCT3, and CYP3A4 to nitidine chloride-induced hepatocellular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Tu, Meijuan; Yang, Xi; Sun, Siyuan; Wu, Xiaodan; Zhou, Hui; Zeng, Su; Jiang, Huidi

    2014-07-01

    Nitidine chloride (NC), a quaternary ammonium alkaloid, has numerous pharmacological effects, such as anticancer activity. However, it was found that NC also has hepatocellular toxicity. Because organic cation transporters 1 and 3 (OCT1 and OCT3) might mediate the influx of NC into hepatocytes, multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1) probably mediates the efflux of NC from hepatocytes, while cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes might contribute to NC metabolism, the present study was to evaluate the contribution of OCT1, OCT3, MATE1, and P450 enzymes to NC-induced hepatocellular toxicity. Our results showed that the uptake of NC in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells expressing human (h) OCT1 and OCT3 (MDCK-hOCT1 and MDCK-hOCT3) was significantly higher than that in mock cells; the hOCT1- and hOCT3-mediated uptake followed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Meanwhile, NC was also a substrate of hMATE1, although its transport capacity was much lower than that of OCT1 NC-induced cytotoxicity in MDCK-hOCT1 or MDCK-hOCT3 cells was obviously higher than that in mock cells. Quinidine and (+)-tetrahydropalmatine [(+)-THP], OCT1 and OCT3 inhibitors, significantly reduced the uptake of NC in MDCK-hOCT1 cells, MDCK-hOCT3 cells, and rat primary hepatocytes, but only (+)-THP markedly attenuated the NC-induced toxicity. In addition, P450 enzymes, such as CYP3A4, mediated the metabolism of NC, and NC-induced toxicity in MDCK-hOCT1/hCYP3A4 cells was lower than that in MDCK-hOCT1 cells. Our results indicated that NC is a substrate of hOCT1, hOCT3, and CYP3A4; that OCT1 and OCT3 mediate the uptake of NC in hepatocytes and subsequently cause hepatotoxicity; and that NC-induced toxicity could be attenuated by CYP3A4-mediated metabolism.

  18. Metabolic-induced cytotoxicity of diosbulbin B in CYP3A4-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ji-Zong; Yang, Bao-Hua; Ji, Li-Li; Yang, Li; Mao, Yu-Chang; Hu, Zhuo-Han; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Wang, Chang-Hong

    2017-02-01

    As a candidate antitumor agent, diosbulbin B (DB) can induce serious liver toxicity and other adverse reactions. DB is mainly metabolized by CYP3A4 in vitro and in vivo, but the cytotoxicity and anti-tumor mechanisms of DB have yet to be clarified. This study aimed to determine whether the cytotoxicity and anti-tumor effects of DB are related to the metabolism-induced activation of CYP3A4 in various cell models, including CYP-free NIH3T3 cells, primary rat hepatocytes, HepG2 and L02 cells of high CYP3A4 expression and wild-type. Results showed that DB did not markedly decrease the viability of NIH3T3 cells. DB metabolites, obtained from the metabolism by mouse liver microsomes, did not elicit cytotoxicity on NIH3T3 cells either. By contrast, DB could induce significant cytotoxicity on primary rat hepatocytes. The DB induced cytotoxicity on HepG2 or L02 cells with high CYP3A4 expression were stronger than those on wild-type cells. As a metabolic biomarker, the metabolite conjugate (M31) of DB with GSH was detected in the incubation system. A higher amount of M31 was generated in the transfected HepG2 and L02 cells than in the wild-type cells at different time points. Ketoconazole, however, could restrain DB induced cytotoxicity on primary rat hepatocytes and in CYP3A4 transfected HepG2 and L02 cells. Therefore, the cytotoxicity of DB was closely related to CYP3A4-metabolized reactive DB metabolites.

  19. Influence of a Nigerian honey on CYP3A4 biotransformation of quinine in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Igbinoba, S. I.; Akanmu, M. A.; Onyeji, C. O.; Soyinka, J. O.; Owolabi, A. R.; Nathaniel, T. I.; Pullela, S. V.; Cook, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    What is known and objectives Some studies, howbeit with conflicting reports have suggested that consumption of honey has a potential to modulate drug metabolising enzymes which may result in a honey - drug interaction. Numerous studies have established that honey varies in composition, influenced by the dominant floral, processing and environmental factors. Thus, variation in honey composition may be a contributing factor to the controversial results obtained. No previous drug interaction study has been done with any honey from Africa. CYP 3A4 is an important enzyme in drug metabolism studies as it is involved in the metabolism of over 50 % of drugs in clinical use and quinine remains very relevant in malaria treatment in the tropics, we therefore determined whether there is potential drug interaction between a Nigeria honey and quinine, a drug whose metabolism to 3 –hydroxyquinine is mediated majorly by CYP3A4. Methods In a three phase randomized cross-over study with a wash out period of two weeks between each treatment phase, ten (10) healthy volunteers received quinine sulphate tablet (600 mg single dose) alone (phase 1) or after administration of 10 ml of honey (Phase 2) and 20 ml of honey (Phase 3) twice daily for seven (7) days. Blood samples were collected at the 16th hour post quinine administration in each phase and quinine and its major metabolite, 3-hydroxyquinine were analyzed using a validated HPLC method. Results After scheduled doses of honey, the mean metabolic ratios of quinine (3-hydroxyquinine/quinine) increased by 24.4 % (with 10 ml of honey) and reduced by 23.9 % (with 20 ml of honey) when compared to baseline. These magnitudes of alteration in the mean metabolic ratios were not significant (p > 0.05; Friedman-test). The geometric mean (95 % CI) for the metabolic ratio of quinine before and after honey intake at the two dose levels studied were 0.82 (0.54, 1.23) and 1.29 (0.96, 1.72) respectively and were also not significant (P = 0.296 and

  20. Fatal Methadone Toxicity: Potential Role of CYP3A4 Genetic Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Richards-Waugh, Lauren L.; Primerano, Donald A.; Dementieva, Yulia; Kraner, James C.; Rankin, Gary O.

    2014-01-01

    Methadone is difficult to administer as a therapeutic agent because of a wide range of interindividual pharmacokinetics, likely due to genetic variability of the CYP450 enzymes responsible for metabolism to its principal metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP). CYP3A4 is one of the primary CYP450 isoforms responsible for the metabolism of methadone to EDDP in humans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms in accidental methadone fatalities. A study cohort consisting of 136 methadone-only and 92 combined methadone/benzodiazepine fatalities was selected from cases investigated at the West Virginia and Kentucky Offices of the Chief Medical Examiner. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped within the CYP3A4 gene. Observed allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared with expected frequencies obtained from The National Center for Biotechnology Information dbSNP database. SNPs rs2242480 and rs2740574 demonstrated an apparent enrichment within the methadone-only overdose fatalities compared with the control group and the general population. This enrichment was not apparent in the methadone/benzodiazepine cases for these two SNPs. Our findings indicate that there may be two or more SNPs on the CYP3A4 gene that cause or contribute to the methadone poor metabolizer phenotype. PMID:25217544

  1. Fatal methadone toxicity: potential role of CYP3A4 genetic polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Richards-Waugh, Lauren L; Primerano, Donald A; Dementieva, Yulia; Kraner, James C; Rankin, Gary O

    2014-10-01

    Methadone is difficult to administer as a therapeutic agent because of a wide range of interindividual pharmacokinetics, likely due to genetic variability of the CYP450 enzymes responsible for metabolism to its principal metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP). CYP3A4 is one of the primary CYP450 isoforms responsible for the metabolism of methadone to EDDP in humans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms in accidental methadone fatalities. A study cohort consisting of 136 methadone-only and 92 combined methadone/benzodiazepine fatalities was selected from cases investigated at the West Virginia and Kentucky Offices of the Chief Medical Examiner. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped within the CYP3A4 gene. Observed allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared with expected frequencies obtained from The National Center for Biotechnology Information dbSNP database. SNPs rs2242480 and rs2740574 demonstrated an apparent enrichment within the methadone-only overdose fatalities compared with the control group and the general population. This enrichment was not apparent in the methadone/benzodiazepine cases for these two SNPs. Our findings indicate that there may be two or more SNPs on the CYP3A4 gene that cause or contribute to the methadone poor metabolizer phenotype.

  2. Effect of CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, POR*28, and ABCB1 C3435T on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Yan, Liang; Cao, Hui-Min; Wei, Lu-Man; Yang, Wei-Hong; Zhang, Sheng-Jun; Zhang, Li-Rong

    2015-09-01

    Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker that is widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, significant individual variances in the disposition of nifedipine have been reported, and genetic factors are considered to play an important role. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, ABCB1-C3435T, and POR*28 genetic polymorphisms on nifedipine pharmacokinetics in healthy Chinese volunteers. 45 healthy Chinese volunteers enrolled in this study received a single oral dose of 90 mg nifedipine after providing written informed consent. Volunteers were genotyped for CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, POR*28, and ABCB1-C3435T. The blood concentrations of nifedipine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. There were significant differences of AUC00-∞ and AUC0-48h in the different CYP3A5*3 genotype groups (p = 0.043 and p = 0.048, respectively). The CYP3A5*3 GG group and POR*28 CT/TT group were found to have lower AUC00-∞ and Cmax compared with the POR*28 CC group (p = 0.046 and p = 0.002, respectively). In addition, the POR*28 CT/TT group was found to have longer t1/2 but lower Cmax than the CYP3A4*1G GG group (p = 0.032 and p = 0.002, respectively) as well as the CYP3A4*1G GG and the CYP3A5*3 GG group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.036, respectively) compared with the POR*28 CC group. No significant associations were found between CYP3A4*1G/ABCB1-C3435T polymorphism and pharmacokinetics of nifedipine. Both CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms are found to be associated with the difference in disposition of nifedipine; POR*28 is considered to have an impact on CYP3A4 activity.

  3. Enhancement of oral bioavailability of rivastigmine with quercetin nanoparticles by inhibiting CYP3A4 and esterases.

    PubMed

    Palle, Suresh; Neerati, Prasad

    2017-04-01

    Quercetin is a well-known flavonoid, has pharmacokinetic interaction with ester drugs due to its capability of esterase inhibition in the gut and liver. However, the interaction between quercetin nanoparticles (NQC) and rivastigmine has not been reported. Hence, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of quercetin alone and its nanoparticles on the pharmacokinetics of rivastigmine in rats. NQC prepared by antisolvent precipitation method. The influence of quercetin on the pharmacokinetics of rivastigmine was evaluated by following methods i.e. in vitro inhibitory effect on esterase enzyme in rat liver microsomes and in vitro assessment of CYP3A activity using erythromycin-N-demethylase (EMD) assay. To confirm these findings, an in vivo pharmacokinetic study of orally administered rivastigmine in rats with quercetin and NQC pretreatments was performed. The size of NQC was observed below 300nm. Quercetin significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the esterase-mediated metabolism of rivastigmine. In in vitro assessment of CYP3A activity model the erythromycin-N-demethylation (EMD) levels in quercetin treated group were significantly reduced (p<0.05). Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0- ∞ of rivastigmine were found to be increased in quercetin and NQC pretreated groups. Further, the CL/F and Vd/F of rivastigmine were significantly decreased. The results revealed that enhanced bioavailability of rivastigmine might be caused by the combination of their effects due to CYP3A and esterase inhibition, Therefore, concomitant administration of NQC influences the bioavailability of rivastigmine and also has synergetic effect in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimization of Clonazepam Therapy Adjusted to Patient’s CYP3A Status and NAT2 Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Katalin; Csukly, Gábor; Sirok, Dávid; Belic, Ales; Kiss, Ádám; Háfra, Edit; Déri, Máté; Menus, Ádám; Bitter, István

    2016-01-01

    Background: The shortcomings of clonazepam therapy include tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and adverse effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, and confusion leading to increased risk of falls. Inter-individual variability in the incidence of adverse events in patients partly originates from the differences in clonazepam metabolism due to genetic and nongenetic factors. Methods: Since the prominent role in clonazepam nitro-reduction and acetylation of 7-amino-clonazepam is assigned to CYP3A and N-acetyl transferase 2 enzymes, respectively, the association between the patients’ CYP3A status (CYP3A5 genotype, CYP3A4 expression) or N-acetyl transferase 2 acetylator phenotype and clonazepam metabolism (plasma concentrations of clonazepam and 7-amino-clonazepam) was evaluated in 98 psychiatric patients suffering from schizophrenia or bipolar disorders. Results: The patients’ CYP3A4 expression was found to be the major determinant of clonazepam plasma concentrations normalized by the dose and bodyweight (1263.5±482.9 and 558.5±202.4ng/mL per mg/kg bodyweight in low and normal expressers, respectively, P<.0001). Consequently, the dose requirement for the therapeutic concentration of clonazepam was substantially lower in low-CYP3A4 expresser patients than in normal expressers (0.029±0.011 vs 0.058±0.024mg/kg bodyweight, P<.0001). Furthermore, significantly higher (about 2-fold) plasma concentration ratio of 7-amino-clonazepam and clonazepam was observed in the patients displaying normal CYP3A4 expression and slower N-acetylation than all the others. Conclusion: Prospective assaying of CYP3A4 expression and N-acetyl transferase 2 acetylator phenotype can better identify the patients with higher risk of adverse reactions and can facilitate the improvement of personalized clonazepam therapy and withdrawal regimen. PMID:27639091

  5. CYP3A4 induction by xenobiotics: biochemistry, experimental methods and impact on drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Guenthner, Thomas; Gan, Liang-Shang; Humphreys, W Griffith

    2004-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), an enzyme that is highly expressed in the human liver and small intestine, plays a major role in the metabolism of a large variety of xenobiotics, including an estimated 50% of therapeutic drugs, as well as many endogenous compounds. The expression of CYP3A4 can be induced by xenobiotics. Such induction leads to accelerated metabolism of the xenobiotics themselves (autoinduction) or of concomitantly administered CYP3A4 substrates/drugs, thereby significantly altering their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. During the past decade, much progress has been made in our understanding of the biological mechanisms responsible for regulation of CYP3A4 expression. It is now known that many xenobiotics induce CYP3A4 expression via the pregnane X receptor (PXR) pathway, while others are thought to act through the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR). As a result, most pharmaceutical companies have recognized that it is important to evaluate CYP3A4 induction potential preclinically and are using primary cultures of human hepatocytes and/or PXR reporter gene assays. In general, the results from these two assay methods correlate well. The reporter gene assays in particular can be used to rapidly screen hundreds of drug candidates, whereas methods using primary human hepatocyte cultures may more accurately assess the potential for CYP3A4 induction in vivo. Although it is important to consider CYP3A4 induction in the early stages of the drug development process, it should be recognized that the assessment of induction potential preclinically is a difficult and imprecise endeavor and can be complicated by many factors.

  6. CYP3A-dependent drug metabolism is reduced in bacterial inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, AS; Guo, T; Shah, P; Moorthy, B; Chow, DS-L; Hu, M; Ghose, R

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Gene expression of Cyp3a11 is reduced by activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacterial components, LPS or lipoteichoic acid (LTA) respectively. The primary adaptor protein in the TLR signalling pathway, TIRAP, plays differential roles in LPS- and LTA-mediated down-regulations of Cyp3a11 mRNA. Here, we have determined the functional relevance of these findings by pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis of the Cyp3a substrate midazolam in mice. Midazolam is also metabolized by Cyp2c in mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Adult male C57BL/6, TIRAP+/+ and TIRAP−/− mice were pretreated with saline, LPS (2 mg·kg−1) or LTA (6 mg·kg−1). Cyp3a11 protein expression, activity and PK/PD studies using midazolam were performed. KEY RESULTS Cyp3a11 protein expression in LPS- or LTA-treated mice was reduced by 95% and 60% compared with saline-treated mice. Cyp3a11 activity was reduced by 70% in LPS- or LTA-treated mice. Plasma AUC of midazolam was increased two- to threefold in LPS- and LTA-treated mice. Plasma levels of 1′-OHMDZ decreased significantly only in LTA-treated mice. Both LPS and LTA decreased AUC of 1′-OHMDZ-glucuronide. In the PD study, sleep time was increased by ∼2-fold in LPS- and LTA-treated mice. LTA-mediated decrease in Cyp3a11 protein expression and activity was dependent on TIRAP. In PK/PD correlation, AUC of midazolam was increased only in LPS-treated mice compared with saline-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS LPS or LTA altered PK/PD of midazolam. This is the first study to demonstrate mechanistic differences in regulation of metabolite formation of a clinically relevant drug by Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacterial endotoxins. PMID:22394353

  7. In vivo effects of chronic contamination with depleted uranium on CYP3A and associated nuclear receptors PXR and CAR in the rat.

    PubMed

    Souidi, M; Gueguen, Y; Linard, C; Dudoignon, N; Grison, S; Baudelin, C; Marquette, C; Gourmelon, P; Aigueperse, J; Dublineau, I

    2005-10-15

    In addition to its natural presence at high concentrations in some areas, uranium has several civilian and military applications that could cause contamination of human populations, mainly through chronic ingestion. Reports describe the accumulation of this radionuclide in some organs (including the bone, kidney, and liver) after acute or chronic contamination and show that it produces chemical or radiological toxicity or both. The literature is essentially devoid of information about uranium-related cellular and molecular effects on metabolic functions such as xenobiotic detoxification. The present study thus evaluated rats chronically exposed to depleted uranium in their drinking water (1mg/(ratday)) for 9 months. Our specific aim was to evaluate the hepatic and extrahepatic mRNA expression of CYP3A1/A2, CYP2B1, and CYP1A1 as well as of the nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, and RXR in these rats. CYP3A1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in the brain (200%), liver (300%), and kidneys (900%) of exposed rats compared with control rats, while CYP3A2 mRNA levels were higher in the lungs (300%) and liver (200%), and CYP2B1 mRNA expression in the kidneys (300%). Expression of CYP1A1 mRNA did not change significantly during this study. PXR mRNA levels increased in the brain (200%), liver (150%), and kidneys (200%). Uranium caused CAR mRNA expression in the lungs to double. Expression of RXR mRNA did not change significantly in the course of this study, nor did the hepatic activity of CYP2C, CYP3A, CYP2A, or CYP2B. Uranium probably affects the expression of drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes through the PXR and CAR nuclear receptors. These results suggest that the stimulating effect of uranium on these enzymes might lead to hepatic or extrahepatic toxicity (or both) during drug treatment and then affect the entire organism.

  8. Cytochrome P450 allele CYP3A7*1C associates with adverse outcomes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, breast and lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Nick; Broderick, Peter; Catovsky, Daniel; Matakidou, Athena; Eisen, Timothy; Goldsmith, Christy; Dudbridge, Frank; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Ashworth, Alan; Ross, Gillian; Houlston, Richard S; Fletcher, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    CYP3A enzymes metabolize endogenous hormones and chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer, thereby potentially impacting drug effectiveness. Here we refined the genetic basis underlying the functional effects of a CYP3A haplotype on urinary estrone glucuronide (E1G) levels and tested for an association between CYP3A genotype and outcome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), breast, or lung cancers. The most significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was rs45446698, a SNP that tags the CYP3A7*1C allele; this SNP was associated with a 54% decrease in urinary E1G levels. Genotyping this SNP in 1,008 breast cancer, 1,128 lung cancer, and 347 CLL patients, we found that rs45446698 was associated with breast cancer mortality (hazard ratio [HR]=1.74, P=0.03), all-cause mortality in lung cancer patients (HR=1.43, P=0.009), and CLL progression (HR=1.62, P=0.03). We also found borderline evidence of a statistical interaction between the CYP3A7*1C allele, treatment of patients with a cytotoxic agent that is a CYP3A substrate and clinical outcome (Pinteraction=0.06). The CYP3A7*1C allele, which results in adult expression of the fetal CYP3A7 gene, is likely to be the functional allele influencing levels of circulating endogenous sex hormones and outcome in these various malignancies. Further studies confirming these associations and determining the mechanism by which CYP3A7*1C influences outcome are required. One possibility is that standard chemotherapy regimens that include CYP3A substrates may not be optimal for the approximately 8% of cancer patients who are CYP3A7*1C carriers. PMID:26964624

  9. Enhancement of hepatic 4-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 through CYP3A4 induction in vitro and in vivo: Implications for drug-induced osteomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhican; Lin, Yvonne S.; Dickmann, Leslie J.; Poulton, Emma-Jane; Eaton, David L.; Lampe, Johanna W.; Shen, Danny D.; Davis, Connie L.; Shuhart, Margaret C.; Thummel, Kenneth E.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term therapy with certain drugs, especially P450 inducing agents, confers an increased risk of osteomalacia that is attributed to vitamin D deficiency. Human CYP24A1, CYP3A4 and CYP27B1 catalyze the inactivation and activation of vitamin D and have been implicated in the adverse drug response. In this study, the inducibility of these enzymes and monohydroxylation of 25OHD3 were evaluated following exposure to P450 inducing drugs. With human hepatocytes, treatment with phenobarbital, hyperforin, carbamazepine and rifampin significantly increased the levels of CYP3A4 but not CYP24A1 or CYP27B1 mRNA. In addition, rifampin pretreatment resulted in an 8-fold increase in formation of the major metabolite of 25OHD3, 4β,25(OH)2D3. This inductive effect was blocked by the addition of 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin, a selective CYP3A4 inhibitor. With human renal proximal tubular HK-2 cells, treatment with the same inducers did not alter CYP3A4, CYP24A1 or CYP27B1 expression. 24R,25(OH)2D3 was the predominant monohydroxy metabolite produced from 25OHD3, but its formation was unaffected by the inducers. With healthy volunteers, the mean plasma concentration of 4β,25(OH)2D3 was increased 60% (p < 0.01) after short-term rifampin administration. This was accompanied by a statistically significant reduction in plasma 1α,25(OH)2D3 (−10%; p = 0.03), and a non-significant change in 24R,25(OH)2D3 (−8%; p = 0.09) levels. Further analysis revealed a negative correlation between the increase in 4β,25(OH)2D3 and decrease in 1α,25(OH)2D3 levels. Examination of the plasma monohydroxy metabolite/25OHD3 ratios indicated selective induction of the CYP3A4-dependent 4β-hydroxylation pathway of 25OHD3 elimination. These results suggest that induction of hepatic CYP3A4 may be important in the etiology of drug-induced osteomalacia. PMID:23212742

  10. Development of a highly reproducible system to evaluate inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 activity by natural medicines.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yu; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Takahashi, Shogo; Kumagai, Takeshi; Nagata, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of natural medicines have been reported to have inductive or inhibitive effects on the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes, upon co-administration with prescribed medicines. However, information regarding natural medicine-drug interactions that influence drug metabolism is limited owing to the lack of efficient screening method for such interactions. Therefore, to understand whether P450 activity is affected by natural medicine in small intestines, we have established frozen recombinant P450-expressing cells infected with human CYP3A4 expressing adenovirus (Ad-CYP3A4) to evaluate the effect of natural medicines on CYP3A4 activity. Ad-CYP3A4 cells were created by infecting HepG2 cells with Ad-CYP3A4 at 10 multiplicity of infection (MOI) and these cells were stored using cryopreservation medium (fAd-CYP3A4 cells) to obtain long-term consistent data and stable supplies of cells expressing a constant level of CYP3A4 activity. The CYP3A4 activity in fAd-CYP3A4 cells remained unaffected at the end of each frozen period (0, 1, 2, and 6 months). Inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 activity by typical inhibitors (ketoconazole, hyperforin) and natural medicines (Cat's Claw, Devil's Claw, Feverfew, Peppermint Oil, Red Clover, and Siberian Eleuthero) were evaluated. The inhibitors had nearly equal IC50 values in fAd-CYP3A4 cells, Ad-CYP3A4 cells and recombinant CYP3A4 microsomes. Cat's Claw, Peppermint Oil and Siberian Eleuthero inhibited CYP3A4 activity more potently than 0.1 μM ketoconazole in fAd-CYP3A4 cells. In the present study, we have successfully developed a highly reproducible system to evaluate CYP3A4 inhibition in small intestines by natural medicines.

  11. Effect of Methamphetamine on Spectral Binding, Ligand Docking and Metabolism of Anti-HIV Drugs with CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Nookala, Anantha R; Li, Junhao; Ande, Anusha; Wang, Lei; Vaidya, Naveen K; Li, Weihua; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the major drug metabolic enzyme, and is involved in the metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, especially protease inhibitors (PIs). This study was undertaken to examine the effect of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. We showed that methamphetamine exhibits a type I spectral change upon binding to CYP3A4 with δAmax and KD of 0.016±0.001 and 204±18 μM, respectively. Methamphetamine-CYP3A4 docking showed that methamphetamine binds to the heme of CYP3A4 in two modes, both leading to N-demethylation. We then studied the effect of methamphetamine binding on PIs with CYP3A4. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters spectral binding of nelfinavir but not the other type I PIs (lopinavir, atazanavir, tipranavir). The change in spectral binding for nelfinavir was observed at both δAmax (0.004±0.0003 vs. 0.0068±0.0001) and KD (1.42±0.36 vs.2.93±0.08 μM) levels. We further tested effect of methamphetamine on binding of 2 type II PIs; ritonavir and indinavir. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters the ritonavir binding to CYP3A4 by decreasing both the δAmax (0.0038±0.0003 vs. 0.0055±0.0003) and KD (0.043±0.0001 vs. 0.065±0.001 nM), while indinavir showed only reduced KD in presence of methamphetamine (0.086±0.01 vs. 0.174±0.03 nM). Furthermore, LC-MS/MS studies in high CYP3A4 human liver microsomes showed a decrease in the formation of hydroxy ritonavir in the presence of methamphetamine. Finally, CYP3A4 docking with lopinavir and ritonavir in the absence and presence of methamphetamine showed that methamphetamine alters the docking of ritonavir, which is consistent with the results obtained from spectral binding and metabolism studies. Overall, our results demonstrated differential effects of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. These findings have clinical implication in terms of drug dose adjustment of antiretroviral medication, especially with ritonavir

  12. Association of CYP3A4/5 genotypes and expression with the survival of patients with neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Mohamad H; Farah, Roula A; Farhat, Ghada N; Torbey, Paul-Henri N; Ghandour, Fatima A; Bejjani-Doueihy, Noha A; Dhaini, Hassan R

    2015-02-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a rare pediatric disease in Lebanon for which poor prognosis remains a major challenge. Genetic polymorphism of genes coding for drug‑metabolizing enzymes may influence the response of a patient to chemotherapy. This study investigates a possible association between CYP3A4/5 polymorphism and expression levels and survival in NB patients. All patients with stage III and IV NB diagnosed between 1993 and 2012 in three major hospitals in Beirut were included (n=27). Demographic information and survival time were obtained from medical records. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genotypes and expression levels were determined in archival tumors by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism and quantitative PCR, respectively. Additionally, MYCN amplification was assessed. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate potential associations, adjusting for MYCN amplification. A statistically significant increase in the risk of mortality was observed in patients with MYCN amplification [hazard ratio (HR) 4.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14‑14.80]. Patients with CYP3A5 expression levels above the median had a lower risk of mortality (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.21‑1.74) and patients with CYP3A4 expression levels above the median had a higher risk of mortality (HR 2.00, 95% CI 0.67‑5.90). CYP3A5*3/*3 homozygote mutants had a 4.3‑fold increase in the risk of mortality compared with that of homozygote wild‑type or heterozygote mutants (HR 4.30, 95% CI 0.56‑33.30). Carriers of the CYP3A4*1B mutant allele had a 52% lower risk of mortality compared with that of non‑carriers (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.06‑3.76). Although the results of the present study did not achieve statistical significance, associations were observed, which indicates that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 may modulate the clinical outcome of NB. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to characterize the effects of the polymorphism and expression

  13. Effect of Methamphetamine on Spectral Binding, Ligand Docking and Metabolism of Anti-HIV Drugs with CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Ande, Anusha; Wang, Lei; Vaidya, Naveen K.; Li, Weihua; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the major drug metabolic enzyme, and is involved in the metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, especially protease inhibitors (PIs). This study was undertaken to examine the effect of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. We showed that methamphetamine exhibits a type I spectral change upon binding to CYP3A4 with δAmax and KD of 0.016±0.001 and 204±18 μM, respectively. Methamphetamine-CYP3A4 docking showed that methamphetamine binds to the heme of CYP3A4 in two modes, both leading to N-demethylation. We then studied the effect of methamphetamine binding on PIs with CYP3A4. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters spectral binding of nelfinavir but not the other type I PIs (lopinavir, atazanavir, tipranavir). The change in spectral binding for nelfinavir was observed at both δAmax (0.004±0.0003 vs. 0.0068±0.0001) and KD (1.42±0.36 vs.2.93±0.08 μM) levels. We further tested effect of methamphetamine on binding of 2 type II PIs; ritonavir and indinavir. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters the ritonavir binding to CYP3A4 by decreasing both the δAmax (0.0038±0.0003 vs. 0.0055±0.0003) and KD (0.043±0.0001 vs. 0.065±0.001 nM), while indinavir showed only reduced KD in presence of methamphetamine (0.086±0.01 vs. 0.174±0.03 nM). Furthermore, LC-MS/MS studies in high CYP3A4 human liver microsomes showed a decrease in the formation of hydroxy ritonavir in the presence of methamphetamine. Finally, CYP3A4 docking with lopinavir and ritonavir in the absence and presence of methamphetamine showed that methamphetamine alters the docking of ritonavir, which is consistent with the results obtained from spectral binding and metabolism studies. Overall, our results demonstrated differential effects of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. These findings have clinical implication in terms of drug dose adjustment of antiretroviral medication, especially with ritonavir

  14. In vitro metabolism of piperaquine is primarily mediated by CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tina Ming-Na; Huang, Liusheng; Johnson, Marla K; Lizak, Patricia; Kroetz, Deanna; Aweeka, Francesca; Parikh, Sunil

    2012-11-01

    Piperaquine (PQ) is part of a first-line treatment regimen for Plasmodium falciparum malaria recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). We aimed to determine the major metabolic pathway(s) of PQ in vitro. A reliable, validated tandem mass spectrometry method was developed. Concentrations of PQ were measured after incubation with both human liver microsomes (HLMs) and expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s). In pooled HLMs, incubations with an initial PQ concentration of 0.3 µM resulted in a 34.8 ± 4.9% loss of substrate over 60 min, corresponding to a turnover rate of 0.009 min(-1) (r(2) = 0.9223). Miconazole, at nonspecific P450 inhibitory concentrations, resulted in almost complete inhibition of PQ metabolism. The greatest inhibition was demonstrated with selective CYP3A4 (100%) and CYP2C8 (66%) inhibitors. Using a mixture of recombinant P450 enzymes, turnover for PQ metabolism was estimated as 0.0099 min(-1); recombinant CYP3A4 had a higher metabolic rate (0.017 min(-1)) than recombinant CYP2C8 (p < .0001). Inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated PQ loss was greatest using the selective inhibitor ketoconazole (9.1 ± 3.5% loss with ketoconazole vs 60.7 ± 5.9% with no inhibitor, p < .0001). In summary, the extent of inhibition of in vitro metabolism with ketoconazole (83%) denotes that PQ appears to be primarily catalyzed by CYP3A4. Further studies to support these findings through the identification and characterization of PQ metabolites are planned.

  15. In vitro metabolism of piperaquine is primarily mediated by CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tina Ming-Na; Huang, Liusheng; Johnson, Marla K.; Lizak, Patricia; Kroetz, Deanna; Aweeka, Francesca; Parikh, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Piperaquine (PQ) is part of a first-line treatment regimen for Plasmodium falciparum malaria recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). We aimed to determine the major metabolic pathway(s) of PQ in vitro. A reliable, validated tandem mass spectrometry method was developed. Concentrations of PQ were measured after incubation with both human liver microsomes (HLMs) and expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s). In pooled HLMs, incubations with an initial PQ concentration of 0.3 µM resulted in a 34.8 ± 4.9% loss of substrate over 60 min, corresponding to a turnover rate of 0.009 min−1 (r2 = 0.9223). Miconazole, at nonspecific P450 inhibitory concentrations, resulted in almost complete inhibition of PQ metabolism. The greatest inhibition was demonstrated with selective CYP3A4 (100%) and CYP2C8 (66%) inhibitors. Using a mixture of recombinant P450 enzymes, turnover for PQ metabolism was estimated as 0.0099 min−1; recombinant CYP3A4 had a higher metabolic rate (0.017 min−1) than recombinant CYP2C8 (p < .0001). Inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated PQ loss was greatest using the selective inhibitor ketoconazole (9.1 ± 3.5% loss with ketoconazole vs 60.7 ± 5.9% with no inhibitor, p < .0001). In summary, the extent of inhibition of in vitro metabolism with ketoconazole (83%) denotes that PQ appears to be primarily catalyzed by CYP3A4. Further studies to support these findings through the identification and characterization of PQ metabolites are planned. PMID:22671777

  16. Association between urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio and CYP3A5 genotypes in a normotensive population

    PubMed Central

    RAIS, NAUSHAD; HUSSAIN, ARIF; CHAWLA, YOGESH KUMAR; KOHLI, KRISHAN K.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic polymorphism of genes involved in renal salt handling and arterial vessel tone is considered to be one of the causes of hypertension. Numerous reports suggest that cytochrome P4503A5 (CYP3A5) catalyzes 6β-hydroxylation of endogenous cortisol (CS), which is associated with sodium and water retention in the kidney and involved in the regulation of blood pressure. The purpose of the present study was to study the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP3A5 gene with the urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6β-OH-CS/CS) ratio considered as quantitative phenotypes. CS measurements of three hundred (n=300) healthy, normotensive North Indian individuals was performed on morning spot urine samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, genotyping for CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A5*6 was performed by PCR-RFLP. The results indicated a unimodal distribution of CYP3A phenotypes in the North Indian population. In further analysis, all the phenotypes were distributed into three groups, demonstrating low (n=75), intermediate (n=150) and high CYP3A activity (n=75) based on CS and 6β-OH-CS levels and log 6β-OH-CS/CS ratios. The subjects in the low and high activity groups were genotyped for the CYP3A5*3 and *6 alleles. The present study demonstrated that the allele frequencies of CYP3A5*1 and *3 were 0.29 (95% CI, 0.22–0.36) and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.64–0.78), respectively. Notably, the frequency of normal homozygotes (CYP3A5*1/*1) was significantly higher in the high activity than the low activity group (11% vs. 5%). Similarly, the frequency of mutant homozygotes (CYP3A5*3/*3) was significantly higher in the low activity group than the high activity group (57% vs. 44%). The allele frequency of CYP3A5*3 was significantly higher in the low activity group (0.76) than the high activity group (0.67). The mean 6β-OH-CS/CS ratios were 110, 76 and 69 in wild-type homozygotes (n=12), heterozygotes (n=62) and mutant homozygotes (n=76), respectively. The

  17. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis for human pregnane X receptor for the prediction of CYP3A4 induction in human hepatocytes: structure-based comparative molecular field analysis.

    PubMed

    Handa, Koichi; Nakagome, Izumi; Yamaotsu, Noriyuki; Gouda, Hiroaki; Hirono, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor [PXR (NR1I2)] induces the expression of xenobiotic metabolic genes and transporter genes. In this study, we aimed to establish a computational method for quantifying the enzyme-inducing potencies of different compounds via their ability to activate PXR, for the application in drug discovery and development. To achieve this purpose, we developed a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) for predicting enzyme-inducing potencies, based on computer-ligand docking to multiple PXR protein structures sampled from the trajectory of a molecular dynamics simulation. Molecular mechanics-generalized born/surface area scores representing the ligand-protein-binding free energies were calculated for each ligand. As a result, the predicted enzyme-inducing potencies for compounds generated by the CoMFA model were in good agreement with the experimental values. Finally, we concluded that this 3D-QSAR model has the potential to predict the enzyme-inducing potencies of novel compounds with high precision and therefore has valuable applications in the early stages of the drug discovery process.

  18. CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 involvement in the primary oxidative metabolism of hydrocodone by human liver microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Mark R; Menelaou, Andrew; Foster, David J R; Coller, Janet K; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2004-01-01

    Aim To determine the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of hydrocodone metabolism to its O- and N-demethylated products, hydromorphone and norhydrocodone, to determine the individual cytochrome P450 enzymes involved, and to predict the in vivo hepatic intrinsic clearance of hydrocodone via these pathways. Methods Liver microsomes from six CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (EM) and one CYP2D6 poor metabolizer (PM) were used to determine the kinetics of hydromorphone and norhydrocodone formation. Chemical and antibody inhibitors were used to identify the cytochrome P450 isoforms catalyzing these pathways. Expressed recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes were used to characterize further the metabolism of hydrocodone. Results Hydromorphone formation in liver microsomes from CYP2D6 EMs was dependent on a high affinity enzyme (Km = 26 µm) contributing 95%, and to a lesser degree a low affinity enzyme (Km = 3.4 mm). In contrast, only a low affinity enzyme (Km = 8.5 mm) formed this metabolite in the liver from the CYP2D6 PM, with significantly decreased hydromorphone formation compared with the livers from the EMs. Norhydrocodone was formed by a single low affinity enzyme (Km = 5.1 mm) in livers from both CYP2D6 EM and PM. Recombinant CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 formed only hydromorphone and only norhydrocodone, respectively. Hydromorphone formation was inhibited by quinidine (a selective inhibitor of CYP2D6 activity), and monoclonal antibodies specific to CYP2D6. Troleandomycin, ketoconazole (both CYP3A4 inhibitors) and monoclonal antibodies specific for CYP3A4 inhibited norhydrocodone formation. Extrapolation of in vitro to in vivo data resulted in a predicted total hepatic clearance of 227 ml h−1 kg−1 and 124 ml h−1 kg−1 for CYP2D6 EM and PM, respectively. Conclusions The O-demethylation of hydrocodone is predominantly catalyzed by CYP2D6 and to a lesser extent by an unknown low affinity cytochrome P450 enzyme. Norhydrocodone formation was attributed to CYP3A4. Comparison of

  19. In vitro and in vivo small intestinal metabolism of CYP3A and UGT substrates in preclinical animals species and humans: species differences.

    PubMed

    Komura, Hiroshi; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2011-11-01

    Intestinal first-pass metabolism has a great impact on the bioavailability of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A) and/or uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-glucoronosyltranferase (UGT) substrates in humans. In vitro and in vivo intestinal metabolism studies are essential for clarifying pharmacokinetics in animal species and for predicting the effects of human intestinal metabolism. We review species differences in intestinal metabolism both in vitro and in vivo. Based on mRNA expression levels, the major intestinal CYP3A isoform is CYP3A4 for humans, CYP3A4 (3A8) for monkeys, CYP3A9 for rats, cyp3a13 for mice, and CYP3A12 for dogs. Additionally, the intestinal-specific UGT would be UGT1A10 for humans, UGT1A8 for monkeys, and UGT1A7 for rats. In vitro and in vivo intestinal metabolism of CYP3A substrates were larger in monkeys than in humans, although a correlation in intestinal availability between monkeys and humans has been reported. Little information is available regarding species differences in in vitro and in vivo UGT activities; however, UGT-mediated in vivo intestinal metabolism has been demonstrated for raloxifene in humans and for baicalein in rats. Further assessment of intestinal metabolism, particularly for UGT substrates, is required to clarify the entire picture of species differences.

  20. Formation of A Novel Purine Metabolite through CYP3A4 Bioactivation and Glutathione Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Apuy, Julius L.; Xiang, Cathie; Franc, Sarah; Hegde, Sayee G.; Hubbard, Robert; Zhao, Jingjing; Moghaddam, Mehran F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study of novel sites of metabolism is important in understanding new mechanisms of biotransformation of a particular moiety by metabolic enzymes. This information is valuable in designing metabolically-stable compounds with drug-like properties. It may also provide insights into the existence of active and reactive metabolites. Methods: We utilized small scale incubations to generate adequate amounts of the metabolite of interest. After purification, LC-MS/MS and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) were utilized to unequivocally assign the novel site of glutathione conjugation on the purine ring system. Results: A proposed novel site of glutathione conjugation was investigated on a diaminopurine-containing molecule. It was demonstrated that the formation of the glutathione conjugate at the C-6 position of the purine ring system was due to the bioactivation of the compound to a di-imine intermediate by CYP3A4, followed by the nucleophilic addition of glutathione. Conclusion: S-glutathionylation at C-6 position of a purine was proven unequivocally. This previously unreported mechanism constitutes a novel biotransformation for purines. PMID:27165340

  1. CRISPR/Cas9 Genetic Modification of CYP3A5 *3 in HuH-7 Human Hepatocyte Cell Line Leads to Cell Lines with Increased Midazolam and Tacrolimus Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dorr, Casey R; Remmel, Rory P; Muthusamy, Amutha; Fisher, James; Moriarity, Branden S; Yasuda, Kazuto; Wu, Baolin; Guan, Weihua; Schuetz, Erin G; Oetting, William S; Jacobson, Pamala A; Israni, Ajay K

    2017-08-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 engineering of the CYP3A5 *3 locus (rs776746) in human liver cell line HuH-7 (CYP3A5 *3/*3) has led to three CYP3A5 *1 cell lines by deletion of the exon 3B splice junction or point mutation. Cell lines CYP3A5 *1/*3 sd (single deletion), CYP3A5 *1/*1 dd (double deletion), or CYP3A5 *1/*3 pm (point mutation) expressed the CYP3A5 *1 mRNA and had elevated CYP3A5 mRNA (P < 0.0005 for all engineered cell lines) and protein expression compared with HuH-7. In metabolism assays, HuH-7 had less tacrolimus (all P < 0.05) or midazolam (MDZ) (all P < 0.005) disappearance than all engineered cell lines. HuH-7 had less 1-OH MDZ (all P < 0.0005) or 4-OH (all P < 0.005) production in metabolism assays than all bioengineered cell lines. We confirmed CYP3A5 metabolic activity with the CYP3A4 selective inhibitor CYP3CIDE. This is the first report of genomic CYP3A5 bioengineering in human cell lines with drug metabolism analysis. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  2. Effect of variations in the amounts of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), BCRP (ABCG2) and CYP3A4 along the human small intestine on PBPK models for predicting intestinal first pass.

    PubMed

    Bruyère, Arnaud; Declèves, Xavier; Bouzom, Francois; Ball, Kathryn; Marques, Catie; Treton, Xavier; Pocard, Marc; Valleur, Patrice; Bouhnik, Yoram; Panis, Yves; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Mouly, Stephane

    2010-10-04

    It is difficult to predict the first-pass effect in the human intestine due to a lack of scaling factors for correlating in vitro and in vivo data. We have quantified cytochrome P450/3A4 (CYP3A4) and two ABC transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) and the breast cancer resistant protein BCRP (ABCG2), throughout the human small intestine to determine the scaling factors for predicting clearance from intestinal microsomes and develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. CYP3A4, P-gp and BCRP proteins were quantified by Western blotting and/or enzyme activities in small intestine samples from 19 donors, and mathematical trends of these expressions with intestinal localization were established. Microsome fractions were prepared and used to calculate the amount of microsomal protein per gram of intestine (MPPGI). Our results showed a trend in CYP3A4 expression decrease from the upper to the lower small intestine while P-gp expression is increasing. In contrast, BCRP expression did not vary significantly with position, but varied greatly between individuals. The MPPGI (mg microsomal protein per centimeter intestine) remained constant along the length of the small intestine, at about 1.55 mg/cm. Moreover, intrinsic clearance measured with specific CYP3A4 substrates (midazolam and an in-house Servier drug) and intestinal microsomes was well correlated with the amount of CYP3A4 (R(2) > 0.91, p < 0.01). In vivo data were more accurately predicted using PBPK models of blood concentrations of these two substrates based on the segmental distributions of these enzymes and MPPGI determined in this study. Thus, these mathematical trends can be used to predict drug absorption at different intestinal sites and their metabolism can be predicted with the MPPGI.

  3. Arsenite and its metabolites, MMA{sup III} and DMA{sup III}, modify CYP3A4, PXR and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Medina-Diaz, I.M.; Estrada-Muniz, E.; Reyes-Hernandez, O.D.; Ramirez, P.; Vega, L.; Elizondo, G.

    2009-09-01

    Arsenic is an environmental pollutant that has been associated with an increased risk for the development of cancer and several other diseases through alterations of cellular homeostasis and hepatic function. Cytochrome P450 (P450) modification may be one of the factors contributing to these disorders. Several reports have established that exposure to arsenite modifies P450 expression by decreasing or increasing mRNA and protein levels. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the predominant P450 expressed in the human liver and intestines, which is regulated mainly by the Pregnane X Receptor-Retinoid X Receptor alpha (PXR-RXR alpha) heterodimer, contributes to the metabolism of approximately half the drugs in clinical use today. The present study investigates the effect of sodium arsenite and its metabolites monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}) on CYP3A4, PXR, and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice. Sodium arsenite treatment increases mRNA, protein and CYP3A4 activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, the increase in protein expression was not as marked as compared to the increase in mRNA levels. Arsenite treatment induces the accumulation of Ub-protein conjugates, indicating that the activation of this mechanism may explain the differences observed between the mRNA and protein expression of CYP3A4 induction. Treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of DMA{sup III} induces CYP3A4 in a similar way, while treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of MMA{sup III} increases mostly mRNA, and to a lesser degree, CYP3A4 activity. Sodium arsenite and both its metabolites increase PXR mRNA, while only DMA{sup III} induces RXR alpha expression. Overall, these results suggest that sodium arsenite and its metabolites induce CYP3A4 expression by increasing PXR expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice.

  4. Hemopericardium with tamponade following rivaroxaban administration and its attenuation by CYP3A4 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, Denisse

    2016-01-01

    Novel oral anticoagulants including the factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban are important alternatives to warfarin for the prevention of thromboembolic stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The pharmacology and metabolism of these agents differ from those of the vitamin K antagonists used over the decades preceding their introduction. We present a case of spontaneous hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade following administration of rivaroxaban. A review of the patient's medications revealed a total of seven agents known to be metabolized through cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major pathway for rivaroxaban metabolism. While most physicians are familiar with recommendations to monitor renal function in patients prescribed rivaroxaban, we suspect that many fail to evaluate possible interactions with other agents having CYP3A4 inhibitory or inducer activity. PMID:27695181

  5. Comparative CYP3A4 inhibitory effects of venlafaxine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and nefazodone in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    DeVane, C Lindsay; Donovan, Jennifer L; Liston, Heidi L; Markowitz, John S; Cheng, Kenneth T; Risch, S Craig; Willard, Lauren

    2004-02-01

    An antidepressant for use in the patient receiving concomitant drug treatment, over-the-counter medications, or herbal products should lack cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4 inductive or inhibitory activity to provide the least likelihood of a drug-drug interaction. This study addresses the potential of 4 diverse antidepressants (venlafaxine, nefazodone, sertraline, and fluoxetine) to inhibit or induce CYP3A4. In a 4-way crossover design, 16 subjects received clinically relevant doses of venlafaxine, nefazodone, or sertraline for 8 days or fluoxetine for 11 days. Treatments were separated by a 7- to 14-day washout period and fluoxetine was always the last antidepressant taken. CYP3A4 activity was evaluated for each subject at baseline and following each antidepressant using the erythromycin breath test (EBT) and by the pharmacokinetics of alprazolam (ALPZ) after 2-mg dose of oral ALPZ. Compared to baseline, venlafaxine, sertraline, and fluoxetine caused no apparent inhibition or induction of erythromycin metabolism (P > 0.05). For nefazodone, a statistically significant inhibition was observed (P < 0.0005). Nefazodone was also the only antidepressant that caused a significant change in ALPZ disposition, decreasing its area under the concentration-versus-time curve (AUC; P < 0.01), and increasing its elimination half-life (16.4 vs. 12.3 hours; P < 0.05) compared with values at baseline. No significant differences were found in the pharmacokinetics of ALPZ with any of the other antidepressants tested. These results demonstrate in vivo that, unlike nefazodone, venlafaxine, sertraline, and fluoxetine do not possess significant metabolic inductive or inhibitory effects on CYP3A4.

  6. Antibiotics suppress Cyp3a in the mouse liver by reducing lithocholic acid-producing intestinal flora.

    PubMed

    Toda, Takahiro; Ohi, Kanna; Kudo, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Ito, Kiyomi; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2009-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that ciprofloxacin (CPX), a new quinolone antibiotic, suppresses Cyp3a in the mouse liver by reducing the hepatic level of lithocholic acid (LCA) produced by intestinal flora. The present study investigated the possibility that other antibiotics with antibacterial activity against LCA-producing bacteria also cause a decrease in the LCA level in the liver, leading to reduced expression of Cyp3a11. While the mRNA expression of Cyp3a11 in the liver was significantly reduced when SPF mice were administered antibiotics such as ampicillin, CPX, levofloxacin, or a combination of vancomycin and imipenem, no significant changes were observed after antibiotic treatment of GF mice lacking intestinal flora. LCA-producing bacteria in the feces as well as the hepatic level of the taurine conjugate of LCA were significantly reduced in the antibiotic-treated SPF mice, suggesting that the decrease in Cyp3a11 expression can be attributed to the reduction in LCA-producing intestinal flora following antibiotic administration. These results suggest that the administration of antibiotics with activity against LCA-producing bacteria can also cause a decrease in the LCA level in humans, which may lower CYP3A4 expression. The intestinal flora are reported to be altered not only by drugs, such as antibiotics, but also by stress, disease, and age. The findings of the present study suggest that these changes in intestinal flora could modify CYP expression and contribute to the individual differences in pharmacokinetics.

  7. Kidney transplant recipients carrying the CYP3A4*22 allelic variant have reduced tacrolimus clearance and often reach supratherapeutic tacrolimus concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pallet, N; Jannot, A-S; El Bahri, M; Etienne, I; Buchler, M; de Ligny, B H; Choukroun, G; Colosio, C; Thierry, A; Vigneau, C; Moulin, B; Le Meur, Y; Heng, A-E; Subra, J-F; Legendre, C; Beaune, P; Alberti, C; Loriot, M A; Thervet, E

    2015-03-01

    CYP3A4*22 is an allelic variant of the cytochrome P450 3A4 associated with a decreased activity. Carriers of this polymorphism may require reduced tacrolimus (Tac) doses to reach the target residual concentrations (Co). We tested this hypothesis in a population of kidney transplant recipients extracted from a multicenter, prospective and randomized study. Among the 186 kidney transplant recipients included, 9.3% (18 patients) were heterozygous for the CYP3A4*22 genotype and none were homozygous (allele frequency of 4.8%). Ten days after transplantation (3 days after starting treatment with Tac), 11% of the CYP3A4*22 carriers were within the target range of Tac Co (10-15 ng/mL), whereas among the CYP3A4*1/*1 carriers, 40% were within the target range (p = 0.02, OR = 0.19 [0.03; 0.69]). The mean Tac Co at day 10 in the CYP3A4*1/*22 group was 23.5 ng/mL (16.6-30.9) compared with 15.1 ng/mL (14-16.3) in the CYP3A4*1/*1 group, p < 0.001. The Tac Co/dose significantly depended on the CYP3A4 genotype during the follow-up (random effects model, p < 0.001) with the corresponding equivalent dose for patients heterozygous for CYP3A4*22 being 0.67 [0.54; 0.84] times the dose for CYP3A4*1/*1 carriers. In conclusion, the CYP3A4*22 allelic variant is associated with a significantly altered Tac metabolism and carriers of this polymorphism often reach supratherapeutic concentrations. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  8. Urinary 6β-Hydroxycortisol/Cortisol Ratio Most Highly Correlates With Midazolam Clearance Under Hepatic CYP3A Inhibition and Induction in Females: A Pharmacometabolomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kwang-Hee; Ahn, Li Young; Choi, Man Ho; Moon, Ju-Yeon; Lee, Jieon; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Cho, Joo-Youn

    2016-09-01

    Endogenous metabolites of cytochrome P450 (CYP3A) are useful in predicting drug-drug interactions between in vivo CYP3A inhibitors and inducers for clinical applications of CYP3A substrate drugs. This study aimed to develop predictable markers of the magnitude of hepatic CYP3A induction and inhibition in healthy female subjects using pharmacometabolomics. Twelve female subjects received midazolam during three study phases: 1 mg midazolam (control phase), 1 mg midazolam after pretreatment with 400 mg ketoconazole once daily for 4 days (CYP3A inhibition phase), and 2.5 mg midazolam after pretreatment with 600 mg rifampicin once daily for 10 days (CYP3A induction phase). Throughout the study, blood samples were collected 24 h after midazolam administration and urine samples at 12-h intervals during the 24 h before and after midazolam administration for the analysis of endogenous steroid metabolites. A statistical model was generated to predict midazolam clearance using measurements of endogenous metabolites associated with the inhibition and induction of CYP3A. Mean midazolam clearance decreased to ∼20% of control levels during the inhibition phase and increased more than 2-fold during the induction phase. Of the urine and plasma metabolites measured, the 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio was most significantly correlated with midazolam clearance during hepatic CYP3A inhibition and induction. Our results suggest that the urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio is the best predictor of hepatic CYP3A activity under both maximal inhibition and maximal induction. Furthermore, the predictive model including 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol as a covariate could be applied to predict the magnitude of CYP3A-mediated drug interactions.

  9. The role of CYP3A4 mRNA transcript with shortened 3'-untranslated region in hepatocyte differentiation, liver development, and response to drug induction.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Gaedigk, Roger; Hart, Steven N; Leeder, J Steven; Zhong, Xiao-bo

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) metabolizes more than 50% of prescribed drugs. The expression of CYP3A4 changes during liver development and may be affected by the administration of some drugs. Alternative mRNA transcripts occur in more than 90% of human genes and are frequently observed in cells responding to developmental and environmental signals. Different mRNA transcripts may encode functionally distinct proteins or contribute to variability of mRNA stability or protein translation efficiency. The purpose of this study was to examine expression of alternative CYP3A4 mRNA transcripts in hepatocytes in response to developmental signals and drugs. cDNA cloning and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) were used to identify CYP3A4 mRNA transcripts. Three transcripts were found in HepaRG cells and liver tissues: one represented a canonical mRNA with full-length 3'-untranslated region (UTR), one had a shorter 3'-UTR, and one contained partial intron-6 retention. The alternative mRNA transcripts were validated by either rapid amplification of cDNA 3'-end or endpoint polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quantification of the transcripts by RNA-Seq and real time quantitative PCR revealed that the CYP3A4 transcript with shorter 3'-UTR was preferentially expressed in developed livers, differentiated hepatocytes, and in rifampicin- and phenobarbital-induced hepatocytes. The CYP3A4 transcript with shorter 3'-UTR was more stable and produced more protein compared with the CYP3A4 transcript with canonical 3'-UTR. We conclude that the 3'-end processing of CYP3A4 contributes to the quantitative regulation of CYP3A4 gene expression through alternative polyadenylation, which may serve as a regulatory mechanism explaining changes of CYP3A4 expression and activity during hepatocyte differentiation and liver development and in response to drug induction.

  10. Prediction of tacrolimus metabolism and dosage requirements based on CYP3A4 phenotype and CYP3A5*3 genotype in Chinese renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xi; Zhu, Li-jun; Cai, Ning-fang; Zheng, Li-yun; Cheng, Ze-neng

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To examine how the endogenous CYP3A4 phenotype and CYP3A5*3 genotype of Chinese renal transplant recipients influenced the dose-corrected trough concentration (C0/D) and weight-corrected daily dose (D/W) of tacrolimus. Methods: A total of 101 medically stable kidney transplant recipients were enrolled, and their blood and urine samples were gathered. The endogenous CYP3A4 phenotype was assessed by the ratio of 6β-hydroxycortisol and 6β-hydroxycortisone to cortisol and cortisone in urine. CYP3A5*3 genotype was determined using PCR-RELP. Results: In overall renal transplant recipients, a multiple regression analysis including the endogenous CYP3A4 phenotype, CYP3A5*3 genotype and post-operative period accounted for 60.1% of the variability in C0/D ratio; a regression equation consisting of the endogenous CYP3A4 phenotype, post-operative period, body mass index, CYP3A5*3 genotype, gender, total bilirubin and age explained 61.0% of the variability in D/W ratio. In CYP3A5*3/*3 subjects, a combination of the endogenous CYP3A4 phenotype, post-operative period and age was responsible for 65.3% of the variability in C0/D ratio; a predictive equation including the endogenous CYP3A4 phenotype, post-operative period, body mass index, gender and age explained 61.2% of the variability in the D/W ratio. Base on desired target range of tacrolimus trough concentrations, individual daily dosage regimen was calculated, and all the observed daily doses were within the predicted range. Conclusion: This study provides the equations to predict tacrolimus metabolism and dosage requirements based on the endogenous CYP3A4 phenotype, CYP3A5*3 genotype and other non-genetic variables. PMID:26924289

  11. The expression levels of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 serve as potential prognostic biomarkers in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qixing, Mao; Juqing, Xu; Yajing, Wang; Gaochao, Dong; Wenjie, Xia; Run, Shi; Anpeng, Wang; Lin, Xu; Feng, Jiang; Jun, Wang

    2017-04-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma remains to be a high-mortality disease with few effective prognostic biomarkers. Novel biomarkers are urgently demanded to supplement the current prognostic biomarkers. Here, we explored the prognostic value of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in lung adenocarcinoma. The tissue microarray was made up of lung adenocarcinoma samples and corresponding normal lung tissues from Nanjing Medical University affiliated Cancer Hospital Tissue Bank. The expression of CYP3A4, together with CYP3A5, was detected by the chip data from Gene Expression Omnibus datasets and immunohistochemistry staining of the tissue microarray. Then, we assessed the relationships between CYP3A4 or CYP3A5 expression level and clinicopathological factors to estimate the clinical significance. Kaplan-Meier curves were applied to analyze the prognosis. Univariate and multivariate Cox analyses were subsequently applied to identify the independent prognostic factors. Immunohistochemistry staining results showed that by comparison with matched normal tissues, CYP3A4 was frequently hyper-expressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues while CYP3A5 was hypo-expressed, which was consistent with the Gene Expression Omnibus analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high-CYP3A4 or low-CYP3A5 expression level predicted poor survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Multivariate Cox analysis found that hypo-expression of CYP3A5 was an independent prognostic factor. Further study revealed that combination of these two markers exhibited a more powerful predictor of poor prognosis, which could target to more accurate survival of lung adenocarcinoma. Our findings indicate that combination of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker in lung adenocarcinoma, which contribute to the precision of predicting the survival in lung adenocarcinoma.

  12. Effects of licochalcone A on the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in rats: possible role of intestinal CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibition by licochalcone A.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Seok; Choi, Jun-Shik; Choi, Dong-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effects of licochalcone A (a herbal medicine) on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine and its main metabolite, dehydronifedipine, in rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters of nifedipine and/or dehydronifedipine were determined after oral and intravenous administration of nifedipine to rats in the absence (control) and presence of licochalcone A (0.4, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg). The effect of licochalcone A on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity was also evaluated. Nifedipine was mainly metabolized by CYP3A4. Licochalcone A inhibited CYP3A4 enzyme activity in a concentration-dependent manner with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 ) of 5.9 μm. In addition, licochalcone A significantly enhanced the cellular accumulation of rhodamine-123 in MCF-7/ADR cells overexpressing P-gp. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC) and the peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) of oral nifedipine were significantly greater and higher, respectively, with licochalcone A. The metabolite (dehydronifedipine)-parent AUC ratio (MR) in the presence of licochalcone A was significantly smaller compared with the control group. The above data could be due to an inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4 and P-gp by licochalcone A. The AUCs of intravenous nifedipine were comparable without and with licochalcone A, suggesting that inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4 and P-gp was almost negligible. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Evidences for CYP3A4 autoactivation in the desulfuration of dimethoate by the human liver.

    PubMed

    Buratti, Franca M; Testai, Emanuela

    2007-11-20

    Dimethoate (DIM) is an organophosphorothionate (OPT) pesticide used worldwide as a systemic insecticide and acaricide. It is characterized by low-to-moderate acute mammalian toxicity; similarly to the other OPT pesticides, its mode of action is mediated by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), exerted by its toxic metabolite dimethoate-oxon or omethoate (OME), which is also used as a direct acting pesticide. Human hepatic DIM bioactivation to the toxic metabolite OME has been characterized by using c-DNA expressed human CYPs and human liver microsomes (HLM) also in the presence of CYP-specific chemical inhibitors, with a method based on AChE inhibition. The obtained kinetic parameters and AChE IC(50) have been compared with those previously obtained with other OPTs, indicating a lower efficiency in DIM desulfuration reaction and a lower potency in inhibiting AChE. Results showed that, similarly to the other OPTs tested so far, at low DIM concentration OME formation is mainly catalysed by CYP1A2, while the role of 3A4 is relevant at high DIM levels. Differently from the other OPTs, DIM desulfuration reaction showed an atypical kinetic profile, likely due to CYP3A4 autoactivation. The sigmoidicity degree of the activity curve increased with the level of CYP3A4 in HLM or disappeared in the presence of a CYP3A4 chemical inhibitor. This atypical kinetic behaviour can be considered one of the possible explanations for the recent findings that among patients hospitalized following OPT intoxication, DIM ingestion gave different symptoms and more severe poisoning (23.1% of fatal cases versus total) than chlorpyrifos (8% of deaths), which has a lower LD(50) value. Since DIM-poisoned patients poorly responded to pralidoxime, the possibility to use CYP3A4 inhibitors could be considered as a complementary treatment.

  14. CAR-mediated up-regulation of CYP3A4 expression in LS174T cells by Chinese herbal compounds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling; Bi, Hui-Chang; Liu, Ya-He; Wang, Yi-Tao; Xue, Xin-Ping; Huang, Min

    2011-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is an orphan nuclear receptor which has been shown to participate in the activation of human CYP3A4, which metabolizes more than 50% of clinically used drugs. We investigated the effects of an array of compounds isolated from herbal medicines such as Rheum palmatum (Da Huang), Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn (Qian Hu), Cortex Mori Radicis (Sang Bai Pi), Radix Asteris (Zi Wan), Salvia miltiorrhiza (Dan Shen), Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc (Hu Zhang), and Ginkgo biloba (Yin Xing) on the CAR-mediated transactivation of CYP3A4. The effect of herbal compounds on CYP3A4 expression was measured using a CYP3A4 luciferase reporter gene assay in transiently transfected human intestinal LS174T cells. The gene expression, protein expression, and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 in LS174T cells transfected with CAR were determined by using real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and LC-MS/MS-based substrate assay. The study found that in CAR-transfected cells, praeruptorin A, C, and D significantly induced CYP3A4 luciferase activity, mRNA expression, and functional activity through the CAR-mediated pathway; conversely, induction was not found in untransfected cells. Our findings suggest that these herbal compounds can significantly up-regulate the CYP3A4 gene via the CAR-mediated pathway, which has important implications in herb-drug interactions.

  15. D₂-dopaminergic receptor-linked pathways: critical regulators of CYP3A, CYP2C, and CYP2D.

    PubMed

    Daskalopoulos, Evangelos P; Lang, Matti A; Marselos, Marios; Malliou, Foteini; Konstandi, Maria

    2012-10-01

    Various hormonal and monoaminergic systems play determinant roles in the regulation of several cytochromes P450 (P450s) in the liver. Growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and insulin are involved in P450 regulation, and their release is under dopaminergic control. This study focused on the role of D₂-dopaminergic systems in the regulation of the major drug-metabolizing P450s, i.e., CYP3A, CYP2C, and CYP2D. Blockade of D₂-dopaminergic receptors with either sulpiride (SULP) or 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)piperidin-4-ol (L-741,626) markedly down-regulated CYP3A1/2, CYP2C11, and CYP2D1 expression in rat liver. This suppressive effect appeared to be mediated by the insulin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/FOXO1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, inactivation of the GH/STAT5b signaling pathway appeared to play a role in D₂-dopaminergic receptor-mediated down-regulating effects on these P450s. SULP suppressed plasma GH levels, with subsequently reduced activation of STAT5b, which is the major GH pulse-activated transcription factor and has up-regulating effects on various P450s in hepatic tissue. Levels of prolactin, which exerts down-regulating control on P450s, were increased by SULP, which may contribute to SULP-mediated effects. Finally, it appears that SULP-induced inactivation of the cAMP/protein kinase A/cAMP-response element-binding protein signaling pathway, which is a critical regulator of pregnane X receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α, and inactivation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase contribute to SULP-induced down-regulation of the aforementioned P450s. Taken together, the present data provide evidence that drugs acting as D₂-dopaminergic receptor antagonists might interfere with several major signaling pathways involved in the regulation of CYP3A, CYP2C, and CYP2D, which are critical enzymes in drug metabolism, thus affecting the effectiveness of the majority of prescribed drugs and the toxicity and carcinogenic potency of a plethora of

  16. Chemoprotective activity of boldine: modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kubínová, R; Machala, M; Minksová, K; Neca, J; Suchý, V

    2001-03-01

    Possible chemoprotective effects of the naturally occurring alkaloid boldine, a major alkaloid of boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.) leaves and bark, including in vitro modulations of drug-metabolizing enzymes in mouse hepatoma Hepa-1 cell line and mouse hepatic microsomes, were investigated. Boldine manifested inhibition activity on hepatic microsomal CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and CYP3A-dependent testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase activities and stimulated glutathione S-transferase activity in Hepa-1 cells. In addition to the known antioxidant activity, boldine could decrease the metabolic activation of other xenobiotics including chemical mutagens.

  17. A food contaminant ochratoxin A suppresses pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated CYP3A4 induction in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Doricakova, Aneta; Vrzal, Radim

    2015-11-04

    Ochratoxin A (OCHA) is a mycotoxin, which can be found in food such as coffee, wine, cereals, meat, nuts. Since it is absorbed via gastrointestinal tract, it is reasonable to anticipate that the liver will be the first organ to which OCHA comes into the contact before systemic circulation. Many xenobiotics are metabolically modified after the passage of the liver to biologically more active substances, sometimes with more harmful activity. Promoting own metabolism is often achieved via transcriptional regulation of biotransformation enzymes through ligand-activated transcription factors. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) belongs to such a group of regulators and it was demonstrated to be activated by many compounds of synthetic as well as natural origin. Our intention was to investigate if OCHA is capable of activating the PXR with consequent induction of PXR-regulated CYP3A4 gene. We found that OCHA does not activate PXR but displays antagonist-like behavior when combined with rifampicin (RIF) in gene reporter assay in human embryonal kidney cells (Hek293T). It was very weak inducer of CYP3A4 mRNA in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and it antagonized RIF-mediated CYP3A4 induction of mRNA as well as protein. In addition, it caused the decline of PXR protein as well as mRNA which was faster than that with actinomycin D, a transcription inhibitor. Since we found that OCHA induced the expression of miR-148a, which was described to regulate PXR expression, we conclude that antagonist-like behavior of OCHA is not due to the antagonism itself but due to the downregulation of PXR gene expression. Herein we provide important findings which bring a piece of puzzle into the understanding of mechanism of toxic action of ochratoxin A.

  18. Isolation and Identification of Intestinal CYP3A Inhibitors from Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) using Human Intestinal Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunkyung; Sy-Cordero, Arlene; Graf, Tyler N.; Brantley, Scott J.; Paine, Mary F.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2010-01-01

    Cranberry juice is used routinely, especially among women and the elderly, to prevent and treat urinary tract infections. These individuals are likely to be taking medications concomitantly with cranberry juice, leading to concern about potential drug-dietary substance interactions, particularly in the intestine, which, along with the liver, is rich in expression of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Using a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach, a cranberry juice product was identified recently that elicited a pharmacokinetic interaction with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, a cranberry juice inhibited intestinal first-pass midazolam metabolism. In vitro studies were initiated to identify potential enteric CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry via a bioactivity-directed fractionation approach involving dried whole cranberry [Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae)], midazolam, and human intestinal microsomes (HIM). Three triterpenes (maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid) were isolated. The inhibitory potency (IC50) of maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid was 7.4, 8.8, and <10 μM, respectively, using HIM as the enzyme source and was 2.8, 4.3, and <10 μM, respectively, using recombinant CYP3A4 as the enzyme source. These in vitro inhibitory potencies, which are within the range of those reported for two CYP3A inhibitory components in grapefruit juice, suggest that these triterpenes may have contributed to the midazolam-cranberry juice interaction observed in the clinical study. PMID:20717876

  19. Isolation and identification of intestinal CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) using human intestinal microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunkyung; Sy-Cordero, Arlene; Graf, Tyler N; Brantley, Scott J; Paine, Mary F; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2011-02-01

    Cranberry juice is used routinely, especially among women and the elderly, to prevent and treat urinary tract infections. These individuals are likely to be taking medications concomitantly with cranberry juice, leading to concern about potential drug-dietary substance interactions, particularly in the intestine, which, along with the liver, is rich in expression of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Using a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach, a cranberry juice product was identified recently that elicited a pharmacokinetic interaction with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, cranberry juice inhibited intestinal first-pass midazolam metabolism. In vitro studies were initiated to identify potential enteric CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry via a bioactivity-directed fractionation approach involving dried whole cranberry [Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae)], midazolam, and human intestinal microsomes (HIM). Three triterpenes (maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid) were isolated. The inhibitory potency (IC(50)) of maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid was 7.4, 8.8, and < 10 µM, respectively, using HIM as the enzyme source and 2.8, 4.3, and < 10 µM, respectively, using recombinant CYP3A4 as the enzyme source. These in vitro inhibitory potencies, which are within the range of those reported for two CYP3A inhibitory components in grapefruit juice, suggest that these triterpenes may have contributed to the midazolam-cranberry juice interaction observed in the clinical study. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. A CAR-responsive enhancer element locating approximately 31 kb upstream in the 5'-flanking region of rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A1 gene.

    PubMed

    Gamou, Toshie; Habano, Wataru; Terashima, Jun; Ozawa, Shogo

    2015-04-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is one of the principal regulators of hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) 3A (CYP3A). cDNA-mediated expression of a mature rat CAR (rCAR) into rat hepatoma cells induced CYP3A1 and CYP2B mRNAs. Aberrant rCAR failed in these inductions. Three important human CYP3A4 regulatory elements (REs), proximal ER6 (proER6), xenobiotic responsive enhancer module (XREM) and constitutive liver enhancer module (CLEM), support constitutive and inducible expression of CYP3As mediated by CAR and pregnane X receptor (PXR). NHR-scan software predicted proER6, XREM and CLEM at -255 b, -8 kb and -11.5 kb, respectively of CYP3A4, but neither XREM nor CLEM was predicted in rat CYP3A. A luciferase reporter construct carrying a 5'-flanking sequence of CYP3A1 (-31,739 to -31,585 from its transcription initiation site) revealed important for the rCAR-dependent transactivation of CYP3A1. This region includes two putative binding motifs of nuclear receptors (DR4 and DR2), a putative hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 binding motif (HNF1), nuclear factor-kappa B binding motif (NFκB), activator protein 1 binding motif (AP-1), and ecotropic viral integration site 1 binding motif (Evi1). We hereby conclude DR4 and/or DR2 motifs being primarily responsible and HNF1 being synergistically functioning elements for the rCAR-mediated transcription of CYP3A1. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CYP3A5*3 and MDR1 C3435T are influencing factors of inter-subject variability in rupatadine pharmacokinetics in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yuqing; Yuan, Zhao; Yang, Jingzhi; Xia, Chunhua; Li, Xinhua; Huang, Shibo; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Mingyi

    2016-04-01

    Rupatadine (RUP) is an oral antihistamine and platelet-activating factor antagonist and is shown as the substrate of CYP3A5 and P-gp. The significant interindividual differences of CYP3A5 and P-gp often cause bioavailability differences of some clinical drugs. The present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 and MDR1 on RUP pharmacokinetics in healthy male Chinese volunteer subjects. Blood samples were collected from 36 subjects before and after a single, oral RUP 10 mg dose. A PCR-RFLP assay was used to genotype CYP3A5*3 and assess MDR1 C3435T variation. A validated LC-MS/MS method quantified plasma RUP concentration. The relationship between RUP plasma concentration, pharmacokinetic parameters, and polymorphic alleles (CYP3A5 and MDR1) were assessed. Plasma RUP concentrations were lower for CYP3A5*1/*1 carriers than for CYP3A5*3/*3 and CYP3A5*1/*3 carriers. Mean C(max), AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞) were significantly lower, and the CLz and Vd were significantly higher in the CYP3A5 wild-type group, than in the CYP3A5 mutated group. MDR1 CT and MDR1 TT carriers had lower plasma RUP concentrations than MDR1 CC carriers. The mean C(max), AUC(0-t), AUC(0-∞) and T max were significantly lower in the TT group than in the CC and CT groups. The mean CLz was higher in the TT group than in the CC and CT groups, but not significantly. These results suggest that CYP3A5 and MDR1 may play a key role in the variability of RUP metabolism and transport, respectively. CYP3A5 and MDR1 polymorphisms may be the main explanation for the differences observed in RUP pharmacokinetics, and therefore may provide a rationale for safe and effective clinical use of RUP. Our research lays down a solid theory foundation to guide the safe and effective clinical use of RUP and a route to achieve individualized therapy.

  2. Oxidase uncoupling in heme monooxygenases: Human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 in Nanodiscs

    SciTech Connect

    Grinkova, Yelena V.; Denisov, Ilia G.; McLean, Mark A.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2013-01-25

    reconstituted in Nanodiscs. We discovered that the “oxidase” uncoupling pathway is also operating in the substrate free form of the enzyme with rate of this pathway substantially increasing with the first substrate binding event. Surprisingly, a large fraction of the reducing equivalents used by the P450 system is wasted in this oxidase pathway. In addition, the overall coupling with testosterone and bromocryptine as substrates is significantly higher in the presence of anionic lipids, which is attributed to the changes in the redox potential of CYP3A4 and reductase.

  3. Optimization of drug-drug interaction study design: comparison of minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic models on prediction of CYP3A inhibition by ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Mao, Jialin; Chien, Jenny Y; Hall, Stephen D

    2013-07-01

    Ketoconazole is a potent CYP3A inhibitor used to assess the contribution of CYP3A to drug clearance and quantify the increase in drug exposure due to a strong inhibitor. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been used to evaluate treatment regimens resulting in maximal CYP3A inhibition by ketoconazole but have reached different conclusions. We compare two PBPK models of the ketoconazole-midazolam interaction, model 1 (Chien et al., 2006) and model 2 implemented in Simcyp (version 11), to predict 16 published treatment regimens. With use of model 2, 41% of the study point estimates of area under the curve (AUC) ratio and 71% of the 90% confidence intervals were predicted within 1.5-fold of the observed, but these increased to 82 and 100%, respectively, with model 1. For midazolam, model 2 predicted a maximal midazolam AUC ratio of 8 and a hepatic fraction metabolized by CYP3A (f(m)) of 0.97, whereas model 1 predicted 17 and 0.90, respectively, which are more consistent with observed data. On the basis of model 1, ketoconazole (400 mg QD) for at least 3 days and substrate administration within 2 hours is required for maximal CYP3A inhibition. Ketoconazole treatment regimens that use 200 mg BID underestimate the systemic fraction metabolized by CYP3A (0.86 versus 0.90) for midazolam. The systematic underprediction also applies to CYP3A substrates with high bioavailability and long half-lives. The superior predictive performance of model 1 reflects the need for accumulation of ketoconazole at enzyme site and protracted inhibition. Model 2 is not recommended for inferring optimal study design and estimation of fraction metabolized by CYP3A.

  4. Differential regulation of hepatic CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 genes by constitutive androstane receptor but not pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Faucette, Stephanie R; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Smith, Cornelia M; Negishi, Masahiko; Lecluyse, Edward L; Wang, Hongbing

    2006-06-01

    Accumulated evidence suggests that cross-talk between the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) results in shared transcriptional activation of CYP2B and CYP3A genes. Although most data imply symmetrical cross-regulation of these genes by rodent PXR and CAR, the actual selectivities of the corresponding human receptors are unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the symmetry of human (h) PXR and hCAR cross-talk by comparing the selectivities of these receptors for CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. Human hepatocyte studies revealed nonselective induction of both CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by hPXR activation but marked preferential induction of CYP2B6 by selective hCAR activation. Gel shift assays demonstrated that hPXR exhibited strong and relatively equal binding to all functional response elements in both CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 genes, whereas hCAR displayed significantly weak binding to the CYP3A4 proximal ER6 motif. In cell-based transfection assays, hCAR displayed greater activation of CYP2B6 reporter gene expression compared with CYP3A4 with constructs containing both proximal and distal regulatory elements. Furthermore, in agreement with binding observations, transfection assays using promoter constructs containing repeats of CYP2B6 DR4 and CYP3A4 ER6 motifs revealed an even greater difference in reporter activation by hCAR. In contrast, hPXR activation resulted in less discernible differences between CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 reporter gene expression. These results suggest asymmetrical cross-regulation of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by hCAR but not hPXR in that hCAR exhibits preferential induction of CYP2B6 relative to CYP3A4 because of its weak binding and functional activation of the CYP3A4 ER6.

  5. Effect of botanical immunomodulators on human CYP3A4 inhibition: implications for concurrent use as adjuvants in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Patil, Dada; Gautam, Manish; Gairola, Sunil; Jadhav, Suresh; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2014-03-01

    Many botanical immunomodulators are used as adjuvants along with cancer chemotherapy. However, information on the impact of concurrent administration of such botanicals on pharmacokinetics of chemotherapy agents is inadequate. This study investigates inhibitory activities of 3 popular botanical adjuvants: ASPARAGUS RACEMOSU: (root aqueous extract; ARE), WITHANIA SOMNIFER: (root aqueous extract; WSE), and TINOSPORA CORDIFOLI: (stem aqueous extract, TCE) on human CYP3A4 isoenzyme, responsible for metabolism of several chemotherapy agents. . Testosterone 6-β hydroxylation was monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography as an indicator of CYP3A4 catalytic activities. Ketoconazole (positive control) and extracts were studied at their in vivo-relevant concentrations. TCE showed mild inhibition while no significant inhibitory activities were observed in WSE and ARE. TCE was further fractionated to obtain polar and nonpolar fractions. The nonpolar fraction showed significant CYP3A4 inhibition with IC50 13.06 ± 1.38 µg/mL. Major constituents of nonpolar fraction were identified using HPLC-DAD-MS profiling as berberine, jatrorrhizine, and palmatine, which showed IC50 values as 6.25 ± 0.30, 15.18 ± 1.59, and 15.53 ± 1.89 µg/mL, respectively. Our findings suggest that constituents of TCE extract especially protoberberine alkaloids have the potential to interact with cancer chemotherapy agents that are metabolized by CYP3A4 in vivo.

  6. Dipeptide Prodrug Approach to Evade Efflux Pumps and CYP3A4 Metabolism of Lopinavir

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mitesh; Sheng, Ye; Mandava, Nanda K.; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2014-01-01

    Oral absorption of lopinavir (LPV) is limited due to P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein2 (MRP2) mediated efflux by intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, LPV is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4 enzymes. In the present study, dipeptide prodrug approach was employed to circumvent efflux pumps (P-gp and MRP2) and CYP3A4 mediated metabolism of LPV. Valine-isoleucine-LPV (Val-Ile-LPV) was synthesized and identified by LCMS and NMR techniques. The extent of LPV and Val-Ile-LPV interactions with P-gp and MRP2 was studied by uptake and transport studies across MDCK-MDR1 and MDCK-MRP2 cells. To determine the metabolic stability, time and concentration dependent degradation study was performed in liver microsomes. Val-Ile-LPV exhibited significantly higher aqueous solubility relative to LPV. This prodrug generated higher stability under acidic pH. Val-Ile-LPV demonstrated significantly lower affinity towards P-gp and MRP2 relative to LPV. Transepithelial transport of Val-Ile-LPV was significantly higher in the absorptive direction (apical to basolateral) relative to LPV. Importantly, Val-Ile-LPV was recognized as an excellent substrate by peptide transporter. Moreover, Val-Ile-LPV displayed significantly higher metabolic stability relative to LPV. Results obtained from this study suggested that dipeptide prodrug approach is a viable option to elevate systemic levels of LPV following oral administration PMID:25261710

  7. Association of CYP3A4*18B and CYP3A5*3 polymorphism with cyclosporine-related liver injury in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hua-wen; Liu, Hui-ming; Li, Yuan-qi; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Li; Yu, Ai-rong; Wu, Xiao-chun

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between CYP3A4*18B and CYP3A5*3 polymorphism and cyclosporine-related liver injuries in Chinese renal transplant recipients. We genotyped 339 renal transplant recipients treated with a triple immunosuppressive regimen including cyclosporine for CYP3A4*18B and CYP3A5*3 polymorphism using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The incidence of liver injury in the study population was 36.9% (125/339). At 1 month after transplantation, the trough concentration of cyclosporine (C0) in the group with CYP3A4*1/*1(GG alleles) was significantly higher than in the group with CYP3A4*18B/*1 8B(AA alleles) (p < 0.05). At 3 months after transplantation, the C0 in the group with CYP3A4*1/*1 and group with CYP3A4*1/*18B was markedly higher than in the group with CYP3A4*18B/*18B (p < 0.05). The GG genotypes of CYP3A4*18B were more common in the liver injury group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that subjects carrying the GG genotypes had a 5.136- and 2.528-fold higher risk of developing cyclosporine-related liver injury than those with the AA and GA genotypes. When adjusted for sex, the risk of the CYP3A4*18B genotypes was OR = 4.969 for GG compared to AA (p = 0.030), and OR = 2.634 for GG compared to GA (p = 0.025). However, no association was observed between CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms with cyclosporine-related liver injury. These results suggested that the wild type of CYP3A4*18B is a risk factor for the development of cyclosporine- related liver injuries in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

  8. Constitutive and xenobiotics-induced expression of a novel CYP3A gene from zebrafish larva

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, H.-P.; Hseu, Tzong-Hsiung; Buhler, Donald R.; Wang, W.-D.; Hu, C.-H. . E-mail: chhu@mail.ntou.edu.tw

    2005-06-15

    In mammals, CYP3A isozymes collectively comprise the largest portion of the liver and small intestinal CYP protein. They are involved in the metabolism of an extensive range of endogenous substrates and xenobiotics and make a significant contribution to the termination of the action of steroid hormones. A full-length cDNA of CYP3A gene, named CYP3A65, was cloned from zebrafish by RT-PCR. The CYP3A65 mRNA was initially transcribed only in the liver and intestine upon hatching of the zebrafish embryos. Like the human CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription in the foregut region was enhanced by treatment of the zebrafish larvae with the steroid dexamethasone and the macrocyclic antibiotic rifampicin. Differing from mammalian CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription was also elicited by 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during early larval stages. Repression of AHR2 translation by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides abrogated both of constitutive and TCDD-stimulated CYP3A65 transcription in larval intestine. These findings suggested that the AHR2 signaling pathway plays an essential role in CYP3A65 transcription.

  9. Drug interactions with mitotane by induction of CYP3A4 metabolism in the clinical management of adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kroiss, Matthias; Quinkler, Marcus; Lutz, Werner K; Allolio, Bruno; Fassnacht, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Mitotane [1-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethane, (o,p'-DDD)] is the only drug approved for the treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and has also been used for various forms of glucocorticoid excess. Through still largely unknown mechanisms, mitotane inhibits adrenal steroid synthesis and adrenocortical cell proliferation. Mitotane increases hepatic metabolism of cortisol, and an increased replacement dose of glucocorticoids is standard of care during mitotane treatment. Recently, sunitinib, a multityrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has been found to be rapidly metabolized by CYP3A4 during mitotane treatment, indicating clinically relevant drug interactions with mitotane. We here summarize the current evidence concerning mitotane-induced changes in hepatic monooxygenase expression, list drugs potentially affected by mitotane-related CYP3A4 induction and suggest alternatives. For example, using standard doses of macrolide antibiotics is unlikely to reach sufficient plasma levels, making fluoroquinolones in many cases a superior choice. Similarly, statins such as simvastatin are metabolized by CYP3A4, whereas others like pravastatin are not. Importantly, in the past, several clinical trials using cytotoxic drugs but also targeted therapies in ACC yielded disappointing results. This lack of antineoplastic activity may be explained in part by insufficient drug exposure owing to enhanced drug metabolism induced by mitotane. Thus, induction of CYP3A4 by mitotane needs to be considered in the design of future clinical trials in ACC.

  10. Investigation of the effect of the uneven distribution of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein in the intestine on the barrier function against xenobiotics: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takao; Maeda, Kazuya; Nakai, Chikako; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2013-09-01

    CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) have similar substrate specificities and work together to form an intestinal absorption barrier against xenobiotics. Previous reports have indicated that CYP3A4 expression decreases gradually, whereas P-gp expression increases, from the upper to lower small intestine. The physiological rationale for this uneven distribution of CYP3A4 and P-gp as a barrier against xenobiotics has not been determined. To clarify the effect of these distribution patterns on barrier function, we constructed a mathematical model that included passive membrane permeation, P-gp-mediated apical efflux, and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism, and we simulated the effects of these distribution patterns on the fraction absorbed of co-substrates without changing their overall activities. The simulation showed that the physiological distribution patterns of both CYP3A4 and P-gp result in the lowest fraction absorbed, but not for drugs with low CYP3A4 and high P-gp-mediated clearances. These results suggest that the distribution pattern of CYP3A4 is especially important for the barrier function. On the other hand, physiological distribution pattern of P-gp exerts the maximum barrier function for dual good substrates for P-gp and CYP3A4, but even distribution of P-gp mostly suppresses the intestinal absorption of good P-gp, but poor CYP3A4 substrates. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Generation and validation of rapid computational filters for cyp2d6 and cyp3a4.

    PubMed

    Ekins, Sean; Berbaum, Jennifer; Harrison, Richard K

    2003-09-01

    CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 represent two particularly important members of the cytochrome p450 enzyme family due to their involvement in the metabolism of many commercially available drugs. Avoiding potent inhibitory interactions with both of these enzymes is highly desirable in early drug discovery, long before entering clinical trials. Computational prediction of this liability as early as possible is desired. Using a commercially available data set of over 1750 molecules to train computer models that were generated with commercially available software enabled predictions of inhibition for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, which were compared with empirical data. The results suggest that using a recursive partitioning (tree) technique with augmented atom descriptors enables a statistically significant rank ordering of test-set molecules (Spearman's rho of 0.61 and 0.48 for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, respectively), which represents an increased rate of identifying the best compounds when compared with the random rate. This approach represents a valuable computational filter in early drug discovery to identify compounds that may have p450 inhibition liabilities prior to molecule synthesis. Such computational filters offer a new approach in which lead optimization in silico can occur with virtual molecules simultaneously tested against multiple enzymes implicated in drug-drug interactions, with a resultant cost savings from a decreased level of molecule synthesis and in vitro screening.

  12. CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms and zolpidem metabolism in the Chinese Han population: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Min; Shi, Yan; Xiang, Ping

    2013-04-10

    Zolpidem (ZPD) is an imidazopyridine hypnotic and little is known about the pharmacogenetics of ZPD. Our objective was to evaluate inter-individual genetic variation in conjunction with metabolic ratios of ZPD found in a toxicological analysis. Healthy individuals (n=300) were genotyped for CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 by allele-specific primer extension followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Twenty-four Chinese volunteers were chosen and divided into the following four groups (n=6/group): group 1: CYP3A4*18 (wild-type, W), CYP2C19*2 (W); group 2: CYP3A4*18 (mutant, M), CYP2C19*2 (W); group 3: CYP3A4*18 (W), CYP2C19*2 (M); and group 4: CYP3A4*18 (M), CYP2C19*2 (M). ZPD and its major metabolites zolpidem 6-carboxylic acid (ZCA) and zolpidem phenyl-4-carboxylic acid (ZPCA) were determined after oral administration of ZPD (10mg), using an UPLC-MS/MS method. Positive correlations between CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 alleles and ZPD metabolism were found. The results of this study show that CYP3A4*18 increases CYP3A4 activity while CYP2C19*2 reduces CYP2C19 activity; the latter mutation is associated with the poor metabolism of ZPD in the Chinese Han population. The results also suggest that genetic factors play a major role in the metabolism of individual drugs with implications for both forensic science and clinical pharmacogenetics.

  13. Evaluation of 6β-hydroxycortisol, 6β-hydroxycortisone and their combination as endogenous probes for inhibition of CYP3A4 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chi-Chi; Templeton, Ian; Thummel, Kenneth E; Davis, Connie; Kunze, Kent L; Isoherranen, Nina

    2012-01-01

    An endogenous probe for CYP3A activity would be useful for early identification of in vivo CYP3A4 inhibitors. The aim of this study was to determine whether formation clearance (CLf) of the sum of 6β-hydroxycortisol and 6β-hydroxycortisone is a useful probe of CYP3A4 inhibition in vivo. In human liver microsomes, formation of 6β-hydroxycortisol and 6β-hydroxycortisone was catalyzed by CYP3A4, and itraconazole inhibited these reactions with IC50,u of 3.1nM and 3.4nM, respectively. The in vivo IC50,u of itraconazole towards the combined CLf of 6β-hydroxycortisone and 6β-hydroxycortisol was 1.6nM. The greater inhibitory potency in vivo is likely due to circulating inhibitory itraconazole metabolites. The maximum in vivo inhibition was 59% suggesting that fm,CYP3A4 for cortisol and cortisone 6β-hydroxylation is approximately 60%. Based on significantly decreased CLf of 6β-hydroxycortisone and 6β-hydroxycortisol after 200mg and 400mg single doses of itraconazole, this endogenous probe can be used to detect moderate and potent CYP3A4 inhibition in vivo. PMID:21490593

  14. CYP3A5 regulates prostate cancer cell growth by facilitating nuclear translocation of AR.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Ranjana; Goodman, Oscar B

    2015-04-01

    The central role of androgen receptor (AR) signaling is established in prostate cancer growth and progression. We propose CYP3A5 is part of a feedback loop that modulates the sensitivity of AR to androgen exposure. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of regulation of AR expression by CYP3A5. To identify the role of CYP3A5 in regulating AR signaling, CYP3A5 protein expression was inhibited using CYP3A5 siRNA and azamulin. Both cell fractionation and immunocytochemical approaches in combination with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and R1881 treatment were used to evaluate changes in AR nuclear translocation. CYP3A5 siRNA blocked growth of LNCaP and C4-2 cells by 30-60% (P ≤ 0.005). Azamulin, a CYP3A pharmacologic inhibitor, reduced the growth of LNCaP, C4-2 and 22RV1 lines by ∼ 40% (P ≤ 0.005). CYP3A5 siRNA inhibited growth in response to DHT and R1881 treatment in LNCaP and C4-2 by decreasing nuclear AR localization and resulting in diminished PSA and TMPRSS2 expression. Decreased AR nuclear localization resulting from CYP3A5 inhibition resulted in growth inhibition comparable to IC60 and IC40 of bicalutamide in LNCaP and C4-2 cell lines. Conversely, the CYP3A inducer rifampicin enhanced AR nuclear localization. As CYP3A5 regulates the nuclear translocation of AR; co-targeting CYP3A5 may provide a novel strategy for enhancing the efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy. Consequentially, these data suggest that concomitant medications may impact androgen deprivation therapy's efficacy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. MDR- and CYP3A4-mediated drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2006-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multiple drug resistance associated proteins (MRPs), and cytochrome P450 3A4 together constitute a highly efficient barrier for many orally absorbed drugs. Multidrug regimens and corresponding drug-drug interactions are known to cause many adverse drug reactions and treatment failures. Available literature, clinical reports, and in vitro studies from our laboratory indicate that many drugs are substrates for both P-gp and CYP3A4. Our primary hypothesis is that transport and metabolism of protease inhibitors (PIs) and NNRTIs will be altered when administered in combination with azole antifungals, macrolide, fluroquinolone antibiotics, statins, cardiovascular agents, immune modulators, and recreational drugs [benzodiazepines, cocaine, lysergic acid dithylamide (LSD), marijuana, amphetamine (Meth), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and opiates] due to efflux, and/or metabolism at cellular targets. Therefore, such drug combinations could be a reason for the unexpected and unexplainable therapeutic outcomes. A number of clinical reports on drug interaction between PIs and other classes (macrolide antibiotics, azole antifungals, cholesterol lowering statins, cardiovascular medicines, and immunomodulators) are discussed in this article. MDCKII-MDR1 was employed as an in vitro model to evaluate the effects of antiretrovirals, azole antifungals, macrolide, and fluroquinolone antibiotics on efflux transporters. Ketoconazole (50 muM) enhanced the intracellular concentration of (3)H ritonavir. The inhibitory effects of ketoconazole and MK 571 on the efflux of (3)H ritonavir were comparable. An additive effect was observed with simultaneous incorporation of ketoconazole and MK 571. Results of (3)H ritonavir uptake studies were confirmed with transcellular transport studies. Several fluroquinolones were also evaluated on P-gp-mediated efflux of (3)H cyclosporin and 14C erythromycin. These in vitro studies indicate that grepafloxacin, levofloxacin

  16. CYP3A4 expression in breast cancer and its association with risk factors in Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Floriano-Sanchez, Esau; Rodriguez, Noemi Cardenas; Bandala, Cindy; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Lopez-Cruz, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    In Mexico, breast cancer (BCa) is the leading type of cancer in women. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is a superfamily of major oxidative enzymes that metabolize carcinogens and many antineoplastic drugs. In addition, these enzymes have influence on tumor development and tumor response to therapy. In this report, we analyzed the protein expression in patients with BCa and in healthy women. Links with some clinic-pathological characteristic were also assessed. Immunohistochemical analyses were conducted on 48 sets of human breast tumors and normal breast tissues enrolled in Hospital Militar de Especialidades de la Mujer y Neonatologia and Hospital Central Militar, respectively, during the time period from 2010 to 2011. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 or Fisher exact tests to estimate associations and the Mann Whitney U test for comparison of group means. We found a significant CYP3A4 overexpression in BCa stroma and gland regions in comparison with healthy tissue. A significant association between protein expression with smoking, alcoholism and hormonal contraceptives use was also observed. Additionally, we observed estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) positive association in BCa. We suggest that CYP3A4 expression promotes BCa development and can be used in the prediction of tumor response to different treatments. One therapeutic approach may thus be to block CYP3A4 function.

  17. Regulation of zebrafish CYP3A65 transcription by AHR2

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chin-Teng; Chung, Hsin-Yu; Su, Hsiao-Ting; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Hu, Chin-Hwa

    2013-07-15

    CYP3A proteins are the most abundant CYPs in the liver and intestines, and they play a pivotal role in drug metabolism. In mammals, CYP3A genes are induced by various xenobiotics through processes mediated by PXR. We previously identified zebrafish CYP3A65 as a CYP3A ortholog that is constitutively expressed in gastrointestinal tissues, and is upregulated by treatment with dexamethasone, rifampicin or tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, the underlying mechanism of TCDD-mediated CYP3A65 transcription is unclear. Here we generated two transgenic zebrafish, Tg(CYP3A65S:EGFP) and Tg(CYP3A65L:EGFP), which contain 2.1 and 5.4 kb 5′ flanking sequences, respectively, of the CYP3A65 gene upstream of EGFP. Both transgenic lines express EGFP in larval gastrointestinal tissues in a pattern similar to that of the endogenous CYP3A65 gene. Moreover, EGFP expression can be significantly induced by TCDD exposure during the larval stage. In addition, EGFP expression can be stimulated by kynurenine, a putative AHR ligand produced during tryptophan metabolism. AHRE elements in the upstream regulatory region of the CYP3A65 gene are indispensible for basal and TCDD-induced transcription. Furthermore, the AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required to mediate effective CYP3A65 transcription. AHRE sequences are present in the promoters of many teleost CYP3 genes, but not of mammalian CYP3 genes, suggesting that AHR/AHR2-mediated transcription is likely a common regulatory mechanism for teleost CYP3 genes. It may also reflect the different environments that terrestrial and aquatic organisms encounter. - Highlights: • Tg(CYP3A65:EGFP) and CYP3A65 exhibits identical expression pattern. • CYP3A65 can be significantly induced by TCDD or kynurenine. • The AHRE elements are required to mediate CYP3A65 transcription. • The AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required for CYP3A65 transcription. • AHRE elements are present in many teleost CYP3 genes, but not in

  18. CYP3A5 polymorphism in Mexican renal transplant recipients and its association with tacrolimus dosing.

    PubMed

    García-Roca, Pilar; Medeiros, Mara; Reyes, Herlinda; Rodríguez-Espino, Benjamín Antonio; Alberú, Josefina; Ortiz, Lourdes; Vásquez-Perdomo, Mayela; Elizondo, Guillermo; Morales-Buenrostro, Luis Eduardo; Mancilla Urrea, Eduardo; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto

    2012-05-01

    Variability in CYP3A5 expression associated with differences in tacrolimus bioavailability has been documented. The wild-type allele CYP3A5*1 expresses the functional protein, whereas the CYP3A5*3 allele is a splice variant with a premature stop codon and encodes a truncated nonfunctional protein. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of CYP3A5*1 and CYP3A5*3 in 291 (124 adults, 167 pediatric) Mexican renal transplant recipients, evaluate the tacrolimus dose requirements by genotype and compare genotype frequency data with that of other populations. We carried out a multicenter study. Patients were recruited from three institutions located in Mexico City. Genotyping of the CYP3A5*1 and CYP3A5*3 alleles was performed by direct DNA sequencing. Eighteen patients (6.2%) were CYP3A5*1*1 homozygous carriers or functional protein expresser homozygous, 121 patients (41.6 %) were CYP3A5*1*3 were heterozygous carriers or heterozygous expressers, and 152 patients (52.2%) were CYP3A5*3*3 homozygous carriers or homozygous nonexpressers. There was a statistically significant difference in frequency of the functional and nonfunctional expresser phenotypes from those reported for Black and Caucasian, but not for South Asian populations. The CYP3A5 phenotype had a significant impact in tacrolimus bioavailability, as wild-type carriers required higher dosing compared to mutated carriers to achieve similar drug trough levels. Patients with CYP3A5*1*1 genotype had a median dose requirement of 0.16 mg/kg/day, CYP3A5*1*3 patients had a median tacrolimus dose of 0.13 mg/kg/day and CYP3A5*3*3 had a median dose of 0.07 mg/kg/day (Kruskal-Wallis, p <0.0001). Of the Mexican transplant recipients, 52.2% were CYP3A5*3*3 and required significantly lower tacrolimus dose than those with CYP3A5*1 allele. Copyright © 2012 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Global pharmacogenomics: distribution of CYP3A5 polymorphisms and phenotypes in the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Vargens, Daniela D; Santoro, Ana Beatriz; Hutz, Mara H; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete; Pena, Sérgio D J; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Struchiner, Claudio José

    2014-01-01

    The influence of self-reported "race/color", geographical origin and genetic ancestry on the distribution of three functional CYP3A5 polymorphisms, their imputed haplotypes and inferred phenotypes was examined in 909 healthy, adult Brazilians, self-identified as White, Brown or Black ("race/color" categories of the Brazilian census). The cohort was genotyped for CYP3A5*3 (rs776746), CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272) and CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343), CYP3A5 haplotypes were imputed and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes were inferred according to the number of defective CYP3A5 alleles. Estimates of the individual proportions of Amerindian, African and European ancestry were available for the entire cohort. Multinomial log-linear regression models were applied to infer the statistical association between the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles, haplotypes and phenotypes (response variables), and self-reported Color, geographical region and ancestry (explanatory variables). We found that Color per se or in combination with geographical region associates significantly with the distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes, whereas geographical region per se influences the frequency distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles. The odds of having the default CYP3A5*3 allele and the poor metabolizer phenotype increases continuously with the increase of European ancestry and decrease of African ancestry. The opposite trend is observed in relation to CYP3A5*6, CYP3A5*7, the default CYP3A5*1 allele, and both the extensive and intermediate phenotypes. No significant effect of Amerindian ancestry on the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles or phenotypes was observed. In conclusion, this study strongly supports the notion that the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of pharmacogenomic studies, and dealt with as a continuous variable, rather than proportioned in arbitrary categories that do not capture the diversity of the

  20. Global Pharmacogenomics: Distribution of CYP3A5 Polymorphisms and Phenotypes in the Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Vargens, Daniela D.; Santoro, Ana Beatriz; Hutz, Mara H.; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete; Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Struchiner, Claudio José

    2014-01-01

    The influence of self-reported “race/color”, geographical origin and genetic ancestry on the distribution of three functional CYP3A5 polymorphisms, their imputed haplotypes and inferred phenotypes was examined in 909 healthy, adult Brazilians, self-identified as White, Brown or Black (“race/color” categories of the Brazilian census). The cohort was genotyped for CYP3A5*3 (rs776746), CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272) and CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343), CYP3A5 haplotypes were imputed and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes were inferred according to the number of defective CYP3A5 alleles. Estimates of the individual proportions of Amerindian, African and European ancestry were available for the entire cohort. Multinomial log-linear regression models were applied to infer the statistical association between the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles, haplotypes and phenotypes (response variables), and self-reported Color, geographical region and ancestry (explanatory variables). We found that Color per se or in combination with geographical region associates significantly with the distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes, whereas geographical region per se influences the frequency distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles. The odds of having the default CYP3A5*3 allele and the poor metabolizer phenotype increases continuously with the increase of European ancestry and decrease of African ancestry. The opposite trend is observed in relation to CYP3A5*6, CYP3A5*7, the default CYP3A5*1 allele, and both the extensive and intermediate phenotypes. No significant effect of Amerindian ancestry on the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles or phenotypes was observed. In conclusion, this study strongly supports the notion that the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of pharmacogenomic studies, and dealt with as a continuous variable, rather than proportioned in arbitrary categories that do not capture the diversity

  1. Polymorphisms in CYP3A5, CYP3A4, and ABCB1 are not associated with cyclosporine pharmacokinetics nor with cyclosporine clinical end points after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bouamar, Rachida; Hesselink, Dennis A; van Schaik, Ron H N; Weimar, Willem; Macphee, Iain A M; de Fijter, Johan W; van Gelder, Teun

    2011-04-01

    The association of CYP3A5, CYP3A4, and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cyclosporine (CsA) pharmacokinetics is controversial. The authors studied the influence of these SNPs on CsA pharmacokinetics as well as on the incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) and renal function after kidney transplantation. One hundred seventy-one patients participating in an international, randomized controlled trial were genotyped for CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1B and the ABCB1 1236 C>T, 2677 G>T/A, and 3435 C>T SNPs. The patients were treated with CsA, mycophenolate mofetil, and glucocorticoids. CsA was dosed to reach predose concentrations (C0) or two hours postdose concentrations (C2). Pharmacokinetic parameters were measured on Days 3 and 10 and Months 1, 3, 6, and 12 after transplantation. Renal function was assessed by measuring serum creatinine and calculating the creatinine clearance. The incidence of BPAR and delayed-graft function was recorded. CYP3A5, CYP3A4, and ABCB1 genotype were not associated with dose-adjusted CsA C0 or C2. The incidence of BPAR in this cohort was 16% and was comparable between the different ABCB1 genotype groups. No significant difference in the incidence of BPAR was found between CYP3A5 expressers (10%) and nonexpressers (18%) (P = 0.24) nor was there a difference in the incidence of BPAR between CYP3A4*1 homozygotes (5%) versus CYP3A4*1B carriers (18%) (P = 0.13). There were no differences with regard to creatinine clearance between the different CYP3A and ABCB1 genotype groups. According to the results, determination of CYP3A and ABCB1 SNPs pretransplantation is not helpful in determining the CsA starting dose and does not aid in predicting the risk of BPAR or worse renal function in an individual patient.

  2. Reductive metabolism of oxymatrine is catalyzed by microsomal CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenqin; Shi, Jian; Zhu, Lijun; Dong, Lingna; Luo, Feifei; Zhao, Min; Wang, Ying; Hu, Ming; Lu, Linlin; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2015-01-01

    Oxymatrine (OMT) is a pharmacologically active primary quinolizidine alkaloid with various beneficial and toxic effects. It is confirmed that, after oral administration, OMT could be transformed to the more toxic metabolite matrine (MT), and this process may be through the reduction reaction, but the study on the characteristics of this transformation is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of this transformation of OMT in the human liver microsomes (HLMs) and human intestinal microsomes (HIMs) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms involved in this transformation. The current studies demonstrated that OMT could be metabolized to MT rapidly in HLMs and HIMs and CYP3A4 greatly contributed to this transformation. All HLMs, HIMs, and CYP3A4 isoform mediated reduction reaction followed typical biphasic kinetic model, and Km, Vmax, and CL were significant higher in HLMs than those in HIMs. Importantly, different oxygen contents could significantly affect the metabolism of OMT, and with the oxygen content decreased, the formation of metabolite was increased, suggesting this transformation was very likely a reduction reaction. Results of this in vitro study elucidated the metabolic pathways and characteristics of metabolism of OMT to MT and would provide a theoretical basis and guidance for the safe application of OMT. PMID:26586934

  3. Effects of Ayurvedic Rasayana botanicals on CYP3A4 isoenzyme system.

    PubMed

    Borse, Swapnil P; Kamble, Bhagyashree B

    2015-05-01

    Consuming botanical dietary supplements or herbal drugs along with prescription drugs may lead to potential pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) herb-drug interactions (HDI). The present study focuses on the importance of and novel approach for assessing HDI in integrative medicine with case examples of two frequently-used Ayurvedic Rasayana botanicals. The aqueous extracts of Asparagus racemosus (ARE) and Gymnema sylvester (GSE) were prepared as per Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Chemoprofiling of these extracts was done using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, ARE was characterized for the presence of shatavarins IV and I using HPLC & mass spectroscopy respectively. Effects of ARE and GSE were investigated on rat liver microsome using testosterone probe drug assay. The changes in formation of metabolite (6-β hydroxy testosterone) were monitored on incubation of testosterone alone, testosterone with ketoconazole, ARE and GSE using HPLC. Half inhibitory concentration (IC50) was used to predict plausible HDI. ARE and GSE showed no inhibition with IC50 values >1 000 μg/mL while the standard inhibitor ketoconazole completely abolished CYP3A4-dependent activity at 0.531 μg/mL and IC50 was found to be 0.036 μg/mL. ARE and GSE prepared as per Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India were found to be safe for CYP3A4-mediated inhibitory HDI in rats. Our in vitro study suggests the need of further in vivo investigation for HDI in order to provide clinical relevance.

  4. Modeling of drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction by using human iPS cell-derived enterocyte-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Negoro, Ryosuke; Takayama, Kazuo; Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-15

    Many drugs have potential to induce the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), in small intestinal enterocytes. Therefore, a model that can accurately evaluate drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction is urgently needed. In this study, we overlaid Matrigel on the human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived enterocyte-like cells (hiPS-ELCs) to generate the mature hiPS-ELCs that could be applied to drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test. By overlaying Matrigel in the maturation process of enterocyte-like cells, the gene expression levels of intestinal markers (VILLIN, sucrase-isomaltase, intestine-specific homeobox, caudal type homeobox 2, and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein) were enhanced suggesting that the enterocyte-like cells were maturated by Matrigel overlay. The percentage of VILLIN-positive cells in the hiPS-ELCs found to be approximately 55.6%. To examine the CYP3A4 induction potential, the hiPS-ELCs were treated with various drugs. Treatment with dexamethasone, phenobarbital, rifampicin, or 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 resulted in 5.8-fold, 13.4-fold, 9.8-fold, or 95.0-fold induction of CYP3A4 expression relative to that in the untreated controls, respectively. These results suggest that our hiPS-ELCs would be a useful model for CYP3A4 induction test. - Highlights: • The hiPS-ELCs were matured by Matrigel overlay. • The hiPS-ELCs expressed intestinal nuclear receptors, such as PXR, GR and VDR. • The hiPS-ELC is a useful model for the drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test.

  5. Use of immortalized human hepatocytes to predict the magnitude of clinical drug-drug interactions caused by CYP3A4 induction.

    PubMed

    Ripp, Sharon L; Mills, Jessica B; Fahmi, Odette A; Trevena, Kristen A; Liras, Jennifer L; Maurer, Tristan S; de Morais, Sonia M

    2006-10-01

    Cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4) is the principal drug-metabolizing enzyme in human liver. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) caused by induction of CYP3A4 can result in decreased exposure to coadministered drugs, with potential loss of efficacy. Immortalized hepatocytes (Fa2N-4 cells) have been proposed as a tool to identify CYP3A4 inducers. The purpose of the current studies was to characterize the effect of known inducers on CYP3A4 in Fa2N-4 cells, and to determine whether these in vitro data could reliably project the magnitude of DDIs caused by induction. Twenty-four compounds were chosen for these studies, based on previously published data using primary human hepatocytes. Eighteen compounds had been shown to be positive for induction, and six compounds had been shown to be negative for induction. In Fa2N-4 cells, all 18 positive controls produced greater than 2-fold maximal CYP3A4 induction, and all 6 negative controls produced less than 1.5-fold maximal CYP3A4 induction. Subsequent studies were conducted to determine the relationship between in vitro induction data and in vivo induction response. The approach was to relate in vitro induction data (E(max) and EC(50) values) with efficacious free plasma concentrations to calculate a relative induction score. This score was then correlated with decreases in area under the plasma concentration versus time curve values for coadministered CYP3A4 object drugs (midazolam or ethinylestradiol) from previously published clinical DDI studies. Excellent correlations (r(2) values >0.92) were obtained, suggesting that Fa2N-4 cells can be used for identification of inducers as well as prediction of the magnitude of clinical DDIs.

  6. Impact of the CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR genetic polymorphisms on tacrolimus metabolism in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-Jiang; Li, Liang; Lin, Li; Jiang, Hai-Xia; Zhong, Ze-Yan; Li, Wei-Mo; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zheng, Ping; Tan, Xu-Hui; Zhou, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing the rejection of solid organ transplants. The efficacy of tacrolimus shows considerable variability, which might be related to genetic variation among recipients. We conducted a retrospective study of 240 Chinese renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus as immunosuppressive drug. The retrospective data of all patients were collected for 40 days after transplantation. Seventeen SNPs of CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR were identified by the SNaPshot assay. Tacrolimus blood concentrations were obtained on days 1-3, days 6-8 and days 12-14 after transplantation, as well as during the period of the predefined therapeutic concentration range. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to examine the effect of genetic variation on the tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio (C 0/D) at different time points. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions of patients who achieved the target C 0 range in the different genotypic groups at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 after transplantation. After correction for multiple testing, there was a significant association of C 0/D with CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C at different time points after transplantation. The proportion of patients in the IL-10 rs1800871-TT group who achieved the target C 0 range was greater (p = 0.004) compared to the IL-10 rs1800871-CT and IL-10 rs1800871-CC groups at week 3 after transplantation. CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4 *1G, CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C and IL-10 rs1800871 C>T might be potential polymorphisms affecting the interindividual variability in tacrolimus metabolism among Chinese renal transplant recipients.

  7. Secretion of albumin and induction of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in novel three-dimensional culture system for human hepatocytes using micro-space plate.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Masuhiro; Hagi, Mieko; Ejiri, Yoko; Kishimoto, Sanae; Horie, Toru; Narimatsu, Shizuo; Naito, Shinsaku

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a novel primary three-dimensional culture system for human hepatocytes using micro-space plates. The functional activity of human hepatocytes in primary culture was determined by measuring albumin secretion from hepatocytes to medium and measuring expression levels of albumin, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA. Albumin secretion was higher in micro-space plates compared with traditional plates after 72 h of culture; the levels of albumin secretion from hepatocytes to medium in culture using micro-space plates after 96 h of culture were 2.7-fold higher than those in culture using traditional plates, and secretion of albumin in micro-space plate culture subsequently remained constant. Expression levels of albumin, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA in the culture of hepatocytes were significantly higher using micro-space plates than using traditional plates. The inducibility of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA after exposure to inducers in hepatocyte culture on micro-space plates was comparable to that in culture on traditional plates, while expression of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA after exposure to inducers was higher on micro-space plates than on traditional plates. The present study demonstrates that a novel primary three-dimensional culture system of cryopreserved human hepatocytes using micro-space plates could be used for evaluating the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in humans. This in vitro method may thus be useful for screening the induction potency of new drug candidates.

  8. Effects of triclosan on the detoxification system in the yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco): expressions of CYP and GST genes and corresponding enzyme activity in phase I, II and antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Ku, Peijia; Wu, Xiaoyan; Nie, Xiangping; Ou, Ruikang; Wang, Lan; Su, Tian; Li, Yigang

    2014-11-01

    Triclosan (TCS), a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent widely used in pharmaceuticals and personal case products (PPCPs), has been universally detected in aquatic ecosystem in recent years. Unfortunately, there is limited information about its potential impacts on responses of genes and enzymes related to fish detoxification. In the present work, we cloned CYP3A and alpha-GST of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and tested the transcriptional expression of CYP1A, CYP3A and GST as well as the alterations of their corresponding enzymes, including ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND), erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT), and also the oxidative product malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver of P. fulvidraco exposed to TCS. Amino acids of CYP3A and GST were deduced and phylogenetic tree was constructed respectively. High identity percent was exhibited between P. fulvidraco and other species, such as other fish, birds and mammals. Results indicated that TCS significantly elevated CYP1A and GST but decreased CYP3A expression, EROD activity and MDA content at lower concentrations of TCS at 24h. Moreover, CYP3A and GST were significantly inhibited at 72 h but induced at 168 h at lower concentrations. However, CYP3A was always induced at the highest concentration during the exposure period. Furthermore, CYP3A, GST, GST enzyme and MDA content exhibited a dose-effect relationship to some extent, but no significant responses were observed in ERND, APND and CAT except for individual treatments. Taken together, EROD was the most sensitive to TCS exposure as compared to other enzymes. Meanwhile, mRNA responses were more sensitive in yellow catfish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between cytochrome CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness in a Korean study population.

    PubMed

    Han, Jun Hyun; Lee, Yong Seong; Kim, Hae Jong; Lee, Shin Young; Myung, Soon Chul

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated genetic variants of the androgen metabolism genes CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 to determine whether they play a role in the development of prostate cancer (PCa) in Korean men. The study population included 240 pathologically diagnosed cases of PCa and 223 age-matched controls. Among the 789 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) database variants detected, 129 were reported in two Asian groups (Han Chinese and Japanese) in the HapMap database. Only 21 polymorphisms of CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 were selected based on linkage disequilibrium in Asians (r2 = 1), locations (SNPs in exons were preferred), and amino acid changes and were assessed. In addition, we performed haplotype analysis for the 21 SNPs in CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 genes. To determine the association between genotype and haplotype distributions of patients and controls, logistic analyses were carried out, controlling for age. Twelve sequence variants and five major haplotypes were identified in CYP17A1. Five sequence variants and two major haplotypes were identified in CYP3A4. Four sequence variants and four major haplotypes were observed in CYP3A43. CYP17A1 haplotype-2 (Ht-2) (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.18) was associated with PCa susceptibility. CYP3A4 Ht-2 (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.02-3.43) was associated with PCa metastatic potential according to tumor stage. rs17115149 (OR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.04-3.68) and CYP17A1 Ht-4 (OR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.07-4.11) showed a significant association with histologic aggressiveness according to Gleason score. Genetic variants of CYP17A1 and CYP3A4 may play a role in the development of PCa in Korean men.

  10. Impact of the Herbal Breviscapine on the Pharmacokinetics of Simvastatin in Rats: The Involvement of CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Ju, Aixia; Li, Yang Yang; Qu, Zhe; Li, Qiuhong

    2017-03-13

    The effect of breviscapine injection on the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin and the mRNA expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme was investigated with rats. The rats were pretreated for 8 consecutive days with breviscapine injection (20 mg/kg/day, i. v.), followed by administration of simvastatin through gavage (40 mg/kg). The control rats received the corresponding volume of saline solution for the pretreatment. Blood samples were collected at varied time points after simvastatin administration and the liver was harvested after the last collection of the blood sample for measurement of the CYP3A4 mRNA expression. Pre-treatment with breviscapine injection led to increased plasma concentration of simvastatin, showing 57% increase for AUC0-∞ (P<0.01), 31% increase for C max (P<0.01), and 36% decrease for the total plasma clearance, compared with the control. Pre-treatment with breviscapine injection also inhibited the mRNA expression of the hepatic CYP3A4. These findings indicate that pre-treatment with breviscapine injection could increase the plasma concentration of simvastatin, possibly by inhibiting the expression of the hepatic CYP3A4, and combined use of breviscapine with simvastatin may improve the simvastatin efficacy and reduce its adverse reactions through reduced its dosage.

  11. CYP2C8 but not CYP3A4 is important in the pharmacokinetics of montelukast

    PubMed Central

    Karonen, Tiina; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Backman, Janne T

    2012-01-01

    AIM According to product information, montelukast is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP2C9. However, CYP2C8 was also recently found to be involved. Our aim was to study the effects of selective CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of montelukast. METHODS In a randomized crossover study, 11 healthy subjects ingested gemfibrozil 600 mg, itraconazole 100 mg (first dose 200 mg) or both, or placebo twice daily for 5 days, and on day 3, 10 mg montelukast. Plasma concentrations of montelukast, gemfibrozil, itraconazole and their metabolites were measured up to 72 h. RESULTS The CYP2C8 inhibitor gemfibrozil increased the AUC(0,∞) of montelukast 4.3-fold and its t1/2 2.1-fold (P < 0.001). Gemfibrozil impaired the formation of the montelukast primary metabolite M6, reduced the AUC and Cmax of the secondary (major) metabolite M4 by more than 90% (P < 0.05) and increased those of M5a and M5b (P < 0.05). The CYP3A4 inhibitor itraconazole had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetic variables of montelukast or its M6 and M4 metabolites, but markedly reduced the AUC and Cmax of M5a and M5b (P < 0.05). The effects of the gemfibrozil-itraconazole combination on the pharmacokinetics of montelukast did not differ from those of gemfibrozil alone. CONCLUSIONS CYP2C8 is the dominant enzyme in the biotransformation of montelukast in humans, accounting for about 80% of its metabolism. CYP3A4 only mediates the formation of the minor metabolite M5a/b, and is not important in the elimination of montelukast. Montelukast may serve as a safe and useful CYP2C8 probe drug. PMID:21838784

  12. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by herbal remedies frequently used by cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Engdal, Silje; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2009-07-01

    The herbal remedies Natto K2, Agaricus, mistletoe, noni juice, green tea and garlic, frequently used by cancer patients, were investigated for their in vitro inhibition potential of cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) metabolism. To our knowledge, only garlic and green tea had available data on the possible inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism. Metabolic studies were performed with human c-DNA baculovirus expressed CYP3A4. Testosterone was used as a substrate and ketoconazole as a positive quantitative inhibition control. The formation of 6-beta-OH-testosterone was quantified by a validated HPLC methodology. Green tea was the most potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 metabolism (IC(50): 73 microg/mL), followed by Agaricus, mistletoe and noni juice (1324, 3594, >10 000 microg/mL, respectively). All IC(50) values were high compared with those determined for crude extracts of other herbal remedies. The IC(50)/IC(25) ratios for the inhibiting herbal remedies ranged from 2.15 to 2.67, indicating similar inhibition profiles of the herbal inhibitors of CYP3A4. Garlic and Natto K2 were classified as non-inhibitors. Although Agaricus, noni juice, mistletoe and green tea inhibited CYP3A4 metabolism in vitro, clinically relevant systemic or intestinal interactions with CYP3A4 were considered unlikely, except for a probable inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4 by the green tea product. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. CYP3A4-based drug-drug interaction: CYP3A4 substrates' pharmacokinetic properties and ketoconazole dose regimen effect.

    PubMed

    Boulenc, Xavier; Nicolas, Olivier; Hermabessière, Stéphanie; Zobouyan, Isabelle; Martin, Valérie; Donazzolo, Yves; Ollier, Céline

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the magnitude of the CYP3A4 inhibitory effect of 2 dosing regimens of ketoconazole and the influence of the pharmacokinetic properties of the CYP3A4 substrate on the extent of the substrate exposure increase. For this purpose, a clinical study was conducted and PBPK modeling simulations were performed. A crossover study was conducted in healthy subjects. The study was designed to compare the effects of different regimens of reversible CYP3A4 inhibitors, i.e., ketoconazole 400 mg OD, ketoconazole 200 mg BID, on two CYP3A4 substrates, alprazolam and midazolam, reflecting different pharmacokinetic properties in terms of first-pass effect and elimination. In parallel, time-based simulations were performed using the Simcyp population-based Simulator to address the usefulness of modeling to assess interaction clinical study design with CYP3A4 substrates. Comparison of the OD versus BID regimens for ketoconazole showed an opposite trend for the 2 substrates: BID (200 mg) dosing regimen provided the maximal clearance inhibition for alprazolam, while it was OD (400 mg) dosing regimen for midazolam. However, these effects are moderate despite the well-known pharmacokinetic differences between these substrates, suggesting that these differences are not enough. In the other way round, these investigations show how two CYP3A4 substrates can be different without leading to a major impact of the ketoconazole dosing regimen. The clinical findings are consistent with the Simcyp predictions, in particular the opposite trend observed with midazolam and alprazolam and the ketoconazole dosing regimen. These clinical investigations showed the influence of the CYP3A4 substrates' pharmacokinetic properties and the relevance of ketoconazole dose regimen on the magnitude of the interaction ratios. In addition, PBPK Simcyp simulations demonstrated how they can be used to help clinical study design assessment to capture the maximum effect.

  14. Curdione Plays an Important Role in the Inhibitory Effect of Curcuma aromatica on CYP3A4 in Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiao-Long; Hayashi-Nakamura, Emi; Takatani-Nakase, Tomoka; Tanaka, Ken; Takahashi, Kyoko; Komatsu, Katsuko; Takahashi, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Curcuma aromatica is a plant belonging to genus Curcuma of family Zingiberaceae and is widely used as supplements in Japan. Rhizomes of C. aromatica have curcumin as a major yellow pigment and curdione as a main ingredient of essential oils. In this study, we investigated the affect of C. aromatica on CYP3A4 using 1α,25-(OH)2-D3-treated Caco-2 clone cells. Caco-2 cells were treated with methanol extract (0.1 mg ml−1), its hexane soluble fraction (0.1 mg ml−1), curcumin (4 μM) and curdione (20 μM) for 72 hours. Nifedipine was used as a substrate of CYP3A4. Methanol extract, hexane fraction and curdione inhibited the formation of oxidized nifedipine by 50–70%, and curcumin showed no effect. The IC50s of methanol extract, hexane fraction and curdione to oxidized nifedipine formation were 21, 14 and 3.9 μg ml−1 (16.9 μM), respectively. The content of curdione in methanol extract was 11.4%. Moreover, all of methanol extract, hexane fraction and curdione decreased CYP3A4 protein expression but had no affect on CYP3A4 mRNA expression. Our results showed that these drugs further decreased the CYP3A4 protein expression level after the protein synthesis was inhibited by cychroheximide. These findings suggest that curdione plays an important role in the CYP3A4 inhibitory activity of C. aromatica and curdione might inhibit the activity by accelerating the degradation of CYP3A4. PMID:21785639

  15. Cross-linking Mass Spectrometry and Mutagenesis Confirm the Functional Importance of Surface Interactions between CYP3A4 and Holo/Apo Cytochrome b5

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunsheng; Gao, Qiuxia; Roberts, Arthur G.; Shaffer, Scott A.; Doneanu, Catalin E.; Xue, Song; Goodlett, David R.; Nelson, Sidney D.; Atkins, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) is one of the key components in the microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system. Consensus has not been reached on the underlying mechanism of cyt b5 modulation of CYP catalysis. Both cyt b5 and apo b5, are reported to stimulate the activity of several P450 isoforms. In the present study, the surface interactions of both holo and apo b5 with CYP3A4 were investigated and compared for the first time. Chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometric analysis was used to identify the potential electrostatic interactions between the protein surfaces. Subsequently, the interaction models of holo/apo b5 with CYP3A4 were built using the identified interacting sites as constraints. Both cyt b5 and apo b5 were predicted to bind to the same groove on CYP3A4 with close contacts to the B-B’ loop of CYP3A4, a substrate recognition site (SRS). Mutagenesis studies further confirmed that the interacting sites on CYP3A4 (Lys96, Lys127 and Lys421) are of functional importance. Mutation of these residues reduced or abolished cyt b5 binding affinity. The critical role of Arg446 on CYP3A4 in binding to cyt b5 and/or cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) was also discovered. The results indicated that electrostatic interactions on the interface of the two proteins are functionally important. The results indicate that the apo cyt b5 can dock with CYP3A4 in a manner analogous to holo cyt b5 so electron transfer from cyt b5 is not required for its effects. PMID:23150942

  16. The Effect of microRNAs in the Regulation of Human CYP3A4: a Systematic Study using a Mathematical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhiyun; Jiang, Songshan; Zhang, Yiting; Wang, Xiaofei; Peng, Xueling; Meng, Chunjie; Liu, Yichen; Wang, Honglian; Guo, Luo; Qin, Shengying; He, Lin; Shao, Fengmin; Zhang, Lirong; Xing, Qinghe

    2014-03-01

    CYP3A4 metabolizes more than 50% of the drugs on the market. The large inter-individual differences of CYP3A4 expression may contribute to the variability of human drug responses. Post-transcriptional regulation of CYP3A4 is poorly understood, whereas transcriptional regulation has been studied much more thoroughly. In this study, we used multiple software programs to predict miRNAs that might bind to CYP3A4 and identified 112 potentially functional miRNAs. Then a luciferase reporter system was used to assess the effect of the overexpression of each potentially functional miRNA in HEK 293T cells. Fourteen miRNAs that significantly decreased reporter activity were measured in human liver samples (N = 27) as candidate miRNAs. To establish a more effective way to analyze in vivo data for miRNA candidates, the relationship between functional miRNA and target mRNA was modeled mathematically. Taking advantage of this model, we found that hsa-miR-577, hsa-miR-1, hsa-miR-532-3p and hsa-miR-627 could significantly downregulate the translation efficiency of CYP3A4 mRNA in liver. This study used in silico, in vitro and in vivo methods to progressively screen functional miRNAs for CYP3A4 and to enhance our understanding of molecular events underlying the large inter-individual differences of CYP3A4 expression in human populations.

  17. Cross-linking mass spectrometry and mutagenesis confirm the functional importance of surface interactions between CYP3A4 and holo/apo cytochrome b(5).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunsheng; Gao, Qiuxia; Roberts, Arthur G; Shaffer, Scott A; Doneanu, Catalin E; Xue, Song; Goodlett, David R; Nelson, Sidney D; Atkins, William M

    2012-11-27

    Cytochrome b(5) (cyt b(5)) is one of the key components in the microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system. Consensus has not been reached about the underlying mechanism of cyt b(5) modulation of CYP catalysis. Both cyt b(5) and apo b(5) are reported to stimulate the activity of several P450 isoforms. In this study, the surface interactions of both holo and apo b(5) with CYP3A4 were investigated and compared for the first time. Chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometric analysis was used to identify the potential electrostatic interactions between the protein surfaces. Subsequently, the models of interaction of holo/apo b(5) with CYP3A4 were built using the identified interacting sites as constraints. Both cyt b(5) and apo b(5) were predicted to bind to the same groove on CYP3A4 with close contacts to the B-B' loop of CYP3A4, a substrate recognition site. Mutagenesis studies further confirmed that the interacting sites on CYP3A4 (Lys96, Lys127, and Lys421) are functionally important. Mutation of these residues reduced or abolished cyt b(5) binding affinity. The critical role of Arg446 on CYP3A4 in binding to cyt b(5) and/or cytochrome P450 reductase was also discovered. The results indicated that electrostatic interactions on the interface of the two proteins are functionally important. The results indicate that apo b(5) can dock with CYP3A4 in a manner analogous to that of holo b(5), so electron transfer from cyt b(5) is not required for its effects.

  18. The enhanced atorvastatin hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats was partly attributed to the upregulated hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Nan; Hu, Mengyue; Ling, Zhaoli; Liu, Peihua; Wang, Fan; Xu, Ping; Zhong, Zeyu; Sun, Binbin; Zhang, Mian; Li, Feng; Xie, Qiushi; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Liver injury is a common adverse effect of atorvastatin. This study aimed to investigate atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin. The results showed that 40 mg/kg atorvastatin was lethal to diabetic rats, whose mean survival time was 6.2 days. Severe liver injury also occurred in diabetic rats treated with 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg atorvastatin. The in vitro results indicated that atorvastatin cytotoxicity in hepatocytes of diabetic rats was more severe than normal and high-fat diet feeding rats. Expressions and activities of hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 were increased in diabetic rats, which were highly correlated with hepatotoxicity. Antioxidants (glutathione and N-Acetylcysteine), Cyp3a inhibitor ketoconazole and SLCO1B1 inhibitor gemfibrozil suppressed cytotoxicity and ROS formation in primary hepatocytes of diabetic rats. In HepG2 cells, up-regulations of CYP3A4 and SLCO1B1 potentiated hepatotoxicity and ROS generation, whereas knockdowns of CYP3A4 and SLCO1B1 as well as CYP3A4/SLCO1B1 inhibitions showed the opposite effects. Phenobarbital pretreatment was used to induce hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 in rats. Phenobarbital aggravated atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity, while decreased plasma exposure of atorvastatin. All these findings demonstrated that the upregulations of hepatic Cyp3a and SLCO1B1 in diabetic rats potentiated atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity via increasing ROS formation. PMID:27624558

  19. A clinical study to assess CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 induction by AZD7325, a selective GABAA receptor modulator – an in vitro and in vivo comparison

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Diansong; Sunzel, Maria; Ribadeneira, Maria D; Smith, Mark A; Desai, Dhaval; Lin, Jianrong; Grimm, Scott W

    2012-01-01

    AIM(S) To investigate the potential of AZD7325 to induce CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities. METHODS Induction of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 by AZD7325 was first evaluated using cultured human hepatocytes. The effect of multiple doses of 10 mg AZD7325 on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and caffeine was then examined in healthy subjects. RESULTS The highest CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 induction responses were observed in human hepatocytes treated with 1 or 10 µm of AZD7325, in the range of 17.9%–54.9% and 76.9%–85.7% of the positive control responses, respectively. The results triggered the further clinical evaluation of AZD7325 induction potential. AZD7325 reached a plasma Cmax of 0.2 µm after 10 mg daily dosing to steady-state. AZD7325 decreased midazolam geometric mean AUC by 19% (0.81-fold, 90% CI 0.77, 0.87), but had no effect on midazolam Cmax (90% CI 0.82, 0.97). The mean CL/F of midazolam increased from 62 l h−1 (midazolam alone) to 76 l h−1 when co-administered with AZD7325. The AUC and Cmax of caffeine were not changed after co-administration of AZD7325, with geometric mean ratios (90% CI) of 1.17 (1.12, 1.23) and 0.99 (0.95, 1.03), respectively. CONCLUSIONS While AZD7325 appeared to be a potent CYP3A4 inducer and a moderate CYP1A2 inducer from in vitro studies, the expected efficacious dose of AZD7325 had no effect on CYP1A2 activity and only a weak inducing effect on CYP3A4 activity. This comparison of in vitro and in vivo results demonstrates the critical role that clinical exposure plays in evaluating the CYP induction risk of a drug candidate. PMID:22122233

  20. Interactions between CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms and lipid lowering response with atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kan-kan; Zhang, Li-rong

    2015-09-01

    The polymorphic enzyme P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transfers electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzyme s, which metabolize atorvastatin. This suggests that variations in the CYP3A5 and POR genes may influence the response to statins. We aimed to investigate the association and interactions between CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms and the lipid-lowering effects of atorvastatin in a Chinese population. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and by PCR with direct sequencing analysis for 179 hyperlipidaemic patients treated with atorvastatin 20 mg once daily for 4 weeks. Serum levels of triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined before and after treatment. For the 179 patients (including 100 males), the variant allele frequencies of CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 were 73.75 and 41.62 %, respectively. Among all patients, no significant association was found between CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms and TG, TC, LDL-C and HDL-C levels before and after treatment with 20 mg of atorvastatin daily for 4 weeks. Homozygotes for the POR*28 T allele showed a significantly lower mean concentration of LDL-C than homozygotes for the POR*28 C allele (POR*28 TT vs POR*28 CC: 2.46 ± 0.37 vs 2.69 ± 0.49 mmol/L, P = 0.019) after treatment with atorvastatin 20 mg daily for 4 weeks. After adjustment for age, sex and body mass index, CYP3A5 non-expressors who were POR*28 wild-type homozygotes showed significantly higher mean TC and LDL-C levels than those who were POR*28 variant homozygotes, both at baseline (*3/CC vs *3/TT; TC: 7.30 ± 0.73 vs 6.94 ± 0.36 mmol/L, P = 0.026; LDL-C: 3.88 ± 0.70 vs 3.47 ± 0.46 mmol/L, P = 0.009) and after atorvastatin treatment (*3/CC vs *3/TT; TC: 6.03 ± 0.64 vs 5.69 ± 0.34 mmol/L, P = 0

  1. Decreased exposure of atorvastatin in diabetic rats partly due to induction of hepatic Cyp3a and Oatp2.

    PubMed

    Shu, Nan; Hu, Mengyue; Liu, Can; Zhang, Mian; Ling, Zhaoli; Zhang, Ji; Xu, Ping; Zhong, Zeyu; Chen, Yang; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    1. Atorvastatin is frequently prescribed for lowering blood cholesterol and for prevention of events associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin in diabetic rats. 2. Diabetes was induced in rats by combination of high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (35 mg/kg). Plasma concentrations of atorvastatin following oral (10 mg/kg) and intravenous (2 mg/kg) administrations to rats were measured by LC-MS. Metabolism and uptake of atorvastatin in primary hepatocytes of experimental rats were assessed. Protein expressions and activities of hepatic Cyp3a and Oatp2 were further investigated. 3. Clearances of atorvastatin in diabetic rats following oral and intravenous administrations were remarkably increased, leading to marked decreases in area-under-the-plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). The estimated oral and systematic clearances of atorvastatin in diabetic rats were 4.5-fold and 2.0-fold of control rats, respectively. Metabolism and uptake of atorvastatin in primary hepatocytes isolated from diabetic rats were significantly increased, which were consistent with the up-regulated protein expressions and activities of hepatic Cyp3a and Oatp2. 4. All these results demonstrated that the plasma exposure of atorvastatin was significantly decreased in diabetic rats, which was partly due to the up-regulated activities and expressions of both hepatic Cyp3a and Oatp2.

  2. Cree antidiabetic plant extracts display mechanism-based inactivation of CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Tam, Teresa W; Liu, Rui; Arnason, John T; Krantis, Anthony; Staines, William A; Haddad, Pierre S; Foster, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    Seventeen Cree antidiabetic medicinal plants were studied to determine their potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) through mechanism-based inactivation (MBI). The ethanolic extracts of the medicinal plants were studied for their inhibition of CYP3A4 using the substrates testosterone and dibenzylfluorescein (DBF) in high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microtiter fluorometric assays, respectively. Using testosterone as a substrate, extracts of Alnus incana, Sarracenia purpurea, and Lycopodium clavatum were identified as potent CYP3A4 MBIs, while those from Abies balsamea, Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, Rhododendron tomentosum, Kalmia angustifolia, and Picea glauca were identified as less potent inactivators. Not unexpectedly, the other substrate, DBF, showed a different profile of inhibition. Only A. balsamea was identified as a CYP3A4 MBI using DBF. Abies balsamea displayed both NADPH- and time-dependence of CYP3A4 inhibition using both substrates. Overall, several of the medicinal plants may markedly deplete CYP3A4 through MBI and, consequently, decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates including numerous medications used by diabetics.

  3. Participation of CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 in the N-demethylation of imatinib in human hepatic microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Nebot, Noelia; Crettol, Severine; d'Esposito, Fabrizio; Tattam, Bruce; Hibbs, David E; Murray, Michael

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Imatinib is a clinically important inhibitor of tyrosine kinases that are dysregulated in chronic myelogenous leukaemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Inter-individual variation in imatinib pharmacokinetics is extensive, and influences drug safety and efficacy. Hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 has been implicated in imatinib N-demethylation, but the clearance of imatinib decreases during prolonged therapy. CYP3A phenotype correlates with imatinib clearance at the commencement of therapy, but not at steady state. The present study evaluated the possibility that multiple CYPs may contribute to imatinib oxidation in liver. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Imatinib biotransformation in human liver microsomes (n = 20) and by cDNA-expressed CYPs was determined by LC–MS. Relationships between imatinib N-demethylation and other drug metabolizing CYPs were assessed. KEY RESULTS N-desmethylimatinib formation was correlated with microsomal oxidation of the CYP3A4 substrates testosterone (ρ= 0.60; P < 0.01) and midazolam (ρ= 0.46; P < 0.05), and the CYP2C8 substrate paclitaxel (ρ= 0.58; P < 0.01). cDNA-derived CYPs 2C8, 3A4, 3A5 and 3A7 supported imatinib N-demethylation, but 10 other CYPs were inactive; in kinetic studies, CYP2C8 was a high-affinity enzyme with a catalytic efficiency ∼15-fold greater than those of CYPs 3A4 and 3A5. The CYP3A inhibitors ketoconazole and troleandomycin, and the CYP2C8 inhibitors quercetin and paclitaxel decreased imatinib oxidation. From molecular modelling, the imatinib structure could be superimposed on a pharmacophore for CYP2C8 substrates. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS CYP2C8 and CYPs 3A contribute to imatinib N-demethylation in human liver. The involvement of CYP2C8 may account in part for the wide inter-patient variation in imatinib pharmacokinetics observed in clinical practice. PMID:20977456

  4. Effects of norfloxacin on hepatic genes expression of P450 isoforms (CYP1A and CYP3A), GST and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in Swordtail fish (Xiphophorus Helleri).

    PubMed

    Liang, Ximei; Wang, Lan; Ou, Ruikang; Nie, Xiangping; Yang, YuFeng; Wang, Fang; Li, Kaibin

    2015-10-01

    The presence of antibiotics including norfloxacin in the aquatic environment may cause adverse effects in non-target organisms. But the toxic mechanisms of fluoroquinolone to fish species are still not completely elucidated. Thus, it is essential to investigate the response of fish to the exposure of fluoroquinolone at molecular or cellular level for better and earlier prediction of these environmental pollutants toxicity. The sub-chronic toxic effects of norfloxacin (NOR) on swordtail fish (Xiphophoru s helleri) were investigated by measuring mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and their corresponding enzyme activities (including ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, erythromycin N-demethylase and GST. Results showed that NOR significantly affected the expression of CYP1A, CYP3A, GST and P-gp genes in swordtails. The gene expressions were more responsive to NOR exposure than their corresponding enzyme activities. Moreover, sexual differences were found in gene expression and enzyme activities of swordtails exposed to NOR. Females displayed more dramatic changes than males. The study further demonstrated that the combined biochemical and molecular parameters were considered as useful biomarkers to improve our understanding of potential ecotoxicological risks of NOR exposure to aquatic organisms.

  5. The Psychostimulant Khat (Catha edulis) Inhibits CYP2D6 Enzyme Activity in Humans.

    PubMed

    Bedada, Worku; de Andrés, Fernando; Engidawork, Ephrem; Pohanka, Anton; Beck, Olof; Bertilsson, Leif; Llerena, Adrián; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-12-01

    The use of khat (Catha edulis) while on medication may alter treatment outcome. In particular, the influence of khat on the metabolic activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes is not known. We performed a comparative 1-way crossover study to evaluate the effect of khat on cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6 and CYP3A4 enzyme activity. After 1 week of khat abstinence, baseline CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 metabolic activities were determined in 40 Ethiopian male volunteers using 30 mg dextromethorphan (DM) as a probe drug and then repeated after 1 week of daily use of 400 g fresh khat leaves. Urinary concentrations of cathinone and cathine were determined to monitor the subjects' compliance to the study protocol. Genotyping for CYP2D6*3 and CYP2D6*4 was done. Plasma DM, dextrorphan and 3-methoxymorphinan concentrations were quantified. CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities were assessed by comparing plasma log DM/dextrorphan and log DM/methoxymorphinan metabolic ratio (MR) respectively in the presence and absence of khat. Cytochrome 2D6 MR was significantly increased from baseline by concurrent khat use (paired t test, P = 0.003; geometric mean ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.12-1.53). Moreover, the inhibition of CYP2D6 activity by khat was more pronounced in CYP2D6*1/*1 compared with CYP2D6*1/*4 genotypes (P = 0.01). A marginal inhibition of CYP3A4 activity in the presence of khat was observed (P = 0.24). The mean percentage increase of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 MR from baseline by khat use was 46% (95% CI, 20-72) and 31% (95% CI, 8-54), respectively. This is the first report linking khat use with significant inhibition of CYP2D6 metabolic activity in humans.

  6. Influence of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 Phenotypes, Drug Interactions, and Vitamin D Status on Tamoxifen Biotransformation.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Marina V; Timm, Tatiana Aparecida da Fontoura; de Oliveira, Vanessa; Staudt, Dilana E; Raymundo, Suziane; Gössling, Gustavo; Biazús, Jorge V; Cavalheiro, José A; Rosa, Daniela D; Wallemacq, Pierre; Haufroid, Vincent; Linden, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto

    2015-12-01

    In view of the large variability on therapeutic response and the multiple factors associated to tamoxifen (TAM) metabolic activation, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 phenotypes, drug interactions, and vitamin D exposure on TAM metabolism in a group of breast cancer patients. Trough blood samples were collected from 116 patients. TAM and metabolites endoxifen (EDF), N-desmethyltamoxifen, and 4-hydroxytamoxifen (HTF) were measured in plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 phenotyping were obtained according to [dextromethorphan]/[dextrorphan] and [omeprazole]/[omeprazole sulfone] metabolic ratios, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma collected 3 hours after oral administration of 33 mg of dextromethorphan and 20 mg of omeprazole. Vitamin D3 was measured in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet. Data on concomitant use of drug considered as CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor or inducer and vitamin D supplementation were recorded. About 20% of patients had reduced CYP2D6 metabolic activity and 7% CYP3A4 impaired metabolism. EDF levels diminished proportionally to the reduction of CYP2D6 metabolic activity (poor metabolizer 2.79 ng·mL, intermediate metabolizer (IM) 5.36 ng·mL, and extensive metabolizer 10.65 ng·mL, P < 0.01). Median plasma levels of TAM (161.50 ng·mL) and HTF (1.32 ng·mL) in CYP2D6 IM/CYP3A4 poor metabolizer patients were higher (P < 0.05) than those from CYP2D6 IM/CYP3A4 extensive metabolizer patients (122.07 ng·mL and 0.61 ng·mL, respectively). Seasons contributed to the interpatient variability of EDF and HTF levels; summer concentrations were 24% and 42% higher compared with winter. Vitamin D3 was not associated to CYP3A4 metabolic activity, indicating that other mechanisms might be involved in the relation between TAM metabolism and vitamin D exposure. CYP3A4 contributes to the bioactivation of TAM through formation of HTF and becomes

  7. The genes of all seven CYP3A isoenzymes identified in the equine genome are expressed in the airways of horses.

    PubMed

    Tydén, E; Löfgren, M; Hakhverdyan, M; Tjälve, H; Larsson, P

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the gene expression of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) isoenzymes in the tracheal and bronchial mucosa and in the lung of equines using TaqMan probes. The results show that all seven CYP3A isoforms identified in the equine genome, that is, CYP3A89, CYP3A93, CYP3A94, CYP3A95, CYP3A96, CYP3A97 and CYP3A129, are expressed in the airways of the investigated horses. Though in previous studies, CYP3A129 was found to be absent in equine intestinal mucosa and liver, this CYP3A isoform is expressed in the airways of horses. The gene expression of the CYP3A isoenzymes varied considerably between the individual horses studied. However, in most of the horses CYP3A89, CYP3A93, CYP3A96, CYP3A97 and CYP3A129 were expressed to a high extent, while CYP3A94 and CYP3A95 were expressed to a low extent in the different parts of the airways. The CYP3A isoenzymes present in the airways may play a role in the metabolic degradation of inhaled xenobiotics. In some instances, the metabolism may, however, result in bioactivation of the xenobiotics and subsequent tissue injury. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of the moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, fluconazole, on the pharmacokinetics of fesoterodine in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Bimal; Dickins, Maurice; Alvey, Christine; Jumadilova, Zhanna; Li, Xiaoxi; Duczynski, Gregory; Gandelman, Kuan

    2011-08-01

    Available data suggest that fesoterodine dosage should not exceed 4 mg once daily when taken concomitantly with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ketoconazole. Currently, no information is available on whether dose adjustment is necessary when fesoterodine is administered with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. This study shows that adjustment of fesoterodine dose is not warranted when co-administered with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. To assess the effects of fluconazole, a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety/tolerability of fesoterodine. In this open-label, randomized, two-way crossover study, 28 healthy subjects (18-55 years) received single doses of fesoterodine 8 mg alone or with fluconazole 200 mg. PK endpoints, including the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (AUC(0,∞)), maximum plasma concentration (C(max) ), time to C(max) (t(max) ), and half-life (t(1/2) ), were assessed for 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine (5-HMT), the active moiety of fesoterodine. Concomitant administration of fesoterodine with fluconazole increased AUC(0,∞) and C(max) of 5-HMT by approximately 27% and 19%, respectively, with corresponding 90% confidence intervals of (18%, 36%) and (11%, 28%). There was no apparent effect of fluconazole on 5-HMT t(max) or t(½) . Fesoterodine was generally well tolerated regardless of fluconazole co-administration, with no reports of death, serious adverse events (AEs) or severe AEs. Following co-administration of fesoterodine with fluconazole, 13 subjects (48%) experienced a total of 40 AEs; following administration of fesoterodine alone, six subjects (22%) experienced a total of 19 AEs. The majority of AEs were of mild intensity. There were no clinically significant changes in laboratory or physical examination parameters. Fesoterodine 8 mg single dose was well tolerated when administered alone or with fluconazole. Based on the observed increase in 5-HMT exposures being within the inherent

  9. Expression of CYP3A in chronic ethanol-fed mice is mediated by endogenous pregnane X receptor ligands formed by enhanced cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Je, Young-Tae; Sim, Woo-Cheol; Kim, Dong-Gwang; Jung, Byung-Hwa; Shin, Ho-Sang; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor that plays a key regulatory role in xenobiotic metabolism in a ligand-dependent manner. Recently, ethanol was reported to be either an inducer or inhibitor of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A expression. According to our recent microarray data, chronic ethanol upregulates the expression of the genes associated with oxidative phase I drug metabolism, phase II conjugation reaction and phase III xenobiotic transport, most of which are known to be regulated by PXR. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic ethanol on the expression and activity of CYP3A11 in mice and the role of PXR. Ethanol was administrated to male ICR mice by feeding a standard Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 36 % ethanol for 4 weeks. Ethanol significantly increased hepatic mRNA expression of Pxr and Cyp3a11. Treatment of mice with ethanol increased nuclear translocation of PXR. Consistent with the increase in nuclear PXR, ethanol significantly increased the binding of PXR to the Cyp3a11 promoter. Hepatic cholesterol level and bile acid synthesis are increased by ethanol treatment. The level of some cholesterol metabolites, such as 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α-triol, 7α-hydroxy-4-cholestene-3-one and lithocholic acid, that have been identified as potent PXR agonists are increased in the livers of ethanol-treated mice. In summary, chronic ethanol upregulates the expression of Pxr and Cyp3a11 mRNAs and proteins in mice by PXR activation mediated by enhanced cholesterol metabolism and bile acid synthesis. Our data provide some critical information needed to understand the molecular mechanisms of ethanol-induced CYP3A expression.

  10. Pathways of carbamazepine bioactivation in vitro. III. The role of human cytochrome P450 enzymes in the formation of 2,3-dihydroxycarbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Robin E; Lu, Wei; Wang, Yongqiang; Uetrecht, Jack P; Correia, Maria Almira; Leeder, J Steven

    2008-08-01

    Conversion of the carbamazepine metabolite 3-hydroxycarbamazepine (3-OHCBZ) to the catechol 2,3-dihydroxycarbamazepine (2,3-diOHCBZ) followed by subsequent oxidation to a reactive o-quinone species has been proposed as a possible bioactivation pathway in the pathogenesis of carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity. Initial in vitro phenotyping studies implicated CYP3A4 as a primary catalyst of 2,3-diOHCBZ formation: 2-hydroxylation of 3-OHCBZ correlated significantly (r(2) > or = 0.929, P < 0.001) with CYP3A4/5 activities in a panel of human liver microsomes (n = 14) and was markedly impaired by CYP3A inhibitors (>80%) but not by inhibitors of other cytochrome P450 enzymes (< or = 20%). However, in the presence of troleandomycin, the rate of 2,3-diOHCBZ formation correlated significantly with CYP2C19 activity (r(2) = 0.893, P < 0.001) in the panel of human liver microsomes. Studies with a panel of cDNA-expressed enzymes revealed that CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 were high (S50 = 30 microM) and low (S50 = 203 microM) affinity enzymes, respectively, for 2,3-diOHCBZ formation and suggested that CYP3A4, but not CYP2C19, might be inactivated by a metabolite formed from 3-OHCBZ. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that preincubation of 3-OHCBZ with human liver microsomes or recombinant CYP3A4 led to decreased CYP3A4 activity, which was both preincubation time- and concentration-dependent, but not inhibited by inclusion of glutathione or N-acetylcysteine. CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2 converted [14C]3-OHCBZ into protein-reactive metabolites, but CYP3A4 was the most catalytically active enzyme. The results of this study suggest that CYP3A4-dependent secondary oxidation of 3-OHCBZ represents a potential carbamazepine bioactivation pathway via formation of reactive metabolites capable of inactivating CYP3A4, potentially generating a neoantigen that may play a role in the etiology of carbamazepine-induced idiosyncratic toxicity.

  11. Pathways of Carbamazepine Bioactivation In Vitro III. The Role of Human Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in the Formation of 2,3-Dihydroxycarbamazepine

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Robin E.; Lu, Wei; Wang, YongQiang; Uetrecht, Jack P.; Correia, Maria Almira; Leeder, J. Steven

    2008-01-01

    Conversion of the carbamazepine metabolite, 3-hydroxycarbamazepine (3-OHCBZ), to the catechol, 2,3-dihydroxycarbamazepine (2,3-diOHCBZ), followed by subsequent oxidation to a reactive o-quinone species has been proposed as a possible bioactivation pathway in the pathogenesis of carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity. Initial in vitro phenotyping studies implicated CYP3A4 as a primary catalyst of 2,3-diOHCBZ formation: 2-hydroxylation of 3-OHCBZ correlated significantly (r2≥0.929, P<0.001) with CYP3A4/5 activities in a panel of human liver microsomes (n=14) and was markedly impaired by CYP3A inhibitors (>80%), but not by inhibitors of other cytochrome P450 enzymes (≤20%). However, in the presence of troleandomycin, the rate of 2,3-diOHCBZ formation correlated significantly with CYP2C19 activity (r2=0.893, P<0.001) in the panel of human liver microsomes. Studies with a panel of cDNA-expressed enzymes revealed that CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 were high (S50=30 μM) and low (S50=203 μM) affinity enzymes, respectively, for 2,3-diOHCBZ formation and suggested that CYP3A4, but not CYP2C19, might be inactivated by a metabolite formed from 3-OHCBZ. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that preincubation of 3-OHCBZ with human liver microsomes or recombinant CYP3A4 led to decreased CYP3A4 activity, which was both preincubation time- and concentration-dependent, but not inhibited by inclusion of glutathione or N-acetylcysteine. CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, CYP2C19 and CYP1A2 converted [14C]3-OHCBZ into protein-reactive metabolites, but CYP3A4 was the most catalytically active enzyme. The results of this study suggest that CYP3A4-dependent secondary oxidation of 3-OHCBZ represents a potential carbamazepine bioactivation pathway via formation of reactive metabolites capable of inactivating CYP3A4, potentially generating a neo-antigen that may play a role in the etiology of carbamazepine-induced idiosyncratic toxicity. PMID:18463198

  12. Discovery of osmosensitive transcriptional regulation of human cytochrome P450 3As by the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (nuclear factor of activated T cells 5).

    PubMed

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Chuang, Andrew I; Uematsu, Satoko; Tan, Kah Poh; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Ko, Ben C B; Ito, Shinya

    2007-10-01

    We report the discovery of an osmosensitive transcriptional control of human CYP3A4, CYP3A7, and CYP3A5. Ambient hypertonicity (350-450 mOsmol/kg) increased mRNA expressions of the CYP3A by approximately 10- to 20-fold in human-intestinal C(2)bbe1 cells, followed by an increase of CYP3A protein. Hypotonicity, on the other hand, suppressed CYP3A mRNA levels, indicating that physiological isotonic conditions may regulate the basal expression of CYP3A. Similar responses to ambient tonicity were observed in other human-derived cell lines (intestinal LS180 and hepatic HepG2) and human primary colonic cells. The 11-base pair tonicity-responsive enhancer (TonE) is an osmosensitive regulator that is activated by the transcription factor, the nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5). Luciferase-based reporter assays of 13 consensus TonE motifs within +/-10 kilobases (kb) from the transcription start sites of CYP3A showed that only the CYP3A7 intron 2 region ( approximately 5 kb downstream from the transcription start site), which contains two TonE motifs (+5076/+5086 and + 5417/+5427), was responsive to hypertonicity stimuli. This observation was confirmed upon cotransfection with an NFAT5 expression vector, small interfering RNA, or dominant-negative NFAT5. Deletion and mutation analyses suggested that the TonE (+5417/+5427) is indispensable for the enhancer activity. NFAT5 binding to the CYP3A7 intron 2 TonE motif was demonstrated with electrophoretic mobility shift assay and in a native cell context by chromatin immunoprecipitation. We conclude that transcription of human CYP3A is influenced by ambient tonicity. The physiological significance of the tonic regulation of CYP3A enzymes remains to be determined.

  13. Oxidase uncoupling in heme monooxygenases: human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 in Nanodiscs.

    PubMed

    Grinkova, Yelena V; Denisov, Ilia G; McLean, Mark A; Sligar, Stephen G

    2013-01-25

    The normal reaction mechanism of cytochrome P450 operates by utilizing two reducing equivalents to reduce atmospheric dioxygen, producing one molecule of water and an oxygenated product in an overall stoichiometry of 2 electrons:1 dioxygen:1 product. However, three alternate unproductive pathways exist where the intermediate iron-oxygen states in the catalytic cycle can yield reduced oxygen products without substrate metabolism. The first involves release of superoxide from the oxygenated intermediate while the second occurs after input of the second reducing equivalent. Superoxide rapidly dismutates and hence both processes produce hydrogen peroxide that can be cytotoxic to the organism. In both cases, the formation of hydrogen peroxide involves the same overall stoichiometry as oxygenases catalysis. The key step in the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450 involves scission of the oxygen-oxygen bond of atmospheric dioxygen to produce a higher valent iron-oxo state termed "Compound I". This intermediate initiates a radical reaction in the oxygenase pathway but also can uptake two additional reducing equivalents from reduced pyridine nucleotide (NADPH) and the flavoprotein reductase to produce a second molecule of water. This non-productive decay of Compound I thus yields an overall oxygen to NADPH ratio of 1:2 and does not produce hydrocarbon oxidation. This water uncoupling reaction provides one of a limited means to study the reactivity of the critical Compound I intermediate in P450 catalysis. We measured simultaneously the rates of NADPH and oxygen consumption as a function of substrate concentration during the steady-state hydroxylation of testosterone catalyzed by human P450 CYP3A4 reconstituted in Nanodiscs. We discovered that the "oxidase" uncoupling pathway is also operating in the substrate free form of the enzyme with rate of this pathway substantially increasing with the first substrate binding event. Surprisingly, a large fraction of the reducing

  14. Effect of Tacrolimus on the pharmacokinetics of bioactive lignans of Wuzhi tablet (Schisandra sphenanthera extract) and the potential roles of CYP3A and P-gp.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiao-ling; Chen, Xiao; Zhong, Guo-ping; Fan, Xiao-mei; Wang, Ying; Xue, Xin-ping; Wang, Ying; Huang, Min; Bi, Hui-chang

    2014-04-15

    We recently reported that Wuzhi tablet (WZ), a preparation of the ethanol extract of Wuweizi (Schisandra sphenanthera), had significant effects on blood concentrations of Tacrolimus (FK506) in renal transplant recipients and rats. The active lignans in WZ are schisandrin A, schisandrin B, schisandrin C, schisandrol A, schisandrol B, schisantherin A, and schisantherin B. Until now, whether the pharmacokinetics of these lignans in WZ would be affected by FK506 remained unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether and how FK506 affected pharmacokinetics of lignans in WZ in rats and the potential roles of CYP3A and P-gp. After a single oral co-administration of FK506 and WZ, the blood concentration of lignans in WZ was decreased by FK506; furthermore, the AUC of schisantherin A, schisandrin A, schisandrol A and schisandrol B was only 64.5%, 47.2%, 55.1% and 57.4% of that of WZ alone group, respectively. Transport study in Caco-2 cells showed that these lignans were not substrates of P-gp, suggesting decreased blood concentration of lignans by FK506 was not via P-gp pathway. Metabolism study in the human recombinant CYP 3A showed that these lignans had higher affinity to CYP3A than that of FK506, and thus had a stronger CYP3A-mediated metabolism. It was concluded that the blood concentrations of these lignans were decreased and their CYP3A-mediated metabolisms were increased in the presence of FK506 since these lignans had higher affinity to CYP3A. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of clopidogrel and cilostazol in relation to CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho‐Sook; Lim, Younghae; Oh, Minkyung; Ghim, Jong‐lyul; Kim, Eun‐Young; Kim, Dong‐Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Aim The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between clopidogrel and cilostazol in relation to the CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 genotypes. Methods In a randomized, three‐way crossover study, 27 healthy subjects were administered clopidogrel (300 mg), cilostazol (100 mg) or clopidogrel + cilostazol orally. Plasma concentrations of clopidogrel, cilostazol and their active metabolites (clopidogrel thiol metabolite, 3,4‐dehydrocilostazol and 4″‐trans‐hydroxycilostazol), and adenosine diphosphate‐induced platelet aggregation were measured for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessment. Results The area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) of the active thiol metabolite of clopidogrel was highest in the CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers (EM) and lowest in the poor metabolizers (PM). Cilostazol decreased the thiol metabolite AUC by 29% in the CYP3A5*1/*3 genotype [geometric mean ratio (GMR) 0.71; 90% confidence interval (CI) 0.58, 0.86; P = 0.020] but not in the CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype (GMR 0.93; 90% CI 0.80, 1.10; P = 0.446). Known effects of the CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 genotypes on the exposure of cilostazol and its metabolites were observed but there was no significant difference in the AUC of cilostazol and 3,4‐dehydrocilostazol between cilostazol and clopidogrel + cilostazol. The inhibition of platelet aggregation from 4 h to 24 h (IPA4–24) following the administration of clopidogrel alone was highest in the CYP2C19 EM genotype and lowest in the CYP2C19 PM genotype (59.05 ± 18.95 vs. 36.74 ± 13.26, P = 0.023). However, the IPA of the CYP2C19 PM following co‐administration of clopidogrel and cilostazol was comparable with that of the CYP2C19 EM and intermediate metabolizers (IM) only in CYP3A5*3/*3 subjects. Conclusions The additive antiplatelet effect of cilostazol plus clopidogrel is maximized in subjects with both the CYP2C19 PM and CYP3A5*3/*3 genotypes because

  16. In vitro inhibition of human CYP2E1 and CYP3A by quercetin and myricetin in hepatic microsomes is not gender dependent.

    PubMed

    Östlund, Johanna; Zlabek, Vladimir; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2017-04-15

    This is the first in vitro study to investigate gender-related differences in the regulation of human cytochrome P450 by the flavonoids. Activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A were measured in the presence of quercetin, myricetin, or isorhamnetin in hepatic microsomal pools from male and female donors. Hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol (PNPH) was measured to determine CYP2E1 activity, and O-dealkylation of 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BFC) was measured to determine CYP3A activity. Quercetin, but not myricetin or isorhamnetin, competitively inhibited PNPH activity in human recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP2E1 with the Ki=52.1±6.31μM. In the human microsomes, slight inhibition of PNPH activity by quercetin was not considered as physiologically relevant. Quercetin inhibited BFC activity in human recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP3A4 competitively with the Ki=15.4±1.52μM, and myricetin - noncompetitively with the Ki=74.6±7.99μM. The degree of inhibition by quercetin was similar between genders. Myricetin showed somewhat stronger inhibition in female pools, but the Ki values were higher than physiologically relevant concentrations. Isorhamnetin did not affect either PNPH or BFC activity. We concluded that observed inhibition of CYP2E1 and CYP3A by some flavonols were not gender-dependent.

  17. Association between the CYP3A5 genotype and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Ho, Herbert; Pinto, Amar; Hall, Stephen D; Flockhart, David A; Li, Lang; Skaar, Todd C; Cadman, Peter; O'Connor, Daniel T; Wagner, Urban; Fineberg, Naomi S; Weinberger, Myron H

    2005-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the presence of a CYP3A5*1 allele is associated with increases in blood pressure in 2 studies of subjects with a total of 683 participants. The first study involving 271 subjects was part of a longitudinal study conducted at Indiana University Medical Center that consisted of 2 phases. The first phase studied the relationship of salt sensitivity with blood pressure, whereas the second phase, conducted approximately 26 years later, studied the relationship between blood pressure, carbohydrate intolerance, and vascular compliance in the same subjects. The second study was a cross-sectional evaluation of 412 normotensive and hypertensive subjects conducted at the University of California San Diego. The second study (Mantel-Haenszel chi(2) test; P=0.05) showed that a greater proportion of black participants with poor blood pressure control had CYP3A5*1/*1 genotype. Evaluation of the untreated blood pressure from phase 1 of the first study showed that the blacks with CYP3A5*3/*3 (146+/-35 mm Hg) had a higher systolic blood pressure than those with the *1/*3 (119+/-14.1 mm Hg; P=0.0006) and *1/*1 (125+/-17.4 mm Hg; P=0.009) genotypes. For blacks in study 2, the CYP3A5*1 allele was more common in hypertensives (Fisher exact test; P=0.025) than normotensives. In whites there was no association between CYP3A5 genotype and blood pressure in either study. We conclude that although untreated blood pressure may be higher in blacks with the CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype, the CYP3A5*1 allele may be associated with hypertension that is more refractory to treatment in this ethnic group.

  18. Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Bethke, Lara; Webb, Emily; Sellick, Gabrielle; Rudd, Matthew; Penegar, Stephen; Withey, Laura; Qureshi, Mobshra; Houlston, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes have the potential to affect colorectal cancer (CRC) risk by determining the genotoxic impact of exogenous carcinogens and levels of sex hormones. Methods To investigate if common variants of CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 influence CRC risk we genotyped 2,575 CRC cases and 2,707 controls for 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have not previously been shown to have functional consequence within these genes. Results There was a suggestion of increased risk, albeit insignificant after correction for multiple testing, of CRC for individuals homozygous for CYP1B1 rs162558 and heterozygous for CYP1A2 rs2069522 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.80 and OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.00–1.79 respectively). Conclusion This study provides some support for polymorphic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 playing a role in CRC susceptibility. PMID:17615053

  19. Interactions of endosulfan and methoxychlor involving CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in human HepaRG cells.

    PubMed

    Savary, Camille C; Jossé, Rozenn; Bruyère, Arnaud; Guillet, Fabrice; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guillouzo, André

    2014-08-01

    Humans are usually exposed to several pesticides simultaneously; consequently, combined actions between pesticides themselves or between pesticides and other chemicals need to be addressed in the risk assessment. Many pesticides are efficient activators of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), two major nuclear receptors that are also activated by other substrates. In the present work, we searched for interactions between endosulfan and methoxychlor, two organochlorine pesticides whose major routes of metabolism involve CAR- and PXR-regulated CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, and whose mechanisms of action in humans remain poorly understood. For this purpose, HepaRG cells were treated with both pesticides separately or in mixture for 24 hours or 2 weeks at concentrations relevant to human exposure levels. In combination they exerted synergistic cytotoxic effects. Whatever the duration of treatment, both compounds increased CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 mRNA levels while differently affecting their corresponding activities. Endosulfan exerted a direct reversible inhibition of CYP3A4 activity that was confirmed in human liver microsomes. By contrast, methoxychlor induced this activity. The effects of the mixture on CYP3A4 activity were equal to the sum of those of each individual compound, suggesting an additive effect of each pesticide. Despite CYP2B6 activity being unchanged and increased with endosulfan and methoxychlor, respectively, no change was observed with their mixture, supporting an antagonistic effect. Altogether, our data suggest that CAR and PXR activators endosulfan and methoxychlor can interact together and with other exogenous substrates in human hepatocytes. Their effects on CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 activities could have important consequences if extrapolated to the in vivo situation.

  20. Inhibition of human CYP3A4, UGT1A6, and P-glycoprotein with halogenated xanthene food dyes and prevention by superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Furumiya, Kenji; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic food dyes are xenobiotics, and, after ingestion, portions of these dyes may be absorbed and metabolized by phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, and excreted by transporters of phase III enzymes. In the previous report, it was shown that inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltrasnferase 1A6 occurred following ingestion of phloxine, erythrosine, and rose bengal present in 12 permitted synthetic food dyes. In this report, the influence of dyes was examined on CYP3A4, a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme, and P-glycoprotein, a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4 and P-glycoprotein were inhibited by xanthene food dyes. The IC(50) values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the level of inhibition of UGT1A6 produced by three haloganated xanthene food dyes in the previous report, except acid red, which inhibited only CYP3A4. Data suggest that inhibition by dyes is not enzyme specific but may be in a membrane-specific or protein-specific manner, such as conformational changes in protein. In the previous study, it was suggested that inhibition by dyes depended upon light irradiation due to generation of (1)O2 from these dyes. In this study, the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on inhibition by dyes was examined. Superoxide dismutase but not catalase was effective in preventing the inhibition of UGT1A6 by the dyes. Data suggest that superoxide anions, originating from dyes via light irradiation, may attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins in skin and may lead to skin damage.

  1. CYP3A5*3 and bilirubin predict midazolam population pharmacokinetics in Asian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Hee, Kim-Hor; Soon, Gaik Hong; Sapari, Nur Sabrina; Soong, Richie; Goh, Boon-Cher; Lee, Lawrence Soon-U

    2014-02-01

    We aim to evaluate the influence of covariates, including cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) genetic polymorphisms, on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam (MDZ) in Asian cancer patients, using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Pharmacokinetic data were obtained from 24 adult cancer patients who received an intravenous bolus dose of 1 mg MDZ as a CYP3A phenotyping probe, 1-day before starting FOLFIRI chemotherapy. Concentrations of MDZ and its major metabolites, 1'-hydroxymidazolam (1OHM) and 1'-hydroxymidazolam glucuronide (HMG) were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The population pharmacokinetic study was conducted using NONMEM. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and genetic polymorphisms were screened as covariates. A two-compartment model for MDZ and two sequential compartments representing 1OHM and HMG best described the data. The CYP3A5*3 and total bilirubin level significantly influenced MDZ clearance. The population typical MDZ clearance for CYP3A5*3 expressers was 22% lower than non-expressers. Baseline bodyweight was a statistically significant covariate for clearance and distribution volume of 1OHM. Creatinine clearance was positively correlated with HMG clearance. Our data indicate that CYP3A5*3, total bilirubin, bodyweight, and creatinine clearance are important predictors of MDZ and metabolite pharmacokinetics. Further studies in more patients are needed to explore the links between the identified covariates and the disposition of MDZ and its metabolites.

  2. Humanizing the zebrafish liver shifts drug metabolic profiles and improves pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 substrates.

    PubMed

    Poon, Kar Lai; Wang, Xingang; Ng, Ashley S; Goh, Wei Huang; McGinnis, Claudia; Fowler, Stephen; Carney, Tom J; Wang, Haishan; Ingham, Phillip W

    2017-03-01

    Understanding and predicting whether new drug candidates will be safe in the clinic is a critical hurdle in pharmaceutical development, that relies in part on absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology studies in vivo. Zebrafish is a relatively new model system for drug metabolism and toxicity studies, offering whole organism screening coupled with small size and potential for high-throughput screening. Through toxicity and absorption analyses of a number of drugs, we find that zebrafish is generally predictive of drug toxicity, although assay outcomes are influenced by drug lipophilicity which alters drug uptake. In addition, liver microsome assays reveal specific differences in metabolism of compounds between human and zebrafish livers, likely resulting from the divergence of the cytochrome P450 superfamily between species. To reflect human metabolism more accurately, we generated a transgenic "humanized" zebrafish line that expresses the major human phase I detoxifying enzyme, CYP3A4, in the liver. Here, we show that this humanized line shows an elevated metabolism of CYP3A4-specific substrates compared to wild-type zebrafish. The generation of this first described humanized zebrafish liver suggests such approaches can enhance the accuracy of the zebrafish model for toxicity prediction.

  3. [Optimization of tri-expression of human CYP3A4 with POR and cyt b5 in Sf 9 cells].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhangming; Liu, Wenhui; Xu, Yingchun; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the optimal conditions of tri-expression of CYP3A4, POR and cyt b5 in Sf 9 cells. The Sf 9 cells expressing CYP3A4, POR and cyt b5 were cultured in shaker flasks. The optimized conditions, including the temperature and rotation speed, the culture volume, the amount of surfactant and the culture time were studied. The expressed products in microsomes were used to metabolize the testosterone and their metabolic activity was determined. When the temperature and rotation speed of the shaker were 27 degree and 90 r/min, the cell density and culture volume were 5X105 cells/ml and 80-120 ml per 250 ml shaker flasks, respectively. When Pluronic F-68 was 0.1% and the culture time was 72 h, the condition was most suitable for culture of Sf 9 cells and expression of targeted proteins. When the ratio of the volume of three added viruses was 1:1:1, the expression condition was optimal, under which the Km, Vmax, and CLint for testosterone metabolism were 119.6 μmol/L,0.52 μmol/(min*g protein) and 4.34 ml/(min*g protein), respectively. The conditions of tri-expressing of CYP3A4, POR and cyt b5 have been optimized in the study and the product CYP3A4 is obtained with higher metabolic activity.

  4. Cytotoxicity of luteolin in primary rat hepatocytes: the role of CYP3A-mediated ortho-benzoquinone metabolite formation and glutathione depletion.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fuguo; Zhao, Peng; Li, Xiaobing; Pan, Hong; Ma, Shiping; Ding, Li

    2015-11-01

    Luteolin (LUT), an active ingredient in traditional Chinese medicines and an integral part of the human diet, has shown promising pharmacological activities with a great potential for clinical use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-mediated reactive ortho-benzoquinone metabolites formation and glutathione (GSH) depletion in LUT-induced cytotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes. A reactive ortho-benzoquinone metabolite was identified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in rat liver microsomes (RLMs) and rat hepatocytes. Using a specific chemical inhibitor method, the CYP3A subfamily was found to be responsible for the reactive metabolite formation in RLMs. Induction of CYP3A by dexamethasone enhanced LUT-induced cytotoxicity, whereas inhibition of CYP3A by ketoconazole (Keto) decreased the cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis induced by LUT were related to the amount of reactive metabolite formation. Furthermore, Keto inhibited the LUT-induced GSH exhaustion. The cytotoxicity was significantly enhanced by pretreatment with L-buthionine sulfoximine to deplete the intracellular GSH. A time course experiment showed that GSH depletion by LUT was not via oxidation of GSH and occurred prior to the increase in 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein in hepatocytes. Collectively, these data suggest that CYP3A-mediated reactive metabolite formation plays a critical role in LUT-induced hepatotoxicity, and the direct GSH depletion is an initiating event in LUT-mediated cytotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes.

  5. Alteration in the Expression of Cytochrome P450s (CYP1A1, CYP2E1, and CYP3A11) in the Liver of Mouse Induced by Microcystin-LR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bangjun; Liu, Yang; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic heptapeptide toxins and can accumulate in the liver. Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play an important role in the biotransformation of endogenous substances and xenobiotics in animals. It is unclear if the CYPs are affected by MCs exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of microcystin-LR (MCLR) on cytochrome P450 isozymes (CYP1A1, CYP2E1, and CYP3A11) at mRNA level, protein content, and enzyme activity in the liver of mice the received daily, intraperitoneally, 2, 4, and 8 µg/kg body weight of MCLR for seven days. The result showed that MCLR significantly decreased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) (CYP1A1) and erythromycin N-demthylase (ERND) (CYP3A11) activities and increased aniline hydroxylase (ANH) activity (CYP2E1) in the liver of mice during the period of exposure. Our findings suggest that MCLR exposure may disrupt the function of CYPs in liver, which may be partly attributed to the toxicity of MCLR in mice. PMID:25831226

  6. Quantitative correlations among CYP3A sensitive substrates and inhibitors: literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Ragueneau-Majlessi, Isabelle; Boulenc, Xavier; Rauch, Clemence; Hachad, Houda; Levy, René H

    2007-12-01

    As a follow-up to the new classification of CYP3A inhibitors, the present work was undertaken to search for quantitative correlations of AUC ratios between sensitive substrates and midazolam (reference). A large set of clinical studies was obtained utilizing the M&T Drug Interaction Database, and recent Product Labels. Linear relationships were found between midazolam and four CYP3A substrates: simvastatin, buspirone, triazolam and eplerenone. Simvastatin and buspirone were consistently more sensitive than midazolam, independent of the inhibitor. Quantitative correlations of AUC ratios between four CYP3A inhibitors (fluconazole, erythromycin, verapamil, diltiazem) and ketoconazole (400 mg/day) were also uncovered. The average potencies of these inhibitors relative to ketoconazole were 27% for erythromycin, 17% for fluconazole and 19% for verapamil.

  7. CYP3A4*22 genotype and systemic exposure affect paclitaxel-induced neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    de Graan, Anne-Joy M.; Elens, Laure; Sprowl, Jason A.; Sparreboom, Alex; Friberg, Lena E.; van der Holt, Bronno; de Raaf, Pleun J.; de Bruijn, Peter; Engels, Frederike K.; Eskens, Ferry A.L.M.; Wiemer, Erik A.C.; Verweij, Jaap; Mathijssen, Ron H.J.; van Schaik, Ron H.N.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Paclitaxel is used for the treatment of several solid tumors and displays a high inter-individual variation in exposure and toxicity. Neurotoxicity is one of the most prominent side-effects of paclitaxel. This study explores potential predictive pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic determinants for the onset and severity of neurotoxicity. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN In an exploratory cohort of patients (n=261) treated with paclitaxel, neurotoxicity incidence and severity, pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacogenetic variants were determined. Paclitaxel plasma concentrations were measured by HPLC or LC-MS/MS, and individual pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated from previously developed population pharmacokinetic models by non-linear mixed effects modeling (NONMEM). Genetic variants of paclitaxel pharmacokinetics tested were CYP3A4*22, CYP2C8*3, CYP2C8*4, and ABCB1 3435 C>T. The association between CYP3A4*22 and neurotoxicity observed in the exploratory cohort was validated in an independent patient cohort (n=239). RESULTS Exposure to paclitaxel (logAUC) was correlated with severity of neurotoxicity (P <0.00001). Female CYP3A4*22 carriers were at increased risk of developing neurotoxicity (P = 0.043) in the exploratory cohort. CYP3A4*22 carrier status itself was not associated with pharmacokinetic parameters (CL, AUC, Cmax, or T>0.05) of paclitaxel in males or females. Other genetic variants displayed no association with neurotoxicity. In the subsequent independent validation cohort, CYP3A4*22 carriers were at risk of developing grade 3 neurotoxicity (odds ratio = 19.1; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Paclitaxel exposure showed a relationship with the severity of paclitaxel-induced neurotoxicity. In this study, female CYP3A4*22 carriers had increased risk of developing severe neurotoxicity during paclitaxel therapy. These observations may guide future individualization of paclitaxel treatment. PMID:23640974

  8. CYP3A4*22 genotype and systemic exposure affect paclitaxel-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    de Graan, Anne-Joy M; Elens, Laure; Sprowl, Jason A; Sparreboom, Alex; Friberg, Lena E; van der Holt, Bronno; de Raaf, Pleun J; de Bruijn, Peter; Engels, Frederike K; Eskens, Ferry A L M; Wiemer, Erik A C; Verweij, Jaap; Mathijssen, Ron H J; van Schaik, Ron H N

    2013-06-15

    Paclitaxel is used for the treatment of several solid tumors and displays a high interindividual variation in exposure and toxicity. Neurotoxicity is one of the most prominent side effects of paclitaxel. This study explores potential predictive pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic determinants for the onset and severity of neurotoxicity. In an exploratory cohort of patients (n = 261) treated with paclitaxel, neurotoxicity incidence, and severity, pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacogenetic variants were determined. Paclitaxel plasma concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and individual pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated from previously developed population pharmacokinetic models by nonlinear mixed effects modeling. Genetic variants of paclitaxel pharmacokinetics tested were CYP3A4*22, CYP2C8*3, CYP2C8*4, and ABCB1 3435 C>T. The association between CYP3A4*22 and neurotoxicity observed in the exploratory cohort was validated in an independent patient cohort (n = 239). Exposure to paclitaxel (logAUC) was correlated with severity of neurotoxicity (P < 0.00001). Female CYP3A4*22 carriers were at increased risk of developing neurotoxicity (P = 0.043) in the exploratory cohort. CYP3A4*22 carrier status itself was not associated with pharmacokinetic parameters (CL, AUC, Cmax, or T>0.05) of paclitaxel in males or females. Other genetic variants displayed no association with neurotoxicity. In the subsequent independent validation cohort, CYP3A4*22 carriers were at risk of developing grade 3 neurotoxicity (OR = 19.1; P = 0.001). Paclitaxel exposure showed a relationship with the severity of paclitaxel-induced neurotoxicity. In this study, female CYP3A4*22 carriers had increased risk of developing severe neurotoxicity during paclitaxel therapy. These observations may guide future individualization of paclitaxel treatment.

  9. Semiphysiologically based pharmacokinetic model for midazolam and CYP3A mediated metabolite 1-OH-midazolam in morbidly obese and weight loss surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Brill, M J E; Välitalo, P A J; Darwich, A S; van Ramshorst, B; van Dongen, H P A; Rostami-Hodjegan, A; Danhof, M; Knibbe, C A J

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and its cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) mediated metabolite 1-OH-midazolam in morbidly obese patients receiving oral and i.v. midazolam before (n = 20) and one year after weight loss surgery (n = 18), thereby providing insight into the influence of weight loss surgery on CYP3A activity in the gut wall and liver. In a semiphysiologically based pharmacokinetic (semi-PBPK) model in which different blood flow scenarios were evaluated, intrinsic hepatic clearance of midazolam (CLint,H) was 2 (95% CI 1.40-1.64) times higher compared to morbidly obese patients before surgery (P < 0.01). Midazolam gut wall clearance (CLint,G) was slightly lower in patients after surgery (P > 0.05), with low values for both groups. The results of the semi-PBPK model suggest that, in patients after weight loss surgery, CYP3A hepatic metabolizing capacity seems to recover compared to morbidly obese patients, whereas CYP3A mediated CLint,G was low for both populations and showed large interindividual variability.

  10. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by the multiherbal commercial product Sambucus Force and its main constituents Echinacea purpurea and Sambucus nigra.

    PubMed

    Schrøder-Aasen, Torstein; Molden, Guri; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2012-11-01

    The multiherbal product Sambucus Force contains Echinacea purpurea and Sambucus nigra as its main constituents. The aims of this study were to evaluate Sambucus Force's inhibition potential and inhibition mechanisms towards CYP3A4, and to evaluate the inhibitory co-contribution of E. purpurea and S. nigra. Metabolic studies were performed with recombinant human CYP3A4, with testosterone as substrate. Sambucus Force inhibited CYP3A4 activity with a mean (95% confidence interval) half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) value of 1192 (1091-1302) µg/mL. The inhibitory potency seems exclusively to be exerted by E. purpurea, implicating an insignificant inhibition by S. nigra. The inhibition by E. purpurea as a single herb was in agreement with mechanism-based inhibition with heterotropic positive cooperative effects. Echinacea purpurea acted differently in the multiherbal product, which showed a dual inhibition profile with both an uncompetitive (substrate-dependent) inhibition and a time-dependent (substrate-independent) inhibitory mechanism. These mechanistic differences are suggested to be caused by herb-herb interactions in the multiherbal product. The CYP3A4 inhibition of Sambucus Force in vitro is considered relatively weak, but recommended high herbal dosages might enhance the potential for clinical interactions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Studies on the induction of rat hepatic CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP3A and CYP4A subfamily form mRNAs in vivo and in vitro using precision-cut rat liver slices.

    PubMed

    Meredith, C; Scott, M P; Renwick, A B; Price, R J; Lake, B G

    2003-05-01

    1. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methodology (TaqMan(R)) was used to examine the induction of some selected rat hepatic cyto-chrome P450 (CYP) forms in vivo and in vitro using cultured precision-cut liver slices. 2. TaqMan primers and probe sets were developed for rat CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2B1/2, CYP3A1, CYP3A2 and CYP4A1 mRNAs. 3. To characterize the responsiveness of the rat CYP mRNA TaqMan primers and probe sets, rats were treated in vivo with a single intraperitoneal dose of 500 mg kg(-1) Aroclor 1254 (ARO) and with four daily oral doses of either 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1) dexamethasone (DEX) or 75 mg kg(-1) day(-1) methylclofenapate (MCP). Treatment with ARO produced 22 600-, 5480-, 648-, 52-, 47- and 9-fold increases in levels of CYP1A1, CYP2B1, CYP2B1/2, CYP1A2, CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 mRNA, respectively. DEX treatment produced 97-, 24-, 8- and 4-fold increases, respectively, in CYP3A1, CYP2B1, CYP2B1/2 and CYP3A2 mRNA levels, and MCP produced 339-, 126- and 25-fold increases, respectively, in CYP4A1, CYP2B1 and CYP2B1/2 mRNA levels. All three CYP inducers also increased microsomal CYP content and produced corresponding increases in CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP3A and CYP4A form marker enzyme activities. 4. Rat liver slices were cultured for 6 and 24 h in medium containing 0.1 micro M insulin and 0.1 micro M DEX, and also for 24 h in medium containing only 0.1 micro M insulin (DEX-free medium). Liver slices were cultured in control medium or in medium containing either 10 micro M beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), 10 micro g ml(-1) ARO, 500 micro M sodium phenobarbitone (NaPB), 20 micro M pregnenolone-16alpha -carbonitrile (PCN), 50 micro M Wy-14,643 (WY) or 50 micro M MCP. 5. With the exception of the effect of BNF on CYP1A1 mRNA levels, the induction of all the CYP mRNAs studied was greater after 24- than after 6-h treatment. Generally, the magnitude of induction of CYP mRNA levels was greater after 24 h in liver slices cultured in DEX

  12. Pungent ginger components modulates human cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mian; Chen, Pei-zhan; Yue, Qing-xi; Li, Jing-quan; Chu, Rui-ai; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Ginger rhizome is used worldwide as a spicy flavor agent. This study was designed to explore the potential effects of pungent ginger components, 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerol, on human cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes that are responsible for the metabolism of many prescription drugs. Methods: The activities of human CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 were analyzed using Vivid P450 assay kits. The mRNA expression of CYP3A4 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 was measured using quantitative real-time PCR assay. Results: All three gingerols potently inhibited CYP2C9 activity, exerted moderate inhibition on CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, and weak inhibion on CYP2D6. 8-Gingerol was the most potent in inhibition of P450 enzymes with IC50 values of 6.8, 12.5, 8.7, and 42.7 μmol/L for CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6, respectively. By comparing the effects of gingerols on CYP3A4 with three different fluorescent substrate probes, it was demonstrated that the inhibition of gingerols on CYP3A4 had no substrate-dependence. In HepG2 cells, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol inhibited, but 6-gingerol induced mRNA expression of CYP3A4. Conclusion: 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerol suppress human cytochrome P450 activity, while 8- and 10-gingerol inhibit CYP3A4 expression. The results may have an implication for the use of ginger or ginger products when combined with therapeutic drugs that are metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. PMID:23770984

  13. Effect of CYP3A4*22, POR*28, and PPARA rs4253728 on sirolimus in vitro metabolism and trough concentrations in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Woillard, Jean-Baptiste; Kamar, Nassim; Coste, Sandra; Rostaing, Lionel; Marquet, Pierre; Picard, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have identified new candidate polymorphisms in the genes related to CYP3A activity or calcineurin inhibitor dose requirements in kidney transplant recipients. These genes and polymorphisms are CYP3A4 (cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 4) (rs35599367-C>T; *22); POR [P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase] (rs1057868-C>T; *28); and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha) (rs4253728-G>A). We investigated the impact of these polymorphisms on sirolimus (SRL) in vitro hepatic metabolism, SRL trough concentrations (C0), and SRL adverse events in kidney transplant recipients. The clinical study included 113 stable kidney transplant patients switched from a calcineurin inhibitor to SRL (SRL C0 measured at 1, 3, and 6 months thereafter). We investigated SRL metabolism in vitro using human liver microsomes derived from individual donors (n = 31). Microsomes and patients were genotyped by use of Taqman® allelic discrimination assays. The effects of polymorphisms and covariates were studied using multilinear regression imbedded in linear mixed-effect models or logistic regressions. In vitro, the CYP3A4*22 allele resulted in approximately 20% lower metabolic rates of SRL (P = 0.0411). No significant association was found between CYP3A4, CYP3A5, or PPARA genotypes and SRL dose, C0, or C0/dose in kidney transplant patients. POR*28 was associated with a minor but significant decrease in SRL log-transformed C0 [CT/TT vs CC, β = -0.15 (0.05); P = 0.0197] but this did not have any impact on the dose administered, which limited the relevance of the finding. After adjustment for nongenetic covariates and correction for false discovery finding, none of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms tested showed significant association with SRL adverse events. These recently described polymorphisms do not seem to substantially influence the pharmacokinetics of SRL or the occurrence of SRL adverse events in kidney transplant recipients.

  14. A Systematic Approach to Evaluate Herb-Drug Interaction Mechanisms: Investigation of Milk Thistle Extracts and Eight Isolated Constituents as CYP3A Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Scott J.; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing recognition of potential untoward interactions between herbal products and conventional medications, a standard system for prospective assessment of these interactions remains elusive. This information gap was addressed by evaluating the drug interaction liability of the model herbal product milk thistle (Silybum marianum) with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam. The inhibitory effects of commercially available milk thistle extracts and isolated constituents on midazolam 1′-hydroxylation were screened using human liver and intestinal microsomes. Relative to vehicle, the extract silymarin and constituents silybin A, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, and silychristin at 100 μM demonstrated >50% inhibition of CYP3A activity with at least one microsomal preparation, prompting IC50 determination. The IC50s for isosilybin B and silychristin were ∼60 and 90 μM, respectively, whereas those for the remaining constituents were >100 μM. Extracts and constituents that contained the 1,4-dioxane moiety demonstrated a >1.5-fold shift in IC50 when tested as potential mechanism-based inhibitors. The semipurified extract, silibinin, and the two associated constituents (silybin A and silybin B) demonstrated mechanism-based inhibition of recombinant CYP3A4 (KI, ∼100 μM; kinact, ∼0.20 min−1) but not microsomal CYP3A activity. The maximum predicted increases in midazolam area under the curve using the static mechanistic equation and recombinant CYP3A4 data were 1.75-fold, which may necessitate clinical assessment. Evaluation of the interaction liability of single herbal product constituents, in addition to commercially available extracts, will enable elucidation of mechanisms underlying potential clinically significant herb-drug interactions. Application of this framework to other herbal products would permit predictions of herb-drug interactions and assist in prioritizing clinical evaluation. PMID:23801821

  15. SPR and electrochemical analyses of interactions between CYP3A4 or 3A5 and cytochrome b5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedenko, O. V.; Yablokov, E. O.; Usanov, S. A.; Mukha, D. V.; Sergeev, G. V.; Bulko, T. V.; Kuzikov, A. V.; Moskaleva, N. E.; Shumyantseva, V. V.; Ivanov, A. S.; Archakov, A. I.

    2014-02-01

    The combination of SPR biosensor with electrochemical analysis was used for the study of protein-protein interaction between cytochromes CYP3A4 or 3А5 and cytochromes b5: the microsomal, mitochondrial forms of this protein, and 2 ≪chimeric≫ proteins. Kinetic constants of CYP3A4 and CYP3А5 complex formation with cytochromes b5 were determined by the SPR biosensor. Essential distinction between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 was observed upon their interactions with mitochondrial cytochrome b5. The electrochemical analysis of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and cytochromes b5 immobilized on screen printed graphite electrodes modified with membranous matrix revealed that these proteins have very close reduction potentials -0.435 to -0.350 V (vs. Ag/AgCl).

  16. Reduced Duodenal Cytochrome P450 3A Protein Expression and Catalytic Activity in Patients with Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    McConn, Donavon J.; Lin, Yvonne S.; Mathisen, Terri L.; Blough, David K.; Xu, Yang; Hashizume, Takanori; Taylor, Shari L.; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Shuhart, Margaret C.

    2009-01-01

    The small intestine and liver express high levels of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), an enzyme subfamily contributing significantly to drug metabolism. In patients with cirrhosis, reduced metabolism of drugs is typically attributed to decreased liver function, but it is unclear whether intestinal drug metabolism is also compromised. In this study, we compared CYP3A protein expression and in vitro midazolam hydroxylation in duodenal mucosal biopsies from subjects with normal liver function (controls; n=20) and subjects with varying severity of cirrhosis (n=23). Compared to samples from controls, duodenal CYP3A expression and total midazolam hydroxylation was reduced by 47% and 34%, respectively in samples from subjects with cirrhosis. Greater decreases in CYP3A expression were seen in subjects with increasing severity of cirrhosis. Thus, patients with advanced cirrhosis may have increased drug exposure following oral dosing as a result of both impaired liver function and decreased intestinal CYP3