Science.gov

Sample records for cyperus laxus lam

  1. The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Rivera Casado, Noemí Araceli; Montes Horcasitas, María del Carmen; Rodríguez Vázquez, Refugio; Esparza García, Fernando José; Pérez Vargas, Josefina; Ariza Castolo, Armando; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Gómez Guzmán, Octavio; Calva Calva, Graciano

    2015-01-01

    The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

  2. The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Montes Horcasitas, María del Carmen; Rodríguez Vázquez, Refugio; Esparza García, Fernando José; Pérez Vargas, Josefina; Ariza Castolo, Armando; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Gómez Guzmán, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process. PMID:26473488

  3. Phytoremediation potential of Cd and Zn by wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta L. Schott., Cyperus malaccensis Lam. and Typha angustifolia L. grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Chayapan, P; Kruatrachue, M; Meetam, M; Pokethitiyook, P

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium and zinc phytoremediation potential of wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta, Cyperus malaccensis, and Typha angustifolia, was investigated. Plants were grown for 15 days in nutrient solutions containing various concentrations of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg l(-1)) and Zn (0, 10, 20, 50, 100 mg l(-1)). T angustifolia was tolerant to both metals as indicated by high RGR when grown in 50 mg I(-1) Cd and 100 mg I(-1) Zn solutions. All these plants accumulated more metals in their underground parts and > 100 mg kg(-1) in their aboveground with TF values < 1. Only C. esculenta could be considered a Zn hyperaccumulator because it could concentrate > 10,000 mg kg(-1) in its aboveground parts with TF > 1. T angustifolia exhibited highest biomass production and highest Cd and Zn uptake, confirming that this plant is a suitable candidate for treating of Cd contaminated soil/sediments.

  4. Caragana arborescens Lam.: Siberian peashrub

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Dietz; Paul E. Slabaugh; Franklin T. Bonner

    2008-01-01

    Siberian peashrub - Caragana arborescens Lam. - is one of the most hardy small deciduous trees or shrubs planted on the northern Great Plains (George 1953; Rehder 1940). Introduced into North America in 1752 (Rehder 1940), Siberian peashrub is native to Siberia and Manchuria and occurs from southern Russia to China (Graham 1941). Varieties include the dwarf (C. a. nana...

  5. Investigation of the potential of Cyperus alternifolius in the phytoremediation of palm oil mill effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa'at, Siti Kamariah Md; Zaman, Nastaein Qamaruz; Yusoff, Suffian Mohd; Ismail, Hirun Azaman

    2017-10-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology nowadays due to demand in environmental sustainability which requires cost-effective solutions in terms of capital and operational cost. The treatment gain attention due to their potential in wastewater treatment especially in organics, nutrients, and heavy metal removal of domestics, agricultural, and industrial wastewater treatment. Plant functions in phytoremediation make the plant selection as an essential element. The plant should have the ability to tolerate with the toxic effluent and able to uptake the contaminant. Cyperus alternifolius (umbrella grass) was chosen as aquatic plant due to the ability to tolerance in municipal and industrial effluent sources with strong and dense root systems. Thus, the objectives of this study are to determine the potential and effectiveness of Cyperus alternifolius in the palm oil mill effluent treatment especially in the removal of organics (COD), nutrients (NH3-N and TP) and suspended solid. The batch experiment was run using Cyperus alternifolius to determine their potential of aerobic pond effluent for 21 days of treatment. Cyperus alternifolius treatment shows the great removal of COD and TSS with 96% and 91%, respectively at the end of 21 days of treatment. Nutrients removal achieved the maximum removal of 92% NH3-N and 99% TP shows after 11 days of treatment and percentage slowly decrease until the end of 21 days of treatment. Cyperus alternifolius had shown potential in the palm oil mill effluent treatment and can be combined with ponding treatment to enhance to water quality prior discharge.

  6. Physicochemical and tablet properties of Cyperus alulatus rhizomes starch granules.

    PubMed

    Paramakrishnan, N; Jha, S; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2015-05-01

    The starch extracted from rhizomes of Cyperus alulatus (CA) was characterized for its physicochemical, morphological and tableting properties. Rhizomes of CA yield a significant quantity of starch granules (CASG) i.e., 11.93%. CASG was characterized in terms of moisture, ash and amylose contents, solubility and swelling power, paste clarity and water retention capacity. The swelling power was found to be significantly improved with the increase in temperature. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the granule's surface was smooth, the granules were spherical, mostly round, disc like, and the size range was 6.65-12.13 μm. Finger print region in FTIR spectra confirmed its carbohydrate nature. The evaluated micromeritic properties of extracted granule's bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner ratio, true density and porosity render unique practicability of CASG being used as an adjuvant in pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. Tablets prepared by using CASG showed higher mechanical strength and more disintegration time, which depicted the characteristic binding nature of the starch granules. As CASG is imparting better binding properties in less concentration and also it can be used in combination with the established starches to get the synergistic effect; this starch can be used commercially in the tablet preparation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension (LAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, Ronald E.; Eisenhaure, David B.; Downer, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Spherical LAMS is magnetic syspension that provides dual functions of magnetic bearing and rotorgimbal system. Provides two degrees of angular freedom within single magnetic suspension system. Approach employs spherically-shaped magnetic-gap surfaces to achieve much-larger angular freedom than available from previous suspensions.

  8. Phytonutrient analysis of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. berries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Litchi tomato) is grown ornamentally, and in Europe it is used as a trap crop for management of the potato cyst nematode (PCN). Its berries are edible, but little is known about their nutritional content. If more was known about their nutritional value this could provid...

  9. LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0132 TITLE: LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charlie...AND SUBTITLE LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0132 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...designed to generate short-term safety and efficacy data regarding imatinib mesylate (imatinib) in the treatment of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis ( LAM

  10. ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLIEFERA. LAM

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K.N. Venkataswera; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Loganathan, V.; Nathan, S. Shanmuganathan

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous and ethanolic (90%) extract of the leaves of M.Oliera Lam (Fam: Moringaceae) were studied for their anti inflammatory action in ale albino rats. Two extracts exhibited maximum action within two hours of challenge. The aqueous extract sowed significant (P<0.01) odema suppression similar to that of Ibuprofen at the first hour of carrageenan injection. The results confirms the folkers claim of the plant. PMID:22556890

  11. On LAM's and SAM's for Halley's rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peale, Stanton J.

    1992-01-01

    Non principal axis rotation for comet Halley is inferred from dual periodicities evident in the observations. The modes where the spin axis precesses around the axis of minimum moment of inertia (long axis mode or LAM) and where it precesses around the axis of maximum moment of inertia (short axis mode or SAM) are described from an inertial point of view. The currently favored LAM model for Halley's rotation state satisfies observational and dynamical constraints that apparently no SAM can satisfy. But it cannot reproduce the observed post perihelion brightening through seasonal illumination of localized sources on the nucleus, whereas a SAM can easily produce post or pre perihelion brightening by this mechanism. However, the likelihood of a LAM rotation for elongated nuclei of periodic comets such as Halley together with Halley's extreme post perihelion behavior far from the Sun suggest that Halley's post perihelion brightening may be due to effects other than seasonal illumination of localized sources, and therefore such brightening may not constrain its rotation state.

  12. Visualising Learning Design in LAMS: A Historical View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalziel, James

    2011-01-01

    The Learning Activity Management System (LAMS) provides a web-based environment for the creation, sharing, running and monitoring of Learning Designs. A central feature of LAMS is the visual authoring environment, where educators use a drag-and-drop environment to create sequences of learning activities. The visualisation is based on boxes…

  13. The Role of Laparoscopic-Assisted Myomectomy (LAM)

    PubMed Central

    Nezhat, Ceana H.; Nezhat, Farr.; Nezhat, Camran

    2001-01-01

    Laparoscopic myomectomy has recently gained wide acceptance. However, this procedure remains technically highly demanding and concerns have been raised regarding the prolonged time of anesthesia, increased blood loss, and possibly a higher risk of postoperative adhesion formation. Laparoscopic-assisted myomectomy (LAM) is advocated as a technique that may lessen these concerns regarding laparoscopic myomectomy while retaining the benefits of laparoscopic surgery, namely, short hospital stay, lower costs, and rapid recovery. By decreasing the technical demands, and thereby the operative time, LAM may be more widely offered to patients. In carefully selected cases, LAM is a safe and efficient alternative to both laparoscopic myomectomy and myomectomy by laparotomy. These cases include patients with numerous large or deep intramural myomas. LAM allows easier repair of the uterus and rapid morcellation of the myomas. In women who desire a future pregnancy, LAM may be a better approach because it allows meticulous suturing of the uterine defect in layers and thereby eliminates excessive electrocoagulation. PMID:11719974

  14. Effectiveness of a model constructed wetland system containing Cyperus papyrus in degrading diesel oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbowo, Danni Gathot; Choesin, Devi Nandita

    2014-03-01

    Synergism between wetland systems and the provision of degrading bacterial inoculum is now being developed for the recovery of areas polluted waters of pollutants. In connection with the frequent cases of diesel oil pollution in the waters of Indonesia, we need a way of water treatment as an efficient. In this study conducted a series of tests to develop an construcred wetland design that can effectively degrade diesel oil. Tested five systems: blanko (A), substrated, without bacterial inoculums, and vegetation (B); with the addition of inoculum (C); subsrated and vegetated (D); substrated and vegetated with the addition of inoculum (E). Vegetation used in this study is Cyperus papyrus because it has the ability to absorb pollutants. Inoculum used was Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes which is a bacteria degrading organic compounds commonly found in water. To measure the effectiveness of the system, use several indicators to see the degradation of pollutants, namely changes in viscosity, surface tension of pollutants, and the emergence of compound degradation. Based on the results of the study can be determined that the substrated and vegetated system with Cyperus papyrus inoculum (E) was considered the most capable of degrading diesel oil due to the large changes in all parameters. In the system E, 40.6% increase viscosity, surface tension decreased 32.7%, the appearance of degradation compounds with relatively 3614.7 points, and increased to 227.8% TDS. In addition the environmental conditions in the system E also supports the growth of vegetation and degrading microbes.

  15. The LAM space active optics facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, C.; Ferrari, M.; Hugot, E.; Escolle, C.; Bonnefois, A.; Bernot, M.; Bret-Dibat, T.; Carlavan, M.; Falzon, F.; Fusco, T.; Laubier, D.; Liotard, A.; Michau, V.; Mugnier, L.

    2017-11-01

    The next generation of large lightweight space telescopes will require the use of active optics systems to enhance the performance and increase the spatial resolution. Since almost 10 years now, LAM, CNES, THALES and ONERA conjugate their experience and efforts for the development of space active optics through the validation of key technological building blocks: correcting devices, metrology components and control strategies. This article presents the work done so far on active correcting mirrors and wave front sensing, as well as all the facilities implemented. The last part of this paper focuses on the merging of the MADRAS and RASCASSE test-set up. This unique combination will provide to the active optics community an automated, flexible and versatile facility able to feed and characterise space active optics components.

  16. Charring Rate for Fire Exposed X-Lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Bernice VY; Fah Tee, Kong

    2017-06-01

    Design of timber structures has been outlined in Eurocode 5. Notional charring rate for softwood and hardwood timber is given. For the performance of X-LAM panels in fire, only little information on charring is available and whether the fire behaviour of X-LAM is similar to homogenous timber panels has not yet been systematically analysed. This paper presents an overview of fire performance of X-LAM and evaluation of its resistance to elevated temperature as an element of structure in comparison to homogeneous timber panels. Numerical study has been carried out based on available experimental results. Charring rates for X-LAM panels obtained from experimental results are compared with those obtained from Eurocode 5 and proposed simplified model.

  17. Hardwood press-lam crossties : processing and performance

    Treesearch

    J.L. Tschernitz; E.L. Schaffer; R.C. Moody; R.W. Jokerst; D.S. Gromala; C.C. Peters; W.T. Henry

    1979-01-01

    Crossties were made by the Press-Lam process, in which logs are peeled into veneers, dried, and glued into billets in a continuous procedure. Billets were made from 8.5-foot-long veneers and from 4-foot-long veneers, cut into final product dimensions, and treated with preservative. In laboratory tests, bending strength and stiffness of the Press-Lam ties were found to...

  18. LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0132 TITLE: LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charlie Strange, MD...completion dates or the percentage of completion. The LAMP-1 study is designed to generate short-term safety and efficacy data...block the growth of LAM cells through initiation of targeted cell death. This study employs a small clinical trial design using 20 participants at two

  19. Classical closure theory and Lam's interpretation of epsilon-RNG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    Lam's phenomenological epsilon-renormalization group (RNG) model is quite different from the other members of that group. It does not make use of the correspondence principle and the epsilon-expansion procedure. We demonstrate that Lam's epsilon-RNG model is essentially the physical space version of the classical closure theory in spectral space and consider the corresponding treatment of the eddy viscosity and energy backscatter.

  20. Targeting Estrogen-Induced COX-2 Activity in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    significant benefit in slowing LAM progression. The well-known side - effect and toxicity profile of these drugs make them attractive candidates for...well-known side - effect and toxicity profile of these drugs make them attractive candidates for long-term therapy in LAM patients. It is also possible...induced prostaglandin biosynthesis signature in TSC2- deficient cells in vitro and in vivo To examine the possible effects of estradiol on metabolic

  1. Targeting Estrogen-Induced COX-2 Activity in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    production was also increased in TSC2-deficient cells. In preclinical models, both Celecoxib and aspirin reduced tumor development. LAM patients had...increased by aspirin treatment, indicative of functional COX-2 expression in the LAM airway. In vitro, 15-epi-lipoxin-A4 reduced the proliferation of...inhibit COX-2 pharmacologically, we treated TSC2-deficient cells with aspirin or NS398, and found that both agents reduced COX-2 protein levels and

  2. Inhibitory effects of Cyperus digitatus extract on human platelet function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Forero-Doria, Oscar; Alarcón, Marcelo; Palomo, Iván

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the mechanisms of antiplatelet action of Cyperus digitatus. The antiplatelet action of C. digitatus was studied on platelet function: secretion, adhesion, aggregation, and sCD40L release. The platelet ATP secretion and aggregation were significantly inhibited by CDA (ethyl acetate extract) at 0.1 mg/ml and after the incubation of whole blood with CDA, the platelet coverage was inhibited by 96 ± 3% (p < 0.001). At the same concentration, CDA significantly decreased sCD40L levels. The mechanism of antiplatelet action of CDA could be by NF-κB inhibition and that is cAMP independent. In conclusion, C. digitatus extract may serve as a new source of antiplatelet agents for food and nutraceutical applications.

  3. Cyprotuoside C and Cyprotuoside D, Two New Cycloartane Glycosides from the Rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Lin, San-Qing; Zhou, Zhong-Liu; Li, Chun-Yan

    2018-01-01

    Cyprotuoside C (1) and cyprotuoside D (2), two new cycloartane glycosides were isolated from the ethanol extract of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus. Their structures were identified as 24R-9,10-seco-cycloartan-1(10),9(11)-dien-3β,7β,24,25-tetraol 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-25-O-β-D-glucuronide (1) and 9,10-seco-cycloartan-1(10),9(11),23(24)-trien-3β,7β,25-triol 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-{α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]}-β-D-glucopyranosyl-25-O-β-D-glucuronide (2) by spectroscopic methods.

  4. Mechanical and morphological study of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)/cyperus odoratus (CY) biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faris, N. A.; Noriman, N. Z.; Haron, Adli; Sam, S. T.; Hamzah, R.; Shayfull, Z.; Ghazali, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    The potential of Cyperus Odoratus (CY) as a filler was studied. The CY, in a powder form, was mixed with Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE), prior to being fed into a twin screw extruder and subsequently into an injection moulding machine to produce LLDPY/CY biocomposites. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was utilized and tensile tests were performed on the test specimens to characterize the structure and properties of the composites. The integration of CY powder and LLDPE resulted in an increment of the modulus of elasticity, but a reduction in tensile strength and elongation at break. The morphology characterization of these composites, determined through the SEM, showed poor interfacial adhesion between the filler and the thermoplastic LLDPE matrix.

  5. Effect of beta-agonists on LAM progression and treatment.

    PubMed

    Le, Kang; Steagall, Wendy K; Stylianou, Mario; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Darling, Thomas N; Vaughan, Martha; Moss, Joel

    2018-01-30

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare disease of women, is associated with cystic lung destruction resulting from the proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells with mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes TSC1 and/or TSC2 The mutant genes and encoded proteins are responsible for activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is inhibited by sirolimus (rapamycin), a drug used to treat LAM. Patients who have LAM may also be treated with bronchodilators for asthma-like symptoms due to LAM. We observed stabilization of forced expiratory volume in 1 s over time in patients receiving sirolimus and long-acting beta-agonists with short-acting rescue inhalers compared with patients receiving only sirolimus. Because beta-agonists increase cAMP and PKA activity, we investigated effects of PKA activation on the mTOR pathway. Human skin TSC2 +/- fibroblasts or LAM lung cells incubated short-term with isoproterenol (beta-agonist) showed a sirolimus-independent increase in phosphorylation of S6, a downstream effector of the mTOR pathway, and increased cell growth. Cells incubated long-term with isoproterenol, which may lead to beta-adrenergic receptor desensitization, did not show increased S6 phosphorylation. Inhibition of PKA blocked the isoproterenol effect on S6 phosphorylation. Thus, activation of PKA by beta-agonists increased phospho-S6 independent of mTOR, an effect abrogated by beta-agonist-driven receptor desensitization. In agreement, retrospective clinical data from patients with LAM suggested that a combination of bronchodilators in conjunction with sirolimus may be preferable to sirolimus alone for stabilization of pulmonary function.

  6. An antitumor promoter from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Guevara, A P; Vargas, C; Sakurai, H; Fujiwara, Y; Hashimoto, K; Maoka, T; Kozuka, M; Ito, Y; Tokuda, H; Nishino, H

    1999-04-06

    In the course of studies on the isolation of bioactive compounds from Philippine plants, the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. were examined and from the ethanol extract were isolated the new O-ethyl-4-(alpha-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl carbamate (1) together with seven known compounds, 4(alpha-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (2), niazimicin (3), niazirin (4), beta-sitosterol (5), glycerol-1-(9-octadecanoate) (6), 3-O-(6'-O-oleoyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-beta-sitosterol (7), and beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8). Four of the isolates (2, 3, 7, and 8), which were obtained in relatively good yields, were tested for their potential antitumor promoting activity using an in vitro assay which tested their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus-early antigen (EBV-EA) activation in Raji cells induced by the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). All the tested compounds showed inhibitory activity against EBV-EA activation, with compounds 2, 3 and 8 having shown very significant activities. Based on the in vitro results, niazimicin (3) was further subjected to in vivo test and found to have potent antitumor promoting activity in the two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin using 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) as initiator and TPA as tumor promoter. From these results, niazimicin (3) is proposed to be a potent chemo-preventive agent in chemical carcinogenesis. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. Concentration effects of the UV filter oxybenzone in Cyperus alternifolius: assessment of tolerance by stress-related response.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feiran; Schnick, Sandrine; Schröder, Peter

    2018-06-01

    Phytoremediation has been proposed to reduce the load of the sunscreen oxybenzone (OBZ) in the aquatic environment. Despite the proven removal efficiency of this compound, little is known about its influence, particularly oxidative stress on plants. In this study, a short-term incubation of macrophytic Cyperus alternifolius was performed to prove the plant's ability to withstand the stress. Detached shoots were immersed in medium spiked with different concentrations of OBZ (50, 100, and 500 μM) for 2, 4, and 7 days, respectively. Increased formation of O 2 - and H 2 O 2 in Cyperus treated with OBZ was characterized by intense colorization following histochemical staining. Alterations of enzyme activities involved in the antioxidative defense system indicate an adaptive response of C. alternifolius to this xenobiotic stress. Quantification of lipid peroxidation reveals that no significant membrane damage occurred during incubation with OBZ. Overall, 50 μM OBZ (tenfold higher than the amount frequently detected in the environment) exhibited low toxic effects. Accordingly, this pilot study provides information on the potential use of Cyperus to remove emerging sunscreen contaminants from water bodies.

  8. [Purification of eutrophic wastewater by Cyperus alternifolius, Coleus blumei and Jasminum sambac planted in a floating phytoremediation system].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shizhe; Lin, Dongjiao; Tang, Shujun; Luo, Jian

    2004-07-01

    In a greenhouse study, Cyperus alternifolius, Coleus blumei and Jasminum sambac were cultured in a floating phytoremediation system with plantation cups inserted into a polyfoam plate that floated in the upper part of a tank filled with 100 L domestic wastewater. The contents of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), total P (T-P), total N (T-N), soluble P(S-P), ammonia-nitrogen (NH4+ -N) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3- -N) in the domestic wastewater were tested during the growth of these three plants. The results showed that Cyperus alternifolius and Coleus blumei could grow well in the floating phytoremediation system, their dry weight being 285.8% and 371.4% of the initial weight of planting, respectively, but Jasminum sambac could not grow well, being 125.0% of the initial weight of planting. The removal rate of TN by these 3 plants was 68.0%, 62.0% and 45.0%, and that of NO3- -N, CODCr and TP was 98.0%, 80.0% and 92.0%, 78.0%, 66.0% and 55.0%, and 90.6%, 90.5% and 88.0% respectively. Cyperus alternifolius and Coleus blumei had good effects on the removal of pollutants in the floating phytoremediation system.

  9. Computer-Aided Grading of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) using HRCT

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianhua; Avila, Nilo; Dwyer, Andrew; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M.; Hathaway, Olanda M.; Moss, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a multisystem disorder associated with proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells, which leads to destruction of lung parenchyma. Subjective grading of LAM on HRCT is imprecise and can be arduous especially in cases with severe involvement. We propose a computer-aided evaluation system that grades LAM involvement based on analysis of lung texture patterns. A committee of support vector machines is employed for classification. The system was tested on 36 patients. The computer grade demonstrates good correlation with subjective radiologist grade (R=0.91, p<0.0001) and pulmonary functional tests (R=0.85, p<0.0001). The grade also provides precise progression assessment of disease over time. PMID:21625320

  10. [Methane fluxes of Cyperus malaccensis tidal wetland in Minjiang River estuary].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Cong-Sheng; Wang, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Lin-Hai; Lin, Lu-Ying; Ai, Jin-Quan; Zhang, Wen-Long

    2010-02-01

    By using enclosed static chamber-gas chromatograph techniques, this paper measured the methane fluxes of Cyperus malaccensis tidal wetland in Minjiang River estuary. The diurnal variation of the methane fluxes in summer and winter were in the range of 1.29-2.93 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) and 0.06-0.22 mg x m(-2) x h(-1), respectively. The methane fluxes before flooding, in the process of flooding and ebbing, and after ebbing were 0.11-1.52 mg x m(-2) x h(-1), 0.10-1.05 mg x m(-2) x h(-1), and 0.05-1.70 mg x m(-2) x h(-1), and the monthly averaged fluxes were 0.73, 0.47, and 0.72 mg x m(-2) x h(-1), respectively. The methane fluxes peaked in September and reached the lowest in March, and were significantly lower in the process of flooding and ebbing than before flooding and after ebbing (P < 0.05). The seasonal variation of the methane fluxes was in the order of summer > autumn > spring > winter. Tide was the key factor affecting the diurnal variation of the methane fluxes, while plant growth stage and temperature were the key factors determining the monthly or seasonal variation of the methane fluxes.

  11. Phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soil using nut grass, Cyperus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Basumatary, Budhadev; Saikia, Rubul; Bordoloi, Sabitry

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Cyperus rotundus (nut grass), that could be effective in phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soil. A net house experiment was conducted with different concentrations (2.05, 4.08, 6.1, 8.15 and 10.2%) of crude oil-contaminated soil for 180 days. Plant growth, biomass, total oil and grease (TOG) degradation and microbial numbers were analyzed at different intervals i.e. 60,120 and 180 days in different percentages of crude oil contaminated soil. In presence of crude oil, plant biomass and heights reduced up to 26 and 21.9% respectively. Concerning TOG content in soil, C. rotundus could decrease up to 50.01, 46.1, 42.6, 38.8 and 32.6% in treatment I, II, III, IV and V respectively in vegetated pots during 180 days. In case of unvegetated pots, the reductions of TOG were 4.4, 5.6, 6.6, 7.6 and 9.6% in treatment A, B, C, D and E respectively. However, there was significant degradation (P = 0.05) of TOG in vegetated pots in comparison to unvegetated pots thereby proving the efficacy of this plant species for use in phytoremediation.

  12. Investigation into ammonia stress on Cyperus alternifolius and its impact on nutrient removal in microcosm experiments.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wendong; Han, Jianqiu; Li, Hanyan

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia stress on plants has been investigated at discrete ammonia concentrations in constructed wetlands. This study introduced a Gaussian model to simulate the kinetics of ammonia stress and investigated reversible and irreversible ammonia stress on Cyperus alternifolius in wetland-like microcosms. Ammonia stress on plant weight increase and oxygen release potential started at weekly ammonia concentrations of 27 and 28 mg N/L, reached 50% inhibition at 178 and 158 mg N/L, and resulted in lethal effects at 311 and 303 mg N/L, respectively. The stress of one-time ammonia concentrations up to 400 mg N/L could be reversible. Ammonia concentrations constantly above 219 mg N/L exerted irreversible stress. In the microcosms with ammonia concentrations above the 50% inhibition levels, plants played a minor role in nitrogen removal. Nitrogen removal performance was not affected considerably by ammonia stress. Orthophosphate removal was suppressed by ammonia stress due to less plant uptake. Design and operation of constructed wetlands should consider wastewater ammonia concentration so that the integrity of constructed wetland ecosystems can be maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mass variation effect of teki grass (cyperus rotundus) composite against tensile strength and density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiq Yanhar, Muhammad; Haris Nasution, A.

    2018-05-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine the tensile strength using ASTM D638 - 02a type IVB and density of teki grass (Cyperus rotundus) composite. The production process is carried out by mass variation of 2 gr, 3 gr, and 4 gr. Hand lay-up method with three repetitions is applied. Teki grass is chosen because it is easy to find and has some advantages biodegradable, harmless to health, available in large quantities, and cost-efficient. The test result showed the largest tensile strength is 21,61 MPa at 2-gram mass fiber. Fiber addition to 3 gram and 4-gram cause tensile strength decreases to 18,51 MPa and 11,65 MPa. It happens because the fibers are random and spread in all directions, so many fibers are undirectional with the tensile force. Beside that fibers addition made matrix volume reduced and a bond between fiber and matrix decreases, finally make fiber unable to hold the tensile force properly. It is recommended to use another type of ASTM D638 - 02a which has a larger narrow section like type I (13 mm) and type III (19mm) so specimens are not broken when removed from the mold, and there isn’t any decrease in tensile strength.Density test showed that fiber mass does not significantly affect the density.

  14. Neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing effects of the combined extract of Cyperus rotundus and Zingiber officinale.

    PubMed

    Sutalangka, Chatchada; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

    2017-03-03

    Currently, food supplements to improve age-related dementia are required. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of the combined extract of Cyperus rotundus and Zingiber officinale (CP1) on the improvement of age-related dementia in rats with AF64A-induced memory deficits. Male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were orally given CP1 at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg.kg -1 BW for a period of 14 days after bilateral intracerebroventricular administration of AF64A. Spatial memory was assessed in all rats every 7 days throughout the 14 day-experimental period. At the end of the study, neuronal density, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, oxidative stress status and the activation of MAPK cascades in the hippocampus were determined. Enhanced memory, increased neuronal density, decreased AChE activity and decreased oxidative stress status together with activated pERK1/2 were observed in the hippocampus of CP1-treated rats. These results suggested that CP1 might improve memory via enhanced cholinergic function and decreased neurodegeneration and oxidative stress. CP1 is a potential novel food supplement for dementia. However, further investigations on the subchronic toxicity of CP1 and drug interactions are required.

  15. Structured Dialogue Design in LAMS through Interactive Lecture Podcasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobozy, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the utility of interactive lecture podcasting in LAMS and the impact of structured dialogue design. It reports how curriculum renewal and innovation were greeted with scepticism by teacher education students enrolled in a compulsory curriculum unit at an Australian university. An analytic induction methodology in conjunction…

  16. SOME PHARMACOGNOSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. LEAVES

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Saroj K.; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Saha, Kakali; Pal, M.; Saha, B.P

    1996-01-01

    The macroscopic character of the leaflets ash values extractive values by different solvent extractive behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents fluorescence characters by treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Maoringa oleifera lam (fam moringaceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters, chemical group test of different extracts of the leaves were also performed. PMID:22556759

  17. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF THE LEAF EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Saroj K.; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Saha, Kakali; Pal, M.; Saha, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    The ethnolic extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Fam. Moringaceae) was tested for antimicrobial activities against Gram Positive – Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea: Gram negative – Escherichia coli and Acid fast Mycobacterium phlei. Significant antimicrobial activity of the extract was found in this study. PMID:22556699

  18. Clonal growth strategy, diversity and structure: A spatiotemporal response to sedimentation in tropical Cyperus papyrus swamps.

    PubMed

    Geremew, Addisie; Stiers, Iris; Sierens, Tim; Kefalew, Alemayehu; Triest, Ludwig

    2018-01-01

    Land degradation and soil erosion in the upper catchments of tropical lakes fringed by papyrus vegetation can result in a sediment load gradient from land to lakeward. Understanding the dynamics of clonal modules (ramets and genets) and growth strategies of plants on such a gradient in both space and time is critical for exploring a species adaptation and processes regulating population structure and differentiation. We assessed the spatial and temporal dynamics in clonal growth, diversity, and structure of an emergent macrophyte, Cyperus papyrus (papyrus), in response to two contrasting sedimentation regimes by combining morphological traits and genotype data using 20 microsatellite markers. A total of 636 ramets from six permanent plots (18 x 30 m) in three Ethiopian papyrus swamps, each with discrete sedimentation regimes (high vs. low) were sampled for two years. We found that ramets under the high sedimentation regime (HSR) were significantly clumped and denser than the sparse and spreading ramets under the low sedimentation regime (LSR). The HSR resulted in significantly different ramets with short culm height and girth diameter as compared to the LSR. These results indicated that C. papyrus ameliorates the effect of sedimentation by shifting clonal growth strategy from guerrilla (in LSR) to phalanx (in HSR). Clonal richness, size, dominance, and clonal subrange differed significantly between sediment regimes and studied time periods. Each swamp under HSR revealed a significantly high clonal richness (R = 0.80) as compared to the LSR (R = 0.48). Such discrepancy in clonal richness reflected the occurrence of initial and repeated seedling recruitment strategies as a response to different sedimentation regimes. Overall, our spatial and short-term temporal observations highlighted that HSR enhances clonal richness and decreases clonal subrange owing to repeated seedling recruitment and genets turnover.

  19. Clonal growth strategy, diversity and structure: A spatiotemporal response to sedimentation in tropical Cyperus papyrus swamps

    PubMed Central

    Stiers, Iris; Sierens, Tim; Kefalew, Alemayehu; Triest, Ludwig

    2018-01-01

    Land degradation and soil erosion in the upper catchments of tropical lakes fringed by papyrus vegetation can result in a sediment load gradient from land to lakeward. Understanding the dynamics of clonal modules (ramets and genets) and growth strategies of plants on such a gradient in both space and time is critical for exploring a species adaptation and processes regulating population structure and differentiation. We assessed the spatial and temporal dynamics in clonal growth, diversity, and structure of an emergent macrophyte, Cyperus papyrus (papyrus), in response to two contrasting sedimentation regimes by combining morphological traits and genotype data using 20 microsatellite markers. A total of 636 ramets from six permanent plots (18 x 30 m) in three Ethiopian papyrus swamps, each with discrete sedimentation regimes (high vs. low) were sampled for two years. We found that ramets under the high sedimentation regime (HSR) were significantly clumped and denser than the sparse and spreading ramets under the low sedimentation regime (LSR). The HSR resulted in significantly different ramets with short culm height and girth diameter as compared to the LSR. These results indicated that C. papyrus ameliorates the effect of sedimentation by shifting clonal growth strategy from guerrilla (in LSR) to phalanx (in HSR). Clonal richness, size, dominance, and clonal subrange differed significantly between sediment regimes and studied time periods. Each swamp under HSR revealed a significantly high clonal richness (R = 0.80) as compared to the LSR (R = 0.48). Such discrepancy in clonal richness reflected the occurrence of initial and repeated seedling recruitment strategies as a response to different sedimentation regimes. Overall, our spatial and short-term temporal observations highlighted that HSR enhances clonal richness and decreases clonal subrange owing to repeated seedling recruitment and genets turnover. PMID:29338034

  20. Fate of the sunscreen compound oxybenzone in Cyperus alternifolius based hydroponic culture: Uptake, biotransformation and phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feiran; Huber, Christian; Schröder, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Oxybenzone (OBZ), a common ingredient in sunscreens and personal care products, has been frequently detected in effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants and also in surface waters. OBZ is an emerging contaminant due to its adverse impacts on marine/aquatic ecosystems. To investigate the removal and degradation capacity of phytotreatment for OBZ, the common wetland plant species Cyperus alternifolius L. was exposed to this compound at 5, 25 and 50 μM for 120 h, respectively. Continuous uptake by roots and accumulation in plant tissues was observed over the exposure time, and depletion of spiked OBZ from the aqueous medium exceeded 73.9 ± 9.1% after 120 h. Similar to its fate in mammalian cells, OBZ is activated in a phase I reaction resulting in the hydroxylated metabolite 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (DHB). Independently, two phase II metabolites were identified as oxybenzone-glucoside (OBZ-Glu) and oxybenzone-(6-O-malonyl)-glucoside (OBZ-Mal-Glu) by LC-MS/MS. Formation of these metabolites increased over the experimental period. To our knowledge this is the first time that DHB, OBZ-Glu and OBZ-Mal-Glu are shown to be formed in higher plant tissues. Furthermore, plant defense systems-antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, APOX and POX) were found to be elevated to counteract stress caused by exposure to OBZ. This study presents the huge potential of aquatic plants to cope with benzophenone type UV filters in contaminated water bodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A high-throughput, modified ALS activity assay for Cyperus difformis and Schoenoplectus mucronatus seedlings.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Rafael M; Al-Khatib, Kassim; Hanson, Bradley D; Fischer, Albert J

    2017-01-01

    Cyperus difformis L. (CYPDI) and Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L.) Palla (SCHMU) are major weeds of California (CA) rice, where resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitors was identified in several CYPDI and SCHMU populations that have also evolved resistance to photosystem II (PSII)-inhibiting herbicides. The mechanism of ALS resistance in these populations remains to be clarified but this information is crucial in a weed management program, especially in a scenario where resistance to multiple herbicides has been identified. ALS activity assays are commonly used to diagnose resistance to ALS-inhibitors, but protocols currently available are burdensome for the study of CYPDI and SCHMU, as they require large amounts of plant material from young seedlings and have low yields. Our objective was to investigate the ALS resistance mechanism in suspected ALS-resistant (R) CYPDI and SCHMU biotypes using a modified ALS activity assay that requires less plant material. ALS enzymes from suspected R biotypes were at least 10,000-fold less sensitive to bensulfuron-methyl than susceptible (S) cohorts, indicating ALS resistance that is likely due to an altered target-site. Protein concentration (mgg -1 tissue) did not differ between R and S biotypes within each species, suggesting that R biotypes do not over produce ALS enzymes. CYPDI biotypes had up to 4-fold more protein per mg of tissue than SCHMU biotypes, but up to 7-fold more acetoin per mg -1 protein was quantified in SCHMU, suggesting greater ALS catalytic ability in SCHMU biotypes, regardless of their herbicide resistance status. Our optimized protocol to measure ALS activity allowed for up to a 3-fold increase in the number of assays performed per g of leaf tissue. The modified assay may be useful for measuring ALS activity in other weed species that also produce small amount of foliage in early growth stages when protein in tissue is most abundant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Morphological and physiological responses of lowland purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) to flooding.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Rolly G; Baltazar, Aurora M; Merca, Florinia E; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Johnson, David E

    2010-01-01

    Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) is a major weed of upland crops and vegetables. Recently, a flood-tolerant ecotype evolved as a serious weed in lowland rice. This study attempted to establish the putative growth and physiological features that led to this shift in adaptation. Tubers of upland C. rotundus (ULCR) and lowland C. rotundus (LLCR) ecotypes were collected from their native habitats and maintained under the respective growth conditions in a greenhouse. Five experiments were conducted to assess the variation between the two ecotypes in germination, growth and tuber morphology when grown in their native or 'switched' conditions. Carbohydrate storage and mobilization, and variation in anaerobic respiration under hypoxia were compared. Tubers of LLCR were larger than those of ULCR, with higher carbohydrate content, and larger tubers developed with increasing floodwater depth. Stems of LLCR had larger diameter and proportionally larger air spaces than those of ULCR: a method of aerating submerged plant parts. The LLCR ecotype can also mobilize and use carbohydrate reserves under hypoxia, and it maintained relatively lower and steadier activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) as a measure of sustained anaerobic respiration. In contrast, ADH activity in ULCR increased faster upon a shift to hypoxia and then sharply decreased, suggesting depletion of available soluble sugar substrates. The LLCR ecotype also maintained lower lactate dehydrogenase activity under flooded conditions, which could reduce chances of cellular acidosis. These adaptive traits in the LLCR ecotype were expressed constitutively, but some of them, such as tuber growth and aerenchyma development, are enhanced with stress severity. The LLCR ecotype attained numerous adaptive traits that could have evolved as a consequence of natural evolution or repeated management practices, and alternative strategies are necessary because flooding is no longer a feasible management option.

  3. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of hydromethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cyperus rotundus Linn. (Cyperaceae) is used to treat inflammation, pain, fever, wounds, boils and blisters in folk medicine. This study evaluated the antinociceptive effect of the hydromethanol extract of whole plant of C. rotundus (HMCR). Methods The antinociceptive activity of HMCR was investigated in thermal-induced (hot plate and tail immersion) and chemical-induced (formalin) nociception models in mice at three different doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o.). Morphine sulphate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as reference analgesic agents. Results In the hot-plate and tail-immersion tests HMCR significantly increased the latency period to the thermal stimuli at all the tested doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) (p < 0.05). The significant increase in latency is clear from the observations at 60 and 90 min. In formalin-induced paw licking test oral administration of HMCR at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses decreased the licking of paw in early phase. All the tested doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly decreased the licking of paw in late phase of the test (p < 0.001). The dose 200 mg/kg was most effective showing maximum percentage of inhibition of licking in both early (61.60%) and late phase (87.41%). Conclusion These results indicate the antinociceptive effect of C. rotundus and suggest that this effect is mediated by both peripheral and central mechanisms. These results support the traditional use of this plant in different painful conditions. PMID:24589067

  4. Proteomic analysis and food-grade enzymes of Moringa oleifer Lam. a Lam. flower.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yanan; Wang, Xuefeng; Huang, Aixiang

    2018-08-01

    Moringa oleifer Lam. flower contain high-proteins and function nutrients. Many advances have been made to it, but there is still no proteomic information of this species. Total protein from the flowers applied shotgun 2DLC-MS/MS proteomic identified 9443 peptides corresponding to 4004 high-confidence proteins by Proteome Discoverer™ Software 2.1. These proteins were mostly distributed ranging between 40 and 70 kDa. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that the largest of the proteins were cytoplasm 72.7%, catalytic activity 61.5% and macromolecule metabolism 43.7%, and KEGG analysis revealed that the largest group of 129 proteins was involved in Ribosome to directing protein synthesis (translation). Moreover, a number of commercially important food-grade enzymes were commented, 261 proteins were annotated as carbohydrate-active enzymes, 16 protease, 22 proteins are assigned to the citrate cycle, which the top proteins were assigned to GH family, cysteine synthase and serine/threonine-protein phosphatase. These enzymes indicated that is a new source with potential use for fermentation and brewing industry, fruit and vegetable storage and the development of function peptides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, DNA Damage Protective, Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activities of Cyperus rotundus Rhizomes Essential Oil against Foodborne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qing-Ping; Cao, Xin-Ming; Hao, Dong-Lin; Zhang, Liang-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) is a medicinal herb traditionally used to treat various clinical conditions at home. In this study, chemical composition of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes essential oil, and in vitro antioxidant, DNA damage protective and cytotoxic activities as well as antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens were investigated. Results showed that α-cyperone (38.46%), cyperene (12.84%) and α-selinene (11.66%) were the major components of the essential oil. The essential oil had an excellent antioxidant activity, the protective effect against DNA damage, and cytotoxic effects on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell, as well as antibacterial activity against several foodborne pathogens. These biological activities were dose-dependent, increasing with higher dosage in a certain concentration range. The antibacterial effects of essential oil were greater against Gram-positive bacteria as compared to Gram-negative bacteria, and the antibacterial effects were significantly influenced by incubation time and concentration. These results may provide biological evidence for the practical application of the C. rotundus rhizomes essential oil in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:28338066

  6. Evaluation of Hexane Extract of Tuber of Root of Cyperus rotundus Linn (Cyperaceae) for Repellency against Mosquito Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S. P.; Raghavendra, K.; Dash, A. P.

    2009-01-01

    Hexane extract of tuber of plant Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae) was screened under laboratory conditions for repellent activity against mosquito vector Anopheles culicifacies Giles species A (Diptera: Culicidae), Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The Cyperus rotundus tuber extract was used to determine their effect on mosquito vector, and comparison with the DEET (NN Diethyl 1-3 methyl Benzamide, formerly known as diethyl 1-m-toluamide). The tuber extracts showed more effective at all the dose. Result obtained from the laboratory experiment showed that the tuber extracts are more effective for repellency of allthe mosquito vector even at low dose. Clear dose response relationships were established with the highest dose of 10% tuber extract evoking 100% repellency. Percent protection obtained against An. culicifacies Giles species A 100% repellency in 4 hours, 6 hours, An. stephensi 100% repellency in 6 hours and Cx. quinquefasciatus was 100% repellency in 6 hours at the 10% concentration. Against DEET- 2.5% An. culicifacies A 100% repellency in 1 hour, 2 hours, 6 hours, An. stephensi have shown 100% repellency in 6 hours, and Culex quinquefasciatus have shown 100% repellency in 1 hour, 2 hours, 6 hours. The consolidated data of the repellency observed in different species is given and it is evident that the over all repellency rates varied between 80 and 100% for different repellents concentrations (2.5%, 5%, and 10%). The extract can be applied as an effective personal protective measure against mosquito bites. PMID:20798887

  7. Cathepsin K in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: LAM Cell-Fibroblast Interactions Enhance Protease Activity by Extracellular Acidification.

    PubMed

    Dongre, Arundhati; Clements, Debbie; Fisher, Andrew J; Johnson, Simon R

    2017-08-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease in which LAM cells and fibroblasts form lung nodules and it is hypothesized that LAM nodule-derived proteases cause cyst formation and tissue damage. On protease gene expression profiling in whole lung tissue, cathepsin K gene expression was 40-fold overexpressed in LAM compared with control lung tissue (P ≤ 0.0001). Immunohistochemistry confirmed cathepsin K protein was expressed in LAM but not control lungs. Cathepsin K gene expression and protein and protease activity were detected in LAM-associated fibroblasts but not the LAM cell line 621-101. In lung nodules, cathepsin K immunoreactivity predominantly co-localized with LAM-associated fibroblasts. In vitro, fibroblast extracellular cathepsin K activity was minimal at pH 7.5 but significantly enhanced at pH 7 and 6. 621-101 cells reduced extracellular pH with acidification dependent on 621-101 mechanistic target of rapamycin activity and net hydrogen ion exporters, particularly sodium bicarbonate co-transporters and carbonic anhydrases, which were also expressed in LAM lung tissue. In LAM cell-fibroblast co-cultures, acidification paralleled cathepsin K activity, and both were reduced by sodium bicarbonate co-transporter (P ≤ 0.0001) and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (P = 0.0021). Our findings suggest that cathepsin K activity is dependent on LAM cell-fibroblast interactions, and inhibitors of extracellular acidification may be potential therapies for LAM. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular weights and subunit structure of LamB proteins.

    PubMed

    Nakae, T; Ishii, J N

    1982-01-01

    Phage lambda-receptor proteins of Escherichia coli, LamB proteins, form oligomeric aggregates to build transmembrane diffusion pores selective for maltose and maltodextrins. The molecular weights (MW) of functional oligomers as well as dissociated monomers were determined by sedimentation equilibrium analysis in homogeneous non-ionic surfactant and deuterium oxide and in 6 M guanidine-HCl, respectively. The MW of oligomers and monomers appeared as 135 600 and 45 900, respectively. Thus, functional Lamb proteins consisted of three identical subunits.

  9. Animal Models of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Animal models of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are highly desired to enable detailed investigation of the pathogenesis of these diseases. Multiple rats and mice have been generated in which a mutation similar to that occurring in TSC patients is present in an allele of Tsc1 or Tsc2. Unfortunately, these mice do not develop pathologic lesions that match those seen in LAM or TSC. However, these Tsc rodent models have been useful in confirming the two-hit model of tumor development in TSC, and in providing systems in which therapeutic trials (e.g., rapamycin) can be performed. In addition, conditional alleles of both Tsc1 and Tsc2 have provided the opportunity to target loss of these genes to specific tissues and organs, to probe the in vivo function of these genes, and attempt to generate better models. Efforts to generate an authentic LAM model are impeded by a lack of understanding of the cell of origin of this process. However, ongoing studies provide hope that such a model will be generated in the coming years. PMID:20235887

  10. The LAM-PCR Method to Sequence LV Integration Sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Gabriel, Richard; Deichmann, Annette; Schmidt, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Integrating viral gene transfer vectors are commonly used gene delivery tools in clinical gene therapy trials providing stable integration and continuous gene expression of the transgene in the treated host cell. However, integration of the reverse-transcribed vector DNA into the host genome is a potentially mutagenic event that may directly contribute to unwanted side effects. A comprehensive and accurate analysis of the integration site (IS) repertoire is indispensable to study clonality in transduced cells obtained from patients undergoing gene therapy and to identify potential in vivo selection of affected cell clones. To date, next-generation sequencing (NGS) of vector-genome junctions allows sophisticated studies on the integration repertoire in vitro and in vivo. We have explored the use of the Illumina MiSeq Personal Sequencer platform to sequence vector ISs amplified by non-restrictive linear amplification-mediated PCR (nrLAM-PCR) and LAM-PCR. MiSeq-based high-quality IS sequence retrieval is accomplished by the introduction of a double-barcode strategy that substantially minimizes the frequency of IS sequence collisions compared to the conventionally used single-barcode protocol. Here, we present an updated protocol of (nr)LAM-PCR for the analysis of lentiviral IS using a double-barcode system and followed by deep sequencing using the MiSeq device.

  11. In vitro Antioxidant Potentials of Cyperus rotundus L. Rhizome Extracts and Their Phytochemical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamala, Arunagiri; Middha, Sushil Kumar; Gopinath, Chitra; Sindhura, H S; Karigar, Chandrakant S

    2018-01-01

    Cyperus rotundus L. (family Cyperaceae), native to India, is a multivalent medicinal plant widely used in conventional medicine. The research reports on bioactive components from C. rotundus L. are scanty. The objective of the study was to optimize the best solvent system and bioprospect the possible phytochemicals in C. rotundus L. rhizome (CRR). The phytochemicals were extracted from the rhizomes of C. rotundus L. by successive Soxhlet technique with solvents of increasing polarity. The resultant extracts were analyzed for their total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), total proanthocyanidin content (TPAC), in vitro antioxidant potential, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The 70% acetone extract of CRR was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for probable phytochemicals. The TPC, TFC, and TPAC estimates ranged from 0.036 ± 0.002 to 118.924 ± 5.946 μg/mg extract, 7.196 ± 0.359 to 200.654 ± 10.032 μg/mg extract, and 13.115 ± 0.656 to 45.901 ± 2.295 μg/mg extract, respectively. The quantities of TPC, TFC, and TPAC were found to be the highest in 70% acetone extract. The 70% acetone and 70% methanol extracts revealed best radical scavenging effect. GC-MS analysis of CRR extract revealed the presence of a novel compound 1 (2)-acetyl-3 (5)-styryl-5 (3)-methylthiopyrazole. The study indicated that 70% acetone and 70% methanol extracts of CRRs can be a potential source of antioxidants. The studies suggest 70% methanol and acetone as the suitable solvents for the extraction of phytochemicalsNovel compound 1(2)-Acetyl-3(5)-styryl-5(3)-methylthiopyrazole was detected in 70% acetone extract. Abbreviations used: ACRE: Acetone C. rotundus L. rhizome extract; AlCl 3 : Aluminum chloride; AQRE: Aqueous C. rotundus L. rhizome extract; CE: Catechin Equivalent; CHRE: Chloroform C. rotundus L. rhizome extract; CRR: C. rotundus L. rhizome; DPPH: 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; ETRE: Ethanolic C. rotundus L. rhizome extract; EARE

  12. In vitro Antioxidant Potentials of Cyperus rotundus L. Rhizome Extracts and Their Phytochemical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kamala, Arunagiri; Middha, Sushil Kumar; Gopinath, Chitra; Sindhura, H. S.; Karigar, Chandrakant S.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cyperus rotundus L. (family Cyperaceae), native to India, is a multivalent medicinal plant widely used in conventional medicine. The research reports on bioactive components from C. rotundus L. are scanty. Objective: The objective of the study was to optimize the best solvent system and bioprospect the possible phytochemicals in C. rotundus L. rhizome (CRR). Materials and Methods: The phytochemicals were extracted from the rhizomes of C. rotundus L. by successive Soxhlet technique with solvents of increasing polarity. The resultant extracts were analyzed for their total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), total proanthocyanidin content (TPAC), in vitro antioxidant potential, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The 70% acetone extract of CRR was analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for probable phytochemicals. Results and Discussion: The TPC, TFC, and TPAC estimates ranged from 0.036 ± 0.002 to 118.924 ± 5.946 μg/mg extract, 7.196 ± 0.359 to 200.654 ± 10.032 μg/mg extract, and 13.115 ± 0.656 to 45.901 ± 2.295 μg/mg extract, respectively. The quantities of TPC, TFC, and TPAC were found to be the highest in 70% acetone extract. The 70% acetone and 70% methanol extracts revealed best radical scavenging effect. GC-MS analysis of CRR extract revealed the presence of a novel compound 1 (2)-acetyl-3 (5)-styryl-5 (3)-methylthiopyrazole. Conclusion: The study indicated that 70% acetone and 70% methanol extracts of CRRs can be a potential source of antioxidants. SUMMARY The studies suggest 70% methanol and acetone as the suitable solvents for the extraction of phytochemicalsNovel compound 1(2)-Acetyl-3(5)-styryl-5(3)-methylthiopyrazole was detected in 70% acetone extract. Abbreviations used: ACRE: Acetone C. rotundus L. rhizome extract; AlCl3: Aluminum chloride; AQRE: Aqueous C. rotundus L. rhizome extract; CE: Catechin Equivalent; CHRE: Chloroform C. rotundus L. rhizome extract; CRR: C. rotundus L. rhizome

  13. Lung Transplantation in the Management of Patients with LAM:Baseline Data from the NHLBI LAM Registry

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jay; Beck, Gerald; Moss, Joel; Lee, Jar-Chi; Finlay, Geraldine; Brown, Kevin; Chapman, Jeffrey; McMahan, June; Olson, Eric; Ruoss, Stephen; Sherer, Susan; Maurer, Janet R; Ryu, Jay; Beck, Gerald; Moss, Joel; Lee, Jar-Chi; Finlay, Geraldine; Brown, Kevin; Chapman, Jeffrey; McMahan, June; Olson, Eric; Ruoss, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Background In 1997, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health established a Registry to better characterize the demographic, clinical, physiologic and radiographic features of patients with LAM. We report here data collected at enrollment from patients who had either undergone transplant prior to enrollment, underwent transplant during the 5-year study, or were evaluated/waitlisted for lung transplant during the 5-year study. Methods The LAM Registry enrolled patients from six clinical centers between August 1998 and October 2001. On entry patients filled out questionnaires covering medical history, symptoms, treatment and quality of life (SF-36 and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire). Enrollees underwent blood laboratory work, arterial blood gases and pulmonary function testing. Follow-up was at six month and/or yearly intervals. Diagnoses were confirmed by biopsy or typical clinical presentation plus CT findings confirmed by independent expert radiologists. A total of 243 women were enrolled. Of those 13 (5.3%) had been transplanted at time of entry (Group A), 21 (8.6%) were transplanted during the study (Group B) and 48 (19.8%) were either waitlisted for transplant or underwent evaluation after enrollment during the study period (Group C). The remaining 161 (66.3%) registrants were neither considered for nor listed for transplant during the Registry period (Group D). Results One-third of patients in a large sample of LAM patients had either been transplanted or were being considered for transplant. At enrollment, patients who had already been transplanted and those not in need of transplant (Groups A and D) had better pulmonary function and quality of life scores compared to patients who subsequently underwent lung transplant during the Registry period (Group B). Conclusion In this large registry of LAM patients, lung transplantation appears to be associated both with significantly improved lung function and quality

  14. Chemical investigation of Cyperus distans L. and inhibitory activity of scabequinone in seed germination and seedling growth bioassays.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Karyme S S; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B; Santos, Lourivaldo Silva; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro Silva

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the rhizomes of Cyperus distans (Cyperaceae) led to the identification of α-ciperone, cyperotundone and scabequinone, besides other common constituents. Complete assignment of the (13)C NMR data of scabequinone is being published for the first time. The inhibitory effects of C. distans extracts and scabequinone on the seed germination and seedling growth of Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated. Seed germination inhibition bioassay revealed that S. obtusifolia (52-53%) was more sensitive to the hexane and the methanol extracts at 1% than M. pudica (0-10%). Scabequinone at 250 mg L⁻¹ displayed seed germination inhibitions more than 50% and radicle growth reduction of more than 35% of the test species S. obtusifolia and P. phaseoloides, while the hypocotyl growth of M. pudica was significantly affected (>50%) by the quinone at the same concentration. These results demonstrate that scabequinone contributes to the overall inhibitory activities of C. distans.

  15. Application of response surface methodology to optimise supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Cyperus rotundus Linn.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwu; Liu, Yanqing; Wei, Shoulian; Yan, Zijun

    2012-05-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction) was performed to isolate essential oils from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus Linn. Effects of temperature, pressure, extraction time, and CO2 flow rate on the yield of essential oils were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). The oil yield was represented by a second-order polynomial model using central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The oil yield increased significantly with pressure (p<0.0001) and CO2 flow rate (p<0.01). The maximum oil yield from the response surface equation was predicted to be 1.82% using an extraction temperature of 37.6°C, pressure of 294.4bar, extraction time of 119.8 min, and CO2 flow rate of 20.9L/h. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Retention Rates, Graduates, and LAM-Series Completers for the Legal Assistant Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John

    In February 1996, Gainesville College, in Georgia, conducted a study of students in its Legal Assistant Management (LAM) Program to determine retention rates, numbers of graduates, and course pass rates. Retention and graduation rates were calculated for 175 students who enrolled in at least one LAM course from spring 1991 to fall 1995. In…

  17. Transcending Silence: The Limitations of the Theme of Betrayal in the Novels of George Lamming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez-Harrell, Elizabeth

    1986-01-01

    This critical study of West Indian novelist George Lamming's work finds a preoccupation in his earlier works with British colonizers' betrayal of the West Indian people and its appearance as a father-son relationship. Lamming's latest work creates a less limited West Indian identity in the context of pre-colonial cultural history. (DMM)

  18. Spreading and germination of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Z P; Buzsáki, K; Béres, I

    2006-01-01

    Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) is a cosmopolitan, tropical, subtropical plant. On the basis of Ujvarosi life-form it is a G2 perennial plant, overwintering with tubers in the soil. It occurs in all continents: along Eastern and Western coastlines of Africa and even in South-Africa, North and South America, Japan, India, Near-Eastern countries, Western, Southern and Eastern Europe. It has been spread since the 70's in Europe, but its remarkable occurrence was between 1980 and 1995 years. Nowadays it occurs in Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Portugal, Austria, Croatia, Switzerland, Italy and Hungary among the European countries. The first occurrence of C. esculentus was observed in Hungary in 1993, at the surroundings of Keszthely and H&viz towns in a maize-ecosystem (Dancza 1994). It can be presumed, that its import happened with Gladiolus tubers and seed-grain of maize. At present C. esculentus occurs in four regions and surroundings of 20 habitations of Hungary. Somogy county is the most infected area, where it occurs on 10,000 hectares. C. esculentus took the 16th place in the important order of weeds of the world in the 70's. On the basis of EPPO IAS Panel at present this weed specics is considered as one of the most harmful invasive species of the world, due to its severe economic injury. Most harmful effect of C. esculentus is expressed in spring-sown hoed cultures, mainly in maize. Beside this it also occurs in sunflower, potato and sugarbeet cultures. C. esculentus has a good competitive ability by reducing crop quality and quantity. Vegetative reproduction is dominant in spreading but its propagation by seeds is also presumed in Hungary. Cool, rainy weather favours for the vegetative reproduction, while warm, dry one for the flowering. It has a 1-1.5 mm long fruit with one seed. One clustering can contain 600 seeds. According to Lapham (1985) there are areas in Zimbabwe where one can find 100 million C. esculentus seeds in a hectare. At a 1

  19. Study of Load Alleviation and Mode Suppression (LAMS) on the YF-12A airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edinger, L. D.; Chenk, F. L.; Curtis, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    The potentials and capability for implementing a LAMS (load alleviation and mode suppression) system on the YF-12A for the purpose of flight research were evaluated. The nature of the research is to minimize the design risk in application of LAMS to future aircraft. The results of the study show that the YF-12A would be a suitable test bed for continuing development of LAMS technology. This was demonstrated by defining five candidate LAMS systems and analytically evaluating them with regard to performance and mechanization. Each of the five systems used a different combination of force producers. A small canard vane or a mass-reaction device mounted near the cockpit was considered as a possible LAMS force producer, together with the existing inboard and outboard elevons. It was concluded that a combination of canard vane and outboard elevons would provide the most effective system for the YF-12A.

  20. Real-time radiography support for Titan LAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. G.

    1992-07-01

    This paper discusses real-time radiography (RTR) support for the Titan Lightweight Analog Motor (LAM) cold gas tests. RTR was used as a diagnostic technique to measure propellant deformation within the motors as gaseous nitrogen, at various pressures, was flowed over the propellant grain. The data consisted of video images that correlated the propellant deformation to time and to chamber pressure. Measurements were made on three propellant configurations in 17 tests. Specific issues addressed include the approach taken to gather the data, the system layout, and image processing techniques used to interpret the data.

  1. Construction and first characterization of two reciprocal hybrids between LamB from Escherichia coli K12 and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Werts, C; Charbit, A

    1993-05-01

    The LamB proteins from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli K12 were previously shown to be highly homologous. The most conserved parts correspond to the N-proximal third and to the transmembranous portions of the molecule, while the variability occurred essentially within regions exposed to the cell surface or to the periplasm. Since the two proteins displayed identical in vitro trimer stability and in vivo pore properties, we tested whether the N-terminal parts of the two proteins could be exchanged and still allow the formation of stable and functional maltoporins. For that purpose, we expressed the LamB protein from K. pneumoniae in E. coli K12, and constructed two reciprocal hybrids between LamB from E. coli K12 and LamB from K. pneumoniae. The first hybrid (LamBE.c.-K.p.) is composed of residues 1 to 183 from LamBE.c. followed by residues 184 to 404 from LamBK.p. The second one comprises residues 1 to 183 from LamBK.p., followed by residues 184 to 421 from LamBE.c. (LamBK.p.-E.c.). Both hybrid proteins were correctly incorporated in the outer membrane of E. coli K12. Like the two parental LamB proteins, the two hybrids could be purified by affinity chromatography on a starch-sepharose column. The LamBE.c.-K.p. hybrid formed highly stable trimers, but was strongly impaired in its in vivo maltose transport function (15% of the wild-type level). The trimers formed by LamBK.p.-E.c. hybrid were less stable, but could be detected on the surface of intact cells by four anti-LamBE.c. monoclonal antibodies. This hybrid was also affected in its in vivo maltose transport function (30% of the wild-type level). As expected from the location of the residues critical for phage adsorption, both proteins had lost the phage receptor activity of the E. coli K12 LamB protein. We also examined whether LamBE.c. could form heterotrimers with LamBK.p., LamBK.p.-E.c., and LamBE.c.-K.p. In no case were heterotrimers detected, indicating that both terminal parts of the Lam

  2. Arsenic removal from water using lignocellulose adsorption medium (LAM).

    PubMed

    Kim, Juyoung; Mann, Justin D; Spencer, Jesse G

    2006-01-01

    Arsenate in water is readily adsorbed on lignocellulose adsorption medium (LAM) which is cotton-based and has been coated with iron(III) by soaking cotton pellets in ferric chloride solution. Capacities achieved with LAM average 32.8 mg As/g of medium at influent arsenic concentrations ranging from 20-30 mg As/L. Adsorption follows (R2 = 0.993) a Freundlich isotherm, (x/M) = 22.845 Ce0.25, where (x/M) is the ratio of milligrams of contaminant adsorbed per gram of adsorbent and Ce is the equilibrium concentration. As is often the case with adsorption from solution, the fit using a Langmuir isotherm was not as good (R2 = 0.8786). The adsorbent when saturated can be regenerated by treatment with dilute sodium hydroxide. After five regenerations, the capacity dropped by 11.5%. Arsenate washed off the adsorbent after regeneration, as well as that left on the medium, may be concentrated and disposed of properly or perhaps recycled. Consideration of costs shows that one ton of iron(III)-treated adsorbent can be used to remove arsenate at toxic levels from drinking water at a cost of about 3.20/ton US dollars plus the cost of media without regeneration.

  3. Therapeutic options for lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): where we are and where we are going

    PubMed Central

    Steagall, Wendy K; Moss, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a multisystem disease affecting predominantly premenopausal and middle-aged women, causes progressive respiratory failure due to cystic lung destruction and is associated with lymphatic and kidney tumors. In the past, the treatment of LAM comprised exclusively anti-estrogen and related hormonal therapies. These treatments, however, have not been proven effective. In this article, we discuss new findings regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of LAM cell growth, which may offer opportunities to develop effective and targeted therapeutic agents. PMID:20948684

  4. Long-term stable lung function and second uncomplicated pregnancy on sirolimus in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

    PubMed

    Faehling, Martin; Wienhausen-Wilke, Vera; Fallscheer, Sabine; Trinajstic-Schulz, B; Weber, J; Leschke, Matthias

    2015-09-14

    We present a patient with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) on long-term sirolimus (now 79 months) who has had a second successful pregnancy. The second pregnancy on uninterrupted low-dose sirolimus (plasma levels 3-5 mg/L) was uncomplicated both with respect to mother and child suggesting that low-dose sirolimus might be safe in selected pregnant patients with stable LAM. The long-term time course in this patient is in agreement with recent reports of a long-term beneficial effect of sirolimus in LAM. In this patient, the pregnancies did not seem to impair the long-term improvement of lung-function on sirolimus.

  5. Nutraceutical or Pharmacological Potential of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Xianjuan; Li, Biao; Olayanju, Julia B.; Drake, Justin M.

    2018-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera), which belongs to the Moringaceae family, is a perennial deciduous tropical tree, and native to the south of the Himalayan Mountains in northern India. M. oleifera is rich in proteins, vitamin A, minerals, essential amino acids, antioxidants, and flavonoids, as well as isothiocyanates. The extracts from M. oleifera exhibit multiple nutraceutical or pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, hypoglycemic, and blood lipid-reducing functions. The beneficial functions of M. oleifera are strongly associated with its phytochemicals such as flavonoids or isothiocyanates with bioactivity. In this review, we summarize the research progress related to the bioactivity and pharmacological mechanisms of M. oleifera in the prevention and treatment of a series of chronic diseases—including inflammatory diseases, neuro-dysfunctional diseases, diabetes, and cancers—which will provide a reference for its potential application in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases or health promotion. PMID:29534518

  6. Nutraceutical or Pharmacological Potential of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Kou, Xianjuan; Li, Biao; Olayanju, Julia B; Drake, Justin M; Chen, Ning

    2018-03-12

    Moringa oleifera Lam. ( M. oleifera ), which belongs to the Moringaceae family, is a perennial deciduous tropical tree, and native to the south of the Himalayan Mountains in northern India. M. oleifera is rich in proteins, vitamin A, minerals, essential amino acids, antioxidants, and flavonoids, as well as isothiocyanates. The extracts from M. oleifera exhibit multiple nutraceutical or pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, hypoglycemic, and blood lipid-reducing functions. The beneficial functions of M. oleifera are strongly associated with its phytochemicals such as flavonoids or isothiocyanates with bioactivity. In this review, we summarize the research progress related to the bioactivity and pharmacological mechanisms of M. oleifera in the prevention and treatment of a series of chronic diseases-including inflammatory diseases, neuro-dysfunctional diseases, diabetes, and cancers-which will provide a reference for its potential application in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases or health promotion.

  7. Phytochemical Investigations on Chemical Constituents of Achillea tenuifolia Lam

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ayatollahi, Seyed Abdol Majid

    2014-01-01

    Achillea tenuifolia Lam. (Asteraceae) afforded a methanolic extract from which after fractionation in solvents with different polarities, two known flavones 3’, 5- dihydroxy- 4’, 6, 7- trimethoxy flavone (eupatorine, compound 3), 5- hydroxy- 3’,4’, 6, 7- tetramethoxyflavone (compound 4), besides stearic acid (compound 1), lupeol (compound 2), daucosterol (β- sitosterol 3-O- β- D- glucopyranoside, compound 5), 2, 4- dihydroxy methyl benzoate (compound 6) were isolated for the first time. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by means of different spectroscopic methods such as UV, IR, Mass and 1H- NMR (1D and 2D) and 13C-NMR. For further confirming the structures of isolated compounds, comparison of the spectral data of them with those reported in the litratures have been done. PMID:25276207

  8. Cyperus rotundus, a substitute for Aconitum heterophyllum: Studies on the Ayurvedic concept of Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya (drug substitution)

    PubMed Central

    Venkatasubramanian, Padma; Kumar, Subrahmanya K; Nair, Venugopalan S. N.

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of a desired first choice medicinal herb, classical Ayurveda recommends use of a functionally similar substitute. Post 16th century Ayurvedic texts and lexicons give specific examples of possible substitutes. Here we report a preliminary study of one such Ayurvedic substitution pair: Musta (Cyperus rotundus L., Cyperaceae), a common weed, for the rare Himalayan species, Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle; Ranunculaceae). The study's strategy was to use modern phytochemical and pharmacological methods to test the two herbs for biochemical and metabolic similarities and differences, and literary studies to compare their Ayurvedic properties, a novel trans-disciplinary approach. No previous scientific paper has compared the two herbs’ bioactivities or chemical profiles. Despite being taxonomically unrelated, the first choice, but relatively unavailable (Abhava) plant, A. heterophyllum, and its substitute (Pratinidhi) C. rotundus, are not only similar in Ayurvedic pharmacology (Dravyaguna) profile, but also in phytochemical and anti-diarrheal properties. These observations indicate that Ayurveda may attach more importance to pharmacological properties of raw drugs than to their botanical classification. Further research into the nature of raw drugs named could open up new areas of medicinal plant classification, linking chemistry and bioactivity. Understanding the logic behind the Ayurvedic concept of Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya (drug substitution) could lead to new methods of identifying legitimate drug alternatives, and help solve industry's problems of crude drug shortage. PMID:21829299

  9. Cedrol, a malaria mosquito oviposition attractant is produced by fungi isolated from rhizomes of the grass Cyperus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Eneh, Lynda K; Saijo, Hiromi; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Lindh, Jenny M; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva

    2016-09-17

    Cedrol, a sesquiterpene alcohol, is the first identified oviposition attractant for African malaria vectors. Finding the natural source of this compound might help to elucidate why Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis prefer to lay eggs in habitats containing it. Previous studies suggest that cedrol may be a fungal metabolite and the essential oil of grass rhizomes have been described to contain a high amount of different sesquiterpenes. Rhizomes of the grass Cyperus rotundus were collected in a natural malaria mosquito breeding site. Two fungi were isolated from an aqueous infusion with these rhizomes. They were identified as Fusarium falciforme and a species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex. Volatile compounds were collected from the headspace above fungal cultures on Tenax traps which were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Cedrol and a cedrol isomer were detected in the headspace above the F. fujikuroi culture, while only cedrol was detected above the F. falciforme culture. Cedrol an oviposition attractant for African malaria vectors is produced by two fungi species isolated from grass rhizomes collected from a natural mosquito breeding site.

  10. Overview of Sustainability Studies of CNC Machining and LAM of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamekye, Patricia; Leino, Maija; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM), known also as 3D printing, is a powder bed fusion (PBF) type of additive manufacturing (AM) technology used to fabricate metal parts out of metal powder. The development of the technology from building prototype parts to functional parts has increased remarkably in 2000s. LAM of metals is promising technology that offers new opportunities to manufacturing and to resource efficiency. However, there is only few published articles about its sustainability. Aim in this study was to create supply chain model of LAM and CNC machining and create a methodology to carry out a life cycle inventory (LCI) data collection for these techniques. The methodology of the study was literature review and scenario modeling. The acquisition of raw material, production phase and transportations were used as basis of comparison. The modelled scenarios were fictitious and created for industries, like aviation and healthcare that often require swift delivery as well as customized parts. The results of this study showed that the use of LAM offers a possibility to reduce downtime in supply chains of spare parts and reduce part inventory more effectively than CNC machining. Also the gap between customers and business is possible to be shortened with LAM thus offering a possibility to reduce emissions due to less transportation. The results also indicated weight reduction possibility with LAM due to optimized part geometry which allow lesser amount of metallic powder to be used in making parts.

  11. LAM-1 and FAT Genes Control Development of the Leaf Blade in Nicotiana sylvestris.

    PubMed Central

    McHale, NA

    1993-01-01

    Leaf primordia of the lam-1 mutant of Nicotiana sylvestris grow normally in length but remain bladeless throughout development. The blade initiation site is established at the normal time and position in lam-1 primordia. Anticlinal divisions proceed normally in the outer L1 and L2 layers, but the inner L3 cells fail to establish the periclinal divisions that normally generate the middle mesophyll core. The lam-1 mutation also blocks formation of blade mesophyll from distal L2 cells. This suggests that LAM-1 controls a common step in initiation of blade tissue from the L2 and L3 lineage of the primordium. Another recessive mutation (fat) was isolated in N. sylvestris that induces abnormal periclinal divisions in the mesophyll during blade initiation and expansion. This generates a blade approximately twice its normal thickness by doubling the number of mesophyll cell layers from four to approximately eight. Presumably, the fat mutation defines a negative regulator involved in repression of periclinal divisions in the blade. The lam-1 fat double mutant shows radial proliferation of mesophyll cells at the blade initiation site. This produces a highly disorganized, club-shaped blade that appears to represent an additive effect of the lam-1 and fat mutations on blade founder cells. PMID:12271096

  12. Moringa oleifera Lam. improves lipid metabolism during adipogenic differentiation of human stem cells.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, I; Vanella, L; Distefano, A; Nicolosi, D; Maravigna, A; Lazzarino, G; Di Rosa, M; Tibullo, D; Acquaviva, R; Li Volti, G

    2016-12-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam., a multipurpose tree, is used traditionally for its nutritional and medicinal properties. It has been used for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including inflammation, cancer and metabolic disorders. We investigated the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. on adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and its impact on lipid metabolism and cellular antioxidant systems. We showed that Moringa oleifera Lam. treatment during adipogenic differentiation reduces inflammation, lipid accumulation and induces thermogenesis by activation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α). In addition, Moringa oleifera Lam. induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a well established protective and antioxidant enzyme. Finally Moringa oleifera Lam. significantly decreases the expression of molecules involved in adipogenesis and upregulates the expression of mediators involved in thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that Moringa oleifera Lam. may promote the brown remodeling of white adipose tissue inducing thermogenesis and improving metabolic homeostasis.

  13. Does disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial disease cause false-positive Determine B-LAM lateral flow assay results? A retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Nel, Jeremy S; Lippincott, Christopher K; Berhanu, Rebecca; Spencer, David C; Sanne, Ian M; Ive, Prudence

    2017-06-02

    We retrospectively reviewed the Determine TB-LAM lateral flow assay (LF-LAM) results among HIV-infected patients with disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease. LF-LAM was positive in 19/21 patients without evidence of tuberculosis coinfection. Although tuberculosis-NTM coinfection may have been underdiagnosed, our results suggest that disseminated NTM disease may cause false-positive LF-LAM results. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB, an outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, K; Cheng, C H; Nikaido, H; Jap, B K

    1991-01-01

    We have directly measured the stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB. Scatchard plots and computer fitting of flow dialysis (rate-of-dialysis) experiments clearly establish three independent binding sites per LamB trimer, with a dissociation constant of approximately 60 microM for maltoheptaose. The current model for LamB's function as a specific pore is discussed with respect to the symmetry in LamB's kinetic properties and the implications of our results. Images PMID:2001992

  15. Processing Effects on the Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Blends Developed from Cyperus esculentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Moringa oleifera Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Badejo, Adebanjo A.; Damilare, Akintoroye; Ojuade, Temitope D.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of bioactive compounds in foods has changed the dietary lifestyle of many people. Cyperus esculentus (tigernut) is highly underutilized in Africa, yet tigernut extract is highly profitable in Europe. This study aims to add value to tigernut extract by revealing its health benefits and food value. In this study, tigernut tubers were germinated or roasted and the extracts were combined with Moringa oleifera extract (MOE) or Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) and spiced with ginger to produce functional drinks. The drinks were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, sensory parameters, and antioxidant potentials. The total phenolic content of each beverage was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity of each beverage was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays. The beverages from the germinated tigernut extracts had the highest titratable acidity and the lowest pH, while beverages containing the roasted tigernut extract had the highest ∘Brix. Germination and roasting significantly enhanced the total phenolic content of the drinks. The beverage containing HSE and germinated tigernut extract had a total phenolic content of 45.67 mg/100 mL gallic acid equivalents, which was significantly higher than the total phenolic content of all other samples. The DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with germinated tigernut extracts was significantly higher than the DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with fresh tigernut extract. The taste and overall acceptability of drinks containing the roasted tigernut extract were preferred, while the color and appearance of drinks with the germinated samples were preferred. Roasting or germinating tigernuts before extraction and addition of MOE or HSE extracts is another way to add value and enhance the utilization of tigernuts. PMID:25320721

  16. Processing Effects on the Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Blends Developed from Cyperus esculentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Moringa oleifera Extracts.

    PubMed

    Badejo, Adebanjo A; Damilare, Akintoroye; Ojuade, Temitope D

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of bioactive compounds in foods has changed the dietary lifestyle of many people. Cyperus esculentus (tigernut) is highly underutilized in Africa, yet tigernut extract is highly profitable in Europe. This study aims to add value to tigernut extract by revealing its health benefits and food value. In this study, tigernut tubers were germinated or roasted and the extracts were combined with Moringa oleifera extract (MOE) or Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) and spiced with ginger to produce functional drinks. The drinks were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, sensory parameters, and antioxidant potentials. The total phenolic content of each beverage was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity of each beverage was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays. The beverages from the germinated tigernut extracts had the highest titratable acidity and the lowest pH, while beverages containing the roasted tigernut extract had the highest ∘Brix. Germination and roasting significantly enhanced the total phenolic content of the drinks. The beverage containing HSE and germinated tigernut extract had a total phenolic content of 45.67 mg/100 mL gallic acid equivalents, which was significantly higher than the total phenolic content of all other samples. The DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with germinated tigernut extracts was significantly higher than the DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with fresh tigernut extract. The taste and overall acceptability of drinks containing the roasted tigernut extract were preferred, while the color and appearance of drinks with the germinated samples were preferred. Roasting or germinating tigernuts before extraction and addition of MOE or HSE extracts is another way to add value and enhance the utilization of tigernuts.

  17. Effect of crude oil contamination on the chlorophyll content and morpho-anatomy of Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Plabita; Saikia, Rashmi Rekha; Baruah, Partha Pratim; Deka, Suresh

    2014-11-01

    Chlorophyll plays a pivotal role in the plant physiology and its productivity. Cultivation of plants in crude oil contaminated soil has a great impact on the synthesis of chlorophyll pigment. Morpho-anatomy of the experimental plant also shows structural deformation in higher concentrations. Keeping this in mind, a laboratory investigation has been carried out to study the effect of crude oil on chlorophyll content and morpho-anatomy of Cyperus brevifolius plant. Fifteen-day-old seedling of the plant was planted in different concentrations of the crude oil mixed soil (i.e., 10,000, 20,000, 30,000, 40,000, and 50,000 ppm). A control setup was also maintained without adding crude oil. Results were recorded after 6 months of plantation. Investigation revealed that there is a great impact of crude oil contamination on chlorophyll content of the leaves of the experimental plant. It also showed that chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll content of leaves grown in different concentrations of crude oil were found to be lower than those of the control plant. Further, results also demonstrated that chlorophyll content was lowest in the treatment that received maximum dose of crude oil. It also showed that chlorophyll content was decreased with increased concentration of crude oil. Results also demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with the increase of crude oil concentration. Results also revealed that the shoot biomass is higher than root biomass. Morphology and anatomy of the experimental plant also show structural deformation in higher concentrations. Accumulation of crude oil on the cuticle of the transverse section of the leaves and shoot forms a thick dark layer. Estimation of the level of pollution in an environment due to oil spill is possible by the in-depth study of the harmful effects of oil on the morphology and anatomy and chlorophyll content of the plants grown in that particular environment.

  18. Cyperus rotundus suppresses AGE formation and protein oxidation in a model of fructose-mediated protein glycoxidation.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Amin; Yazdanparast, Razieh

    2007-12-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation, as the chain reaction between reducing sugars and the free amino groups of proteins, has been shown to correlate with severity of diabetes and its complications. Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae) is used both as a food to promote health and as a drug to treat certain diseases. In this study, considering the antioxidative effects of C. rotundus, we examined whether C. rotundus also protects against protein oxidation and glycoxidation. The protein glycation inhibitory activity of hydroalcoholic extract of C. rotundus was evaluated in vitro using a model of fructose-mediated protein glycoxidation. The C. rotundus extract with glycation inhibitory activity also demonstrated antioxidant activity when a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays as well as metal chelating activity were applied. Fructose (100mM) increased fluorescence intensity of glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) in terms of total AGEs during 14 days of exposure. Moreover, fructose caused more protein carbonyl (PCO) formation and also oxidized thiol groups more in glycated than in native BSA. The extract of C. rotundus at different concentrations (25-250microg/ml) has significantly decreased the formation of AGEs in term of the fluorescence intensity of glycated BSA. Furthermore, we demonstrated the significant effect of C. rotundus extract on preventing oxidative protein damages including effect on PCO formation and thiol oxidation which are believed to form under the glycoxidation process. Our results highlight the protein glycation inhibitory and antioxidant activity of C. rotundus. These results might lead to the possibility of using the plant extract or its purified active components for targeting diabetic complications.

  19. Tolerance of chufa (Cyperus esculentus) as a vegetation unit's representative of bioregenerative life support systems to elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shklavtsova, Ekaterina; Ushakova, Sofya; Shikhov, Valentin; Kudenko, Yurii

    Plants inclusion in the photosynthesizing unit of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) expects knowledge of both production characteristics of plants cultivated under optimal condi-tions and their tolerance to stress-factors' effect caused by contingency origination in a system. The work was aimed at investigation of chufa (Cyperus esculentus) tolerance to the effect of super optimal air temperature of 44 subject to PAR intensity and exposure duration. Chufa was grown in light culture conditions by hydroponics method on expanded clay aggregate. The Knop solution was used as nutrition medium. Up to 30 days the plants were cultivated at the intensity of 690 micromole*m-2*s*-1 and air temperature of 25. Heat shock was employed at the age of 30 days under the air temperature of 44 during 7, 20 and 44 hours at two different PAR intensities of 690 and 1150 micromole*m-2*s*-1. Chufa heat tolerance was estimated by intensity of external 2 gas exchange and by state of leaves' photosynthetic apparatus (PSA). Effect of disturbing temperature during 44 hours at PAR intensity of 690 micromole*m-2*s*-1 resulted in frozen-in damage of PSA-leaves' die-off. Chufa plants exposed to heat stress at PAR intensity of 690 micromole*m-2*s*-1 during both 7 and 20-hours demonstrated respiration dominance over photosynthesis; and 2 emission was observed by light. Functional activity of photosynthetic apparatus estimated with respect to parameters of pulse-amplitude-modulated chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystem 2 (PS 2) decreased on 40

  20. Prescription of Psychiatric Medications and Polypharmacy in the LAMS Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kowatch, Robert A.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Horwitz, Sarah; Demeter, Christine; Fristad, Mary A.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Ryan, Neal; Frazier, Thomas W.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Young, Andrea S.; Gill, MaryKay; Findling, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated demographic and clinical correlates and predictors of polypharmacy at baseline assessment in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) sample, a cohort of children age six to 12 years at their first outpatient mental health visit at university-affiliated clinics. Methods Use of medications in four classes (mood stabilizers, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and stimulants) was assessed, and the Service Assessment for Children and Adolescents classified lifetime and current use of various services. Analyses examined correlates of the number of medications prescribed and odds of polypharmacy, defined as use of two or more concurrent medications. Results In the total sample, 201 of 698 participants (29%) were prescribed two or more medications. These participants had lower Children's Global Assessment Scale scores, more comorbid disorders, and higher baseline parent-reported mood symptoms than those prescribed no or one medication. White youths were three times as likely as nonwhite youths to be receiving two or more psychotropics, even after adjustment for other demographic and clinical characteristics. Of 262 participants (38% of sample) not being treated with medications, 252 (96%) had a diagnosis of at least one psychiatric disorder (74% had two or more). Conclusions Findings suggest that patients with greater severity and comorbidity were more likely to receive two or more medications. However, 38% of these children with serious disorders were not receiving psychotropic medication at the time of this assessment. Results counter findings suggesting overtreatment with medications of children with psychiatric disorders in the community. PMID:23852186

  1. Emergency contraceptive pills as a backup for lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) of contraception: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Omar M; Hassen, Shaimaa G; Nour, Sanna A; Kames, Mervat A; Yones, Entsar M

    2013-03-01

    The use of breastfeeding as a method of birth spacing occasionally ends in "unplanned pregnancy." This is due to unexpected expiration of one or more of the lactation amenorrhea method (LAM) prerequisites. The current study tests a new concept that the in-advance provision of single packet of progestogen emergency contraception (EC) pills during the postpartum LAM counseling may decrease the incidence of unplanned pregnancy during breastfeeding. This was a registered two-armed randomized controlled trial (NCT 01111929). Women intending to breastfeed and to postpone pregnancy for 1 year or more were approached. They received adequate postpartum contraceptive counseling. Women intending to use LAM were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The LAM-only group received the proper LAM counseling and did not receive counseling about EC. The LAM-EC group received counseling for both LAM and EC with in-advance provision of one packet of EC pills. They were advised to use these pills if one of the prerequisites of LAM expires and sexual relation has occurred before the initiation of another regular contraceptive protection. All the participants were advised that they need to use another regular method upon expiration of any of the LAM prerequisites. Eligible women were 1158 parturients randomized into two equal groups. Forty-four percent of the women provided with EC used them. Significantly more women in the LAM-EC group initiated regular contraception within or shortly after the first 6 months postpartum when compared with those in the LAM-only group (30.5% vs. 7.3%, respectively; p=.0004). Pregnancy occurred in 5% of the LAM-only group as compared with 0.8% in the LAM-EC group (p=.005). Minimal side effects were reported after EC use. In-advance provision of EC pills can increase the rate of initiation of regular contraception once one or more of the prerequisites of LAM expire. Consequently, the use of EC pills as a temporary backup of LAM can decrease the incidence

  2. New Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM sublineage with geographical specificity for the Old World revealed by phylogenetical and Bayesian analyses.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Yann; Rastogi, Nalin

    2016-12-01

    We recently showed that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sublineage LAM9 could be subdivided as two distinct subpopulations - each reflecting its unique biogeographical structure and evolutionary history. We subsequently attempted to verify if this genetic structuration could be traced in an enlarged global sample. For this purpose, we analyzed global evolutionary relationships of LAM strains in a large dataset (n = 1923 isolates from 35 countries worldwide) with concomitant spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data, followed by a deeper analysis of LAM9 sublineage (n = 851 isolates). Based on a combination of phylogenetical analysis and Bayesian statistics, a total of three different clusters, tentatively named LAM9C1, C2 and C3 were described in this dataset. Closer inspection of the phylogenetic tree with concomitant data on origin of isolates with genetic clusterization revealed LAM9C3 being the most tightly knit group exclusively found in the Old World as opposed to LAM9C2 being a loosely-knit group without any phylogeographical specificity; while LAM9C1 appeared with a majority of strains being well-clustered despite some isolates that intermixed with unrelated LAM clusters. Subsequently, we hereby describe a new M. tuberculosis LAM sublineage named LAM9C3 with phylogeographical specificity for the Old World. These findings open new perspectives to study respective migration histories and adaptation to human hosts of specific M. tuberculosis clones during the exploration and conquest of the New World. We therefore plan to reevaluate the nomenclature and evolutionary history of various LAM sublineages using Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatoprotective activity of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Sisodia, S.S.; Bhatnagar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the hepatoprotective effects of the methanolic seed extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae), in Wistar albino rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Materials and Methods: Liver damage in rats treated with CCl4 (1ml/kg/Bw, administered subcutaneously, on alternate days for one week) was studied by assessing parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and bilirubin (total and direct). The effect of co-administration of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p. o.) on the above parameters was investigated. These biochemical observations were supplemented by weight and histological examination of liver sections. Liv.52® was used as positive control. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA, followed by Scheff's/Dunnett's test. Results: Administration of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p. o.) significantly prevented carbon tetrachloride induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, ACP and bilirubin (total and direct) level. Histological examination of the liver section revealed hepatic regeneration, after administration of various doses of Eugenia jambolana Lam. The results were comparable to that of Liv.52®. Conclusion: The study suggests preventive action of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity. Hepatic cell regeneration process was dose dependent. PMID:20177577

  4. Cross-resistance to herbicides of five ALS-inhibiting groups and sequencing of the ALS gene in Cyperus difformis L.

    PubMed

    Merotto, Aldo; Jasieniuk, Marie; Osuna, Maria D; Vidotto, Francesco; Ferrero, Aldo; Fischer, Albert J

    2009-02-25

    Resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in Cyperus difformis has evolved rapidly in many rice areas worldwide. This study identified the mechanism of resistance, assessed cross-resistance patterns to all five chemical groups of ALS-inhibiting herbicides in four C. difformis biotypes, and attempted to sequence the ALS gene. Whole-plant and ALS enzyme activity dose-response assays indicated that the WA biotype was resistant to all ALS-inhibiting herbicides evaluated. The IR biotype was resistant to bensulfuron-methyl, orthosulfamuron, imazethapyr, and propoxycarbazone-sodium and less resistant to bispyribac-sodium and halosulfuron-methyl, and susceptible to penoxsulam. ALS enzyme activity assays indicated that resistance is due to an altered target site yet mutations previously found to endow target-site resistance in weeds were not detected in the sequences obtained. The inability to detect resistance mutations in C. difformis may result from the presence of additional ALS genes, which were not amplified by the primers used. This study reports the first ALS gene sequence from Cyperus difformis. Certain ALS-inhibiting herbicides can still be used to control some resistant C. difformis biotypes. However, because cross-resistance to all five classes of ALS-inhibitors was detected in other resistant biotypes, these herbicides should only be used within an integrated weed management program designed to delay the evolution of herbicide resistance.

  5. The Role of Context Free Collaboration Design Patterns in Learning Design within LAMS: Lessons Learned from an Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordaki, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an experiment aimed at the design of short learning courses in the context of LAMS, using a number of specific context-free collaboration design patterns implemented within LAMS. In fact, 25 Prospective Computer Engineers (PCEs) participated in this experiment. The analysis of the data shows that PCEs fully used these context…

  6. A Sacrificial Lam: A Divided School Board, a Beleaguered Superintendent, and an Urgent Need to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossey, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This case describes the confrontational relationship between four trustees on the San Antonio School Board and the San Antonio School District's superintendent Diana Lam, a nationally recognized school reformer, who came to San Antonio in 1994. The case includes a dramatic board meeting where a closely divided board meets to buy out Lam's…

  7. The de Bono LAMS Sequence Series: Template Designs as Knowledge-Mobilising Strategy for 21st Century Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobozy, Eva

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the five interlocking de Bono LAMS sequences are introduced as a new form of generic template designs. This transdisciplinary knowledge-mobilising strategy is based on Edward de Bono's attention-directing ideas and thinking skills, commonly known as the CoRT tools. The development of the de Bono LAMS sequence series is an important…

  8. Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometer (LAMS) as a Standoff Analyzer in Space Missions for Airless Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Managadze, G. G.; Pugel, D. E.; Corrigan, C. M.; Doty, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    A laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) based on a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer with adjustable drift length is proposed as a standoff elemental composition sensor for space missions to airless bodies. It is found that the use of a retarding potential analyzer in combination with a two-stage reflectron enables LAMS to be operated at variable drift length. For field-free drift lengths between 33 cm to 100 cm, at least unit mass resolution can be maintained solely by adjustment of internal voltages, and without resorting to drastic reductions in sensitivity. Therefore, LAMS should be able to be mounted on a robotic arm and analyze samples at standoff distances of up to several tens of cm, permitting high operational flexibility and wide area coverage of heterogeneous regolith on airless bodies.

  9. Physical Orbit for Lam Vir and Testing of Stellar Evolution Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, M.; Monnier, J. D.; Torres, G.; Pedretti, E.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Berger, J.-P.; Traub, W. A.; Schloerb, F. P.

    2005-12-01

    Lambda Virginis is a well-known double-lined spectroscopic Am binary with the interesting property that both stars are very similar in abundance but one is sharp-lined and the other is broad-lined. The differing rotation rates and the unusual metallic-lined nature of this system presents a unique opportunity to test stellar evolution models. In this poster, we present high resolution observations of Lam Vir, taken with the Infrared-Optical Telescopes Array (IOTA) between 2003 and 2005. By combining our interferometric data with double-lined radial velocity data, we determined for the first time the physical orbit of Lam Vir, as well as the orbital parallax of the system. In addition, the masses of the two components are determined with 1% and 1.5% errors respectively. Our preliminary result from comparison with stellar evolution models suggests a discrepancy between Lam Vir and standard models.

  10. Gastroprotective activity of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. in animal models.

    PubMed

    Freitas, F F B P; Fernandes, H B; Piauilino, C A; Pereira, S S; Carvalho, K I M; Chaves, M H; Soares, P M G; Miura, L M C V; Leite, J R S A; Oliveira, R C M; Oliveira, F A

    2011-09-01

    The stem barks of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae), locally known as "mamica de cadela", are popularly used in dyspepsies, stomachic, tonic, antitumoral, antipyretic and are used in treating flatulence and colic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (EEZR) stem barks in acute gastric lesion models, investigating their possible mechanisms. Mice were used for the evaluation of the acute toxicity, and mice and rats to study the gastroprotective activity. The gastroprotective action of EEZR was analyzed in the absolute ethanol, HCl/ethanol and indomethacin-induced gastric lesion models in mice, hypothermic-restraint stress, and ischemia/reperfusion in rats. In the investigation of the gastroprotective mechanisms of EEZR, the participation of the NO-synthase pathway, ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)), the levels of the non-protein sulfhydril groups (NP-SH) and the catalase activity using the ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesion model and the quantification of the gastric mucus and the antisecretory activity through pylorus ligature model in rats were analyzed. The animals did not present any signs of acute toxicity for the EEZR (up to the 4 g/kg dose, po), and it was not possible to calculate the DL(50). EEZR (125-500 mg/kg) exhibited a significant gastroprotective effect in absolute ethanol, HCl/ethanol, hypothermic-restraint stress, and ischemia/reperfusion-induced gastric lesion models. EEZR (250 and 500 mg/kg) exhibited still a gastroprotective activity in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model. Gastroprotection of EEZR was significantly decreased in pre-treated mice with l-NAME or glibenclamide, the respective nitric oxide synthase and K(ATP) channels inhibitors. Our studies revealed that EEZR (500 mg/kg) prevented the decrease of the non-protein sulfhydril groups (NP-SH) and increased the catalase levels in ethanol-treated animals. Furthermore, the extract (500 mg

  11. Evaluation of wound healing property of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pradeep Bhaskar; Hegde, Shruti; Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Ganesh R; Habbu, Prasanna V; Mulgund, Gangadhar S

    2016-12-04

    Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam. is one of the important traditional folk medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases and wounds used by healers of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state (India). However scientific validation of documented traditional knowledge related to medicinal plants is an important path in current scenario to fulfill the increasing demand of herbal medicine. The study was carried out to evaluate the claimed uses of Caesalpinia mimosoides using antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activities followed by detection of possible active bio-constituents. Extracts prepared by hot percolation method were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis followed by antimicrobial activity using MIC assay. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by circular excision and linear incision wound models. The extract with significant antimicrobial and wound healing activity was investigated for antioxidant capacity using DPPH, nitric oxide, antilipid peroxidation and total antioxidant activity methods. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, Swain and Hillis methods. Possible bio-active constituents were identified by GC-MS technique. RP-UFLC-DAD analysis was carried out to quantify ethyl gallate and gallic acid in the plant extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed positive results for ethanol and aqueous extracts for all the chemical constituents. The ethanol extract proved potent antimicrobial activity against both bacterial and fungal skin pathogens compared to other extracts. The efficacy of topical application of potent ethanol extract and traditionally used aqueous extracts was evidenced by the complete re-epithelization of the epidermal layer with increased percentage of wound contraction in a shorter period. However, aqueous extract failed to perform a consistent effect in the histopathological assessment. Ethanol extract showed effective scavenging activity against DPPH and nitric

  12. Effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. Extract on Physico-Chemical Properties of Emulsion-Type Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Yang, Han-Sul; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract on the physicochemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausages during storage at 10°C for 4 wk. Treatments were as follows: (C, control; T1, sodium ascorbate 0.05%; T2, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.05%; T3, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1%; T4, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.2%; T5, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1% + sodium ascorbate 0.05%). The values of pH, moisture content, lightness, redness, and sensory attributes were all significantly decreased, while the yellowness, chroma, hue angle, and texture properties were increased during storage with increase of the Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract added. In addition, the antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity in the sausages displayed significant increases (p<0.05). Therefore, although it was concluded that the addition of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract is not effective for improvement of the physical properties compared to chemical additives in sausages, it could be applied to meat products as a natural preservatives. PMID:28515651

  13. Effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. Extract on Physico-Chemical Properties of Emulsion-Type Pork Sausages.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Yang, Han-Sul; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract on the physicochemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausages during storage at 10°C for 4 wk. Treatments were as follows: (C, control; T1, sodium ascorbate 0.05%; T2, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.05%; T3, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1%; T4, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.2%; T5, Gleditsia sinensis Lam. 0.1% + sodium ascorbate 0.05%). The values of pH, moisture content, lightness, redness, and sensory attributes were all significantly decreased, while the yellowness, chroma, hue angle, and texture properties were increased during storage with increase of the Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract added. In addition, the antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity in the sausages displayed significant increases ( p <0.05). Therefore, although it was concluded that the addition of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. extract is not effective for improvement of the physical properties compared to chemical additives in sausages, it could be applied to meat products as a natural preservatives.

  14. Nicosulfuron Biodegradation by a Novel Cold-Adapted Strain Oceanisphaera psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shan; Song, Jinlong; Dong, Weiwei; Mu, Yingchun; Zhang, Qi; Fan, Ziwen; Wang, Yanwei; Kong, Delong; Zhou, Yiqing; Jiang, Xu; Zhao, Bin; Han, Gang; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2017-11-29

    Nicosulfuron is a common environmental pollutant, posing a great threat to aquatic systems and causing significant damage to crops. This study reported a cold-adapted strain Oceanisphaera psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC, which efficiently degrades nicosulfuron over a wide range of temperatures (5 to 40 °C). The Box-Behnken design method was used to optimize the degradation conditions. O. psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC can degrade 92.4% and 74.6% of initially supplemented 100 mg/L nicosulfuron under the optimum and low temperature of 18.1 and 5 °C, respectively, within 7 days. O. psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC was found to be highly efficient in degrading cinosulfuron, chlorsulfuron, rimsulfuron, bensulfuron methyl, and ethametsulfuron methyl. Metabolites from nicosulfuron degradation were identified by UPLC-MS, and a possible degradation pathway was proposed. Furthermore, O. psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC can also degrade nicosulfuron in soil; 78.6% and 67.4% of the initial nicosulfuron supplemented at 50 mg/kg were removed at 18.1 and 5 °C, respectively, within 15 days.

  15. Moringa oleifera extract (Lam) attenuates Aluminium phosphide-induced acute cardiac toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Ahmed S; El-Nabarawy, Nagla A; Ibrahim, Samah F

    2018-01-01

    Moringa oleifera extract (Lam) has many antioxidant and protective properties. Objective: to investigate the antioxidant activities of Lam in counteracting the high oxidative stress caused by acute sub-lethal aluminium phosphide (AlP) intoxication in rat heart. These activities will be detected by histopathological examination and some oxidative stress biomarkers. a single sub-lethal dose of Alp (2 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally, and Lam was given orally at a dose (100 mg/kg body weight) one hour after receiving AlP to rats. aluminium phosphide caused significant cardiac histopathological changes with a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA); lipid peroxidation marker; and a significant depletion of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and glutathione reductase). However, treatment with Lam protected efficiently the cardiac tissue of intoxicated rats by increasing antioxidants levels with slight decreasing in MDA production compared to untreated group. This study suggested that Moringa oleifera extract could possibly restore the altered cardiac histopathology and some antioxidant power in AlP intoxicated rats, and it could even be used as adjuvant therapy against AlP-induced cardiotoxicity.

  16. Adopting Learning Design with LAMS: Multi-Dimensional, Synchronous Large-Scale Adoption of Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badilescu-Buga, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Learning Activity Management System (LAMS) has been trialled and used by users from many countries around the globe, but despite the positive attitude towards its potential benefits to pedagogical processes its adoption in practice has been uneven, reflecting how difficult it is to make a new technology based concept an integral part of the…

  17. Chemoselective N-arylation of aminobenzamides via copper catalysed Chan-Evans-Lam reactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Zu, Weisai; Zhang, Jinli; Xu, Liang

    2017-11-15

    Chemoselective N-arylation of unprotected aminobenzamides was achieved via Cu-catalysed Chan-Evans-Lam cross-coupling with aryl boronic acids for the first time. Simple copper catalysts enable the selective arylation of amino groups in ortho/meta/para-aminobenzamides under open-flask conditions. The reactions were scalable and compatible with a wide range of functional groups.

  18. LamLum : a tool for evaluating the financial feasibility of laminated lumber plants

    Treesearch

    E.M. (Ted) Bilek; John F. Hunt

    2006-01-01

    A spreadsheet-based computer program called LamLum was created to analyze the economics of value- added laminated lumber manufacturing facilities. Such facilities manufacture laminations, typically from lower grades of structural lumber, then glue these laminations together to make various types of higher value laminated lumber products. This report provides the...

  19. Stochasticity in the Expression of LamB and its Affect on λ phage Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Emily; Wu, Xiao-Lun

    2006-03-01

    λ phage binds to E. Coli's lamB protein and injects its DNA into the cell. The phage quickly replicates and after a latent period the bacteria bursts, emitting mature phages. We developed a mathematical model based on the known physical events that occur when a λ phage infects an E.Coli cell. The results of these models predict that the bacteria and phage populations become extinct unless the parameters of the model are very finely tuned, which is untrue in the nature. The lamB protein is part of the maltose regulon and can be repressed to minimal levels when grown in the absence of inducer. Therefore, a cell that is not expressing any lamB protein at that moment is resistant against phage infection. We studied the dynamic relationship between λ phage and E. Coli when the concentration of phage greatly outnumbers the concentration of bacteria. We study how the stochasticity of the expression of lamB affects the percentage of cells that the λ phage infects. We show that even in the case when the maltose regulon is fully induced a percentage of cells continue to persist against phage infection.

  20. Test and Evaluation of Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) for a Large Aircraft Maintenance Shelter (LAMS) Baseplate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    TEST AND EVALUATION OF ULTRASONIC ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (UAM) FOR A LARGE AREA MAINTENANCE...States Government. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-158 TEST AND EVALUATION OF ULTRASONIC ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING FOR A LARGE AREA MAINTENANCE SHELTER...Civil Engineer (CE) operations. This research replicates a Large Area Maintenance Shelter (LAMS) baseplate design for ultrasonic additive

  1. Performance of a Press-Lam bridge : a 5-year load-testing and monitoring program

    Treesearch

    D. S. Gromala; R. C. Moody; M. M. Sprinkel

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of load tests on an experimental highway bridge erected and put into service on the George Washington National Forest in Virginia in 1977. The bridge, made entirely of Press-Lam, a laminated veneer lumber (LVL) product, was load tested 1 month, 1 year, and 5 years after erection. The bridge continues to perform quite well and,...

  2. Mathematical Physics in the Style of Gabriel Lamé and the Treatise of Emile Mathieu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbin, Évelyne; Guitart, René

    The Treatise of Mathematical Physics of Emile Mathieu, published from 1873 to 1890, provided an exposition of the specific French "Mathematical Physics" inherited from Lamé, himself an heir of Poisson, Fourier, and Laplace. The works of all these authors had significant differences, but they were pursuing the same goal, described here with its relation to Theoretical Physics.

  3. Khellin and visnagin, furanochromones from Amni visnaga (L.) Lam., as potential bioherbicides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants constitute a source of novel and structurally diverse phytotoxic compounds to be explored in searching for effective and environmentally safe herbicides. From screening nearly 2400 plant extracts for their phytotoxicity, a dichloromethane extract of Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. was selected for fur...

  4. Fatty acid, flavonol, and mineral composition variability among seven macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) verdc. accessions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Horse gram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] seeds containing high concentrations of fatty acids, flavonols and minerals will provide government, public and private organizations with a nutritious and healthy food for use by malnourished and food deprived people worldwide. Seeds from seven horse...

  5. The Diagnostic Value of Urine Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) Antigen in Childhood Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Agustin; Nursiloningrum, Erlin; Arthamin, Maimun Zulhaidah; Olivianto, Ery; Chandrakusuma, Mas Slamet

    2017-03-01

    Diagnosis of Tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult because the clinical presentation is not specific, the chest X-ray interpretation has low accuracy and sputum sample is difficult to obtain. Antigen detection test such as rapid urine LAM is a non-invasive alternative for diagnosing TB . Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is the main component of M.tuberculosis cell wall. To determine the diagnostic value of urinary LAM antigen for diagnosis of childhood TB. In the present cross-sectional study, subjects were included using consecutive sampling method. All the children aged 0-14 years Suspected of pulmonary or extra pulmonary TB suffering from cough more than two weeks, fever without clear aetiology, loss of body weight or poor weight gain, fatigue, malaise, chronic lymph node enlargement, spine angulation, joint swelling and had history of contact with positive sputum smear adult TB patient were enrolled in the study. Pulmonary and extra pulmonary diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, Tuberculin Skin Test (TST), chest X-ray, Acid Fast Bacillus (AFB) staining and or sputum culture. Urinary LAM level was measured by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Cut off value and Area Under the Curve (AUC) were determined using ROC statistical analysis (SPSS 21.0). Sensitivity and specificity was measured from 2x2 cross table. Out of 61 subjects suspected as TB, 49 (80.3%) were eventually diagnosed with TB. Of those diagnosed with TB, 21 (42.9%) were microbiologically confirmed cases either by sputum microscopy (34.7%) or culture (8.2%), whereas 28 subjects were unconfirmed cases (57.1%). The urinary LAM level was higher in subjects with TB (1.80+1.02) mg/l compared to non-TB group (0.46+0.3) mg/l; p<0.001(independent t-test). Urine LAM had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity with cut off value 0.98 mg/l using microbiological and clinical confirmation as standard reference and 33% sensitivity and 60% specificity with cut off value 1.69 mg/l using microbiological

  6. The Diagnostic Value of Urine Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) Antigen in Childhood Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Nursiloningrum, Erlin; Arthamin, Maimun Zulhaidah; Olivianto, Ery; Chandrakusuma, Mas Slamet

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Diagnosis of Tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult because the clinical presentation is not specific, the chest X-ray interpretation has low accuracy and sputum sample is difficult to obtain. Antigen detection test such as rapid urine LAM is a non-invasive alternative for diagnosing TB . Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is the main component of M.tuberculosis cell wall. Aim To determine the diagnostic value of urinary LAM antigen for diagnosis of childhood TB. Materials and Methods In the present cross-sectional study, subjects were included using consecutive sampling method. All the children aged 0-14 years Suspected of pulmonary or extra pulmonary TB suffering from cough more than two weeks, fever without clear aetiology, loss of body weight or poor weight gain, fatigue, malaise, chronic lymph node enlargement, spine angulation, joint swelling and had history of contact with positive sputum smear adult TB patient were enrolled in the study. Pulmonary and extra pulmonary diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, Tuberculin Skin Test (TST), chest X-ray, Acid Fast Bacillus (AFB) staining and or sputum culture. Urinary LAM level was measured by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Cut off value and Area Under the Curve (AUC) were determined using ROC statistical analysis (SPSS 21.0). Sensitivity and specificity was measured from 2x2 cross table. Results Out of 61 subjects suspected as TB, 49 (80.3%) were eventually diagnosed with TB. Of those diagnosed with TB, 21 (42.9%) were microbiologically confirmed cases either by sputum microscopy (34.7%) or culture (8.2%), whereas 28 subjects were unconfirmed cases (57.1%). The urinary LAM level was higher in subjects with TB (1.80+1.02) mg/l compared to non-TB group (0.46+0.3) mg/l; p<0.001(independent t-test). Urine LAM had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity with cut off value 0.98 mg/l using microbiological and clinical confirmation as standard reference and 33% sensitivity and 60% specificity

  7. Cyperus rotundus extract inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity from animal and plants as well as inhibits germination and seedling growth in wheat and tomato.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rashmi; Gupta, Rajendra

    2007-05-30

    Cyperus rotundus (nutgrass) is the world's worst invasive weed through tubers. Its success in dominating natural habitats depends on its ability to prevent herbivory, and to kill or suppress other plants growing in its vicinity. The present study was done to investigate whether chemicals in nutgrass target neuronal and non-neuronal acetylcholinesterases to affect surrounding animals and plants respectively. Methanolic extract of tubers of nutgrass strongly inhibited activity of AChE from electric eel, wheat and tomato. It also inhibited seed germination and seedling growth in wheat and tomato. Our results suggest that inhibitor of AChE in nutgrass possibly acts as agent of plant's war against (a) herbivore animals, and (b) other plants trying to grow in the same habitat. An antiAChE from nutgrass has been purified by employing chromatography and crystallization. The structural determination of the purified inhibitor is in progress.

  8. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Reynaud, Yann; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates) and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates) from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database), this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8%) strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains). By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321). Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family. PMID:26517715

  9. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Yann; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates) and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates) from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database), this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8%) strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains). By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321). Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family.

  10. Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents.

  11. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam)

    PubMed Central

    Priya, P. Sathiya; Sasikumar, J.M.; Gowsigan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  12. Two new cassane diterpene lactams from the fruits of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam.

    PubMed

    Bi, Dewen; Xia, Guanghui; Li, Yuanping; Liang, Xuesong; Zhang, Lanjun; Wang, Liqin

    2018-04-01

    Two new cassane ditepenoid lactams, caesmimotam A (1) and B (2), along with eight known compounds (3-10) were isolated from the fruits of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam. Their structures were identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW-480 human cancer cell lines, but they were inactive.

  13. Molecular Characteristics of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM-RUS Family Prevalent in Central Russia▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dubiley, Svetlana; Kirillov, Eugene; Ignatova, Anna; Stepanshina, Valentina; Shemyakin, Igor

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed IS6110-associated polymorphisms in the phospholipase C genes of 107 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis selected to be representative of isolates circulating in central Russia. We found that the majority of Latin American-Mediterranean family strains contained an insertion in a unique position in the plcA gene, suggesting a common ancestor. This insertion can serve as a specific genetic marker for this group, which we designate the LAM-RUS family. PMID:17942651

  14. The output least-squares approach to estimating Lamé moduli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gockenbach, Mark S.

    2007-12-01

    The Lamé moduli of a heterogeneous, isotropic, planar membrane can be estimated by observing the displacement of the membrane under a known edge traction, and choosing estimates of the moduli that best predict the observed displacement under a finite-element simulation. This algorithm converges to the exact moduli given pointwise measurements of the displacement on an increasingly fine mesh. The error estimates that prove this convergence also show the instability of the inverse problem.

  15. 78 FR 3319 - Amendments to Existing Validated End User Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ...In this rule, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to revise the existing Authorization Validated End-User (VEU) listings for four VEUs in the People's Republic of China (PRC). Specifically, BIS amends Supplement No. 7 to part 748 of the EAR to update VEU Advanced Micro Devices China Inc.'s (AMD China) current list of eligible destinations. BIS also amends the authorization of VEU Lam Research Corporation (Lam) by updating the addresses of ten eligible destinations and reformatting the list of Lam's existing eligible destinations into groups associated with specific eligible items. BIS also updates the EAR to amend the addresses and lists of eligible items for VEUs SK hynix Semiconductor (China) Ltd. and SK hynix Semiconductor (Wuxi) Ltd. Finally, BIS amends Supplement No. 7 to part 748 of the EAR to include language reminding exporters that the language in the Supplement does not supersede other requirements in the EAR. These amendments to the authorizations of the named VEUs are not the result of activities of concern. The respective changes were prompted by factors arising from the companies' normal course of business or are being done at the request of the companies.

  16. On the Spectra of Real and Complex Lamé Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haese-Hill, William A.; Hallnäs, Martin A.; Veselov, Alexander P.

    2017-07-01

    We study Lamé operators of the form L = -{d^2}/{dx^2} + m(m+1)ω^2\\wp(ω x+z_0), with m\\in{N} and ω a half-period of \\wp(z). For rectangular period lattices, we can choose ω and z_0 such that the potential is real, periodic and regular. It is known after Ince that the spectrum of the corresponding Lamé operator has a band structure with not more than m gaps. In the first part of the paper, we prove that the opened gaps are precisely the first m ones. In the second part, we study the Lamé spectrum for a generic period lattice when the potential is complex-valued. We concentrate on the m=1 case, when the spectrum consists of two regular analytic arcs, one of which extends to infinity, and briefly discuss the m=2 case, paying particular attention to the rhombic lattices.

  17. An ability of endophytic bacteria from nutgrass (cyperus rotundus) from lafau beach of north nias in producing indole acetic acid and in solubilizing phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zega, Atriani; Suryanto, Dwi; Yurnaliza

    2018-03-01

    Endophytic bacteria have taken much attention for their potency to promote plant growth. This study was aimed to isolate endophytic bacteria from nutgrass (Cyperus rotundus) and to examine their potency in producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and in solubilizing phosphate. Isolation of endophytic bacteria was done by slicing and sterilizing root, stem, and leaf sample surface with alcohol 70% and sodium hypochlorite 2%, followed by incubation of the sliced samples in nutrient agar medium. Morphological characterization and simple biochemical tests were performed on bacterial isolates. All bacterial isolates were examined for their ability to produce indole acetic acid and to solubilize phosphate. Three isolates (AZ5, AZ12 and AZ6) out of fifteen indicated the ability to produce indole acetic acid and to solubilize phosphate. IAA producing test using spectrophotometry method showed that AZ5, AZ12,and AZ6 produce more IAA with concentration of 49,91, 48,18, and 44,45 ppm, respectively. Phosphate solubilizing test using Pikovskaya agar medium showed that the three isolates were able to solubilize phosphate with index of 6.27, 3,31, and 3.41 respectively.

  18. Amino acid, mineral and fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp) and Cyperus esculentus nuts in the Republic of Niger.

    PubMed

    Glew, R H; Glew, R S; Chuang, L-T; Huang, Y-S; Millson, M; Constans, D; Vanderjagt, D J

    2006-06-01

    Dried seeds and nuts are widely consumed by indigenous populations of the western Sahel, especially those who inhabit rural areas. In light of the need for quantitative information regarding the content of particular nutrients in these plant foods, we collected dried pumpkin (Cucurbita spp) seeds and nuts of Cyperus esculentus in the Republic of Niger and analyzed them for their content of essential amino acids, minerals and trace elements, and fatty acids. On a dry weight basis, pumpkin seed contained 58.8% protein and 29.8% fat. However, the lysine score of the protein was only 65% relative to the FAO/WHO protein standard. The pumpkin seed contained useful amounts of linoleic (92 microg/g dry weight) and the following elements (on a microg per g dry weight basis): potassium (5,790), magnesium (5,690), manganese (49.3), zinc (113), selenium (1.29), copper (15.4), chromium (2.84), and molybdenum (0.81), but low amounts of calcium and iron. Except for potassium (5,573 microg/g dry weight) and chromium (2.88 microg/g dry weight), the C. esculentis nuts contained much less of these same nutrients compared to pumpkin seeds. In conclusion, pumpkin seeds represent a useful source of many nutrients essential to humans. The data in this report should of practical value to public health officials in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Phytoremediation potential and ecological and phenological changes of native pioneer plants from weathered oil spill-impacted sites at tropical wetlands.

    PubMed

    Palma-Cruz, Felipe de J; Pérez-Vargas, Josefina; Rivera Casado, Noemí Araceli; Gómez Guzmán, Octavio; Calva-Calva, Graciano

    2016-08-01

    Pioneer native plant species from weathered oil spill-affected sites were selected to study their potential for phytoremediation on the basis of their ecological and phenological changes during the phytoremediation process. Experiments were conducted in field and in greenhouse. In field, native plants from aged oil spill-impacted sites with up 400 g of weathered petroleum hydrocarbons per kilogram soil were selected. In the impacted sites, the principal dominant plant species with potential for hydrocarbons removal were Cyperus laxus, Cyperus esculentus, and Ludwigia peploides. In greenhouse, the phenology of the selected plant species was drastically affected by the hydrocarbons level above 325 g total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) per kilogram soil after 2 years of phytoremediation of soils from the aged oil spill-impacted sites. From the phytoremediation treatments, a mix-culture of C. laxus, C. esculentus, and L. peploides in soil containing 325 g TPH/kg soil, from which 20.3 % were polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and 34.2 % were asphaltenes (ASF), was able to remove up 93 % of the TPH, while in unvegetated soil the TPH removal was 12.6 %. Furthermore, evaluation of the biodiversity and life forms of plant species in the impacted sites showed that phytoremediation with C. esculentus, alone or in a mix-culture with C. laxus and L. peploides, reduces the TPH to such extent that the native plant community was progressively reestablished by replacing the cultivated species resulting in the ecological recovery of the affected soil. These results demonstrate that native Cyperus species from weathered oil spill-affected sites, specifically C. esculentus and C. laxus, alone or in a mix-culture, have particular potential for phytoremediation of soils from tropical wetlands contaminated with weathered oil hydrocarbons.

  20. A Job Pause Service under LAM/MPI+BLCR for Transparent Fault Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao; Mueller, Frank; Engelmann, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Checkpoint/restart (C/R) has become a requirement for long-running jobs in large-scale clusters due to a meantime- to-failure (MTTF) in the order of hours. After a failure, C/R mechanisms generally require a complete restart of an MPI job from the last checkpoint. A complete restart, however, is unnecessary since all but one node are typically still alive. Furthermore, a restart may result in lengthy job requeuing even though the original job had not exceeded its time quantum. In this paper, we overcome these shortcomings. Instead of job restart, we have developed a transparent mechanism for job pause within LAM/MPI+BLCR. This mechanismmore » allows live nodes to remain active and roll back to the last checkpoint while failed nodes are dynamically replaced by spares before resuming from the last checkpoint. Our methodology includes LAM/MPI enhancements in support of scalable group communicationwith fluctuating number of nodes, reuse of network connections, transparent coordinated checkpoint scheduling and a BLCR enhancement for job pause. Experiments in a cluster with the NAS Parallel Benchmark suite show that our overhead for job pause is comparable to that of a complete job restart. A minimal overhead of 5.6% is only incurred in case migration takes place while the regular checkpoint overhead remains unchanged. Yet, our approach alleviates the need to reboot the LAM run-time environment, which accounts for considerable overhead resulting in net savings of our scheme in the experiments. Our solution further provides full transparency and automation with the additional benefit of reusing existing resources. Executing continues after failures within the scheduled job, i.e., the application staging overhead is not incurred again in contrast to a restart. Our scheme offers additional potential for savings through incremental checkpointing and proactive diskless live migration, which we are currently working on.« less

  1. Purification and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Junchen; Liu, Yuan; An, Tianchen; Liu, Yujun; Wang, Manchuriga; Song, Yanting; Zheng, Feifei; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yingxia; Deng, Shiming

    2015-05-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor against trypsin was isolated from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. by successive ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, and gel-filtration chromatography. The trypsin inhibitor, named as AHLTI (A. heterophyllus Lam. trypsin inhibitor), consisted of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 28.5 kDa, which was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel-filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of AHLTI was DEPPSELDAS, which showed no similarity to other known trypsin inhibitor sequence. AHLTI completely inhibited bovine trypsin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (AHLTI:trypsin) analyzed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, inhibition activity assay, and gel-filtration chromatography. Moreover, kinetic enzymatic studies were carried out to understand the inhibition mechanism of AHLTI against trypsin. Results showed that AHLTI was a competitive inhibitor with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) of 3.7 × 10(-8) M. However, AHLTI showed weak inhibitory activity toward chymotrypsin and elastase. AHLTI was stable over a broad range of pH 4-8 and temperature 20-80°C. The reduction agent, dithiothreitol, had no obvious effect on AHLTI. The trypsin inhibition assays of AHLTI toward digestive enzymes from insect pest guts in vitro demonstrated that AHLTI was effective against enzymes from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). These results suggested that AHLTI might be a novel trypsin inhibitor from A. heterophyllus Lam. belonging to Kunitz family, and play an important role in protecting from insect pest. © The Author 2015. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Topology of the membrane protein LamB by epitope tagging and a comparison with the X-ray model.

    PubMed

    Newton, S M; Klebba, P E; Michel, V; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

    1996-06-01

    We previously developed a genetic approach to study, with a single antibody, the topology of the outer membrane protein LamB, an Escherichia coli porin with specificity towards maltodextrins and a receptor for bacteriophage lambda. Our initial procedure consisted of inserting at random the same reporter epitope (the C3 neutralization epitope from poliovirus) into permissive sites of LamB (i.e., sites which tolerate insertions without deleterious effects on the protein activities or the cell). A specific monoclonal antibody was then used to examine the position of the inserted epitope with respect to the protein and the membrane. In the present work, we set up a site-directed procedure to insert the C3 epitope at new sites in order to distinguish between two-dimensional folding models. This allowed us to identify two new surface loops of LamB and to predict another periplasmic exposed region. The results obtained by random and directed epitope tagging are analyzed in light of the recently published X-ray structure of the LamB protein. Study of 23 hybrid LamB-C3 proteins led to the direct identification of five of the nine external loops (L4, L5, L6, L7, and L9) and led to the prediction of four periplasmic loops (I1, I4, I5, and I8) of LamB. Nine of the hybrid proteins did not lead to topological conclusions, and none led to the wrong predictions or conclusions. The comparison indicates that parts of models based on secondary structure predictions alone are not reliable and points to the importance of experimental data in the establishment of outer membrane protein topological models. The advantages and limitations of genetic foreign epitope insertion for the study of integral membrane proteins are discussed.

  3. A Naturally Encoded Dipeptide Handle for Bioorthogonal Chan-Lam Coupling.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Jun; Zeng, Yimeng; Segatori, Laura; Ball, Zachary T

    2018-04-03

    Manipulation of biomacromolecules is ideally achieved through unique and bioorthogonal chemical reactions of genetically encoded, naturally occurring functional groups. The toolkit of methods for site-specific conjugation is limited by selectivity concerns and a dearth of naturally occurring functional groups with orthogonal reactivity. We report that pyroglutamate amide N-H bonds exhibit bioorthogonal copper-catalyzed Chan-Lam coupling at pyroglutamate-histidine dipeptide sequences. The pyroglutamate residue is readily incorporated into proteins of interest by natural enzymatic pathways, allowing specific bioconjugation at a minimalist dipeptide tag. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and phenol content in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Umesh B; Panaskar, Shrimant N; Bapat, V A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant capacity of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Fam. Moracae) fruit pulp (JFP) obtained from Western Ghats India was determined by evaluating the scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing power assays and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD) radical cation decolorization assay. JFP was analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC). The ethanol and water are the best solvents for the extracting phenols and flavonoids from the JFP. The antioxidant activities of JFP extracts were correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoids content. The results indicated that the jackfruit pulp is one natural source of antioxidant compounds.

  5. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant and urease inhibitory potential of Cyphostemma digitatum Lam.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rasool; Saif, Abdullah Qasem; Quradha, Mohammad Mansour; Ali, Jawad; Rauf, Abdur

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report the antimicrobial, antiradical and urease inhibitory potential along with photochemical investigation of the crude extracts of Cyphostemma digitatum Lam. Phytochemical screening of both the crude (hot/cold) alcoholic and aqueous extracts of C. digitatum showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, coumarins, steroids, terpenoids and tannins. The crude methanolic extract (hot/cold) exhibited good antioxidant activity, while the aqueous extract was a weak antioxidant. The crude methanolic extract was found to be more active against Bacillus subtilis, while both the extracts showed moderate antifungal potential, the methanolic crude extract showed good urease inhibitory activity compared with the aqueous crude extract.

  6. Incremental Yield of Including Determine-TB LAM Assay in Diagnostic Algorithms for Hospitalized and Ambulatory HIV-Positive Patients in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Huerga, Helena; Ferlazzo, Gabriella; Bevilacqua, Paolo; Kirubi, Beatrice; Ardizzoni, Elisa; Wanjala, Stephen; Sitienei, Joseph; Bonnet, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    Determine-TB LAM assay is a urine point-of-care test useful for TB diagnosis in HIV-positive patients. We assessed the incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM to algorithms based on clinical signs, sputum smear-microscopy, chest X-ray and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-positive patients with symptoms of pulmonary TB (PTB). Prospective observational cohort of ambulatory (either severely ill or CD4<200cells/μl or with Body Mass Index<17Kg/m2) and hospitalized symptomatic HIV-positive adults in Kenya. Incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM was the difference in the proportion of confirmed TB patients (positive Xpert or MTB culture) diagnosed by the algorithm with LAM compared to the algorithm without LAM. The multivariable mortality model was adjusted for age, sex, clinical severity, BMI, CD4, ART initiation, LAM result and TB confirmation. Among 474 patients included, 44.1% were severely ill, 69.6% had CD4<200cells/μl, 59.9% had initiated ART, 23.2% could not produce sputum. LAM, smear-microscopy, Xpert and culture in sputum were positive in 39.0% (185/474), 21.6% (76/352), 29.1% (102/350) and 39.7% (92/232) of the patients tested, respectively. Of 156 patients with confirmed TB, 65.4% were LAM positive. Of those classified as non-TB, 84.0% were LAM negative. Adding LAM increased the diagnostic yield of the algorithms by 36.6%, from 47.4% (95%CI:39.4-55.6) to 84.0% (95%CI:77.3-89.4%), when using clinical signs and X-ray; by 19.9%, from 62.2% (95%CI:54.1-69.8) to 82.1% (95%CI:75.1-87.7), when using clinical signs and microscopy; and by 13.4%, from 74.4% (95%CI:66.8-81.0) to 87.8% (95%CI:81.6-92.5), when using clinical signs and Xpert. LAM positive patients had an increased risk of 2-months mortality (aOR:2.7; 95%CI:1.5-4.9). LAM should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms in parallel to microscopy or Xpert request for HIV-positive patients either ambulatory (severely ill or CD4<200cells/μl) or hospitalized. LAM allows same day treatment initiation in patients at

  7. Is elevated CO2 in space really harmful to growth and development? A case study of Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) in Lunar Palace-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guanghui; Dong, Chen; Fu, Yuming; Wang, Minjuan; Shao, Lingzhi; Yu, Juan; Liu, Hong

    2018-05-01

    CO2 concentration [CO2] level in artificial ecosystems such as greenhouse agriculture and space farming can easily exceed 1000 μmol mol-1 (or ppm). In order to understand how the growth and development in crop plants may respond to elevated CO2, it is necessary to determine if crop leaves in the closed artificial ecosystem have a fully developed photosynthetic apparatus, and whether or not photosynthesis in these leaves is more responsive to elevated CO2 concentration. To address this issue, we evaluated the response of photosynthetic characteristics, leaf water status and antioxidant capacity of Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.), which is a sedge-like plant with 1-2 cm small sweet tubers in length, under elevated CO2 concentrations in an artificial closed ecosystem. The results showed that Chufa plants cultivated in the elevated CO2 environment from the seedling stage to the maturity stage were characterized by more appropriate chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate. The photosynthetic rate of Chufa plants in the 1000 and 3000 ppm treatments was no significant difference with that in 500 ppm CO2 condition both at seedling stage and rapid growth stage. All the treatments had a high relative water content (RWC) about 60% at the maturity stage. However, there was no significant difference in membrane stability index (MSI) at the rapid growth stage. The antioxidase enzymes activities experienced a rise and a drop and reached the peak at the rapid growth stage. Elevated CO2, especially more than 1000 ppm conditions, may accelerant Chufa plants aging process.

  8. [Case of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) discovered during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Mika; Okura, Nahomi; Kashii, Tomoko; Matsushita, Mitsuji; Mori, Masanobu; Yoshida, Masayo; Tsujimura, Shigehisa

    2014-02-01

    We experienced a case of scheduled cesarean section under spinal anesthesia in a patient with LAM which had been missed in spite of preoperative medical examination and consultation with specialists but discovered because of perioperative hypoxia A 35-year-old woman, Gravida 1 Para 0, with breech presentation was scheduled to undergo cesarean section under spinal anesthesia at 38 weeks of gestation. She had no history of asthma or abnormal findings at annual medical examination. She had suffered from dry cough and nocturnal dyspnea for 7 weeks and an inhaled bronchodilator was administered with diagnosis of inflammatory airway disease by her respiratory physicians. Spinal anesthesia was performed with bupivacaine 12.5 mg. At the beginning of anesthesia SPO2 was 97% in supine position, but it rapidly decreased to less than 90% and 3 l x min(-1) oxygen was supplied with a facial mask. The anesthetic level was thoracal 4 bilaterally and her breathing was stable. The circulatory state, Apgar score and other vital signs were within normal ranges. Postoperative chest X-ray showed bilateral numerous grained spots and computed tomography scans showed multiple thin-walled cysts. The characteristic history and the fluoroscopic data gave her clinical diagnosis of LAM.

  9. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. "Phloem sap analysis of Schleichera oleosa (Lour) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam) Taub. and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam) and hemolymph of Kerria lacca (Kerr) using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry".

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, Amit; Rathi, Brijesh; Kaushik, Sandeep; Sharma, K K; Lakhanpaul, Suman

    2013-10-01

    Females of lac insects especially of Kerria lacca (Kerr) secret a resin known as lac for their own protection, which has tremendous applications. Lac insect completes its lifecycle on several host taxa where it exclusively feeds on phloem sap but Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam.) and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam.) are its major hosts. Analysis of phloem sap constituents as well as hemolymph of lac insect is important because it ultimately gets converted into lac by insect intervention. Main phloem sap constituent's viz. sugars and free amino acids and hemolymph of lac insect were analyzed using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The results were transformed to relative percentage of the total sugars and free amino acids analyzed in each sample for comparison among lac insect hemolymph and the phloem sap of the three different host taxa. Sucrose (58.9 ± 3.6-85.6 ± 0.9) and trehalose (62.3 ± 0.4) were the predominant sugars in phloem sap of three taxa and hemolymph of lac insect, respectively. Glutamic acid (33.1 ± 1.4-39.8 ± 1.4) was found to be main amino acid among the phloem sap of three taxa while tyrosine (61 ± 2.6) was the major amino acid in hemolymph of lac insect. The relative percentage of non-essential amino acids (60.8 %-69.9 %) was found to be more in all the three host taxa while essential amino acids (30.1 %-35.4 %) were present at a lower relative percentage. In contrast to this, the relative percentage of essential amino acids (81.9 %) was observed to be higher as compared to non-essential amino acids (17.7 %) in lac insect hemolymph. These results led to the detection of lac insect's endosymbionts. Moreover, this study revealed a clue regarding the importance of development of a synthetic diet for this insect so that a precise pathway of lac biosynthesis could be investigated for thorough understanding.

  11. Impaired granulocyte oxidative burst and decreased expression of leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (LAM-1) in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Riecken, B; Gutfleisch, J; Schlesier, M; Peter, H H

    1994-01-01

    Neutrophils are the target of autoantibodies in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). In this study, granulocyte function and surface marker expression were investigated in patients with WG. The oxidative burst in response to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was tested with granulocytes of 25 patients with histologically proven WG. A significantly diminished percentage of oxygen radical-producing cells was found in patients with active disease. Surface antigen expression of CD11b and LAM-1 was analysed on granulocytes of 20 patients with WG. Whereas the expression of CD11b was normal, surface expression of LAM-1 was decreased in nine cases with WG. The decrease of LAM-1 correlated with disease activity. Phagocytosis of Escherichia coli was tested in 10 patients with WG, and normal values were found in all cases. We conclude that down-regulation of LAM-1 may be a marker of disease activity in WG. The altered response to PMA may indicate functional changes in granulocyte reactivity due to autoantibody-induced damage of the granulocyte membrane. PMID:7512009

  12. Sulfonato-imino copper(ii) complexes: fast and general Chan-Evans-Lam coupling of amines and anilines.

    PubMed

    Hardouin Duparc, V; Schaper, F

    2017-10-14

    Sulfonato-imine copper complexes with either chloride or triflate counteranions were prepared in a one-step reaction followed by anion-exchange. They are highly active in Chan-Evans-Lam couplings under mild conditions with a variety of amines or anilines, in particular with sterically hindered substrates. No optimization of reaction conditions other than time and/or temperature is required.

  13. Evaluation of the performance of a press-lam timber bridge : interim report no. 1, bridge installation and load test.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-01-01

    The report describes the installation and load test of the world's first press-lam timber bridge superstructure. A five-man crew replaced the substandard steel stringer-timber deck superstructure on Rte. 610 over Little Stoney Creek in Shenandoah Cou...

  14. 75 FR 29722 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 36-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 18--San Jose... Board) by the City of San Jose, grantee of FTZ 18, requesting special-purpose subzone status for the... formally filed on May 18, 2010. The Lam facilities (1,483 employees, 1,020 systems per year capacity...

  15. LAM (Lymphangioleiomyomatosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Take steps to care for your lungs. For example, talk with your doctor about getting a pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine and a yearly influenza or flu shot. Visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  16. Characterization of monkey orange (Strychnos spinosa Lam.), a potential new crop for arid regions.

    PubMed

    Sitrit, Yaron; Loison, Stephanie; Ninio, Racheli; Dishon, Eran; Bar, Einat; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2003-10-08

    The green monkey orange (Strychnos spinosa Lam., Loganiaceae), a tree indigenous to tropical and subtropical Africa, produces juicy, sweet-sour, yellow fruits containing numerous hard brown seeds. The species has recently been introduced into Israel as a potential new commercial crop. However, little is known about its agronomical performance, fruit development and ripening, or postharvest physiology. The current study shows that during ripening in storage, the peel color changes from green to yellow, accompanied by a climacteric burst of ethylene and carbon dioxide emission. Total soluble solids slightly increased during storage, whereas total titratable acidity and pH did not change significantly. The major sugars that accumulated during ripening in storage were sucrose, glucose, and fructose, and the main acids, citric and malic acids. The main volatiles present in the peel of ripe fruits were phenylpropanoids, trans-isoeugenol being the major compound.

  17. Changes in polyphenolics during maturation of Java plum (Syzygium cumini Lam.).

    PubMed

    Lestario, Lydia Ninan; Howard, Luke R; Brownmiller, Cindi; Stebbins, Nathan B; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O

    2017-10-01

    Java plum (Syzygium cumini Lam.) is a rich source of polyphenolics with many purported health benefits, but the effect of maturation on polyphenolic content is unknown. Freeze-dried samples of Java plum from seven different maturity stages were analyzed for anthocyanin, flavonol, flavanonol and hydrolysable tannin composition by HPLC. Anthocyanins were first detected at the green-pink stage of maturity and increased throughout maturation with the largest increase occurring from the dark purple to black stages of maturation. Levels of gallotannins, ellagitannins, flavonols, gallic acid and ellagic acid were highest at early stages of maturation and decreased as the fruit ripened. For production of antioxidant-rich nutraceutical ingredients, fruit should be harvested immature to obtain extracts rich in hydrolysable tannins and flavonols. The exceptional anthocyanin content of black fruit may prove useful as a source of a natural colorant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification and screening of active components from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. in regulating autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan-Ming; An, Dong-Qing; Guo, Long-Long; Yang, Ning-Hui; Zhang, Hua

    2018-04-03

    This study investigated the flavonoid constituents of a traditional Chinese medical plant Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry and screened the active components in regulating autophagy.Normal rat kidney (NRK) cells transfected with green fluorescent protein- microtubule-associated protein 1 light Chain 3(GFP-LC3) were treated with Z. clinopodioides flavonoids and its chemical compositions. After 4 h of treatment, the auto-phagy spot aggregation in NRK cells was photographed and observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The following 10 flavonoid components of Z. clinopodioides were identified: baicalein(1), quercetin(2), hyperoside(3), quercetin3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside(4), apigenin(5), kaempferol(6), chrysin(7), diosimin(8), linarin(9) and rutin(10). Among these flavonoids, chrysin, apigenin and quercetin were identified as the active principles in activating autophagy. This research may provide a reference for further developing and utilizing Z. clinopodioides.

  19. Copper-Catalyzed Chan-Lam Cyclopropylation of Phenols and Azaheterocycles.

    PubMed

    Derosa, Joseph; O'Duill, Miriam L; Holcomb, Matthew; Boulous, Mark N; Patman, Ryan L; Wang, Fen; Tran-Dubé, Michelle; McAlpine, Indrawan; Engle, Keary M

    2018-04-06

    Small molecules containing cyclopropane-heteroatom linkages are commonly needed in medicinal chemistry campaigns yet are problematic to prepare using existing methods. To address this issue, a scalable Chan-Lam cyclopropylation reaction using potassium cyclopropyl trifluoroborate has been developed. With phenol nucleophiles, the reaction effects O-cyclopropylation, whereas with 2-pyridones, 2-hydroxybenzimidazoles, and 2-aminopyridines the reaction brings about N-cyclopropylation. The transformation is catalyzed by Cu(OAc) 2 and 1,10-phenanthroline and employs 1 atm of O 2 as the terminal oxidant. This method is operationally convenient to perform and provides a simple, strategic disconnection toward the synthesis of cyclopropyl aryl ethers and cyclopropyl amine derivatives bearing an array of functional groups.

  20. Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohaddesi, Behzad; Dwivedi, Ravindra; Ashok, B. K.; Aghera, Hetal; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decreased paw licking response at both time intervals. In tail flick model, the administration of the test drug increased pain threshold response in a dose dependent manner. In therapeutically equivalent dose level, analgesic activity was observed only after 180 min while in TED ×2 treated group analgesia was observed at 30 min and lasted even up to 240 min. The results suggested that N.canescens root possess moderate analgesic activity. PMID:24250136

  1. The black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thua Thien Hue and Lam Dong Provinces, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Pham, Xuan Da

    2015-05-21

    Surveys of pupae and larvae of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were carried out in Thua Thien Hue Province of central Vietnam, and Lam Dong Province of southern Vietnam in 2014. A total of 26 species belonging to the genus Simulium were collected, consisting of eight known species, one newly recorded species, and 17 new species (of which three species of the subgenus Nevermannia were described in 2014). The remaining 14 new species (nine of the subgenus Gomphostilbia and five of the subgenus Simulium) are described here based on females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The total number of species of black flies in Vietnam is now 46. Keys to identify all 26 species recorded from the two provinces of Vietnam are given for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.

  2. Pharmacognostical evaluation of leaf of Bada Rasna [Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.; Acanthaceae].

    PubMed

    Acharya, Rabinarayan; Padiya, Riddhish H; Patel, Eisha D; Rudrapa, Harisha C; Shukla, Vinaya J; Chauhan, Malati G

    2012-04-01

    Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng. (Acanthaceae), a well-known plant in traditional systems of medicine, known as "Bada Rasna" by the traditional practitioners of Odisha, is being used as Rasna for managing pain and inflammation. The detailed macroscopic and microscopic characters of the plant, except its root, are lacking. Hence, it was thought worth to study the leaves of the plant for its detailed morphological and microscopical characters, by following the standard pharmacognostical procedures. The study shows the presence of diacytic stomata in the lower epidermis of lamina, microsphenoidal and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in the mesophyll cells, simple and glandular trichomes. The observed major diagnostic characters of the leaf may find useful for its standardization.

  3. Screening antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties of extracts isolated from Jackfruit pulp (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Burgos-Hernández, A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; López-Saiz, C M; Velázquez-Contreras, C A; Navarro-Ocaña, A; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A

    2015-05-15

    The present focused on the study of the antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of pulp Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) extract, using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line M12.C3.F6 (murine B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Jackfruit pulp extract was sequentially fractionated by chromatography (RP-HPLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. The organic extracts obtained from Jackfruit pulp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and proliferation of cells M12.C3.F6; a dose-response relationship was showed. Sequential RP-HPLC fractionation of the active extracts produced both antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the Jackfruit contained compounds with chemoprotective properties to reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1, also proliferation of a cancer cell line. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Limited Area Predictability: Is There A Limit To The Operational Usefulness of A Lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesinger, F.

    The issue of the limited area predictability in the context of the operational experience of the Eta Model, driven by the LBCs of the NCEP global spectral (Avn) model, is examined. The traditional view is that "the contamination at the lateral boundaries ... limits the operational usefulness of the LAM beyond some forecast time range". In the case of the Eta this contamination consists not only of the lower resolution of the Avn LBCs and the much discussed mathematical "lateral boundary error", but also of the use of the LBCs of the previous Avn run, at 0000 and 1200 UTC estimated to amount to about an 8 h loss in accuracy. Looking for the signs of the Eta accuracy in relative terms falling behind that of the Avn we have examined the trend of the Eta vs Avn precipitation scores, the rms fits to raobs of the two models as a function of time, and the errors of these models at extended forecast times in placing the centers of major lows. In none of these efforts, some including forecasts out to 84 h, we were able to notice signs of the Eta accuracy being visibly affected by the inflow of the lateral boundary errors. It is therefore hypothesized that some of the Eta design features compensate for the increasing influence of the Avn LBC errors. Candidate features are discussed, with the eta coordinate being a contender to play a major role. This situation being possible for the pair of models discussed, existence of a general limit for the operational usefulness of a LAM seems questionable.

  5. Structural analysis of the phytophagous insect guilds associated with the roots of Centaurea maculosa Lam. C. diffusa Lam., and C. vallesiaca Jordan in Europe: : I. Field observations.

    PubMed

    Müller, Heinz

    1989-01-01

    During extensive field surveys in central and eastern Europe, 21 herbivorous root insect species were found on Centaurea maculosa ssp. rhenana Boreau, 12 species on C. diffusa Lam. and 11 species on C. vallesiaca Jordan, representing 12 families in 4 orders. The large geographic distribution (species-area function), the high number of Centaurea spp. present (host speciation rate), and the high apparency of the rosettes and the rich food resources offered by the roots during winter, together with their poor accessibility, correlate with the high number of specialist feeders associated with the roots of C. maculosa and C. diffusa. The members of the taxonomically diverse root entomofauna exploit specific structures of the tap root (food niches). Interspecific competition among members of food niches, as well as species-specific responses to different phenological stages (for oviposition) and tissues (for larval development) are thought to be responsible for the high predictability in guild structure. The relatively low levels of host plant attack (two thirds of the roots were unattacked) and the fact that food niches remained unoccupied in most of the regions suggest, however, that the majority of the studied guilds do not represent equilibrium assemblages. Ecological (different habitats), climatic (transitional zone) and historical (ancient pre-Pleistocene communities) factors could account for the highest values of species diversity, infestation levels, species packing and food niche utilization, which are found on C. maculosa in E. Austria/NW. Hungary, compared to other regions. A positive correlation between species packing (number of root-feeding species per population) and infestation rates (percent of roots attacked) was only found for the more stable, semi-natural habitats. A comparative analysis of the regional root insect guilds of C. maculosa with corresponding data for the phytophagous insects associated with the flower heads revealed distinct taxonomical

  6. Spectroscopic Studies of the Chan-Lam Amination: A Mechanism-Inspired Solution to Boronic Ester Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Vantourout, Julien C; Miras, Haralampos N; Isidro-Llobet, Albert; Sproules, Stephen; Watson, Allan J B

    2017-04-05

    We report an investigation of the Chan-Lam amination reaction. A combination of spectroscopy, computational modeling, and crystallography has identified the structures of key intermediates and allowed a complete mechanistic description to be presented, including off-cycle inhibitory processes, the source of amine and organoboron reactivity issues, and the origin of competing oxidation/protodeboronation side reactions. Identification of key mechanistic events has allowed the development of a simple solution to these issues: manipulating Cu(I) → Cu(II) oxidation and exploiting three synergistic roles of boric acid has allowed the development of a general catalytic Chan-Lam amination, overcoming long-standing and unsolved amine and organoboron limitations of this valuable transformation.

  7. PRE AND POST-IMPLANTATION CHANGES IN THE UTEUS OF RATS: RESPONSE TO MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. EXTRACT

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Anand O.; Pathak, Sandhya; Shukla, Sangeeta; Mathur, R.

    1988-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (root) has been studies on pre and post-implementation stages of the uterus of rats so as to elucidate its antifertility mode of action. Results on the biochemical estimation in the uterus of control pregnant rats at different stages of pregnancy revealed a successive increase in the total proteins, glycogen content and the activity or acid and alkaline phosphatase from day 2 to 5 post-coitum. When aqueous extract of M. oleifera Lam. Was administered, there was a significant reduction in all these biochemical constituents when compared to their respective control groups. The role of these biochemical transformations has been discussed in relation to anti-implantation action of the extract. PMID:22557630

  8. Structural insights into a StART-like domain in Lam4 and its interaction with sterol ligands.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Alberto T; Sauerwein, Andrea C; Zhuravleva, Anastasia; Levine, Tim P; Matthews, Stephen

    2018-01-15

    Sterols are essential components of cellular membranes and shape their biophysical properties. The recently discovered family of Lipid transfer proteins Anchored at Membrane contact sites (LAMs) has been suggested to carry out intracellular sterol traffic using StART-like domains. Here, we studied the second StART-like domain of Lam4p from S. cerevisiae by NMR. We show that NMR data are consistent with the StART-like domain structure, and that several functionally important regions within the domain exhibit significant conformational dynamics. NMR titration experiments confirm sterol binding to the canonical sterol-binding site and suggest a role of membrane interactions on the thermodynamics and kinetics of sterol binding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The NHLBI LAM Registry: Prognostic physiological and radiological biomarkers emerge from a 15-year prospective longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nishant; Lee, Hye-Seung; Ryu, Jay H; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Beck, Gerald J; Lee, Jar-Chi; McCarthy, Kevin; Finlay, Geraldine A; Brown, Kevin K; Ruoss, Stephen J; Avila, Nilo A; Moss, Joel; McCormack, Francis X

    2018-06-22

    The natural history of lymphangioleiomyomatosis is mainly derived from retrospective cohort analyses and remains incompletely understood. A National Institutes of Health LAM Registry was established to define the natural history and identify prognostic biomarkers that can help guide management and decision-making in patients with LAM. A linear mixed effects model was employed to compute the rate of decline of FEV1, and identify variables impacting FEV1 decline among 217 registry patients who enrolled from 1998-2001. Prognostic variables associated with progression to death/lung transplantation were identified using a Cox proportional hazard model. Mean annual decline of FEV1 was 89±53 ml/year, and remained remarkably constant regardless of baseline lung function. FEV1 decline was more rapid in those with greater cyst profusion on CT scan (p=0.02), and in premenopausal subjects (118ml/year) compared to postmenopausal subjects (74ml/year), (p=0.003). There were 26 deaths and 43 lung transplants during the evaluation period. Estimated 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year transplant-free survival rates were 95%, 85%, 75%, and 64%, respectively. Postmenopausal status (hazard ratio 0.30, p=0.0002) and higher baseline FEV1 (hazard ratio 0.97, p=0.008) or DLCO (hazard ratio 0.97, p=0.001) were independently associated with a lower risk of progression to death or lung transplantation. The median transplant-free survival in patients with LAM is greater than 20 years. Menopausal status as well as structural and physiological markers of disease severity significantly affect the rate of decline of FEV1 and progression to death or lung transplantation in LAM. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    PubMed

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones revealed that both the plant extracts were rich sources of

  11. Bioactivity-guided isolation of anti-hepatitis B virus active sesquiterpenoids from the traditional Chinese medicine: Rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Bo; Ma, Yun-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Geng, Chang-An; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Yong; Yang, Tong-Hua; Chen, Xing-Long; Yang, Cai-Yan; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2015-08-02

    The rhizome of Cyperus rotundus (C. rotundus) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine to cure hepatitis in many formulae, but the active components responsible for hepatitis have not been elucidated. According to our bioassay on HepG2.2.15 cell line in vitro, the ethanol extract of C. rotundus demonstrated potent anti-HBV activity. This current study was designed to isolate and identify the anti-HBV active constituents from the rhizomes of C. rotundus. Bioactivity and LC-MS guided fractionation on the extract of C. rotundus using various chromatographic techniques including open-column, Sephadex LH-20 and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography led to the isolation and identification of thirty-seven sesquiterpenoids. Structural elucidation of the isolates was carried out by extensive spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HRMS, 1D- and 2D -NMR). The anti-HBV activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated on the HBV-transfected HepG2.2.15 cell line in vitro. The cytotoxicity effects of the isolates were assessed by a MTT assay. The secretions of HBsAg and HBeAg in the culture medium were detected by ELISA method, and the load of HBV DNA was quantified by real-time fluorescent PCR technique. Five new patchoulane-type sesquiterpenoids, namely cyperene-3, 8-dione (1), 14-hydroxy cyperotundone (2), 14-acetoxy cyperotundone (3), 3β-hydroxycyperenoic acid (4) and sugetriol-3, 9-diacetate (5), along with 32 known sesquiterpenoids were isolated from the active fractions of C. rotundus. Compounds 2 and 3 were the first cyperotundone-type sesquiterpenoids with a hydroxyl group at C-14 position. Nine eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids (15-21 and 23-24) significantly inhibited the HBV DNA replication with IC50 values of 42.7±5.9, 22.5±1.9, 13.2±1.2, 10.1±0.7, 14.1±1.1, 15.3±2.7, 13.8±0.9, 19.7±2.1 and 11.9±0.6 μM, respectively, of which, compounds 17, 21, 23 and 24 possessed high SI values of 250.4, 125.5,>259.6 and 127.5, respectively. Two patchoulane

  12. Tolerance of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) plants, representing the higher plant compartment in bioregenerative life support systems, to super-optimal air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shklavtsova, E. S.; Ushakova, S. A.; Shikhov, V. N.; Anishchenko, O. V.

    2013-01-01

    Plants intended to be included in the photosynthesizing compartment of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) need to be studied in terms of both their production parameters under optimal conditions and their tolerance to stress factors that might be caused by emergency situations. The purpose of this study was to investigate tolerance of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) plants to the super-optimal air temperature of 45 ± 1 °C as dependent upon PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) intensity and the duration of the exposure to the stress factor. Chufa plants were grown hydroponically, on expanded clay, under artificial light. The nutrient solution was Knop's mineral medium. Until the plants were 30 days old, they had been grown at 690 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR and air temperature 25 °C. Thirty-day-old plants were exposed to the temperature 45 °C for 6 h, 20 h, and 44 h at PAR intensities 690 μmol m-2 s-1 and 1150 μmol m-2 s-1. The exposure to the damaging air temperature for 44 h at 690 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR caused irreversible damage to PSA, resulting in leaf mortality. In chufa plants exposed to heat shock treatment at 690 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR for 6 h and 20 h, respiration exceeded photosynthesis, and CO2 release in the light was recorded. Functional activity of photosynthetic apparatus, estimated from parameters of pulse-modulated chlorophyll fluorescence in Photosystem 2 (PS 2), decreased 40% to 50%. After the exposure to the stress factor was finished, functional activity of PSA recovered its initial values, and apparent photosynthesis (Papparent) rate after a 20-h exposure to the stress factor was 2.6 times lower than before the elevation of the temperature. During the first hours of plant exposure to the temperature 45 °C at 1150 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR, respiration rate was higher than photosynthesis rate, but after 3-4 h of the exposure, photosynthetic processes exceeded oxidative ones and CO2 absorption in the light was recorded. At the end of the 6-h exposure

  13. A modified multiscale peak alignment method combined with trilinear decomposition to study the volatile/heat-labile components in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes by HS-SPME-GC/MS.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Yan, Pan; Yang, Zhi-Yu; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Yang, Tian-Biao; Hong, Liang

    2018-03-15

    Head Space/Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) was used to determine the volatile/heat-labile components in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes. Facing co-eluting peaks in k samples, a trilinear structure was reconstructed to obtain the second-order advantage. The retention time (RT) shift with multi-channel detection signals for different samples has been vital in maintaining the trilinear structure, thus a modified multiscale peak alignment (mMSPA) method was proposed in this paper. The peak position and peak width of representative ion profile were firstly detected by mMSPA using Continuous Wavelet Transform with Haar wavelet as the mother wavelet (Haar CWT). Then, the raw shift was confirmed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) cross correlation calculation. To obtain the optimal shift, Haar CWT was again used to detect the subtle deviations and be amalgamated in calculation. Here, to ensure there is no peaks shape alternation, the alignment was performed in local domains of data matrices, and all data points in the peak zone were moved via linear interpolation in non-peak parts. Finally, chemical components of interest in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes were analyzed by HS-SPME-GCMS and mMSPA-alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) resolution. As a result, the concentration variation between herbs and their pharmaceutical products can provide a scientific basic for the quality standard establishment of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Five-year efficacy and safety of tenofovir-based salvage therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis B who previously failed LAM/ADV therapy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lucy; Thompson, Alexander; Patterson, Scott; George, Jacob; Strasser, Simone; Lee, Alice; Sievert, William; Nicoll, Amanda; Desmond, Paul; Roberts, Stuart; Marion, Kaye; Bowden, Scott; Locarnini, Stephen; Angus, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Multidrug-resistant HBV continues to be an important clinical problem. The TDF-109 study demonstrated that TDF±LAM is an effective salvage therapy through 96 weeks for LAM-resistant patients who previously failed ADV add-on or switch therapy. We evaluated the 5-year efficacy and safety outcomes in patients receiving long-term TDF±LAM in the TDF-109 study. A total of 59 patients completed the first phase of the TDF-109 study and 54/59 were rolled over into a long-term prospective open-label study of TDF±LAM 300 mg daily. Results are reported at the end of year 5 of treatment. At year 5, 75% (45/59) had achieved viral suppression by intent-to-treat analysis. Per-protocol assessment revealed 83% (45/54) were HBV DNA undetectable. Nine patients remained HBV DNA detectable, however 8/9 had very low HBV DNA levels (<264IU/mL) and did not meet virological criteria for virological breakthrough (VBT). One patient experienced VBT, but this was in the setting of documented non-compliance. The response was independent of baseline LAM therapy or mutations conferring ADV resistance. Four patients discontinued TDF, one patient was lost to follow-up and one died from hepatocellular carcinoma. Long-term TDF treatment appears to be safe and effective in patients with prior failure of LAM and a suboptimal response to ADV therapy. These findings confirm that TDF has a high genetic barrier to resistance is active against multidrug-resistant HBV, and should be the preferred oral anti-HBV agent in CHB patients who fail treatment with LAM and ADV. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Early morning urine collection to improve urinary lateral flow LAM assay sensitivity in hospitalised patients with HIV-TB co-infection.

    PubMed

    Gina, Phindile; Randall, Philippa J; Muchinga, Tapuwa E; Pooran, Anil; Meldau, Richard; Peter, Jonny G; Dheda, Keertan

    2017-05-12

    Urine LAM testing has been approved by the WHO for use in hospitalised patients with advanced immunosuppression. However, sensitivity remains suboptimal. We therefore examined the incremental diagnostic sensitivity of early morning urine (EMU) versus random urine sampling using the Determine® lateral flow lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) in HIV-TB co-infected patients. Consenting HIV-infected inpatients, screened as part of a larger prospective randomized controlled trial, that were treated for TB, and could donate matched random and EMU samples were included. Thus paired sample were collected from the same patient, LF-LAM was graded using the pre-January 2014, with grade 1 and 2 manufacturer-designated cut-points (the latter designated grade 1 after January 2014). Single sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF and/or TB culture positivity served as the reference standard (definite TB). Those treated for TB but not meeting this standard were designated probable TB. 123 HIV-infected patients commenced anti-TB treatment and provided matched random and EMU samples. 33% (41/123) and 67% (82/123) had definite and probable TB, respectively. Amongst those with definite TB LF-LAM sensitivity (95%CI), using the grade 2 cut-point, increased from 12% (5-24; 5/43) to 39% (26-54; 16/41) with random versus EMU, respectively (p = 0.005). Similarly, amongst probable TB, LF-LAM sensitivity increased from 10% (5-17; 8/83) to 24% (16-34; 20/82) (p = 0.001). LF-LAM specificity was not determined. This proof of concept study indicates that EMU could improve the sensitivity of LF-LAM in hospitalised TB-HIV co-infected patients. These data have implications for clinical practice.

  16. Utility of urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in diagnosing tuberculosis and predicting mortality with and without HIV: prospective TB cohort from the Thailand Big City TB Research Network.

    PubMed

    Suwanpimolkul, Gompol; Kawkitinarong, Kamon; Manosuthi, Weerawat; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Gatechompol, Sivaporn; Ohata, Pirapon June; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Iampornsin, Thatri; Katerattanakul, Pairaj; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the applicability and accuracy of the urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test in tuberculosis (TB)/HIV co-infected patients and HIV-negative patients with disseminated TB. Frozen urine samples obtained at baseline from patients in the TB research cohort with proven culture-positive TB were selected for blinded urine LAM testing. One hundred and nine patients were categorized into four groups: (1) HIV-positive patients with TB; (2) HIV-negative patients with disseminated TB; (3) HIV-negative immunocompromised patients with TB; and (4) patients with diseases other than TB. The sensitivity of urine LAM testing for culture-positive TB, specificity of urine LAM testing for patients without TB, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed. The sensitivity of the urine LAM test in group 1 patients with a CD4 T-cell count of >100, ≤100, and ≤50 cells/mm 3 was 38.5%, 40.6%, and 45%, respectively. The specificity and PPV of the urine LAM test were >80%. The sensitivity of the test was 20% in group 2 and 12.5% in group 3, and the specificity and PPV were 100% for both groups. A positive urine LAM test result was significantly associated with death. This promising diagnostic tool could increase the yield of TB diagnosis and may predict the mortality rate of TB infection, particularly in TB/HIV co-infected patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative antipyretic and analgesic activities of Cissampelos pareira Linn. and Cyclea peltata (Lam.) Hook. F. & Thomas.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suman G; Nishteswar, K; Patel, Bhupesh R; Nariya, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Cissampelos pareira Linn. is considered as an established source of Patha , whereas Cyclea peltata (Lam.) Hook. F. & Thomas is used as a source plant of Patha in the southern part of India. In classical texts, two different varieties of Patha , i.e. Rajpatha ( C. peltata ) and Laghupatha ( C. pareira ), are mentioned which possess almost similar properties. To compare antipyretic and analgesic activities of C. pareira and C. peltata in suitable experimental model. Powder (540 mg/kg) and ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg) of both the test drugs ( C. pareira and C. peltata ) were evaluated for antipyretic activity in Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia model in rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated by radiant heat model in rats and acetic acid-induced writhing syndrome in mice. Result of the present study had shown that powder of C. pareira (540 mg/kg) has moderate antipyretic activity as compared to the powder of C. peltata and extract of both test drugs. C. pareira powder showed better analgesic effect than ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg) of both the test drugs in radiant heat model in rats, while in acetic acid-induced writhing syndrome, ethanolic extract (280 mg/kg) of both drugs showed pronounced effect as compared to powder form (780 mg/kg) in mice. Both C. pareira and C. peltata exhibited analgesic effects in experimental animals. The effect is more significant in C. peltata treated group compared to C. pareira . Antipyretic effect was observed with the pretreatment of C. pareira .

  18. In Vitro Wound Healing Potential and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Pauzi, Nur Aimi Syarina; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro. PMID:24490175

  19. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Afzal; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Agarwal, Smita; Rahman, Mashiur; Islam, Khairul; Hossain, Ekhtear; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Karim, Md Rezaul; Nikkon, Farjana; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Methods Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M. oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice. Results It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity. PMID:25183111

  20. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Flindersine isolated from the traditional medicinal plant, Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.

    PubMed

    Duraipandiyan, V; Ignacimuthu, S

    2009-06-25

    The leaves and root of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (Rutaceae) are widely used as a folk medicine in India. Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of Toddalia asiatica leaves and isolated compound Flindersine were tested against bacteria and fungi. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were tested against bacteria and fungi using disc-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The compound was confirmed using X-ray crystallography technique. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were observed in ethyl acetate extract. One active principle Flindersine (2,6-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-5H-pyrano [3,2-c] quinoline-5-one-9cl) was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. The MIC values of the compound against bacteria Bacillus subtilis (31.25 microg/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (62.5 microg/ml), Staphylococcus epidermidis (62.5 microg/ml), Enterococcus faecalis (31.25 microg/ml), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (250 microg/ml), Acinetobacter baumannii (125 microg/ml) and fungi Trichophyton rubrum 57 (62.5 microg/ml), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (62.5 microg/ml), Trichophyton simii (62.5 microg/ml), Epidermophyton floccosum (62.5 microg/ml), Magnaporthe grisea (250 microg/ml) and Candida albicans (250 microg/ml) were determined. Ethyl acetate extract showed promising antibacterial and antifungal activity and isolated compound Flindersine showed moderate activity against bacteria and fungi.

  1. Characterization of dietary constituents and antioxidant capacity of Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam.

    PubMed

    De Bona, Gicele S; Boschetti, Wiliam; Bortolin, Rafael C; Vale, Maria G R; Moreira, José C F; de Rios, Alessandro O; Flôres, Simone H

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional content and antioxidant capacity of the tubers, leaves and, flowers of the species Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. The three parts of the plant were analyzed by physicochemical methods, atomic absorption spectrometry, spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques. The tubers, leaves, and flowers exhibited significant differences in all parameters evaluated. The leaves showed significantly higher values of protein (16.28 ± 0.02 g/100 g), total dietary fiber (27.78 ± 0.15 g/100 g) and quercetin (3798.61 ± 37.57 µg/g) when compared to the tubers and flowers. The study revealed a potential content of the protein, dietary fiber, and flavonoids the species Tropaeolum pentaphyllum , when compared with the sweet potatoes leaves ( Ipomoea batatas L.). In addition, the antioxidant activities of leaves and flowers were also higher measured by ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), and TRAP (total radical-trapping antioxidant potential) methods. Tropaeolum pentaphyllum have high nutritional potential that can be exploited to improve nutritional value of various food products.

  2. Cytotoxic Properties of Three Isolated Coumarin-hemiterpene Ether Derivatives from Artemisia armeniaca Lam.

    PubMed

    Mojarrab, Mahdi; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Delazar, Abbas; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Considering multiple reports on cytotoxic activity of the Artemisia genus and its phytochemicals, in the current study A. armeniaca Lam. and the three components isolated from the plant were subjected to cytotoxic studies. Analytical fractionation of A. armeniaca aerial parts for the first time was directed to the isolation of 7-hydroxy-8-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbutoxy) comarin (armenin), 8-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbutoxy) comarin (isoarmenin) and deoxylacarol. Cytotoxicity assessed with alamalBlue® assay and apoptosis was detected by PI staining and western blot analysis of Bax and PARP proteins. Extracts and all compounds exhibited cytotoxic activity against apoptosis-proficient HL-60 and apoptosis-resistant K562 cells, with the lowest cytotoxic activity on J774 cell line as non-malignant cell. Armenin as the most potent component decreased the viability of cell with IC50 of 22.5 and 71.1 µM for K562 and HL-60 cells respectively and selected for further mechanistic study. Armenin increased the sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of HL-60 and K562 treated cells and increase in the amount of Bax protein and the cleavage of PARP in comparison with the control after treatment for 48 h in K562 treated cells verified the apoptotic activity of the armenin. Taken together, according to the finding of this study armenin was introduced as a novel cytotoxic compound with apoptotic activity, which is encouraging for further mechanistic and clinical studies.

  3. Physicochemical properties and in vitro antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. pulp.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kexue; Zhang, Yanjun; Nie, Shaoping; Xu, Fei; He, Shuzhen; Gong, Deming; Wu, Gang; Tan, Lehe

    2017-01-02

    A water-soluble polysaccharide from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (jackfruit) pulp (JFP-Ps) was purified and its physicochemical properties were investigated. The in vitro antioxidant activities of JFP-Ps was evaluated by measuring DPPH and OH radicals scavenging activities, as well as reducing power. The results showed that JFP-Ps contained 79.12% of total sugar, 5.83% of protein, 15.65% of uronic acid, and 15 kinds of amino acids with high levels of Asp, Glu, Val, Leu and Lys. JFP-Ps was mainly composed of Rha, Ara, Gal, Glc, Xyl and GalA, with an average molecular weight of 1668kDa. FT-IR results showed the bands at the range of 1200-850cm -1 suggested the presence of carbohydrates in JFP-Ps. The results of antioxidant activities showed that JFP-Ps exhibited strong DPPH and OH radical scavenging activities, with a relatively lower reducing power, suggesting that JFP-Ps can be exploited as effective natural antioxidant applications in medical and food industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of volatile compound markers during the ripening and senescence of lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.).

    PubMed

    Corpas Iguarán, Eduardo; Taborda Ocampo, Gonzalo; Tapasco Alzate, Omar

    2018-01-01

    Lulo ( Solanum quitoense Lam.) is an exotic fruit cultivated in Colombia. During ripening and senescence, this climactic fruit undergoes biochemical processes that produce the volatiles responsible for its aroma. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in the volatile content during the ripening and senescence of lulo. Analysis of the volatile composition of lulo harvested in each of its five ripening stages and during its senescence time when stored at 18 ± 2 °C was performed using HS-SPME with GC-MS. Throughout ripening, the most notable change was the transformation of alcohols such as (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-penten-3-ol to afford esters such as (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and ketones such as 1-penten-3-one. Some acids reacted with alcohols to produce acetate and hexanoate esters, concentrations which increased more than sixfold between stage one and five. Moreover, all the major compounds were C 6 straight chain compounds related to the lipoxygenase pathway. During senescence, majority of compounds were methyl esters, which increased in concentration consistently until day eight. Remarkably, the content of methyl butanoate increased from 0.9% of the total amount of volatiles on day two up to 76.4% on day eight. Some of these volatiles are probably contributors to the "off flavor" during senescence.

  5. Volatiles of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi Leaves Influencing Attraction of Two Generalist Insect Herbivores.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Nupur; Karmakar, Amarnath; Barik, Anandamay

    2016-10-01

    Epilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are important pests of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi (Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as creeping cucumber. The profiles of volatile organic compounds from undamaged plants, plants after 48 hr continuous feeding of adult females of either E. vigintioctopunctata or A. foveicollis, by adults of both species, and after mechanical damaging were identified and quantified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. Thirty two compounds were detected in volatiles of all treatments. In all plants, methyl jasmonate was the major compound. In Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays under laboratory conditions, both insect species showed a significant preference for complete volatile blends from insect damaged plants, compared to those of undamaged plants. Neither E. vigintioctopunctata nor A. foveicollis showed any preference for volatiles released by heterospecifically damaged plants vs. conspecifically damaged plants or plants attacked by both species. Epilachna vigintioctopunctata and A. foveicollis showed attraction to three different synthetic compounds, linalool oxide, nonanal, and E-2-nonenal in proportions present in volatiles of insect damaged plants. Both species were attracted by a synthetic blend of 1.64 μg linalool oxide + 3.86 μg nonanal + 2.23 μg E-2-nonenal, dissolved in 20 μl methylene chloride. This combination might be used as trapping tools in pest management strategies.

  6. Simultaneous HPLC quantitative analysis of active compounds in leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2014-08-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. A simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was developed and validated for the determination of the contents of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, the primary antioxidative compounds, in M. oleifera leaves. HPLC analysis was successfully conducted by using a Hypersil BDS C18 column, eluted with a gradient of methanol-1% acetic acid with a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and detected at 334 nm. Parameters for the validation included linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation. The developed HPLC method was precise, with relative standard deviation < 2%. The recovery values of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in M. oleifera leaf extracts were 98.50, 98.47 and 98.59%, respectively. The average contents of these compounds in the dried ethanolic extracts of the leaves of M. oleifera collected from different regions of Thailand were 0.081, 0.120 and 0.153% (w/w), respectively. The developed HPLC method was appropriate and practical for the simultaneous analysis of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in the leaf extract of M. oleifera. This work is valuable as guidance for the standardization of the leaf extracts and pharmaceutical products of M. oleifera. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Khellin and Visnagin, Furanochromones from Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam., as Potential Bioherbicides.

    PubMed

    Travaini, Maria L; Sosa, Gustavo M; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A; Walter, Helmut; Cantrell, Charles L; Carrillo, Nestor J; Dayan, Franck E; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Duke, Stephen O

    2016-12-21

    Plants constitute a source of novel phytotoxic compounds to be explored in searching for effective and environmentally safe herbicides. From a previous screening of plant extracts for their phytotoxicity, a dichloromethane extract of Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. was selected for further study. Phytotoxicity-guided fractionation of this extract yielded two furanochromones, khellin and visnagin, for which herbicidal activity had not been described before. Khellin and visnagin were phytotoxic to model species lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and duckweed (Lemna paucicostata), with IC 50 values ranging from 110 to 175 μM. These compounds also inhibited the growth and germination of a diverse group of weeds at 0.5 and 1 mM. These weeds included five grasses [ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyardgrass (Echinocloa crus-galli), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), foxtail (Setaria italica), and millet (Panicum sp.)] and two broadleaf species [morningglory (Ipomea sp.) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti)]. During greenhouse studies visnagin was the most active and showed significant contact postemergence herbicidal activity on velvetleaf and crabgrass at 2 kg active ingredient (ai) ha -1 . Moreover, its effect at 4 kg ai ha -1 was comparable to the bioherbicide pelargonic acid at the same rate. The mode of action of khellin and visnagin was not a light-dependent process. Both compounds caused membrane destabilization, photosynthetic efficiency reduction, inhibition of cell division, and cell death. These results support the potential of visnagin and, possibly, khellin as bioherbicides or lead molecules for the development of new herbicides.

  8. Clinical Efficacy of Moringa oleifera Lam. Stems Bark in Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common problem in clinical practice. Usually they are asymptomatic and are commonly present with distressing symptoms like pain and burning sensation on urination. Antibiotics are widely used to treat UTIs; however, they have their own limitations like resistance, reinfection, and relapses. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the value of Moringa oleifera Lam. stem bark as a potential medicine for UTIs. Study Design. 30 patients with UTI were randomly divided into two groups with 15 patients in each group. Shigru bark was given to patients of the first group (trial group) and modern medicines were prescribed to the other group of patients. At least three follow-ups are taken in both groups at the end of every week of treatment. Results. After treatment 66.67 % were cured, 13.33 % improved, 13.33% patients have no change, and 6.67% relapsed in trial group and in control group 46.67% were cured, 26.66% improved, 6.67% patients have no change, and 20% relapsed. Interpretation and Conclusion. The trial drug is significant in the management of UTI. This study needs to be done on a large scale and for a long time. PMID:27437504

  9. Evaluation of genetic diversity in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Shyamalamma, S; Chandra, S B C; Hegde, M; Naryanswamy, P

    2008-07-22

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly called jackfruit, is a medium-sized evergreen tree that bears high yields of the largest known edible fruit. Yet, it has been little explored commercially due to wide variation in fruit quality. The genetic diversity and genetic relatedness of 50 jackfruit accessions were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Of 16 primer pairs evaluated, eight were selected for screening of genotypes based on the number and quality of polymorphic fragments produced. These primer combinations produced 5976 bands, 1267 (22%) of which were polymorphic. Among the jackfruit accessions, the similarity coefficient ranged from 0.137 to 0.978; the accessions also shared a large number of monomorphic fragments (78%). Cluster analysis and principal component analysis grouped all jackfruit genotypes into three major clusters. Cluster I included the genotypes grown in a jackfruit region of Karnataka, called Tamaka, with very dry conditions; cluster II contained the genotypes collected from locations having medium to heavy rainfall in Karnataka; cluster III grouped the genotypes in distant locations with different environmental conditions. Strong coincidence of these amplified fragment length polymorphism-based groupings with geographical localities as well as morphological characters was observed. We found moderate genetic diversity in these jackfruit accessions. This information should be useful for tree breeding programs, as part of our effort to popularize jackfruit as a commercial crop.

  10. Transcriptome and selected metabolite analyses reveal points of sugar metabolism in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.).

    PubMed

    Hu, Lisong; Wu, Gang; Hao, Chaoyun; Yu, Huan; Tan, Lehe

    2016-07-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly known as jackfruit, produces the largest tree-borne fruit known thus far. The edible part of the fruit develops from the perianths, and contains many sugar-derived compounds. However, its sugar metabolism is poorly understood. A fruit perianth transcriptome was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, producing 32,459 unigenes with an average length of 1345nt. Sugar metabolism was characterized by comparing expression patterns of genes related to sugar metabolism and evaluating correlations with enzyme activity and sugar accumulation during fruit perianth development. During early development, high expression levels of acid invertases and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for the rapid utilization of imported sucrose for fruit growth. The differential expression of starch metabolism-related genes and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for starch accumulated before fruit ripening but decreased during ripening. Sucrose accumulated during ripening, when the expression levels of genes for sucrose synthesis were elevated and high enzyme activity was observed. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis presents fundamental information on sugar metabolism and will be a useful reference for further research on fruit perianth development in jackfruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. First chemical constituents from Cordia exaltata Lam and antimicrobial activity of two neolignans.

    PubMed

    de Sá de Sousa Nogueira, Tiago Bezerra; de Sá de Sousa Nogueira, Raquel Bezerra; E Silva, Davi Antas; Tavares, Josean Fechine; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; da Silva Maciel, Jéssica Karina; de Souza Fernandes, Milen Maria Magalhães; de Medeiros, Fernando Antônio; do Socorro Ferreira Rodrigues Sarquis, Rosangela; Filho, Raimundo Braz; de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza, Maria

    2013-09-10

    The phytochemical study of Cordia exaltata Lam. (Boraginaceae) led to the isolation, through chromatographic techniques, of nineteen secondary metabolites: 8,8'dimethyl-3,4,3',4'-dimethylenedioxy-7-oxo-2,7'cyclolignan (1), 8,8'-dimethyl-4,5-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenodioxy-7-oxo-2,7'cyclolignan (2), sitosterol (3a), stigmasterol (3b), sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4a), stigmasterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4b), phaeophytin A (5), 13²-hydroxyphaeophytin A (6), 17³-ethoxypheophorbide A (7), 13²-hydroxy-17³-ethoxypheophorbide A (8), m-methoxy-p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (9), (E)-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-propenoic acid (10), 1-benzopyran-2-one (11), 7-hydroxy-1-benzopyran-2-one (12), 2,5-bis-(3',4'-methylenedioxiphenyl)-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrofuran (13), 3,4,5,3',5'-pentamethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan (14), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavonol (15), 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (16), 5,8-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (17), kaempherol 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-6''-α-L-ramnopyranoside (18) and kaempherol 3,7-di-O-α-L-ramnopyranoside (19). Their structures were identified by ¹H and ¹³C-NMR using one and two-dimensional techniques. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of compounds 1, 2, 13 and 14 against bacteria and fungi are reported here for the first time.

  12. Comment on 'Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets' by Lam et al.

    PubMed

    Hill, W David

    2018-04-01

    Intelligence and educational attainment are strongly genetically correlated. This relationship can be exploited by Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) to add power to Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) of intelligence. MTAG allows the user to meta-analyze GWASs of different phenotypes, based on their genetic correlations, to identify association's specific to the trait of choice. An MTAG analysis using GWAS data sets on intelligence and education was conducted by Lam et al. (2017). Lam et al. (2017) reported 70 loci that they described as 'trait specific' to intelligence. This article examines whether the analysis conducted by Lam et al. (2017) has resulted in genetic information about a phenotype that is more similar to education than intelligence.

  13. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells

    PubMed Central

    Adejumo, Olufunmilayo E.; Kolapo, Adelodun L.; Folarin, Akintomiwa O.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Traditional medicine, which is more available and affordable for the poor uses medicinal plants for the treatment and management of various ailments, including the sickle cell disease (SCD). About 24 million Nigerians are carriers of this sickled cell gene, while approximately 2.4 million are SCD patients. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) possesses high nutritional value and has been used in folklore medicine to treat various ailments related to pain and inflammation. Chemical, pharmacological and pharmacognostical applications of Moringa oleifera have been reported. Objective: This study investigated the antisickling potential of polar and non-polar extracts of the seed, flower and leaf of Moringa oleifera for the first time. Materials and Methods: Using crude methanol extract, aqueous extract, ethyl acetate and butanol, the in vitro antisickling activities of Moringa oleifera fractions, were evaluated using erythrocyte cells deoxygenated with 2% sodium metabisulphite. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, free anthraquinones, and alkaloids. Extracts of the seed and flower demonstrated a higher (P<0.05) antisickling activity in comparison to the leaf extract. The leaf extract, as well as those of the seed and flower, equally demonstrated a (P<0.05) reversal of sickled erythrocytes. Discussions and Conclusions: These findings suggest that Moringa oleifera may play a role in the management of SCD, by incorporation of its fractions into recipes. More extensive biological evaluations and further studies will be necessary for the chemical characterization of the antisickling principles. PMID:22557922

  14. Antimicrobial activity of Ulopterol isolated from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.: a traditional medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Karunai Raj, M; Balachandran, C; Duraipandiyan, V; Agastian, P; Ignacimuthu, S

    2012-03-06

    The leaves of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (Rutaceae) are widely used in folk medicine in India to treat various ailments like cough, malaria, indigestion, influenza lung diseases and rheumatism, fever, stomach ailments, cholera and diarrhea. In our earlier communication we have reported the antimicrobial study on the various extracts of the leaves and the isolation and identification of Flindersine, a quinolone alkaloid as the major active principle. In the present study, we report the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Ulopterol, a coumarin isolated as another major active antimicrobial principle. The leaves were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The extracts were studied for their antimicrobial activity against selected bacteria and fungi by using disc-diffusion method. The ethyl acetate extract which was found to possess highest antimicrobial activity was subjected to activity guided fractionation by column chromatography over silica gel. This resulted in the isolation of the coumarin, Ulopetrol, an active principle besides Flindersine which was reported by us earlier. The structure of the compound was elucidated using physical and spectroscopic data. Flindersine and Ulopterol were quantified by HPLC. Ulopterol showed activity against the bacteria viz. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-3967), Escherichia coli (ESBL-3984) and fungi viz. Aspergillus flavus, Candida krusei and Botrytis cinerea. Quantification by HPLC showed the content of Flindersine and Ulopterol to be 0.361% and 0.266% respectively on dry weight basis of the leaves. Ethyl acetate extract (successive extraction) contained Ulopterol, a coumarin, besides Flindersine, a quinolone alkaloid, as a major active principle in the antimicrobial studies. This is the first report of the antimicrobial activity of Ulopterol and also its first report from the plant. Copyright © 2012

  15. Analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the extract of Solanum sisymbriifolium (Lam.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Bhuyan, Shakhawat Hossan; Matin, Maima; Hossain, Faruq; Khatun, Farjana; Taiab, Abu; Jamaluddin

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the ethanol extract of leaves of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Family: Solanaceae). The analgesic activity was measured by acetic acid-induced writhing inhibition test. The neuropharmacological activities were evaluated using hole cross, hole board, and elevated plus-maze test and the anti-diarrheal activity was assessed using castor oil-induced diarrhea inhibition method. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay was carried out for assessing the cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract of the leaves. Except cytotoxic activity, all the tests were conducted on mice. The extract at oral doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight showed highly significant (p<0.001) decrease in number of writhing, 52.1±0.66 and 4.4±0.64 compared with the control (78.6±0.29) with the percentage of inhibitions of writhing response were found to be 33.72% and 94.40%, respectively. Compare with the control, the extract at both doses showed significant sedative effect in hole cross test. In hole board test, the extract exhibited highly significant (p<0.001) anxiolytic activity at dose of (200 mg/kg), while the same activity was observed at dose of 400 mg/kg in elevated plus-maze test. The extract showed highly significant (p<0.001) anti-diarrheal activity in a dose-dependent manner. With the extract, significant lethality to brine shrimp was found with LC50 value of 61.66±0.9 μg/ml, which was comparable with the positive control (LC50: 11.89±0.8 µg/ml). The results from the present studies support the traditional uses of this plant part and could form the basis of further investigation including compound isolation.

  16. Multi-functional application of Moringa oleifera Lam. in nutrition and animal food products: A review.

    PubMed

    Falowo, Andrew B; Mukumbo, Felicitas E; Idamokoro, Emrobowansan M; Lorenzo, José M; Afolayan, Anthony J; Muchenje, Voster

    2018-04-01

    Research on the use of various parts of the Moringa oleifera Lam. plant (M. oleifera) as a nutritional and neutraceutical resource for human and animal diets has increased in recent years, emanating from the widespread use of the plant in traditional cuisines and medicinal remedies in several regions of the world. Analytical studies have identified M. oleifera as an important source of essential nutrients; rich in protein, essential amino acids, minerals, and vitamins, with a relatively low amount of antinutrients. It is also a rich source of other bio active compounds including flavonoids and phenolic compounds; with several studies detailing demonstrated in vitro and in vivo functional properties, most substantially, antioxidant activities. Moringa oleifera consumption has been reported to improve the health status, feed conversion efficiency, growth performance and product quality of several livestock species, at dietary inclusion rates generally not exceeding 5% of total dry matter intake. Fortification of processed foods with M. oleifera has been reported to increase nutritional value, some organoleptic properties, oxidative stability and product shelf life; with a notable need for further analytical and consumer studies in the development of these products. There is a paucity of literature detailing clinical studies, nutrient bioavailability, toxicity and the mode of action of the bioactive compounds to which the health claims associated with M. oleifera consumption are attributed. Many of these are not yet fully understood; therefore more research in these areas is required in order to fully utilize the potential benefits of this plant in human and livestock nutrition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Buddleja thyrsoides Lam. crude extract presents antinociceptive effect on an arthritic pain model in mice.

    PubMed

    Fialho, Maria Fernanda Pessano; Brusco, Indiara; da Silva Brum, Evelyne; Piana, Mariana; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Trevisan, Gabriela; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan

    2017-08-17

    Arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease which reduces the life quality of affected individuals. Therapeutic tools used for treating inflammatory pain are associated with several undesirable effects. Buddleja thyrsoides Lam., known as 'Barbasco' or 'Cambara', is mostly used in several disorders and possesses antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties. Here, we investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the B. thyrsoides crude extract applied orally and topically in acute pain models and an arthritic pain model induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) paw injection in male mice (25-30 g). The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of the B. thyrsoides extract crude revealed the presence of the lupeol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol. The stability study of the B. thyrsoides gel did not show relevant changes at low temperatures. The oral treatment with the B. thrysoides extract prevented the capsaicin-induced spontaneous nociception and the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, but did not alter the thermal threshold in the tail immersion test. The B. thyrsoides antinociceptive effect was not reversed by naloxone in the capsaicin test. The B. thyrsoides oral or topical treatment reversed the CFA-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia with maximum inhibition ( I max ) of 69 ± 6 and 68 ± 5% as well as 78 ± 15 and 87 ± 12%, respectively. Moreover, the topical but not oral treatment inhibited the CFA-induced cell infiltration, but did not reduce the paw edema significantly. The oral treatment with B. thyrsoides did not cause adverse effects. These findings suggest that the oral or topical treatment with B. thyrsoides presents antinociceptive actions in an arthritic pain model without causing adverse effects. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  18. Comparative Study of Erythrina indica Lam. (Febaceae) Leaves Extracts for Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sakat, SS; Juvekar, AR

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Erythrina indica Lam leaves by in vitro methods viz. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method on isolated rat liver tissues. Quantitative analysis of antioxidative components like total amount of phenolics, flavonoids, and flavonols were estimated using the spectrophotometric method. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate the IC50 value. Results showed that the aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited significant DPPH radicals scavenging activity with an IC50 value 342.59 ± 19.59, 283.24 ± 12.28 µg/mL respectively. Nitric oxide radicals were significantly scavenged by the aqueous and methanol extracts (IC50 = 250.12 ± 10.66; 328.29 ± 3.74 µg/mL). Lipid peroxidation induced by the Fe2+ was inhibited by the aqueous extract with low IC50 value (97.29 ± 2.05 µg/mL) as compared to methanol extract (IC50 = 283.74 ± 5.70 µg/mL). Both the extracts were exhibited similar quantities of total phenolics. Total flavonoids were found to be in higher quantities than total flavonols in aqueous extract as compared to methanol extract. From the results, it is concluded that the aqueous and methanol extracts of E. indica leaves possesses significant antioxidant activity that may be due to the presence of flavonoids and related polyphenolic compounds. PMID:21331194

  19. Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons by using a freshwater fern species Azolla filiculoides Lam.

    PubMed

    Kösesakal, Taylan; Ünal, Muammer; Kulen, Oktay; Memon, Abdülrezzak; Yüksel, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the phytoremediation capacity of Azolla filiculoides Lam. for the water resources contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated. The plants were grown in nitrogen-free Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5% crude oil under greenhouse conditions for 15 days. Although the growth rate of the plants were not negatively influenced by the presence of crude oil in the media for the concentration of 0.005% and 0.01% v/v, a gradual impeding effect of crude oil in the growth media has been observed at concentrations 0.05-0.1%. More than 0.1% crude oil in the growth medium ostensibly retarded the growth. For example, 0.2% oil in the media reduced growth approximately 50% relative to the control, and the presence of crude oil at concentrations 0.3% or more were lethal. The data about the percentage of plant growth, fresh weight increase and root growth clearly indicated that the tolerance level of A. filiculoides plants to crude oil ranges between 0.1% and 0.2%. In comparison to control samples, the biodegradation rate of total aliphatic and aromatic (phenathrene) hydrocarbons at 0.05-0.2% oil concentrations, was 94-73% and 81-77%, respectively. On the other hand, in case of further increases in oil concentration in media, i.e.; 0.3-0.5%, the biodegradation rate was still higher in the experimental samples, respectively 71-63% and 75-71%. The high biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons in the experimental samples suggested that A. filiculoides plants could be a promising candidate to be used for the phytoremediation of low crude oil contaminated precious freshwater resources.

  20. Transcriptional Response of the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.) following Exposure to Heat Stress and Copper

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Alessandro; Oliveri, Catherina; Sforzini, Susanna; Mignione, Flavio; Viarengo, Aldo; Banni, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is a major factor that may affect biological organization, especially in marine ecosystems and in coastal areas that are particularly subject to anthropogenic pollution. We evaluated the effects of simultaneous changes in temperature and copper concentrations on lysosomal membrane stability (N-acetyl-hexosaminidase activity) and malondialdehyde accumulation (MDA) in the gill of the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.). Temperature and copper exerted additive effects on lysosomal membrane stability, exacerbating the toxic effects of metal cations present in non-physiological concentrations. Mussel lysosomal membrane stability is known to be positively related to scope for growth, indicating possible effects of increasing temperature on mussel populations in metal-polluted areas. To clarify the molecular response to environmental stressors, we used a cDNA microarray with 1,673 sequences to measure the relative transcript abundances in the gills of mussels exposed to copper (40 µg/L) and a temperature gradient (16°C, 20°C, and 24°C). In animals exposed only to heat stress, hierarchical clustering of the microarray data revealed three main clusters, which were largely dominated by down-regulation of translation-related differentially expressed genes, drastic up-regulation of protein folding related genes, and genes involved in chitin metabolism. The response of mussels exposed to copper at 24°C was characterized by an opposite pattern of the genes involved in translation, most of which were up-regulated, as well as the down-regulation of genes encoding heat shock proteins and “microtubule-based movement” proteins. Our data provide novel information on the transcriptomic modulations in mussels facing temperature increases and high copper concentrations; these data highlight the risk of marine life exposed to toxic chemicals in the presence of temperature increases due to climate change. PMID:23825565

  1. Analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the extract of Solanum sisymbriifolium (Lam.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Bhuyan, Shakhawat Hossan; Matin, Maima; Hossain, Faruq; Khatun, Farjana; Taiab, Abu; Jamaluddin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the ethanol extract of leaves of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Family: Solanaceae). Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was measured by acetic acid-induced writhing inhibition test. The neuropharmacological activities were evaluated using hole cross, hole board, and elevated plus-maze test and the anti-diarrheal activity was assessed using castor oil-induced diarrhea inhibition method. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay was carried out for assessing the cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract of the leaves. Except cytotoxic activity, all the tests were conducted on mice. Results: The extract at oral doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight showed highly significant (p<0.001) decrease in number of writhing, 52.1±0.66 and 4.4±0.64 compared with the control (78.6±0.29) with the percentage of inhibitions of writhing response were found to be 33.72% and 94.40%, respectively. Compare with the control, the extract at both doses showed significant sedative effect in hole cross test. In hole board test, the extract exhibited highly significant (p<0.001) anxiolytic activity at dose of (200 mg/kg), while the same activity was observed at dose of 400 mg/kg in elevated plus-maze test. The extract showed highly significant (p<0.001) anti-diarrheal activity in a dose-dependent manner. With the extract, significant lethality to brine shrimp was found with LC50 value of 61.66±0.9 μg/ml, which was comparable with the positive control (LC50: 11.89±0.8 µg/ml). Conclusion: The results from the present studies support the traditional uses of this plant part and could form the basis of further investigation including compound isolation. PMID:25050287

  2. Acclimation responses to high light by Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae) leaves at different stages of development.

    PubMed

    Calzavara, A K; Rocha, J S; Lourenço, G; Sanada, K; Medri, C; Bianchini, E; Pimenta, J A; Stolf-Moreira, R; Oliveira, H C

    2017-09-01

    The re-composition of deforested environments requires the prior acclimation of seedlings to full sun in nurseries. Seedlings can overcome excess light either through the acclimation of pre-existing fully expanded leaves or through the development of new leaves that are acclimated to the new light environment. Here, we compared the acclimation capacity of mature (MatL, fully expanded at the time of transfer) and newly expanded (NewL, expanded after the light shift) leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae) seedlings to high light. The seedlings were initially grown under shade and then transferred to full sunlight. MatL and NewL were used for chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange analyses, pigment extraction and morpho-anatomical measurements. After the transfer of seedlings to full sun, the MatL persisted and acclimated to some extent to the new light condition, since they underwent alterations in some morpho-physiological traits and maintained a functional electron transport chain and positive net photosynthesis rate. However, long-term exposure to high light led to chronic photoinhibition in MatL, which could be related to the limited plasticity of leaf morpho-anatomical attributes. However, the NewL showed a high capacity to use the absorbed energy in photochemistry and dissipate excess energy harmlessly, attributes that were favoured by the high structural plasticity exhibited by these leaves. Both the maintenance of mature, photosynthetically active leaves and the production of new leaves with a high capacity to cope with excess energy were important for acclimation of G. ulmifolia seedlings. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Moringa olifeira Lam. Stimulates Activation of the Insulin-Dependent Akt Pathway. Antidiabetic Effect in a Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO) Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Attakpa, E S; Sangaré, M M; Béhanzin, G J; Ategbo, J-M; Seri, B; Khan, N A

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the antidiabetic effect of Moringa olifeira Lam. in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. Six mice were randomly selected as normal controls. Moringa olifeira Lam. leaf extract at a dose of 200, 400 or 600 mg/kg body weight, glibenclamide (Glib) at the dose of 10 mg/kg (positive control) and distilled water at 10 ml/kg (control group) were administered orally by gastric intubation, and each group consisted of six mice. Insulinsensitive tissues (liver, skeletal muscle) were collected to investigate antidiabetic effects and examine the plant's molecular mechanisms. Moringa olifeira Lam. leaf extract prevented weight gain. It also reduced blood glucose in DIO mice. Glib and Moringa olifeira Lam. leaf extract, 400 mg/kg, treatments restored insulin levels towards normal values (P < 0.05 versus diabetic control group). Western immunoblot analysis of different tissues, collected at the end of the study, demonstrated that Moringa olifeira Lam. stimulated activation of the insulin-dependent Akt pathway and increased the protein content of Glut 4 in skeletal muscle. The improvement of hepatic steatosis observed in DIO-treated mice was associated with a decrease in the hepatic content of SREBP-1, a transcription factor involved in de novo lipogenesis. The hepatic PPARα protein content in the plant extract- treated mice remained significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence for direct action of Moringa olifeira Lam. on pancreatic β-cells, enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This correlated with hypoglycaemic effects in diabetic mice associated with restored levels of plasma insulin.

  4. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    PubMed Central

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids

  5. Claviceps cyperi, a new cause of severe ergotism in dairy cattle consuming maize silage and teff hay contaminated with ergotised Cyperus esculentus (nut sedge) on the Highveld of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Naudè, T W; Botha, C J; Vorster, J H; Roux, C; Van der Linde, E J; Van der Walt, S I; Rottinghaus, G E; Van Jaarsveld, L; Lawrence, A N

    2005-03-01

    During December/January 1996/97 typical summer syndrome (hyperthermia and a 30% drop in milk yield) occurred in succession in two Holstein dairy herds (n=240 and n=150 milking cows, respectively) on the South African Highveld. These farms are situated in the midst of the prime maize and dairy farming areas of South Africa where this condition had never been diagnosed before. The individual components of the concentrate on both farms were negative for ergot alkaloids. Endophytic fungi and/or ergot infestation of teff and other grasses fed to the cows were then suspected of being involved, but neither endophytes nor ergot alkaloids could be implicated from these sources. By measuring the serum prolactin levels of groups of sheep (n=5) fed the first farm's total mixed ration (TMR) or its three individual fibre components for a period of 11 days, the source of the ergot alkaloids was identified. A statistically significant decrease in the level of this hormone occurred only in the group on maize silage (which constituted 28% on dry matter base of the TMR). The involvement of the maize silage was further chemically confirmed by the high levels of total ergot alkaloids, predominantly ergocryptine, found by LC-MS in the silage as well as in the TMR (115-975 ppb and 65-300 ppb, respectively). The ergot alkaloid content (mainly ergocryptine) of the maize silage on the second affected farm was 875 ppb. Withdrawal of contaminated silage resulted in gradual recovery of stock on both farms. Nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus and Cyperus rotundus of the family Cyperaceae) has a world-wide distribution and is a common weed in annual crops, and can be parasitized by Claviceps cyperi. Careful examination of the maize silage from both farms revealed that it was heavily contaminated with nut sedge and that it contained minute sclerotia, identified as those of Claviceps cyperi, originating from the latter. Nut sedge was abundant on both farms and it is believed that late seasonal rain had

  6. Constitutive expression of the maltoporin LamB in the absence of OmpR damages the cell envelope.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Sylvia A; Wolfe, Alan J

    2011-02-01

    Cells experience multiple environmental stimuli simultaneously. To survive, they must respond accordingly. Unfortunately, the proper response to one stress easily could make the cell more susceptible to a second coexistent stress. To deal with such a problem, a cell must possess a mechanism that balances the need to respond simultaneously to both stresses. Our recent studies of ompR malT(Con) double mutants show that elevated expression of LamB, the outer membrane porin responsible for maltose uptake, causes cell death when the osmoregulator OmpR is disabled. To obtain insight into the nature of the death experienced by ompR malT(Con) mutants, we described the death process. On the basis of microscopic and biochemical approaches, we conclude that death results from a loss of membrane integrity. On the basis of an unbiased genome-wide search for suppressor mutations, we conclude that this loss of membrane integrity results from a LamB-induced envelope stress that the cells do not sufficiently perceive and thus do not adequately accommodate. Finally, we conclude that this envelope stress involves an imbalance in the lipopolysaccharide/porin composition of the outer membrane and an increased requirement for inorganic phosphate.

  7. Constitutive Expression of the Maltoporin LamB in the Absence of OmpR Damages the Cell Envelope▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Sylvia A.; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Cells experience multiple environmental stimuli simultaneously. To survive, they must respond accordingly. Unfortunately, the proper response to one stress easily could make the cell more susceptible to a second coexistent stress. To deal with such a problem, a cell must possess a mechanism that balances the need to respond simultaneously to both stresses. Our recent studies of ompR malT(Con) double mutants show that elevated expression of LamB, the outer membrane porin responsible for maltose uptake, causes cell death when the osmoregulator OmpR is disabled. To obtain insight into the nature of the death experienced by ompR malT(Con) mutants, we described the death process. On the basis of microscopic and biochemical approaches, we conclude that death results from a loss of membrane integrity. On the basis of an unbiased genome-wide search for suppressor mutations, we conclude that this loss of membrane integrity results from a LamB-induced envelope stress that the cells do not sufficiently perceive and thus do not adequately accommodate. Finally, we conclude that this envelope stress involves an imbalance in the lipopolysaccharide/porin composition of the outer membrane and an increased requirement for inorganic phosphate. PMID:21131484

  8. Acanthamoebicidal activity of periglaucine A and betulinic acid from Pericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr. in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mahboob, Tooba; Azlan, Abdul-Majid; Shipton, Fiona Natalia; Boonroumkaew, Patcharaporn; Nor Azman, Nadiah Syafiqah; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Ithoi, Init; Tan, Tian-Chye; Samudi, Chandramathi; Wiart, Christophe; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2017-12-01

    Acanthamoeba species are pathogenic protozoa which account for amoebic keratitis, conjunctivitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. These amoebae form cysts which resist drugs and more effective acanthamoebicidal agents are needed. Medicinal plants could be useful in improving the current treatment strategies for Acanthamoeba infections. In the present study, we examined the amoebicidal effects of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr., a medicinal plant used for the treatment of conjunctivitis in Malaysia. Pathogenic Acanthamoeba triangularis were isolated from environmental water samples and treated with different concentrations of fractions obtained from Pericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr. as well as main constituents for 24-72 h. Chlorhexidine was used as a reference drug. Ethanol fraction of stem showed significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of trophozoites survival. Betulinic acid and periglaucine A from this plant at 100 μg/mL inhibited more than 70% survival of both cysts and trophozoites. The calculated therapeutic index for betulinic acid and periglaucine A was 170 and 1.5 for trophozoites stage and 3.75 and 8.5 for cysts stage. The observed amoebicidal efficacies indicate the beneficial aspects of this plant in the treatment of Acanthamoeba infection. Periglaucine A could also be of value for the treatment of Acanthamoeba infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance Comparison of a Matrix Solver on a Heterogeneous Network Using Two Implementations of MPI: MPICH and LAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Jennifer K.

    1995-01-01

    Two of the current and most popular implementations of the Message-Passing Standard, Message Passing Interface (MPI), were contrasted: MPICH by Argonne National Laboratory, and LAM by the Ohio Supercomputer Center at Ohio State University. A parallel skyline matrix solver was adapted to be run in a heterogeneous environment using MPI. The Message-Passing Interface Forum was held in May 1994 which lead to a specification of library functions that implement the message-passing model of parallel communication. LAM, which creates it's own environment, is more robust in a highly heterogeneous network. MPICH uses the environment native to the machine architecture. While neither of these free-ware implementations provides the performance of native message-passing or vendor's implementations, MPICH begins to approach that performance on the SP-2. The machines used in this study were: IBM RS6000, 3 Sun4, SGI, and the IBM SP-2. Each machine is unique and a few machines required specific modifications during the installation. When installed correctly, both implementations worked well with only minor problems.

  10. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. Kurtz (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O; Ishola, Ismail O; Okoro, Uzodinma

    2013-01-01

    Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. Kurtz (Crassulaceae) is used in traditional African medicine in the treatment of diarrhoea. To investigate the antidiarrhoeal action of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (BP). Normal intestinal transit, castor oil-induced intestinal transit, castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastric emptying and enteropooling models in rodents were used to investigate antidiarrhoeal effect. The possible mechanism of antidiarrhoeal activity was investigated using prazosin (1 mg/kg, s.c; α1, adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, s.c; α2 adrenoceptor antagonist), propranolol (1 mg/kg, i.p; α- adrenoceptor non-selective antagonist), atropine (1 mg/kg, s.c; muscarinic cholinergic antagonist), pilocarpine (1 mg/kg, s.c; muscarinic cholinergic agonist), and isosorbide dinitrate (IDN) (150 mg/kg, p.o; nitric oxide donor). BP (25-100 mg/kg, p.o) produced dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.001) decrease in intestinal propulsion in normal and castor oil-induced intestinal transit models in comparison to distilled water (10 ml/kg, p.o.) treated control. This antidiarrhoeal effect was inhibited by propranolol pretreatment but yohimbine, prazosin, or atropine pretreatment failed to block this effect. BP treatment reduced the increased peristaltic activity induced by pilocarpine, however, co-treatment with IDN significantly (P < 0.001) enhanced the antidiarrhoeal effect of the extract. In castor oil-induced diarrhoea test, the extract produced a dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.001) increase in onset of diarrhoea, decreased diarrhoea score, the number and weight of wet stools when compared to control. The in vivo antidiarrhoeal index (ADI(in) vivo)) of 53.52 produced by the extract (50 mg/kg, p.o.) was similar to 76.28 ADI(in vivo) produced by morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.). The extract produced dose- dependent and significant (P < 0.05; P < 0.001) decrease in the weight and volume of intestinal content in the intestinal fluid accumulation

  11. Spatial and temporal seed dispersal of squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata Lam. ssp. squarrosa (Willd.) Gugler) in west central Utah, a case study

    Treesearch

    Scott L. Jensen; Stephen B. Monsen; Pat Fosse

    2008-01-01

    This case study documents temporal and spatial squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata Lam. spp. squarrosa (Willd.) Gugler) seed dispersal from study sites in central Utah. Felt seed traps were placed along transects extending from sites occupied by squarrose knapweed into adjacent plant communities. Seed dispersal from knapweed...

  12. One-step synthesis of highly-biocompatible spherical gold nanoparticles using Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (jackfruit) fruit extract and its effect on pathogens.

    PubMed

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Dhanya Kumar, Gowri; Tyliszczak, Bozena; Wzorek, Zbigniew; Sobczak-Kupiec, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Novel approaches for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are of great importance due to its vast spectrum of applications in diverse fields, including medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Te presented study reports the successful AuNPs' synthesis using Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. extract, and provides detailed characterization and evaluation of its antibacterial potential. The aim was to develop a cost-effective and environmentally friendly synthesis method of gold nanoparticles using aqueous fruit extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a reducing and capping agent, which has proven activity against human pathogens, such as microbial species E.coli and Streptobacillus sps. Characterizations were carried out using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier-Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR). SEM images showed the formation of gold nanoparticles with an average size of 20-25 nm. Spectra collected while infra-red analysis contained broad peaks in ranges from 4000-400 cm -1 . It can be concluded that the fruit of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. can be good source for synthesis of gold nanoparticles which showed antimicrobial activity against investigated microbes, in particul E. coli, and Streptobacillus. An important outcome of this study will be the development of value-added products from the medicinal plant Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. for the biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.

  13. Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy

    2008-03-01

    The most recent developments in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys are regularly updated through two complementary international conferences: the liquid and amorphous metals conference (LAM) and the rapidly quenched materials (RQ) conference. The first series of conferences started as LM1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semiconductors, quasicrystals etc, are also accepted. The conference tradition strongly encourages participation from junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and the Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU), and held from 8-14 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). Two hundred and forty two active participants and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale oral reports (25 min), and brief oral reports (15 min). The program included ten sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to the technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A: Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B: Phase transitions; C: Structure; D: Atomic dynamics and transport; E: Thermodynamics; F: Modelling

  14. Application of a puffer fish skin gelatin film containing Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract to the packaging of Gouda cheese.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ka-Yeon; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to develop a puffer fish skin gelatin (PSG) film that contains Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract (ME) as a new biodegradable film. With the increase in ME concentration, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the PSG film increased, whereas the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability decreased. In addition, the PSG film with ME exhibited antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and antioxidant activity. To apply the ME-containing PSG film to food packaging, Gouda cheese was wrapped with the ME-containing PSG film. During storage, the cheese packaging with the ME-containing PSG film effectively inhibited the microbial growth and retarded the lipid oxidation of cheese compared with the control sample. Thus, the ME-containing PSG film can be used as an antimicrobial and antioxidative packaging material to improve the quality of food products.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on the vitamins, phytochemicals, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Taj Ur

    2016-10-01

    Plant based food products and medicines are given more consideration for their efficacy, safety and synergistic effects. Radiation processing has been valuably used for microbial decontamination and value addition of the plant materials. The current study is about the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality attributes of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. leaves. The leaves of the plant were irradiated at the dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 kGy. The irradiated and control samples were evaluated for vitamin, phytochemicals, antibacterial and DPPH scavenging activities. The results showed that gamma irradiation doses up to 12.5 kGy enhanced the levels of certain phytochemicals and augmented the biological activities.

  16. Comparison of a Clinical Prediction Rule and a LAM Antigen-Detection Assay for the Rapid Diagnosis of TBM in a High HIV Prevalence Setting

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vinod B.; Singh, Ravesh; Connolly, Cathy; Kasprowicz, Victoria; Zumla, Allimudin; Ndungu, Thumbi; Dheda, Keertan

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objective The diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in resource poor TB endemic environments is challenging. The accuracy of current tools for the rapid diagnosis of TBM is suboptimal. We sought to develop a clinical-prediction rule for the diagnosis of TBM in a high HIV prevalence setting, and to compare performance outcomes to conventional diagnostic modalities and a novel lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen detection test (Clearview-TB®) using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methods Patients with suspected TBM were classified as definite-TBM (CSF culture or PCR positive), probable-TBM and non-TBM. Results Of the 150 patients, 84% were HIV-infected (median [IQR] CD4 count = 132 [54; 241] cells/µl). There were 39, 55 and 54 patients in the definite, probable and non-TBM groups, respectively. The LAM sensitivity and specificity (95%CI) was 31% (17;48) and 94% (85;99), respectively (cut-point ≥0.18). By contrast, smear-microscopy was 100% specific but detected none of the definite-TBM cases. LAM positivity was associated with HIV co-infection and low CD4 T cell count (CD4<200 vs. >200 cells/µl; p = 0.03). The sensitivity and specificity in those with a CD4<100 cells/µl was 50% (27;73) and 95% (74;99), respectively. A clinical-prediction rule ≥6 derived from multivariate analysis had a sensitivity and specificity (95%CI) of 47% (31;64) and 98% (90;100), respectively. When LAM was combined with the clinical-prediction-rule, the sensitivity increased significantly (p<0.001) to 63% (47;68) and specificity remained high at 93% (82;98). Conclusions Despite its modest sensitivity the LAM ELISA is an accurate rapid rule-in test for TBM that has incremental value over smear-microscopy. The rule-in value of LAM can be further increased by combination with a clinical-prediction rule, thus enhancing the rapid diagnosis of TBM in HIV-infected persons with advanced immunosuppression. PMID:21203513

  17. The extent of arsenic and of metal uptake by aboveground tissues of Pteris vittata and Cyperus involucratus growing in copper- and cobalt-rich tailings of the Zambian copperbelt.

    PubMed

    Kříbek, Bohdan; Mihaljevič, Martin; Sracek, Ondra; Knésl, Ilja; Ettler, Vojtěch; Nyambe, Imasiku

    2011-08-01

    The extent of arsenic (As) and metal accumulation in fronds of the As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) and in leaves of Cyperus involucratus, which grow on the surface of an old flotation tailings pond in the Zambian Copperbelt province, was studied. The tailings consist of two types of material with distinct chemical composition: (1) reddish-brown tailings rich in As, iron (Fe), and other metals, and (2) grey-green tailings with a lower content of As, Fe, and other metals, apart from manganese (Mn). P. vittata accumulates from 2350 to 5018 μg g(-1) As (total dry weight [dw]) in its fronds regardless of different total and plant-available As concentrations in both types of tailings. Concentrations of As in C. involucratus leaves are much lower (0.24-30.3 μg g(-1) dw). Contents of copper (Cu) and cobalt (Co) in fronds of P. vittata (151-237 and 18-38 μg g(-1) dw, respectively) and in leaves of C. involucratus (96-151 and 9-14 μg g(-1) dw, respectively) are high, whereas concentrations of other metals (Fe, Mn, and zinc [Zn]) are low and comparable with contents of the given metals in common plants. Despite great differences in metal concentrations in the two types of deposited materials, concentrations of most metals in plant tissues are very similar. This indicates an exclusion or avoidance mechanism operating when concentrations of the metals in substrate are particularly high. The results of the investigation show that Chinese brake fern is not only a hyperaccumulator of As but has adapted itself to high concentrations of Cu and Co in flotation tailings of the Zambian Copperbelt.

  18. What role for law in achieving transboundary drainage basin security?--the development and testing of the Legal Assessment Model (LAM) for transboundary watercourse states.

    PubMed

    Wouters, P K

    2004-01-01

    The beneficial use of the world's transboundary waters raises difficult issues for drainage basin security on most parts of the globe. International law provides that each transboundary watercourse State is entitled to, and obliged to ensure, an "equitable and reasonable use" of these shared waters. The IWLRI developed and tested a Legal Assessment Model (LAM) through the work of interdisciplinary teams working in three different transboundary situations--China (upstream), Mozambique (downstream) and Palestine (shared groundwater). The LAM provides a tool for transboundary watercourse States to use in the preparation of their national water strategy for use at the national and international levels. The model should now be tested at the basin level, with a view to assisting to accomplish the peaceful and rational use of transboundary waters in line with the governing rule of international law and thereby to facilitate the overall policy objective of drainage basin security.

  19. COMPARISON OF MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION OF WATER SOLUBLE EXTRACTS OF EUGENIA JAMBOLANA LAM. (FAM. MYRTACEAE) BARKS OF DIFFERENT AGES ON DYSENTERY AND DIARRHOEA FORMING MICRO – ORGANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Asis Prosun; Pal, Subodh Chandra; Chattopadhyay, Debaprasad; De, Samar; Nandy, Anutosh

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary investigations was carried out to study the antibacterial activity of the water soluble extracts of five and ten years old barks of Eugenia Jambolana Lam. (fam. Myrtaceae) on dysentery and diarrhoea forming micro organisms. It was observed that the barks of young plants have a better inhibitory effect on micro – organisms like Salmonella viballerup, Shigella dysenteriae 10, Shigella boydii 5, Sgigella dysenteriae 2. PMID:22557509

  20. Quantification of Quercetin Obtained from Allium cepa Lam. Leaves and its Effects on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dureshahwar, Khan; Mubashir, Mohammed; Une, Hemant Devidas

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant potential has protective effects in diabetic neuropathy (DN); hence, the present study was designed with an objective to quantify quercetin from shade-dried leaves of Allium cepa Lam. and to study its effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced chronic DN. The shade-dried leaves of A. cepa Lam. were extracted with methanol and then fractionated using ethyl acetate (ACEA). The quantification of quercetin in ACEA was evaluated by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The STZ (40 mg/kg) was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (180-250 g) maintained at normal housing conditions. The STZ was administered once a day for 3 consecutive days. The elevation in blood glucose was monitored for 3 weeks periodically using flavin adenine dinucleotide-glucose dehydrogenase method by Contour TS glucometer. Rats showing blood glucose above 250 mg/dl were selected for the study. Animals were divided into eight groups. ACEA (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), quercetin (40 mg/kg), metformin (120 mg/kg), and gabapentin (100 mg/kg) were given orally once a day for 2 weeks. The blood glucose level was again measured at the end of treatment to assess DN. Thermal hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, motor incoordination, and neurotoxicity were studied initially and at the end of 2-week treatment. Biochemical parameters were also evaluated after 2-week drug treatment. The quercetin present in ACEA was 4.82% by HPTLC. All the ACEA treatment reduces blood glucose level at the end of the 2-week study and shows a significant neuroprotective effect in STZ-induced DN in the above experimental models. The quercetin present in ACEA proved protective effect in STZ-induced DN. High-performance thin layer chromatography reveals the presence of 4.82% quercetin in Allium cepa ethyl acetate. (ACEA). Its investigation against various diabetic neuropathy biomarkers has proved that ACEA has significant blood glucose reducing action shown neuroprotective action in thermal hyperalgesia, motor

  1. Lateral Flow Urine Lipoarabinomannan Assay (LF-LAM) for Diagnosis of Active Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Adults: a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Na Songkhla, Munjit; Tantipong, Hutsaya; Tongsai, Sasima; Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Early diagnosis and treatment of active tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-positive patients is challenging. Tests based on the detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen in urine have emerged as potential point-of-care tests for TB. However, limited data exists on their performance among HIV-TB co-infected patients from Southeast Asian countries. Methods We prospectively recruited HIV-positive adult patients with CD4 count less than or equal to 200/mm3 and symptoms suspected of active TB from two tertiary hospitals between December 2015 and March 2017. Freshly collected urine was applied to the Determine®-TB LAM Ag test strip (4 bands of graded intensity), using grade 1 cutoff. Diagnostic accuracy of urine LAM strip test were assessed against microbiological reference standard, defined as positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultured from one or more clinical specimens (definite TB) or composite reference standard including definite TB and probable TB, defined as those have symptoms consistent with TB and response to anti-TB treatment. Results A total of 280 patients were enrolled. Of whom, 72 (25.7%) and 65 (23.2%) had definite and probable TB. Amongst those with definite TB, LF-LAM test gave a sensitivity of 75.0% (95% CI 63.9–83.6), specificity of 86.0% (95% CI 79.4–90.8) and accuracy of 82.3% (95% CI 76.7–86.8). When compared with the composite reference standard, the test yielded a lower sensitivity (61.3%, 95% CI 53.0–69.1) and accuracy (73.9%, 95% CI 68.5–78.7), with equal specificity. The test showed the highest sensitivity (90.5%, 95% CI 77.9–96.2) and accuracy (85.9%, 95% CI 79.2–90.7) but lower specificity (84.0%, 95% CI 75.6–89.9) in HIV-infected patients with CD4 count less than 50/mm3. The sensitivity of the combined LF-LAM or sputum microscopy was higher than that of either test alone (86.1% vs. 75.0%, 61.1%, respectively). Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was cultured in 7 out of 20 with false positive

  2. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood) and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fernanda Fraga; Sales Junior, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro José; Araújo, Márcio S S; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Resende, Jarbas M; Alves, Tânia M A; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Santos, Vera Lúcia dos; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania Barros

    2015-02-01

    Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae). We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL) and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL), Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL). Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM) in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay.

  3. In vitro propagation, ex vitro rooting and leaf micromorphology of Bauhinia racemosa Lam.: a leguminous tree with medicinal values.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Udit; Kataria, Vinod; Shekhawat, N S

    2017-10-01

    A micropropagation system for Bauhinia racemosa Lam. was developed involving axillary shoot proliferation and ex vitro rooting using nodal explants obtained from mature tree. MS medium with 3.0 mg l -1 BA (6-benzyladenine) was optimum for shoot bud induction. For shoot multiplication, mother explants were transferred repeatedly on medium containing low concentration of BA (0.75 mg l -1 ). Number of shoots was increased up to two passages and decreased thereafter. Shoot multiplication was further enhanced on MS medium containing 0.25 mg l -1 each of BA and Kin (Kinetin) with 0.1 mg l -1 of NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid). Addition of 0.004 mg l -1 TDZ (thidiazuron) increased the rate of shoot multiplication and 21.81 ± 1.26 shoots per culture vessel were obtained. In vitro regenerated shoots were rooted under ex vitro conditions treated with 400 mg l -1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) for 7 min on sterile soilrite. After successful hardening in greenhouse, ex vitro rooted plants were transferred to the field conditions with ≈85% of survival rate. Micromorphological changes were observed on leaf surface i.e. development of vein density and trichomes and stomatal appearance, when plants were subjected to environmental conditions. This is the first report on in vitro regeneration of B. racemosa from mature tree.

  4. Surface Interactions between Escherichia coli and Hemocytes of the Mediterranean Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. Leading to Efficient Bacterial Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Canesi, Laura; Pruzzo, Carla; Tarsi, Renato; Gallo, Gabriella

    2001-01-01

    The role of type 1 fimbriae in the interactions between Escherichia coli and Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. hemocytes was evaluated. The association of fimbriated strain MG155 with hemocyte monolayers at 18°C was 1.5- and 3- to 4-fold greater than the association of unfimbriated mutant AAEC072 in artificial seawater and in hemolymph serum, respectively. Such differences were apparently due to different adhesive properties since MG155 adhered more efficiently than AAEC072 when hemocytes were incubated at 4°C to inhibit the internalization process. Hemolymph serum increased both association and adherence of MG155 two- to threefold but did not affect association and adherence of AAEC072. MG155 was also 1.5- to 1.7-fold more sensitive to killing by hemocytes than AAEC072, as evaluated by the number of culturable bacteria after 60 and 120 min of incubation. The role of type 1 fimbriae in MG155 interactions with hemocytes was confirmed by the inhibitory effect of d-mannose. In in vivo experiments MG155 cells were cleared from circulating hemolymph more rapidly than AAEC072 cells were cleared. These results confirm that surface properties are crucial in influencing bacterial persistence and survival within mussel hemolymph. PMID:11133482

  5. Antioxidant and prebiotic activity of five peonidin-based anthocyanins extracted from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Hanju; Zhang, Pingping; Zhu, Yongsheng; Lou, Qiuyan; He, Shudong

    2018-03-22

    Twelve kinds of anthocyanins from the Chinese purple sweet potato cultivar (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were extracted and identified using LC-MS/MS, which had a high content of peonidin-based anthocyanins. Five peonidin-based anthocyanin monomers (P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5) were isolated by preparative liquid chromatography with structural analyses using an Impact II Q-TOF MS/MS. Then, the functional properties of the anthocyanin monomers, such as the antioxidant activities, proliferative effects on probiotics, and their inhibition on harmful bacteria in vitro, were investigated. The peonidin-based components in purple sweet potato anthocyanins (PSPAs) showed good properties regarding scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and superoxide anions, and had good potential in reducing the total power activity and Fe 2+ chelating ability. While the order of the antioxidant abilities was as follows: P4 > P5 > P3 > P2 > P1 > PSPAs. Microbial cultivations showed that P1, P2, P3, P4, P5 and PSPAs could induce the proliferation of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and they inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium, suggesting the anthocyanins might have prebiotic-like activity through the modulation of the intestinal microbiota. Our results indicate that peonidin-based anthocyanins could be further utilized in health foods and pharmaceutical developments.

  6. Integrated assessment of air pollution by metals and source apportionment using ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Illi, Júlia Carolina; Vancetta, Tafael; Alves, Darlan Daniel; Osório, Daniela Montanari Migliavacca; Bianchin, Liane; de Quevedo, Daniela Müller; Juchem, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    One of the biggest environmental problems existing today is air pollution, which is characterized by the presence of toxic gases and metal pollutants, the latter of which is generally associated with emissions of particulate matter (PM) from industries or automotive vehicles. Biomonitoring is a method that can be used to assess air pollution levels because it makes it possible to determine what effects these air pollutants cause in living organisms and their responses. The species Lolium multiflorum Lam., known as ryegrass, is considered a good bioindicator of metals, since it accumulates these substances during exposure. This study proposes to conduct an integrated assessment of air quality using two different monitoring methodologies: biomonitoring with L. multiflorum and active monitoring in areas with different levels of urbanization and industrialization. Concentrations found in ryegrass plants revealed high levels of Pb, Cr, Zn, and Cu, indicating that vehicular and industrial emissions were the main sources of pollution. Analysis of PM also revealed soot and biogenic particles, which can transport metals. Therefore, with the proposed method, the anthropogenic impact on air pollution in the investigated area could be clearly demonstrated.

  7. Hypolipidemic Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam Leaf Powder and its Extract in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Shahinaz A; Morsy, Nashwa F S; Elaby, Shahenda M; Ghaly, Mohammed A A

    2017-08-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam possess some potential medicinal value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of M. oleifera leaf powder and its extract against hyperlipidemia in rats. Adult male albino rats were divided into six groups. The first group was fed on a basal diet that served as a negative control, whereas the others were fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) containing moringa leaf powder at 0.737% or 1.475% or administered daily with 200 or 400 mg dry moringa leaf extract/kg bw for 60 days. A positive control group was fed on the HFD. Serum indices related to lipid profile, oxidative status, and liver function were analyzed. Feeding rats on an HFD containing moringa leaf powder at 0.737% or an oral dose of its dry extract at 400 mg/kg bw alleviated the harmful elevation of cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, and the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum that were induced by the HFD. This is the first study demonstrating the hypocholesterolemic effect of M. oleifera leaf powder.

  8. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract.

    PubMed

    San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.

  9. Aculeatin, a coumarin derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Akio, E-mail: watanabea@jfrl.or.jp; Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Miyagi 981-8555; Kato, Tsuyoshi

    Highlights: • Aculeatin promoted adipocyte differentiation. • Aculeatin improved glucose uptake. • Aculeatin enhanced adipocyte lipolysis. - Abstract: Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. asiatica) has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of diabetes. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of anti-diabetic agents, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. In this study, we investigated the effects of fractionated T. asiatica extracts on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and identified aculeatin as a potential active agent. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with aculeatin isolated from T. asiatica in the presence ofmore » insulin, aculeatin increased cellular triglyceride levels and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. This indicated that aculeatin could enhance the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Further analyses using a DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR showed an increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ target genes (Pparg, Ap2, Cd36, Glut4 and Adipoq) by aculeatin, suggesting that aculeatin enhances the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by modulating the expression of genes critical for adipogenesis. Interestingly, after treatment of differentiated adipocytes with aculeatin, glucose uptake and lipolysis were enhanced. Overall, our results suggested that aculeatin is an active compound in T. asiatica for enhancing both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes, which are useful for the treatment of lipid abnormalities as well as diabetes.« less

  10. Ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves protect the pre-pubertal spermatogonial cells from cyclophosphamide-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Guruprasad; Honguntikar, Sachin D; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D'Souza, Antony Sylvan; Mutalik, Srinivas; Setty, Manjunath M; Kalyankumar, Raksha; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-04-22

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is widely cultivated in Asian and African countries for its medicinal and dietary significance. The leaves are highly nutritious and are known to possess various biological activities. Pre-pubertal Swiss albino male mice were injected with single dose of cyclophosphamide (CP, 200mg/kg body weight) or ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MOE, 100mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally. In combination group, MOE was administered 24h prior to CP injection. CP induced a significant decrease in testicular weight (p<0.01) and depletion of germ cells (p<0.001) and higher level of DNA damage (p<0.001) compared to control. The expression of P53, Bax, Cytochrome C (Cyt C) was increased while there was a decrease in the expression of Bcl2, c-Kit and Oct4. Administration of MOE 24h prior to CP treatment ameliorated the depletion (p<0.001), DNA damage (p<0.001) and apoptosis (p<0.01) of germ cells induced by CP. The mitigating effect of MOE appears to be mediated by up-regulating the expression of c-Kit and Oct4 transcripts in P53-independent manner. MOE protects the spermatogonial cells from CP-induced damage by modulating the apoptotic response elicited by CP and therefore can be considered as an efficient method of male fertility preservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of active biomolecules involved in the nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles by Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xinde; Sun, Daohua; Zhang, Genlei; He, Ning; Liu, Hongyu; Huang, Jiale; Odoom-Wubah, Tareque; Li, Qingbiao

    2013-06-01

    The effects of different biomolecules in Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam leaf extract on the morphology of obtained gold nanoparticles were investigated in this study. The results indicated that reducing sugars, flavones, and polyphenols consisting of about 79.8 % dry weight of the leaf extract were mainly involved in providing the dual function of reduction and the size/shape control during the biosynthesis. The gold nanoparticles present included 64 ± 10 nm nanospheres, 131 ± 18 nm nanoflowers, and 347 ± 136 nm (edge length) nanoplates and they were synthesized using the main content of reducing sugars, flavones, and polyphenols, respectively, after they were desorbed by the AB-8 macroporous adsorption resin column. Particularly, flower-like and triangular/hexagonal gold nanoparticles with a yield more than 80 % were obtained. Possible shape-directed agents for the nucleation and growth were characterized by FTIR, it can be seen that ketones were bound on the surface of the spherical and flower-like GNPs, while both the ketones and carbonyls bound on the Au {111} plane this may have favored the formation of the twin defects, which are very essential for nanoplates' formation.

  12. Inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) against the infection and infectivity of macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Melo, Bernardo; Leitão, Joseana M S R; Oliveira, Luciano G C; Santos, Sérgio E M; Carneiro, Sabrina M P; Rodrigues, Klinger A F; Chaves, Mariana H; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Carvalho, Fernando A A

    2016-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of microbial infections and parasitic diseases. In the present study, the antileishmanial effect induced by the ethanol extract of stem barks from Z. rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH) and its n-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX) on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. In different set of experiments, macrophages or promastigotes were pretreated with ZR-EEtOH or ZR-FHEX at non-lethal concentrations for 24 hours, and then macrophages were submitted to infection by promastigotes. Moreover, their effects on activation of macrophages, as well as on the DNA content, size and number of promastigotes by flow cytometry were also evaluated. The infection rate and the number of internalized amastigote forms were markedly decreased after pretreatment of macrophages or promastigotes when compared with non-treated cells. The increase in phagocytic capability and nitrite content was also observed. Furthermore, the decrease of DNA content, size and number of promastigotes was also observed. In conclusion, ZR-EEtOH and ZR-FHEX promoted a markedly significant antileishmanial effect and reduction of infection of macrophages, probably underlying defense mechanisms activation in macrophages. These findings reinforce the potential application of Z. rhoifolium in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  13. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood) and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Fernanda Fraga; Sales, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro José; Araújo, Márcio SS; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Resende, Jarbas M; Alves, Tânia MA; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; dos Santos, Vera Lúcia; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania Barros

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae). We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL) and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL), Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL). Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM) in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay. PMID:25742265

  14. Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial evaluation of a novel compound N-octacosan 7β ol, from Fumaria parviflora Lam.

    PubMed

    Jameel, Mohammad; Islamuddin, Mohammad; Ali, Abuzer; Afrin, Farhat; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-03-12

    Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumaraceae) is widely used in traditional as well as folkloric system of medicine from ancient. It is commonly known as 'Pitpapra' or 'Shahtrah' in Indian traditional system of medicine and used for treating numerous ailments like diarrhea, fever, influenza, blood purifier and other complications. The object of the present study was to evaluate the Antileishmanial, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic potential of isolated compound. Methanolic extract of whole plant of Fumaria parviflora was dried under reduced pressure to obtain a dark brown residue which was adsorbed on silica gel column grade (60-120 mesh) to obtain a slurry and chromatographed over silica gel loaded column in petroleum ether-chloroform (3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 v/v). The in vitro antileishmanial evaluation of isolated compound against Leishmania donovani promastigotes was investigated by growth kinetics assay, reversibility assay, analysis of cellular morphology, adverse toxicity and determination of 50% growth inhibitory concentration (GI50). Disc diffusion and broth micro dilution methods were used to study the antibacterial (Gram + Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis; Gram - Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) and antifungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) potential in vitro. Structure elucidation by spectral data analysis revealed a novel compound, n-octacosan-7β-ol (OC), yield (0.471%), having significant antimicrobial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger in vitro with GI50 = 5.35, MIC 250, MIC 250 and MFC 500 and MIC 250 μg ml(-1) respectively. The isolated compound did not show adverse effect against mammalian macrophages. The available evidence of compound suggested that it may be used as antimicrobial agent in future and may provide new platform for drug discovery programmes for leishmaniasis.

  15. Efficient embryogenic suspension culturing and rapid transformation of a range of elite genotypes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Bi, Hui-Ping; Fan, Wei-Juan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was developed using embryogenic suspension cell cultures of elite sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) cultivars, including Ayamurasaki, Sushu2, Sushu9, Sushu11, Wanshu1, Xushu18 and Xushu22. Embryogenic suspension cultures were established in LCP medium using embryogenic calli induced from apical or axillary buds on an induction medium containing 2 mg l(-1) 2,4-D. Suspension cultures were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring the binary plasmid pCAMBIA1301 with the hpt gene as a selectable marker and an intron-interrupted uidA gene as a visible marker. Several key steps of the sweet potato transformation system have been investigated and optimized, including the appropriate antibiotics and their concentrations for suppressing Agrobacterium growth and the optimal doses of hygromycin for transformant selection. A total of 485 putative transgenic plant lines were produced from the transformed calli via somatic embryogenesis and germination to plants under 10 mg l(-1) hygromycin and 200 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. PCR, GUS and Southern blot analyses of the regenerated plants showed that 92.35% of them were transgenic. The number of T-DNA insertions varied from one to three in most transgenic plant lines. Plants showed 100% survival when 308 transgenics were transferred to soil in the greenhouse and then to the field. Most of them were morphologically normal, with the production of storage roots after 3 months of cultivation in the greenhouse or fields. The development of such a robust transformation method suitable to a range of sweet potato genotypes not only provides a routine tool for genetic improvement via transgenesis but also allows us to conduct a functional verification of endogenous genes in sweet potato. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of endemic Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam.) Pers and observation of the inhibition effect on bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Benli, Mehlika; Yiğit, Nazife; Geven, Fatmagül; Güney, Kerim; Bingöl, Umit

    2008-12-01

    Up to now an increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been reported and thus new natural therapeutic agents are needed in order to eradicate these pathogens. Through the discovery of plants such as Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam.) Pers that have antimicrobial activity, it will be possible to discover new natural drugs serving as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of nosocomial pathogens and take these antibiotic-resistant bacteria under control. The objective of the present study was to determine antimicrobial activity and the activity mechanism of C. tanacetifolia plant extract. The leaves of C. tanacetifolia, which is an endemic plant, were extracted using methanol and tested against 10 bacterial and 4 yeast strains by using a drop method. It was observed that the plant extract had antibacterial effects on Bacillus subtilis, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes among the microorganisms that were tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results obtained at the end of an incubation of 24 h were found to be > or =6.16 mg ml(-1) for B. subtilis, < 394 mg ml(-1) for Shigella, and > or =3.08 mg ml(-1) for L. monocytogenes and S. aureus and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were found as > or =24.63 mg ml(-1) for B. subtilis, > or =394 mg ml(-1) for Shigella, > or =6.16 mg ml(-1) for L. monocytogenes, and > or =98.5 mg ml(-1) for S. aureus. According to the MBC results, it was found that the plant extract had bactericidal effects and in order to explain the activity mechanism and cell deformation of bacterial strains treated with plant extract, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used. The results of SEM showed that the treated cells appeared shrunken and there was degradation of the cell walls. This study, in which the antibacterial effect of C. tanacetifolia was demonstrated, will be a base for further investigations on advanced purification and effect mechanism of action of its active compounds.

  17. H+ -pyrophosphatase IbVP1 promotes efficient iron use in sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.].

    PubMed

    Fan, Weijuan; Wang, Hongxia; Wu, Yinliang; Yang, Nan; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies limiting crop production globally, especially in arid regions because of decreased availability of iron in alkaline soils. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] grows well in arid regions and is tolerant to Fe deficiency. Here, we report that the transcription of type I H + -pyrophosphatase (H + -PPase) gene IbVP1 in sweet potato plants was strongly induced by Fe deficiency and auxin in hydroponics, improving Fe acquisition via increased rhizosphere acidification and auxin regulation. When overexpressed, transgenic plants show higher pyrophosphate hydrolysis and plasma membrane H + -ATPase activity compared with the wild type, leading to increased rhizosphere acidification. The IbVP1-overexpressing plants showed better growth, including enlarged root systems, under Fe-sufficient or Fe-deficient conditions. Increased ferric precipitation and ferric chelate reductase activity in the roots of transgenic lines indicate improved iron uptake, which is also confirmed by increased Fe content and up-regulation of Fe uptake genes, e.g. FRO2, IRT1 and FIT. Carbohydrate metabolism is significantly affected in the transgenic lines, showing increased sugar and starch content associated with the increased expression of AGPase and SUT1 genes and the decrease in β-amylase gene expression. Improved antioxidant capacities were also detected in the transgenic plants, which showed reduced H 2 O 2 accumulation associated with up-regulated ROS-scavenging activity. Therefore, H + -PPase plays a key role in the response to Fe deficiency by sweet potato and effectively improves the Fe acquisition by overexpressing IbVP1 in crops cultivated in micronutrient-deficient soils. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Anti-apoptosis effect of polysaccharide isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam on cardiomyocytes in aging rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shou-Li; Guo, Li; Ren, Ya-Chao; Wang, Bing; Li, Rong-Hui; Qi, Yu-Shan; Yu, Hui; Chang, Nai-Dan; Li, Ming-Hui; Peng, Hai-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the mechanism of apoptosis in myocardial cells of aging rats induced by D-galactose and to study the effect of the Polysaccharide isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam (PCCL) on apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and its corresponding machinasim in aging rat model. Fifty male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Normal control group (NC). D-galactose (100 mg · kg(-1)d(-1) for 56 day) indued aging group (MC), D-galactose plus 100 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (ML), D-galactose plus 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (MM), and D-galactose plus 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (MH). Same volume of solution (water, or PCCL aqueous solution) was given by gavage for 56 days. Then the hearts were collected and apoptosis parameters were evaluated. Caspase-3 and Cyt c were determined by fluorescence spectrometer, the apoptosis rate was assessed by AnnexinV-FITC method by Flow-Cytometry, [Ca(2+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i overloaded by KCL were observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM); Bcl-2 and Bax were examined by immunohistochemistry. The content of Cyt C, [Ca(2+)]i of cardiomyocytes, the activity of Caspase-3, Bax expression level in D-galactose induced aging group were higher than NC (p < 0.05). The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was decreased in D-galactose induced aging group compared to NC. On the other hand, the content of Cyt C, [Ca(2+)]i of cardiomyocytes, the activity of Caspase-3 and apoptosis rate, as well as Bax expression level in all three PCCL groups were decreased compared to galactose induced group (p < 0.05). Bcl-2/Bax ratio was increased in all PCCL groups compared to galactose induced aging group. PCCL could decrease the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by the mitochondria apoptosis pathway.

  19. Cuscuta chinensis Lam.: A systematic review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Donnapee, Sineeporn; Li, Jin; Yang, Xi; Ge, Ai-hua; Donkor, Paul Owusu; Gao, Xiu-mei; Chang, Yan-xu

    2014-11-18

    Cuscuta chinensis Lam. has found its use as a traditional medicine in China, Korea, Pakistan, Vietnam, India and Thailand. It is commonly used as an anti-aging agent, anti-inflammatory agent, pain reliever and aphrodisiac. To provide an overview of the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology and clinical applications of Cuscuta chinensis, as well as being an evidence base for further research works of the plant. The present review covers the literature available from 1985 to 2014. The information was collected from journals, books, theses and electronic search (Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, ESBCO, Springerlink and CNKI). Literature abstracts and full-text articles were analyzed and included in the review. Many phytochemicals have been isolated, identified and published to date, including: at least 18 flavonoids; 13 phenolic acids; 2 steroids; 1 hydroquinone; 10 volatile oils; 22 lignans; 9 polysaccharides; 2 resin glycosides; 16 fatty acids. These phytochemicals and plant extracts exhibit a range of pharmacological activities that include hepatoprotective, renoprotective, antiosteoporotic, antioxidant, anti-aging, antimutagenic, antidepressant, improve sexual function, abortifacient effects, etc. This present review offers primary information for further studies of Cuscuta chinensis. The in vitro studies and in vivo models have provided a bioscientific explanation for its various ethnopharmacological uses and pharmacological activities (most notably antioxidant effects) especially in the prevention of hepatic disease and renal failure. It is necessary and important to do more pharmacokinetic and toxicological research works on human subjects in order to inform the possible active compounds in the body and validate its safety in clinical uses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, S.; Raghavendra, K. M.; Biswas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

  1. Improvement of the coagulation/flocculation process using a combination of Moringa oleifera lam with anionic polymer in water treatment.

    PubMed

    Bongiovani, Milene Carvalho; Camacho, Franciele Pereira; Nishi, Letícia; Coldebella, Priscila Ferri; Valverde, Karina Cardoso; Vieira, Angélica Marquetotti Salcedo; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of anionic polymer as a flocculant aid on the coagulation/flocculation performance with a saline solution of Moringa oleifera as a coagulant to provide larger flocs and decrease the time sedimentation. For the tests, raw water was used from Pirapó River Basin (Maringá, Paraná, Brazil). Optimization of coagulation/flocculation tests was initially performed in a jar-test with a dosage of M. oleifera Lam (crude extract--MO, oil-extracted with ethanol--MO (et) and hexane--MO (hex) 1% m/v) as the coagulant that ranged from 10 to 60 mg L(-1) and of the anionic polymer 0.1% as a flocculant aid with a dosage that ranged from 0 to 0.4 mg L(-1). The parameters analysed were colour, turbidity and compounds with absorption in UV254nm. In view of the statistical analysis results, MO (hex) with a dosage of 30 mg L(-1) was chosen as a coagulant for the next tests of coagulation/flocculation. When anionic polymer was used alone (0.0 mg L(-1) of MO (hex)), parameters were not removed and there was no generation of heavy flocs as compared with the combination of MO (hex) with the anionic polymer. Statistical analysis showed that MO (hex) obtained the highest removals of the parameters analysed in lower dosages and no significant increase in parameters removal was observed when the polymer dosage was increased. The efficacy of the coagulant +/- anionic polymer was optimal when 30mg L(-1) of MO (hex) was used as a coagulant and 0.1 mg L(-1) of the anionic polymer was used as a flocculant aid, decreasing the time sedimentation from 1 h to 15 min.

  2. Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter.

    PubMed

    Nduwimana, André; Yang, Xiang-Long; Wang, Li-Ren

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture. The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter, to maintain acceptable levels of soil, water and air quality. In this study, two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems; recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation water in local communities with low income. In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation. It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen), 90% for NO2(-)-N, 64.8% for NO3(-)-N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN, 82% for NO2(-)-N and 60.5% for NO3(-)-N. Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well, however, plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming. Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction, the treatment with L. perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality. A. viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge. The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves.

  3. Application of Chan-Lam cross coupling for the synthesis of N-heterocyclic carbene precursors bearing strong electron donating or withdrawing groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liliang; He, Chengxiang; Sun, Zhihua

    2015-07-01

    Chan-Lam cross coupling allowed efficient synthesis of N,N’-disubstituted ortho-phenylene diamines bearing strong electron donating or withdrawing groups, such as nitro or methoxy groups, with moderate to high yields. These diamines can then be turned into N-heterocyclic carbene precursors after condensation with trimethyl orthoformate. The same strategy can also be utilized for the synthesis of N-monosubstituted aniline derivatives containing a functionalized ortho-aminomethyl group as intermediates for chiral 6-membered ring carbene precursors.

  4. Evaluation of the rate constants of sugar transport through maltoporin (LamB) of Escherichia coli from the sugar-induced current noise

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    LamB (maltoporin) of Escherichia coli outer membrane was reconstituted into artificial lipid bilayer membranes. The channel contains a binding site for sugars and is blocked for ions when the site is occupied by a sugar. The on and off reactions of sugar binding cause an increase of the noise of the current through the channel. The sugar-induced current noise of maltoporin was used for the evaluation of the sugar-binding kinetics for different sugars of the maltooligosaccharide series and for sucrose. The on rate constant for sugar binding was between 10(6) and 10(7) M-1.s-1 for the maltooligosaccharides and corresponds to the movement of the sugars from the aqueous phase to the central binding site. The off rate (corresponding to the release of the sugars from the channel) decreased with increasing number of glucose residues in the maltooligosaccharides from approximately 2,000 s-1 for maltotriose to 180 s-1 for maltoheptaose. The kinetics for sucrose movement was considerably slower. The activation energies of the stability constant and of the rate constants for sugar binding were evaluated from noise experiments at different temperatures. The role of LamB in the transport of maltooligosaccharides across the outer membrane is discussed. PMID:7539481

  5. Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bharali, Rupjyoti; Tabassum, Jawahira; Azad, Mohammed Rekibul Haque

    2003-01-01

    The modulatory effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight and 250 mg/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b(5) and Cytochrome p(450) ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 6-8 week old female Swiss albino mice. Further, the chemopreventive efficacy of the extract was evaluated in a two stage model of 7,12 - dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis. Significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the activities of hepatic cytochrome b(5), cytochrome p(450), catalase, glutathione peroxidase ( GPx ), glutathione reductase (GR), acid soluble sulfhydryl content (-SH ) and a significant decrease ( p<0.01 ) in the hepatic MDA level were observed at both dose levels of treatment when compared with the control values. Glutathione-S- transferase ( GST )activity was found to be significantly increased (p<0.01 ) only at the higher dose level. Butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA ) fed at a dose of 0.75% in the diet for 7 and 14 days (positive control ) caused a significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the levels of hepatic phase I and phase II enzymes, anti- oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and a decrease in lipid peroxidation. The skin papillomagenesis studies demonstrated a significant decrease (p<0.05 ) in the percentage of mice with papillomas, average number of papillomas per mouse and papillomas per papilloma bearing mouse when the animals received a topical application of the extract at a dose of 5mg/ kg body weight in the peri-initiation phase 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application, Group II ), promotional phase (from the day of croton oil application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group III ) and both peri and post initiation stages (from 7 days prior to DMBA application and continued till the

  6. A genome-wide BAC-end sequence survey provides first insights into sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genome composition.

    PubMed

    Si, Zengzhi; Du, Bing; Huo, Jinxi; He, Shaozhen; Liu, Qingchang; Zhai, Hong

    2016-11-21

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., is an important food crop widely grown in the world. However, little is known about the genome of this species because it is a highly heterozygous hexaploid. Gaining a more in-depth knowledge of sweetpotato genome is therefore necessary and imperative. In this study, the first bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of sweetpotato was constructed. Clones from the BAC library were end-sequenced and analyzed to provide genome-wide information about this species. The BAC library contained 240,384 clones with an average insert size of 101 kb and had a 7.93-10.82 × coverage of the genome, and the probability of isolating any single-copy DNA sequence from the library was more than 99%. Both ends of 8310 BAC clones randomly selected from the library were sequenced to generate 11,542 high-quality BAC-end sequences (BESs), with an accumulative length of 7,595,261 bp and an average length of 658 bp. Analysis of the BESs revealed that 12.17% of the sweetpotato genome were known repetitive DNA, including 7.37% long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, 1.15% Non-LTR retrotransposons and 1.42% Class II DNA transposons etc., 18.31% of the genome were identified as sweetpotato-unique repetitive DNA and 10.00% of the genome were predicted to be coding regions. In total, 3,846 simple sequences repeats (SSRs) were identified, with a density of one SSR per 1.93 kb, from which 288 SSRs primers were designed and tested for length polymorphism using 20 sweetpotato accessions, 173 (60.07%) of them produced polymorphic bands. Sweetpotato BESs had significant hits to the genome sequences of I. trifida and more matches to the whole-genome sequences of Solanum lycopersicum than those of Vitis vinifera, Theobroma cacao and Arabidopsis thaliana. The first BAC library for sweetpotato has been successfully constructed. The high quality BESs provide first insights into sweetpotato genome composition, and have significant hits to the genome

  7. Chemical characterization and cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic properties of Baccharis trinervis (Lam, Persoon) from Colombia and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-García, Victoria; Trindade, Cristiano; Lima, Elisiane; Guecheva, Temenouga N; Villela, Izabel; Martinez-Lopez, Wilner; Corrêa, Dione S; Ferraz, Alexandre de B F; Moura, Sidnei; Sosa, Milton Quintana; Da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas

    2018-03-01

    Baccharis trinervis (Lam, Persoon) leaves are used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of high fevers, edema, inflammation, sores and muscle cramps, snakebites and as antiseptic. To investigate the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of extracts and fractions of B. trinervis from Brazil and Colombia in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, and to examine the mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium. Aqueous extracts (AE) of aerial parts of B. trinervis from Brazil (B) and Colombia (C) were fractioned in ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), butanol extract (BF), and aqueous residue fraction (ARF). Qualitative chemical screening and determination of total flavonoid content were made. Identification of chemical constituents was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS). For the in vitro tests, CHO cells were treated for 3h with extracts and fractions. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated by clonal survival and 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2.5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction assay (MTT). Genotoxic and mutagenic effects were evaluated by the alkaline comet assay and Cytokinesis-blockage micronucleus test (CBMN), respectively. Additionally, Salmonella/microsome assay was carried out to determinate the mutagenic effects in EAF from Brazil and Colombia. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of saponins and flavonoids. AE and EAF were the samples with the highest quantity of total flavonoids. HPLC showed the presence of luteolin only in AEC, and caffeic acid, ellagic acid, rosmarinic acid, and rutin were identified in AEB and AEC (AEC>AEB). The HRMS in positive mode of EAFB and EAFC showed presence of two carboxylic acids, coumarin, and two terpenoids. In addition, were identified one terpenoid and two carboxylic acids in AE, BF and ARF of B. trinervis from both countries in negative mode. Dose-dependent cytotoxic effects were observed in CHO cells treated with B. trinervis extracts

  8. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using bark extracts of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. and study of their antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Manoja; Smita, Soumya Shuvra

    2018-03-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved using bark extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub., a native plant of Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia. The plant parts are familiar for ailment of different diseases. The bioactive compounds present in bark of the plant were extracted with Soxhlet extractor. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used as a raw material for preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The ratio of bark extract and silver nitrate solution for synthesis of AgNPs was standardized as 3:5. The change in colour of the solution from pale yellow to deep brown can be correlated to reduction reaction catalyzed by plant bioactive compounds. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) maxima, λmax, were recorded at 452 nm. SPR indicates the nature and type of particles present in the solution. The suitable concentration of AgNO3 was found to be 10 mM to carry out reduction reaction with the bark extract. Alkaline environment (pH 9) suitably promotes the reaction. FTIR graph of synthesized AgNPs shows the shifting peak of 3265.0 wavelength/cm and 1635.40 wavelength/cm indicates that AgNPs were coated with plant biomolecules, which is attributed to the stabilization of AgNPs. XRD and SEM photograph of the AgNPs showed that they were spherical in shape and capped with bioactive compounds. Thus, the synthesized AgNPs are more stable, less toxic and homogenous in shape. The average diameter of the nanoparticles was 81 nm. The synthesized AgNPs had efficacy against a Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), a Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), and a mold (Aspergillus niger). The maximum conversion was 66%. From the present investigation, it can be concluded that the bioactive compounds present in the bark of Butea have the capacity to reduce silver ion into silver nanoparticles in aqueous condition and the synthesized AgNPs are stabilized and loss toxic. Moreover, they also possess

  9. Clinical Diagnostic Utility of IP-10 and LAM Antigen Levels for the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Pleural Effusions in a High Burden Setting

    PubMed Central

    Dheda, Keertan; Van-Zyl Smit, Richard N.; Sechi, Leonardo A.; Badri, Motasim; Meldau, Richard; Symons, Gregory; Khalfey, Hoosein; Carr, Igshaan; Maredza, Alice; Dawson, Rodney; Wainright, Helen; Whitelaw, Andrew; Bateman, Eric D.; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2009-01-01

    Background Current tools for the diagnosis of tuberculosis pleural effusions are sub-optimal. Data about the value of new diagnostic technologies are limited, particularly, in high burden settings. Preliminary case control studies have identified IFN-γ-inducible-10kDa protein (IP-10) as a promising diagnostic marker; however, its diagnostic utility in a day-to-day clinical setting is unclear. Detection of LAM antigen has not previously been evaluated in pleural fluid. Methods We investigated the comparative diagnostic utility of established (adenosine deaminase [ADA]), more recent (standardized nucleic-acid-amplification-test [NAAT]) and newer technologies (a standardized LAM mycobacterial antigen-detection assay and IP-10 levels) for the evaluation of pleural effusions in 78 consecutively recruited South African tuberculosis suspects. All consenting participants underwent pleural biopsy unless contra-indicated or refused. The reference standard comprised culture positivity for M. tuberculosis or histology suggestive of tuberculosis. Principal Findings Of 74 evaluable subjects 48, 7 and 19 had definite, probable and non-TB, respectively. IP-10 levels were significantly higher in TB vs non-TB participants (p<0.0001). The respective outcomes [sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV %] for the different diagnostic modalities were: ADA at the 30 IU/L cut-point [96; 69; 90; 85], NAAT [6; 93; 67; 28], IP-10 at the 28,170 pg/ml ROC-derived cut-point [80; 82; 91; 64], and IP-10 at the 4035 pg/ml cut-point [100; 53; 83; 100]. Thus IP-10, using the ROC-derived cut-point, missed ∼20% of TB cases and mis-diagnosed ∼20% of non-TB cases. By contrast, when a lower cut-point was used a negative test excluded TB. The NAAT had a poor sensitivity but high specificity. LAM antigen-detection was not diagnostically useful. Conclusion Although IP-10, like ADA, has sub-optimal specificity, it may be a clinically useful rule-out test for tuberculous pleural effusions. Larger multi

  10. Styrax americanus Lam.

    Treesearch

    K.F Connor

    2004-01-01

    American snowbell, also known as mock orange or storax, is a deciduous shrub or small tree with a widely branched crown. It reaches 3 to 5 m in height, and the stems can reach 7.5 cm in diameter. While the bark on the stems is smooth and dark grey to brown, branches range in color from green to grey to red-brown. Young stems are pubescent, becoming glabrous with age....

  11. Cordia subcordata Lam

    Treesearch

    James A. Allen

    2002-01-01

    The genus Cordia contains about 250 species. They occur in tropical to warm temperate regions throughout the world, with the greatest diversity of species in the Neotropics (Wagner and others 1990). Cordia subcordata is apparently native to Malesia but has been spread throughout the Pacific and along Indian Ocean shores. The...

  12. Construction of a genetic map using EST-SSR markers and QTL analysis of major agronomic characters in hexaploid sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Chung, Il Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Min

    2017-01-01

    The Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam, is difficult to study in genetics and genomics because it is a hexaploid. The sweet potato study not have been performed domestically or internationally. In this study was performed to construct genetic map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. A total of 245 EST-SSR markers were developed, and the map was constructed by using 210 of those markers. The total map length was 1508.1 cM, and the mean distance between markers was 7.2 cM. Fifteen characteristics were investigated for QTLs analysis. According to those, the Four QTLs were identified, and The LOD score was 3.0. Further studies need to develop molecular markers in terms of EST-SSR markers for doing to be capable of efficient breeding. The genetic map created here using EST-SSR markers will facilitate planned breeding of sweet potato cultivars with various desirable traits.

  13. Determination of hyperin in seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by enhanced chemiluminescence of CdTe quantum dots on calcein/K3Fe(CN)6 system.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jing; Li, Xuwen; Geng, Jiayang; Han, Lu; Tang, Jieli; Jin, Yongri; Zhang, Yihua

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, 3-mercaptocarboxylic acid (MPA) modified CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were used as sensitizers, to enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of the calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) system. A new CL system of CdTe/calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) was developed. The effects of reactant concentrations and the particle sizes of CdTe QDs on the CL emission were investigated in detail. The possible enhancement mechanism of the CL was also further investigated based on the photoluminescence (PL) and CL spectra. Polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid, quercetin, hyperin, catechin and kaempferol, were observed to inhibit the CL signal of the CdTe/calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) system and determined by the proposed method. The proposed method was applied to the determination of hyperin in seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. and the results obtained were satisfactory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A new linoleiyl arabinopyranoside from the bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam and a new flavonoidal glycoside from the leaves of Cordia dichotoma Linn.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Azizur; Akhtar, Juber

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation is very valuable for the ethnomedicinally important plants Bauhinia racemosa Lam (BR) and Cordia dichotoma Linn (CD) used for the cure of variety of ailments. This study was thus designed for phytochemical investigation of BR bark and CD leaves. Phytoconstituents were isolated from the methanolic extracts of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel as stationary phase. The structures had been established on the basis of their physicochemical and spectral data, i.e. IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS. Elution of the columns with different solvents furnished six compounds (1-6) from the methanolic extract of BR bark and three compounds (7-9) from the methanolic extract of CD leaves which were structurally elucidated. The present phytochemical investigation reported several new compounds useful in increasing the existing knowledge of phytoconstituents from BR bark and CD leaves which is very valuable, as these drugs are used in the Indian traditional systems of medicine.

  15. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf powder on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in HIV-infected adults: a one sequence cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Monera-Penduka, Tsitsi G; Maponga, Charles C; Wolfe, Alan R; Wiesner, Lubbe; Morse, Gene D; Nhachi, Charles F B

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam., an herb commonly consumed by HIV-infected people on antiretroviral therapy, inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4, 1A2 and 2D6 activity in vitro; and may alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antiretroviral drugs metabolized via the same pathways. However, in vitro drug interaction activity may not translate to a clinically significant effect. Therefore, the effect of moringa leaf powder on the PK of nevirapine in HIV-infected people was investigated. Adult patients at steady-state dosing with nevirapine were admitted for 12-h intensive PK sampling following a 21-day herbal medicine washout. Blood sampling was repeated after 14 days of nevirapine and moringa (1.85 g leaf powder/day) co-administration. Nevirapine plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To assess the effect of moringa on nevirapine PK, the change in nevirapine area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was determined. The mean difference in pre- and post-moringa nevirapine, maximum concentration (C max ) and concentration at 12 h (C 12h ) were also calculated. The PK parameters were compared by assessing the post/pre geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and associated 90% confidence intervals (CIs). Pharmacokinetics analyses were performed on the results from 11 participants for whom complete data were obtained. The post/pre GMRs and associated 90% CIs for nevirapine were 1.07 (1.00-1.14) for the AUC; 1.06 (0.98-1.16) for C max and 1.03 (0.92-1.16) for C 12h . Co-administration of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf powder at the traditional dose did not significantly alter the steady-state PK of nevirapine. Trial registration number NCT01410058 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

  16. Diagnostic accuracy, incremental yield and prognostic value of Determine TB-LAM for routine diagnostic testing for tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients requiring acute hospital admission in South Africa: a prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Lawn, Stephen D; Kerkhoff, Andrew D; Burton, Rosie; Schutz, Charlotte; Boulle, Andrew; Vogt, Monica; Gupta-Wright, Ankur; Nicol, Mark P; Meintjes, Graeme

    2017-03-21

    We previously reported that one-third of HIV-positive adults requiring medical admission to a South African district hospital had laboratory-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) and that almost two-thirds of cases could be rapidly diagnosed using Xpert MTB/RIF-testing of concentrated urine samples obtained on the first day of admission. Implementation of urine-based, routine, point-of-care TB screening is an attractive intervention that might be facilitated by use of a simple, low-cost diagnostic tool, such as the Determine TB-LAM lateral-flow rapid test for HIV-associated TB. Sputum, urine and blood samples were systematically obtained from unselected HIV-positive adults within 24 hours of admission to a South African township hospital. Additional clinical samples were obtained during hospitalization as clinically indicated. TB was defined by the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in any sample using Xpert MTB/RIF or liquid culture. The diagnostic yield, accuracy and prognostic value of urine-lipoarabinomannan (LAM) testing were determined, but urine-LAM results did not inform treatment decisions. Consecutive HIV-positive adult acute medical admissions not already receiving TB treatment (n = 427) were enrolled regardless of clinical presentation or symptoms. TB was diagnosed in 139 patients (TB prevalence 32.6%; median CD4 count 80 cells/μL). In the first 24 hours of admission, sputum (spot and/or induced) samples were obtained from 37.0% of patients and urine samples from 99.5% of patients (P < 0.001). The diagnostic yields from these specimens were 19.4% (n = 27/139) for sputum-microscopy, 26.6% (n = 37/139) for sputum-Xpert, 38.1% (n = 53/139) for urine-LAM and 52.5% (n = 73/139) for sputum-Xpert/urine-LAM combined (P < 0.01). Corresponding yields among patients with CD4 counts <100 cells/μL were 18.9%, 24.3%, 55.4% and 63.5%, respectively (P < 0.01). The diagnostic yield of urine-LAM was unrelated to respiratory symptoms, and

  17. Construction of 1-Heteroaryl-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanes by sp3-sp2 Suzuki-Miyaura and Chan-Evans-Lam Coupling Reactions of Tertiary Trifluoroborates.

    PubMed

    Harris, Michael R; Li, Qifang; Lian, Yajing; Xiao, Jun; Londregan, Allyn T

    2017-05-05

    Compounds that contain the 1-heteroaryl-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane architecture are of particular interest to the pharmaceutical industry yet remain a challenge to synthesize. We report herein an expedient and modular approach to the synthesis of 1-heteroaryl-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanes by Suzuki-Miyaura and Chan-Evans-Lam coupling reactions of tertiary trifluoroborate salts. Our Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling protocol is compatible with a broad range of aryl and heteroaryl bromides and chlorides. The unprecedented Chan-Evans-Lam coupling of tertiary trifluoroborates allows the facile construction of 1-heteroaryl-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanes containing C-tertiary arylamines at the ring juncture.

  18. Tuberculosis Case Finding With Combined Rapid Point-of-Care Assays (Xpert MTB/RIF and Determine TB LAM) in HIV-Positive Individuals Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Floridia, Marco; Ciccacci, Fausto; Andreotti, Mauro; Hassane, Archa; Sidumo, Zita; Magid, Nurja A; Sotomane, Horacio; David, Muhlavasse; Mutemba, Elsa; Cebola, Junia; Mugunhe, Remigio Josè; Riccardi, Fabio; Marazzi, Maria Cristina; Giuliano, Marina; Palombi, Leonardo; Mancinelli, Sandro

    2017-11-13

    Tuberculosis is a major health concern in several countries, and effective diagnostic algorithms for use in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients are urgently needed. At prescription of antiretroviral therapy, all patients in 3 Mozambican health centers were screened for tuberculosis, with a combined approach: World Health Organization (WHO) 4-symptom screening (fever, cough, night sweats, and weight loss), a rapid test detecting mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan in urine (Determine TB LAM), and a molecular assay performed on a sputum sample (Xpert MTB/RIF; repeated if first result was negative). Patients with positive LAM or Xpert MTB/RIF results were referred for tuberculosis treatment. Among 972 patients with a complete diagnostic algorithm (58.5% female; median CD4 cell count, 278/μL; WHO HIV stage I, 66.8%), 98 (10.1%) tested positive with Xpert (90, 9.3%) or LAM (34, 3.5%) assays. Compared with a single-test Xpert strategy, dual Xpert tests improved case finding by 21.6%, LAM testing alone improved it by 13.5%, and dual Xpert tests plus LAM testing improved it by 32.4%. Rifampicin resistance in Xpert-positive patients was infrequent (2.5%). Among patients with positive results, 22 of 98 (22.4%) had no symptoms at WHO 4-symptom screening. Patients with tuberculosis diagnosed had significantly lower CD4 cell counts and hemoglobin levels, more advanced WHO stage, and higher HIV RNA levels. Fifteen (15.3%) did not start tuberculosis treatment, mostly owing to rapidly deteriorating clinical conditions or logistical constraints. The median interval between start of the diagnostic algorithm and start of tuberculosis treatment was 7 days. The prevalence of tuberculosis among Mozambican HIV-positive patients starting antiretroviral therapy was 10%, with limited rifampicin resistance. Use of combined point-of-care tests increased case finding, with a short time to treatment. Interventions are needed to remove logistical barriers and prevent presentation

  19. Activation of Cellular Immunity in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-Infected Mice by the Oral Administration of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Masahiko; Wadhwani, Ashish; Kai, Hisahiro; Hidaka, Muneaki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Sugita, Chihiro; Watanabe, Wataru; Matsuno, Koji; Hagiwara, Akinori

    2016-05-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is used as a nutritive vegetable and spice. Its ethanol extract has been previously shown to be significantly effective in alleviating herpetic skin lesions in mice. In this study, we evaluated the alleviation by the aqueous extract (AqMOL) and assessed the mode of its anti-herpetic action in a murine cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection model. AqMOL (300 mg/kg) was administered orally to HSV-1-infected mice three times daily on days 0 to 5 after infection. AqMOL significantly limited the development of herpetic skin lesions and reduced virus titers in the brain on day 4 without toxicity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to inactivated HSV-1 antigen was significantly stronger in infected mice administered AqMOL and AqMOL augmented interferon (IFN)-γ production by HSV-1 antigen from splenocytes of HSV-1-infected mice at 4 days post-infection. AqMOL administration was effective in elevating the ratio of CD11b(+) and CD49b(+) subpopulations of splenocytes in infected mice. As DTH is a major host defense mechanism for intradermal HSV infection, augmentation of the DTH response by AqMOL may contribute to their efficacies against HSV-1 infection. These results provided an important insights into the mechanism by which AqMOL activates cellular immunity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of triterpenoid-enriched Jamun (Eugenia jambolana Lam.) fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jialin; Liu, Tingting; Li, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Chunhui; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P; Liu, Feifei; Mu, Yu; Huang, Xueshi; Li, Liya

    2018-06-20

    The edible berries of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (known as Jamun) are consumed in various parts of the world. Our previous studies revealed that a triterpenoid-enriched Jamun fruit extract (TJFE) showed beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis in non-diabetic mice. Herein, the anti-diabetic effects of TJFE (100 mg kg-1 by oral gavage for ten days) were evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice. TJFE significantly attenuated STZ-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance, suppressed the abnormal elevation of hepatic gluconeogenesis, and improved dyslipidemia in the mice. Histopathology and mechanism-based studies revealed that TJFE preserved the architecture and function of pancreatic islets, attenuated insulin secretion deficiency, enhanced insulin/Akt signaling transduction, reduced lipogenic gene expression, and prevented the abnormal activation of Erk MAPK in the liver tissues of the STZ-induced diabetic mice. The current study adds to previously published data supporting the potential beneficial effects of this edible fruit on diabetes management.

  1. Stress responses of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) and water velvet (Azolla filiculoides Lam.) to anionic surfactant sodium-dodecyl-sulphate (SDS).

    PubMed

    Forni, C; Braglia, R; Harren, F J M; Cristescu, S M

    2012-04-01

    Surfactants are used for several purposes and recently they have attracted the attention for their ability to modify the behavior of other preexistent or co-disposed contaminants, although their use or discharge in wastewaters can represent a real or potential risk for the environment. Lemna minor L. and Azolla filiculoides Lam. are floating aquatic macrophytes, very effective in accumulating several pollutants including sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). In this work we evaluated the effects of SDS on these species by determining the stress ethylene production via laser-based trace gas detection, and the activities of enzymes involved in stress response, such as guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol-oxidase (PPO). Phenolics content was also determined. The macrophytes were treated with different concentrations of SDS for one week. SDS affected duckweed enzymatic activities and phenol content. While in the fern phenolics amount, PAL, G-POD and PPO activities were not affected by SDS except for 100 ppm SDS, the only concentration that was taken up and not completely degraded. Stress ethylene production was induced only in the fern treated with 50 and 100 ppm SDS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing the DSM-5 construct of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and ICD-10 Mixed Disorder of Emotion and Conduct in the UK Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (UK-LAMS) Study.

    PubMed

    Sagar-Ouriaghli, I; Milavic, G; Barton, R; Heaney, N; Fiori, F; Lievesley, K; Singh, J; Santosh, Paramala

    2018-05-05

    It is important to understand new diagnostic entities in classifications of psychopathology such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) (code F34.8) construct of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) and to compare it with possible equivalent disorders in other classificatory systems such as the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10), which has a category that superficially appears similar, that is, Mixed Disorder of Emotion and Conduct (MDEC) (code F92). In this study, the United Kingdom (UK) arm (UK-LAMS) of the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) supported Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) multi-site study was used to evaluate and retrospectively construct DMDD and MDEC diagnoses in order to compare them and understand the conditions they co-occur with, in order to improve the clinical understanding. In particular, the phenomenology of UK-LAMS participants (n = 117) was used to determine whether DMDD is a unique entity within the DSM-5. The findings showed that 24 of 68 participants with either DMDD or MDEC (35.3%) fulfilled both diagnostic criteria for DMDD and MDEC, suggesting that these entities do contain overlapping features, particularly symptoms relating to Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)/Conduct Disorder (CD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)/Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD) and/or an anxiety disorder. The data also showed that most of the participants who met DMDD criteria also fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for ODD/CD, ADHD, followed by an anxiety disorder. In this context, this raises the issue whether DMDD is a unique construct or whether the symptomology for DMDD can be better explained as a specifier for ODD/CD and ADHD. Unlike DMDD, MDEC clearly specifies that the label should only be used if emotional and conduct disorders co-exist.

  3. A Novel WRKY Transcription Factor, MuWRKY3 (Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. Verdc.) Enhances Drought Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Plants.

    PubMed

    Kiranmai, Kurnool; Lokanadha Rao, Gunupuru; Pandurangaiah, Merum; Nareshkumar, Ambekar; Amaranatha Reddy, Vennapusa; Lokesh, Uppala; Venkatesh, Boya; Anthony Johnson, A M; Sudhakar, Chinta

    2018-01-01

    Drought stress has adverse effects on growth, water relations, photosynthesis and yield of groundnut. WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are the plant-specific TFs which regulate several down-stream stress-responsive genes and play an essential role in plant biotic and abiotic stress responses. We found that WRKY3 gene is highly up-regulated under drought stress conditions and therefore isolated a new WRKY3TF gene from a drought-adapted horsegram ( Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. Verdc.). Conserved domain studies revealed that protein encoded by this gene contains highly conserved regions of two WRKY domains and two C2H2 zinc-finger motifs. The fusion protein localization studies of transient MuWRKY 3-YFP revealed its nuclear localization. Overexpression of MuWRKY3 TF gene in groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) showed increased tolerance to drought stress compared to wild-type (WT) plants. MuWRKY3 groundnut transgenics displayed lesser and delayed wilting symptoms than WT plants after 10-days of drought stress imposition. The transgenic groundnut plants expressing MuWRKY3 showed less accumulation of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and superoxide anion (O 2 ∙- ), accompanied by more free proline, total soluble sugar content, and activities of antioxidant enzymes than WT plants under drought stress. Moreover, a series of stress-related LEA, HSP, MIPS, APX, SOD , and CAT genes found up-regulated in the transgenic groundnut plants. The study demonstrates that nuclear-localized MuWRKY3 TF regulates the expression of stress-responsive genes and the activity of ROS scavenging enzymes which results in improved drought tolerance in groundnut. We conclude that MuWRKY3 may serve as a new putative candidate gene for the improvement of stress resistance in plants.

  4. Phosphorus status and microbial community of paddy soil with the growth of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) under different phosphorus fertilizer treatments*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hai-chao; Wang, Guang-huo

    2009-01-01

    Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was grown in paddy soil in pots under different phosphorus (P) fertilizer treatments to investigate changes of P fractions and microbial community of the soil. The treatments included Kunyang phosphate rock (KPR) applications at 50 mg P/kg (KPR50) and 250 mg P/kg (KPR250), mono-calcium phosphate (MCP) application at 50 mg P/kg (MCP50), and the control without P application. The results showed that KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 applications significantly increased the dry weight of the ryegrass by 13%, 38%, and 55%, and increased P uptake by 19%, 135%, and 324%, respectively. Compared with MCP50, the relative effectiveness of KPR50 and KPR250 treatments in ryegrass production was about 23% and 68%, respectively. After one season of ryegrass growth, the KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 applications increased soil-available P by 13.4%, 26.8%, and 55.2%, respectively. More than 80% of the applied KPR-P remained as HCl-P fraction in the soil. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis showed that the total and bacterial PLFAs were significantly higher in the soils with KPR250 and MCP50 treatments compared with KPR50 and control. The latter had no significant difference in the total or bacterial PLFAs. The KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 treatments increased fungal PLFA by 69%, 103%, and 69%, respectively. Both the principal component analysis and the cluster analysis of the PLFA data suggest that P treatments altered the microbial community composition of the soils, and that P availability might be an important contributor to the changes in the microbial community structure during the ryegrass growth in the paddy soils. PMID:19817001

  5. Metabolic adaptation to the aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam.-supplemented diet is related to the modulation of gut microbiota in mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Xie, Qiuhong; Liu, Ling; Kong, Ping; Sheng, Jun; Xiang, Hongyu

    2017-06-01

    The aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (LM-A) is reported to have many health beneficial bioactivities and no obvious toxicity, but have mild adverse effects. Little is known about the mechanism of these reported adverse effects. Notably, there has been no report about the influence of LM-A on intestinal microecology. In this study, animal experiments were performed to explore the relationships between metabolic adaptation to an LM-A-supplemented diet and gut microbiota changes. After 8-week feeding with normal chow diet, the body weight of mice entered a stable period, and one of the group received daily doses of 750-mg/kg body weight LM-A by gavage for 4 weeks (assigned as LM); the other group received the vehicle (assigned as NCD). The liver weight to body weight ratio was enhanced, and the ceca were enlarged in the LM group compared with the NCD group. LM-A-supplemented-diet mice elicited a uniform metabolic adaptation, including slightly influenced fasting glucose and blood lipid profiles, significantly reduced liver triglycerides content, enhanced serum lipopolysaccharide level, activated inflammatory responses in the intestine and liver, compromised gut barrier function, and broken intestinal homeostasis. Many metabolic changes in mice were significantly correlated with altered specific gut bacteria. Changes in Firmicutes, Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides group, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Akkermansia muciniphila, segmented filamentous bacteria, Enterococcus spp., and Sutterella spp. may play an important role in the process of host metabolic adaptation to LM-A administration. Our research provides an explanation of the adverse effects of LM-A administration on normal adult individuals in the perspective of microecology.

  6. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Berry Extract Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer but not Non-Tumorigenic Breast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liya; Adams, Lynn S.; Chen, Shiuan; Killian, Caroline; Ahmed, Aftab; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2009-01-01

    The ripe purple berries of the native Indian plant, Eugenia jambolana Lam., known as Jamun, are popularly consumed and available in the United States in Florida and Hawaii. Despite the growing body of data on the chemopreventive potential of edible berry extracts, there is paucity of such data for Jamun fruit. Therefore our laboratory initiated the current study with the following objectives:1) to prepare a standardized Jamun fruit extract (JFE) for biological studies and, 2) to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of JFE in estrogen dependent/aromatase positive (MCF-7aro), and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, and in a normal/non-tumorigenic (MCF-10A) breast cell line. JFE was standardized to anthocyanin content using the pH differential method, and individual anthocyanins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. JFE contained 3.5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) which occur as diglucosides of five anthocyanidins/aglycons: delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. In the proliferation assay, JFE was most effective against MCF-7aro (IC50=27 µg/mL), followed by MDA-MB-231 (IC50=40 µg/mL) breast cancer cells. Importantly, JFE exhibited only mild antiproliferative effects against the normal MCF-10A (IC50>100 µg/mL) breast cells. Similarly, JFE (at 200 µg/mL) exhibited pro-apoptotic effects against the MCF-7aro (p≤0.05) and the MDA-MB-231 (p≤0.01) breast cancer cells, but not towards the normal MCF-10A breast cells. These studies suggest that JFE may have potential beneficial effects against breast cancer. PMID:19166352

  7. The fruits of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. inhibits adipogenesis through modulation of mitotic clonal expansion and STAT3 activation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Go, Younghoon; Lee, Bonggi; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Park, Kwang Il; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2018-08-10

    Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (G. sinensis) has been used in Oriental medicine for tumor, thrombosis, inflammation-related disease, and obesity. The pharmacological inhibitory effects of fruits of G. sinensis (GFE) on hyperlipidemia have been reported, but its inhibitory effects on adipogenesis and underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Herein we evaluated the anti-adipogenic effects of GFE and described the underlying mechanisms. The effects of ethanol extracts of GFE on adipocyte differentiation were examined in 3T3-L1 cells using biochemical and molecular analyses. During the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, GFE significantly reduced lipid accumulation and downregulated master adipogenic transcription factors, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, at mRNA and protein levels. These changes led to the suppression of several adipogenic-specific genes and proteins, including fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and acetyl CoA carboxylase. However, the inhibitory effects of GFE on lipogenesis were only shown when GFE is treated in the early stage of adipogenesis within the first two days of differentiation. As a potential mechanism, during the early stages of differentiation, GFE inhibited cell proliferation by a decrease in the expression of DNA synthesis-related proteins and increased p27 expression and suppressed signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation induced in a differentiation medium. GFE inhibits lipogenesis by negative regulation of adipogenic transcription factors, which is associated with GFE-mediated cell cycle arrest and STAT3 inhibition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Screening of Luzula species native to the Carpathian Basin for anti-inflammatory activity and bioactivity-guided isolation of compounds from Luzula luzuloides (Lam.) Dandy & Wilmott.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Barbara; Chang, Fang-Rong; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Szappanos, Ádám; Mándi, Attila; Hunyadi, Attila; Kurtán, Tibor; Jakab, Gusztáv; Hohmann, Judit; Vasas, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The present study focused on the anti-inflammatory screening of Luzula species native to the Carpathian Basin and bioactivity-guided isolation of compounds of Luzula luzuloides (Lam.) Dandy & Wilmott. The anti-inflammatory properties of extracts with different polarity prepared from Luzula species were determined. Among them, the CH 2 Cl 2 -soluble fraction of L. luzuloides possessed strong inhibitory effects on superoxide anion generation (99.39±0.37%) and elastase release (114.22±3.13%) in fMLP/CB-induced human neutrophils at concentration of 10μg/mL. From this fraction, six compounds (1-6) were isolated by the combination of different chromatographic methods. The structures of the compounds were determined by means of MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The results allowed the identification of the new 1,6-dihydroxy-2-keto-1,7-dimethyl-8-vinyl-1,2-dihydrophenanthrene (1) from the plant, named luzulin A. Chiral HPLC and HPLC-ECD analysis revealed that 1 possesses low enantiomeric excess and TDDFT-ECD calculations afforded the configurational assignment of the separated enantiomers. Three known phenanthrenes [juncuenin B (2), dehydrojuncuenin B (3) and juncusol (4)] and two flavonoids [apigenin (5) and luteolin (6)] were also isolated. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated compounds was tested and IC 50 values were determined. This was the first time that phenanthrenes were detected in a Luzula species. The oxidative transformation of juncuenin B (3) led to the isolation of its possible biometabolites, namely luzulin A (1), dehydrojuncuenin B (4), and juncuenin D (7). The isolated compounds (1-4) confirm that besides flavonoids, phenanthrenes could also serve as chemotaxonomic markers for Luzula species and prove the close relationship of Juncus and Luzula genus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. HPLC-UV/DAD and ESI-MS(n) analysis of flavonoids and antioxidant activity of an Algerian medicinal plant: Paronychia argentea Lam.

    PubMed

    Sait, Sabrina; Hamri-Zeghichi, Sabrina; Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Lila; Madani, Khodir; Rigou, Peggy; Brighenti, Virginia; Pio Prencipe, Francesco; Benvenuti, Stefania; Pellati, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Paronychia argentea Lam., belonging to the Caryophyllaceae family, is a perennial plant widely distributed in Algeria. Even though this plant is used in the Algerian popular medicine, its phytochemical characterization is incomplete. In this study, the flavonoid profile and the in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract, decoction and infusion of P. argentea aerial parts are reported. Flavonoids were analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven compounds were identified and six of them, including isorhamnetin-3-O-dihexoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetinmethylether-O-hexoside, quercetin, jaceosidin and isorhamnetin, were described in this plant for the first time. The ethanol extract showed the highest flavonoid content, followed by the decoction and the infusion (25.4 ± 0.8 mg/g of DM, 8.4 ± 0.5 mg/g of DM, 0.2 mg/g of DM, respectively), while the best antioxidant activity was shown by the decoction (RC0.5 = 178 μg/mL for reducing power, 72.4% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation, IC50 = 27.38μ g/mL for DPPH radical scavenging activity and 59.7% of inhibition of NO radical). These results showed that P. argentea decoction could be considered as a valuable source of flavonoids and antioxidants that might contribute to the valorization of the phytotherapeutic potential of this plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Novel WRKY Transcription Factor, MuWRKY3 (Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. Verdc.) Enhances Drought Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Kiranmai, Kurnool; Lokanadha Rao, Gunupuru; Pandurangaiah, Merum; Nareshkumar, Ambekar; Amaranatha Reddy, Vennapusa; Lokesh, Uppala; Venkatesh, Boya; Anthony Johnson, A. M.; Sudhakar, Chinta

    2018-01-01

    Drought stress has adverse effects on growth, water relations, photosynthesis and yield of groundnut. WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are the plant-specific TFs which regulate several down-stream stress-responsive genes and play an essential role in plant biotic and abiotic stress responses. We found that WRKY3 gene is highly up-regulated under drought stress conditions and therefore isolated a new WRKY3TF gene from a drought-adapted horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. Verdc.). Conserved domain studies revealed that protein encoded by this gene contains highly conserved regions of two WRKY domains and two C2H2 zinc-finger motifs. The fusion protein localization studies of transient MuWRKY3-YFP revealed its nuclear localization. Overexpression of MuWRKY3 TF gene in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) showed increased tolerance to drought stress compared to wild-type (WT) plants. MuWRKY3 groundnut transgenics displayed lesser and delayed wilting symptoms than WT plants after 10-days of drought stress imposition. The transgenic groundnut plants expressing MuWRKY3 showed less accumulation of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide anion (O2∙-), accompanied by more free proline, total soluble sugar content, and activities of antioxidant enzymes than WT plants under drought stress. Moreover, a series of stress-related LEA, HSP, MIPS, APX, SOD, and CAT genes found up-regulated in the transgenic groundnut plants. The study demonstrates that nuclear-localized MuWRKY3 TF regulates the expression of stress-responsive genes and the activity of ROS scavenging enzymes which results in improved drought tolerance in groundnut. We conclude that MuWRKY3 may serve as a new putative candidate gene for the improvement of stress resistance in plants. PMID:29616059

  11. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Colin K.; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Miller, Richard E.; Scotland, Robert W.; Wood, John R. I.; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A.; Jarret, Robert L.; Yencho, G. C.; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding. PMID:25954286

  12. Channel architecture in maltoporin: dominance studies with lamB mutations influencing maltodextrin binding provide evidence for independent selectivity filters in each subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Ferenci, T; Lee, K S

    1989-01-01

    Maltoporin trimers constitute maltodextrin-selective channels in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. To study the organization of the maltodextrin-binding site within trimers, dominance studies were undertaken with maltoporin variants of altered binding affinity. It has been established that amino acid substitutions at three dispersed regions of the maltoporin sequence (at residues 8, 82, and 360) resulted specifically in maltodextrin-binding defects and loss of maltodextrin channel selectivity; a substitution at residue 118 increased both binding affinity and maltodextrin transport. Strains heterodiploid for lamB were constructed in which these substitutions were encoded by chromosomal and plasmid-borne genes, and the relative level of maltoporin expression from these genes was estimated. Binding assays with bacteria forming maltoporin heterotrimers were performed in order to test for complementation between binding-negative alleles, negative dominance of negative over wild-type alleles, and possible dominance of negatives over the high-affinity allele. Double mutants with mutations affecting residues 8 and 118, 82 and 118, and 118 and 360 were constructed in vitro, and the dominance properties of the mutations in cis were also tested. There was no complementation between negatives and no negative dominance in heterotrimers. The high-affinity mutation was dominant over negatives in trans but not in cis. The affinity of binding sites in heterotrimer populations was characteristic of the high-affinity allele present and uninfluenced by the negative allele. These results are consistent with the presence of three discrete binding sites in a maltoporin trimer and suggest that the selectivity filter for maltodextrins is not at the interface between the three subunits. PMID:2521623

  13. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas].

    PubMed

    Khoury, Colin K; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Miller, Richard E; Scotland, Robert W; Wood, John R I; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A; Jarret, Robert L; Yencho, G C; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  14. Development of a validated HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of flavonoids in Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by ultra-violet detection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cuscuta species known as dodder, have been used in traditional medicine of eastern and southern Asian countries as liver and kidney tonic. Flavonoids are considered as the main biologically active constituents in Cuscuta plants especially in C. chinensis Lam. Objective In the present study, a fast, simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination and quantization of C. chinensis flavonols including hyperoside, rutin, isorhamnetin and kaempferol has been developed. Materials and methods The chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase ACE 5 C18 with eluting at a flow rate of 1 ml/min using a gradient with O-phosphoric acid 0.25% : acetonitrile for 42 min. UV spectra were collected across the range of 200–900 nm, extracting 360 nm for the chromatograms. The method was validated according to linearity, selectivity, precision, recovery, LOD and LOQ. Results The method was selective for determination of rutin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin and kampferol. The calibration graphs of flavonols were linear with r2 > 0.999. RSDs% of intra- and inter-day precisions were found 1.3&3.4 for rutin, 1.5&2.8 for hyperoside, 1.3&3.3 for isorhamnetin and 1.7 & 2.9 for kaempferol which were satisfactory. LODs and LOQs were calculated as 1.73 & 8.19 for rutin, 0.09 & 4.19 for hyperoside, 2.09 & 6.3 for isorhamnetin and 0.18 & 0.56 for kaempferol. The recovery averages of above-mentioned flavonols were 90.3%, 97.4%, 98.7% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusion The simplicity of the method makes it highly valuable for quality control of C. chinensis according to quantization of flavonols. PMID:23352257

  15. A standardized extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) flowers suppresses the IL-1β-induced expression of IL-6 and matrix-metalloproteases by activating autophagy in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad Y; Khan, Nazir M; Haqqi, Tariq M

    2017-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of joint dysfunction, disability and poor quality of life in the affected population. The underlying mechanism of joint dysfunction involves increased oxidative stress, inflammation, high levels of cartilage extracellular matrix degrading proteases and decline in autophagy-a mechanism of cellular defense. There is no disease modifying therapies currently available for OA. Different parts of the Butea monosperma (Lam.) plant have widely been used in the traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine system for the treatment of various human diseases including inflammatory conditions. Here we studied the chondroprotective effect of hydromethanolic extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) flowers (BME) standardized to the concentration of Butein on human OA chondrocytes stimulated with IL-1β. The hydromethanolic extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) (BME) was prepared with 70% methanol-water mixer using Soxhlet. Chondrocytes viability after BME treatment was measured by MTT assay. Gene expression levels were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using TaqMan assays and immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Autophagy activation was determined by measuring the levels of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) by immunoblotting and visualization of autophagosomes by transmission electron and confocal microscopy. BME was non-toxic to the OA chondrocytes at the doses employed and suppressed the IL-1β induced expression of inerleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloprotease-3 (MMP-3), MMP-9 and MMP-13. BME enhanced autophagy in chondrocytes as determined by measuring the levels of LC3-II by immunoblotting and increased number of autophagosomes in BME treated chondrocytes by transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. BME upregulated the expression of several autophagy related genes and increased the autophagy flux in human OA chondrocytes under pathological conditions. Further analysis revealed that

  16. Impact of Moringa oleifera lam. Leaf powder supplementation versus nutritional counseling on the body mass index and immune response of HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy: a single-blind randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Tshingani, Koy; Donnen, Philippe; Mukumbi, Henri; Duez, Pierre; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle

    2017-08-22

    To achieve effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes, adherence to an antiretroviral regimen and a good immunometabolic response are essential. Food insecurity can act as a real barrier to adherence to both of these factors. Many people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) treated with ART in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) are faced with nutritional challenges. A significant proportion are affected by under nutrition, which frequently leads to therapeutic failure. Some HIV care facilities recommend supplementation with Moringa oleifera (M.O.) Lam. leaf powder to combat marginal and major nutritional deficiencies. This study aims to assess the impact of M.O. Lam. leaf powder supplementation compared to nutritional counseling on the nutritional and immune status of PLHIV treated with ART. A single-blind randomized control trial was carried out from May to September 2013 at an outpatient clinic for HIV-infected patients in Kinshasa (DRC). Sixty adult patients who were at stable HIV/AIDS clinical staging 2, 3 or 4 according to the World Health Organization (WHO), and were undergoing ART were recruited. After random allocation, 30 patients in the Moringa intervention group (MG) received the M.O. Lam. leaf powder daily over 6 months, and 30 in the control group (CG) received nutritional counseling over the same period. Changes in the body mass index (BMI) were measured monthly and biological parameters were measured upon admission and at the end of the study for the patients in both groups. The two study groups were similar in terms of long-term nutritional exposure, sociodemographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and biological features. At 6 months follow-up, patients in the MG exhibited a significantly greater increase in BMI and albumin levels than those in the CG. The interaction between the sociodemographic, clinical, and biological characteristics of patients in the two groups was not significant, with the exception of professional

  17. Oral treatment with essential oil of Hyptis spicigera Lam. (Lamiaceae) reduces acute pain and inflammation in mice: Potential interactions with transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels.

    PubMed

    Simões, Róli Rodrigues; Coelho, Igor Dos Santos; Junqueira, Stella Célio; Pigatto, Glauce Regina; Salvador, Marcos José; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; de Faria, Felipe Meira

    2017-03-22

    The genus Hyptis comprehends almost 400 species widespread in tropical and temperate regions of America. The use of Hyptis spicigera Lam. (Lamiaceae) is reported in traditional medicine due to its gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The rationale of this study was to investigate the potential use of the essential oil of H. spicigera (EOHs) as analgesic. The antinociceptive effect of EOHs was verified analyzing acute nocifensive behavior of mice induced by chemical noxious stimuli [i.e., formalin and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels agonists]. We also verified the effects of EOHs on locomotor activity and motor performance in mice. Finally, we investigate the involvement of central afferent C-fibers with EOHs analgesic effect. EOHs presented antinociceptive effect at 300 and 1000mg/kg on formalin-induced pain behavior model, presenting 50% and 72% of inhibition during the first phase (ED 50 =292mg/kg), and 85% and 100% during de second phase (ED 50 =205mg/kg), respectively. Temperature of the hind paw was reduced by EOHs treatment in a dose-dependent manner; oedema was diminished only by EOHs 1000mg/kg. EOHs does not impaired locomotor activity or motor performance. For mice injected with capsaicin, a TRPV1 activator, EOHs (1000mg/kg, ED 50 =660mg/kg) showed decreased (63%) nociceptive behavior. When injected with cinnamaldehyde (TRPA1 activator), mice treated with EOHs showed 23%, 43% and 66% inhibition on nociceptive behavior (100, 300 and 1000mg/kg, respectively; ED 50 402mg/kg). When mice were injected with menthol (TRPM8 activator), EOHs showed 29%, 59% and 98% inhibition of nociceptive behavior (100, 300 and 1000mg/kg, respectively; with ED 50 =198mg/kg. Finally, when desensitized mice were injected with menthol, EOHs (300mg/kg) does not show antinociceptive effect. This study demonstrated the efficacy of EOHs on experimental models of nociception. We have found the involvement of TRP channels V1, A1 and M8 with EOHs

  18. Chronic administration of ethanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) may compromise glycaemic efficacy of Sitagliptin with no significant effect in retinopathy in a diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Olurishe, Comfort; Kwanashie, Helen; Zezi, Abdulkadiri; Danjuma, Nuhu; Mohammed, Bisalla

    2016-12-24

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) has gained awareness for its antidiabetic effect, and is used as alternative therapy or concurrently with orthodox medicines such as sitagliptin in diabetes mellitus. This is without ascertaining the possibility of drug-herb interactions, which could either lead to enhanced antidiabetic efficacy, increased toxicity, or compromised glycaemic control with negative consequence in diabetic retinopathy. To investigate the effect, of sitagliptin (50mg/kg), Moringa oleifera (300mg/kg) leaf extract, and a combination of both on glycaemic control parameters, lenticular opacity and changes in retinal microvasculature in alloxan (150mg/kg i.p) induced diabetic rat model. Seven groups of eight rats per group were used, with groups I, II and VII as normal (NC), diabetic (DC) and post-prandial controls (PPC). Groups III to VI were diabetic rats on sitagliptin (III), M. oleifera (IV), sitagliptin and M. oleifera (SM) (V), for 42 days with 2 weeks delayed treatment in a post-prandial hyperglycaemic group (PPSM) (VI). Glycaemic control parameters, insulin levels, body weights, and effects of retinal microvasculature on lenticular opacity/morphology were investigated. A significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels was displayed in SM group from day 14(60%) (p<0.01) to day 28 (38%) (p<0.01) of treatment, compared to day 1. Thereafter, a steady increase of up to 57% on day 42 compared to day 28 was observed. A significant decrease in random blood glucose (RBG) levels, were demonstrated on day 42 (24%) (p<0.001), compared to day 1. No significant difference was seen in mean serum levels of insulin across groups. No significant changes in body weights. Evidence of mild lenticular opacity was observed, with no significant effect in pathologic lesions in the retina. The chronic co-administration of sitagliptin and M. oleifera showed a progressive decrease in anti-hyperglycaemic effect of sitagliptin, and although it delayed the onset of

  19. Two-Port Pars Plana Anterior and Central Core Vitrectomy (Lam Floaterectomy) in Combination With Phacoemulsification and Intraocular Lens Implantation Under Topical Anesthesia for Patients with Cataract and Significant Floaters: Results of the First 50 Consecutive Cases.

    PubMed

    Lam, Dennis S C; Leung, Hiu Ying; Liu, Shu; Radke, Nishant; Yuan, Ye; Lee, Vincent Y W

    2017-01-01

    To study the safety and efficacy of 2-port pars plana anterior and central core vitrectomy (Lam floaterectomy) in combination with phacoemulsification (phaco) and intraocular lens implantation (IOL) for patients with cataract and significant floaters under topical anesthesia. Retrospective review of the first 50 consecutive cases. A standardized treatment protocol was used for patients with cataract and significant (moderate to severe) floaters (duration > 3 months). Data analysis included intraoperative and postoperative complications, floater status, and patient satisfaction. There were 50 eyes (38 patients) with a male-to-female ratio of 1 to 2.3. Twelve patients had bilateral eye surgeries. Mean age was 58.10 ± 9.85 years (range, 39-83). All patients completed the 3-month follow-up. One eye had mild vitreous hemorrhage at the end of surgery arising from sclerotomy wound oozing. No other intraoperative compli-cations were encountered. Postoperatively, there was 1 case of transient hypotony and 1 case of congestion at sclerotomy wound. No cases of retinal break or detachment, or clinically significant macular edema, were reported. There were 5 cases (10%) of mild residual floaters and 1 case (2%) of floater recurrence. Total floater clearance rate was 88%. Patient satisfaction rates were 80%, 14%, 6%, and 0% for very satisfied, satis-fied, acceptable, and unsatisfied, respectively. The 3-month results in terms of safety and efficacy of the Lam floaterectomy in combination with phaco and IOLfor patients with cataract and significant floaters under topical anesthesia are encouraging. Further larger-scale, prospective, multicenter studies seem warranted. Copyright© 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  20. Volatile constituents of roasted tigernut oil (Cyperus esculentus L.).

    PubMed

    Lasekan, Ola

    2013-03-30

    Volatile compounds play a key role in determining the sensory appreciation of vegetable oils. In this study a systematic evaluation of odorants responsible for the characteristic flavour of roasted tigernut oil was carried out. A total of 75 odour-active volatiles were identified. From these, 13 aroma compounds showing high flavour dilution factors in the range of 16 to 128 were quantified by their odour activity values (OAVs). On the basis of high OAVs in oil, the following aroma compounds [vanillin (chocolate, sweet vanilla), 5-ethylfurfural (caramel, spicy), 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (caramel), phenyl acetaldehyde (honey-like), ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) (faint vanilla)] were elucidated as important contributors to the overall chocolate, sweet vanilla, butterscotch aroma of the oil. Odorants with high concentrations in the roasted tigernut oil such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, ethyl hexadecanoate, n-propyl-9,12-octadecadienoate gave relatively low OAVs, so their contributions to the overall orthonasal aroma impression of roasted tigernut oil can be assumed to be low. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Halosulfuron reduced purple netsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber production and viability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weeds persist and cause economic losses in agricultural systems because they exploit an underutilized portion of that system. Reducing the impact of weeds on agroecosystems begins with minimizing the number of propagules (e.g, seeds and tubers) that are produced and returned to the soil. Purple nu...

  2. Halosulfuron reduced purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber production and viability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weeds persist and cause economic losses in agricultural systems because they exploit an underutilized portion of that system. Reducing the impact of weeds on agroecosystems begins with minimizing the number of propagules (e.g, seeds and tubers) that are produced and returned to the soil. Purple nu...

  3. Involvement of an ABI-like protein and a Ca2+-ATPase in drought tolerance as revealed by transcript profiling of a sweetpotato somatic hybrid and its parents Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. and I. triloba L.

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Licong; Yang, Guohong; Xu, Xinzhi; Zhai, Hong; He, Shaozhen; Li, Junxia; Dai, Xiaodong; Qin, Na; Zhu, Cancan

    2018-01-01

    Previously, we obtained the sweetpotato somatic hybrid KT1 from a cross between sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cv. Kokei No. 14 and its drought-tolerant wild relative I. triloba L. KT1 not only inherited the thick storage root characteristic of Kokei No. 14 but also the drought-tolerance trait of I. triloba L. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism of the drought tolerance of KT1. Four-week-old in vitro-grown plants of KT1, Kokei No. 14, and I. triloba L. were subjected to a simulated drought stress treatment (30% PEG6000) for 0, 6, 12 and 24 h. Total RNA was extracted from samples at each time point, and then used for transcriptome sequencing. The gene transcript profiles of KT1 and its parents were compared to identify differentially expressed genes, and drought-related modules were screened by a weighted gene co-expression network analysis. The functions of ABI-like protein and Ca2+-ATPase, two proteins screened from the cyan and light yellow modules, were analyzed in terms of their potential roles in drought tolerance in KT1 and its parents. These analyses of the drought responses of KT1 and its somatic donors at the transcriptional level provide new annotations for the molecular mechanism of drought tolerance in the somatic hybrid KT1 and its parents. PMID:29466419

  4. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) peel: A better source of antioxidants and a-glucosidase inhibitors than pulp, flake and seed, and phytochemical profile by HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Tu, Zong-Cai; Xie, Xing; Wang, Hui; Wang, Hao; Wang, Zhen-Xing; Sha, Xiao-Mei; Lu, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) peel is an underutilized by-product in both, the production and processing of jackfruit. This research compared the antioxidant and hypoglycemic potential of jackfruit peel with jackfruit pulp, flake and seed for the first time. The phytochemical profile of peel extract was characterized with HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Results revealed that peel extract exhibited the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid content, and the phenolics was 4.65, 4.12 and 4.95 times higher than that of pulp, flake and seed extract, respectively. The strongest DPPH and ABTS + scavenging ability, α-glucosidase inhibition were also found in peel extract, and the α-glucosidase inhibition was about 11.8-fold of that of acarbose. The HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis led to the tentative identification of 53 compounds, prenylflavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and glycosides are the predominant bioactive compounds. Above results reveal promising potential of jackfruit peel as a new source of natural antioxidants and hypoglycemic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less. and Pulicaria incisa (Lam.) DC.: Two Asteraceae Herbs Growing Wild in the Hoggar.

    PubMed

    Chaib, Faiza; Allali, Hocine; Bennaceur, Malika; Flamini, Guido

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, antimicrobial activities of essential oils have been intensively explored, mainly in researching and developing new antimicrobial agents to overcome microbial resistance. The present study investigates the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from two Asteraceae: Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less. and Pulicaria incisa (Lam.) DC. Chemical analysis was performed using a combination of capillary GC-FID and GC/MS analytical techniques. The major component of Asteriscus graveolens were cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (31.1%), myrtenyl acetate (15.1%), and kessane (11.5%), while for Pulicaria incisa the main components were chrysanthenone (45.3%) and 2,6-dimethylphenol (12.6%). The oils obtained from the aerial parts were tested against sixteen microbial strains by agar well diffusion technique and dilution methods and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in the range of 19 - 1250 μg/ml. A good antibacterial activity against a common nosocomial pathogen, Acinetobacter baumanniiATCC 19606 was observed, especially from Pulicaria incisa essential oil, with a MIC value up to 19 μg/ml. These results give significant information about the pharmacological activity of these essential oils, which suggest their benefits to human health, having the potential to be used for medical purposes. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. Involvement of an ABI-like protein and a Ca2+-ATPase in drought tolerance as revealed by transcript profiling of a sweetpotato somatic hybrid and its parents Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. and I. triloba L.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufeng; Wang, Yannan; Jia, Licong; Yang, Guohong; Xu, Xinzhi; Zhai, Hong; He, Shaozhen; Li, Junxia; Dai, Xiaodong; Qin, Na; Zhu, Cancan; Liu, Qingchang

    2018-01-01

    Previously, we obtained the sweetpotato somatic hybrid KT1 from a cross between sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cv. Kokei No. 14 and its drought-tolerant wild relative I. triloba L. KT1 not only inherited the thick storage root characteristic of Kokei No. 14 but also the drought-tolerance trait of I. triloba L. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism of the drought tolerance of KT1. Four-week-old in vitro-grown plants of KT1, Kokei No. 14, and I. triloba L. were subjected to a simulated drought stress treatment (30% PEG6000) for 0, 6, 12 and 24 h. Total RNA was extracted from samples at each time point, and then used for transcriptome sequencing. The gene transcript profiles of KT1 and its parents were compared to identify differentially expressed genes, and drought-related modules were screened by a weighted gene co-expression network analysis. The functions of ABI-like protein and Ca2+-ATPase, two proteins screened from the cyan and light yellow modules, were analyzed in terms of their potential roles in drought tolerance in KT1 and its parents. These analyses of the drought responses of KT1 and its somatic donors at the transcriptional level provide new annotations for the molecular mechanism of drought tolerance in the somatic hybrid KT1 and its parents.

  7. Cryogenic Refractive Indices of S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, S-LAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14 Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Leviton, Doug

    2015-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is an explorer-class planet finder, whose principal goal is to detect small planets with bright host starts in the solar neighborhood. The TESS payload consists of four identical cameras with seven optical elements each that include various types of Ohara glass substrates. The successful implementation both panchromatic and thermal lens assembly designs for these cameras requires a fairly accurate (up to 1E-6) knowledge of the temperature and wavelength dependence of the refractive index in the wavelength and temperature range of operation. Hence, this paper is devoted to report on measurements of the refractive index over the wavelength range of 0.42-1.15 um and temperature range of 110-310 K for the following Ohara glasses: S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, SLAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14. The measurements were performed utilizing the Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A dense coverage of the absolute refractive index for the title substrates in the aforementioned wavelength and temperature ranges was used to determine the thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) and dispersion relation (dn/d lambda) as a function of wavelength and temperature. A comparison of the measured indices with literature values, specifically the temperature-dependent refractive indices of S-PHM52 and S-TIH14, will be presented.

  8. Rapid and sensitive determination of major polyphenolic components in Euphoria longana Lam. seeds using matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and UHPLC with hybrid linear ion trap triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Atul S; Sathiyanarayanan, L; Deshpande, Shreekant; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the extraction and determination of four major polyphenolic components in Euphoria longana Lam. seeds is presented for the first time based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Matrix solid-phase dispersion method was designed for the extraction of Euphoria longana seed constituents and compared with microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods. An Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometry method was developed for quantitative analysis in multiple-reaction monitoring mode in negative electrospray ionization. The chromatographic separation was accomplished using an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C 18 (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) column with gradient elution of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile. The developed method was validated with acceptable linearity (r 2 > 0.999), precision (RSD ≤ 2.22%) and recovery (RSD ≤ 2.35%). The results indicated that matrix solid-phase dispersion produced comparable extraction efficiency compared with other methods nevertheless was more convenient and time-saving with reduced requirements on sample and solvent volumes. The proposed method is rapid and sensitive in providing a promising alternative for extraction and comprehensive determination of active components for quality control of Euphoria longana products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The in-capillary DPPH-capillary electrophoresis-the diode array detector combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode for screening and quantifying major antioxidants in Cuscuta chinensis Lam.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Tian, Ji; Li, Jin; Azietaku, John Teye; Zhang, Bo-Li; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Chang, Yan-Xu

    2016-07-01

    An in-capillary 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-CE-the DAD (in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD) combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode has been developed to screen and quantify the active antioxidant components of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. The operation parameters were optimized with regard to the pH and concentration of buffer solution, SDS, β-CDs, organic modifier, as well as separation voltage and temperature. Six antioxidants including chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, hyperin, isoquercitrin, and astragalin were screened and the total antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully evaluated based on the decreased peak area of DPPH by the established DPPH-CE-DAD method. Sensitivity was enhanced under reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode and 10- to 31-fold of magnitude improvement in detection sensitivity for each analyte was attained. The results demonstrated that the newly established in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD method combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode could integrate sample concentration, the oxidizing reaction, separation, and detection into one capillary to fully automate the system. It was considered a suitable technique for the separation, screening, and determination of trace antioxidants in natural products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Evaluation of cloud-resolving and limited area model intercomparison simulations using TWP-ICE observations: 1. Deep convective updraft properties: Eval. of TWP-ICE CRMs and LAMs Pt. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Varble, Adam; Zipser, Edward J.; Fridlind, Ann M.

    2014-12-18

    Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on 23-24 January 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observed radar reflectivity fields and dual-Doppler retrievals of vertical wind speeds in an attempt to explain published results showing a high bias in simulated convective radar reflectivity aloft. This high bias results from ice water content being large, which is a product of large, strong convective updrafts, although hydrometeor size distribution assumptions modulate the size of this bias.more » Making snow mass more realistically proportional to D2 rather than D3 eliminates unrealistically large snow reflectivities over 40 dBZ in some simulations. Graupel, unlike snow, produces high biased reflectivity in all simulations, which is partly a result of parameterized microphysics, but also partly a result of overly intense simulated updrafts. Peak vertical velocities in deep convective updrafts are greater than dual-Doppler retrieved values, especially in the upper troposphere. Freezing of liquid condensate, often rain, lofted above the freezing level in simulated updraft cores greatly contributes to these excessive upper tropospheric vertical velocities. The strongest simulated updraft cores are nearly undiluted, with some of the strongest showing supercell characteristics during the multicellular (pre-squall) stage of the event. Decreasing horizontal grid spacing from 900 to 100 meters slightly weakens deep updraft vertical velocity and moderately decreases the amount of condensate aloft, but not enough to match observational retrievals. Therefore, overly intense simulated updrafts may additionally be a product of unrealistic interactions between convective dynamics, parameterized microphysics, and the large-scale model forcing that promote different convective strengths than

  11. Cryogenic Refractive Indices of S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, S-LAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14 Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Leviton, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is an explorer-class planet finder, whose principal goal is to detect small planets with bright host starts in the solar neighborhood. The TESS payload consists of four identical cameras and a Data Handling Unit (DHU) fitted with CCD detectors and associated electronics. Each camera consist of a lens assembly with seven optical elements that include various types of Ohara glass substrates. The successful implementation of a panchromatic and a thermal lens assembly design for these cameras requires a fairly accurate (up to 0.000001 (1e-6)) knowledge of the temperature- and wavelength-dependent of the refractive index in the wavelength and temperature range of operation. Hence, this paper is devoted to report on measurements of the refractive index over the wavelength range of 0.42-1.15 micrometers and temperature range of 110-300 K for the following Ohara glasses: S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, S-LAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14. The measurements were performed utilizing the Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A dense coverage of the absolute refractive index for all these substrates in the aforementioned wavelength and temperature ranges was used to determine the thermo-optic coefficient (dndT) and dispersion relation (dnd) as a function of wavelength and temperature. A comparison of the measured indices with literature values, specifically the temperature-dependent refractive indices of S-PHM52 and S-TIH14 reported by Yamamuro et al. [Yamamuro et al., Opt. Eng. 45(8), 083401 (2006)], will be presented.

  12. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and toxicological evaluation of semi-synthetic molecules obtained from a benzyl-isothiocyanate isolated from Moringa oleifera Lam. in a temporomandibular joint inflammatory hypernociception model in rats.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Alain Oliveira; do Val, Danielle Rocha; da Silveira, Felipe Dantas; Gomes, Francisco Isaac Fernandes; Freitas, Hermany Capistrano; de Assis, Ellen Lima; de Almeida, Diana Kelly Castro; da Silva, Igor Iuco Castro; Barbosa, Francisco Geraldo; Mafezoli, Jair; da Silva, Marcos Reinaldo; de Castro Brito, Gerly Anne; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana Trindade; de Paulo Teixera Pinto, Vicente de Paulo Teixeira; Filho, Gerardo Cristino; Bezerra, Mirna Marques; Chaves, Hellíada Vasconcelos

    2018-02-01

    Inflammation is a key component of many clinical conditions that affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, we evaluated the toxicological effects on mice of a naturally-occurring isothiocyanate from M. oleifera and its seven analogue molecules. Further, the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects on a rat model of TMJ inflammatory hypernociception were assessed. The systemic toxicological profile was determined in mice over a 14-day period: MC-1 1 μg/kg; MC-D1 1 μg/kg, MC-D3 100 μg/kg, MC-D6 1 μg/kg, MC-D7 1 μg/kg, MC-D8 1 μg/kg, MC-D9 10 μg/kg, and MC-H 1 μg/kg. The safest molecules were assayed for anti-nociceptive efficacy in the formalin (1.5%, 50 μL) and serotonin (255 mg) induced TMJ inflammatory hypernociception tests. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated through the vascular permeability assay using Evans blue. Further, the rota-rod test evaluated any motor impairment. Among the tested molecules, MC-D7, MC-D9, and MC-H were not toxic at the survival rate test, biochemical, and hystological analysis. They reduced the formalin-induced TMJ inflammatory hypernociception, but only MC-H decreased the serotonin-induced TMJ inflammation, suggesting an adrenergic receptor-dependent effect. They diminished the plasmatic extravasation, showing anti-inflammatory activity. At the rota-rod test, no difference was observed in comparison with control groups, reinforcing the hypothesis of anti-nociceptive effetc without motor impairment in animals. The analogues MC-D7, MC-D9, and MC-H were safe at the tested doses and efficient in reducing the formalin-induced TMJ hypernociception in rats. Our next steps include determining their mechanisms of anti-nociceptive action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].

    PubMed

    Song, Guo-qing; Yamaguchi, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Among the available transformation methods reported on sweet potato, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is more successful and desirable. Stem explants have shown to be ideal for the transformation of sweet potato because of their ready availability as explants, the simple transformation process, and high-frequency-regeneration via somatic embryogenesis. Under the two-step kanamycin-hygromycin selection method and using the appropriate explants type (stem explants), the efficiency of transformation can be considerably improved in cv. Beniazuma. The high efficiency in the transformation of stem explants suggests that the transformation protocol described in this chapter warrants testing for routine stable transformation of diverse varieties of sweet potato.

  14. Wound healing properties of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nilesh; Jain, U.K.; Pathak, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    The studies on excision wound healing model reveals significant wound healing activity of the methanolic leaf extract (simple ointment 5%) of “Artocarpus heterophyllus” ham which is comparable with standard (Betadine). In the excision model, the period of epithelization, of the extract treated group was found to be higher than the controlgroup and slightly lesser than standard treated group of animals on the up to 16th post wounding day. PMID:22557331

  15. Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. crude oil phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Noori, Azam; Maivan, Hassan Zare; Alaie, Ebrahim; Newman, Lee A

    2015-06-29

    Sites with crude oil pollution have been successfully treated using phytoremediation, but expanding the range of plants that can be used and understanding how exposure impacts the plants are two areas of study that are important to continue. Leucanthemum vulgare has been shown to grow well under a variety of stressful conditions. To examine L. vulgare's ability to both survive crude oil exposure and to reduce crude oil concentrations in soil, plants were placed in soil containing 0, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% or 10% w/w crude oil. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) concentration, peroxidase and catalase activity, proline and phenol content in roots and leaves were determined at the start of planting and every 2 months for six months. L. vulgare roots were successfully colonized with mycorrhizae under all conditions. Results showed positive correlation between antioxidant compound concentration and crude oil contamination. Also, a significant reduction occurred in TPH content of soil over time in planted pots as compared to controls. The lowest TPH content was recorded after 6 months under all treatments. Results showed L. vulgare could survive crude oil exposure and enhance reducing of crude oil from soil.

  16. Wound healing properties of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nilesh; Jain, U K; Pathak, A K

    2009-04-01

    The studies on excision wound healing model reveals significant wound healing activity of the methanolic leaf extract (simple ointment 5%) of "Artocarpus heterophyllus" ham which is comparable with standard (Betadine). In the excision model, the period of epithelization, of the extract treated group was found to be higher than the controlgroup and slightly lesser than standard treated group of animals on the up to 16(th) post wounding day.

  17. Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber production and viability is reduced by imazapic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weeds exploit underutilized space, causing economic losses in cropping systems. Weed management tactics alter that underutilized space until the crop can mature and efficiently use that space. One tactic is to reduce the weed populations that persist quiescent in the soil, including minimizing pro...

  18. Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. ) control with herbicides: the role of tuberization

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, W.

    1985-01-01

    Trials were carried out under greenhouse, growth chamber, laboratory, outdoor pot, and field conditions to characterize stages of yellow nutsedge tuberization and to investigate the influence of herbicides. The effects of herbicides on tuberization and phytotoxicity at several growth stages, as well as on sprouting, growth characteristics, and survival of new tubers were determined. Tuberization was a continuous process, but was modulated by plant age and environmental conditions. The growth stage that included the time of first tuber initiation was the best for applying glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) and oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluromethyl)benzene). Plant-age and length of period after spraying influenced glyphosate and oxyfluorfenmore » absorption and translocation. Addition of unlabelled oxyfluorfen as a tank mixture can glyphosate increased absorption of /sup 14/C-glyphosate to 27% after 1 day and 46% after 8 days and increased translocation into other plant parts. Timing of postemergence herbicide applications relative to tuberization is crucial for overall control of yellow nutsedge. When soil applied herbicides were compared in the field, consecutive applications of dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) and metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide) for two years provided the best control of nutsedge.« less

  19. Preparation of low digestible and viscoelastic tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) starch by Bacillus acidopullulyticus pullulanase.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolei; Fu, Jingchao; Wang, Yujuan; Ma, Fumin; Li, Dan

    2017-09-01

    Tigernut starch is an underutilized food resource. In this study, pullulanase (PUL) hydrolysis was used to change its physiochemical properties for different food applications. The content of low digestible fractions, resistant starch and slow digestible starch, in PUL modified tigernut starch significantly increased from 2.03% to 25.08% (P<0.05) using 100U/g starch of PUL in the debranching reaction. The paste or dispersion of PUL modified tigernut starch had a significantly decreased viscoelasticity (P<0.05), but the paste still exhibited a typical property of pseudoplasticity. Molecular weight, amylopectin A B2 and B3 chain of PUL modified starch were lower, while amylose content, amylopectin B1 chain were higher than those of natural tigernut starch. The low digestible and viscous tigernut starch is highly valued as a component in some functional foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilization of tigernut (Cyperus rotundus, L.) meal in diets for cockerel starters.

    PubMed

    Bamgbose, A M; Eruvbetine, Daisy; Dada, W

    2003-09-01

    The effect of feeding graded levels of tigernut meal (TGN) as a replacement for maize in the diets of cockerel starters on carcass characteristics and economics of feed conversion was assessed for 70 days. Tigernut replaced maize at 0%, 33.33%, 66.67% and 100% levels. A total of 120 day-old chicks were randomly allotted to four experimental diets such that each dietary treatment had three replicates of ten birds. Inclusion of TGN at 33.33% in cockerel diets supported better carcass yield in terms of high plucked, eviscerated, drumstick, thigh, neck, wing, heads, shanks, livers, hearts and lung weights without significant differences (P>0.05) in values obtained. However, there were significant difference (P<0.05) in back, breast, abdominal fat, gizzard, spleen, kidney and intestinal weights and lengths. Inclusion of TGN 100% level significantly depressed parameters assessed. The optimum replacement level of maize with TGN was 33.33% as this gave no significant reduction in carcass yield of the birds but a significant reduction in the cost of feed consumed. It required a feed cost of 42.90 ( 0.31 US dollars) to produce one kilogram weight gain on diet 2 (33.33%). Inclusion of TNG in the diets resulted in feed cost savings of 4.88% (D2), 8.17 (D3) and 8.90% (D4) respectively.

  1. Ecology and management of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.)

    Treesearch

    Jim Jacobs; Sharlene Sing

    2008-01-01

    A close relative of spotted knapweed in the Asteraceae taxonomic family, diffuse knapweed is typically biennial, reproducing exclusively by seed. It forms a rosette with a central crown and tap root in the juvenile stage and a single upright stem one to three feet (0.3 to 0.9 m) tall with numerous spreading branches at maturity. White (occasionally purple) flowers are...

  2. Antiasthmatic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Babita; Mehta, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the efficacy and safety of seed kernels of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Twenty patients of either sex with mild-to-moderate asthma were given finely powdered dried seed kernels in dose of 3 g for 3 weeks. The clinical efficacy with respect to symptoms and respiratory functions were assessed using a spirometer prior to and at the end of the treatment. Hematological parameters were not changed markedly by treatment with M. oleifera. However, the majority of patients showed a significant increase in hemoglobin (Hb) values and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was significantly reduced. Significant improvement was also observed in symptom score and severity of asthmatic attacks. Treatment with the drug for 3 weeks produced significant improvement in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, and peak expiratory flow rate values by 32.97 ± 6.03%, 30.05 ± 8.12%, and 32.09 ± 11.75%, respectively, in asthmatic subjects. Improvement was also observed in % predicted values. None of the patients showed any adverse effects with M. oleifera. The results of the present study suggest the usefulness of M. oleifera seed kernel in patients of bronchial asthma. PMID:21264158

  3. Antimicrobial isothiocyanates from the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Padla, Eleanor P; Solis, Ludivina T; Levida, Ruel M; Shen, Chien-Chang; Ragasa, Consolacion Y

    2012-01-01

    4-(alpha-L-Rhamnosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (1) and 4-(4'-O-acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (2) isolated from Moringa oleifera seeds were screened for their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for their antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum using the disk diffusion method. Isothiocyanates 1 and 2 were found active at the lowest inhibitory concentration of 1 mg/ml against all Gram-positive bacteria tested (S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. subtilis) and against the dermatophytic fungi E. floccosum and T. rubrum. Statistically significant differences were found between the mean inhibition zones (IZ) of 1 and 2 and the standard drugs, ofloxacin and clotrimazole. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values confirmed the good antimicrobial activity of 1 and 2 against S. aureus, good to moderate activity against S. epidermidis, moderate activity against B. subtilis, and weak activity against E. floccosum and T. rubrum. The in vitro bactericidal effect of 1 and 2 against the Gram-positive bacterial strains tested is suggested by MBC:MIC ratios of 2:1.

  4. LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    At the time of grant submission, Novartis Gleevec was scheduled to come off patent in early 2015. This was challenged after grant submission by...Novartis patent expired in 2016 we approached Sun Pharmaceutics who declined (by silence) access to their generic imatinib. Next, communication with...shared. • Inventions, patent applications, and/or licenses Identify inventions, patent applications with date, and/or licenses that have

  5. Targeting Autophagy for the Treatment of TSC and LAM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    UU 5 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Page 3 of 5 Table...and consent form.  Summary of Amendment 04  A spirometry measurement was added to visit 6  Urinalysis was included in visit 6  Urine pregnancy

  6. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade

    PubMed Central

    Satish, A; Sairam, Sudha; Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) leaf (MOL) and root (MOR). Materials and Methods: Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Results: Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen) and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. Conclusions: These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing. PMID:22224061

  7. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade.

    PubMed

    Satish, A; Sairam, Sudha; Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) leaf (MOL) and root (MOR). Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen) and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing.

  8. Hardwood Press-Lam Crossties: Processing and Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    replacements (24) Earlier reports by the American Railway EngineeringA Association ( AREA ) indicated more failures due to splitting and decay (62 pct...to emphasize a M 4 %441 higher percen’age of structural failures An AREA specification (3) on f concrete ties represents the first performance...specification for any type of tie. The AREA specification for timber c r crosstles addresses only species, *t .- requirements (2) A tie size of 7 inches

  9. Hemostatic, antibacterial biopolymers from Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. and Moringa oleifera (Lam.) as potential wound dressing materials.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Monica; Parwani, Laxmi; Sharma, Vinay; Ganguli, Jhuma; Bhatnagar, Ashish

    2013-10-01

    Acacia arabica and Moringa oleifera are credited with a number of medicinal properties. Traditionally gum of Acacia plant is used in the treatment of skin disorders to soothe skin rashes, soreness, inflammation and burns while Moringa seed extracts are known to have antibacterial activity. In the present study the potential of the polymeric component of aqueous extracts of gum acacia (GA) and the seeds of M. oleifera (MSP) in wound management was evaluated. The results revealed that both biopolymers were hemostatic and hasten blood coagulation. They showed shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and were non-cytotoxic in nature. Both showed antibacterial activity against organisms known to be involved in wound infections with MIC ranging from 500-600 microg mL(-1) for GA and 300-700 microg mL(-1) for MSP. They were biodegradable and exhibited water absorption capacity in the range of 415 to 935%. The hemostatic character coupled to these properties envisions their potential in preparation of dressings for bleeding and profusely exuding wounds. The biopolymers have been further analysed for their composition by Gas chromatography.

  10. Toxicity, absorption, translocation, and metabolism of chlorimuron in yellow and purple nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus and C. rotundus)

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.N.

    1987-01-01

    Greenhouse, laboratory, and field studies were conducted to investigate the activity of soil and foliar applied chlorimuron on yellow and purple nutsedge. Soil-applied chlorimuron (10 to 60 g/ha) significantly decreased tuber sprouting, shoot emergence, and shoot growth in both yellow and purple nutsedge. Previous exposure to soil-applied chlorimuron was not effective in reducing parent tuber sprouting at any rate in yellow nutsedge, while in purple nutsedge parent tuber sprouting was reduced significantly at 60 g/ha. Shoots of both yellow and purple nutsedge propagules absorbed greater amounts of /sup 14/C than did roots and tubers. However, translocation of /sup 14/C wasmore » greater from the roots and tuber than from the shoot. Toxicity of foliar-applied chlorimuron (5 to 30 g/ha) was evident by stunted growth, leaf discoloration, and death in both species. Application of chlorimuron at 20 g/ha gave 84% control in yellow nutsedge and 100% control in purple nutsedge. Chlorimuron treatments reduced shoot dry weight, inhibited secondary shoot production, and killed parent tubers attached to treated plants, regardless of rats, in both species. Over 13% of the foliar-applied /sup 14/C recovered was absorbed and over 15% of that absorbed was translocated at 1 day after application in both species. This increased two-fold by 8 days after application. /sup 14/C translocation was both acropetal and basipetal. Over 68% of the absorbed /sup 14/C in yellow nutsedge and 63% in purple nutsedge was retained in the treated area at 8 days after application. Overall, the basal bulb, rhizomes, and tuber had the least amounts of /sup 14/C in both species.« less

  11. Latin America Report: Tables of Contents, JPRS-LAM-85-OOl, 2 January 1985 - JPRS-LAM-85-O56, 28 June 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-13

    in Chimalhuacan, by Luis Arturo Ramirez NICARAGUA PERU Sociologist Analyzes Religious Issue in Sandinist Revolution (Luis Serra; EL NUEVO DIARIO...Exemptions Described Housing Subsidy Explained COLOMBIA CUBA Ramirez Announces Betancur Travel Itinerary (Oscar Dominguez; Cadena Radial Super, 4 Feb 85...Export Reforms (EL TIEMPO, 2 Mar 85) 66 New INCORA Head Advocates Agrarian Reform (Fabio Callejas Ramirez ; Cadena Radial Super, 7 Mar 85

  12. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Comparison of the Heavy-Metal Uptake of Cyperus esculentus and of Agronomic Plants Grown on Contaminated Dutch Sediments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    and have similar properties and texture. Differences exist in the macro- and micronutrient status. The common origin and corresponding properties of...Mineral Nutrition, The Hague, 1973. Tracing and treating mineral disorders in dairy cattle. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation

  13. Improved antimelanogenesis and antioxidant effects of polysaccharide from Cuscuta chinensis Lam seeds after enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi-Jun; Wang, Ya-Lan; Li, Qi-Ling; Yang, Liu

    2018-01-01

    Cuscuta chinensis polysaccharide (CPS) was extracted using hot water and enzymatically hydrolyzed C. chinensis polysaccharide (ECPS) was produced by the mannase enzymatic hydrolysis process. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antimelanogenic activity of ECPS and CPS in B16F10 melanoma cells. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed by their ferric iron reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activities. The molecular mass distribution of polysaccharides was determined using SEC-MALLS-RI. CPS was successfully enzymatically degraded using mannase and the weighted average molecular weights of CPS and ECPS were 434.6 kDa and 211.7 kDa. The results of biological activity assays suggested that the enzymatically hydrolyzed polysaccharide had superior antimelanogenic activity and antioxidant effect than the original polysaccharide. ECPS exhibited antimelanogenic activity by down-regulating the expression of tyrosinase, MITF, and TRP-1 without cytotoxic effects in B16F10 melanoma cells. In conclusion, ECPS have the potential to become a skin whitening product.

  14. Effects of thermal stress and nickel exposure on biomarkers responses in Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam).

    PubMed

    Attig, Hajer; Kamel, Naouel; Sforzini, Susanna; Dagnino, Alessandro; Jamel, Jebali; Boussetta, Hamadi; Viarengo, Aldo; Banni, Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    The present work aimed to assess the Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland biomarkers responses to nickel (Ni) exposure along with a heat stress gradient. Mussels were exposed to a sublethal dose of nickel (13 μM) along with a temperature gradient (18 °C, 20 °C, 22 °C, 24 °C and 26 °C) for 4 days. Metallothionein (MTs) content was assessed as specific response to metals. Catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The cholinergic system was monitored using the acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE). Moreover, Ni uptakes along with the exposure temperatures were assessed. A correlation matrix (CM) between the investigated biomarkers and the exposure temperatures and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were achieved. Our data showed a negative effect of temperature increase on mussel's antioxidant and detoxification response to Ni exposure being more pronounced in animals exposed to the 24 °C and 26 °C. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Isozyme modifications and plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    PubMed

    Cavalcante Alves, J M; Sihachakr, D; Allot, M; Tizroutine, S; Mussio, I; Servaes, A; Ducreux, G

    1994-05-01

    The potential of somatic embryogenesis was evaluated for 10 cultivars of sweet potato through extensive embryogenic response and isozyme analysis. Embryogenic callus was induced by incubating lateral buds on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid for 6-8 weeks. The frequency of embryogenic response was low, and varied with genotypes, ranging from 0 to 17%. Embryo to plantlet formation could be enhanced by the use of the combination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid with kinetin, both used at 0.01 μM. Embryogenic callus with its potential of plantlet formation has constantly been maintained for over two years. However, after several subcultures, 0.5 to 12% of embryogenic callus reverted irreversibly into friable fast-growing non-embryogenic callus whose ability to regenerate shoots was then definitively lost. The isozymes of esterase, peroxidase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and acid phosphatase investigated in this study were found appropriate to distinguish compact embryogenic from friable non-embryogenic callus in sweet potato. In fact, the callus reversion was associated with a loss of bands or a decline in isozyme activity. On the contrary, very small changes in isozyme activity or no specific changes at all were observed during the differentiation of embryogenic callus into globular embryos.

  16. Efficacy of Strychnos spinosa (Lam.) and Solanum incanum L. aqueous fruit extracts against cattle ticks.

    PubMed

    Madzimure, James; Nyahangare, Emmanuel T; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Hove, Thokozani; Belmain, Steve R; Stevenson, Philip C; Mvumi, Brighton M

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of Solanum incanum and Strychnos spinosa aqueous fruit extracts was evaluated against cattle ticks in on-station experiments and laboratory tick bioassays. In the on-station experiment using cattle, fruit extracts were applied at three concentrations 5, 10, and 20 % (w/v) and compared with a commercial acaricide, Tickbuster (amitraz) spray (positive control) and no treatment (negative control). The treatments were applied at weekly intervals for 6 weeks as surface sprays on 32 Mashona cattle in a completely randomized design experiment. Ticks on individual cattle were identified, counted, and recorded daily. Peripheral blood samples were collected for parasite screening. In the laboratory, tick bioassays were conducted at four concentrations, 5, 10, 20, and 40% (w/v) fruit extracts compared to Tickbuster (amitraz) spray (positive control) and distilled water (negative control). The extracts were incubated with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus tick larvae and mortalities for each treatment level recorded after 24 and 48 h. The 5% Solanum incanum treatment had higher efficacy ratio (P < 0.05) than the other fruit extract concentrations of the same plant species. Efficacy ratio was higher (P < 0.05) in the 5% S. spinosa-treated cattle than in the untreated control but lower (P < 0.05) than that for the amitraz treatment. The bioassays indicated that there was a high efficacy ratio for the lowest fruit extract concentrations when ticks were exposed to acaricidal treatments for 48 h compared to 24 h. Overall, the results indicate that Solanum incanum and Strychnos spinosa individually have some acaricidal effect.

  17. Antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant properties of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. flabellifolium (Boiss. & Heldr.) Grierson.

    PubMed

    Kose, Yavuz Bulent; Iscan, Gokalp; Goger, Fatih; Demirci, Betul; Elmacı, Ceren

    2017-11-01

    In the present study hydrodistilled essential oil and total methanol extracts of Tanacetum argenteum subsp. flabellifolium have been evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. The chemical composition of the oil and the crude extract were determined by GC/FID, GC/MS and LC/DAD/ESI-MS systems respectively. β-thujone (47.1%), α-pinene (19.1%) and α-thujone (10.5%) were the main compounds of the essential oil while the 5-Ocaffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid were identified as flavonoid content of the crude extract. The oil and the methanol extract were demonstrated moderate antimicrobial effects (MIC range; 0,062-2,0 mg/mL) against 21 different pathogenic micro organism. Total phenolic content was determined as 63 mg GAE in g extract and the DPPH radical scavenging effect was determined as 0.16 mg/mL (IC 50 ) and TEAC was determined as 0.21mMol.

  18. In Vivo Hypoglycemic Effect of Kigelia africana (Lam): Studies With Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Njogu, Stephen M; Arika, Wycliffe M; Machocho, Alex K; Ngeranwa, Joseph J N; Njagi, Eliud N M

    2018-01-01

    The claims by the traditional herbal medicine practitioners that Kigelia africana has bioactivity against several diseases, including diabetes mellitus, were investigated in this study. Type I diabetes mellitus was induced in mice by intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate followed by treatment with the therapeutic doses of the aqueous and ethyl acetate leaf extract of K africana to the experimentally diabetic mice. The treatment effects were compared with the normal control, diabetic control, and diabetic control rats treated with a standard antidiabetic drugs (insulin administered intraperitoneally at 1 IU/kg body weight in 0.1 mL physiological saline or glibenclamide administered orally at 3 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 mL physiological saline). Phytochemical composition of the leaf extract was assessed using standard procedures and mineral elements assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and total reflection X-ray fluorescence system. Oral and intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous and ethyl acetate leaf extract caused a statistically significant dose-independent reduction in plasma glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The observed hypoglycemic activity of this plant extract could be attributed to the observed phytochemicals and trace elements, which have been associated with exhibiting antidiabetic properties. Therefore, the data appear to support the hypoglycemic effects of K africana validating its folkloric usage.

  19. Morphophysiology, Phenotypic and Molecular Diversity of Auxin-induced Passiflora mucronata Lam. (Passifloraceae).

    PubMed

    França, Juliany M; Venial, Lucimara R; Costa, Eloá B; Schmildt, Edilson R; Schmildt, Omar; Bernardes, Paula M; Tatagiba, Sandro D; Lopes, José C; Ferreira, Marcia F S; Alexandre, Rodrigo S

    2018-01-01

    Genetic diversity allows identification of potential intraspecific genotypes in the genus Passiflora. The objective of this study was to examine the morphological and genetic diversity of auxin-induced Passiflora mucronata. The experiments were arranged in a complete randomized block design, with a 9 x 2 factorial arrangement (nine genotypes x presence and absence of auxin, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)), with four replicates of 16 cuttings. The rooting and vegetative growth responses were variable. Genotype 5 was more responsive in the absence of IBA and genotypes 3, 8 and 9 were more responsive in the presence of IBA. Auxin increased rooting rate and percentage, reducing the average time of root protrusion in eight days. IBA also contributed to increase photosynthesis and dry root and shoot mass in 55.55 and 44.44% of the genotypes, respectively. The highest relative contribution to phenotypic diversity in the absence of auxin was rate (38.75%) and percentage (20.27%) of rooting, whereas in the presence of auxin was stomatal conductance (23.19%) and root dry mass (20.91%). Similarity was found for phenotypic and molecular divergence in the presence of IBA, in which genotypes 1 and 6; genotypes 5, 8 and 9; and genotype 3 were clustered in distinct groups.

  20. Morella serrata (Lam.) Killick stabilizes biomembrane and rejuvenates sexual competence in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sabiu, S; Ashafa, A O T

    2017-06-09

    Morella serrata L. is an indigenous medicinal plant to South and southern Africa with folkloric applications as aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-hypertensive, antitussive and antidiabetic agent. This study evaluated the membrane stabilization and aphrodisiac potentials of its aqueous root extract in male Wistar rats. While the membrane stabilization of the extract was investigated against bovine erythrocytes (BE), the male rats for the aphrodisiac study were randomized into five groups with animals in group 1 given sterile placebo and served as control. The rats in group 2 were treated with 7.14mg/kg body weight of PowMaxM, while animals in groups 3, 4 and 5 were administered with the extract (100, 200 and 400mg/kg, respectively). All treatments (1mL) were done once daily for 4 weeks via oral gavaging and their mating behavioural, testicular, spermatogenetic and antioxidant parameters were evaluated. With the exception of the mount, intromission and post ejaculatory latencies that were dose-dependently reduced by the extract, other mating parameters were significantly improved when compared with the control. Similar patterns of significant improvement were also observed on the testes-body weight ratio, quality and viability of sperm cells as well as testicular concentrations of proteins, cholesterol, glycogen, testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, leuitenizing hormone and glutathione (reduced) subsequent to treatment with the extract. Although, administration of M. serrata had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the testicular activity of gamma glutamyl transferase, those of lactate dehydrogenase, phosphatases (alkaline and acid), superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (p<0.05) induced in the treated animals. The extract also conferred respective significant (p<0.05) membrane stabilization potential of 66.02% and 60.87% on the BE against hypotonic solution and heat-induced hemolysis relative to 62.14% and 40.19% for ibuprofen. The effect elicited by the extract at the tested doses could partly be attributed to its antioxidant and adaptogenic constituents. The data presented in this study have enriched biochemical information on the root extract of M. serrata as a viable source of phytonutrients that could be potentially useful for the development of aphrodisiac drugs, and thus lending scientific credence to its much touted sex enhancing attributes by the Basothos of the eastern Free State Province of South Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in subcellular root tissues of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of the increasing quantity and high toxicity to humans of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment, several bioremediation mechanisms and protocols have been investigated to restore PAH-contaminated sites. The transport of organic contaminants among plant cells via tissues and their partition in roots, stalks, and leaves resulting from transpiration and lipid content have been extensively investigated. However, information about PAH distributions in intracellular tissues is lacking, thus limiting the further development of a mechanism-based phytoremediation strategy to improve treatment efficiency. Results Pyrene exhibited higher uptake and was more recalcitrant to metabolism in ryegrass roots than was phenanthrene. The kinetic processes of uptake from ryegrass culture medium revealed that these two PAHs were first adsorbed onto root cell walls, and they then penetrated cell membranes and were distributed in intracellular organelle fractions. At the beginning of uptake (< 50 h), adsorption to cell walls dominated the subcellular partitioning of the PAHs. After 96 h of uptake, the subcellular partition of PAHs approached a stable state in the plant water system, with the proportion of PAH distributed in subcellular fractions being controlled by the lipid contents of each component. Phenanthrene and pyrene primarily accumulated in plant root cell walls and organelles, with about 45% of PAHs in each of these two fractions, and the remainder was retained in the dissolved fraction of the cells. Because of its higher lipophilicity, pyrene displayed greater accumulation factors in subcellular walls and organelle fractions than did phenanthrene. Conclusions Transpiration and the lipid content of root cell fractions are the main drivers of the subcellular partition of PAHs in roots. Initially, PAHs adsorb to plant cell walls, and they then gradually diffuse into subcellular fractions of tissues. The lipid content of intracellular components determines the accumulation of lipophilic compounds, and the diffusion rate is related to the concentration gradient established between cell walls and cell organelles. Our results offer insights into the transport mechanisms of PAHs in ryegrass roots and their diffusion in root cells. PMID:20860818

  2. Functional properties and utilization of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam seed starch from new species in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Hu, Meijie; Zhu, Kexue; Wu, Gang; Tan, Lehe

    2018-02-01

    Jackfruit is now receiving extensive attention as a new source of starch. However, jackfruit seeds are discarded as waste, although they are rich in starch. The functional properties of the starches were investigated from new Chinese jackfruit species. All the starches have a high amylose (26.56-38.34%) with a potential to become functional foods rich in resistant starch. The jackfruit starches varied from trigonal and tetragonal, round to semi-oval/bell shapes and showed significant variations in particle sizes (5.53-14.46μm). These variations led to significant differences in their functional properties, and significant correlations were found in their pasting, thermal, crystal and texture parameters. Hierarchical cluster analysis sorted the samples into three groups of 1) Malaysia 8 (M8) and ZhenZhu (ZZ); 2) Malaysia 2, Malaysia 3 and Malaysia 4, (M2, M3, M4); and 3) Xiangyinsuo 11, Xiangyinsuo 4, Xiangyinsuo 3 and Xiangyinsuo 2 (X11, X4, X3, X2). The first group could be used as food thickening or gelling agents. The second group could be applied in glutinous foods. The third group make them suitable for fillings in confectionery or weaning foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the effects of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Pandi, J; Glatz, P; Forder, R; Komolong, B; Chousalkar, K

    2018-02-01

    Cereal grains such as maize and wheat are used extensively in feed formulations for poultry as the primary source of carbohydrates. High cost of these grains in many developing countries necessitates the evaluation of other ingredients that are grown locally. Sweet potato is one such crop. The study was conducted as a proof of concept experiment to test the hypothesis that in the presence and absence of enzyme, sweet potato roots when included in diets of broiler chickens may affect the total metabolisable energy content of the diets which may exert certain influences on dry matter digestibility of these diets as well as impacting on production and certain gut parameters. A total of 120 chicks were raised on a commercial starter feed from day 0 to 19. On day 22, the birds were individually weighed and allocated to 96 single bird metabolism cages to conduct a 7-day classical apparent metabolisable energy (AME) assay. The test diets contained 0% and 25% sweet potato flour (SPF) with and without enzyme supplementation (Rovabio Excel AP T-flex) and replicated 24 times. AME of the control diet with and without enzyme was 14.05 and 13.91 MJ/kg whilst the AME of the SPF diets with and without enzymes were 13.45 and 13.43 MJ/kg respectively. AME of SPF was 12.08 MJ/kg. Birds fed the SPF had significantly reduced end weights (p = .002) and weight gains (p < .001) leading to significantly higher intake (p = .004) and FCRs (p < .001) in birds. These effects in growth parameters highlight the need to balance dietary protein and total amino acids when using SPF in broiler diets and may not be a negative effect of SPF per say as AME and dry matter digestibility of SPF diets were comparable to the control diet. The level of sucrase activity in the jejunum was significantly (p < .001) lower due to enzyme inclusion. Use of SPF in the current study did not negatively influence the activities of the brush border enzymes maltase and sucrase, gut morphology in the jejunum of broilers or the load of Enterobacteriaceae in the caecal of birds. This finding is promising in that the gut parameters associated with digestive capacity and gut health were not compromised with feeding of SPF to broilers. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. High throughput sequencing identifies chilling responsive genes in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) during storage.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zeyi; Zhou, Zhilin; Li, Hongmin; Yu, Jingjing; Jiang, Jiaojiao; Tang, Zhonghou; Ma, Daifu; Zhang, Baohong; Han, Yonghua; Li, Zongyun

    2018-05-21

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a globally important economic food crop. It belongs to Convolvulaceae family and origins in the tropics; however, sweetpotato is sensitive to cold stress during storage. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing to investigate the sweetpotato response to chilling stress during storage. A total of 110,110 unigenes were generated via high-throughput sequencing. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis showed that 18,681 genes were up-regulated and 21,983 genes were down-regulated in low temperature condition. Many DEGs were related to the cell membrane system, antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate metabolism, and hormone metabolism, which are potentially associated with sweetpotato resistance to low temperature. The existence of DEGs suggests a molecular basis for the biochemical and physiological consequences of sweetpotato in low temperature storage conditions. Our analysis will provide a new target for enhancement of sweetpotato cold stress tolerance in postharvest storage through genetic manipulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Introducing Learning Design and LAMS to Pre-Service Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Chris; Cameron, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for teaching and learning are continually changing and being replaced by the newest "must have" technologies, so how valuable are skills-based technology courses in the long-term to pre-service teachers? While pre-service teachers need to be competent and confident users of technology…

  6. Isolation and Abiotic Stress Resistance Analyses of a Catalase Gene from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.

    PubMed

    Yong, Bin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Pan; Zheng, Haiyan; Fei, Xueting; Hong, Zixi; Ma, Qinqin; Miao, Yuzhi; Yuan, Xianghua; Jiang, Yusong; Shao, Huanhuan

    2017-01-01

    As an indicator of the antioxidant capability of plants, catalase can detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by environmental stresses. Sweet potato is one of the top six most important crops in the world. However, its catalases remain largely unknown. In this study, a catalase encoding gene, IbCAT2 (accession number: KY615708), was identified and cloned from sweet potato cv. Xushu 18. It contained a 1479 nucleotides' open reading frame (ORF). S-R-L, Q-K-L, and a putative calmodulin binding domain were located at the C-terminus of IbCAT2, which suggests that IbCAT2 could be a peroxisomal catalase. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) based quantitative analyses showed that IbCAT2 was mainly expressed in young leaves and expanding tuberous roots under normal conditions. When exposed to 10% PEG6000 or 200 mmol/L NaCl solutions, IbCAT2 was upregulated rapidly in the first 11 days and then downregulated, although different tissues showed different degree of change. Overexpression of IbCAT2 conferred salt and drought tolerance in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The positive response of IbCAT2 to abiotic stresses suggested that IbCAT2 might play an important role in stress responses.

  7. Pseudoneutropenia in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) patients receiving sirolimus: evaluation in a 100 patient cohort.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Vissagan; Jones, Amanda M; Julien-Williams, Patricia; Machado, Tania; Danner, Robert L; Swigris, Jeffrey J; Paine, Robert; Lozier, Jay N; Moss, Joel

    2018-01-01

    In lymphangioleiomyomatosis patients receiving sirolimus treatment, transient leukopenia in the morning may be due to circadian rhythm, with leukocyte counts recovering later in the day, indicating that a decrease in drug dose may not be warranted http://ow.ly/jPFz30iysgV.

  8. Integrating LMSs in the Educational Process: Greek Teachers' Initial Perceptions about LAMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadakis, Spyros; Dovros, Nikos; Paschalis, Giorgos; Rossiou, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    E-learning with the use of Learning Management Systems, has been increasingly adopted in Primary, Secondary and Higher Education with the expectation to increase students' motivation and infuse activity-centred learning strategies with various educational benefits. This study has investigated the initial perceptions of Greek teachers about the…

  9. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Dracaena reflexa Lam. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Abha; Vats, Swati; Shukla, R K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the antioxidant activity of successive leaf extracts of Dracaena reflexa was investigated using the scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Methanol extract was found potent in both the assays. IC50 values of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay for methanol extract was 0.97 mg/ml and ferric reducing antioxidant power value for the same is 1.19. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and total phenolic content were also determined. Qualitative screening for phytochemical showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides and saponins. Highest phenolic content was shown by methanol extract (49.69 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight). Proximate analysis showed moisture content (3.31%), ash content (8.02%), crude fibre (1.31%), crude fat (0.97%), total protein (3.70%), total carbohydrate (86.01) and nutritive value (367.56 kcal/100 g), which would make it a potential nutraceutical. This study suggested that Dracaena reflexa, a potential natural free radical scavenger, which could find use as an antioxidative.

  10. [Textual research on Amara (Mangifera Indica Linn), Butea monsperma (Lam) Kuntze, and Ferula asatoitida L].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaohua; Wang, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    In the Buddhist canons, there are lots of medicines imported from abroad recorded. The dictionary works of such Buddhist canons give detailed annotations and explanations to all these foreign medicines, from which we can investigate the features of all these medicines. It is also clear that these three medicines were imported into China no later than the Tang Dynasty. Amara was originally grown in the xi yu (Western Region) , now called Mango. Its form and connotation appeared no later than the eastern Han Dynasty, and the explanation of this medicine appears in the A Great Modern Dictionary of Chinese is wrong. While its explanation for Butea monsperma should be supplemented. There are two kinds of asafoitida, herbaceous and woody. Only the former one is used for medical purpose, and the annotation appeared in A Great Modern Dictionary of Chinese is problematic.

  11. Establishment of an in vitro micropropagation protocol for Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. ex Poir.

    PubMed Central

    Khalafalla, Mutasim M.; Daffalla, Hussien M.; Abdellatef, Eltayb; Agabna, Elsadig; El-Shemy, Hany A.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes in vitro micropropagation of Boscia senegalensis, so-called famine foods, that helped the people in Darfur and Kordofan, Sudan survive during the 1984–1985 famine. Four types of explants prepared from green mature zygotic embryos were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with 1–5 mg/L 6-benzyladenine (BA). The highest number of shoots per explant (14.3±0.9) was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L BA, while the highest shoot length [(3.5±0.4) cm] was obtained with 1 mg/L BA. The shoot cluster, when subcultured to its same medium, significantly increased the rate of shoot multiplication by the end of the third subculture. The maximum mean number of shoots per explant (86.5±3.6) was produced after three multiplication cycles on 3 mg/L BA-supplemented medium. In vitro induced shoots were excised and rooted on half strength MS medium fortified with 0.25 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) to obtain complete plantlets. B. senegalensis-regenerated plantlets obtained in vitro for the first time, were hardened and 95% survived under greenhouse conditions. PMID:21462387

  12. Establishment of an in vitro micropropagation protocol for Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. ex Poir.

    PubMed

    Khalafalla, Mutasim M; Daffalla, Hussien M; Abdellatef, Eltayb; Agabna, Elsadig; El-Shemy, Hany A

    2011-04-01

    This report describes in vitro micropropagation of Boscia senegalensis, so-called famine foods, that helped the people in Darfur and Kordofan, Sudan survive during the 1984-1985 famine. Four types of explants prepared from green mature zygotic embryos were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with 1-5 mg/L 6-benzyladenine (BA). The highest number of shoots per explant (14.3±0.9) was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L BA, while the highest shoot length [(3.5±0.4) cm] was obtained with 1 mg/L BA. The shoot cluster, when subcultured to its same medium, significantly increased the rate of shoot multiplication by the end of the third subculture. The maximum mean number of shoots per explant (86.5±3.6) was produced after three multiplication cycles on 3 mg/L BA-supplemented medium. In vitro induced shoots were excised and rooted on half strength MS medium fortified with 0.25 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) to obtain complete plantlets. B. senegalensis-regenerated plantlets obtained in vitro for the first time, were hardened and 95% survived under greenhouse conditions.

  13. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Dracaena reflexa Lam. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Abha; Vats, Swati; Shukla, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the antioxidant activity of successive leaf extracts of Dracaena reflexa was investigated using the scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Methanol extract was found potent in both the assays. IC50 values of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay for methanol extract was 0.97 mg/ml and ferric reducing antioxidant power value for the same is 1.19. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and total phenolic content were also determined. Qualitative screening for phytochemical showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides and saponins. Highest phenolic content was shown by methanol extract (49.69 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight). Proximate analysis showed moisture content (3.31%), ash content (8.02%), crude fibre (1.31%), crude fat (0.97%), total protein (3.70%), total carbohydrate (86.01) and nutritive value (367.56 kcal/100 g), which would make it a potential nutraceutical. This study suggested that Dracaena reflexa, a potential natural free radical scavenger, which could find use as an antioxidative. PMID:26798184

  14. 75 FR 76952 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer Fabrication Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1724] Grant of Authority for Subzone... United States, to expedite and encourage foreign commerce, and for other purposes,'' and authorizes the... benefit and is in the public interest; Whereas, the City of San Jose, California, grantee of Foreign-Trade...

  15. Characteristics of children with elevated symptoms of mania: the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Fristad, Mary A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kowatch, Robert A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Frazier, Thomas W.; Axelson, David; Ryan, Neal; Demeter, Christine; Gill, Mary Kay; Fields, Benjamin; Depew, Judith; Kennedy, Shawn M.; Marsh, Linda; Rowles, Brieana M.; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine differences in psychiatric symptomatology, diagnoses, demographics, functioning, and psychotropic medication exposure in children with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) compared to youth without ESM (ESM−). Method Guardians of consecutively ascertained new outpatients 6 to 12 years of age were asked to complete the Parent General Behavior Inventory-10 Item Mania Scale (PGBI-10M). Patients with scores ≥ 12 on the PGBI-10M (ESM+) and a matched sample of screen negatives (ESM−) were invited to participate. Results 707 children [621 ESM+, 86 ESM−; mean age 9.4 (2.0) years] were evaluated. The ESM+ group, compared to the ESM− group, more frequently met DSM-IV criteria for a mood disorder (p< 0.001), bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD, p< 0.001), and disruptive behavior disorders (p<0.01). Furthermore, they showed poorer overall functioning and more severe manic, depressive, attention deficit/hyperactivity, disruptive behavioral, and anxiety symptoms. Nevertheless, rates of BPSD were relatively low in the ESM+ group (25%), with almost half of these BPSD patients (12.1% of ESM+) meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS). ESM+ children with BPSD had significantly more: current prescriptions for antipsychotics, mood stabilizers and anticonvulsants; psychiatric hospitalizations, and biological parents with elevated mood; and were lower functioning compared to ESM+ children without BPSD. Conclusion Although ESM+ was associated with higher rates of BPSD than ESM−, 75% of ESM+ children did not meet criteria for BSPD. Results suggest longitudinal assessment is needed to examine which factors are associated with diagnostic evolution to BPSD in children with ESM+. PMID:21034685

  16. LAM study: Effects of lacosamide on behaviour and quality of life in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, A; Asensio, M; García-Escrivá, A; Medrano, V; Salom, J M; Tortosa, D; Palao, S; Lezcano, M; Berenguer, L; Navarro, M; Cerdán, M; Buendía, J F; Giner, J C

    2016-12-16

    Psychiatric comorbidities are common in epileptic patients, and evaluating the impact of antiepileptic drugs on patients' moods is therefore essential. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of lacosamide on behaviour and quality of life in people with epilepsy. We conducted a multicentre prospective observational study of poorly-controlled epileptic patients who received lacosamide as an adjuvant treatment. Patients were evaluated on 4 occasions during a 12-month period. The impact of lacosamide on patients' mood and quality of life was assessed with the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-10 (QOLIE-10), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). As a secondary objective, we evaluated the effectiveness and safety of lacosamide. We included 55 patients with a mean age of 47.1±18.4 years. At baseline, 34.5% of the patients had psychiatric comorbidities; the mean number of crises in the previous month was 3.6±4.3. The QOLIE-10 and HADS scales revealed statistically significant improvements in patients with a poor baseline condition (anxiety, depression, and/or poor quality of life). The BIS-11 scale detected no impulsive behaviour during follow-up. After 12 months of treatment, 51.9% of the patients were seizure-free and 77.8% experienced a reduction of at least 50% in seizure frequency. Adverse effects were mild in most cases; lacosamide was discontinued in 10 patients (18.2%). Lacosamide is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling TSC and LAM Using Patient Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    lentiviral knockdown, and CRISPR /Cas9 genome editing in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We have characterized the iPSCs extensively and found that they display...induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) reprogramming CRISPR /Cas9 genome editing neural stem cells (NSCs) neural crest... CRISPR /cas9 in two additional human pluripotent stem cell lines (WA07 (H7) – female cell line registry #0061; and a control male iPSC lines generated

  18. Isolation and Abiotic Stress Resistance Analyses of a Catalase Gene from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Bin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Pan; Zheng, Haiyan; Fei, Xueting; Hong, Zixi; Ma, Qinqin; Miao, Yuzhi; Yuan, Xianghua; Jiang, Yusong

    2017-01-01

    As an indicator of the antioxidant capability of plants, catalase can detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by environmental stresses. Sweet potato is one of the top six most important crops in the world. However, its catalases remain largely unknown. In this study, a catalase encoding gene, IbCAT2 (accession number: KY615708), was identified and cloned from sweet potato cv. Xushu 18. It contained a 1479 nucleotides' open reading frame (ORF). S-R-L, Q-K-L, and a putative calmodulin binding domain were located at the C-terminus of IbCAT2, which suggests that IbCAT2 could be a peroxisomal catalase. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) based quantitative analyses showed that IbCAT2 was mainly expressed in young leaves and expanding tuberous roots under normal conditions. When exposed to 10% PEG6000 or 200 mmol/L NaCl solutions, IbCAT2 was upregulated rapidly in the first 11 days and then downregulated, although different tissues showed different degree of change. Overexpression of IbCAT2 conferred salt and drought tolerance in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The positive response of IbCAT2 to abiotic stresses suggested that IbCAT2 might play an important role in stress responses. PMID:28638833

  19. Various stressors rapidly activate the p38-MAPK signaling pathway in Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.).

    PubMed

    Gaitanaki, Catherine; Kefaloyianni, Erene; Marmari, Athina; Beis, Isidoros

    2004-05-01

    The stimulation of p38-MAPK signal transduction pathway by various stressful stimuli was investigated in the marine bivalve M. galloprovincialis. Oxidative stress (5 microM H2O2) induced a biphasic pattern of p38-MAPK phosphorylation with maximal values attained at 15 min (8.1-fold) and 1 h (8.0-fold) of treatment respectively. Furthermore, 1 microM SB203580 abolished the p38-MAPK phosphorylation induced by oxidative stress. Aerial exposure also induced a biphasic pattern of p38-MAPK phosphorylation, with maximal values attained at 1 h (6.8-fold) and 8 h (4.9-fold) respectively. Re-oxygenation following a 15 min of aerial exposure resulted in the progressive dephosphorylation of the kinase. Treatment with 0.5 M sorbitol (in normal seawater) induced the rapid kinase phosphorylation (9.2-fold) and this effect was reversible. Seawater salinities varying between 100-60% had no effect, whereas a salinity of 50% induced a significant p38-MAPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, hypertonicity (120% seawater) resulted in a moderate kinase phosphorylation. All the above results demonstrate for the first time in a marine invertebrate imposed to environmental and other forms of stress as an intact, living organism, that the p38-MAPK pathway is specifically activated by various stressful stimuli which this animal can often face and sustain in vivo.

  20. Local knowledge, use pattern and geographical distribution of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Popoola, Jacob O; Obembe, Olawole O

    2013-11-25

    All parts of Moringa oleifera are medicinally valuable with overlapping uses in treating myriads of ailments and diseases including body pains and weakness, fever, asthma, cough, blood pressure, arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy, wound, and skin infection. Moringa also has robust ability to challenge terminal diseases such as HIV/AIDs infections, chronic anemia, cancer, malaria and hemorrhage. The present study was to obtain ethnobotanical information on the use and local knowledge variation, geographical distribution, and to collect different landraces of Moringa oleifera from the different agro-ecological regions in Nigeria, for further studies. Ethnobotanical data were collected through face to face interviews, semi structured questionnaires and discussions with selected people who had knowledge about the plant. The fidelity level (FL %) and use value for different use categories of Moringa oleifera and its parts were estimated. The variation in ethnobotanical knowledge was evaluated by comparing the mean use value among ethnic, gender and age groups using sample T test. Garmi GPS was used to determine the locations (latitude and longitude) and height in different areas to assess the geographical spread of the species. Seven (7) categories of use (Food, medicine, fodder, fencing, firewood, gum and coagulant) were recorded for Moringa oleifera. Food and medicinal uses showed highest fidelity level while the leaves and the seeds were the plant parts most utilized for the same purposes. There were significant differences among the ethnic, gender and age groups regarding the ethno-botanical use value. The geographical distribution pattern shows that the Moringa oleifera is well distributed in all ecological zones of Nigeria, well adapted to the varied climatic conditions and gaining unprecedented awareness among the people. Though considered an introduced species, Moringa oleifera has found wide acceptance, recognition and usefulness among the various ethnicities in the studied areas. The sources of introduction, domestication and ethnic differentiation influenced the distribution pattern across the geographical areas. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioremediation of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract from the Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick) Tree.

    PubMed

    Lea, Michael

    2014-05-01

    An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a crude water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Control of Dogfennel (Eupaforium Capillifolium (Lam.) Small) Does Not Increase Loblolly Pine Yields

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood

    1980-01-01

    Control of dogfennel alone did not increase height or cubic-foot volume of newly planted loblolly pines. Of five treatments - check, removal of dogfennel in the 1st year only, removal of all dogfennel yearly, removal of all competing vegetation biannually, and yearly spraying of all competing vegetation with chemicals-only biannual removal of all competing vegetation...

  3. Learning in LAMS: Lesson from a Student Teacher Exploring Gene Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Carina

    2012-01-01

    Due to its complex and microscopic nature, genetics is a difficult subject for many learners to conceptually grasp. Graphics, animation and video material can be extremely helpful to their understanding. A wealth of educational online content about genetics has been created over the past decade in the wake of the human genome being sequenced.…

  4. Colonization and Disappearance of Mytilus galloprovincialisLam. on an Artificial Habitat in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardizzone, G. D.; Belluscio, A.; Gravina, M. F.; Somaschini, A.

    1996-12-01

    A Mytilus galloprovincialispopulation, settled on a new artificial habitat at 12 m depth in the Central Tyrrhenian Sea, was investigated for 10 years. The new substratum, located at a depth lower than the preferential range of the species, was colonized temporarily by mussels which reached very high densities and dominated the benthic community from their colonization until the third year. The length-frequency distribution analysis showed a progressively complex population structure with up to three cohorts. The yearly recruitments were observed once a year in spring. The growth curve provided a maximum length higher than that reported for shallow waters. Nevertheless, the gregarious habits of mussels and the reduced water movement caused edaphic modifications of the substratum, which was covered progressively by sediments and biodeposits (pseudofaeces). Consequently, the population structure was affected by a reduction of the newly recruited cohorts, and mussels disappeared after 5 years of colonization. This may be explained by the reduction in the substratum available for the first settlement (hydroid covering), as well as by the modification of the surface required for final settlement.

  5. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities on foodborne pathogens of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae) leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, M R; Tundis, R; Chandrika, U G; Abeysekera, A M; Menichini, F; Frega, N G

    2010-06-01

    Total water extract, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions from the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus were evaluated for phenolic content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities against some foodborne pathogens such as E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of extract and fractions determined by the agar dilution method were ranged from 221.9 microg/mL for ethyl acetate fraction to 488.1 microg/mL for total extract. In the agar diffusion method the diameters of inhibition were 12.2 for the total extract, 10.7 and 11.5 for ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions, respectively. A. heterophyllus showed significant antioxidant activity tested in different in vitro systems (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and Fe(2+) chelating activity assay). In particular, in DPPH assay A. heterophyllus total extract exhibited a strong antiradical activity with an IC(50) value of 73.5 microg/mL while aqueous fraction exerted the highest activity in FRAP assay (IC(50) value of 72.0 microg/mL). The total phenols content by Folin-Ciocalteau method was determined with the purpose of testing its relationship with the antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  6. Design, Fabrication, Testing, and Installation of a Press-Lam Bridge.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    lild components Alt eneers specific gravity, and ring count (table 11 INA NA NI In Douglas-fir logs of these diameters . the width of sapwood is...typically small, dram .’, 14 I 17 , I to 3 inches The moisture content t , I 4S 9 40 4 (ovendry basis) of sapwood was as high I t, . as 140 percent... sapwood and heartwood Veneers having greater lest maleital 1 196 veneer, brilte i mnonents :. I oeneem ttalW eets Itraded S 4;6 than 25 percent sapwood

  7. Antioxidant, xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and phenolics of Bauhinia rufescens Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae).

    PubMed

    Compaoré, M; Lamien, C E; Lamien-Meda, A; Vlase, L; Kiendrebeogo, M; Ionescu, C; Nacoulma, O G

    2012-01-01

    An aqueous acetone extract of the stem with the leaves of Bauhinia rufescens and its fractions were analysed for their antioxidant and enzyme-inhibitory activities, as well as their phytochemical composition. For measurement of the antioxidant activities, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzoline-6-sulphonate) and the ferric-reducing methods were used. The results indicated that the aqueous acetone, its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions possessed considerable antioxidant activity. Further, the xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase inhibitory assays showed that the n-butanol fraction possessed compounds that can inhibit both these enzymes. In the phytochemical analysis, the ethyl acetate and the n-butanol fractions of the aqueous acetone extract were screened by HPLC-MS for their phenolic content. The results indicated the presence of hyperoside, isoquercitrin, rutin quercetin, quercitrin, p-coumaric and ferulic acids in the non-hydrolysed fractions. In the hydrolysed fractions, kaempferol, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were identified.

  8. Allelopathic effects of glucosinolate breakdown products in Hanza [Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam.] processing waste water

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Vega, Loren J.; Krosse, Sebastian; de Graaf, Rob M.; Garvi, Josef; Garvi-Bode, Renate D.; van Dam, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    Boscia senegalensis is a drought resistant shrub whose seeds are used in West Africa as food. However, the seeds, or hanza, taste bitter which can be cured by soaking them in water for 4–7 days. The waste water resulting from the processing takes up the bitter taste, which makes it unsuitable for consumption. When used for irrigation, allelopathic effects were observed. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products are the potential causes for both the bitter taste and the allelopathic effects. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify the glucosinolates present in processed and unprocessed hanza as well as different organs of B. senegalensis, to analyze the chemical composition of the processing water, and to pinpoint the causal agent for the allelopathic properties of the waste water. Hanza (seeds without testa), leaves, branches, unripe, and ripe fruits were collected in three populations and subjected to glucosinolate analyses. Methylglucosinolates (MeGSL) were identified in all plant parts and populations, with the highest concentrations being found in the hanza. The levels of MeGSLs in the hanza reduced significantly during the soaking process. Waste water was collected for 6 days and contained large amounts of macro- and micronutrients, MeGSL as well as methylisothiocyanate (MeITC), resulting from the conversion of glucosinolates. Waste water from days 1–3 (High) and 4–6 (Low) was pooled and used to water seeds from 11 different crops to weeds. The High treatment significantly delayed or reduced germination of all the plant species tested. Using similar levels of MeITC as detected in the waste water, we found that germination of a subset of the plant species was inhibited equally to the waste water treatments. This confirmed that the levels of methylisiothiocyanate in the waste water were sufficient to cause the allelopathic effect. This leads to the possibility of using hanza waste water in weed control programs. PMID:26236325

  9. Evaluation of Plant Growth Regulators for Use in Grounds Maintenance at Military Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    Crotalaria sagittalis Sedge - Cyperus compressus Sullcap - Scutellaria spp. Thistle - Cirsium spp. Yellow nutsedge - Cyperus esculentus L. Yellow...the plant hormone, gibberellin, which is necessary for stem elongation Susceptible Species: Ornamentals, turf species, wheat, barley, rice , sor- ghum

  10. Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Cheah, Pike See; Abas, Farida; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15%) of diabetics and up to 15%–24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine). Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction) daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue regeneration, as well as downregulation of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and upregulation of an angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor in wound tissue treated with various doses of aqueous fraction of M. oleifera. The findings suggest that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 active compound may accelerate wound healing in hyperglycemic condition. PMID:27307703

  11. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status.

  12. Advanced Distributed Simulation Technology II (ADST-II) LAM Task Force DO #14 CDRL ABO3 After Action Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-17

    SHOWDirect Control Systems (6) Betacam SP Players (Video Backup) (6) Betacam SP Recorders (Show Record) (2) CRV Laser Disc Rec/Players (GoTo) (14) Multi...IK Scoops (3)lKDP’s (1) Schedule 40 Light Pole (Flown) Control Console Dimming Cables & Distribution PRODUCTION HARDWARE (1) Sony Betacam SP...Shooters Package (1) Folsom Hi-Res Video Scan Converter (20) Betacam SP VideoTapes STAGING HARDWARE (1) Custom Screen Divider / Support 44 This

  13. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. cultivated in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Marrufo, Tatiana; Nazzaro, Filomena; Mancini, Emilia; Fratianni, Florinda; Coppola, Raffaele; De Martino, Laura; Agostinho, Adelaide Bela; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2013-09-09

    The antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) grown in Mozambique was investigated. The chemical composition was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. Hexacosane (13.9%), pentacosane (13.3%) and heptacosane (11.4%) were the main components. Ultra High Performance Chromatography-DAD analysis detected the flavonoids quercetin (126 μg/g) and luteolin (6.2 μg/g). The essential oil exhibited a relatively low free radical scavenging capacity. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed against two Gram-positive strains (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus), two Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and five fungal strains of agro-food interest (Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium digitatum, and Aspergillus niger spp.). B. cereus and P. aeruginosa, as well as the fungal strains were sensitive to the essential oil.

  14. Effect of genotype, gelling agent, and auxin on the induction of somatic embryogenesis in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.).

    PubMed

    El Abidine Triqui, Zine; Guédira, Abdelkarim; Chlyah, Averil; Chlyah, Hassane; Souvannavong, Vongthip; Haïcour, Robert; Sihachakr, Darasinh

    2008-03-01

    Lateral buds of six cultivars of sweet potato were induced to form embryogenic callus in a culture medium solidified with two types of gelling agents, Agar or Gelrite, and supplemented with various concentrations of auxins, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and Picloram. Of the six cultivars screened, only three gave an embryogenic response. Best results with an average of 3.53% embryogenic response were obtained with the medium solidified with Agar, while in Gelrite only 0.45% of lateral buds gave rise to embryogenic callus. The interaction between the genotype and auxins was highly significant; particularly the optimal response was obtained with cv. Zho and 865 yielding 10.7 and 14.7% somatic embryogenesis, respectively, in the medium containing 2,4,5-T or Picloram. The plant conversion was dramatically improved by subculture of the embryogenic callus on the medium with the combination of 1 microM 2,4-D and 1 microM Kinetin or 5 microM ABA alone before transfer of mature embryos onto hormone-free medium. The embryogenic callus of sweet potato and its sustained ability to further regenerate plants have regularly been maintained for several years by frequent subculture in 5 microM 2,4,5-T or the combination of 10 microM 2,4-D and 1 microM BAP or kinetin. The embryo-derived plants seemed apparently genetically stable and similar to the hexaploid parental plants, based on morphological analysis and their ploidy level determined by using flow cytometry.

  15. Chemical composition, pretreatments and saccharification of Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby: An efficient biomass producing tree legume.

    PubMed

    Mund, Nitesh K; Dash, Debabrata; Barik, Chitta R; Goud, Vaibhav V; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Mishra, Prasannajit; Nayak, Nihar R

    2016-05-01

    Protocols were developed for efficient release of glucose from the biomass of Senna siamea, one of the highly efficient biomass producing tree legumes. Composition of mature, 1year and 2years coppice biomass were analysed. For the hydrolysis of the glucan, two pretreatments, cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation (COSLIF) and alkali (sodium hydroxide) were used; COSLIF (85% phosphoric acid, 45min incubation at 50°C) pretreated mature biomass exhibited best result in which 88.90% glucose released after 72h of incubation with the use of 5 filter paper units (FPU) of cellulase and 10 international units (IU) of β-glucosidase per gram of glucan. Of the biomass of different particle sizes (40-200mesh) used for saccharification, 40-60mesh shown the maximum glucose release. COSLIF pretreated mature, 1year and 2years coppice biomass showed equivalent glucose release profiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous root extract of Erythrina indica lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathi Sre, P. R.; Reka, M.; Poovazhagi, R.; Arul Kumar, M.; Murugesan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Simple, yet an effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extract of Erythrina indica and its in vitro antibacterial activity was tried against human pathogenic bacteria and its cytotoxic effect in breast and lung cancer cell lines has been demonstrated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs viz. UV-Vis (Ultra violet), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DLS (Dynamic light scattering), HR TEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy), EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Surface plasmon spectra for Ag NPs are centered nearly at 438 nm with dark brown color. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of terpenes, phenol, flavonols and tannin act as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 20-118 nm. Moreover, the synthesized Ag NPs showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on breast and lung cancer cell lines.

  17. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of fixed oil of Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Syeda Anum; Baig, Sadia Ghousia; Hasan, Muhammad Mohtasheemul; Ahmed, Salman; Salma, -

    2018-03-01

    Macrotyloma uniflorum commonly known as horse gram or kulthi bean is grown as a pulse for livestock and human consumption. The beans contain about 1.3% fat, 18% protein, 15% carbohydrate along with vitamins and minerals. In traditional medicine it is used as antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, antihypertensive and diuretic. Other important medicinal uses include treatment of renal stones, obesity, piles, oedema and fever. The present study evaluated analgesic (by acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate and tail flick tests in mice) and anti-inflammatory (carrageenan induced paw edema in rats) activities of Macrotyloma uniflorum fixed oil (MUFO). Four groups were included in study: Group-I: Normal Saline Control (2ml/kg), Group-II: MUFO (2ml/kg), Group-III: MUFO (4ml/kg), and Group-IV: Standard Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA 300mg/kg). All results were significant however delayed onset of action was observed in tail flick and paw edema tests. Acute oral toxicity of the oil was also checked in mice and was found safe upto 4ml/kg dose, as no signs of toxicity and mortality were observed. It is concluded that Macrotyloma uniflorum fixed oil may possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity which can be related with a peripheral mechanism of action.

  18. Toxicology of the aqueous extract from the flowers of Butea monosperma Lam. and it's metabolomics in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Washim; Gupta, Shreesh; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2017-10-01

    Due to lack of scientific evidence for the safety of Butea monosperma (Fabaceae), our study aimed to carry out its toxicological profile and to identify its metabolic pattern in yeast cell. The effect of aqueous extract of B. monosperma flower on glucose uptake in yeast cell was evaluated through optimizing pH, temperature, incubation time, substrate concentration and kinetic parameters. Further, the metabolic pattern of extract as such and in yeast cell were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mice were administered aqueous extract up to 6000 and 4000 mg/kg for acute oral and intraperitoneal toxicity, respectively, while up to 4500 mg/kg for sub-acute oral toxicity (30 days). Elongation in the lag and log phase was observed in yeast cells supplemented with extract as compared to control. A maximum of 184.9% glucose uptake was observed whereas kinetic parameters (K m and V max ) were 1.38 and 41.91 mol/s, respectively. Out of 75 metabolites found in the extract, 14 and 18 metabolites were utilized by yeast cell after 15 and 30 min of incubation, respectively. The LD 50 of extract administered through intraperitoneal route was estimated to be 3500 mg/kg. The extract did not elicit any significant difference (P ≥ 0.05) in weight gain, food consumption, water intake, hematological, biochemical parameters and histological changes as compared to the normal control. Results ascertained the safety of B. monosperma flower extract which can be explored as potential candidates for the development of anti-diabetic phytopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF THE ALKALI PREPARATION OF THE ROOT AND FRESH LEAF JUICE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM

    PubMed Central

    Ruckmani, K.; Kavimani, S.; Jayakar, B.; Anandan, R.

    1998-01-01

    The alkali preparation of the root and fresh leaf juice of Moringa oleifera possessed significant dose –depen-dent anti-ulcer activity in experimentally induced acute gastric ulcers with aspirin, the anti-ulcer effect of the alkali preparation of the root seems to be more pronounced than that of the fresh leaf juice. Te anti-ulcer activity of the alkali preparation of the root could be due to its content of alkaloids or its anticholinergic and antihistaminic activities, or a combination of these factors. PMID:22556845

  20. Influence of development, postharvest handling, and storage conditions on the carbohydrate components of sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas Lam.) roots.

    PubMed

    Nabubuya, Agnes; Namutebi, Agnes; Byaruhanga, Yusuf; Narvhus, Judith; Wicklund, Trude

    2017-11-01

    Changes in total starch and reducing sugar content in five sweetpotato varieties were investigated weekly during root development and following subjection of the roots to different postharvest handling and storage conditions. Freshly harvested (noncured) roots and cured roots (spread under the sun for 4 days at 29-31°C and 63-65% relative humidity [RH]) were separately stored at ambient conditions (23°C-26°C and 70-80% RH) and in a semiunderground pit (19-21°C and 90-95% RH). Changes in pasting properties of flour from sweetpotato roots during storage were analyzed at 14-day intervals. Significant varietal differences ( p  < .05) in total starch, sucrose, glucose, maltose, and fructose concentrations were registered. The total starch and sucrose content of the roots did not change significantly ( p  < .05) during root development (72.4 and 7.4%, respectively), whereas the average concentrations of glucose, maltose, and fructose decreased markedly (0.46-0.18%, 0.55-0.28%, and 0.43-0.21%), respectively. Storage led to decrease in total starch content (73-47.7%) and increase in sucrose and glucose concentrations (8.1-11.2% and 0.22-1.57%, respectively). Storage also resulted in reduction in sweetpotato flour pasting viscosities. Curing resulted in increased sucrose and glucose concentrations (9.1-11.2% and 0.45-0.85%, respectively) and marked reduction ( p  < .05) in total starch content (72.9-47.6%). This resulted in low pasting viscosities compared to flour from storage of uncured roots. These findings show that significant changes occur in the carbohydrate components of sweetpotato roots during storage compared to development and present an opportunity for diverse utilization of flours from sweetpotato roots in the food industry.

  1. Euphorbia denticulata Lam.: A promising source of phyto-pharmaceuticals for the development of novel functional formulations.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Gokhan; Uysal, Ahmet; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Mocan, Andrei; Mollica, Adriano; Locatelli, Marcello; Custodio, Luisa; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Aumeeruddy-Elalfi, Zaahira; Mahomoodally, M Fawzi

    2017-03-01

    In this study, Methanolic extracts of Euphorbia denticulata parts (flowers, leaf, stem, and mix of aerial parts) were assessed for a panoply of bioactivities. Inhibitory potential against key enzymes involved in diabetes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase), obesity (pancreatic lipase), neurodegenerative diseases (cholinesterases), and hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase) was evaluated. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties were also assessed. The total phenolic, flavonoid, and phytochemical profile were established using HPLC/DAD and molecular modelling studies on specific target compounds were performed in silico. The flower extract was found to be rich in phenolics and flavonoids, (60.11±1.40mgGAE/g and 42.04±0.16mgRE/g respectively), which tend to correlate with the high radical scavenging activity of this extract (120.34±3.33mgTE/g and 165.42±2.16mgTE/g for DPPH and ABTS respectively). Catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, p-OH-Benzoic acid, rosmarinic acid, and epigallocatechin gallate, found in significant abundance in the extracts were assessed using molecular modelling with the aim to study their docking properties on a set of six enzymes used in this study. The extracts were moderately effective with MIC values ranging between 1.56 to 6.25mg/ml, but potent growth inhibitors of MRSA strains. Results amassed herein can be used as a stimulus for further studies geared towards the development of novel phyto-pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. essential oils collected from different parts of Iran.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2017-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate chemical compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oils (ZEOs) collected from four provinces in western Iran (Ilam, Lorestan, Kermanshah and Kurdestan). Carvacrol was the most abundant constituent in the flower, stem and leaf oil samples of Ilam, Lorestan and Kermanshah regions by 73.12-74.29%, 66.47-66.89% and 65.11-65.32%, respectively. The most abundant components in Kurdestan sample were thymol (55.32-55.60%), followed by γ -terpinene (24.45-24.56%), p -cymene (10.21-10.25%) and α -terpinene (2.75-2.77%). The ZEO inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes , Salmonella typhimurium , Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus subtilis , Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus at MIC values between 0.03 and 0.04%. Kermanshah oil sample had a higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (0.30-0.31 mg/ml), ability to prevent the bleaching of β-carotene (0.09-0.1 mg/ml), ferric reducing power (0.40-0.42 mg/ml) and thiobarbituric acid (0.004-0.006 Meq of malondialdehyde/g) values than that of ZEOs from Ilam, Kurdestan and Lorestan. The strong in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities supports the traditional use of ZEO in the treatments of gastrointestinal diseases.

  3. Inhibitory Activities of Butanol Fraction from Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. Bark Against Free Radicals, Genotoxins and Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Varinder; Kumar, Manish; Kaur, Paramjeet; Kaur, Sandeep; Kaur, Satwinderjeet

    2017-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate antioxidant, antigenotoxic, and antiproliferative activity of butanol fraction (Bmbu) from bark of medicinal plant Butea monosperma. Antioxidant potency of Bmbu was examined by various in vitro assays. It was also investigated for antigenotoxic activity using Escherichia coli. PQ37 employing SOS chromotest. Further, cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing activity of Bmbu was evaluated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Bmbu showed potent free radical scavenging ability in ABTS assay (IC 50 56.70 μg/ml) and anti-lipid peroxidation ability (IC 50 40.39 μg/ml). 4NQO and H 2 O 2 induced genotoxicity was suppressed by Bmbu in SOS chromotest by 74.26% and 82.02% respectively. It also inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells with GI 50 value of 158.71 μg/ml. Induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by Bmbu treatment was deciphered using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and neutral comet assay. Bmbu treatment increased cell population in sub-G 1 phase (69.6%) indicating apoptotic cells. Further, Bmbu treatment resulted in increased reactive oxygen species generation and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential indicating involvement of mitochondrial dependent pathway of apoptosis. HPLC profiling showed the presence of polyphenols such as ellagic acid, catechin, quercetin, and gallic acid as its major constituents. Consequently, it is suggested that the phytoconstituents from this plant may be further exploited for development of novel drug formulation with possible therapeutic implication. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  4. A comparative metabolomics study of flavonoids in sweet potato with different flesh colors (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam).

    PubMed

    Wang, Aimin; Li, Rensai; Ren, Lei; Gao, Xiali; Zhang, Yungang; Ma, Zhimin; Ma, Daifu; Luo, Yonghai

    2018-09-15

    To study the diversity and cultivar-specific of phytochemicals in sweet potato, Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze the metabolic profiles of five sweet potato cultivars exhibiting different flesh colors: purple, yellow/orange, and white. A total of 213 metabolites, including 29 flavonoids and 27 phenolic acids, were characterized. The flavonoid profiles of the five different cultivars were distinguished using PCA, the results suggested the flesh color accounted for the observed metabolic differences. In addition to anthocyanins, quinic acids and ferulic acids were the prominent phenolic acids, O-hexoside of quercetin, chrysoeriol were the prominent flavonoids in sweet potato tubers, and they were all higher in the OFSP and PFSP than WFSP. The main differential metabolic pathways between the OFSP, PFSP and the WFSP included those relating to phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. This study provides new insights into the differences in metabolite profiles among sweet potatoes with different flesh colors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid quantitative determination of maltose and total sugars in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.]) varieties using HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Lebot, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    When a raw sweet potato root is analysed, only sucrose, glucose and fructose are present but during cooking, starch is hydrolysed into maltose giving the sweet flavour to cooked roots. This study aimed at developing an HPTLC protocol for the rapid quantitative determination of maltose and total sugars in four commercial varieties and to compare them to 243 hybrids grouped by flesh colour (white, orange, purple). In commercial varieties, mean maltose content varied from 10.26 to 15.60% and total sugars from 17.83 to 27.77% on fresh weight basis. Hybrids showed significant variation in maltose content within each group, with means ranging from 7.65% for white-fleshed, to 8.53% in orange- and 11.98% in purple-fleshed. Total mean sugars content was 20.24, 22.11 and 26.84% respectively for white, orange and purple flesh hybrids. No significant correlations were detected between individual sugars but maltose and total sugars content were highly correlated. Compared to the best commercial variety ( Baby ), 25 hybrids (10.3%) presented a higher maltose content and 40 (16.5%) showed a higher total sugars content. HPTLC was observed as an attractive, cost efficient, high-throughput technique for quantitating maltose and total sugars in sweet potatoes. Perspectives for improving sweet potato quality for consumers' requirements are also discussed.

  6. NIR spectroscopy for the quality control of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaf powders: Prediction of minerals, protein and moisture contents.

    PubMed

    Rébufa, Catherine; Pany, Inès; Bombarda, Isabelle

    2018-09-30

    A rapid methodology was developed to simultaneously predict water content and activity values (a w ) of Moringa oleifera leaf powders (MOLP) using near infrared (NIR) signatures and experimental sorption isotherms. NIR spectra of MOLP samples (n = 181) were recorded. A Partial Least Square Regression model (PLS2) was obtained with low standard errors of prediction (SEP of 1.8% and 0.07 for water content and a w respectively). Experimental sorption isotherms obtained at 20, 30 and 40 °C showed similar profiles. This result is particularly important to use MOLP in food industry. In fact, a temperature variation of the drying process will not affect their available water content (self-life). Nutrient contents based on protein and selected minerals (Ca, Fe, K) were also predicted from PLS1 models. Protein contents were well predicted (SEP of 2.3%). This methodology allowed for an improvement in MOLP safety, quality control and traceability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effects of olive mill wastewater physico-chemical treatments on polyphenol abatement and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) germinability.

    PubMed

    Barbera, A C; Maucieri, C; Ioppolo, A; Milani, M; Cavallaro, V

    2014-04-01

    Direct spreading on agricultural lands may represent an environmentally friendly disposal method and a possible use of water and nutrients from olive mill wastewaters (OMWs). However, the agronomic use of OMWs is limited, among others by polyphenols, which exert phytotoxic effects. Activated charcoal (AC) has been recognized as a very effective agent for polyphenol abatement, as it enables an irreversible process of phenol adsorption. Addition of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has also been described as a cheap and effective method in polyphenols abatement. However, the effects of Ca(OH)2 addition to OMW on seed germination are unclear. In this paper, the effects of AC and/or Ca(OH)2 on OMW polyphenols abatement, and Lolium multiflorum seed germination have been investigated. The highest polyphenols removal, approximately 95%, was observed when 80 g L(-1) of AC was added to OMWs (the maximum dose in this investigation). The addition of Ca(OH)2 not only improved the effectiveness of the AC treatment but also resulted in a significant rise in Lolium seed germination at the highest AC doses (60 and 80 g L(-1)). Considering the high salinity (7300 μS cm(-1)) of these wastewaters, low quantities of Ca(OH)2 may also exert a protective effect on soil structure counteracting the sodium-induced dispersion through the binding action of calcium cation on clays and organic matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lam I-joists : a new structural building product from small-diameter, fire-prone timber

    Treesearch

    John F. Hunt; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2003-01-01

    The goal of our research is to promote healthy and sustainable forests by developing value-added uses for curved and small-diameter trees. In typical North American logging or thinning operations, much of this low- value timber is felled and left on the ground, chipped, or burned because most mills are not equipped to handle it. By understanding the fundamental...

  9. Effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivars.

    PubMed

    Dincer, Cuneyt; Karaoglan, Mert; Erden, Fidan; Tetik, Nedim; Topuz, Ayhan; Ozdemir, Feramuz

    2011-11-01

    The effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of three sweet potato cultivars (Beniazuma, Koganesengan, Kotobuki) cultivated in Turkey were investigated. The samples were analyzed for proximate composition, total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, antiradical activity, and free sugars. The dry matter, protein, and starch contents of the sweet potatoes were significantly changed by the treatments while the ash and crude fiber contents did not differ as significantly. The β-carotene contents of baked and boiled sweet potatoes were lower than those of fresh sweet potatoes; however, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents of the baked and boiled sweet potatoes were higher than those of the fresh samples. Generally, the antiradical activity of the sweet potatoes increased with the treatments. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose were quantified as free sugars in all fresh sweet potatoes; however, maltose was determined in the treated samples. In terms of the analyzed parameters, there were no explicit differences among the sweet potato cultivars.

  10. Constituents of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., Moringa oleifera Lam., Heliotropium indicum L. and Bidens pilosa L. from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunbinu, Akinola O; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier L; Adebayo, Muritala A; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2009-04-01

    The essential oils of four plant species from Nigeria have been extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of Cajanus cajan were comprised of sesquiterpenes (92.5%, 81.2% and 94.3% respectively in the leaves, stem and seeds). The major compounds identified were alpha-himachalene (9.0-11.5%), beta-himachalene (8.0-11.0%), gamma-himachalene (6.9-8.1%), alpha-humulene (7.1-8.7%) and alpha-copaene (4.5-5.6%). However, monoterpenoid compounds (81.8%) dominated the oil of Moringa oleifera with an abundance of alpha-phellandrene (25.2%) and p-cymene (24.9%). On the other hand, aldehydes (52.8%) occurred in the highest amount in Heliotropium indicum, represented by phenylacetaldehyde (22.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (8.3%) and (E, Z)-2-nonadienal (6.1%), with a significant quantity of hexahydrofarnesylacetone (8.4%). The leaf and stem oils of Bidens pilosa were dominated by sesquiterpenes (82.3% and 59.3%, respectively). The main compounds in the leaf oil were caryophyllene oxide (37.0%), beta-caryophyllene (10.5%) and humulene oxide (6.0%), while the stem oils had an abundance of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (13.4%), delta-cadinene (12.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.0%). The observed chemical patterns differ considerably from previous investigations.

  11. Effect of heat–moisture treatment on digestibility of different cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam) starch

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, Suraji; Gunaratne, Anil; Ranaweera, K K D S; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Different heat–moisture levels were applied to native starches from different cultivars of sweet potatoes available in Sri Lanka (Wariyapola red, Wariyapola white, Pallepola variety, Malaysian variety and CARI 273) to study the digestibility level. Samples were treated with 20, 25, and 30% moisture at 85°C and 120°C for 6 h and in vitro starch digestibility was tested with porcine pancreatin enzyme. A range of 19.3–23.5% digestibility was shown by the native starches with no significant difference (P < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the digestibility level of the hydrothermally modified starches and the moisture content showed a positive impact on the digestibility. Heat–moisture treatment at 85°C brought an overall increase in digestibility and temperature beyond 85°C had a negative impact. No significant difference (P < 0.05) in the digestibility was observed with 20% and 25% moisture at 85°C and increased level were seen at 85°C and 30% moisture. PMID:25473497

  12. On the origin of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genetic diversity in New Guinea, a secondary centre of diversity

    PubMed Central

    Roullier, C; Kambouo, R; Paofa, J; McKey, D; Lebot, V

    2013-01-01

    New Guinea is considered the most important secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We analysed nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of 417 New Guinea sweet potato landraces, representing agro-morphological diversity collected throughout the island, and compared this diversity with that in tropical America. The molecular data reveal moderate diversity across all accessions analysed, lower than that found in tropical America. Nuclear data confirm previous results, suggesting that New Guinea landraces are principally derived from the Northern neotropical genepool (Camote and Batata lines, from the Caribbean and Central America). However, chloroplast data suggest that South American clones (early Kumara line clones or, more probably, later reintroductions) were also introduced into New Guinea and then recombined with existing genotypes. The frequency distribution of pairwise distances between New Guinea landraces suggests that sexual reproduction, rather than somaclonal variation, has played a predominant role in the diversification of sweet potato. The frequent incorporation of plants issued from true seed by farmers, and the geographical and cultural barriers constraining crop diffusion in this topographically and linguistically heterogeneous island, has led to the accumulation of an impressive number of variants. As the diversification of sweet potato in New Guinea is primarily the result of farmers' management of the reproductive biology of their crop, we argue that on-farm conservation programmes that implement distribution of core samples (clones representing the useful diversity of the species) and promote on-farm selection of locally adapted variants may allow local communities to fashion relatively autonomous strategies for coping with ongoing global change. PMID:23531982

  13. Anatomy and ultrastructure alterations of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi in response to arsenic-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jerusa; Labory, Claudia Regina Gontijo; Rangel, Wesley Melo; Alves, Eduardo; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto Guimarães

    2013-11-15

    Many studies demonstrate the potential application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for remediation purposes, but little is known on AMF potential to enhance plant tolerance to arsenic (As) and the mechanisms involved in this process. We carried anatomical and ultrastructural studies to examine this symbiotic association and the characteristics of shoots and roots of Leucaena leucocephala in As-amended soils (35 and 75 mg As dm(-3)). The experiment used 3 AMF isolates from uncontaminated soils: Acaulospora morrowiae, Glomus clarum, and Gigaspora albida; a mixed inoculum derived from combining these 3 isolates (named Mix AMF); and, 3 AMF isolates from As-contaminated areas: A. morrowiae, G. clarum and Paraglomus occultum. Phytotoxicity symptoms due to arsenic contamination appeared during plant growth, especially in treatments without AMF application. Inoculation with G. clarum and the mixture of species (A. morrowiae, G. albida, and G. clarum) resulted in better growth of L. leucocephala in soils with high As concentrations, as well as significant As removal from the soil, showing a potential for using AMF in phytoextraction. Light microscopy (LS), transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) studies showed the colonization of the AMF in plant tissues and damage in all treatments, with ultrastructural changes being observed in leaves and roots of L. leucocephala, especially with the addition of 75 mg dm(-3) of As. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Variation in the mineral element concentration of Moringa oleifera Lam. and M. stenopetala (Bak. f.) Cuf.: Role in human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kumssa, Diriba B; Joy, Edward Jm; Young, Scott D; Odee, David W; Ander, E Louise; Broadley, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) and M. stenopetala (MS) (family Moringaceae; order Brassicales) are multipurpose tree/shrub species. They thrive under marginal environmental conditions and produce nutritious edible parts. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of different parts of MO and MS growing in their natural environments and their potential role in alleviating human mineral micronutrient deficiencies (MND) in sub-Saharan Africa. Edible parts of MO (n = 146) and MS (n = 50), co-occurring cereals/vegetables and soils (n = 95) underneath their canopy were sampled from localities in southern Ethiopia and Kenya. The concentrations of seven mineral elements, namely, calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iodine (I), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in edible parts and soils were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In Ethiopian crops, MS leaves contained the highest median concentrations of all elements except Cu and Zn, which were greater in Enset (a.k.a., false banana). In Kenya, Mo flowers and MS leaves had the highest median Se concentration of 1.56 mg kg-1 and 3.96 mg kg-1, respectively. The median concentration of Se in MS leaves was 7-fold, 10-fold, 23-fold, 117-fold and 147-fold more than that in brassica leaves, amaranth leaves, baobab fruits, sorghum grain and maize grain, respectively. The median Se concentration was 78-fold and 98-fold greater in MO seeds than in sorghum and maize grain, respectively. There was a strong relationship between soil total Se and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)-extractable Se, and Se concentration in the leaves of MO and MS. This study confirms previous studies that Moringa is a good source of several of the measured mineral nutrients, and it includes the first wide assessment of Se and I concentrations in edible parts of MO and MS grown in various localities. Increasing the consumption of MO and MS, especially the leaves as a fresh vegetable or in powdered form, could reduce the prevalence of MNDs, most notably Se deficiency.

  15. Toxic Ipomeamarone Accumulation in Healthy Parts of Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Storage Roots upon Infection by Rhizopus stolonifer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Furanoterpenoid accumulation in response to microbial attack in rotting sweetpotatoes has long been linked to deaths and lung edema of cattle in the world. However, it is not known whether furanoterpenoid ipomeamarone accumulates in the healthy-looking parts of infected sweetpotato storage roots. This is critical for effective utilization as animal feed and assessment of the potential negative impact on human health. Therefore, we first identified the fungus from infected sweetpotatoes as a Rhizopus stolonifer strain and then used it to infect healthy sweetpotato storage roots for characterization of furanoterpenoid content. Ipomeamarone and its precursor, dehydroipomeamarone, were identified through spectroscopic analyses, and detected in all samples and controls at varying concentrations. Ipomeamarone concentration was at toxic levels in healthy-looking parts of some samples. Our study provides fundamental information on furanoterpenoids in relation to high levels reported that could subsequently affect cattle on consumption and high ipomeamarone levels in healthy-looking parts. PMID:25418792

  16. Leaf development in Xylopia aromatica (Lam) Mart. (Annonaceae): implications for palatability to Stenoma scitiorella Walker 1864 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae).

    PubMed

    Varanda, E M; Costa, A A; Barosela, J R

    2008-11-01

    Variations in specific foliar mass and water content, nitrogen, soluble carbohydrates and tannins were studied during the growth and maturation processes of the Xylopia aromatica leaves, to determine the effects of such alterations on the herbivory of Stenoma scitiorella caterpillars. This work was carried out in the physiognomy of the typical cerrado of the Parque Estadual de Vassununga, Gleba Pé-de Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, Brazil. While nutritional quality (water and nitrogen) decreases during expansion and maturation of Xylopia aromatica leaves, the chemical (tannins) and physical (sclerophylly) defenses are raised. In agreement with the observations on herbivory, the results support the hypothesis that the reduction in palatability and increase in chemical defenses of Xylopia aromatica leaves account for the caterpillars' preference for young expanding leaves.

  17. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivated as tuber or leafy vegetable supplier as affected by elevated tropospheric ozone.

    PubMed

    Keutgen, Norbert; Keutgen, Anna J; Janssens, Marc J J

    2008-08-13

    Sweet potato cultivars respond differently to elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations of ca. 130 mug m (-3), 8 h a day for 4 weeks, which affects their selection for cultivation. In the first cultivar presented here, an adequate leafy vegetable supplier, the ozone load resulted in a shift of biomass to maintain the canopy at the expense of tuber development. Starch content of leaves was reduced, indicating an impairment of quality, but carotenoid content remained stable. The second cultivar may be grown for tuber production. Although the ratio tuber/plant remained stable under ozone, tuber yield and its starch content were significantly reduced. The lower starch content indicated a worse quality for certain industrial processing, but it is desirable for chip production. Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations also influenced free amino acids and macronutrient contents of tubers, but these modifications were of minor significance for tuber quality in the second cultivar.

  18. Variation in the mineral element concentration of Moringa oleifera Lam. and M. stenopetala (Bak. f.) Cuf.: Role in human nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Kumssa, Diriba B; Joy, Edward JM; Young, Scott D; Odee, David W; Ander, E Louise

    2017-01-01

    Background Moringa oleifera (MO) and M. stenopetala (MS) (family Moringaceae; order Brassicales) are multipurpose tree/shrub species. They thrive under marginal environmental conditions and produce nutritious edible parts. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of different parts of MO and MS growing in their natural environments and their potential role in alleviating human mineral micronutrient deficiencies (MND) in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Edible parts of MO (n = 146) and MS (n = 50), co-occurring cereals/vegetables and soils (n = 95) underneath their canopy were sampled from localities in southern Ethiopia and Kenya. The concentrations of seven mineral elements, namely, calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iodine (I), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in edible parts and soils were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results In Ethiopian crops, MS leaves contained the highest median concentrations of all elements except Cu and Zn, which were greater in Enset (a.k.a., false banana). In Kenya, Mo flowers and MS leaves had the highest median Se concentration of 1.56 mg kg-1 and 3.96 mg kg-1, respectively. The median concentration of Se in MS leaves was 7-fold, 10-fold, 23-fold, 117-fold and 147-fold more than that in brassica leaves, amaranth leaves, baobab fruits, sorghum grain and maize grain, respectively. The median Se concentration was 78-fold and 98-fold greater in MO seeds than in sorghum and maize grain, respectively. There was a strong relationship between soil total Se and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)-extractable Se, and Se concentration in the leaves of MO and MS. Conclusion This study confirms previous studies that Moringa is a good source of several of the measured mineral nutrients, and it includes the first wide assessment of Se and I concentrations in edible parts of MO and MS grown in various localities. Increasing the consumption of MO and MS, especially the leaves as a fresh vegetable or in powdered form, could reduce the prevalence of MNDs, most notably Se deficiency. PMID:28388674

  19. Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. (Sausage tree): Phytochemistry and pharmacological review of a quintessential African traditional medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Bello, Idris; Shehu, Mustapha W; Musa, Mustapha; Zaini Asmawi, Mohd; Mahmud, Roziahanim

    2016-08-02

    Kigelia africana is a quintessential African herbal medicinal plant with a pan-African distribution and immense indigenous medicinal and non-medicinal applications. The plant is use traditionally as a remedy for numerous disease such as use wounds healing, rheumatism, psoriasis, diarrhea and stomach ailments. It is also use as an aphrodisiac and for skin care. The present review aims to compile an up-to-date review of the progress made in the continuous pharmacological and phytochemistry investigation of K. africana and the corresponding commercial and pharmaceutical application of these findings with the ultimate objective of providing a guide for future research on this plant. The scholarly information needed for this paper were predominantly sourced from the electronic search engines such as Google, Google scholar; publishing sites such as Elsevier, scienceDirect, BMC, PubMed; other scientific database sites for chemicals such as ChemSpider, PubChem, and also from online books. Pharmacological investigations conducted confirm the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and anticancer activity of the extract of different parts of the plant. Bioactive constituents are found to be present in all parts of the plant. So far, approximately 150 compounds have been characterized from different part of the plant. Iridoids, naphthoquinones, flavonoids, terpenes and phenylethanoglycosides are the major class of compounds isolated. Novel compounds with potent antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer effect such as verbascoside, verminoside and pinnatal among others, have been identified. Commercial trade of K. africana has boosted in the las few decades. Its effect in the maintenance of skin has been recognized resulting in a handful of skin formulations in the market. The pharmaceutical potentials of K. africana has been recognized and have witness a surge in research interest. However, till date, many of its traditional medicinal uses has not been investigated scientifically. Further probing of the existential researches on its pharmacological activity is recommended with the end-goal of unravelling the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical relevance and possible toxicity and side effects of both the extract and the active ingredients isolated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of seasonal chemical composition, antibacterial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of essential oil from Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Diogo Alexandre; Tenfen, Adrielli; Yamanaka, Celina Noriko; de Cordova, Caio Maurício Mendes; Scharf, Dilamara Riva; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Alberton, Michele Debiasi

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the seasonal composition and the antibacterial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of the essential oil from Eugenia brasiliensis leaves. Analysis by using GC allowed the identification of 40 compounds. It was observed that the monoterpenes varied more (42%) than the sesquiterpenes (14%), and that the monoterpene hydrocarbons suffered the greatest variation throughout the year (64%). Major compounds were spathulenol in the spring (16.02 ± 0.44%) and summer (18.17 ± 0.41%), τ-cadinol in the autumn (12.83 ± 0.03%) and α-pinene (15.94 ± 0.58%) in the winter. Essential oils were tested for their antibacterial activity, and the best result was obtained from the autumn oil, with MIC = 500 μg mL(- 1) against Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, lipid peroxidation and iron-reducing power assays, as well as the anticholinesterase activity. Both tests showed a weak performance of the essential oils.

  1. Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Cheah, Pike See; Abas, Farida; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15%) of diabetics and up to 15%-24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine). Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction) daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue regeneration, as well as downregulation of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and upregulation of an angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor in wound tissue treated with various doses of aqueous fraction of M. oleifera. The findings suggest that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 active compound may accelerate wound healing in hyperglycemic condition.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships among morphotypes of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpinioideae: Leguminosae) evidenced by trnL intron sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juchum, Fabrício Sacramento; Costa, Marco Antônio; Amorim, André Márcio; Corrêa, Ronan Xavier

    2008-11-01

    Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood or Pernambuco wood) comprises a complex of three morphological leaf variants, characterized by differences in the number and size of the pinnae and leaflets, and occurring in allopatric and sympatric populations. The present study evaluates the utility of the chloroplast DNA trnL intron in a phylogenetic analysis of the three leaf variants along with other species of Caesalpinia and generic relatives. Our study supports the hypothesis that the name C. echinata designates a species complex and provides evidence that one of the forms, the highly divergent C. echinata large-leafleted variant, represents a distinct taxon.

  3. Main extracts and hypolipidemic effects of the Bauhinia racemosa Lam. leaf extract in HFD-fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Sashidhara, Koneni V; Singh, Suriya P; Srivastava, Anuj; Puri, Anju

    2013-01-01

    The lipid lowering effects of ethanolic extract (BR) obtained from leaves of Bauhinia racemosa on hyperlipidemic hamsters were examined. BR showed significant lowering of lipid profile at a dose of 250 mg kg(-1) body-wt of hamster. Chloroform fraction (F2) obtained from BR showed pronounced activity at lower dose of 100 mg kg(-1). F2 gave two most active fractions (L and T) whose chromatographic separations led to the isolation of constituents 1-5, which are being reported for the first time from this natural source. The results of activity profile of the plant were found to be better than the standard drug lovastatin.

  4. On Distributed Strategies in Defense of a High Value Unit (HVU) Against a Swarm Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    function [ lam ,U] = tqr(a,b,U) % [ lam u] = tqr(a,b) or [ lam U] = tqr(a,b,U... lam u] = tqr(a,b): % % The column lam contains the eigenvalues of the Hermitian tridiagonal % matrix T = mxt(a,b) computed by one version of the...computed. The computed eigenvalues are real and are sorted to be % nonincreasing. % % [ lam U] = tqr(a,b,U): % % This replaces the input U

  5. SciTech Connect

    Jamieson,K.; Wu, J.; Hubbard, S.

    The human laminin receptor (LamR) interacts with many ligands, including laminin, prions, Sindbis virus, and the polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and has been implicated in a number of diseases. LamR is overexpressed on tumor cells, and targeting LamR elicits anti-cancer effects. Here, we report the crystal structure of human LamR, which provides insights into its function and should facilitate the design of novel therapeutics targeting LamR.

  6. Streptozotocin-Induced Adaptive Modification of Mitochondrial Supercomplexes in Liver of Wistar Rats and the Protective Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam

    PubMed Central

    Alejandra Sánchez-Muñoz, María; Flores-Herrera, Óscar; Esparza-Perusquía, Mercedes; Olvera-Sánchez, Sofia; García-Arenas, Guadalupe; Téllez-Valencia, Alfredo

    2018-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes continues to be a major health issue worldwide. Alteration of mitochondrial electron transport chain is a recognized hallmark of the diabetic-associated decline in liver bioenergetics; however, the molecular events involved are only poorly understood. Moringa oleifera is used for the treatment of diabetes. However, its role on mitochondrial functionality is not yet established. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of M. oleifera extract on supercomplex formation, ATPase activity, ROS production, GSH levels, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation. The levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation were increased in diabetic group. However, the levels were decreased in Moringa-treated diabetic rats. Analysis of in-gel activity showed an increase in all complex activities in the diabetic group, but spectrophotometric determinations of complex II and IV activities were unaffected in this treatment. However, we found an oxygen consumption abolition through complex I-III-IV pathway in the diabetic group treated with Moringa. While respiration with succinate feeding into complex II-III-IV was increased in the diabetic group. These findings suggest that hyperglycemia modifies oxygen consumption, supercomplexes formation, and increases ROS levels in mitochondria from the liver of STZ-diabetic rats, whereas M. oleifera may have a protective role against some alterations. PMID:29686903

  7. Fungistatic activity of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. bark extracts against fungal plant pathogens and investigation on mechanism of action in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Carotenuto, Gennaro; Carrieri, Raffaele; Tarantino, Paola; Alfieri, Mariaevelina; Leone, Antonella; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Lahoz, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived compounds are emerging as an alternative choice to synthetic fungicides. Chloroform-methanol extract, obtained from the bark of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a member of Rutaceae, showed a fungistatic effect on Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Clonostachys rosea, when added to the growth medium at different concentrations. A fraction obtained by gel separation and containing the alkaloid O-Methylcapaurine showed significant fungistatic effect against B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum, two of the most destructive phytopathogenic fungi. The underlying mechanism of such an inhibition was further investigated in B. cinerea, a fungus highly prone to develop fungicide resistance, by analysing the expression levels of a set of genes (BcatrB, P450, CYP51 and TOR). O-Methylcapaurine inhibited the expression of all the analysed genes. In particular, the expression of BcatrB gene, encoding a membrane drug transporter involved in the resistance to a wide range of xenobiotic compounds, was strongly inhibited (91%).

  8. A 14-day repeated-dose oral toxicological evaluation of an isothiocyanate-enriched hydro-alcoholic extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youjin; Jaja-Chimedza, Asha; Merrill, Daniel; Mendes, Odete; Raskin, Ilya

    2018-01-01

    A 14-d short-term oral toxicity study in rats evaluated the safety of moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1)-enriched hydro-alcoholic moringa seeds extract (MSE). Rats (5 males/5 females per group) were gavaged daily for 14 d with the vehicle control or MSE, at 78 (low), 257 (mid-low), 772 (mid-high), or 2571 (high) mg/kg bw/d, standardized to MIC-1 (30, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg bw/d, respectively). Toxicological endpoints included body weight and weight gain, food consumption and feed efficiency, clinical observations, hematology, gross necropsy and histopathology, and relative organ weights. Mortality was only observed in the high dose group animals, both male and female, representing decreases in body weight/weight gain and food consumption/feed efficiency. Irregular respiratory patterns and piloerection were major clinical observations found primarily in the mid-high and high dose group animals. In the high dose group, gastrointestinal distention and stomach discoloration were observed in non-surviving males and females, and degeneration and necrosis of the testicular germinal cells and epididymal cells were also observed in a non-surviving male. Increased liver weights were found in females in the mid-high and high dose groups. Animals in the low and mid-low groups did not exhibit adverse effects of MSE (100 mg/kg bw/d MIC-1). A no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the standardized MSE was determined as 257 mg/kg bw/d providing 100 mg/kg bw/d MIC-1.

  9. A Compound LAMS-MOODLE Environment to Support Collaborative Project-Based Learning: A Case Study with the Group Investigation Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschalis, Giorgos

    2017-01-01

    Collaborative project-based learning is well established as a component of several courses in higher education, since it seems to motivate students and make them active in the learning process. Collaborative Project-Based Learning methods are demanded so that tutors become able to intervene and guide the students in flexible ways: by encouraging…

  10. Pharmacognostic Assesment of the Endemic and Vulnerable Medicinal Climber-Cayratia pedata (Lam.) Gagnep. var. glabra Gamble and Its Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Sharmila, S; Kalaichelvi, K; Dhivya, S M; Premamalini, P; Abirami, P; Jayanthi, G

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate a meticulous pharmacognostic cram is to supplement constructive information with regard to its identification, characterization, and standardization of endemic and endangered medicinal climber Cayratia pedata var. glabra and also screening the antibacterial activity of this climber. The morphological characters of study plant, microscopic examination of leaf powder, anatomy of young stem, physicochemical analysis of plant powder, extractive values, phytochemical analysis, powder with different chemical reagents, fluorescence analysis of plant powder, and other World Health Organization (WHO) recommended for standardization were analyzed. The antibacterial activity of this study plant is also analyzed. C. pedata var. glabra belongs to the family Vitaceae, commonly known as "Kattuppirandai" is one such endemic and endangered species in Thaisholai, Nilgiris South Division, Western Ghats. With the patronage of veteran ethnic group traditional knowledge of this region, the species C. pedata var. glabra was selected for the pharmacognostical examination and antibacterial screening. There were no pharmacognostical reports of this plant, specifically to determine the anatomical and other physicochemical standards required for its quality control. The current study deals with pharmacognostical parameters for the aerial parts of study plant, which mainly consists of macromorphological and microanatomical characters, physicochemical constants (ash values and extractive values), fluorescence analysis, and phytochemical screening, one of the WHO accepted parameter for the identification of medicinal plants. The pharmacognostical exploration was undertaken for this species with the purpose of sketch the pharmacopeial standards. The antibacterial activity of this plant confirms the therapeutic power. The information obtained from pharmacognostical studies will be of used for supplementary pharmacological and therapeutical evaluation of the species and will assist in standardization for quality, purity, and authentication with the help, of which adulteration and substitution can be prevented. The antibacterial activity of this plant confirm the traditional knowledge of local healers on the wound healing property of this species and also suggest this plant species can be used as a promising source for the development of new pharmaceuticals that address the therapeutic needs to cure infectious diseases. The species C. pedata var. glabra was selected for present research work, since this species is listed in Red data book and has a wider use for different ailments among the tribal population of Thiashola due to its high medicinal value. Pharmacognostical profile was generated from macroscopical analysis, microscopical studies, powder analysis, physico-chemical constituent values, fluorescence analysis and preliminary phytochemical evaluation. The antibacterial activity of this plant confirms the therapeutic power. Abbreviations Used: WHO: World Health Organization; IUCN: International Union for the Conservation of Nature.

  11. Evaluation of the performance of a press-lam timber bridge : bridge performance and load test after five years, final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-01-01

    The report describes the results of the load tests and summarizes the collection of data on the dimensional changes and moisture content of the press-lain members and the number and types of vehicles using the bridge. The results of the load tests su...

  12. Anti-EGFR Antibody Efficiently and Specifically Inhibits Human TSC2−/− Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation. Possible Treatment Options for TSC and LAM

    PubMed Central

    Lesma, Elena; Grande, Vera; Ancona, Silvia; Carelli, Stephana; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Gorio, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    Background Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a tumor syndrome caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 genes, is characterized by the development of hamartomas. We previously isolated, from an angiomyolipoma of a TSC2 patient, a homogenous population of smooth muscle-like cells (TSC2−/− ASM cells) that have a mutation in the TSC2 gene as well as TSC2 loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and consequently, do not produce the TSC2 gene product, tuberin. TSC2−/− ASM cell proliferation is EGF-dependent. Methods and Findings Effects of EGF on proliferation of TSC2−/− ASM cells and TSC2−/− ASM cells transfected with TSC2 gene were determined. In contrast to TSC2−/− ASM cells, growth of TSC2-transfected cells was not dependent on EGF. Moreover, phosphorylation of Akt, PTEN, Erk and S6 was significantly decreased. EGF is a proliferative factor of TSC2−/− ASM cells. Exposure of TSC2−/− ASM cells to anti-EGFR antibodies significantly inhibited their proliferation, reverted reactivity to HMB45 antibody, a marker of TSC2−/− cell phenotype, and inhibited constitutive phosphorylation of S6 and ERK. Exposure of TSC2−/− ASM cells to rapamycin reduced the proliferation rate, but only when added at plating time. Although rapamycin efficiently inhibited S6 phosphorylation, it was less efficient than anti-EGFR antibody in reverting HMB45 reactivity and blocking ERK phosphorylation. In TSC2−/− ASM cells specific PI3K inhibitors (e.g. LY294002, wortmannin) and Akt1 siRNA had little effect on S6 and ERK phosphorylation. Following TSC2-gene transfection, Akt inhibitor sensitivity was observed. Conclusion Our results show that an EGF independent pathway is more important than that involving IGF-I for growth and survival of TSC−/− ASM cells, and such EGF-dependency is the result of the lack of tuberin. PMID:18958173

  13. Streptozotocin-Induced Adaptive Modification of Mitochondrial Supercomplexes in Liver of Wistar Rats and the Protective Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Alejandra Sánchez-Muñoz, María; Valdez-Solana, Mónica Andrea; Campos-Almazán, Mara Ibeth; Flores-Herrera, Óscar; Esparza-Perusquía, Mercedes; Olvera-Sánchez, Sofia; García-Arenas, Guadalupe; Avitia-Domínguez, Claudia; Téllez-Valencia, Alfredo; Sierra-Campos, Erick

    2018-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes continues to be a major health issue worldwide. Alteration of mitochondrial electron transport chain is a recognized hallmark of the diabetic-associated decline in liver bioenergetics; however, the molecular events involved are only poorly understood. Moringa oleifera is used for the treatment of diabetes. However, its role on mitochondrial functionality is not yet established. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of M. oleifera extract on supercomplex formation, ATPase activity, ROS production, GSH levels, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation. The levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation were increased in diabetic group. However, the levels were decreased in Moringa -treated diabetic rats. Analysis of in-gel activity showed an increase in all complex activities in the diabetic group, but spectrophotometric determinations of complex II and IV activities were unaffected in this treatment. However, we found an oxygen consumption abolition through complex I-III-IV pathway in the diabetic group treated with Moringa . While respiration with succinate feeding into complex II-III-IV was increased in the diabetic group. These findings suggest that hyperglycemia modifies oxygen consumption, supercomplexes formation, and increases ROS levels in mitochondria from the liver of STZ-diabetic rats, whereas M. oleifera may have a protective role against some alterations.

  14. In vitro effects of aqueous extract from Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell stem bark on egg hatching, larval migration and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Zangueu, Calvin Bogning; Olounlade, Abiodoun Pascal; Ossokomack, Marlyse; Djouatsa, Yolande Noelle Nangue; Alowanou, Goue Géorcelin; Azebaze, Anatole Guy Blaise; Llorent-Martínez, Eulogio José; de Córdova, Maria Luisa Fernández; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Hounzangbe-Adote, Mawulé Sylvie

    2018-05-02

    Maytenus senegalensis is a common shrub which is scattered in tropical Africa. Different parts of this plant have been reported to be useful in traditional medicine against gastrointestinal disorders and intestinal worms. This study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous stem bark extract of M. senegalensis using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA) and adult worms' motility inhibition assay (AMIA). On EHA, the extract concentrations tested resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) inhibition of egg hatching in concentration-dependent manner and ranged between 31.86% at 75 μg.mL - 1 to 54.92% at 2400 μg.mL - 1 after a 48 h post-exposure with eggs. For the LMI assays, the aqueous extract of M. senegalensis showed a significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of larval migration in a concentration-dependent manner. The highest concentration used (2400 μg.mL - 1 ) showed a 37.77% inhibition. The use of polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) indicated that tannins and flavonoids were partly involved in the effect since the larval migration was inhibited by 15.5%, but other biochemical compounds were also implicated. On AMIA, M. senegalensis was associated with a reduced worm motility after a 24 h post exposure compared to phosphate buffered saline as control (p < 0.05). By this time 66.66% of the worms' were found immotile or dead in the wells containing plant extract at 2400 μg.mL - 1 . The Phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of M. senegalensis by HPLC-ESI-MS n detected the presence of proanthocyanidins (20%) and flavonoids (> 50%). These in vitro results suggest the presence of some anthelmintic properties in M. senegalensis extract, which is traditionally used by small farmers in west and central Africa. These effects may be due to the flavonoids and proanthocyanidins present in the extract and need to be studied under in vivo conditions.

  15. Anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) and their color modulation by the addition of phenolic acids and food-grade phenolic plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Gras, Claudia C; Nemetz, Nicole; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2017-11-15

    Anthocyanin profiles and contents of three purple sweet potato provenances were investigated by HPLC-DAD-MS n . In contrast to widely uniform profiles, the contents of total (558-2477mg/100gDM) and individual anthocyanins varied widely. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative effects of intermolecular co-pigmentation were studied by adding chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids, and food-grade phenolic apple and rosemary extracts at various dosages to a diluted purple sweet potato concentrate at pH 0.9, 2.6, 3.6, and 4.6. Addition of co-pigments generally increased pK H estimate -values of anthocyanins from 3.28 (without co-pigments) to up to 4.71, thus substantially broadening the pH range wherein colored forms prevail. The most pronounced hyperchromic shift by up to +50.5% at the absorption maximum was observed at pH 4.6. Simply by blending the co-pigments with purple sweet potato anthocyanins at pH-values ranging from 2.6 to 4.6, purplish-blue, light pink, magenta, brick-red, and intense red hues were accessible as expressed by CIE-L ∗ a ∗ b ∗ color values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Method for LC-MS/MS Profiling of Coumarins in Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) B. Zepernich and Timler Extracts and Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Tine, Yoro; Renucci, Franck; Costa, Jean; Wélé, Alassane; Paolini, Julien

    2017-01-22

    The metabolites from the coumarin class, present in tissues of plants belonging mainly to the Rutaceae and Apiaceae families, included compounds with high chemical diversity such as simple coumarins and furocoumarins. These health-promoting components are recognized for their valuable biological activities in herbal preparations but also for their phototoxic effects. In this work, a targeted liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS²) was developed for the screening of 39 reference standards of coumarins and furocoumarins in essential oils and plant extracts. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on reversed phase column using water/acetonitrile as the mobile phase and detection was performed on a hybrid QqQ/linear ion trap spectrometer fitted with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source operating in positive ion mode. This analytical approach was applied to investigate the coumarin compositions of fruit essential oils and methanolic extracts obtained from separated parts (fruit, leaf, stem, trunk, and root) of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides . Ten coumarins and six furanocoumarins were reported in this species and data analyses were used to assess the suitability of these compounds to the metabolomics-based differentiation of plant organs. The quantification criteria of the metabolites in extract samples included linearity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, and matrix effect were validated. As reported for other species of the Rutaceae family, the concentration of coumarins was drastically higher in Z. zanthoxyloides fruits than in other plant organs.

  17. Phytochemical screening by LC-MS and LC-PDA of ethanolic extracts from the fruits of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rosaria; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Pellizzeri, Vito; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-06-01

    Kigelia africana is a tree native to Africa, with a local employment in numerous fields, ranging from traditional medicine to cosmetics and religious rituals. Parts of the plant generally used are stem bark, fruits, roots and leaves. The fruits, which have a singular 'sausage' shape, are widely exploited by local folk, in particular for applications/products involving genito-urinary apparatus of both human genders. The scope of this work was to make a consistent chemical investigation on this plant species, in order to clarify and increase the information at present available in literature. To this aim, ethanolic extracts of K. africana fruits were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) and electrospray-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) detection, revealing the presence of polyphenols and iridoids. The two detection systems used along with standard co-injection and comparison with previous reports, led to the identification and quantification of six phenolic compounds and three iridoids.

  18. Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Génépi Liqueur: Volatile Profile as Diagnostic Marker for Geographic Origin and To Predict Liqueur Safety.

    PubMed

    Boggia, Lorenzo; Pignata, Giuseppe; Sgorbini, Barbara; Colombo, Maria Laura; Marengo, Arianna; Casale, Manuela; Nicola, Silvana; Bicchi, Carlo; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2017-04-05

    Artemisia umbelliformis, commonly known as "white génépi", is characterized by a volatile fraction rich in α- and β-thujones, two monoterpenoids; under European Union (EU) regulations these are limited to 35 mg/L in Artemisia-based beverages because of their recognized activity on the human central nervous system. This study reports the results of an investigation to define the geographical origin and thujone content of individual plants of A. umbelliformis from different geographical sites, cultivated experimentally at a single site, and to predict the thujone content in the resulting liqueurs through their volatile fraction. Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and non-separative HS-SPME-MS were used as analytical platforms to create a database suitable for chemometric description and prediction through linear discriminant analysis (LDA). HS-SPME-MS was applied to shorten analysis time. With both approaches, a diagnostic prediction of (i) plant geographical origin and (ii) thujone content of plant-related liqueurs could be made.

  19. Nutritional Comparison of White and Red Coccinia Abyssinica (Lam.) Cong. Accessions: An Under-Utilised Edible Tuber of the Ethiopian Highlands.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Aditya; Gebre, Bilatu Agza; Legesse, Addisu; Demelash, Yoseph; Fladung, Kirsten; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-08-22

    Anchote ( Coccinia abyssinica ) is an indigenous tuber crop of the Ethiopian Highlands. It is popular in the western Oromia Region of the country. Apart from food, the crop is also used in traditional medicine. Anchote tubers possess two variations in its tissue colour, red and white. In this study, a small market survey and a nutritional comparison of red and white anchote were conducted. White tissue anchote seems to be more popular, due to its soft texture and ease of cooking. However, the red variant was considered for flour making (by dehydration), for use in porridge and soups for various medicinal and supplementary food applications. Red anchote tubers contained significantly higher protein content (16.85 mg/100 g dry matter basis) than the white variant. However, apart from the marginally higher protein content compared to other tropical root and tuber crops, anchote seems to remain a primary source of carbohydrates. In macro minerals, white anchote proves to be a more important source of Ca with 81 mg/100 g edible portion; however, on dry matter basis, the content was similar to the red variant (316 and 309 mg/100 g dry matter, white and red respectively). Further research on vitamin content (especially vitamin A in the red variant) would be useful to understand the full nutrition potential of the crop.

  20. In vitro anti-acne activity of phytoactives from the stem bark of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. and characterisation of pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A as a mixture of two anomers.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Mahadeva; Nagarajan, A; Majeed, Muhammed; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Choudhury, Ambar K

    2017-08-18

    This study is aimed to isolate the phytoactives from the stem bark of Artocarpus hirsutus and evaluate their in vitro anti-acne activity. The ethanolic stem bark extract of A. hirsutus provided two major phytoactive constituents: (i) pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A, (1) and (ii) Artonine E, (2) whose structures were determined by NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. The present study is the first to report compound 1 as a mixture of two anomers (α and β), approximately 70:30 ratio. Both compounds 1 and 2 were isolated for the first time from this plant. In vitro anti-acne activity of compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by agar well diffusion method and the minimum inhibition was determined by broth micro dilution method. The result of anti-microbial activity (MIC = 2.0 μg/mL each) is comparable to antibiotic, Clindamycin (MIC = 0.03 μg/mL) and clearly demonstrate their potential as anti-acne agents.

  1. Combining laser-assisted microdissection (LAM) and RNA-seq allows to perform a comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of epidermal cells of Arabidopsis embryo.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kaori; Taconnat, Ludivine; Borrega, Nero; Yansouni, Jennifer; Brunaud, Véronique; Paysant-Le Roux, Christine; Delannoy, Etienne; Martin Magniette, Marie-Laure; Lepiniec, Loïc; Faure, Jean Denis; Balzergue, Sandrine; Dubreucq, Bertrand

    2018-01-01

    Genome-wide characterization of tissue- or cell-specific gene expression is a recurrent bottleneck in biology. We have developed a sensitive approach based on ultra-low RNA sequencing coupled to laser assisted microdissection for analyzing different tissues of the small Arabidopsis embryo. We first characterized the number of genes detected according to the quantity of tissue yield and total RNA extracted. Our results revealed that as low as 0.02 mm 2 of tissue and 50 pg of total RNA can be used without compromising the number of genes detected. The optimised protocol was used to compare the epidermal versus mesophyll cell transcriptomes of cotyledons at the torpedo-shaped stage of embryo development. The approach was validated by the recovery of well-known epidermal genes such AtML1 or AtPDF2 and genes involved in flavonoid and cuticular waxes pathways. Moreover, the interest and sensitivity of this approach were highlighted by the characterization of several transcription factors preferentially expressed in epidermal cells. This technical advance unlocks some current limitations of transcriptomic analyses and allows to investigate further and efficiently new biological questions for which only a very small amounts of cells need to be isolated. For instance, it paves the way to increasing the spatial accuracy of regulatory networks in developing small embryo of Arabidopsis or other plant tissues.

  2. Water-Deficit Tolerance in Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] by Foliar Application of Paclobutrazol: Role of Soluble Sugar and Free Proline.

    PubMed

    Yooyongwech, Suravoot; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Tisarum, Rujira; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Cha-Um, Suriyan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elevate water deficit tolerance by improving soluble sugar and free proline accumulation, photosynthetic pigment stabilization, photosynthetic abilities, growth performance and storage root yield in sweet potato cv. 'Tainung 57' using a foliar application of paclobutrazol (PBZ). The experiment followed a Completely Randomized Block Design with four concentrations of PBZ: 0 (control), 17, 34, and 51 μM before exposure to 47.5% (well irrigation), 32.3% (mild water deficit) or 17.5% (severe water deficit) soil water content. A sweet potato cultivar, 'Japanese Yellow', with water deficit tolerance attributes was the positive check in this study. Total soluble sugar content (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) increased by 3.96-folds in 'Tainung 57' plants treated with 34 μM PBZ grown under 32.3% soil water content (SWC) compared to the untreated plants, adjusting osmotic potential in the leaves and controlling stomatal closure (represented by stomatal conductance and transpiration rate). In addition, under the same treatment, free proline content (2.15 μmol g -1 FW) increased by 3.84-folds when exposed to 17.5% SWC. PBZ had an improved effect on leaf size, vine length, photosynthetic pigment stability, chlorophyll fluorescence, and net photosynthetic rate; hence, delaying wilting symptoms and maintaining storage root yield (26.93 g plant -1 ) at the harvesting stage. A positive relationship between photon yield of PSII (Φ PSII ) and net photosynthetic rate was demonstrated ( r 2 = 0.73). The study concludes that soluble sugar and free proline enrichment in PBZ-pretreated plants may play a critical role as major osmoprotectant to control leaf osmotic potential and stomatal closure when plants were subjected to low soil water content, therefore, maintaining the physiological and morphological characters as well as storage root yield.

  3. A near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic method for the direct analysis of several fodder-related chemical components in drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Li, Shuqi; Lin, Mengfei; Yang, Endian; Chen, Xiaoyang

    2018-05-01

    The drumstick tree has traditionally been used as foodstuff and fodder in several countries. Due to its high nutritional value and good biomass production, interest in this plant has increased in recent years. It has therefore become important to rapidly and accurately evaluate drumstick quality. In this study, we addressed the optimization of Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to analyze crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, iron (Fe), and potassium (K) in a variety of drumstick accessions (N = 111) representing different populations, cultivation programs, and climates. Partial least-squares regression with internal cross-validation was used to evaluate the models and identify possible spectral outliers. The calibration statistics for these fodder-related chemical components suggest that NIRS can predict these parameters in a wide range of drumstick types with high accuracy. The NIRS calibration models developed in this study will be useful in predicting drumstick forage quality for these five quality parameters.

  4. Characterization of a Highly Thermostable and Organic Solvent-Tolerant Copper-Containing Polyphenol Oxidase with Dye-Decolorizing Ability from Kurthia huakuii LAM0618T

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiang; Zhou, Shan; Wang, Yanwei; Song, Jinlong; Wang, Huimin; Kong, Delong; Zhu, Jie; Dong, Weiwei; He, Mingxiong; Hu, Guoquan; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Laccases are green biocatalysts that possess attractive advantages for the treatment of resistant environmental pollutants and dye effluents. A putative laccase-like gene, laclK, encoding a protein of 29.3 kDa and belonging to the Cu-oxidase_4 superfamily, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant protein LaclK (LaclK) was able to oxidize typical laccase substrates such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and l-dopamine. The characteristic adsorption maximums of typical laccases at 330 nm and 610 nm were not detected for LaclK. Cu2+ was essential for substrate oxidation, but the ratio of copper atoms/molecule of LaclK was determined to only be 1:1. Notably, the optimal temperature of LaclK was 85°C with 2,6-dimethoxyphenol as substrates, and the half-life approximately 3 days at 80°C. Furthermore, 10% (v/v) organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, Triton x-100 or dimethyl sulfoxide) could promote enzymatic activity. LaclK exhibited wide-spectrum decolorization ability towards triphenylmethane dyes, azo dyes and aromatic dyes, decolorizing 92% and 94% of Victoria Blue B (25 μM) and Ethyl Violet (25 μM), respectively, at a concentration of 60 U/L after 1 h of incubation at 60°C. Overall, we characterized a novel thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant copper-containing polyphenol oxidase possessing dye-decolorizing ability. These unusual properties make LaclK an alternative for industrial applications, particularly processes that require high-temperature conditions. PMID:27741324

  5. Effect of including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) meal in finishing pig diets on growth performance, carcass traits and pork quality.

    PubMed

    Pietrosemoli, Silvana; Moron-Fuenmayor, Oneida Elizabeth; Paez, Angel; Villamide, Maria Jesús

    2016-10-01

    The partial replacement of a commercial concentrate at 10-20% and 15-30% (the first percentage of each dietary treatment corresponded to weeks 1-3 and the second to weeks 4-7 of the experiment, respectively) by sweet potato meal (SPM; 70% foliage: 30% roots) was evaluated for growth performance, carcass yield, instrumental and sensory pork quality using 36 commercial crossbred pigs (56.8 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight). Three dietary treatments were compared in a randomized complete block design. Most growth, carcass traits and pork quality variables were not affected by the SPM inclusion. Growth performance averaged 868 g/day and feed efficiency 0.24 kg/kg. However, feed intake increased 2.2% (P = 0.04) in pigs fed the 10-20% SPM diets, in a similar order of magnitude as the decrease in dietary energy. Despite an increase in gastrointestinal tract as a percent of hot carcass weight (+14.7%) (P = 0.03) with SPM inclusion, carcass yield averaged 69.4%. Conversely, decreases in loin yield (-4.2%) (P = 0.05), backfat thickness (-6.0%) (P < 0.01) and pork tenderness (-13%) (P = 0.02) were observed with 15-30% SPM inclusion. Results suggest that up to 20% SPM inclusion is a viable feed strategy for finishing pigs, easily replicable in small farm settings. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Butanolic fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) attenuates isoprotrenol-induced cardiac necrosis and oxidative stress in rats: an EPR study.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sunanda

    2015-01-01

    The preventive effect of Moringa oleifera polyphenolic fraction (MOPF) on cardiac damage was evaluated in isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiotoxicity model of Wistar rats. Male rats in different groups were treated with MOPF orally at the dose of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day for 28 days and were subsequently administered (s.c.) with ISO (85 mg/kg body weight) for the last two days. At the end of the experiment levels of serum troponin-T, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, content of malondialdehyde (MDA), activities/levels of different cellular antioxidants were estimated in control and experimental groups. Additionally, scavenging potential to the hydroxyl radical of the fraction was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). ISO administered rats showed significant increase in the levels of serum troponin-I, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and heart tissue MDA content. Furthermore, marked reduction in the activities of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were observed. EPR study showed an increase in signal intensity in ISO-induced rats. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of heart section revealed a marked increase in infarcted area in ISO-induced rats. Histological features of the heart also indicated a disruption in the structure of cardiac myofibrils in these animals. MOPF (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment prevented all these adverse effects of ISO. Present results show that the rich polyphenolic content of Moringa oleifera significantly reduced the myocardial damage and decreased the oxidative stress, possibly through hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as evidenced from the EPR spectra.

  7. Butanolic fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) attenuates isoprotrenol-induced cardiac necrosis and oxidative stress in rats: an EPR study

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Sunanda

    2015-01-01

    The preventive effect of Moringa oleifera polyphenolic fraction (MOPF) on cardiac damage was evaluated in isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiotoxicity model of Wistar rats. Male rats in different groups were treated with MOPF orally at the dose of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day for 28 days and were subsequently administered (s.c.) with ISO (85 mg/kg body weight) for the last two days. At the end of the experiment levels of serum troponin-T, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, content of malondialdehyde (MDA), activities/levels of different cellular antioxidants were estimated in control and experimental groups. Additionally, scavenging potential to the hydroxyl radical of the fraction was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). ISO administered rats showed significant increase in the levels of serum troponin-I, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and heart tissue MDA content. Furthermore, marked reduction in the activities of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were observed. EPR study showed an increase in signal intensity in ISO-induced rats. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of heart section revealed a marked increase in infarcted area in ISO-induced rats. Histological features of the heart also indicated a disruption in the structure of cardiac myofibrils in these animals. MOPF (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment prevented all these adverse effects of ISO. Present results show that the rich polyphenolic content of Moringa oleifera significantly reduced the myocardial damage and decreased the oxidative stress, possibly through hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as evidenced from the EPR spectra. PMID:26417351

  8. Water-Deficit Tolerance in Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] by Foliar Application of Paclobutrazol: Role of Soluble Sugar and Free Proline

    PubMed Central

    Yooyongwech, Suravoot; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Tisarum, Rujira; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Cha-um, Suriyan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elevate water deficit tolerance by improving soluble sugar and free proline accumulation, photosynthetic pigment stabilization, photosynthetic abilities, growth performance and storage root yield in sweet potato cv. ‘Tainung 57’ using a foliar application of paclobutrazol (PBZ). The experiment followed a Completely Randomized Block Design with four concentrations of PBZ: 0 (control), 17, 34, and 51 μM before exposure to 47.5% (well irrigation), 32.3% (mild water deficit) or 17.5% (severe water deficit) soil water content. A sweet potato cultivar, ‘Japanese Yellow’, with water deficit tolerance attributes was the positive check in this study. Total soluble sugar content (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) increased by 3.96-folds in ‘Tainung 57’ plants treated with 34 μM PBZ grown under 32.3% soil water content (SWC) compared to the untreated plants, adjusting osmotic potential in the leaves and controlling stomatal closure (represented by stomatal conductance and transpiration rate). In addition, under the same treatment, free proline content (2.15 μmol g-1 FW) increased by 3.84-folds when exposed to 17.5% SWC. PBZ had an improved effect on leaf size, vine length, photosynthetic pigment stability, chlorophyll fluorescence, and net photosynthetic rate; hence, delaying wilting symptoms and maintaining storage root yield (26.93 g plant-1) at the harvesting stage. A positive relationship between photon yield of PSII (ΦPSII) and net photosynthetic rate was demonstrated (r2 = 0.73). The study concludes that soluble sugar and free proline enrichment in PBZ-pretreated plants may play a critical role as major osmoprotectant to control leaf osmotic potential and stomatal closure when plants were subjected to low soil water content, therefore, maintaining the physiological and morphological characters as well as storage root yield. PMID:28848596

  9. Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. ssp. argenteum and T. densum (Lab.) Schultz Bip. ssp. amani heywood from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Demirci, Fatih; Demirci, Betül; Gören, Nezhun; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2010-01-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum ssp. argenteum and T. densum ssp. amani from Turkey were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The essential oil of T. argenteum ssp. argenteum was characterized with alpha-pinene 36.7%, beta-pinene 27.5% and 1,8-cineole 9.8%. T. densum ssp. amani was characterized with beta-pinene 27.2%, 1,8-cineole 13.1%, alpha-pinene 9.7% and p-cymene 8.9%. Antibacterial activity of the oils were evaluated for five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative bacteria by using a broth microdilution assay. The highest inhibitory activity was observed against Bacillus cereus for T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil (125 microg/mL) when compared with positive control chloramphenicol it showed the same inhibition potency. However, the same oil showed lower inhibitory activity against B. subtilis when compared. The oil of T. densum ssp. amani did not show significant activity against the tested microorganisms. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil was investigated for 15 and 10 mg/mL concentrations. However, the oil did not show significant activity when compared to positive control alpha-tocopherol. Both oils showed toxicity to Vibrio fischeri in the TLC-bioluminescence assay.

  10. The Antidiabetic Effect of Low Doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; El Rabey, Haddad A.

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, in the diet) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated) group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and α-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100 mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group. PMID:25629046

  11. Using Haines Index coupled with fire weather model predicted from high resolution LAM forecasts to asses wildfire extreme behaviour in Southern Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, Francesco; Baptiste Filippi, Jean; Simeoni, Albert; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2010-05-01

    Haines Index (HI) was developed by USDA Forest Service to measure the atmosphere's contribution to the growth potential of a wildfire. The Haines Index combines two atmospheric factors that are known to have an effect on wildfires: Stability and Dryness. As operational tools, HI proved its ability to predict plume dominated high intensity wildfires. However, since HI does not take into account the fuel continuity, composition and moisture conditions and the effects of wind and topography on fire behaviour, its use as forecasting tool should be carefully considered. In this work we propose the use of HI, predicted from HR Limited Area Model forecasts, coupled with a Fire Weather model (i.e., RISICO system) fully operational in Italy since 2003. RISICO is based on dynamic models able to represent in space and in time the effects that environment and vegetal physiology have on fuels and, in turn, on the potential behaviour of wildfires. The system automatically acquires from remote databases a thorough data-set of input information both of in situ and spatial nature. Meteorological observations, radar data, Limited Area Model weather forecasts, EO data, and fuel data are managed by a Unified Interface able to process a wide set of different data. Specific semi-physical models are used in the system to simulate the dynamics of the fuels (load and moisture contents of dead and live fuel) and the potential fire behaviour (rate of spread and linear intensity). A preliminary validation of this approach will be provided with reference to Sardinia and Corsica Islands, two major islands of the Mediterranean See frequently affected by extreme plume dominated wildfires. A time series of about 3000 wildfires burnt in Sardinia and Corsica in 2007 and 2008 will be used to evaluate the capability of HI coupled with the outputs of the Fire Weather model to forecast the actual risk in time and in space.

  12. Using the Internet in Middle Schools: A Model for Success. A Collaborative Effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Los Alamos Middle School (LAMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addessio, Barbara K.; And Others

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a model for school networking using Los Alamos Middle School as a testbed. The project was a collaborative effort between the school and the laboratory. The school secured administrative funding for hardware and software; and LANL provided the network architecture, installation, consulting, and…

  13. Induction of wound-periderm-like tissue in Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Crassulaceae) leaves as a defence response to high UV-B radiation levels

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Luana Beatriz dos Santos; Moreira, Nattacha dos Santos; Leal-Costa, Marcos Vinícius; Costa, Sônia Soares; Tavares, Eliana Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims UV-B radiation can be stressful for plants and cause morphological and biochemical changes. Kalanchoe pinnata is a CAM leaf-succulent species distributed in hot and dry regions, and is rich in flavonoids, which are considered to be protective against UV-B radiation. This study aims to verify if K. pinnata has morphological or anatomical responses as a strategy in response to high UV-B levels. Methods Kalanchoe pinnata plants of the same age were grown under white light (control) or white light plus supplemental UV-B radiation (5 h d–1). The plants were treated with the same photoperiod, photosynthetically active radiation, temperature and daily watering system. Fragments of the middle third of the leaf blade and petiole were dehydrated and then embedded in historesin and sectioned in a rotary microtome. Sections were stained with toluidine blue O and mounted in Entellan®. Microchemical analyses by optical microscopy were performed on fresh material with Sudan III, Sudan IV and phloroglucinol, and analysed using fluorescence microscopy. Key Results Supplemental UV-B radiation caused leaf curling and the formation of brown areas on the leaves. These brown areas developed into a protective tissue on the adaxial side of the leaf, but only in directly exposed regions. Anatomically, this protective tissue was similar to a wound-periderm, with outer layer cell walls impregnated with suberin and lignin. Conclusions This is the first report of wound-periderm formation in leaves in response to UV-B radiation. This protective tissue could be important for the survival of the species in desert regions under high UV-B stress conditions. PMID:26346722

  14. Induction of wound-periderm-like tissue in Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Crassulaceae) leaves as a defence response to high UV-B radiation levels.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Luana Beatriz dos Santos; Moreira, Nattacha dos Santos; Leal-Costa, Marcos Vinícius; Costa, Sônia Soares; Tavares, Eliana Schwartz

    2015-10-01

    UV-B radiation can be stressful for plants and cause morphological and biochemical changes. Kalanchoe pinnata is a CAM leaf-succulent species distributed in hot and dry regions, and is rich in flavonoids, which are considered to be protective against UV-B radiation. This study aims to verify if K. pinnata has morphological or anatomical responses as a strategy in response to high UV-B levels. Kalanchoe pinnata plants of the same age were grown under white light (control) or white light plus supplemental UV-B radiation (5 h d(-1)). The plants were treated with the same photoperiod, photosynthetically active radiation, temperature and daily watering system. Fragments of the middle third of the leaf blade and petiole were dehydrated and then embedded in historesin and sectioned in a rotary microtome. Sections were stained with toluidine blue O and mounted in Entellan®. Microchemical analyses by optical microscopy were performed on fresh material with Sudan III, Sudan IV and phloroglucinol, and analysed using fluorescence microscopy. Supplemental UV-B radiation caused leaf curling and the formation of brown areas on the leaves. These brown areas developed into a protective tissue on the adaxial side of the leaf, but only in directly exposed regions. Anatomically, this protective tissue was similar to a wound-periderm, with outer layer cell walls impregnated with suberin and lignin. This is the first report of wound-periderm formation in leaves in response to UV-B radiation. This protective tissue could be important for the survival of the species in desert regions under high UV-B stress conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Antioxidant activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Jack Fruit) leaf extracts: remarkable attenuations of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Omar, Haidy S; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Moussa, Ziad; Taha, Kamilia F; Singab, Abdel Nasser B

    2011-04-05

    The present study examines the antioxidative, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jack fruit) leaf extracts (JFEs). The 70% ethanol (JFEE), n-butanol (JFBE), water (JFWE), chloroform (JFCE), and ethyl acetate (JFEAE) extracts were obtained. Both JFEE and JFBE markedly scavenge diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical and chelate Fe+2 in vitro. A compound was isolated from JFBE and identified using 1D and 2D 1H- and 13C-NMR. The administration of JFEE or JFBE to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG) from 200 to 56 and 79 mg%, respectively; elevated insulin from 10.8 to 19.5 and 15.1 µU/ml, respectively; decreased lipid peroxides from 7.3 to 5.4 and 5.9 nmol/ml, respectively; decreased %glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (%HbA1C) from 6.8 to 4.5 and 5.0%, respectively; and increased total protein content from 2.5 to 6.3 and 5.7 mg%, respectively. Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), VLDL-C, and LDL/HDL ratio significantly declined by -37, -19, -23, -37, and -39%, respectively, in the case of JFEE; and by -31, -14, -17, -31, and -25%, respectively, in the case of JFBE; as compared to diabetic rats. HDL-C increased by +37% (JFEE) and by +11% (JFBE). Both JFEE and JFBE have shown appreciable results in decreasing FBG, lipid peroxides, %HbA1C, TC, LDL-C, and TG levels, and increasing insulin, HDL-C, and protein content. The spectrometric analysis confirmed that the flavonoid isolated from JFBE was isoquercitrin. We can conclude from this study that JFEE and JFBE exert hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in STZ-diabetic rats through an antioxidative pathway that might be referred to their flavonoid contents.

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Jack Fruit) Leaf Extracts: Remarkable Attenuations of Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Haidy S.; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A.; Moussa, Ziad; Taha, Kamilia F.; Singab, Abdel Nasser B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the antioxidative, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jack fruit) leaf extracts (JFEs). The 70% ethanol (JFEE), n-butanol (JFBE), water (JFWE), chloroform (JFCE), and ethyl acetate (JFEAE) extracts were obtained. Both JFEE and JFBE markedly scavenge diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical and chelate Fe+2in vitro. A compound was isolated from JFBE and identified using 1D and 2D 1H- and 13C-NMR. The administration of JFEE or JFBE to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG) from 200 to 56 and 79 mg%, respectively; elevated insulin from 10.8 to 19.5 and 15.1 μU/ml, respectively; decreased lipid peroxides from 7.3 to 5.4 and 5.91 nmol/ml, respectively; decreased %glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (%HbA1C) from 6.8 to 4.5 and 5.0%, respectively; and increased total protein content from 2.5 to 6.3 and 5.7 mg%, respectively. Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), VLDL-C, and LDL/HDL ratio significantly declined by -37, -19, -23, -37, and -39%, respectively, in the case of JFEE; and by -31, -14, -17, -31, and -25%, respectively, in the case of JFBE; as compared to diabetic rats. HDL-C increased by +37% (JFEE) and by +11% (JFBE). Both JFEE and JFBE have shown appreciable results in decreasing FBG, lipid peroxides, %HbA1C, TC, LDL-C, and TG levels, and increasing insulin, HDL-C, and protein content. The spectrometric analysis confirmed that the flavonoid isolated from JFBE was isoquercitrin. We can conclude from this study that JFEE and JFBE exert hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in STZ-diabetic rats through an antioxidative pathway that might be referred to their flavonoid contents. PMID:21479350

  17. Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract prevents fat diet induced oxidative stress in mice and protects liver cell-nuclei from hydroxyl radical mediated damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjan; Ganguli, Debdutta; Dey, Sanjit

    2015-12-01

    High fat diet (HFD) prompts metabolic pattern inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria thereby triggering multitude of chronic disorders in human. Antioxidants from plant sources may be an imperative remedy against this disorder. However, it requires scientific validation. In this study, we explored if (i) Moringa oleifera seed extract (MoSE) can neutralize ROS generated in HFD fed mice; (ii) protect cell-nuclei damage developed by Fenton reaction in vitro. Swiss mice were fed with HFD to develop oxidative stress model (HFD group). Other groups were control, seed extract alone treated, and MoSE simultaneously (HS) treated. Treatment period was of 15 days. Antioxidant enzymes with tissue nitrite content (TNC) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated from liver homogenate. HS group showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) compared to only HFD fed group. Further, TNC and LPO decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in HS group compared to HFD fed group. MoSE also protected hepatocytes nuclei from the hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction. MoSE was found to be polyphenol rich with potent reducing power, free radicals and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity. Thus, MoSE exhibited robust antioxidant prospective to neutralize ROS developed in HFD fed mice and also protected the nuclei damage from hydroxyl radicals. Hence, it can be used as herbal medication against HFD induced ROS mediated disorders.

  18. Protective effects of friedelin isolated from Azima tetracantha Lam. against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats and possible underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Antonisamy, Paulrayer; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Aravinthan, Adithan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Choi, Ki Choon; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2015-03-05

    The current study was aimed to investigate the gastroprotective effects of friedelin isolated from the hexane extract of leaves of Azima tetracantha. Ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model was used to investigate the gastroprotective effects of friedelin. Antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, gastric vascular permeability, pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis level have been investigated. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and friedelin pretreatment protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities, anti-inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) and mucus weight have been increased significantly. However, the vascular permeability, pro-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-3 and apoptosis level have significantly been decreased after friedelin ingestion. The present study has clearly demonstrated the anti-ulcer potential of friedelin, these findings suggested that friedelin could be a new useful natural gastroprotective tool against gastric ulcer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. African eggplant (Solanum anguivi Lam.) fruit with bioactive polyphenolic compounds exerts in vitro antioxidant properties and inhibits Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling.

    PubMed

    Elekofehinti, Olusola Olalekan; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Bolingon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Lopes, Seeger Rodrigo; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Kade, Ige Joseph; Adanlawo, Isaac Gbadura; Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of Solanum anguivi fruit (SAG) and its possible effect on mitochondrial permeability transition pore as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) isolated from rat liver. Antioxidant activity of SAG was assayed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power, iron chelation and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation in both liver and brain homogenate of rats. Also, the effect of SAG on mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial swelling were determined. Identification and quantification of bioactive polyphenolics was done by HPLC-DAD. SAG exhibited potent and concentration dependent free radical-scavenging activity (IC50/DPPH=275.03±7.8 μg/mL). Reductive and iron chelation abilities also increase with increase in SAG concentration. SAG also inhibited peroxidation of cerebral and hepatic lipids subjected to iron oxidative assault. SAG protected against Ca(2+) (110 μmol/L)-induced mitochondrial swelling and maintained the ΔΨm. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid [(17.54±0.04) mg/g], chlorogenic acid (21.90±0.02 mg/g), caffeic acid (16.64±0.01 mg/g), rutin [(14.71±0.03) mg/g] and quercetin [(7.39±0.05) mg/g]. These effects could be attributed to the bioactive polyphenolic compounds present in the extract. Our results suggest that SAG extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants that may be used not only in pharmaceutical and food industry but also in the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions LAM Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Lymphangioleiomyomatosis ( LAM ) is a condition that affects the lungs , the ...

  1. Chemical composition, larvicidal, and biting deterrent activity of essential oils of two subspecies of Tanacetum argenteum (Asterales: Asteraceae) and individual constituents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water distilled essential oils from the air dried aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum (Lam.) and T. argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. canum (C. Koch) Grierson were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-seven and 3...

  2. Elimination of Aluminum Foil for 81-mm and 120-mm Mortar Ammunition Fiber Container

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    hard base board. Next, a layer of PolyLam material constructed of 30 lb natural Kraft/14 lb low density polyethylene ( LDPE )/70 lb natural Kraft is...PolyLam material and 30 lb natural Kraft with an exterior layer of 29 lb LDPE laminated to the outside of the tube. The three PolyLam layers are

  3. Antibody αPEP13h Reacts With Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Cells in Lung Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Julio C.; Steagall, Wendy K.; Zhang, Yi; Fetsch, Patricia; Abati, Andrea; Tsukada, Katsuya; Billings, Eric; Hearing, Vincent J.; Yu, Zu-Xi; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is characterized by the proliferation in the lung, axial lymphatics (eg, lymphangioleiomyomas), and kidney (eg, angiomyolipomas) of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells, which express melanoma antigens such as Pmel17/gp100 and have dysfunctional tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes TSC2 or TSC1. Histopathologic diagnosis of LAM in lung specimens is based on identification of the Pmel17 protein with the monoclonal antibody HMB-45. METHODS: We compared the sensitivity of HMB-45 to that of antipeptide antibody αPEP13h, which reacts with a C-terminal peptide of Pmel17. LAM lung nodules were laser-capture microdissected to identify proteins by Western blotting. RESULTS: HMB-45 recognized approximately 25% of LAM cells within the LAM lung nodules, whereas αPEP13h identified > 82% of LAM cells within these structures in approximately 90% of patients. Whereas HMB-45 reacted with epithelioid but not with spindle-shaped LAM cells, αPEP13h identified both spindle-shaped and epithelioid LAM cells, providing greater sensitivity for detection of all types of LAM cells. HMB-45 recognized Pmel17 in premelanosomal organelles; αPEP13h recognized proteins in the cytoplasm as well as in premelanosomal organelles. Both antibodies recognized a Pmel17 variant of approximately 50 kDa. CONCLUSIONS: Based on its sensitivity and specificity, αPEP13h may be useful in the diagnosis of LAM and more sensitive than HMB-45. PMID:25411763

  4. Chemosynthetic symbionts of marine invertebrate animals are capable of nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jillian M; Kemper, Anna; Gruber-Vodicka, Harald; Cardini, Ulisse; van der Geest, Matthijs; Kleiner, Manuel; Bulgheresi, Silvia; Mußmann, Marc; Herbold, Craig; Seah, Brandon K B; Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Liu, Dan; Belitz, Alexandra; Weber, Miriam

    2016-10-24

    Chemosynthetic symbioses are partnerships between invertebrate animals and chemosynthetic bacteria. The latter are the primary producers, providing most of the organic carbon needed for the animal host's nutrition. We sequenced genomes of the chemosynthetic symbionts from the lucinid bivalve Loripes lucinalis and the stilbonematid nematode Laxus oneistus. The symbionts of both host species encoded nitrogen fixation genes. This is remarkable as no marine chemosynthetic symbiont was previously known to be capable of nitrogen fixation. We detected nitrogenase expression by the symbionts of lucinid clams at the transcriptomic and proteomic level. Mean stable nitrogen isotope values of Loripes lucinalis were within the range expected for fixed atmospheric nitrogen, further suggesting active nitrogen fixation by the symbionts. The ability to fix nitrogen may be widespread among chemosynthetic symbioses in oligotrophic habitats, where nitrogen availability often limits primary productivity.

  5. Lectins with anti-HIV activity: a review.

    PubMed

    Akkouh, Ouafae; Ng, Tzi Bun; Singh, Senjam Sunil; Yin, Cuiming; Dan, Xiuli; Chan, Yau Sang; Pan, Wenliang; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai

    2015-01-06

    Lectins including flowering plant lectins, algal lectins, cyanobacterial lectins, actinomycete lectin, worm lectins, and the nonpeptidic lectin mimics pradimicins and benanomicins, exhibit anti-HIV activity. The anti-HIV plant lectins include Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin) lectin, concanavalin A, Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop) agglutinin-related lectins, Musa acuminata (banana) lectin, Myrianthus holstii lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin, and Urtica diocia agglutinin. The anti-HIV algal lectins comprise Boodlea coacta lectin, Griffithsin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin. The anti-HIV cyanobacterial lectins are cyanovirin-N, scytovirin, Microcystis viridis lectin, and microvirin. Actinohivin is an anti-HIV actinomycete lectin. The anti-HIV worm lectins include Chaetopterus variopedatus polychaete marine worm lectin, Serpula vermicularis sea worm lectin, and C-type lectin Mermaid from nematode (Laxus oneistus). The anti-HIV nonpeptidic lectin mimics comprise pradimicins and benanomicins. Their anti-HIV mechanisms are discussed.

  6. Potential antiproliferative activity of polyphenol metabolites against human breast cancer cells and their urine excretion pattern in healthy subjects following acute intake of a polyphenol-rich juice of grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, L L; Costa, G R; Dörr, F A; Ong, T P; Pinto, E; Lajolo, F M; Hassimotto, N M A

    2017-06-21

    The bioavailability and metabolism of anthocyanins and ellagitannins following acute intake of grumixama fruit, native Brazilian cherry, by humans, and its in vitro antiproliferative activity against breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) were investigated. A single dose of grumixama juice was administered to healthy women (n = 10) and polyphenol metabolites were analyzed in urine and plasma samples collected over 24 h. The majority of the metabolites circulating and excreted in urine were phenolic acids and urolithin conjugates, the gut microbiota catabolites of both classes of polyphenols, respectively. According to pharmacokinetic parameters, the subjects were divided into two distinct groups, high and low urinary metabolite excretors. The pool of polyphenol metabolites found in urine samples showed a significant inhibition of cell proliferation and G2/M cell cycle arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings demonstrate the large interindividual variability concerning the polyphenol metabolism, which possibly could reflect in health promotion.

  7. Chemical composition and inhibitory activities on dipeptidyl peptidase IV and pancreatic lipase of two underutilized species from the Brazilian Savannah: Oxalis cordata A.St.-Hil. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Verena B; Araújo, Raquel L B; Eidenberger, Thomas; Brandão, Maria G L

    2018-03-01

    Brazil has the greatest vegetal biodiversity in the world, but products derived from native species are not optimally utilized. Oxalis cordata and Xylopia aromatica are two underutilized species whose leaves and fruits, respectively, have been used as food in the 19th century. In this study, we used chemical and in vitro assays to evaluate the potential of these species as functional foods. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase and DPP-IV were evaluated using the crude extracts and fractions ethyl acetate, butanol and water of these two species. For polyphenols determination, samples were prepared with different solvents and these were analysed by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Finally, fatty acids profile was determinated by gas chromatography. The crude extract (IC 50 =0.84mg/ml), ethyl acetate extract (IC 50 =0.88mg/ml) an aqueous fraction (IC 50 =0.63mg/ml) of C. cordata were inhibitory on pancreatic lipase but inactive against dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). Extracts from X. aromatica were inactive against the lipase pancreatic enzyme, but a butanolic fraction inhibited DPP-IV (IC 50 =0.71±0.05mg/ml). The phenolic acids orientin/isorientin, chlorogenic acid (0.32g/100g) and the flavonoid derivatives rutin (0.27g/100g), quercetin and luteolin were observed in all products. Additionally, fatty acid quantification showed that oleic (7.5g/100g) and linoleic acid (6.5g/100g) were predominant in X. aromatica fruit. This study confirms the potential for the use of both plants as functional foods due to their nutritional value, biological activity and important phytochemical content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Orientation to Employment in the U.S. for Refugees--Vietnamese = Cong an viec lam o Hoa Ky: Tap Huong Dan danh cho Nguoi Ti Nan moi toi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.

    One of a series of refugee orientation materials, this guide to employment is intended to assist Vietnamese refugees in their understanding of the employment situation in the United States and to give them necessary information for obtaining work. The text is in Vietnamese followed by an English-language version, which is not an exact translation…

  9. Sulfated modification and anti-tumor activity of laminarin.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chen-Feng; Ji, Yu-Bin; Meng, DE-You

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sulfated modification of laminarin and the changes in structure and antitumor activity. The chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method was applied for sulfated modification. The molecular weights of laminarin and laminarin sulfate (LAMS) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and IR and NMR spectra were also recorded. The surface conformations of laminarin and LAMS were observed with a scanning electron microscope. The antitumor activities of the two polysaccharides were also evaluated using an MTT assay. LAMS with a sulfate content of 45.92% and a molecular weight of 16,000 was synthesized. The IR spectra of laminarin and LAMS showed the characteristic absorption peaks of a polysaccharide, and LAMS also had the characteristic absorption peaks of sulfate moieties. The NMR spectra showed that laminarin and LAMS had β-(1→3) glycosidic bonds forming the main chain, and sulfate substitution was at the hydroxyl groups of C 2 and C 6 . Under the scanning electron microscope, there were clear differences in surface conformation between laminarin and LAMS; laminarin was cloud-like and spongy, while LAMS was block-like and flaky. The MTT results showed that laminarin and LAMS had inhibitory effects on LoVo cell growth, and the antitumor activity of LAMS was higher than that of laminarin at the same concentration. This suggests that sulfated modification was able to change the laminarin structure and markedly enhance the antitumor activity.

  10. Structural features of lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Determination of molecular mass by laser desorption mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Venisse, A; Berjeaud, J M; Chaurand, P; Gilleron, M; Puzo, G

    1993-06-15

    It was recently shown that mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) can be classified into two types (Chatterjee, D., Lowell, K., Rivoire B., McNeil M. R., and Brennan, P. J. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 6234-6239) according to the presence or absence of mannosyl residues (Manp) located at the nonreducing end of the oligoarabinosyl side chains. These two types of LAM were found in a pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain and in an avirulent M. tuberculosis strain, respectively, suggesting that LAM with Manp characterizes virulent and "disease-inducing strains." We now report the structure of the LAM from Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strain Pasteur, largely used throughout the world as vaccine against tuberculosis. Using an up-to-date analytical approach, we found that the LAM of M. bovis BCG belongs to the class of LAMs capped with Manp. By means of two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear scalar coupling NMR analysis and methylation data, the sugar spin system assignments were partially established, revealing that the LAM contained two types of terminal Manp and 2-O-linked Manp. From the following four-step process: (i) partial hydrolysis of deacylated LAM (dLAM), (ii) oligosaccharide derivatization with aminobenzoic ethyl ester, (iii) HPLC purification, (iv) FAB/MS-MS analysis; it was shown that the dimannosyl unit alpha-D-Manp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Manp is the major residue capping the termini of the arabinan of the LAM. In this report, LAM molecular mass determination was established using matrix-assisted UV-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry which reveals that the LAM molecular mass is around 17.4 kDa. The similarity of the LAM structures between M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis H37Rv is discussed in regard to their function in the immunopathology of mycobacterial infection.

  11. [A new contraceptive method: breast feeding].

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1993-08-01

    Even though women have known for centuries that breast feeding has a contraceptive effect, family planning agents have only recently promoted it. Family planning specialists at a meeting in Bellagio, Italy, on breast feeding developed directives referred to as the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM). Adherence to these directives assure effective protection against pregnancy until resumption of menstruation, expansion of infant feeding to foods other than breast milk, or until 6 months postpartum. Nipple stimulation during suckling is sufficient to suppress ovulation. Frequent suckling or more intense suckling maintains the contraceptive effect, so the directives insist that mothers exclusively or almost exclusively breast feed their infants. LAM provides 98% effective protection against pregnancy for 6 months if women observe it as directed. After 6 months, they should use another family planning method. Scientists are trying to see whether they can make the directives more simple. They will discuss this possibility at their next international meeting in 1993 or 1994. Research indicates that the most crucial rule is amenorrhea and use of this rule will make LAM more easy to learn and use, thereby increasing its use. It is difficult to motivate hospital and family planning clinic staff to promote LAM. Information and education are needed to support LAM. for example, a project in Honduras is using peer counseling to promote LAM. Family Health International is following 1000 women for 1 year postpartum in Pakistan and the Philippines. This study's 6-month LAM efficacy rate was around 95%. Little research has looked at the cost effectiveness of LAM. Optimally, LAM is a temporary contraceptive method which must be followed immediately by another contraceptive method. Indeed, LAM counseling should often pregnancy. LAM supporters do not intend for LAM to be a substitute for family planning, but want LAM to be another method in the contraceptive method mix.

  12. Phytoremediation of arsenic in submerged soil by wetland plants.

    PubMed

    Jomjun, Nateewattana; Siripen, Trichaiyaporn; Maliwan, Saeouy; Jintapat, Nateewattana; Prasak, Thavornyutikarn; Somporn, Choonluchanon; Petch, Pengchai

    2011-01-01

    Wetland aquatic plants including Canna glauca L., Colocasia esculenta L. Schott, Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were used in the phytoremediation of submerged soil polluted by arsenic (As). Cyperus papyrus L. was noticed as the largest biomass producer which has arsenic accumulation capacity of 130-172 mg As/kg plant. In terms of arsenic removal rate, however, Colocasia esculenta L. was recognized as the largest and fastest arsenic remover in this study. Its arsenic removal rate was 68 mg As/m2/day while those rates of Canna glauca L., Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were 61 mg As/m2/day, 56 mg As/m2/day, and 56 mg As/m2/day, respectively. Although the 4 aquatic plants were inferior in arsenic accumulation, their high arsenic removal rates were observed. Phytostabilization should be probable for the application of these plants.

  13. Integrated Control and Assessment of Knapweed and Cheatgrass on Department of Defense Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    SEFa/Olpidium chytrids at CO spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) infested site managed by varied combinations of sucrose amendment, seeding and...hyphal lengths, and percent active hyphae, at CO Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) infested site managed by varied combinations of sucrose...exotic and desirable (native non-invasive) plant species in CO plots infested with spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) after three years of

  14. The neural crest lineage as a driver of disease heterogeneity in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex and Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Sean P.; Julian, Lisa M.; Stanford, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare neoplastic disease, best characterized by the formation of proliferative nodules that express smooth muscle and melanocytic antigens within the lung parenchyma, leading to progressive destruction of lung tissue and function. The pathological basis of LAM is associated with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), a multi-system disorder marked by low-grade tumors in the brain, kidneys, heart, eyes, lung and skin, arising from inherited or spontaneous germ-line mutations in either of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. LAM can develop either in a patient with TSC (TSC-LAM) or spontaneously (S-LAM), and it is clear that the majority of LAM lesions of both forms are characterized by an inactivating mutation in either TSC1 or TSC2, as in TSC. Despite this genetic commonality, there is considerable heterogeneity in the tumor spectrum of TSC and LAM patients, the basis for which is currently unknown. There is extensive clinical evidence to suggest that the cell of origin for LAM, as well as many of the TSC-associated tumors, is a neural crest cell, a highly migratory cell type with extensive multi-lineage potential. Here we explore the hypothesis that the types of tumors that develop and the tissues that are affected in TSC and LAM are dictated by the developmental timing of TSC gene mutations, which determines the identities of the affected cell types and the size of downstream populations that acquire a mutation. We further discuss the evidence to support a neural crest origin for LAM and TSC tumors, and propose approaches for generating humanized models of TSC and LAM that will allow cell of origin theories to be experimentally tested. Identifying the cell of origin and developing appropriate humanized models is necessary to truly understand LAM and TSC pathology and to establish effective and long-lasting therapeutic approaches for these patients. PMID:25505789

  15. CT and MR imaging findings of lymphangioleiomyomatosis involving the uterus and pelvic cavity.

    PubMed

    Kim, You Sung; Rha, Sung Eun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon; Park, Jong Sup

    2011-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare idiopathic disease and this is characterized by a proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells in the lungs and in the lymphatic system of the thorax and retroperitoneum. The female genital tract is rarely affected by LAM. We report here on the CT and MR imaging findings of extensive LAM involving the uterus and pelvic cavity, and this was seen as multiple cystic uterine and parauterine masses with internal hemorrhage in a young female with tuberous sclerosis complex.

  16. Tisseel does not reduce postoperative drainage, length of stay, and transfusion requirements for lumbar laminectomy with noninstrumented fusion versus laminectomy alone.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    Typically, fibrin sealants (FSs) and fibrin glues (FGs) are used to strengthen dural repairs during spinal surgery. In 2014, Epstein demonstrated that one FS/FG, Tisseel (Baxter International Inc., Westlake Village, CA, USA) equalized the average times to drain removal and length of stay (LOS) for patients with versus without excess bleeding (e.g. who did not receive Tisseel) undergoing multilevel laminectomies with 1-2 level noninstrumented fusions (LamF).[6]. Here Tisseel was utilized to promote hemostasis for two populations; 39 patients undergoing average 4.4 level lumbar laminectomies with average 1.3 level noninstrumented fusions (LamF), and 48 patients undergoing average 4.0 level laminectomies alone (Lam). We compared the average operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), postoperative drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements for the LamF versus Lam groups. The average operative times, EBL, postoperative drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements were all greater for LamF versus Lam patients; operative times (4.1 vs. 3.0 h), average EBL (192.3 vs. 147.9 cc), drainage (e.g. day 1; 199.6 vs. 167.4 cc; day 2; 172.9 vs. 63.9 cc), average LOS (4.6 vs. 2.5 days), and transfusion requirements (11 LamF patients; 18 Units [U] RBC versus 2 Lam patients; 3 U RBC). Utilizing Tisseel to facilitate hemostasis in LamF versus Lam still resulted in greater operative times, EBL, postoperative average drainage, LOS, and transfusion requirements for patients undergoing the noninstrumented fusions. Although Tisseel decreases back bleeding within the spinal canal, it does not reduce blood loss from LamF decorticated transverse processes.

  17. An Overview of Ni Base Additive Fabrication Technologies for Aerospace Applications (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    fusion welding processes that have the ability to add filler material can be used as additive manufacturing processes . The majority of the work in the...Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM) The LAM process uses a conventional laser welding heat source (CO2 or solid state laser) combined with a...wrought properties. The LAM process typically has a lower deposition rate (0.5 – 10 lbs/hr) compared to EB, PTA or TIG based processes , although as

  18. Comparison of subsurface damages on mono-crystalline silicon between traditional nanoscale machining and laser-assisted nanoscale machining via molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Houfu; Li, Shaobo; Chen, Genyu

    2018-01-01

    Molecular dynamics is employed to compare nanoscale traditional machining (TM) with laser-assisted machining (LAM). LAM is that the workpiece is locally heated by an intense laser beam prior to material removal. We have a comprehensive comparison between LAM and TM in terms of atomic trajectories, phase transformation, radial distribution function, chips, temperature distribution, number of atoms in different temperature, grinding temperature, grinding force, friction coefficient and atomic potential energy. It can be found that there is a decrease of atoms with five and six nearest neighbors, and LAM generates more chips than that in the TM. It indicates that LAM reduces the subsurface damage of workpiece, gets a better-qualified ground surface and improves the material removal rate. Moreover, laser energy makes the materials fully softened before being removed, the number of atoms with temperature above 500 K is increased, and the average temperature of workpiece higher and faster to reach the equilibrium in LAM. It means that LAM has an absolute advantage in machining materials and greatly reduces the material resistance. Not only the tangential force (Fx) and the normal force (Fy) but also friction coefficients become smaller as laser heating reduces the strength and hardness of the material in LAM. These results show that LAM is a promising technique since it can get a better-qualified workpiece surface with larger material removal rates, less grinding force and lower friction coefficient.

  19. Lung transplantation for lymphangioleiomyomatosis: the European experience.

    PubMed

    Benden, Christian; Rea, Federico; Behr, Jürgen; Corris, Paul A; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Stern, Marc; Speich, Rudolf; Boehler, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Lung transplantation has been accepted widely as therapy for end-stage pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM); however, single-center and national experience is limited due to the rarity of LAM. We report the recent European experience of lung transplantation for LAM. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 30 European lung transplant centers to evaluate patients who underwent primary lung transplantation for LAM (1997 to 2007). Seventy percent of centers responded to the questionnaire. A total of 61 lung transplants were undertaken in women only, with mean age at transplant 41.3 years (SD 5.1). Centers performed a median of 2 (0 to 9) transplant operations. Severe pleural adhesions were the most common intra-operative complication. Early deaths (N = 6) were due to primary graft or multiple-organ failure or sepsis. Twelve recipients were diagnosed with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome at a median of 20 months (range 10 to 86 months) post-transplant. LAM-related complications included renal angiomyolipoma and pneumothorax in the native lung. Recurrence of LAM occurred in 4 recipients. As of December 2007, actuarial Kaplan-Meier survival was 79% at 1 year and 73% at 3 years post-transplant. Post-transplant outcome for pulmonary LAM in the recent era appears to have improved compared with the previous era. LAM-related complications remain common, but recurrence of LAM in the allograft is rare.

  20. Comparative performance characteristics of the urine lipoarabinomannan strip test and sputum smear microscopy in hospitalized HIV-infected patients with suspected tuberculosis in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Zijenah, Lynn Sodai; Kadzirange, Gerard; Bandason, Tsitsi; Chipiti, Maria Mary; Gwambiwa, Bevel; Makoga, Forget; Chungu, Pauline; Kaguru, Philip; Dheda, Keertan

    2016-01-22

    In Zimbabwe, sputum smear microscopy (SSM) is the routinely used TB diagnostic tool in hospitalised HIV-infected patients. However, SSM has poor sensitivity in HIV-infected patients. We compared performance of urine lipoarabinomannan strip test (LAM) and SSM among hospitalized HIV-infected patients with suspected TB. Hospitalized HIV-infected patients with suspected TB were randomized to LAM plus SSM or SSM alone groups as part of a larger multi-country parent study. Here we present a comparison of LAM versus SSM performance from the Zimbabwe study site. LAM analyses (grade 2 cut-off) were conducted using (i) a microbiological reference standard (MRS; culture positivity for M.tb and designated definite TB) and (ii) a composite reference standard (CRS; definite TB plus probable TB i.e. patients with clinical TB excluded from the culture negative group). CRS constituted the primary analysis. 82/457 (18%) of the patients randomized to the LAM group were M.tuberculosis culture positive. Using CRS, sensitivity (%, 95% CI) of LAM was significantly higher than SSM [49.2 (42.1-56.4) versus 29.4(23.2-36.3); p < 0.001]. Specificity and PPV were 98.1%, and 95.8%, respectively. By contrast, using MRS, LAM sensitivity was similar to SSM and specificity was significantly lower, however, the combined sensitivity of LAM and SSM was significantly higher than that of SSM alone, p = 0.009. Using CRS, LAM sensitivity (%, CI) was CD4 count dependent [60.6(50.7-69.8) at ≤50 cells/μL; 40.0(22.7-59.4) at 51-100 cells/μL, and 32.8(21.0-46.3) at >100 cells/μL. The combined sensitivity of LAM and SSM was higher than SSM alone being highest at CD4 counts <50 cells/μL [67.6(57.9-76.3); p = <0.001]. Specificity of LAM or SSM alone, or of combined LAM and SSM was >97% in all the 3 CD4 strata. Among hospitalized HIV-infected patients with suspected TB, the sensitivity of LAM is significantly higher than that of SSM, especially at low CD4 counts. LAM and SSM are complimentary

  1. Field Validation of the Los Angeles Motor Scale as a Tool for Paramedic Assessment of Stroke Severity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Tae; Chung, Pil-Wook; Starkman, Sidney; Sanossian, Nerses; Stratton, Samuel J; Eckstein, Marc; Pratt, Frank D; Conwit, Robin; Liebeskind, David S; Sharma, Latisha; Restrepo, Lucas; Tenser, May-Kim; Valdes-Sueiras, Miguel; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Hamilton, Scott; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2017-02-01

    The Los Angeles Motor Scale (LAMS) is a 3-item, 0- to 10-point motor stroke-deficit scale developed for prehospital use. We assessed the convergent, divergent, and predictive validity of the LAMS when performed by paramedics in the field at multiple sites in a large and diverse geographic region. We analyzed early assessment and outcome data prospectively gathered in the FAST-MAG trial (Field Administration of Stroke Therapy-Magnesium phase 3) among patients with acute cerebrovascular disease (cerebral ischemia and intracranial hemorrhage) within 2 hours of onset, transported by 315 ambulances to 60 receiving hospitals. Among 1632 acute cerebrovascular disease patients (age 70±13 years, male 57.5%), time from onset to prehospital LAMS was median 30 minutes (interquartile range 20-50), onset to early postarrival (EPA) LAMS was 145 minutes (interquartile range 119-180), and onset to EPA National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 150 minutes (interquartile range 120-180). Between the prehospital and EPA assessments, LAMS scores were stable in 40.5%, improved in 37.6%, and worsened in 21.9%. In tests of convergent validity, against the EPA National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, correlations were r=0.49 for the prehospital LAMS and r=0.89 for the EPA LAMS. Prehospital LAMS scores did diverge from the prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale, r=-0.22. Predictive accuracy (adjusted C statistics) for nondisabled 3-month outcome was as follows: prehospital LAMS, 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.74-0.78); EPA LAMS, 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.83-0.87); and EPA National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.88). In this multicenter, prospective, prehospital study, the LAMS showed good to excellent convergent, divergent, and predictive validity, further establishing it as a validated instrument to characterize stroke severity in the field. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Characterization of the Antigenic Heterogeneity of Lipoarabinomannan, the Major Surface Glycolipid of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Complexity of Antibody Specificities toward This Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Alok; Honnen, William; Lai, Zhong; Gennaro, Maria Laura; Garcia-Viveros, Moncerrato; Sahloul, Kamar; Spencer, John S.; Chatterjee, Delphi

    2018-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM), the major antigenic glycolipid of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an important immunodiagnostic target for detecting tuberculosis (TB) infection in HIV-1–coinfected patients, and is believed to mediate a number of functions that promote infection and disease development. To probe the human humoral response against LAM during TB infection, several novel LAM-specific human mAbs were molecularly cloned from memory B cells isolated from infected patients and grown in vitro. The fine epitope specificities of these Abs, along with those of a panel of previously described murine and phage-derived LAM-specific mAbs, were mapped using binding assays against LAM Ags from several mycobacterial species and a panel of synthetic glycans and glycoconjugates that represented diverse carbohydrate structures present in LAM. Multiple reactivity patterns were seen that differed in their specificity for LAM from different species, as well as in their dependence on arabinofuranoside branching and nature of capping at the nonreducing termini. Competition studies with mAbs and soluble glycans further defined these epitope specificities and guided the design of highly sensitive immunodetection assays capable of detecting LAM in urine of TB patients, even in the absence of HIV-1 coinfection. These results highlighted the complexity of the antigenic structure of LAM and the diversity of the natural Ab response against this target. The information and novel reagents described in this study will allow further optimization of diagnostic assays for LAM and may facilitate the development of potential immunotherapeutic approaches to inhibit the functional activities of specific structural motifs in LAM. PMID:29610143

  3. Uterine-Specific Loss of Tsc2 Leads to Myometrial Tumors in Both the Uterus and Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Prizant, Hen; Sen, Aritro; Light, Allison; Cho, Sung-Nam; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease characterized by proliferation of abnormal smooth-muscle cells in the lungs, leading to functional loss and sometimes lung transplantation. Although the origin of LAM cells is unknown, several features of LAM provide clues. First, LAM cells contain inactivating mutations in genes encoding Tsc1 or Tsc2, proteins that limit mTORC1 activity. Second, LAM tumors recur after lung transplantation, suggesting a metastatic pathogenesis. Third, LAM is found almost exclusively in women. Finally, LAM shares features with uterine leiomyomas, benign tumors of myometrial cells. From these observations, we proposed that LAM cells might originate from uterine leiomyomas containing Tsc mutations. To test our hypothesis, and to develop mouse models for leiomyoma and LAM, we targeted Tsc2 deletion primarily in uterine cells. In fact, nearly 100% of uteri from uterine-specific Tsc2 knockout mice developed myometrial proliferation and uterine leiomyomas by 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. Myometrial proliferation and mTORC1/S6 activity were abrogated by the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin or by elimination of sex steroid production through ovariectomy or aromatase inhibition. In ovariectomized Tsc2 null mice, mTORC1/S6 activity and myometrial growth were restored by estrogen but not progesterone. Thus, even without Tsc2, estrogen appears to be required for myometrial mTORC1/S6 signaling and proliferation. Finally, we found Tsc2 null myometrial tumors in lungs of older Tsc2 uterine-specific knockout females, suggesting that lung LAM-like myometrial lesions may indeed originate from the uterus. This mouse model may improve our understanding of LAM and leiomyomas and might lead to novel therapeutic strategies for both diseases. PMID:23820898

  4. New Applicators for Weed Control in Forest Nurseries and Plantations

    Treesearch

    J. M. Chandler; T. H. Filer

    1981-01-01

    Until recently chemical weed control technology in forestry nurseries was limited primarily to soil fumigation, a very expensive and laborous weed control procedure. Herbicides for preemergence application have been registered and are currently being used to control many annual weeds. Removal of perennial weeds such as nutsedge, (Cyperus spp.)...

  5. The impact of the neurodevelopmental traction technique on activation of lateral abdominal muscles in children aged 11-13 years.

    PubMed

    Gogola, Anna; Gnat, Rafał; Dziub, Dorota; Gwóźdź, Michalina; Zaborowska, Małgorzata

    2016-06-27

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the activation of lateral abdominal muscles (LAM) in response to neurodevelopmental traction technique as assessed by ultrasounds as well as to compare the effects of different traction forces. An experiment with repeated measurements of the dependent variables was conducted. Thirty-seven children (22 girls) participated. Measurements of LAM thickness (indicating LAM activation) were performed bilaterally during traction of 5% body weight: 1) in neutral position, 2) in 20° posterior trunk inclination; during traction of 15% body weight: 3) in neutral position, 4) in 20° posterior trunk inclination. The ultrasound technology was employed. When applying the lighter traction the superficial LAM (external and internal oblique muscles) showed significant changes. The mean thickness of both muscles during traction increased (both p < 0.001). The deepest transversus abdominis showed no response (p > 0.05). Stronger traction elicited smaller changes. External and internal oblique muscles showed significant increases (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, respectively). Transversus abdominis became less thick during stronger traction (p < 0.01). The neurodevelopmental traction technique elicits the changes in LAM thickness in children with typical development. The superficial LAM show more distinct responses than the profound LAM. Stronger traction induces smaller LAM thickness changes than lighter traction.

  6. Exposure of Monocytes to Lipoarabinomannan Promotes Their Differentiation into Functionally and Phenotypically Immature Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Galán, Leslie; Ocaña-Guzmán, Ranferi; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; García-de-Alba, Carolina; Sada-Ovalle, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a lipid virulence factor secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis. LAM can be measured in the urine or serum of tuberculosis patients (TB-patients). Circulating monocytes are the precursor cells of alveolar macrophages and might be exposed to LAM in patients with active TB. We speculated that exposing monocytes to LAM could produce phenotypically and functionally immature macrophages. To test our hypothesis, human monocytes were stimulated with LAM (24–120 hours) and various readouts were measured. The study showed that when monocytes were exposed to LAM, the frequency of CD68+, CD33+, and CD86+ macrophages decreased, suggesting that monocyte differentiation into mature macrophages was affected. Regarding functionality markers, TLR2+ and TLR4+ macrophages also decreased, but the percentage of MMR+ expression did not change. LAM-exposed monocytes generated macrophages that were less efficient in producing proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-γ; however, their phagocytic capacity was not modified. Taken together, these data indicate that LAM exposure influenced monocyte differentiation and produced poorly functional macrophages with a different phenotype. These results may help us understand how mycobacteria can limit the quality of the innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:26347897

  7. Increasing Interoperability of E-Learning Content in Moodle within a Franco-Arabo Educative Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Harrassi, Souad; Labour, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how Moodle, as an open-source Learning Management System, can be made more interoperable. The authors tested two software standards, LAMS and RELOAD, compatible with socio-constructivism norms. The analysis showed that pedagogic activities created with the LAMS-IMS Learning Design Level A Format are useable with Moodle but…

  8. Professional and Continuing Education in Hong Kong. Issues and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngok, Lee; Lam, Agnes

    This book, which is based on several first-hand studies, provides an overview of professional and continuing education in Hong Kong and examines selected issues in the field. The following chapters are included: "Preface" (Lee Ngok, Agnes Lam); "Introduction" (Lee Ngok, Agnes Lam); "The Role of Government in Human Resource…

  9. Teacher Ratings of Evidence-Based Practices from the Field of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Christina M.; Bock, Stacey Jones; Szymanski, Christen

    2015-01-01

    Students who have a hearing loss and a comorbid diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have multiple obstacles to overcome. Using Gallaudet Research Institute data, Szymanski, Brice, Lam, and Hotto calculated 1 deaf student in 59 received services for both a hearing loss and an ASD (Szymanski, Brice, Lam, & Hotto, 2012). Teachers of…

  10. Implementing E-Learning at the University of Nicosia: Making It Possible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This practical paper reports on significant Learning Activity Management System (LAMS) work currently being undertaken at The University of Nicosia in Cyprus; a growing number of full e-courses have been, and are being, created using LAMS and a suite of specialized programs in order to provide an alternate and more convenient educational service…

  11. AAC Best Practice Using Automated Language Activity Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Katya; Romich, Barry

    This brief paper describes automated language activity monitoring (LAM), an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) methodology for the collection, editing, and analysis of language data in structured or natural situations with people who have severe communication disorders. The LAM function records each language event (letters, words,…

  12. Involution symmetries and the PMNS matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Palash B.; Byakti, Pritibhajan

    2017-10-01

    C S Lam has suggested that the PMNS matrix (or at least some of its elements) can be predicted by embedding the residual symmetry of the leptonic mass terms into a bigger symmetry. We analyse the possibility that the residual symmetries consist of involution generators only and explore how Lam's idea can be implemented.

  13. Proapoptotic protein Bim attenuates estrogen-enhanced survival in lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chenggang; Li, Na; Liu, Xiaolei; Zhang, Erik Y.; Sun, Yang; Masuda, Kouhei; Li, Jing; Sun, Julia; Morrison, Tasha; Li, Xiangke; Chen, Yuanguang; Wang, Jiang; Karim, Nagla A.; Zhang, Yi; Blenis, John; Reginato, Mauricio J.; Henske, Elizabeth P.; Yu, Jane J.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive lung disease that primarily affects young women. Genetic evidence suggests that LAM cells bearing TSC2 mutations migrate to the lungs, proliferate, and cause cystic remodeling. The female predominance indicates that estrogen plays a critical role in LAM pathogenesis, and we have proposed that estrogen promotes LAM cell metastasis by inhibition of anoikis. We report here that estrogen increased LAM patient–derived cells’ resistance to anoikis in vitro, accompanied by decreased accumulation of the proapoptotic protein Bim, an activator of anoikis. The resistance to anoikis was reversed by the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib. Treatment of LAM patient–derived cells with estrogen plus bortezomib promoted anoikis compared with estrogen alone. Depletion of Bim by siRNA in TSC2-deficient cells resulted in anoikis resistance. Treatment of mice with bortezomib reduced estrogen-promoted lung colonization of TSC2-deficient cells. Importantly, molecular depletion of Bim by siRNA in Tsc2-deficient cells increased lung colonization in a mouse model. Collectively, these data indicate that Bim plays a key role in estrogen-enhanced survival of LAM patient–derived cells under detached conditions that occur with dissemination. Thus, targeting Bim may be a plausible future treatment strategy in patients with LAM. PMID:27882343

  14. Development of Antigen Detection Assay for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Using Sputum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Arias-Bouda, Lenka M.; Nguyen, Lan N.; Ho, Ly M.; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Jansen, Henk M.; Kolk, Arend H. J.

    2000-01-01

    The rising incidence of tuberculosis worldwide means an increasing burden on diagnostic facilities, so tests simpler than Ziehl-Neelsen staining are needed. Such tests should be objective, reproducible, and have at least as good a detection limit as 104 bacteria/ml. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in human sputum samples. As a capture antibody, we used a murine monoclonal antibody against LAM, with rabbit antiserum against Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a source of detector antibodies. The sensitivity of the capture ELISA was evaluated by using purified LAM and M. tuberculosis whole cells. We were able to detect 1 ng of purified LAM/ml and 104 M. tuberculosis whole cells/ml. LAM could also be detected in culture filtrate of a 3-week-old culture of M. tuberculosis. The culture filtrate contained approximately 100 μg of LAM/ml. The detection limit in sputum pretreated with N-acetyl-l-cysteine and proteinase K was 104 M. tuberculosis whole cells per ml. Thirty-one (91%) of 34 sputum samples from 18 Vietnamese patients with tuberculosis (32 smear positive and 2 smear negative) were positive in the LAM detection assay. In contrast, none of the 25 sputum samples from 21 nontuberculous patients was positive. This specific and sensitive assay for the detection of LAM in sputum is potentially useful for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. PMID:10834989

  15. Assessing Model Assumptions for Turbulent Premixed Combustion at High Karlovitz Number

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-03

    number flamelet solutions are also shown (dashed line). ω̇C7H16(T ) ≈ ω̇C7H16(Tpeak) ω̇C7H16, lam (T ) ω̇C7H16, lam (Tpeak) . (35) Therefore, only the...Eq. 35 in Eq. 39, the turbulent flame speed can be approximated as ST ≈ S0L AT A 〈 ω̇C7H16 ω̇C7H16, lam 〉 Tpeak , (40) where 〈ω̇C7H16/ω̇C7H16, lam 〉Tpeak...drawing to illustrate Eq. 40. SeffF = 〈 ω̇C7H16/ω̇C7H16, lam 〉 Tpeak · S0L is used. differential diffusion has a limited effect on the turbulent surface

  16. A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Torti, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The component technologies were developed required for an advanced control moment gyro (CMG) type of slewing actuator for large payloads. The key component of the CMG is a large-angle magnetic suspension (LAMS). The LAMS combines the functions of the gimbal structure, torque motors, and rotor bearings of a CMG. The LAMS uses a single superconducting source coil and an array of cryoresistive control coils to produce a specific output torque more than an order of magnitude greater than conventional devices. The designed and tested LAMS system is based around an available superconducting solenoid, an array of twelve room-temperature normal control coils, and a multi-input, multi-output control system. The control laws were demonstrated for stabilizing and controlling the LAMS system.

  17. Antibodies Induced by Lipoarabinomannan in Bovines: Characterization and Effects on the Interaction between Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis and Macrophages In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Ana; Colavecchia, Silvia Beatriz; Fernández, Bárbara; Fernández, Eloy; Mundo, Silvia Leonor

    2011-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a major glycolipidic antigen on the mycobacterial envelope. The aim of this study was to characterize the humoral immune response induced by immunization with a LAM extract in bovines and to evaluate the role of the generated antibodies in the in vitro infection of macrophages with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Sera from fourteen calves immunized with LAM extract or PBS emulsified in Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant and from five paratuberculosis-infected bovines were studied. LAM-immunized calves developed specific antibodies with IgG1 as the predominant isotype. Serum immunoglobulins were isolated and their effect was examined in MAP ingestion and viability assays using a bovine macrophage cell line. Our results show that the antibodies generated by LAM immunization significantly increase MAP ingestion and reduce its intracellular viability, suggesting an active role in this model. PMID:21772964

  18. Antibodies Induced by Lipoarabinomannan in Bovines: Characterization and Effects on the Interaction between Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis and Macrophages In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Ana; Colavecchia, Silvia Beatriz; Fernández, Bárbara; Fernández, Eloy; Mundo, Silvia Leonor

    2011-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a major glycolipidic antigen on the mycobacterial envelope. The aim of this study was to characterize the humoral immune response induced by immunization with a LAM extract in bovines and to evaluate the role of the generated antibodies in the in vitro infection of macrophages with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Sera from fourteen calves immunized with LAM extract or PBS emulsified in Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant and from five paratuberculosis-infected bovines were studied. LAM-immunized calves developed specific antibodies with IgG1 as the predominant isotype. Serum immunoglobulins were isolated and their effect was examined in MAP ingestion and viability assays using a bovine macrophage cell line. Our results show that the antibodies generated by LAM immunization significantly increase MAP ingestion and reduce its intracellular viability, suggesting an active role in this model.

  19. Structural basis of sterol recognition and nonvesicular transport by lipid transfer proteins anchored at membrane contact sites.

    PubMed

    Tong, Junsen; Manik, Mohammad Kawsar; Im, Young Jun

    2018-01-30

    Membrane contact sites (MCSs) in eukaryotic cells are hotspots for lipid exchange, which is essential for many biological functions, including regulation of membrane properties and protein trafficking. Lipid transfer proteins anchored at membrane contact sites (LAMs) contain sterol-specific lipid transfer domains [StARkin domain (SD)] and multiple targeting modules to specific membrane organelles. Elucidating the structural mechanisms of targeting and ligand recognition by LAMs is important for understanding the interorganelle communication and exchange at MCSs. Here, we determined the crystal structures of the yeast Lam6 pleckstrin homology (PH)-like domain and the SDs of Lam2 and Lam4 in the apo form and in complex with ergosterol. The Lam6 PH-like domain displays a unique PH domain fold with a conserved N-terminal α-helix. The Lam6 PH-like domain lacks the basic surface for phosphoinositide binding, but contains hydrophobic patches on its surface, which are critical for targeting to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrial contacts. Structures of the LAM SDs display a helix-grip fold with a hydrophobic cavity and a flexible Ω1-loop as a lid. Ergosterol is bound to the pocket in a head-down orientation, with its hydrophobic acyl group located in the tunnel entrance. The Ω1-loop in an open conformation is essential for ergosterol binding by direct hydrophobic interaction. Structural comparison suggested that the sterol binding mode of the Lam2 SD2 is likely conserved among the sterol transfer proteins of the StARkin superfamily. Structural models of full-length Lam2 correlated with the sterol transport function at the membrane contact sites.

  20. Estimation of D-Arabinose by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry as Surrogate for Mycobacterial Lipoarabinomannan in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    De, Prithwiraj; Amin, Anita G.; Valli, Eloise; Perkins, Mark D.; McNeil, Michael; Chatterjee, Delphi

    2015-01-01

    Globally, tuberculosis is slowly declining each year and it is estimated that 37 million lives were saved between 2000 and 2013 through effective diagnosis and treatment. Currently, diagnosis relies on demonstration of the bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), in clinical specimens by serial sputum microscopy, culture and molecular testing. Commercial immunoassay lateral flow kits developed to detect Mtb lipoglycan lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine as a marker of active TB exhibit poor sensitivity, especially in immunocompetent individuals, perhaps due to low abundance of the analyte. Our present study was designed to develop methods to validate the presence of LAM in a quantitative fashion in human urine samples obtained from culture-confirmed TB patients. Herein we describe, a consolidated approach for isolating LAM from the urine and quantifying D-arabinose as a proxy for LAM, using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. 298 urine samples obtained from a repository were rigorously analyzed and shown to contain varying amounts of LAM-equivalent ranging between ~10–40 ng/mL. To further substantiate that D-arabinose detected in the samples originated from LAM, tuberculostearic acid, the unique 10-methyloctadecanoic acid present at the phosphatidylinositol end of LAM was also analyzed in a set of samples and found to be present confirming that the D-arabinose was indeed derived from LAM. Among the 144 samples from culture-negative TB suspects, 30 showed presence of D-arabinose suggesting another source of the analyte, such as disseminated TB or from non-tuberculosis mycobacterium. Our work validates that LAM is present in the urine samples of culture-positive patients in small but readily detectable amounts. The study further substantiates LAM in urine as a powerful biomarker for active tuberculosis. PMID:26633829

  1. Forced expression of laminin β1 in podocytes prevents nephrotic syndrome in mice lacking laminin β2, a model for Pierson syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jung Hee; Jarad, George; VanDeVoorde, Rene G.; Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Pierson syndrome is a congenital nephrotic syndrome with ocular and neurological defects caused by mutations in LAMB2, the gene encoding the basement membrane protein laminin β2 (Lamβ2). It is the kidney glomerular basement membrane (GBM) that is defective in Pierson syndrome, as Lamβ2 is a component of laminin-521 (LM-521; α5β2γ1), the major laminin in the mature GBM. In both Pierson syndrome and the Lamb2−/− mouse model for this disease, laminin β1 (Lamβ1), a structurally similar homolog of Lamβ2, is marginally increased in the GBM, but it fails to fully compensate for the loss of Lamβ2, leading to the filtration barrier defects and nephrotic syndrome. Here we generated several lines of Lamβ1 transgenic mice and used them to show that podocyte-specific Lamβ1 expression in Lamb2−/− mice abrogates the development of nephrotic syndrome, correlating with a greatly extended lifespan. In addition, the more Lamβ1 was expressed, the less urinary albumin was excreted. Transgenic Lamβ1 expression increased the level of Lamα5 in the GBM of rescued mice, consistent with the desired increased deposition of laminin-511 (α5β1γ1) trimers. Ultrastructural analysis revealed occasional knob-like subepithelial GBM thickening but intact podocyte foot processes in aged rescued mice. These results suggest the possibility that up-regulation of LAMB1 in podocytes, should it become achievable, would likely lessen the severity of nephrotic syndrome in patients carrying LAMB2 mutations. PMID:21876163

  2. Forced expression of laminin beta1 in podocytes prevents nephrotic syndrome in mice lacking laminin beta2, a model for Pierson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jung Hee; Jarad, George; VanDeVoorde, Rene G; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2011-09-13

    Pierson syndrome is a congenital nephrotic syndrome with ocular and neurological defects caused by mutations in LAMB2, the gene encoding the basement membrane protein laminin β2 (Lamβ2). It is the kidney glomerular basement membrane (GBM) that is defective in Pierson syndrome, as Lamβ2 is a component of laminin-521 (LM-521; α5β2γ1), the major laminin in the mature GBM. In both Pierson syndrome and the Lamb2(-/-) mouse model for this disease, laminin β1 (Lamβ1), a structurally similar homolog of Lamβ2, is marginally increased in the GBM, but it fails to fully compensate for the loss of Lamβ2, leading to the filtration barrier defects and nephrotic syndrome. Here we generated several lines of Lamβ1 transgenic mice and used them to show that podocyte-specific Lamβ1 expression in Lamb2(-/-) mice abrogates the development of nephrotic syndrome, correlating with a greatly extended lifespan. In addition, the more Lamβ1 was expressed, the less urinary albumin was excreted. Transgenic Lamβ1 expression increased the level of Lamα5 in the GBM of rescued mice, consistent with the desired increased deposition of laminin-511 (α5β1γ1) trimers. Ultrastructural analysis revealed occasional knob-like subepithelial GBM thickening but intact podocyte foot processes in aged rescued mice. These results suggest the possibility that up-regulation of LAMB1 in podocytes, should it become achievable, would likely lessen the severity of nephrotic syndrome in patients carrying LAMB2 mutations.

  3. Ependymin as a substrate for outgrowth of axons from cultured explants of goldfish retina.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J T; Schmidt, R; Lin, W C; Jian, X Y; Stuermer, C A

    1991-01-01

    Ependymin, a prominent protein of the brain's extracellular fluid (ECF) was previously implicated in the consolidation of memory and in the activity-driven sharpening of the retinotectal projection. Because both these phenomena probably involve the growth and elaboration of appropriate synapses, we have tested whether ependymin can serve as a substrate for the growth of axons from goldfish retinal ganglion cells in a culture assay. Ependymin (Ep), laminin (LAM), polylysine (PL), and Concanavalin A (Con A) were plated on glass coverslips either uniformly or in striped patterns. Ep alone, either soluble or partly polymerized (by dropping calcium concentration and pH), was a good substrate for axonal outgrowth, as good or better than PL and Con A, but not as good as LAM. Neurites grew faster on LAM (71 microns/h) than on Ep (32 microns/h) or on PL (22 microns/h). Fasciculation was low on LAM, intermediate on Ep, and highest on PL. In exclusive side-by-side stripe assays, axons preferred LAM over Ep, but gave weak or no preference for Ep over Con A or PL. With stripes of LAM + Ep alongside pure LAM, the axons preferred the mixture of LAM + Ep. When antibodies to Ep were plated in stripes over continuous Ep substrate, the axons avoided the antibody-blocked stripes and grew on the Ep stripes. Antibodies to Ep did not, however, block growth on laminin substrates, nor did antibodies to LAM block growth on Ep. Dot blots and western blots showed very little cross recognition between the antibodies. Ependymin is a good substrate for neurite outgrowth, which is normally present in ECF, and adhesion to Ep is independent of LAM and possibly additive to it.

  4. Progesterone and estradiol synergistically promote the lung metastasis of tuberin-deficient cells in a preclinical model of lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Erik; Lao, Taotao; Pereira, Ana M.; Li, Chenggang; Xiong, Li; Morrison, Tasha; Haley, Kathleen J.; Zhou, Xiaobo; Yu, Jane J.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a female-predominant lung disease that can lead to respiratory failure. LAM cells typically have inactivating TSC2 mutations, leading to mTORC1 hyperactivation. The gender specificity of LAM suggests that female hormones contribute to disease progression. Clinical findings indicate that estradiol exacerbates LAM behaviors and symptoms. Although hormonal therapy with progesterone has been employed, the benefit in LAM improvement has not been achieved. We have previously found that estradiol promotes the survival and lung metastasis of cells lacking tuberin in a preclinical model of LAM. In this study, we hypothesize that progesterone alone or in combination with estradiol promote metastatic behaviors of TSC2-deficient cells. In cell culture models of TSC2-deficient LAM patient-derived and rat uterine leiomyoma-derived cells, we found that progesterone treatment or progesterone plus estradiol resulted in increased phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2, induced the proliferation, and enhanced the migration and invasiveness. In addition, treatment of progesterone plus estradiol synergistically decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species, and enhanced cell survival under oxidative stress. In a murine model of LAM, treatment of progesterone plus estradiol promoted the growth of xenograft tumors; however, progesterone treatment did not affect the development of xenograft tumors of Tsc2-deficient cells. Importantly, treatment of progesterone plus estradiol resulted in alteration of lung morphology, and significantly increased the number of lung micrometastases of Tsc2-deficient cells compared with estradiol treatment alone. Collectively, these data indicate that progesterone increases the metastatic potential of TSC2-deficient LAM patient-derived cells in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. Thus, targeting progesterone-mediated signaling events may have therapeutic benefit for LAM and possibly other hormonally dependent cancers. PMID

  5. Association of lipoarabinomannan with high density lipoprotein in blood: Implications for diagnostics

    DOE PAGES

    Sakamuri, Rama Murthy; Price, Dominique N.; Lee, Myungsun; ...

    2013-02-14

    Understanding the pathophysiology of tuberculosis, and the bio-distribution of pathogen-associated molecules in the host is essential for the development of efficient methods of intervention. One of the key virulence factors in the pathology of tuberculosis infection is Lipoarabinomannan (LAM). Previously, we have demonstrated the reliable detection of LAM in urine from tuberculosis patients in a sandwich immunoassay format. We also applied an ultra-sensitive detection strategy developed for amphiphilic biomarkers, membrane insertion, to the detection of LAM with a limit of detection of 10 fM. Herein, we evaluate the application of membrane insertion to the detection of LAM in patient serum,more » and demonstrate that the circulating concentrations of ‘monomeric’ LAM in serum are very low, despite significantly higher concentrations in the urine. Using spiked samples, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is due to the association of LAM with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanodiscs in human serum. Indeed, pull-down of HDL nanodiscs from human serum allows for the recovery of HDL-associated LAM. These studies suggest that LAM is likely associated with carrier molecules such as HDL in the blood of patients infected with tuberculosis. Furthermore, this phenomenon may not be limited to LAM in that many pathogen-associated molecular patterns like LAM are amphiphilic in nature and may also be associated with host lipid carriers. Such interactions are likely to affect host–pathogen interactions, pathogen bio-distribution and clearance in the host, and must be thoroughly understood for the effective design of vaccines and diagnostics.« less

  6. Association of lipoarabinomannan with high density lipoprotein in blood: Implications for diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamuri, Rama Murthy; Price, Dominique N.; Lee, Myungsun

    Understanding the pathophysiology of tuberculosis, and the bio-distribution of pathogen-associated molecules in the host is essential for the development of efficient methods of intervention. One of the key virulence factors in the pathology of tuberculosis infection is Lipoarabinomannan (LAM). Previously, we have demonstrated the reliable detection of LAM in urine from tuberculosis patients in a sandwich immunoassay format. We also applied an ultra-sensitive detection strategy developed for amphiphilic biomarkers, membrane insertion, to the detection of LAM with a limit of detection of 10 fM. Herein, we evaluate the application of membrane insertion to the detection of LAM in patient serum,more » and demonstrate that the circulating concentrations of ‘monomeric’ LAM in serum are very low, despite significantly higher concentrations in the urine. Using spiked samples, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is due to the association of LAM with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanodiscs in human serum. Indeed, pull-down of HDL nanodiscs from human serum allows for the recovery of HDL-associated LAM. These studies suggest that LAM is likely associated with carrier molecules such as HDL in the blood of patients infected with tuberculosis. Furthermore, this phenomenon may not be limited to LAM in that many pathogen-associated molecular patterns like LAM are amphiphilic in nature and may also be associated with host lipid carriers. Such interactions are likely to affect host–pathogen interactions, pathogen bio-distribution and clearance in the host, and must be thoroughly understood for the effective design of vaccines and diagnostics.« less

  7. Does the prevalence of levator ani muscle avulsion differ when assessed using tomographic ultrasound imaging at rest vs on maximum pelvic floor muscle contraction?

    PubMed

    van Delft, K; Thakar, R; Sultan, A H; Kluivers, K B

    2015-07-01

    It has been suggested that transperineal ultrasound images obtained during maximum pelvic floor muscle contraction improve the diagnosis of levator ani muscle (LAM) avulsion by comparison with those obtained at rest. The objective of this study was to establish, using transperineal tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI), the correlation between LAM avulsion diagnosed at rest and that on contraction. Primiparous women were examined 3 months postpartum by Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) assessment and for LAM avulsion clinically by digital palpation and by transperineal TUI performed at rest and on pelvic floor muscle contraction. LAM avulsion was diagnosed on TUI when the three central slices were abnormal. A comparison was made between LAM avulsion diagnosed at rest and on maximum contraction. Two independent blinded investigators performed the analyses and a third investigator resolved discrepancies. One hundred and ninety primiparae were analyzed providing 380 results for comparison, as right and left LAM were analyzed independently. LAM avulsion was found in 36 (9.5%) images obtained at rest and in 35 (9.2%) on contraction, revealing moderate correlation between the two (ICC, 0.58 (95% CI, 0.51-0.64)). Twenty-two cases of LAM avulsion were identified both at rest and on contraction. One woman had LAM avulsion on palpation, which was seen on TUI as LAM avulsion on contraction, but not at rest. More cases of anterior and posterior compartment prolapse were found in women with LAM avulsion diagnosed on contraction only compared to LAM avulsion observed at rest only (POP-Q assessment point Ba, -1.8 vs -2.5 (P = 0.075) and point Bp, -2.5 vs -2.8 (P = 0.072)). Findings on transperineal TUI performed in women at rest and on contraction correlate reasonably well. However, given the trend towards an association with signs of pelvic floor dysfunction, diagnosis of LAM avulsion on contraction seems to be more reliable. Consistency in technique and

  8. The Laminin Receptor Is a Cellular Attachment Receptor for Classical Swine Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianing; He, Wen-Rui; Shen, Liang; Dong, Hong; Yu, Jiahui; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Shaoxiong; Li, Yongfeng; Li, Su; Luo, Yuzi; Sun, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious, economically important viral disease in many countries. The Erns and E2 envelope glycoproteins are responsible for the binding to and entry into the host cell by CSFV. To date, only one cellular receptor, heparan sulfate (HS), has been identified as being involved in CSFV attachment. HS is also present on the surface of various cells that are nonpermissive to CSFV. Hence, there must be another receptor(s) that has been unidentified to date. In this study, we used a set of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against a number of porcine cell membrane protein genes to screen cellular proteins involved in CSFV infection. This approach resulted in the identification of several proteins, and of these, the laminin receptor (LamR) has been demonstrated to be a cellular receptor for several viruses. Confocal analysis showed that LamR is colocalized with CSFV virions on the membrane, and a coimmunoprecipitation assay indicated that LamR interacts with the CSFV Erns protein. In inhibition assays, anti-LamR antibodies, soluble laminin, or LamR protein significantly inhibited CSFV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Transduction of PK-15 cells with a recombinant lentivirus expressing LamR yielded higher viral titers. Moreover, an attachment assay demonstrated that LamR functions during virus attachment. We also demonstrate that LamR acts as an alternative attachment receptor, especially in SK6 cells. These results indicate that LamR is a cellular attachment receptor for CSFV. IMPORTANCE Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), an economically important viral disease affecting the pig industry in many countries. To date, only heparan sulfate (HS) has been identified to be an attachment receptor for CSFV. Here, using RNA interference screening with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against a number of porcine membrane

  9. Mapping the laminin receptor binding domains of Neisseria meningitidis PorA and Haemophilus influenzae OmpP2.

    PubMed

    Abouseada, Noha M; Assafi, Mahde Saleh A; Mahdavi, Jafar; Oldfield, Neil J; Wheldon, Lee M; Wooldridge, Karl G; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer A A

    2012-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae are major bacterial agents of meningitis. They each bind the 37/67-kDa laminin receptor (LamR) via the surface protein adhesins: meningococcal PilQ and PorA, H. influenzae OmpP2 and pneumococcal CbpA. We have previously reported that a surface-exposed loop of the R2 domain of CbpA mediates LamR-binding. Here we have identified the LamR-binding regions of PorA and OmpP2. Using truncated recombinant proteins we show that binding is dependent on amino acids 171-240 and 91-99 of PorA and OmpP2, respectively, which are predicted to localize to the fourth and second surface-exposed loops, respectively, of these proteins. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the loops bound LamR and could block LamR-binding to bacterial ligands in a dose dependant manner. Meningococci expressing PorA lacking the apex of loop 4 and H. influenzae expressing OmpP2 lacking the apex of loop 2 showed significantly reduced LamR binding. Since both loops are hyper-variable, our data may suggest a molecular basis for the range of LamR-binding capabilities previously reported among different meningococcal and H. influenzae strains.

  10. Lamotrigine Uses in Psychiatric Practice-Beyond Bipolar Prophylaxis a Hope or Hype?

    PubMed

    Naguy, Ahmed; Al-Enezi, Najah

    2017-04-19

    Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence. EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews were searched for all relevant studies up to date of June 2016. Sound evidence supports use of LAM for acute bipolar depression and prophylaxis, treatment-resistant schizophrenia, treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, depersonalization disorder, and affective dysregulation and behavioral dyscontrol domains of borderline personality disorder. Less compelling evidence is present for use in behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and neuropsychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury. No evidence supports use in autism spectrum disorder or acute unipolar depression. LAM is an important addition to the psychopharmacological armamentarium. Level of evidence supporting the use of LAM in off-label indications is highly variable, and hence, sound clinical judgment is necessary for its proper use and placement in real-life psychiatric practice and psychopharmacotherapy algorithms.

  11. Laser assisted microdissection, an efficient technique to understand tissue specific gene expression patterns and functional genomics in plants.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Vibhav; Sarkar, Ananda K

    2015-04-01

    Laser assisted microdissection (LAM) is an advanced technology used to perform tissue or cell-specific expression profiling of genes and proteins, owing to its ability to isolate the desired tissue or cell type from a heterogeneous population. Due to the specificity and high efficiency acquired during its pioneering use in medical science, the LAM technique has quickly been adopted for use in many biological researches. Today, it has become a potent tool to address a wide range of questions in diverse field of plant biology. Beginning with comparative transcriptome analysis of different tissues such as reproductive parts, meristems, lateral organs, roots etc., LAM has also been extensively used in plant-pathogen interaction studies, proteomics, and metabolomics. In combination with next generation sequencing and proteomics analysis, LAM has opened up promising opportunities in the area of large scale functional studies in plants. Ever since the advent of this technique, significant improvements have been achieved in term of its instrumentation and method, which has made LAM a more efficient tool applicable in wider research areas. Here, we discuss the advancement of LAM technique with special emphasis on its methodology and highlight its scope in modern research areas of plant biology. Although we put emphasis on use of LAM in transcriptome studies, which is mostly used, we also discuss its recent application and scope in proteome and metabolome studies.

  12. Mapping the Laminin Receptor Binding Domains of Neisseria meningitidis PorA and Haemophilus influenzae OmpP2

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Jafar; Oldfield, Neil J.; Wheldon, Lee M.; Wooldridge, Karl G.; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae are major bacterial agents of meningitis. They each bind the 37/67-kDa laminin receptor (LamR) via the surface protein adhesins: meningococcal PilQ and PorA, H. influenzae OmpP2 and pneumococcal CbpA. We have previously reported that a surface-exposed loop of the R2 domain of CbpA mediates LamR-binding. Here we have identified the LamR-binding regions of PorA and OmpP2. Using truncated recombinant proteins we show that binding is dependent on amino acids 171–240 and 91–99 of PorA and OmpP2, respectively, which are predicted to localize to the fourth and second surface-exposed loops, respectively, of these proteins. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the loops bound LamR and could block LamR-binding to bacterial ligands in a dose dependant manner. Meningococci expressing PorA lacking the apex of loop 4 and H. influenzae expressing OmpP2 lacking the apex of loop 2 showed significantly reduced LamR binding. Since both loops are hyper-variable, our data may suggest a molecular basis for the range of LamR-binding capabilities previously reported among different meningococcal and H. influenzae strains. PMID:23049988

  13. Cost-effectiveness of novel algorithms for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Shah, Maunank; Dowdy, David; Joloba, Moses; Ssengooba, Willy; Manabe, Yukari C; Ellner, Jerrold; Dorman, Susan E

    2013-11-28

    Xpert MTB/RIF ('Xpert') and urinary lateral-flow lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) assays offer rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of novel diagnostic algorithms utilizing combinations of Xpert and LF-LAM for the detection of active TB among people living with HIV. Cost-effectiveness analysis using data from a comparative study of LF-LAM and Xpert, with a target population of HIV-infected individuals with signs/symptoms of TB in Uganda. A decision-analysis model compared multiple strategies for rapid TB diagnosis:sputum smear-microscopy; sputum Xpert; smear-microscopy combined with LF-LAM; and Xpert combined with LF-LAM. Primary outcomes were the costs and DALY's averted for each algorithm. Cost-effectiveness was represented using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER). Compared with an algorithm of Xpert testing alone, the combination of Xpert with LF-LAM was considered highly cost-effective (ICER $57/DALY-averted) at a willingness to pay threshold of Ugandan GDP per capita. Addition of urine LF-LAM testing to smear-microscopy was a less effective strategy than Xpert replacement of smear-microscopy, but was less costly and also considered highly cost-effective (ICER $33 per DALY-averted) compared with continued usage of smear-microscopy alone. Cost-effectiveness of the Xpert plus LF-LAM algorithm was most influenced by HIV/ART costs and life-expectancy of patients after TB treatment. The addition of urinary LF-LAM to TB diagnostic algorithms for HIV-infected individuals is highly cost-effective compared with usage of either sputum smear-microscopy or Xpert alone.

  14. Cost-effectiveness comparison of lamivudine plus adefovir combination treatment and nucleos(t)ide analog monotherapies in Chinese chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Ke, Weixia; Liu, Li; Gao, Yanhui; Yao, Zhenjiang; Ye, Xiaohua; Zhou, Shudong; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Lamivudine (LAM) plus adefovir (ADV) combination therapy is clinically efficacious for treating chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in China, but no pharmacoeconomic evaluations of this strategy are available. The aim of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of LAM plus ADV combination treatment compared with five other nucleos(t)ide analog monotherapies (LAM, ADV, telbivudine [TBV], entecavir [ETV], and tenofovir [TDF]). To simulate the lifetime (40-year time span) costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for different therapy options, a Markov model that included five initial monotherapies and LAM plus ADV combination as an initial treatment was developed. Two kinds of rescue combination strategies (base-case: LAM + ADV then ETV + ADV; alternative: direct use of ETV + ADV) were considered separately for treating patients refractory to initial therapy. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to explore model uncertainties. In base-case analysis, ETV had the lowest lifetime cost and served as the reference therapy. Compared to the reference, LAM, ADV, and TBV had higher costs and lower efficacy, and were completely dominated by ETV. LAM plus ADV combination therapy or TDF was more efficacious than ETV, but also more expensive. Although the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of combination therapy or TDF were both higher than the willingness-to-pay threshold of $20,466/QALY gained for the reference treatment, in an alternative scenario analysis LAM plus ADV combination therapy would be the preferable treatment option. ETV and LAM plus ADV combination therapy are both cost-effective strategies for treating Chinese CHB patients.

  15. Tenofovir vs lamivudine plus adefovir in chronic hepatitis B: TENOSIMP-B study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Manuel; Pascasio, Juan Manuel; Fraga, Enrique; Fuentes, Javier; Prieto, Martín; Sánchez-Antolín, Gloria; Calleja, José Luis; Molina, Esther; García-Buey, María Luisa; Blanco, María Ángeles; Salmerón, Javier; Bonet, María Lucía; Pons, José Antonio; González, José Manuel; Casado, Miguel Ángel; Jorquera, Francisco; Group, the TENOSIMP-B Research

    2017-01-01

    AIM To demonstrate the non-inferiority (15% non-inferiority limit) of monotherapy with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) vs the combination of lamivudine (LAM) plus adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) in the maintenance of virologic response in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and prior failure with LAM. METHODS This study was a Phase IV prospective, randomized, open, controlled study with 2 parallel groups (TDF and LAM+ADV) of adult patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative CHB, prior failure with LAM, on treatment with LAM+ADV for at least 6 mo, without prior resistance to ADV and with an undetectable viral load at the start of the study, in 14 Spanish hospitals. The follow-up time for each patient was 48 wk after randomization, with quarterly visits in which the viral load, biochemical and serological parameters, adverse effects, adherence to treatment and consumption of hospital resources were analysed. RESULTS Forty-six patients were evaluated [median age: 55.4 years (30.2-75.2); 84.8% male], including 22 patients with TDF and 24 with LAM+ADV. During study development, hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV-DNA) remained undetectable, all patients remained HBeAg negative, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values at the end of the study were similar in the 2 groups (25.1 ± 7.65, TDF vs 24.22 ± 8.38, LAM+ADV, P = 0.646). No significant changes were observed in creatinine or serum phosphorus values in either group. No significant differences between the 2 groups were noted in the identification of adverse effects (AEs) (53.8%, TDF vs 37.5%, LAM+ADV, P = 0.170), and none of the AEs which occurred were serious. Treatment adherence was 95.5% and 83.3% in the TDF and the LAM+ADV groups, respectively (P = 0.488). The costs associated with hospital resource consumption were significantly lower with the TDF treatment than the LAM+ADV treatment (€4943 ± 1059 vs €5811 ± 1538, respectively, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION TDF

  16. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis presenting as spontaneous pneumothorax treated with sirolimus - A case report

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ajay Kumar; Joshi, Ambarish; Mishra, Amritesh Ranjan; Kant, Surya; Singh, Arpita

    2018-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is a very common medical emergency. Patients are often treated without treating the underlying cause. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare cystic lung disease. Until recently, diagnosis of LAM was a challenge with nearly 100% mortality in 10 years, but better understanding of the disease through research and better radiological techniques and newer drugs such as sirolimus has improved the survival in such patients. We are presenting a rare case of LAM presenting as a secondary spontaneous pneumothorax treated with sirolimus. PMID:29487252

  17. Additional Octreotide Therapy to Sirolimus Achieved a Decrease in Sirolimus-refractory Chylous Effusion Complicated with Lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Namba, Masashi; Masuda, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Horimasu, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Shintaro; Nakashima, Taku; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Fujitaka, Kazunori; Hamada, Hironobu; Hattori, Noboru

    2017-12-15

    Recently, sirolimus, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, was reported to decrease chylous effusion in patients with lymphangioleimyomatosis (LAM). We herein report a case of a 34-year-old woman with LAM who developed refractory chylothorax and chylous ascites during sirolimus therapy. In this case, to reduce chylous effusion, we administered octreotide, which is often used to control postoperative chylous effusion, in addition to the sirolimus therapy. This combination therapy reduced the chylothorax and chylous ascites. For patients with LAM, octreotide therapy in addition to sirolimus may be effective for treating sirolimus-refractory chylous effusion.

  18. Screening of antibacterial potentials of some medicinal plants from Melghat forest in India.

    PubMed

    Tambekar, D H; Khante, B S; Chandak, B R; Titare, A S; Boralkar, S S; Aghadte, S N

    2009-05-07

    Cyperus rotundus, Caesalpinia bonducella, Tinospora cordifolia, Gardenia gummifera, Ailanthus excelsa, Acacia arabica, Embelia ribes and Ventilago maderspatana from Melghat forest were screened for their antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes by disc diffusion method. Out of these medicinal plants Caesalpinia bonducella, Gardenia gummifera and Acacia arabica showed remarkable antibacterial potential. The phytochemical analysis had showed the presence of Cardiac glycosides in all extracts (aqueous, acetone, ethanol and methanol) of Acacia arabica, Gardenia gummifera and ethanol, methanol extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella. Flavonoids were present in Gardenia gummifera, Ailanthus excelsa and acetone, methanol extracts of Acacia Arabica. Tannins and phenolic were present in Cyperus rotundus, Embelia ribes, and organic extracts of Ventilago maderspatana.

  19. Preliminary Guide to the Onsite Identification and Delineation of the Wetlands of the North Atlantic United States.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Nymphaea odorata (Water lily) Potcamogeton app. (Pondweed) Vallisneri americana (Water-celery) b. Subclass: Floating Vascular. Lemna minor (Duckweed...f Cyperus spp. (Sedges) b PAcea mariana (Black Spru~.e) g Nymphaea odorata (Waterlily) c Lanax laricina (Tamarack) h Myrica gale (Sweet Gale) d...Michx. Water hemp Arnaranthus cannabinus (L.) J. D. Sauer Water lily Nymphaea odorata Alt. Water milfoil Myriophyll?2 spp. White spruceI Picea gl.auca

  20. Field Survey of Heavy Metal Uptake by Naturally Occurring Saltwater and Freshwater Marsh Plants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    addressing the 67 bioconcentration of heavy metal contaminants via marsh plants. In a previous greenhouse hydroponic s-tudy, Lee, Sturgis, and Landin...1976) found that Cyperus esculentus, Spirtina patens, S. alterniflora, and Distichlis spicata accumulated heavy metals from the hydroponic solu...referenced as the hydroponic study, the disposal site study, and the greenhouse study, respectively. Ac- cordingly, a field survey and sampling study

  1. Sensitivity study of heavy precipitation in Limited Area Model climate simulations: influence of the size of the domain and the use of the spectral nudging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Jeanne; Déqué, Michel; Radu, Raluca; Somot, Samuel

    2010-10-01

    We assess the impact of two sources of uncertainties in a limited area model (LAM) on the representation of intense precipitation: the size of the domain of integration and the use of the spectral nudging technique (driving of the large-scale within the domain of integration). We work in a perfect-model approach where the LAM is driven by a general circulation model (GCM) run at the same resolution and sharing the same physics and dynamics as the LAM. A set of three 50 km resolution simulations run over Western Europe with the LAM ALADIN-Climate and the GCM ARPEGE-Climate are performed to address this issue. Results are consistent with previous studies regarding the seasonal-mean fields. Furthermore, they show that neither the use of the spectral nudging nor the choice of a small domain are detrimental to the modelling of heavy precipitation in the present experiment.

  2. School Closure: An Answer to Declining Enrollment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Y. L. Jack

    1982-01-01

    Examining reasons for school closure such as economics and equal educational opportunity, Lam concludes that school closings only serve to highlight inefficient school board policy, ineffective funding, and declining educational quality. (SK)

  3. Professional Communication through Journal Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester, Maxine K.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews studies of journal articles as a means of professional communication in the field of library and information science. The focus has been on content analysis and bibliometrics, which includes author, topic, and citation analysis. (LAM)

  4. A Basic Literacy Project for the Correctional Service of Canada: Curriculum Design as a Strategy for Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes a Canadian curriculum development project; analyzes underlying policy assumptions. Advocates involvement of prison educators and inmates in the process if curriculum is to meet the educational needs of inmates. (Author/LAM)

  5. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is superior to lamivudine plus adefovir in lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan-Hong; Xie, Yuan-Jun; Zhao, Nian-Feng; Pan, Hong-Ying; Li, Ming-Wei; Huang, Hai-Jun

    2015-03-07

    To assess the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in lamivudine (LAM)-resistant patients with a suboptimal response to LAM plus adefovir (ADV). We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy of switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in suboptimal responders to lamivudine plus adefovir. Charts were reviewed for LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who visited the Zhejiang Province People's Hospital and The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, from June 2009 to May 2013. Patients whose serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA remained detectable despite at least 6 mo of LAM plus ADV combination therapy were included. Patients with a suboptimal response to LAM plus ADV were randomized to switch to TDF monotherapy (300 mg/d orally; TDF group) or to continuation with LAM (100 mg/d orally) plus ADV (10 mg/d orally; LAM plus ADV group) and were followed for 48 wk. Serum HBV DNA was determined at baseline and weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48. HBV serological markers and biochemistry were assessed at baseline and weeks 12, 24, and 48. Resistance surveillance and side effects were monitored during therapy. Fifty-nine patient were randomized to switch to TDF (n = 28) or continuation with LAM plus ADV (n = 31). No significant differences were found between the groups at baseline. Prior to TDF therapy, all patients had been exposed to LAM plus ADV for a median of 11 mo (range: 6-24 mo). No difference was seen in baseline serum HBV DNA between the two groups [5.13 ± 1.08 log10 copies/mL (TDF) vs 5.04 ± 31.16 log10 copies/mL (LAM + ADV), P = 0.639]. There was no significant difference in the rates of achieving complete virological response (CVR) at week 4 between the TDF and LAM + ADV groups (17.86% vs 6.45%, P = 0.24). The rate of achieving CVR in the TDF and LAM plus ADV groups was 75% vs 16.13% at week 12, 82.14% vs 22.58% at week 24, 89.29% vs 25.81% at week 36, and 96.43% vs 29.03% at week 48, respectively (P < 0.001). The rate of

  6. Effects of Combining Rapamycin and Resveratrol on Apoptosis and Growth of TSC2-Deficient Xenograft Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Alayev, Anya; Salamon, Rachel S.; Sun, Yang; Schwartz, Naomi S.; Li, Chenggang; Yu, Jane J.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare neoplastic metastatic disease affecting women of childbearing age. LAM is caused by hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) as a consequence of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1/2 inactivation. Clinically, LAM results in cystic lung destruction. mTORC1 inhibition using rapamycin analogs (rapalogs) is partially effective in reducing disease progression and improving lung function. However, cessation of treatment results in continued progression of the disease. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of the combination of rapamycin treatment with resveratrol, an autophagy inhibitor, in the TSC2-null xenograft tumor model. We determined that this combination inhibits phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 signaling and activates apoptosis. Therefore, the combination of rapamycin and resveratrol may be an effective clinical strategy for treatment of LAM and other diseases with mTORC1 hyperactivation. PMID:25844891

  7. 7 CFR 1437.10 - Notice of loss, appraisal requirements, and application for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... not available, according to the FCIC Loss Adjustment Manual (LAM) and applicable FCIC crop handbooks... adequate construction and numbers to provide acceptable sampling results and maintained in sound condition...

  8. A mesocosm study using four native Hawaiian plants to assess nitrogen accumulation under varying surface water nitrogen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Unser, C U; Bruland, G L; Hood, A; Duin, K

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of nitrogen (N) by native Hawaiian riparian plants from surface water was measured under a controlled experimental mesocosm setting. Four species, Cladium jamaicense, Cyperus javanicus, Cyperus laevigatus, and Cyperus polystachyos were tested for their ability to survive in coconut fiber coir log media with exposure to differing N concentrations. It was hypothesized that the selected species would have significantly different tissue total nitrogen (TN) concentrations, aboveground biomass, and TN accumulation rates because of habitat preference and physiological growth differences. A general linear model (GLM) analysis of variance (ANOVA) determined that species differences accounted for the greatest proportion of variance in tissue TN concentration, aboveground biomass growth, and accumulation rates, when compared with the other main effects (i.e. N concentration, time) and their interactions. A post hoc test of means demonstrated that C. jamaicense had significantly higher tissue TN concentration, aboveground biomass growth, and accumulation rates than the other species under all N concentrations. It was also hypothesized that tissue TN concentrations and biomass growth would increase in plants exposed to elevated N concentrations, however data did not support this hypothesis. Nitrogen accumulation rates by species were controlled by differences in plant biomass growth.

  9. Abhava pratinidhi dravya: A comparative phytochemistry of Ativisha, Musta and related species

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, M.; Kuruvilla, Gina R.; Kumar, K. Subrahmanya; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2015-01-01

    Authentic Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum) is a rare, endangered Himalayan species. Ayurveda classical texts of c. 15th–16th century, introduced “abhava-pratinidhi dravya” concept, wherein Ativisha was categorized as an abhava dravya (unavailable drug) and Musta (Cyperus rotundus) was suggested as a pratinidhi dravya (substitute) for it. C. rotundus is a weed, abundantly available pan-India. Cryptocoryne spiralis (Naattu Athividayam) and Cyperus scariosus (Nagarmotha) are also traded as Ativisha and Musta, respectively. Yet, there are no scientific studies to validate the use of substitutes. A. heterophyllum bears no similarity in terms of botanical classification with the other candidates. This article reviews published literature with an emphasis to look for similar phytochemicals or groups of phytochemicals in the species that could contribute to similar pharmacological activities, thereby supporting the drug substitution from a bio-medical perspective. Alkaloids like atisine were found to be the main focus of studies on A. heterophyllum, whereas for the Cyperus spp., it was terpenoids like cyperene. Although alkaloids and terpenoids were reported from both species, alkaloids in C. rotundus and terpenoids in A. heterophyllum were minor constituents. Reports on phytochemicals on Cryptocoryne spiralis and C. scariosus were very limited. Despite no significant similarities in chemical profiles reported, the dravyaguna (Ayurvedic drug classification) of Ativisha and Musta was quite similar warranting further exploration into the bio-functional aspects of the drug materials. PMID:25878466

  10. Comparison of nitrogen and phosphorus purification effects of different wetland plants on eutrophic water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Junzhong; Qi, Yong; Li, Hongyuan; Xu, Guangyao

    2018-02-01

    Using hydroponic, 13 plants were selected from 2 type (aquatic plants, hygrophytes) of new varieties and common varieties of wetland plants in Tianjin to explore the differences of purification effect of nitrogen and phosphorus in water. The result shows that the plants on the removal rate of total nitrogen was significantly higher than control group, but the differences were small. Among them, yellow iris, Siberia iris, Cyperus alternifolius, aquatic Canna and Miscanthus sinensis had the best effect on TN, and the removal rate was above 99%; The removal rates of total phosphorus in plants were significantly higher than those in control group (except for M.sinensis cv. ‘Variegatus’), and the differences among the groups were relatively significant. Among them, Irispseudoacorus, Cyperus alternifolius, iris pseudacorus, Scirpus tabernaemontani, Iris siberian, C.glauca and M.sinensis cv. ‘Gracillimus’ had the best effect on TP, and the removal rate was more than 70%. Therefore, Irispseudoacorus, Cyperus alternifolius, iris pseudacorus, Scirpus tabernaemontani, Iris siberian, C.glauca and M.sinensis cv. ‘Gracillimus’ can be used as an alternative plant for eutrophic, wetlands or landscape water.

  11. Asymmetry of activation of lateral abdominal muscles during the neurodevelopmental traction technique.

    PubMed

    Gogola, Anna; Gnat, Rafał; Zaborowska, Małgorzata; Dziub, Dorota; Gwóźdź, Michalina

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the symmetry and pattern of activation of lateral abdominal muscles (LAM) in response to neurodevelopmental traction technique. Measurements of LAM thickness were performed in four experimental conditions: during traction with the force of 5% body weight (5% traction): 1) in neutral position, 2) in 20° posterior trunk inclination; during traction with the force of 15% body weight (15% traction): 3) in neutral position, 4) in 20° posterior trunk inclination. Thirty-seven healthy children participated in the study. Not applicable. To evaluate LAM activation level ultrasound technology was employed (two Mindray DP660 devices (Mindray, Shenzhen, China) with 75L38EA linear probes). An experiment with repeated measurements of the dependent variables was conducted. Side-to-side LAM activation asymmetry showed relatively high magnitude, however, significant difference was found only in case of the obliquus externus (OE) during stronger traction (P < 0.05). The magnitude of LAM thickness change formed a gradient, with the most profound transversus abdominis (TrA) showing the smallest change, and the most superficial OE - the greatest. The inter-muscle differences were most pronounced between the OE and TrA (P < 0.001). During the neurodevelopmental traction technique there is a difference in individual LAM activation level, with deeper muscles showing less intense activation. In statistical terms, the only signs of side-to-side asymmetry of LAM activation are visible in case of the OE, however, the magnitude of asymmetry is relatively high. The results allow to identify patterns of activation of LAM in children showing typical development that will serve as a reference in future studies in children with neurological disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrated Control and Assessment of Knapweed and Cheatgrass on Department of Defense Installations. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    United States are infested by exotic plant species, particularly knapweeds (Centaurea maculosa , C. diffusa) (Roché 1994, Hirsch and Leitch 1996, Sheley et...population of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa ) at this site was identified by base personnel as a high priority for control. The area is regularly...2006. Comparative fungal responses in managed spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.), and diffuse knapweed (C. diffusa Lam.) - infested plant

  13. Mechanisms of stimulation of interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by Mycobacterium tuberculosis components.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Doerfler, M; Lee, T C; Guillemin, B; Rom, W N

    1993-01-01

    The granulomatous immune response in tuberculosis is characterized by delayed hypersensitivity and is mediated by various cytokines released by the stimulated mononuclear phagocytes, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and IL-1 beta. We have demonstrated that Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall component lipoarabinomannan (LAM), mycobacterial heat shock protein-65 kD, and M. tuberculosis culture filtrate, devoid of LPS as assessed by the Amebocyte Lysate assay, stimulate the production of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta proteins and mRNA from mononuclear phagocytes (THP-1 cells). The effect of LAM on the release of these cytokines was specific, as only LAM stimulation was inhibited by anti-LAM monoclonal antibody. Interestingly, we found that LAM and Gram-negative bacterial cell wall-associated endotoxin LPS may share a similar mechanism in their stimulatory action as demonstrated by inhibition of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta release by monoclonal antibodies to CD14. Anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody MY4 inhibited both TNF alpha and IL-1 beta release with LAM and LPS but no effect was observed with other mycobacterial proteins. An isotype antibody control did not inhibit release of cytokines under the same experimental conditions. M. tuberculosis and its components upregulated IL-1 beta and TNF alpha mRNAs in THP-1 cells. Nuclear run-on assay for IL-1 beta demonstrated that LAM increased the transcription rate. The induction of IL-1 beta was regulated at the transcriptional level, in which these stimuli acted through cis-acting element(s) on the 5' flanking region of the IL-1 beta genomic DNA. M. tuberculosis cell wall component LAM acts similarly to LPS in activating mononuclear phagocyte cytokine TNF alpha and IL-1 beta release through CD14 and synthesis at the transcriptional level; both cytokines are key participants in the host immune response to tuberculosis. Images PMID:7683696

  14. Finite element model focused on stress distribution in the levator ani muscle during vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Krofta, Ladislav; Havelková, Linda; Urbánková, Iva; Krčmář, Michal; Hynčík, Luděk; Feyereisl, Jaroslav

    2017-02-01

    During vaginal delivery, the levator ani muscle (LAM) undergoes severe deformation. This stress can lead to stretch-related LAM injuries. The objective of this study was to develop a sophisticated MRI-based model to simulate changes in the LAM during vaginal delivery. A 3D finite element model of the female pelvic floor and fetal head was developed. The model geometry was based on MRI data from a nulliparous woman and 1-day-old neonate. Material parameters were estimated using uniaxial test data from the literature and by least-square minimization method. The boundary conditions reflected all anatomical constraints and supports. A simulation of vaginal delivery with regard to the cardinal movements of labor was then performed. The mean stress values in the iliococcygeus portion of the LAM during fetal head extension were 4.91-7.93 MPa. The highest stress values were induced in the pubovisceral and puborectal LAM portions (mean 27.46 MPa) at the outset of fetal head extension. The last LAM subdivision engaged in the changes in stress was the posteromedial section of the puborectal muscle. The mean stress values were 16.89 MPa at the end of fetal head extension. The LAM was elongated by nearly 2.5 times from its initial resting position. The cardinal movements of labor significantly affect the subsequent heterogeneous stress distribution in the LAM. The absolute stress values were highest in portions of the muscle that arise from the pubic bone. These areas are at the highest risk for muscle injuries with long-term complications.

  15. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Biomarkers Linked to Lung Metastatic Potential and Cell Stemness

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz de Garibay, Gorka; Herranz, Carmen; Llorente, Alicia; Boni, Jacopo; Serra-Musach, Jordi; Mateo, Francesca; Aguilar, Helena; Gómez-Baldó, Laia; Petit, Anna; Vidal, August; Climent, Fina; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Cordero, Álex; González-Suárez, Eva; Sánchez-Mut, José Vicente; Esteller, Manel; Llatjós, Roger; Varela, Mar; López, José Ignacio; García, Nadia; Extremera, Ana I.; Gumà, Anna; Ortega, Raúl; Plà, María Jesús; Fernández, Adela; Pernas, Sònia; Falo, Catalina; Morilla, Idoia; Campos, Miriam; Gil, Miguel; Román, Antonio; Molina-Molina, María; Ussetti, Piedad; Laporta, Rosalía; Valenzuela, Claudia; Ancochea, Julio; Xaubet, Antoni; Casanova, Álvaro; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung-metastasizing neoplasm caused by the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells that commonly carry loss-of-function mutations in either the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 or 2 (TSC1 or TSC2) genes. While allosteric inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has shown substantial clinical benefit, complementary therapies are required to improve response and/or to treat specific patients. However, there is a lack of LAM biomarkers that could potentially be used to monitor the disease and to develop other targeted therapies. We hypothesized that the mediators of cancer metastasis to lung, particularly in breast cancer, also play a relevant role in LAM. Analyses across independent breast cancer datasets revealed associations between low TSC1/2 expression, altered mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway signaling, and metastasis to lung. Subsequently, immunohistochemical analyses of 23 LAM lesions revealed positivity in all cases for the lung metastasis mediators fascin 1 (FSCN1) and inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1). Moreover, assessment of breast cancer stem or luminal progenitor cell biomarkers showed positivity in most LAM tissue for the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), integrin-ß3 (ITGB3/CD61), and/or the sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) proteins. The immunohistochemical analyses also provided evidence of heterogeneity between and within LAM cases. The analysis of Tsc2-deficient cells revealed relative over-expression of FSCN1 and ID1; however, Tsc2-deficient cells did not show higher sensitivity to ID1-based cancer inhibitors. Collectively, the results of this study reveal novel LAM biomarkers linked to breast cancer metastasis to lung and to cell stemness, which in turn might guide the assessment of additional or complementary therapeutic opportunities for LAM. PMID:26167915

  16. Systemic Gene Therapy for Tuberous Sclerosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    especially for children and LAM patients. Our group is focused on developing gene therapy for TSC which has the potential for single application and low-to...neurologic diseases in adults and children , and AAV9 can deliver genes not only to peripheral tissues, but also to the brain in mice and non-human...therapies, especially for children and LAM patients. Our group is focused on developing gene therapy for TSC which has the potential for single

  17. Symposium Registration | The Metastatic Niche: Models, Mechanisms and Targeting Targets into Therapeutics

    Cancer.gov

    Symposium Registration Register for the meeting and abstract submission. Registration for the meeting is required and registration is free. ONLINE REGISTRATION IS CLOSED. Please contact Julia E. Lam (Julia.Lam@nih.gov) if you want to register to attend this event. Abstracts should be submitted at the time of registration and a limited number will be selected for oral presentation and the remainder for poster presentation.   Abstract Submission Deadline is February 21st 2017.

  18. Immunohistological features related to functional impairment in lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Ellen Caroline Toledo do; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Mariani, Alessandro Wasum; Annoni, Raquel; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Pimenta, Suzana Pinheiro; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2018-05-08

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a low-grade neoplasm characterized by the pulmonary infiltration of smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells) and cystic destruction. Patients usually present with airway obstruction in pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Previous studies have shown correlations among histological parameters, lung function abnormalities and prognosis in LAM. We investigated the lung tissue expression of proteins related to the mTOR pathway, angiogenesis and enzymatic activity and its correlation with functional parameters in LAM patients. We analyzed morphological and functional parameters of thirty-three patients. Two groups of disease severity were identified according to FEV1 values. Lung tissue from open biopsies or lung transplants was immunostained for SMA, HMB-45, mTOR, VEGF-D, MMP-9 and D2-40. Density of cysts, density of nodules and protein expression were measured by image analysis and correlated with PFT parameters. There was no difference in the expression of D2-40 between the more severe and the less severe groups. All other immunohistological parameters showed significantly higher values in the more severe group (p ≤ 0.002). The expression of VEGF-D, MMP-9 and mTOR in LAM cells was associated with the density of both cysts and nodules. The density of cysts and nodules as well as the expression of MMP-9 and VEGF-D were associated with the impairment of PFT parameters. Severe LAM represents an active phase of the disease with high expression of VEGF-D, mTOR, and MMP-9, as well as LAM cell infiltration. Our findings suggest that the tissue expression levels of VEGF-D and MMP-9 are important parameters associated with the loss of pulmonary function and could be considered as potential severity markers in open lung biopsies of LAM patients.

  19. Effect of a Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone Analogue on Lung Function in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Sergio; Cassandro, Roberto; Chiodini, Jacopo; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M.; Moss, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Background Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a multisystem disease occurring primarily in women, is characterized by cystic lung destruction, and kidney and lymphatic tumors, caused by the proliferation of abnormal-appearing cells (ie, LAM cells) with a smooth muscle cell phenotype that express melanoma antigens and are capable of metastasizing. Estrogen receptors are present in LAM cells, and this finding, along with reports of disease progression during pregnancy or following exogenous estrogen administration, suggest the involvement of estrogens in the pathogenesis of LAM. Consequently, antiestrogen therapies have been employed in treatment. The goal of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of triptorelin, a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue, in 11 premenopausal women with LAM. Methods Patients were evaluated at baseline and every 3 to 6 months thereafter, for a total of 36 months. Hormonal assays, pulmonary function tests, 6-min walk tests, high-resolution CT scans of the chest, and bone mineral density studies were performed. Results Gonadal suppression was achieved in all patients. Overall, a significant decline in lung function was observed; two patients underwent lung transplantation 1 year after study enrollment, and another patient was lost to follow-up. Treatment with triptorelin was associated with a decline in bone mineral density. Conclusions Triptorelin appears not to prevent a decline in lung function in patients with LAM. Its use, however, may be associated with the loss of bone mineral density. PMID:18071009

  20. A targeted and adjuvanted nanocarrier lowers the effective dose of liposomal amphotericin B and enhances adaptive immunity in murine cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Daftarian, Pirouz M; Stone, Geoffrey W; Kovalski, Leticia; Kumar, Manoj; Vosoughi, Aram; Urbieta, Maitee; Blackwelder, Pat; Dikici, Emre; Serafini, Paolo; Duffort, Stephanie; Boodoo, Richard; Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Lemmon, Vance; Deo, Sapna; Alberola, Jordi; Perez, Victor L; Daunert, Sylvia; Ager, Arba L

    2013-12-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB), the most effective drug against leishmaniasis, has serious toxicity. As Leishmania species are obligate intracellular parasites of antigen presenting cells (APC), an immunopotentiating APC-specific AmB nanocarrier would be ideally suited to reduce the drug dosage and regimen requirements in leishmaniasis treatment. Here, we report a nanocarrier that results in effective treatment shortening of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a mouse model, while also enhancing L. major specific T-cell immune responses in the infected host. We used a Pan-DR-binding epitope (PADRE)-derivatized-dendrimer (PDD), complexed with liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) in an L. major mouse model and analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose PDD/LAmB vs full dose LAmB. PDD was shown to escort LAmB to APCs in vivo, enhanced the drug efficacy by 83% and drug APC targeting by 10-fold and significantly reduced parasite burden and toxicity. Fortuitously, the PDD immunopotentiating effect significantly enhanced parasite-specific T-cell responses in immunocompetent infected mice. PDD reduced the effective dose and toxicity of LAmB and resulted in elicitation of strong parasite specific T-cell responses. A reduced effective therapeutic dose was achieved by selective LAmB delivery to APC, bypassing bystander cells, reducing toxicity and inducing antiparasite immunity.

  1. Prognostic significance of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis histologic score.

    PubMed

    Matsui, K; Beasley, M B; Nelson, W K; Barnes, P M; Bechtle, J; Falk, R; Ferrans, V J; Moss, J; Travis, W D

    2001-04-01

    Correlations were made between clinical and follow-up data and histopathologic findings in 105 women (mean age +/- standard deviation, 38.3 +/- 9.0 years) with pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). The actuarial survival (to pulmonary transplantation or death) of the patients from the time of lung biopsy was 85.1% and 71.0% after 5 and 10 years respectively. The histologic severity of LAM, graded as a LAM histologic score (LHS), was determined on the basis of semiquantitative estimation of the percentage of tissue involvement by the two major features of LAM: the cystic lesions and the infiltration by abnormal smooth muscle cells (LAM cells) in each case: LHS-1, <25%; LHS-2, 25% to 50%; and LHS-3, >50%. Analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method revealed significant differences in survival for patients with LHS-1, -2, and -3 (p = 0.01). The 5-and 10-year survivals were 100% and 100% for LHS-1, 81.2% and 74.4% for LHS-2, and 62.8% and 52.4% for LHS-3. Increased degrees of accumulation of hemosiderin in macrophages also were associated with higher LHS scores (p = 0.029) and a worse prognosis (p = 0.0012). Thus, the current study suggests that the LHS may provide a basis for determining the prognosis of LAM.

  2. Genetic diversity and distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in Limpopo, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maguga-Phasha, N T C; Munyai, N S; Mashinya, F; Makgatho, M E; Mbajiorgu, E F

    2017-12-12

    Tuberculosis remains a major health problem and knowledge of the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in specific geographical regions can contribute to the control of the disease. This study describes the genetic profile of M. tuberculosis in five districts of Limpopo Province. A total 487 isolates were collected from the National Health Laboratory Services from all regions/districts of Limpopo Province. Only 215 isolates were confirmed to be M. tuberculosis by Bactec Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube 960® and Rhodamine-Auramine staining. Isolates were subcultured on Löwenstein-Jensen medium agar slants to validate purity. They were spoligotyped and data analysed using the international spoligotyping database 4 (SpolDB4). Of the 215 isolates, 134 (62.3%) were genotyped into 21 genotype families while 81 (37.7%) were orphans. The 81 orphans were further subjected to resolution employing SpolDB3/RIM. Overall, the study revealed a high diversity of strains of 32 predominantly the non-Beijing lineages: the LAM- LAM3 (9.8%), LAM9 (4.7%) and LAM11- ZWE (3.3%), the T-T1(15.0%), T2 (0.9%), T2-T3 (1.4%), the CAS-CAS1-Delhi 5 (1.9%) and CAS1-KILI (1.4%) the MANU2 (1.4%), U (0.5%), X-X1(1.4%), X3 (1.9%), S (9.8%), CAS (1.4%), LAM7(0.9%), T3(0.5%), LAM8(4.7%), T4(1.4%), X2(0.4%), AI5(1.9%), LAM1(0.5%), FAMILY33 (1.9%), EAI4(1.4%), M. microti (1.9%). The Beijing and Beijing-like families were (14.9%) and (0.9%), respectively. A total of 28(13%) clusters and 77(36%) unique cases were identified. Beijing strain (SIT 1) formed the biggest cluster constituting 14%, followed by LAM3 (SIT 33), T1 (SIT 53) and LAM4 (SIT 811) with 7%, 5.1% and 2.8%, respectively. The Beijing family was the only genotype found in all the five districts and was predominant in Mopani (18.8%), Sekhukhune (23.7%) and Vhembe (23.3%). Dominant genotypes in Capricorn and Waterberg were LAM3 (11.9%) and T1 (13.3%), respectively. A wide diversity of lineages was demonstrated at district level. A

  3. Comparison of the clinical outcomes between antiviral-naïve patients treated with entecavir and lamivudine-resistant patients receiving adefovir add-on lamivudine combination treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong Joo; Park, Soo Kyung; Yang, Hyo Joon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik; Choi, Kyu Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims To analyze the effects of preexisting lamivudine (LAM) resistance and applying antiviral treatment (adefovir [ADV] add-on LAM combination treatment) on long-term treatment outcomes, and comparing the clinical outcomes of antiviral-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients receiving entecavir (ETV) monotherapy. Methods This study enrolled 73 antiviral-naïve patients who received 0.5-mg ETV as an initial therapy and 54 patients who received ADV add-on LAM combination treatment as a rescue therapy from July 2006 to July 2010. Results During 24-month treatments, the decreases in serum log10HBV-DNA values (copies/mL) were significantly greater in the antiviral-naïve patients treated with ETV than the patients receiving ADV add-on LAM combination treatment. The biochemical response rates for alanine aminotransferase normalization at 6 months (ETV) and 12 months (ADV add-on LAM) were 90.4% (66/73) and 77.8% (42/54), respectively (P=0.048). A Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that the rates of serologic response, viral breakthrough, and emergence of genotypic resistance did not differ significantly between the two patient groups. There were also no significant intergroup differences in the rates of disease progression (PD) and new development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Conclusion The long-term clinical outcomes of antiviral-naïve patients treated with ETV and LAM-resistant patients receiving ADV add-on LAM combination treatment were comparable in terms of the emergence of HCC and disease progression. PMID:27729626

  4. Clinical Prediction of Failure of Lamivudine Prophylaxis for Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Patients Undergoing Cytotoxic Chemotherapy for Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In Kyoung; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Hyo Suk

    2012-01-01

    Although lamivudine (LAM) prophylaxis is recommended for patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) undergoing chemotherapy for malignant disease, HBV reactivation sometimes occurs during or after LAM administration. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of LAM prophylactic failure in patients with malignancies. Patients with malignancies were routinely screened for serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) from June 2002 to August 2008. All consecutive, HBsAg-positive patients received LAM prophylaxis during and after completion of chemotherapy. We assessed risk factors for virologic breakthrough and withdrawal hepatitis. Death without HBV reactivation was regarded as a competing risk event, which was adjusted by Fine and Gray's model. A total of 110 patients were included in this study. They received LAM prophylaxis for a median of 9.2 months. Virologic breakthrough occurred in 15 patients at a median of 10.9 months from the initiation of LAM prophylaxis. Withdrawal hepatitis occurred in 15 patients at a median of 2.4 months after cessation of LAM prophylaxis. Multivariable analysis showed that high baseline HBV DNA titer (≥2,000 IU/ml) (hazard ratio [HR], 9.94; P = 0.0063) and the use of rituximab (HR, 3.19; P = 0.027) were significant predictors of virologic breakthrough and that high baseline HBV DNA titer (HR, 5.90; P = 0.007), liver cirrhosis (HR, 10.4; P = 0.002), and distant metastasis (HR, 5.14; P = 0.008) were independent risk factors for withdrawal hepatitis. Patients with high viremia, liver cirrhosis, rituximab treatment, and distant metastasis are at high risk of prophylactic failure and need antiviral agents with a greater barrier to resistance. PMID:22890764

  5. Expansive open-door laminoplasty versus laminectomy and instrumented fusion for cases with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and straight lordosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowei; Chen, Yu; Yang, Haisong; Li, Tiefeng; Xu, Bin; Chen, Deyu

    2017-04-01

    To identify whether expansive open-door laminoplasty (Lam) is more appropriate than laminectomy and instrumented fusion (LIF) for cases with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and straight cervical lordosis. A total of 67 cases were included and divided into Group Lam (n = 32) and Group LIF (n = 35), and the mean follow-up periods were 38 and 42 months, respectively. The cervical lordosis was elevated by C2-7 Cobb angle and cervical sagittal balance by C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA). Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA), neurological recovery rate (RR) being calculated by the JOA, visual analog scale (VAS) and neck disability index (NDI) were used to assess clinical outcomes. Differences in general data between two groups were not significant. Total blood loss and operation duration in Group Lam were both significantly less than that in the Group LIF. By the final follow-up, the cervical lordosis significantly decreased in Group Lam and increased in Group LIF, the SVA significantly increased in Group Lam and kept unchanged in Group LIF, and the JOA, VAS, NDI significantly improved in both groups. Although there was no significant difference in RR between the two groups, cases in Group Lam had significantly larger incidence of postoperative kyphosis and kyphotic change rate, and less VAS, NDI and incidence of axial pain than cases in Group LIF. When compared with the LIF, the Lam is recommended for cases with OPLL and straight cervical lordosis when taking comparable neurological recovery, less axial pain and better neck function improvement into consideration.

  6. A comparison of outcomes between a lumen-apposing metal stent with electrocautery-enhanced delivery system and a bi-flanged metal stent for drainage of walled-off pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Bekkali, Noor L H; Nayar, Manu K; Leeds, John S; Charnley, Richard M; Huggett, Matthew T; Oppong, Kofi W

    2017-12-01

     Bi-flanged metal stents (BFMS) have shown promise in the drainage of walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WON), but their placement requires multiple steps and the use of other devices. More recently, a novel device consisting of a combined lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) and electrocautery-enhanced delivery system has been introduced. The aim of this study was to compare the placement and outcomes of the two devices.  This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic ultrasound-guided placement of BFMS or LAMS for drainage of symptomatic WON. Data from procedures between October 2012 and December 2016 were taken from a prospectively maintained database. We compared technical and clinical success, procedure time, costs, and composite end point of significant events (adverse events, stent migration, additional percutaneous drainage) between BFMS and LAMS.  72 consecutive patients underwent placement of BFMS (40 patients, 44 stents) or LAMS (32 patients, 33 stents). Technical success was 91 % for BFMS and 97 % for LAMS. Clinical success was 65 % vs. 78 %, respectively. Median in-room procedure time was significantly shorter in the LAMS group (45 minutes [range 30 - 80]) than in the BFMS group (62.5 minutes [range 35 - 135]; P  < 0.001) and fewer direct endoscopic necrosectomies (DEN) were performed (median 1 [0 - 2.0] vs. 2 [0 - 3.7], respectively; P  = 0.005). If only inpatients were considered (35 BFMS and 19 LAMS), there was no significant difference in DEN 2 (range 0 - 11) and 2 (range 0 - 8), respectively. The composite end point of 32 % vs. 24 % was not significantly different. Median procedural costs for all patients with successful stent placement for WON treatment was €4427 (range 1630 - 12 926) for BFMS vs. €3500 (range 2509 - 13 393) for LAMS ( P  = 0.10).  LAMS was superior to BFMS in terms of procedure time, with comparable adverse events, success, and

  7. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine-Based Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-Infected Hospitalized Patients Who Are Smear-Negative or Sputum Scarce

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Jonathan G.; Theron, Grant; Muchinga, Tapuwa E.; Govender, Ureshnie; Dheda, Keertan

    2012-01-01

    Background Hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa are inundated with HIV-infected patients and tuberculosis (TB) is the commonest opportunistic infection in this sub-group. Up to one third of TB-HIV co-infected patients fail to produce a sputum sample (sputum scarce) and diagnosis is thus often delayed or missed. We investigated the sensitivity of urine-based methods (Xpert MTB/RIF, LAM strip test and LAM ELISA) in such patients. Methodology/Principal Findings 281 HIV-infected hospitalised patients with clinically suspected TB provided a spot urine sample. The reference standard was culture positivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on ≥1 sputum or extra-pulmonary sample. MTB/RIF was performed using 1 ml of both unprocessed and, when possible, concentrated urine. Each unconcentrated urine sample was also tested using the Clearview LAM ELISA and Alere LAM strip test. 42% (116/242) of patients had culture-proven TB. 18% (20/54) were sputum scarce. In sputum-scarce patients, the sensitivity of urine MTB/RIF and LAM ELISA was 40% (95%CI: 22–61) and 60% (95%CI: 39–78), respectively. Urine MTB/RIF specificity was 98% (95%CI: 95–100). Combined sensitivity of urine LAM ELISA and MTB/RIF was better than MTB/RIF alone [MTB/RIF and LAM: 70% (95%CI: 48–85) vs. MTB/RIF: 40% (95%CI: 22–61), p = 0.03]. Significant predictors of urine MTB/RIF positivity were CD4<50 cells/ml (p = 0.001), elevated protein-to-creatinine ratio (p<0.001) and LAM ELISA positivity (p<0.001). Urine centrifugation and pelleting significantly increased the sensitivity of MTB/RIF over unprocessed urine in paired samples [42% (95%CI: 26–58) vs. 8% (95%CI: 0–16), p<0.001]. Urine MTB/RIF-generated CT values correlated poorly with markers of bacillary burden (smear grade and time-to-positivity). Conclusions/Significance This preliminary study indicates that urine-based MTB/RIF, alone or in combination with LAM antigen detection, may potentially aid the diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected patients

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of a point-of-care urine test for tuberculosis screening among newly-diagnosed HIV-infected adults: a prospective, clinic-based study.

    PubMed

    Drain, Paul K; Losina, Elena; Coleman, Sharon M; Giddy, Janet; Ross, Douglas; Katz, Jeffrey N; Walensky, Rochelle P; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Bassett, Ingrid V

    2014-02-26

    A rapid diagnostic test for active tuberculosis (TB) at the clinical point-of-care could expedite case detection and accelerate TB treatment initiation. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test for TB screening among HIV-infected adults in a TB-endemic setting. We prospectively enrolled newly-diagnosed HIV-infected adults (≥18 years) at 4 outpatient clinics in Durban from Oct 2011-May 2012, excluding those on TB therapy. A physician evaluated all participants and offered CD4 cell count testing. Trained study nurses collected a sputum sample for acid-fast bacilli smear microscopy (AFB) and mycobacterial culture, and performed urine LAM testing using Determine™ TB LAM in the clinic. The presence of a band regardless of intensity on the urine LAM test was considered positive. We defined as the gold standard for active pulmonary TB a positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Diagnostic accuracy of urine LAM was assessed, alone and in combination with smear microscopy, and stratified by CD4 cell count. Among 342 newly-diagnosed HIV-infected participants, 190 (56%) were male, mean age was 35.6 years, and median CD4 was 182/mm3. Sixty participants had culture-positive pulmonary TB, resulting in an estimated prevalence of 17.5% (95% CI 13.7-22.0%). Forty-five (13.2%) participants were urine LAM positive. Mean time from urine specimen collection to LAM test result was 40 minutes (95% CI 34-46 minutes). Urine LAM test sensitivity was 28.3% (95% CI 17.5-41.4) overall, and 37.5% (95% CI 21.1-56.3) for those with CD4 count <100/mm3, while specificity was 90.1% (95% CI 86.0-93.3) overall, and 86.9% (95% CI 75.8-94.2) for those with CD4 < 100/mm3. When combined with sputum AFB (either test positive), sensitivity increased to 38.3% (95% CI 26.0-51.8), but specificity decreased to 85.8% (95% CI 81.1-89.7). In this prospective, clinic-based study with trained nurses, a rapid urine LAM test had low sensitivity for TB

  9. The Sliding Wear and Friction Behavior of M50-Graphene Self-Lubricating Composites Prepared by Laser Additive Manufacturing at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiyao; Shi, Xiaoliang; Huang, Yuchun; Deng, Xiaobin; Lu, Guanchen; Yan, Zhao; Zhou, Hongyan; Xue, Bing

    2018-03-01

    M50 steel is widely applied to manufacture aircraft bearings where service lives are mainly determined by the friction and wear behaviors. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the tribological behaviors and wear mechanisms of M50-1.5 wt.% graphene composites (MGC) prepared by laser additive manufacturing (LAM) (MGC-LAM) sliding against Si3N4 ball from 25 to 550 °C at 18 N-0.2 m/s. XRD, EPMA, FESEM, and EDS mapping were conducted to understand the major mechanisms leading to the improvement in the sliding behavior of MGC-LAM. The results indicated that MGC-LAM showed the excellent friction and wear performance at 25-550 °C for the lower friction coefficient of 0.16-0.52 and less wear rate of 6.1-9.5 × 10-7 mm3 N-1 m-1. Especially at 350 °C, MGC-LAM obtained the best tribological performance (0.16, 6.1 × 10-7mm3 N-1 m-1). It was attributed to the dense coral-like microstructure, as well as the formed surface lubricating structure which is composed of the upper uniform lubricating film with massive graphene and the underneath compacted layer.

  10. The iron chelator deferasirox enhances liposomal amphotericin B efficacy in treating murine invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; French, Samuel W.; Edwards, John E.; Spellberg, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Increased bone marrow iron levels in patients with haematological malignancies is an independent risk factor for developing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), suggesting an important role for iron uptake in the pathogenesis of IPA. We sought to determine the potential for combination therapy with the iron chelator deferasirox + liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) to improve the outcome of murine IPA compared with LAmB monotherapy. Methods In vitro MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of the iron chelator, deferasirox, for Aspergillus fumigatus were determined by microdilution assay. In addition, we studied the efficacy of deferasirox alone or combined with LAmB in treating immunocompromised mice infected with A. fumigatus via inhalation. Results Deferasirox was cidal in vitro against A. fumigatus, with an MIC and MFC of 25 and 50 mg/L, respectively. Deferasirox monotherapy modestly prolonged survival of mice with IPA. Combination deferasirox + LAmB therapy synergistically improved survival and reduced lung fungal burden compared with either monotherapy alone. Conclusions Iron chelation therapy with deferasirox alone or in combination with LAmB is effective in treating experimental IPA. Further study of deferasirox is warranted as adjunctive therapy for IPA infections. PMID:19942619

  11. Immunohistological Analysis of In Situ Expression of Mycobacterial Antigens in Skin Lesions of Leprosy Patients Across the Histopathological Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Verhagen, Claudia; Faber, William; Klatser, Paul; Buffing, Anita; Naafs, Ben; Das, Pranab

    1999-01-01

    The presence of mycobacterial antigens in leprosy skin lesions was studied by immunohistological methods using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to Mycobacterium leprae-specific phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) and to cross-reactive mycobacterial antigens of 36 kd, 65 kd, and lipoarabinomannan (LAM). The staining patterns with MAb to 36 kd and 65 kd were heterogeneous and were also seen in the lesions of other skin diseases. The in situ staining of PGL-I and LAM was seen only in leprosy. Both antigens were abundantly present in infiltrating macrophages in the lesions of untreated multibacillary (MB) patients, whereas only PGL-I was occasionally seen in scattered macrophages in untreated paucibacillary lesions. During treatment, clearance of PGL-I from granulomas in MB lesions occurred before that of LAM, although the former persisted in scattered macrophages in some treated patients. This persistence of PGL-I in the lesions paralleled high serum anti-PGL-I antibody titers but was not indicative for the presence of viable bacilli in the lesions. Interestingly, we also observed a differential expression pattern of PGL-I and LAM in the lesions of MB patients with reactions during the course of the disease as compared with those without reactions. In conclusion, the in situ expression pattern of PGL-I and LAM in MB patients may assist in early diagnosis of reactions versus relapse. PMID:10362804

  12. Specificity of diffusion channels produced by lambda phage receptor protein of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Luckey, M; Nikaido, H

    1980-01-01

    The lamB protein, the receptor for phage lambda, was purified from the outer membrane of Escherichia coli K-12 by extraction with Triton X-100 and EDTA, chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel in Triton X-100, exchange of Triton for cholate by gel filtration, and chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 in cholate, NaCl, and EDTA. The purified protein appeared to exist as several oligomeric species. In an equilibrium retention assay with reconstituted vesicles containing phospholipids and lipopolysaccharide, the lamB protein conferred permeability for disaccharides. In a liposome swelling assay designed to measure rates of diffusion, the lamB protein conferred permeability to phospholipid liposomes for a variety of substrates. The rates obtained indicate the permeation facilitated by the lamB protein is specific, discriminating among substrates by both size and configuration. For example, maltose diffused into liposomes 40 times faster than sucrose, about 8 times faster than cellobiose, and about 12 times faster than maltoheptaose. The results suggest that the lamB protein forms a transmembrane channel containing a site (or sites) that loosely interacts with the solutes. Images PMID:6444720

  13. The Association between Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Genotype and Drug Resistance in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Louis; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Lithgow, Anna; Gilman, Robert H; Arikawa, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Noriko; Martin, Laura; Castillo, Edith; Alarcon, Valentina; Coronel, Jorge; Solano, Walter; Aminian, Minoo; Guezala, Claudia; Rastogi, Nalin; Couvin, David; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko; Moore, David AJ

    2015-01-01

    Background The comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterial genotypes with phenotypic, demographic, geospatial and clinical data improves our understanding of how strain lineage influences the development of drug-resistance and the spread of tuberculosis. Methods To investigate the association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterial genotype with drug-resistance. Drug susceptibility testing together with genotyping using both 15-loci MIRU-typing and spoligotyping, was performed on 2,139 culture positive isolates, each from a different patient in Lima, Peru. Demographic, geospatial and socio-economic data were collected using questionnaires, global positioning equipment and the latest national census. Results The Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) clade (OR 2.4, p<0.001) was significantly associated with drug-resistance and alone accounted for more than half of all drug resistance in the region. Previously treated patients, prisoners and genetically clustered cases were also significantly associated with drug-resistance (OR's 2.5, 2.4 and 1.8, p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively). Conclusions Tuberculosis disease caused by the LAM clade was more likely to be drug resistant independent of important clinical, genetic and socio-economic confounding factors. Explanations for this include; the preferential co-evolution of LAM strains in a Latin American population, a LAM strain bacterial genetic background that favors drug-resistance or the "founder effect" from pre-existing LAM strains disproportionately exposed to drugs. PMID:25984723

  14. Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design.

    PubMed

    Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month