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Sample records for cyprinid herpes virus-3

  1. Loop mediated isothermal amplification combined with nucleic acid lateral flow strip for diagnosis of cyprinid herpes virus-3.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Hatem; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2010-02-01

    An improved loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of cyprinid herpes virus-3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpes virus (KHV), was developed. The lower detection limit of the CyHV-3-LAMP assay is 10 fg DNA which equivalent to 30 copies of CyHV-3 genome. Nucleic acid lateral flow assay was used for visual detection of the LAMP products. The LAMP- nucleic acid lateral flow assay relies on DNA hybridization technology and antigen-antibody reactions in combination with LAMP. For application of this assay, the biotinylated LAMP product was hybridized with a FITC-labelled specific probe for 5 min. The resulting DNA complex could be visualised as purple band at the strip test line within 5 min of sample exposure. The nucleic acid lateral flow analysis of the LAMP product was equivalent in sensitivity but more rapid than the conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. The combination of LAMP assay with the nucleic acid lateral flow analysis can simplify the diagnosis and screening of CyHV-3 as it is simple, requires very little training, does not require specialized equipment such as a thermal cycler, the results are read visually with no need to run a gel and has a high sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Detection of goldfish haematopoietic necrosis herpes virus (Cyprinid herpesvirus-2) with multi-drug resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish: First evidence of any viral disease outbreak in ornamental freshwater aquaculture farms in India.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, P K; Swaminathan, T Raja; Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar; Kumar, Raj; Pattanayak, S; Mohapatra, A; Rath, S S; Patra, Avijit; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Sood, Neeraj; Pradhan, P K; Das, B K; Jayasankar, P; Jena, J K

    2016-09-01

    This outbreak report details of a mortality event where Cyprinid herpes virus-2 (CyHV-2) was detected in association with multidrug-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish, Carassius auratus, from commercial farms. The goldfish exhibited large scale haemorrhages on the body, fins and gills, lepidorthosis, necrosed gills, protruded anus and shrunken eyes. White nodular necrotic foci in spleen and kidneys were noticed, along with necrosis and fusion of gill lamellae. Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues revealed the presence of mature virus particles. Involvement of CyHV-2 was confirmed by PCR, sequencing and observed cytopathic effect in koi carp fin cell line along with experimental infection study. A bacterium isolated from the internal organs of affected fish was found to be pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila having resistance to more than 10 classes of antibiotics. We postulate that CyHV-2 was the primary etiological agent responsible for this outbreak with secondary infection by A. hydrophila. The experimental infection trials in Labeo rohita and koi carp by intraperitoneal challenge with CyHV-2 tissue homogenates failed to reproduce the disease in those co-cultured fish species. This is the first report of a viral disease outbreak in organised earthen ornamental fish farms in India and bears further investigation.

  3. Detection of goldfish haematopoietic necrosis herpes virus (Cyprinid herpesvirus-2) with multi-drug resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish: First evidence of any viral disease outbreak in ornamental freshwater aquaculture farms in India.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, P K; Swaminathan, T Raja; Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar; Kumar, Raj; Pattanayak, S; Mohapatra, A; Rath, S S; Patra, Avijit; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Sood, Neeraj; Pradhan, P K; Das, B K; Jayasankar, P; Jena, J K

    2016-09-01

    This outbreak report details of a mortality event where Cyprinid herpes virus-2 (CyHV-2) was detected in association with multidrug-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish, Carassius auratus, from commercial farms. The goldfish exhibited large scale haemorrhages on the body, fins and gills, lepidorthosis, necrosed gills, protruded anus and shrunken eyes. White nodular necrotic foci in spleen and kidneys were noticed, along with necrosis and fusion of gill lamellae. Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues revealed the presence of mature virus particles. Involvement of CyHV-2 was confirmed by PCR, sequencing and observed cytopathic effect in koi carp fin cell line along with experimental infection study. A bacterium isolated from the internal organs of affected fish was found to be pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila having resistance to more than 10 classes of antibiotics. We postulate that CyHV-2 was the primary etiological agent responsible for this outbreak with secondary infection by A. hydrophila. The experimental infection trials in Labeo rohita and koi carp by intraperitoneal challenge with CyHV-2 tissue homogenates failed to reproduce the disease in those co-cultured fish species. This is the first report of a viral disease outbreak in organised earthen ornamental fish farms in India and bears further investigation. PMID:27172876

  4. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- ...

  5. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  6. Pregnancy and herpes

    MedlinePlus

    HSV; Congenital herpes; Herpes - congenital; Birth-acquired herpes; Herpes during pregnancy ... Newborn infants can become infected with herpes virus: In the uterus (this is ... herpes, the most common method of infection) Right ...

  7. Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 508 Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes) WHAT IS HERPES? HSV ... virus 1 (HSV1) is the common cause of cold sores (oral herpes) around the mouth. HSV2 normally ...

  8. Common culture practices for cyprinids in Asia.

    PubMed

    Singh, T

    1997-01-01

    Cyprinids are the largest group of cultured freshwater fish and thus the most important from the aspect of fish-borne parasitic zoonoses. The common practices employed in the culture of this group are described to provide background information which may be used in the formulation of strategies for the control of these zoonoses. Only the common carp is cultured in monoculture: all the rest of the carp species are usually cultured in polyculture systems incorporating several species. Polyculture of cyprinids may be carried out in ponds, cages or in free range culture in natural or man-made water bodies, Polyculture of cyprinids is often integrated with agriculture, such as livestock, poultry or crop farming, utilizing byproducts of the agriculture activity, especially manure, as a source of nutrient for the fish pond. If precautions are not taken, this practice may provide an avenue for the transmission of fish borne parasites to man.

  9. Herpes Zoster.

    PubMed

    Schmader, Kenneth

    2016-08-01

    Herpes zoster causes significant suffering owing to acute and chronic pain or postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Varicella-zoster virus-induced neuronal destruction and inflammation causes the principal problems of pain, interference with activities of daily living, and reduced quality of life in older adults. The optimal treatment of herpes zoster requires early antiviral therapy and careful pain management. For patients who have PHN, evidence-based pharmacotherapy using topical lidocaine patch, gabapentin, pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, or opiates can reduce pain burden. The live attenuated zoster vaccine is effective in reducing pain burden and preventing herpes zoster and PHN in older adults.

  10. Herpes Zoster.

    PubMed

    Schmader, Kenneth

    2016-08-01

    Herpes zoster causes significant suffering owing to acute and chronic pain or postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Varicella-zoster virus-induced neuronal destruction and inflammation causes the principal problems of pain, interference with activities of daily living, and reduced quality of life in older adults. The optimal treatment of herpes zoster requires early antiviral therapy and careful pain management. For patients who have PHN, evidence-based pharmacotherapy using topical lidocaine patch, gabapentin, pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, or opiates can reduce pain burden. The live attenuated zoster vaccine is effective in reducing pain burden and preventing herpes zoster and PHN in older adults. PMID:27394022

  11. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection in a newborn can cause meningitis (an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord), seizures, and brain damage. How Is It Prevented? The best way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have ...

  12. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    Member Login Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate ... you are pregnant and have herpes, tell your health care provider. During pregnancy, there are increased risks to ...

  13. [Research Advances in Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shucheng; Wang, Qing; Li, Yingying; Zeng, Weiwei; Wang, Yingying; Liu, Chun; Liang, Hongru; Shi, Cunbin

    2016-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the causative agent of an extremely contagious and aggressive disease afflicting common corp Cyprinus carpio L. termed koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). Since it was first reported in 1997, the virus has spread worldwide rapidly, leading to enormous financial losses in industries based on common carp and koi carp. This review summarizes recent advances in CyHV-3 research on the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and control of KHVD. PMID:27295892

  14. Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes) Information for adults A A ... face, known as orofacial herpes simplex, herpes labialis, cold sores, or fever blisters, is a common, recurrent ...

  15. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment ... skin or mouth sores with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is called primary herpes. This may be ...

  16. Genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Garland, Suzanne M; Steben, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Genital herpes is a relatively common infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type one or two (HSV-1, HSV-2) respectively. It is acquired most commonly via sexual activity. More recently there has been an increase in infections due to HSV-1. Most new cases of genital HSV are not diagnosed due to HSV infections having short-lived signs and symptoms, or in many instances are asymptomatic. Hence many people infected with HSV are unaware that they have it. The risk of transmission to a partner is highest during outbreak periods, when there are visible lesions, although genital HSV can also be transmitted during asymptomatic periods. Use of condoms and antiviral medications assist in preventing transmission. Antiviral agents are effective in controlling clinical episodes, but do not eradicate infection, which remains latent for the life of a patient. Despite the surge in vaccine research, there is unfortunately no readily available preventative or therapeutic vaccine for HSV to date.

  17. Meet the Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the characteristics of "herps" (amphibians and reptiles). Contains teaching activities dealing with ancient herps, learning stations that encourage sensory experiences with herps, and games, puzzles, and a dramatic play about herps. Includes reproducible handouts designed to be used with the activities, as well as a quiz. (TW)

  18. Herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Ravi Prakash Sasankoti; Verma, Sankalp; Singh, Udita; Agarwal, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) or ‘shingles’ is a painful vesicular rash resulting from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus that also causes chickenpox. The incidence of HZ infection (HZI) increases with age and the degree of immunosuppresssion. Post herpetic neuralgia, the most common complication of HZ, occurs after the zoster rash has resolved. Conventional therapies include antivirals, corticosteroids and analgesics, both oral and topical. Here we report a case of HZ in an 80-year-old woman involving maxillary nerve and the article also reviews various treatment modalities available for the management of HZI. PMID:23771975

  19. Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-28

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans.

  20. Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-01

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

  1. Identification of B Cells as a Major Site for Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Latency

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Aimee N.; Izume, Satoko; Dolan, Brian P.; LaPatra, Scott; Kent, Michael; Dong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), commonly known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, and is a recently discovered emerging herpesvirus that is highly pathogenic for koi and common carp. Our previous study demonstrated that CyHV-3 becomes latent in peripheral white blood cells (WBC). In this study, CyHV-3 latency was further investigated in IgM+ WBC. The presence of the CyHV-3 genome in IgM+ WBC was about 20-fold greater than in IgM− WBC. To determine whether CyHV-3 expressed genes during latency, transcription from all eight open reading frames (ORFs) in the terminal repeat was investigated in IgM+ WBC from koi with latent CyHV-3 infection. Only a spliced ORF6 transcript was found to be abundantly expressed in IgM+ WBC from CyHV-3 latently infected koi. The spliced ORF6 transcript was also detected in vitro during productive infection as early as 1 day postinfection. The ORF6 transcript from in vitro infection begins at −127 bp upstream of the ATG codon and ends +188 bp downstream of the stop codon, +20 bp downstream of the polyadenylation signal. The hypothetical protein of ORF6 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B and ICP4 from Epstein-Barr virus and herpes simplex virus 1, respectively, both members of the Herpesviridae. This is the first report of latent CyHV-3 in B cells and identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of the Alloherpesviridae. IMPORTANCE This is the first demonstration that a member of the Alloherpesviridae, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), establishes a latent infection in the B cells of its host, Cyprinus carpio. In addition, this is the first report of identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of Herpesvirales outside Herpesviridae. This is also the first report that the hypothetical protein of latent transcript of CyHV-3 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B from Epstein

  2. Herpes zoster and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Chawla, Aastha

    2016-08-01

    This review is a succinct description of the relationship between herpes zoster and diabetes. It makes a strong case for screening for diabetes in all patients of herpes zoster, and for using insulin to achieve optimal glycaemic control in persons with concomitant diabetes and herpes zoster. It highlights potential impact of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor therapy and statin usage on herpes zoster incidence. PMID:27524548

  3. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... genital herpes can be treated. Follow your health care provider's instructions for treatment and follow-up.

  4. Herpes zoster following cryosurgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael R; Ryman, William

    2005-02-01

    A 56-year-old man developed reactivation of herpes zoster infection on his right forehead after treatment of several solar keratoses with cryosurgery. The rash was blistering and painful. Treatment with oral aciclovir was instituted and the lesions healed within 2 weeks. Known risk factors for reactivation include age and decreased immunity. Previous case reports have indicated trauma may be a risk factor in herpes zoster. We report a case of herpes zoster as a complication of cryosurgery. PMID:15670178

  5. Body size is negatively correlated with trophic position among cyprinids

    PubMed Central

    Burress, Edward D.; Holcomb, Jordan M.; Bonato, Karine Orlandi; Armbruster, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Body size has many ecological and evolutionary implications that extend across multiple levels of organization. Body size is often positively correlated with species traits such as metabolism, prey size and trophic position (TP) due to physiological and mechanical constraints. We used stable isotope analysis to quantify TP among minnows across multiple assemblages that differed in their species composition, diversity and food web structure. Body size significantly predicted TP across different lineages and assemblages, and indicated a significant negative relationship. The observed negative relationship between body size and TP is contrary to conventional knowledge, and is likely to have arisen owing to highly clade-specific patterns, such that clades consist of either large benthic species or small pelagic species. Cyprinids probably subvert the physiological and mechanical constraints that generally produce a positive relationship between body size and TP using anatomical modifications and by consuming small-bodied prey, respectively. The need for herbivorous cyprinids to digest cellulose-rich foods probably selected for larger bodies to accommodate longer intestinal tracts and thereby to facilitate digestion of nutrient-poor resources, such as algae. Therefore, body size and TP are likely to have coevolved in cyprinids in association with specialization along the benthic to pelagic resource axis. PMID:27293777

  6. Body size is negatively correlated with trophic position among cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Burress, Edward D; Holcomb, Jordan M; Bonato, Karine Orlandi; Armbruster, Jonathan W

    2016-05-01

    Body size has many ecological and evolutionary implications that extend across multiple levels of organization. Body size is often positively correlated with species traits such as metabolism, prey size and trophic position (TP) due to physiological and mechanical constraints. We used stable isotope analysis to quantify TP among minnows across multiple assemblages that differed in their species composition, diversity and food web structure. Body size significantly predicted TP across different lineages and assemblages, and indicated a significant negative relationship. The observed negative relationship between body size and TP is contrary to conventional knowledge, and is likely to have arisen owing to highly clade-specific patterns, such that clades consist of either large benthic species or small pelagic species. Cyprinids probably subvert the physiological and mechanical constraints that generally produce a positive relationship between body size and TP using anatomical modifications and by consuming small-bodied prey, respectively. The need for herbivorous cyprinids to digest cellulose-rich foods probably selected for larger bodies to accommodate longer intestinal tracts and thereby to facilitate digestion of nutrient-poor resources, such as algae. Therefore, body size and TP are likely to have coevolved in cyprinids in association with specialization along the benthic to pelagic resource axis. PMID:27293777

  7. Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julie L; Amzat, Rianot; Martin, Nicolle

    2015-09-01

    Herpes zoster is a commonly encountered disorder. It is estimated that there are approximately 1 million new cases of herpes zoster in the United States annually, with an incidence of 3.2 per 1000 person-years. Patients with HIV have the greatest risk of developing herpes zoster ophthalmicus compared with the general population. Other risk factors include advancing age, use of immunosuppressive medications, and primary infection in infancy or in utero. Vaccination against the virus is a primary prevention modality. Primary treatments include antivirals, analgesics, and anticonvulsants. Management may require surgical intervention and comanagement with pain specialists, psychiatrists, and infectious disease specialists.

  8. An interspecific comparison between morphology and swimming performance in cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Yan, G-J; He, X-K; Cao, Z-D; Fu, S-J

    2013-08-01

    Flow regimes are believed to be of major evolutionary significance in fish. The flow regimes inhabited by cyprinids vary extensively from still flow regimes to riptide flow regimes. To test (i) whether flow-driven swimming performance and relevant morphological differentiation are present among fish species and (ii) whether evolutionary shifts between high-flow and low-flow habitats in cyprinids are associated with evolutionary trade-offs in locomotor performance, we obtained data on both steady and unsteady swimming performance and external body shape for 19 species of cyprinids that typically occur in different flow regimes (still, intermediate and riptide). We also measured the routine energy expenditure (RMR) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and calculated the optimal swimming speed. Our results showed that fish species from riptide groups tend to have a higher critical swimming speed (Ucrit ), maximum linear velocity (Vmax ) and fineness ratio (FR) than fish from the other two groups. However, there was no correlation between the reconstructed changes in the steady and unsteady swimming performance of the 19 species. According to the phylogenetically independent contrast (PIC) method, the Ucrit was actively correlated with the MMR. These results indicated that selection will favour both higher steady and unsteady swimming performance and a more streamlined body shape in environments with high water velocities. The results suggested that steady swimming performance was more sensitive to the flow regime and that for this reason, changes in body shape resulted more from selective pressure on steady swimming performance than on unsteady swimming performance. No evolutionary trade-off was observed between steady and unsteady swimming performance, although Ucrit and MMR were found to have coevolved. However, a further analysis within each typically occurring habitat group suggested that the trade-off that may exist between steady and unsteady swimming performance

  9. Herpes zoster (shingles) disseminated (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

  10. CyHV-3: the third cyprinid herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Gotesman, Michael; Kattlun, Julia; Bergmann, Sven M.; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Common carp (including ornamental koi carp) Cyprinus carpio L. are ecologically and economically important freshwater fish in Europe and Asia. C. carpio have recently been endangered by a third cyprinid herpesvirus, known as cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3), the etiological agent of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD), which causes significant morbidity and mortality in koi and common carp. Clinical and pathological signs include epidermal abrasions, excess mucus production, necrosis of gill and internal organs, and lethargy. KHVD has decimated major carp populations in Israel, Indonesia, Taiwan, Japan, Germany, Canada, and the USA, and has been listed as a notifiable disease in Germany since 2005, and by the World Organisation for Animal Health since 2007. KHVD is exacerbated in aquaculture because of the relatively high host stocking density, and CyHV-3 may be concentrated by filter-feeding aquatic organisms. CyHV-3 is taxonomically grouped within the family Alloherpesviridae, can be propagated in a number of cell lines, and is active at a temperature range of 15 to 28°C. Three isolates originating from Japan (KHV-J), USA (KHV-U), and Israel (KHV-I) have been sequenced. CyHV-3 has a 295 kb genome with 156 unique open reading frames and replicates in the cell nucleus, and mature viral particles are 170 to 200 nm in diameter. CyHV-3 can be detected by multiple PCR-based methods and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Several modes of immunization have been developed for KHVD; however, fish immunized with either vaccine or wild-type virus may become carriers for CyHV-3. There is no current treatment for KHVD. PMID:23872859

  11. Hands-on Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

  12. Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3: An Archetype of Fish Alloherpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Boutier, Maxime; Ronsmans, Maygane; Rakus, Krzysztof; Jazowiecka-Rakus, Joanna; Vancsok, Catherine; Morvan, Léa; Peñaranda, Ma Michelle D; Stone, David M; Way, Keith; van Beurden, Steven J; Davison, Andrew J; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The order Herpesvirales encompasses viruses that share structural, genetic, and biological properties. However, members of this order infect hosts ranging from molluscs to humans. It is currently divided into three phylogenetically related families. The Alloherpesviridae family contains viruses infecting fish and amphibians. There are 12 alloherpesviruses described to date, 10 of which infect fish. Over the last decade, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infecting common and koi carp has emerged as the archetype of fish alloherpesviruses. Since its first description in the late 1990s, this virus has induced important economic losses in common and koi carp worldwide. It has also had negative environmental implications by affecting wild carp populations. These negative impacts and the importance of the host species have stimulated studies aimed at developing diagnostic and prophylactic tools. Unexpectedly, the data generated by these applied studies have stimulated interest in CyHV-3 as a model for fundamental research. This review intends to provide a complete overview of the knowledge currently available on CyHV-3.

  13. Who Is Who: An Anomalous Predator-Prey Role Exchange between Cyprinids and Perch.

    PubMed

    Vejřík, Lukáš; Matějíčková, Ivana; Seďa, Jaromír; Blabolil, Petr; Jůza, Tomáš; Vašek, Mojmír; Ricard, Daniel; Matěna, Josef; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Kubečka, Jan; Říha, Milan; Čech, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Piscivory in cyprinids (Cyprinidae) is extremely rare. Specifically, common bream (Abramis brama) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are zooplanktivorous fish in deep lentic waters. Nevertheless, we observed predation by these two cyprinids under natural conditions in the Vír Reservoir, Czech Republic. We conducted diet analysis for cyprinids caught by trawling and gillnets and the large amount of young-of-the-year (YOY) perch (Perca fluviatilis), with sizes of 37-52 mm standard length, were found in their digestive tracts. In 2010, a large amount of YOY perch caused a significant decrease in Daphnia spp. size and abundance in the reservoir. Hence, a food deficit was induced for the cyprinids, apparent also from the poor nutritional condition of common bream which was much worse than the condition of those in similar reservoirs. Common carp and common bream shifted to forced piscivory, and they utilized the YOY perch as an alternative food source. In contrast, smaller species, such as roach (Rutilus rutilus) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus), widely utilized planktonic cyanobacteria. In the following year, YOY perch occurred in significantly lower numbers and conversely, Daphnia spp. size and abundance were significantly higher. The forced piscivory was not observed. Our results indicate a switch to forced piscivory by cyprinids, which was caused by a shortage of their natural food source. Moreover, this phenomenon presents an effective mechanism for reduction in the numbers of YOY perch, ensuring the stability of the ecosystem.

  14. Who Is Who: An Anomalous Predator-Prey Role Exchange between Cyprinids and Perch

    PubMed Central

    Blabolil, Petr; Jůza, Tomáš; Vašek, Mojmír; Ricard, Daniel; Matěna, Josef; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Kubečka, Jan; Říha, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Piscivory in cyprinids (Cyprinidae) is extremely rare. Specifically, common bream (Abramis brama) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are zooplanktivorous fish in deep lentic waters. Nevertheless, we observed predation by these two cyprinids under natural conditions in the Vír Reservoir, Czech Republic. We conducted diet analysis for cyprinids caught by trawling and gillnets and the large amount of young-of-the-year (YOY) perch (Perca fluviatilis), with sizes of 37–52 mm standard length, were found in their digestive tracts. In 2010, a large amount of YOY perch caused a significant decrease in Daphnia spp. size and abundance in the reservoir. Hence, a food deficit was induced for the cyprinids, apparent also from the poor nutritional condition of common bream which was much worse than the condition of those in similar reservoirs. Common carp and common bream shifted to forced piscivory, and they utilized the YOY perch as an alternative food source. In contrast, smaller species, such as roach (Rutilus rutilus) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus), widely utilized planktonic cyanobacteria. In the following year, YOY perch occurred in significantly lower numbers and conversely, Daphnia spp. size and abundance were significantly higher. The forced piscivory was not observed. Our results indicate a switch to forced piscivory by cyprinids, which was caused by a shortage of their natural food source. Moreover, this phenomenon presents an effective mechanism for reduction in the numbers of YOY perch, ensuring the stability of the ecosystem. PMID:27276078

  15. Who Is Who: An Anomalous Predator-Prey Role Exchange between Cyprinids and Perch.

    PubMed

    Vejřík, Lukáš; Matějíčková, Ivana; Seďa, Jaromír; Blabolil, Petr; Jůza, Tomáš; Vašek, Mojmír; Ricard, Daniel; Matěna, Josef; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Kubečka, Jan; Říha, Milan; Čech, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Piscivory in cyprinids (Cyprinidae) is extremely rare. Specifically, common bream (Abramis brama) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are zooplanktivorous fish in deep lentic waters. Nevertheless, we observed predation by these two cyprinids under natural conditions in the Vír Reservoir, Czech Republic. We conducted diet analysis for cyprinids caught by trawling and gillnets and the large amount of young-of-the-year (YOY) perch (Perca fluviatilis), with sizes of 37-52 mm standard length, were found in their digestive tracts. In 2010, a large amount of YOY perch caused a significant decrease in Daphnia spp. size and abundance in the reservoir. Hence, a food deficit was induced for the cyprinids, apparent also from the poor nutritional condition of common bream which was much worse than the condition of those in similar reservoirs. Common carp and common bream shifted to forced piscivory, and they utilized the YOY perch as an alternative food source. In contrast, smaller species, such as roach (Rutilus rutilus) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus), widely utilized planktonic cyanobacteria. In the following year, YOY perch occurred in significantly lower numbers and conversely, Daphnia spp. size and abundance were significantly higher. The forced piscivory was not observed. Our results indicate a switch to forced piscivory by cyprinids, which was caused by a shortage of their natural food source. Moreover, this phenomenon presents an effective mechanism for reduction in the numbers of YOY perch, ensuring the stability of the ecosystem. PMID:27276078

  16. Herpes zoster in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Miller, L H

    1976-09-01

    Herpes zoster is a self-limited disorder which in most cases resolves without complications. The specific defect in host immunity that permits activation of latent V-Z virus and the occurrence of herpes zoster in both healthy and debilitated individuals has not yet been identified. In some patients, particularly the aged, complications occur during the acute phase of the disease or there are sequelae that may incapacitate the patient later. The most important of these is postherpetic neuralgia. In the elderly the chance of developing neuralgia following herpes zoster is about 50%. Involvement of the eye may produce minimal scarring or permanent blindness. There is an increasing incidence and severity of herpes zoster in association with malignant disease and in particular with Hodgkin's disease. Treatment of herpes zoster in the elderly should be determined by presenting symptoms. Topical medication such as the basic shake lotion is helpful. Personal experience and published reports suggest that early systemic administration of corticosteroids to healthy patients with severe herpes zoster pain with lessen the occurrence of postherpetic neuralgia. Administration of herpes zoster immune globulin is only effective in reducing the morbidity or preventing varicella in high risk individuals. ZIG does not affect the clinical course of herpes zoster.

  17. Cyprinid fishes of the genus Neolissochilus in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khaironizam, M Z; Akaria-Ismail, M; Armbruster, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Meristic, morphometric and distributional patterns of cyprinid fishes of the genus Neolissochilus found in Peninsular Malaysia are presented. Based on the current concept of Neolissochilus, only two species are present: N. soroides and N. hendersoni. Neolissochilus hendersoni differs from N. soroides by having lower scale and gill raker counts. Neolissochilus soroides has three mouth types (normal with a rounded snout, snout with a truncate edge, and lobe with a comparatively thick lower lip). A PCA of log-transformed measurements did not reveal significant differences between N. hendersoni and N. soroides, or between any of the morphotypes of N. soroides; however, a CVA of log-transformed measurements successfully classified 87.1% of all specimens. Removing body size by running a CVA on all of the principal components except PC1 (which was correlated with length) only slightly decreased the successful classification rate to 86.1%. Differences in morphometrics were as great between the three morphotypes of N. soroides as between any of the morphotypes and N. hendersoni suggesting that the morphotypes should be examined in greater detail with genetic tools. The PCA of morphometrics revealed separate clouds for N. hendersoni and N. soroides, but no differences between the N. soroides morphotypes. This study revealed that N. hendersoni is recorded for the first time in the mainland area of Peninsular Malaysia. Other nominal species of Neolissochilus reported to occur in the river systems of Peninsular Malaysia are discussed. Lissochilus tweediei Herre in Herre & Myers 1937 and Tor soro Bishop 1973 are synonyms of Neolissochilus soroides.

  18. Vision in two cyprinid fish: implications for collective behavior

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Bret A.; Tyrrell, Luke P.; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Many species of fish rely on their visual systems to interact with conspecifics and these interactions can lead to collective behavior. Individual-based models have been used to predict collective interactions; however, these models generally make simplistic assumptions about the sensory systems that are applied without proper empirical testing to different species. This could limit our ability to predict (and test empirically) collective behavior in species with very different sensory requirements. In this study, we characterized components of the visual system in two species of cyprinid fish known to engage in visually dependent collective interactions (zebrafish Danio rerio and golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas) and derived quantitative predictions about the positioning of individuals within schools. We found that both species had relatively narrow binocular and blind fields and wide visual coverage. However, golden shiners had more visual coverage in the vertical plane (binocular field extending behind the head) and higher visual acuity than zebrafish. The centers of acute vision (areae) of both species projected in the fronto-dorsal region of the visual field, but those of the zebrafish projected more dorsally than those of the golden shiner. Based on this visual sensory information, we predicted that: (a) predator detection time could be increased by >1,000% in zebrafish and >100% in golden shiners with an increase in nearest neighbor distance, (b) zebrafish schools would have a higher roughness value (surface area/volume ratio) than those of golden shiners, (c) and that nearest neighbor distance would vary from 8 to 20 cm to visually resolve conspecific striping patterns in both species. Overall, considering between-species differences in the sensory system of species exhibiting collective behavior could change the predictions about the positioning of individuals in the group as well as the shape of the school, which can have implications for group

  19. Herpes zoster in children.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Nathan; Goodman, Seth; Peterson, Michael; Peterson, Warren

    2016-08-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) in immunocompetent children is quite uncommon. Initial exposure to the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) may be from a wild-type or vaccine-related strain. Either strain may cause a latent infection and subsequent eruption of HZ. We present a case of HZ in a 15-month-old boy after receiving the varicella vaccination at 12 months of age. A review of the literature regarding the incidence, clinical characteristics, and diagnosis of HZ in children also is provided. PMID:27622252

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in Infants and Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide for infants and babies ... Herpes infections are caused by both herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus ...

  1. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin, eyes, and mouth. This is a life-threatening infection that can lead to permanent brain damage or even death. Herpes simplex viruses also cause encephalitis, an infection of the brain. ...

  2. Reading Recovery Following Herpes Encephalitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, C. D.; Peters, Phyllis

    1979-01-01

    The article presents the medical, psychological, and reading diagnoses of a 24-year-old man with herpes encephalitis, an acute neurological disease. Test results are reported and the client's response to learning disability remedial techniques are reviewed. (SBH)

  3. [Neonatal herpes simplex infection].

    PubMed

    van Ham-Borawitz, Veronique E J; Stam, Edo D; Welborn, Kathleen M; Sas, Theo C J

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a familiar disease with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Isolated skin-eye-mouth infection is less familiar among professionals. In this article we present two neonates with an isolated skin lesion caused by an HSV infection. Of the neonates infected with HSV, 40-45% show isolated skin-eye-mouth disease. With correct treatment, the risk of spread to the central nervous system will decrease from 50-60% to 5-10%. Typical HSV skin lesions may present at a late stage of the disease or may be masked by a secondary bacterial infection. When a neonate presents with atypical skin lesions starting 7-12 days after the birth, immediate testing for HSV and immediate treatment are required, to decrease the risk of further progression of the disease.

  4. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

  5. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3

    PubMed Central

    Maree, Hans J.; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.; Bester, Rachelle; Chooi, Kar Mun; Cohen, Daniel; Dolja, Valerian V.; Fuchs, Marc F.; Golino, Deborah A.; Jooste, Anna E. C.; Martelli, Giovanni P.; Naidu, Rayapati A.; Rowhani, Adib; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Burger, Johan T.

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is one of the most important grapevine viral diseases affecting grapevines worldwide. The impact on vine health, crop yield, and quality is difficult to assess due to a high number of variables, but significant economic losses are consistently reported over the lifespan of a vineyard if intervention strategies are not implemented. Several viruses from the family Closteroviridae are associated with GLD. However, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3), the type species for the genus Ampelovirus, is regarded as the most important causative agent. Here we provide a general overview on various aspects of GLRaV-3, with an emphasis on the latest advances in the characterization of the genome. The full genome of several isolates have recently been sequenced and annotated, revealing the existence of several genetic variants. The classification of these variants, based on their genome sequence, will be discussed and a guideline is presented to facilitate future comparative studies. The characterization of sgRNAs produced during the infection cycle of GLRaV-3 has given some insight into the replication strategy and the putative functionality of the ORFs. The latest nucleotide sequence based molecular diagnostic techniques were shown to be more sensitive than conventional serological assays and although ELISA is not as sensitive it remains valuable for high-throughput screening and complementary to molecular diagnostics. The application of next-generation sequencing is proving to be a valuable tool to study the complexity of viral infection as well as plant pathogen interaction. Next-generation sequencing data can provide information regarding disease complexes, variants of viral species, and abundance of particular viruses. This information can be used to develop more accurate diagnostic assays. Reliable virus screening in support of robust grapevine certification programs remains the cornerstone of GLD management. PMID:23596440

  6. Selective Herbivory by an Invasive Cyprinid, the Rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus

    SciTech Connect

    Kapuscinski, Kevin L; John, Farrell M; Stehman, Stephen V; Boyer, Gregory L; Fernando, Danilo D; Teece, Mark A; Tschaplinski, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    1. Herbivory by non-native animals is a problem of growing concern globally, especially for ecosystems where significant native herbivores did not previously exist or have been replaced by non-natives. The rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) is an omnivorous cyprinid that has a nearly global longitudinal distribution due to human translocations, yet it is unknown whether the rudd feeds selectively among aquatic macrophyte species common to North American waters. 2. We tested a null hypothesis of non-selective feeding by rudds using five species of aquatic macrophytes: Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Najas flexilis, Stuckenia pectinata, and Vallisneria americana. Four rudds were placed in 15 different 890-L tanks and presented with known quantities of each macrophyte species (each tank serving as a block in a randomized complete block design). Each macrophyte bundle was weighed on six dates during a 13 d experiment. Differences in mean percent weight remaining among macrophyte species were tested using repeated measures analysis of variance. We also quantified differences among chemical attributes of the five macrophyte species and qualitatively determined if selective feeding by rudds was related to dry matter content (DMC), percent C by dry weight (%C), percent N by dry weight (%N), and the concentrations of total soluble proteins, two organic acids (aconitic and oxalic acid), total soluble phenolic compounds (<1,000 Da), nine soluble phenolic metabolites, and total phenolic compounds. 3. Selective feeding by rudds was evident, with the order of macrophyte removal (from highest to lowest) being: N. flexilis > E. canadensis > S. pectinata > V. americana > C. demersum. Selection was positively related to %C and atomic C:N, but not DMC, %N, or concentration of total soluble proteins, contrary to the expectation that rudds would select the most nutritious plants available. The concentration of aconitic acid was greatest in N. flexilis, a preferred macrophyte

  7. Viable metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeastern Thai cyprinid fish dishes--as part of a rational program for control of O. viverrini-associated cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Prasongwatana, Jiraporn; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Somchai

    2013-03-01

    Among the various types of chronic helminthic infections, only schistosomiasis hematobium, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis in a long-standing inflammation are found to be causative agents of cancer. Opisthorchiasis and Opisthorchis viverrini-associated bile duct cancer are prevalent among the residents in northeastern Thailand, who prefer consuming raw or improperly cooked cyprinid fish. Although numerous studies have reported on the presence of O. viverrini metacercariae in freshwater cyprinid fishes, none of the data has been derived directly from cyprinid fish dishes. Here, we have demonstrated the presence of viable metacercariae in a number of cyprinid fish dishes that are among the favorite foods of northeastern Thais. Traditional salt-fermented and grilled cyprinid fish were found to be safe to consume, but not raw fish salad or cyprinid fish fermented in sticky rice for 69 h. This information could be used as part of a rational and sustainable control program for O. viverrini-associated bile duct cancer. PMID:23052784

  8. Adaptive evolution of cone opsin genes in two colorful cyprinids, Opsariichthys pachycephalus and Candidia barbatus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng Yu; Chung, Wen Sung; Yan, Hong Young; Tzeng, Chyng Shyan

    2008-07-01

    Opsariichthys pachycephalus and Candidia barbatus are two phylogenetically related freshwater cyprinids that both exhibit colorful, yet quite different nuptial coloration. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that differences in nuptial coloration between two species could reflect differences in color perception ability and the opsin genes that coded for it. Genes encoding the visual pigments of these two species were cloned and sequenced, lambda(max) of cone photoreceptors and the reflectance spectra of their body coloration were measured to test the hypothesis. The 14-nm spectral shift between green-light-sensitive photoreceptors of these two cyprinids is found to correlate well with differences in their reflective spectra. The spectral shift could result from differential expression of opsin genes and the interactive effects of the amino acid replacements in various minor sites. These results support our hypothesis that nuptial coloration is tied to color perception ability and opsin genes.

  9. [Herpes gestationis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Diaz, Jorge Arturo; Paredes-Solis, Vanessa; Martínez-Chagolla, Blanca de Jesús; Sereno-Coló, José Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Case report. 21 years old woman with 30 week pregnancy, complicated by a 3 month multitreated skin condition, who was referred to General Hospital Morelia, with probable diagnosis of Kapossi sarcoma and sus- pected HIV. She presented with exulcerations involving the palate, lips, chest, abdomen, back and extremities. The lesions were, itchy and painful, with thick yellowish secretion, accompanied by dysphagia to solid foods. Laboratory results showed normochromic normocytic anemia, elevation of ESR, hypocalcaemia, increased PCR, results in alterations in various TORCH listing, HIV negative. The biopsy of a lesion of the forearm reported histological changes consistent with herpes, subsequently confirmed by direct immunofluorescence. Liquid aspiration secretion of one of the lesions reported coagulase negative staphylococcus sp and Enterobacter cloacae. The final diagnosis was 30 weeks pregnant women with gestational herpes complicated by pyogenic infection of the lesions, discarding infection with HIV and found positive for IgG to toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus and herpes virus.

  10. Herpes zoster: A clinicocytopathological insight

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Snehal; Singaraju, Sasidhar; Einstein, A; Sharma, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster or shingles is reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that had entered the cutaneous nerve endings during an earlier episode of chicken pox traveled to the dorsal root ganglia and remained in a latent form. This condition is characterized by occurrence of multiple, painful, unilateral vesicles and ulceration which shows a typical single dermatome involvement. In this case report, we present a patient with herpes zoster involving the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, with unilateral vesicles over the right side of lower third of face along the trigeminal nerve tract, with intraoral involvement of buccal mucosa, labial mucosa and the tongue of the same side. Cytopathology revealed classic features of herpes infection including inclusion bodies, perinuclear halo and multinucleated cells. PMID:27721631

  11. [Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia].

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Machetanz, J

    2016-08-01

    Herpes zoster develops by endogenous reactivation of varizella zoster virus (VZV). Incidence increases with age. Females are more frequently affected than males. The reactivation rate in seropositive individuals is about 20 %. After a short prodromal stage, herpetiform-grouped vesicles appear in segmental arrangement. Pain and paresthesia are typical zoster symptoms. Complications like bacterial superinfections, vasculopathy, paresis, and oculopathy may occur. During pregnancy herpes zoster is a threat for mother and child. Among elderly patients, cardiovascular risk is increased during the first week of herpes zoster infection. Postherpetic neuropathy is feared. Diagnosis can be made clinically and by the use of polymerase chain reaction. First-line treatment is systemic antiviral drug therapy with either acyclovir or brivudine. Adjuvant therapies consist of pain management and topical treatment. PMID:27389412

  12. Methyltestosterone-induced changes in electro-olfactogram responses and courtship behaviors of cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Rachelle M; Pachkowski, Melanie D; Stacey, Norm E

    2010-01-01

    In the tinfoil barb (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii; family Cyprinidae), we previously found that increased olfactory sensitivity to a female prostaglandin pheromone could induce sexual behavior display in juvenile fish treated with androgens. Here, we determined if this phenomenon is widespread among cyprinid fishes by adding 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) to aquaria containing juveniles of 4 cyprinid species (tinfoil barbs; redtail sharkminnows, Epalzeorhynchos bicolor; goldfish, Carassius auratus; zebrafish, Danio rerio) and then using electro-olfactogram (EOG) recordings and behavioral assays to determine if androgen treatment enhances pheromone detection and male sex behaviors. In all 4 cyprinids, MT treatment increased the magnitudes and sensitivities of EOG response to prostaglandins and, consistent with our initial study on tinfoil barbs, did not affect EOG responses to the free and conjugated steroid to which each species is most sensitive. In zebrafish, EOG responses to prostaglandins were similar in MT-treated juveniles and adult males, whereas responses of control (ethanol exposed) fish were similar to those of adult females. Finally, as previously observed in tinfoil barbs, MT treatment of juvenile redtail sharkminnows increased courtship behaviors (nuzzling and quivering) with a stimulus fish. We conclude that androgen-induced increase in olfactory responsiveness to pheromonal prostaglandins is common among the family Cyprinidae. This phenomenon will help us unravel the development of sexually dimorphic olfactory-mediated behavior.

  13. Let's Hear It for Herps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Let's Hear It for the Herps!" Contents are organized into the following…

  14. Herpes: Removing Fact from Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.

    1984-01-01

    Factual information dealing with the virus herpes is provided in hopes of allaying the public fears that have recently appeared because of misinformation presented by the media. Symptoms, types, and new developments in treatment are explored. Recommendations for obtaining additional information are offered. (DF)

  15. SNP discovery and marker development for disease resistance candidate genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers of susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp. With the aim to investigate the gene...

  16. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. PMID:27358569

  17. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. PMID:27358569

  18. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease.

  19. Herpes simplex virus infection during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stephenson-Famy, Alyssa; Gardella, Carolyn

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes in pregnancy continues to cause significant maternal morbidity, with an increasing number of infections being due to oral-labial transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1. Near delivery, primary infections with HSV-1 or HSV-2 carry the highest risk of neonatal herpes infection, which is a rare but potentially devastating disease for otherwise healthy newborns. Prevention efforts have been limited by lack of an effective intervention for preventing primary infections and the unclear role of routine serologic testing.

  20. Immunity and the burden of herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Suk; Kwon, Soon Sun; Lee, Jacob; Choi, Su-Mi; Lee, Jin Soo; Eom, Joong Sik; Sohn, Jang Wook; Choeng, Hee Jin

    2014-03-01

    The burden of herpes zoster may be related to patients' immunity, although this has not been studied extensively. This hypothesis was tested in a matched case-control study of patients with herpes zoster who sought treatment at one of seven university hospitals in Korea from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2010. Patients diagnosed with herpes zoster were placed into three groups based on their immune status: severely immunocompromised, mild-to-moderately immunocompromised, and normal immunity. Each patient in the severely immunocompromised group was matched with one patient in the mild-to-moderately immunocompromised group and one patient in the normal immunity group in the same hospital based on age, sex, and date of herpes zoster onset. A total of 582 patients with herpes zoster were included in the analysis: 194 in each of the three groups. Patients in the severely immunocompromised group had the highest herpes zoster-related hospitalization rate as compared to patients in the mild-to-moderately immunocompromised and normal immune groups (P < 0.01). The length of hospital stay and herpes zoster-related medical cost increased significantly with the deterioration of patients' immunity (P < 0.01, respectively). Cutaneous complications occurred more frequently in the severely immunocompromised group than in the other two groups (P < 0.01). An increase in herpes zoster burden was observed as the patients' immunity decreased. Therefore, effective measures are necessary to prevent herpes zoster and reduce its burden in severely immunocompromised patients.

  1. Natural remedies for Herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Gaby, Alan R

    2006-06-01

    Herpes simplex is a common viral infection of the skin or mucous membranes. The lesions caused by this infection are often painful, burning, or pruritic, and tend to recur in most patients. Short-term treatment with acyclovir can accelerate the healing of an acute outbreak, and continuous acyclovir therapy is often prescribed for people with frequent recurrences. While this drug can reduce the recurrence rate by 60-90 percent, it can also cause a wide array of side effects, including renal failure, hepatitis, and anaphylaxis. Safe and effective alternatives are therefore needed. There is evidence that certain dietary modifications and natural substances may be useful for treating active Herpes simplex lesions or preventing recurrences. Treatments discussed include lysine, vitamin C, zinc, vitamin E, adenosine monophosphate, and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).

  2. Prevention agenda for genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Handsfield, H H; Stone, K M; Wasserheit, J N

    1999-04-01

    Few meeting participants envisioned a prevention and control program on the scale or scope of CDC's programs to prevent HIV infection, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infection, but all agreed that the virtual absence of public health interventions to prevent genital herpes is no longer appropriate in light of evolving epidemiologic knowledge and other research advances. The ultimate scope of a national genital herpes prevention effort will depend in part on the results of the recommended research agenda, which probably will evolve over the better part of a decade. Numerous other STD prevention partners will also need to contribute to this effort and help to determine the makeup of future programs. Substantial new fiscal resources will be required both to implement the proposed research agenda and, depending on the results, to undertake the prevention efforts indicated by those studies. Competing STD prevention priorities and other national health needs will influence the availability of those resources. The consultants' meeting and the research and program activities summarized above are described in more detail in the full meeting report, which is posted on the Division's web site (www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/dstdp.html) or may be requested directly from the Division. DSTDP is interested in receiving comments and suggestions about herpes prevention.

  3. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: Infection tests with honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solenopsis invicta virus-3 (SINV-3) is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus that has considerable potential as a self-sustaining or classical biocontrol agent against the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, because it can cause substantial mortality in colonies of this species. Based on e...

  4. Molecular characterisation and prevalence of a new genotype of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijuan; Luo, Yangzhi; Gao, Zexia; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Xianghai; Nie, Huihui; Zhang, Junmei; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa

    2015-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2, species Cyprinid herpesvirus 2) has been confirmed as a causative agent of the acute haematopoietic necrosis disease outbreak in farmed goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) and gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch). In this study, we present the genomic characteristics of a variant CyHV-2 strain (SY-C1) isolated from farmed gibel carp in mainland China and its comparative genomics analysis with the CyHV-2 reference strain ST-J1. Overall, the full-length genome of SY-C1 shares 98.8% homology with that of ST-J1. Sequence comparisons between SY-C1 and ST-J1 indicate that the variations include single-nucleotide mutations, insertions, deletions, and rearrangements, which suggested that SY-C1 is different from ST-J1 and represents a new genotype. Therefore, we propose that the identified CyHV-2 can be divided into 2 different genotypes and be named China genotype (C genotype) and Japan genotype (J genotype) according to their isolation loci. Furthermore, epidemiological surveys indicate that the dominant genotype of CyHV-2 circulating in mainland China is closer to the China genotype than the Japan genotype. PMID:25900131

  5. Transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA in cyprinid fish embryos.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ming; Peng, Liangyue; Hu, Xinjiang; Zhao, Yuling; Liu, Shaojun; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy signifies the existence of identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and is essential for normal development, as heteroplasmy causes abnormal development and diseases in human. Homoplasmy in many organisms is ensured by maternal mtDNA inheritance through either absence of paternal mtDNA delivery or early elimination of paternal mtDNA. However, whether paternal mtDNA is transcribed has remained unknown. Here we report that paternal mtDNA shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence in cyprinid fishes. Paternal mtDNA was present in zygotes but absent in larvae and adult organs of goldfish and blunt-snout bream, demonstrating paternal mtDNA delivery and elimination for maternal mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, paternal mtDNA remained detectable up to the heartbeat stage, suggesting its late elimination leading to embryonic heteroplasmy up to advanced embryogenesis. Most importantly, we never detected the cytb RNA of paternal mtDNA at all stages when paternal mtDNA was easily detectable, which reveals that paternal mtDNA is transcriptionally quiescent and thus excludes its effect on the development of heteroplasmic embryos. Therefore, paternal mtDNA in cyprinids shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence. Clearly, transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA represents a new mechanism for maternal mtDNA inheritance and provides implications for treating mitochondrion-associated diseases by mitochondrial transfer or replacement. PMID:27334806

  6. Transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA in cyprinid fish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ming; Peng, Liangyue; Hu, Xinjiang; Zhao, Yuling; Liu, Shaojun; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy signifies the existence of identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and is essential for normal development, as heteroplasmy causes abnormal development and diseases in human. Homoplasmy in many organisms is ensured by maternal mtDNA inheritance through either absence of paternal mtDNA delivery or early elimination of paternal mtDNA. However, whether paternal mtDNA is transcribed has remained unknown. Here we report that paternal mtDNA shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence in cyprinid fishes. Paternal mtDNA was present in zygotes but absent in larvae and adult organs of goldfish and blunt-snout bream, demonstrating paternal mtDNA delivery and elimination for maternal mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, paternal mtDNA remained detectable up to the heartbeat stage, suggesting its late elimination leading to embryonic heteroplasmy up to advanced embryogenesis. Most importantly, we never detected the cytb RNA of paternal mtDNA at all stages when paternal mtDNA was easily detectable, which reveals that paternal mtDNA is transcriptionally quiescent and thus excludes its effect on the development of heteroplasmic embryos. Therefore, paternal mtDNA in cyprinids shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence. Clearly, transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA represents a new mechanism for maternal mtDNA inheritance and provides implications for treating mitochondrion-associated diseases by mitochondrial transfer or replacement. PMID:27334806

  7. Herpes in Dyadic Relationships: Patterns and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drob, Sanford; Bernard, Harold S.

    1985-01-01

    Explores how dyadic relationships can be affected when one partner suffers from genital herpes. Six patterns are described: When One Partner Does Not Know, The Compromise Relationship, The Enraged Partner, The Mark of Guilt, Problems in Risk Management, and Herpes Used as Weapon. Treatment strategies for dealing with patterns are offered.…

  8. Autism and Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies of children who developed herpes virus infection in the intrauterine or early postnatal period and presented with features of autism around two years of age. Other research suggesting a link between herpes and autism is reviewed. (DB)

  9. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  10. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  11. Neonatal herpes should be a reportable disease.

    PubMed

    Handsfield, H Hunter; Waldo, Ann B; Brown, Zane A; Corey, Lawrence; Drucker, Joan L; Ebel, Charles W; Leone, Peter A; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Whitley, Richard J

    2005-09-01

    Neonatal herpes is a devastating disease, the most serious complication of genital herpes, one of the most common serious congenital or perinatal infections, and the most frequent complication of sexually transmitted infections among children. Nevertheless, neonatal herpes is not reportable to health authorities in most states. The potential for prevention has been enhanced by recent diagnostic and therapeutic advances, and the disease meets widely accepted criteria for reporting, including incidence rates that exceed those of comparable conditions, epidemiologic instability, disease severity, direct and indirect socioeconomic costs, concern by persons at risk, the potential for prevention by public health interventions, and the prospect that the resulting data would influence public health policy. The absence of national surveillance contributes to beliefs by healthcare providers and the public health community that genital and neonatal herpes are uncommon conditions that affect small segments of society, beliefs that directly interfere with prevention. Neonatal herpes should be a reportable condition. PMID:16118598

  12. Rational development of an attenuated recombinant cyprinid herpesvirus 3 vaccine using prokaryotic mutagenesis and in vivo bioluminescent imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is causing severe economic losses worldwide in the carp industry, and a safe and efficacious attenuated vaccine compatible with mass vaccination is needed. We produced single deleted recombinants using prokaryotic mutagenesis. When producing a recombinant lacking open...

  13. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement.

  14. Genetic analysis shows that morphology alone cannot distinguish asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinid species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; McCalla, Sunnie; Chapman, Duane C.; Rees, Christopher B.; Knights, Brent C.; Vallazza, Jon; George, Amy E.; Richardson, William B.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Fish eggs and embryos (hereafter collectively referred to as “eggs”) were collected in the upper Mississippi River main stem (~300 km upstream of previously reported spawning by invasive Asian carp) during summer 2013. Based on previously published morphological characteristics, the eggs were identified as belonging to Asian carp. A subsample of the eggs was subsequently analyzed by using molecular methods to determine species identity. Genetic identification using the cytochrome-c oxidase 1 gene was attempted for a total of 41 eggs. Due to the preservation technique used (formalin) and the resulting DNA degradation, sequences were recovered from only 17 individual eggs. In all 17 cases, cyprinids other than Asian carp (usually Notropis sp.) were identified as the most likely species. In previously published reports, a key characteristic that distinguished Asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinids was size: Asian carp eggs exhibited diameters ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 mm and were thought to be much larger than the otherwise similar eggs of native species. Eggs from endemic cyprinids were believed to rarely reach 3.0 mm and had not been observed to exceed 3.3 mm. However, many of the eggs that were genetically identified as originating from native cyprinids were as large as 4.0 mm in diameter (at early developmental stages) and were therefore large enough to over- lap with the lower end of the size range observed for Asian carp eggs. Researchers studying the egg stages of Asian carp and other cyprinids should plan on preserving subsets of eggs for genetic analysis to confirm morphological identifications.

  15. [Update on Herpes Simplex Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a severe neuro-infectious disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed the pathomechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of HSE based on recent progress in the field. The highlighted mechanism of HSE in this review is immune-mediated tissue damage caused by host immunity. Major symptoms of HSE include psychiatric alteration, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, and amnesia, caused by frequent involvement of the limbic system. An important differential diagnosis of HSE is autoimmune limbic encephalitis, including anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and anti-voltage-gated K+ channel encephalitis. HSE is definitely diagnosed based on the detection of HSV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction and/or the detection of HSV-IgG antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Repeated CSF examinations are required for the accurate diagnosis of HSE. Acyclovir (ACV) plays a central role in the treatment of HSE, and its early initiation is essential for good outcome in patients with HSE. Acute administration of corticosteroids for HSE is controversial; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of add-on corticosteroids to ACV is ongoing.

  16. [Update on Herpes Simplex Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a severe neuro-infectious disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed the pathomechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of HSE based on recent progress in the field. The highlighted mechanism of HSE in this review is immune-mediated tissue damage caused by host immunity. Major symptoms of HSE include psychiatric alteration, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, and amnesia, caused by frequent involvement of the limbic system. An important differential diagnosis of HSE is autoimmune limbic encephalitis, including anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and anti-voltage-gated K+ channel encephalitis. HSE is definitely diagnosed based on the detection of HSV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction and/or the detection of HSV-IgG antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Repeated CSF examinations are required for the accurate diagnosis of HSE. Acyclovir (ACV) plays a central role in the treatment of HSE, and its early initiation is essential for good outcome in patients with HSE. Acute administration of corticosteroids for HSE is controversial; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of add-on corticosteroids to ACV is ongoing. PMID:26160820

  17. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3: an interesting virus for applied and fundamental research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a member of the family Alloherpesviridae is the causative agent of a lethal, highly contagious and notifiable disease in common and koi carp. The economic importance of common and koi carp industries together with the rapid spread of CyHV-3 worldwide, explain why this virus became soon after its isolation in the 1990s a subject of applied research. In addition to its economic importance, an increasing number of fundamental studies demonstrated that CyHV-3 is an original and interesting subject for fundamental research. In this review, we summarized recent advances in CyHV-3 research with a special interest for studies related to host-virus interactions. PMID:24073814

  18. Dynamics of metal uptake and depuration in a parasitized cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea).

    PubMed

    Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Admiraal, Wim; Osano, Odipo; Kraak, Michiel H S; Were-Kogogo, Pamela J A; Gichuki, John; Ngure, Veronica; Makwali, Judith; Ogwai, Caleb

    2012-11-15

    Infestation of fish by endoparasites may potentially influence metal uptake and elimination by the host. We quantified the metal uptake rate constant (k(u)) and efflux rate constants (k(e)) of radiolabeled Cd and Co in the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea experimentally infected with the parasite Ligula intestinalis. During 24h, the accumulation of Cd and Co increased linearly with no evident steady state in uninfected fish, infected fish and in the parasite. Following aqueous exposures, the k(u) for Cd in parasites was about 3× higher than that of infected fish and 6× higher than for the uninfected fish. The k(u) for Co was up to 15× higher in the parasites than that of infected fish and 7.5× higher than for the uninfected fish. The k(e) for excretion of Cd were consistently higher for the uninfected fish than for the infected fish and also higher for uninfected fish than the parasite. The k(e) for Co for the uninfected fish was 1.4-2.0× lower than in the infected fish, but higher for parasites compared to uninfected fish (1.3-2.3×). Pulse-chase feeding experiments with radiolabeled copepods showed that Cd assimilation efficiency from food was higher in infected fish, while Co was assimilated more effectively by uninfected fish. The observed differences in metal dynamics between infected and uninfected R. argentea in the laboratory concord with differences in metal concentrations measured in natural populations in Lake Victoria. Our findings provide evidence that L. intestinalis infection enhances Cd accumulation, but depletes the essential Co in the cyprinid fish R. argentea. We conclude that the combined stress of parasites and pollution changes metal risks to fish hosts in a metal specific manner.

  19. Barcoding and Border Biosecurity: Identifying Cyprinid Fishes in the Aquarium Trade

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rupert A.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Meier, Rudolf; Yi, Youguang; Brown, Samuel D. J.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Keeling, Suzanne; Johnston, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Background Poorly regulated international trade in ornamental fishes poses risks to both biodiversity and economic activity via invasive alien species and exotic pathogens. Border security officials need robust tools to confirm identifications, often requiring hard-to-obtain taxonomic literature and expertise. DNA barcoding offers a potentially attractive tool for quarantine inspection, but has yet to be scrutinised for aquarium fishes. Here, we present a barcoding approach for ornamental cyprinid fishes by: (1) expanding current barcode reference libraries; (2) assessing barcode congruence with morphological identifications under numerous scenarios (e.g. inclusion of GenBank data, presence of singleton species, choice of analytical method); and (3) providing supplementary information to identify difficult species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 172 ornamental cyprinid fish species from the international trade, and provide data for 91 species currently unrepresented in reference libraries (GenBank/Bold). DNA barcodes were found to be highly congruent with our morphological assignments, achieving success rates of 90–99%, depending on the method used (neighbour-joining monophyly, bootstrap, nearest neighbour, GMYC, percent threshold). Inclusion of data from GenBank (additional 157 spp.) resulted in a more comprehensive library, but at a cost to success rate due to the increased number of singleton species. In addition to DNA barcodes, our study also provides supporting data in the form of specimen images, morphological characters, taxonomic bibliography, preserved vouchers, and nuclear rhodopsin sequences. Using this nuclear rhodopsin data we also uncovered evidence of interspecific hybridisation, and highlighted unrecognised diversity within popular aquarium species, including the endangered Indian barb Puntius denisonii. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that DNA barcoding provides a highly effective biosecurity tool for rapidly identifying

  20. [Herpes zoster in the pharynx].

    PubMed

    Sipari, Sini; Koivula, Irma; Löppönen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman was suspected of having a peritonsillar abscess. She had a light-coloured coating on the pharynx and the larynx, bordering to the left of the median line, as well as laryngeal edema on the side of the lesion. On the basis of precisely unilateral findings we arrived at pharyngeal herpes zoster as the working diagnosis. The diagnosis was further supported by the detection of varicella-zoster virus DNA in the mucosa and the presence of positive IgM antibody levels. The patient was treated with an antiviral drug, an antimicrobial drug and a glucocorticoid. Mucosal lesions and edema returned to normal, and the patient was discharged. The precise unilaterality of the symptoms is essential to the diagnosis.

  1. [Herpes zoster in the pharynx].

    PubMed

    Sipari, Sini; Koivula, Irma; Löppönen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman was suspected of having a peritonsillar abscess. She had a light-coloured coating on the pharynx and the larynx, bordering to the left of the median line, as well as laryngeal edema on the side of the lesion. On the basis of precisely unilateral findings we arrived at pharyngeal herpes zoster as the working diagnosis. The diagnosis was further supported by the detection of varicella-zoster virus DNA in the mucosa and the presence of positive IgM antibody levels. The patient was treated with an antiviral drug, an antimicrobial drug and a glucocorticoid. Mucosal lesions and edema returned to normal, and the patient was discharged. The precise unilaterality of the symptoms is essential to the diagnosis. PMID:27244933

  2. Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization ... for trustworthy health information. Verify Compliance . Produced by Advertisement

  3. Multiple source genes of HAmo SINE actively expanded and ongoing retroposition in cyprinid genomes relying on its partner LINE

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We recently characterized HAmo SINE and its partner LINE in silver carp and bighead carp based on hybridization capture of repetitive elements from digested genomic DNA in solution using a bead-probe [1]. To reveal the distribution and evolutionary history of SINEs and LINEs in cyprinid genomes, we performed a multi-species search for HAmo SINE and its partner LINE using the bead-probe capture and internal-primer-SINE polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Results Sixty-seven full-size and 125 internal-SINE sequences (as well as 34 full-size and 9 internal sequences previously reported in bighead carp and silver carp) from 17 species of the family Cyprinidae were aligned as well as 14 new isolated HAmoL2 sequences. Four subfamilies (type I, II, III and IV), which were divided based on diagnostic nucleotides in the tRNA-unrelated region, expanded preferentially within a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae as multiple active source genes. The copy numbers of HAmo SINEs were estimated to vary from 104 to 106 in cyprinid genomes by quantitative RT-PCR. Over one hundred type IV members were identified and characterized in the primitive cyprinid Danio rerio genome but only tens of sequences were found to be similar with type I, II and III since the type IV was the oldest subfamily and its members dispersed in almost all investigated cyprinid fishes. For determining the taxonomic distribution of HAmo SINE, inter-primer SINE PCR was conducted in other non-cyprinid fishes, the results shows that HAmo SINE- related sequences may disperse in other families of order Cypriniforms but absent in other orders of bony fishes: Siluriformes, Polypteriformes, Lepidosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Osteoglossiforms. Conclusions Depending on HAmo LINE2, multiple source genes (subfamilies) of HAmo SINE actively expanded and underwent retroposition in a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae. From this perspective, HAmo SINE should

  4. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuts? Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? Print A A A Text Size Can you get genital herpes from a cold sore? – Lucy* Yes — it is possible to get ...

  5. Amphibian ocular malformation associated with frog virus 3.

    PubMed

    Burton, Elizabeth C; Miller, Debra L; Styer, Eloise L; Gray, Matthew J

    2008-09-01

    During an on-going amphibian ecology study, a free-ranging American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) metamorph was captured in a pitfall trap adjacent to a constructed farm pond at the Plateau Research and Education Center (PREC) on the Cumberland Plateau near Crossville, Tennessee, USA. Grossly, the right eye was approximately 50% the size of the left. Stereo and light microscopic examination revealed two granulomas within the orbit. Electron microscopic examination revealed virus particles scattered throughout one structure but mostly aggregated toward the center. Subsequent PCR and sequencing (GenBank accession Number EF175670) confirmed frog virus 3 (FV3). This represents the first report of a malformation in an anuran associated with FV3. PMID:17604194

  6. Designing herpes viruses as oncolytics

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cole; Rabkin, Samuel D

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) was one of the first genetically-engineered oncolytic viruses. Because HSV is a natural human pathogen that can cause serious disease, it is incumbent that it can be genetically-engineered or significantly attenuated for safety. Here, we present a detailed explanation of the functions of HSV-1 genes frequently mutated to endow oncolytic activity. These genes are nonessential for growth in tissue culture cells but are important for growth in postmitotic cells, interfering with intrinsic antiviral and innate immune responses or causing pathology, functions dispensable for replication in cancer cells. Understanding the function of these genes leads to informed creation of new oHSVs with better therapeutic efficacy. Virus infection and replication can also be directed to cancer cells through tumor-selective receptor binding and transcriptional- or post-transcriptional miRNA-targeting, respectively. In addition to the direct effects of oHSV on infected cancer cells and tumors, oHSV can be “armed” with transgenes that are: reporters, to track virus replication and spread; cytotoxic, to kill uninfected tumor cells; immune modulatory, to stimulate antitumor immunity; or tumor microenvironment altering, to enhance virus spread or to inhibit tumor growth. In addition to HSV-1, other alphaherpesviruses are also discussed for their oncolytic activity. PMID:26462293

  7. Rapid Detection of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 in Latently Infected Koi by Recombinase Polymerase Amplification.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Meagan A; Reed, Aimee N; Jin, Ling; Pastey, Manoj K

    2016-09-01

    Since the emergence of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), outbreaks have been devastating to Common Carp Cyprinus carpio and koi (a variant of Common Carp), leading to high economic losses. Current diagnostics for detecting CyHV-3 are limited in sensitivity and are further complicated by latency. Here we describe the detection of CyHV-3 by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The RPA assay can detect as low as 10 copies of the CyHV-3 genome by an isothermal reaction and yields results in approximately 20 min. Using the RPA assay, the CyHV-3 genome can be detected in the total DNA of white blood cells isolated from koi latently infected with CyHV-3, while less than 10% of the latently infected koi can be detected by a real-time PCR assay in the total DNA of white blood cells. In addition, RPA products can be detected in a lateral flow device that is cheap and fast and can be used outside of the diagnostic lab. The RPA assay and lateral flow device provide for the rapid, sensitive, and specific amplification of CyHV-3 that with future modifications for field use and validation could lead to enhanced surveillance and early diagnosis of CyHV-3 in the laboratory and field. Received September 14, 2015; accepted April 9, 2016. PMID:27485254

  8. Epidemiology of cyprinid herpesvirus-3 infection in latently infected carp from aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Baumer, A; Fabian, M; Wilkens, M R; Steinhagen, D; Runge, M

    2013-07-22

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3, koi herpesvirus, KHV) is the causative agent of an economically important disease in carp. The mode of transmission of this virus, especially how the infectious agent is introduced into ponds de novo, is not known in detail. The aim of this study was to investigate the shedding of CyHV-3 from fish with latent infections, under aquaculture conditions. Ponds in Saxony, Germany, with latently infected carp were examined at different times during the production cycle to investigate the influence of fish farming procedures on virus activation and shedding. Carp and water samples were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. Some of the latently infected carp shed CyHV-3. Virus shedding was induced mainly when the ponds were drained and the carp either harvested or moved to different ponds, and was independent of the water temperature. This indicated that during these times there was a risk that effluent water from the ponds could disseminate the infectious agent. During summer, on-growing carp are infected with low numbers of CyHV-3. These findings are important for disease management strategies in carp aquaculture and for the design of testing protocols for the detection of latent infection in carp populations.

  9. Seasonal reactivation enables Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 to persist in a wild host population.

    PubMed

    Uchii, Kimiko; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Honjo, Mie N; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are of growing concern in wildlife conservation and animal health. To better understand the consequences of these diseases, a key question lies in how they persist in host populations after they emerge. Using a gene expression approach, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the persistence of an emerging virus, Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), which has been spreading to wild populations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Japan since 2003. Seasonal expression patterns of CyHV-3 genes in wild seropositive carp indicated that replication-related genes were transcribed only during the spring when water temperatures were permissive to CyHV-3 replication. In contrast, possible latency-related genes, which are expressed when CyHV-3 do not multiply, were also transcribed under nonpermissive conditions. These observations suggest that CyHV-3 may persist in carriers by establishing latent infection and then reactivating periodically coincident with the spring temperature increase when carp aggregate for mating, allowing successive virus transmissions between hosts during mating every year. Our results revealed that the life cycle of CyHV-3 may fit perfectly into the ecology of its host, resulting in the long-term persistence of this emerging virus in wild common carp populations. PMID:24256414

  10. Heavy metal accumulations in water, sediment, and some cyprinid species in Porsuk Stream (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Köse, Esengül; Çiçek, Arzu; Uysal, Kazim; Tokatlı, Cem; Emiroğlu, Özgür; Arslan, Naime

    2015-03-01

    Porsuk Stream is one of Turkey's most important river systems and also one of the most important branches of the Sakarya River. It provides drinking and utility water for two Turkish cities (Kütahya and Eskişehir) with a total population of one million. In this study, water, sediment, and some tissues (liver, gill, and muscle) of five cyprinid fish species were collected seasonally (2010-2011) from eight stations on the Porsuk Stream, and the zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) levels of collected samples were determined. The data observed were evaluated with national and international quality criteria. Based on the data observed, it was determined that the Porsuk Stream is affected by significant inorganic pollution from the Kütahya and Eskişehir Provinces. It was also determined that the Porsuk Dam Lake has an important cleaning capacity and that the water and sediment quality of the Porsuk Stream improves after the output of the dam lake.

  11. Spectacular morphological novelty in a miniature cyprinid fish, Danionella dracula n. sp.

    PubMed Central

    Britz, Ralf; Conway, Kevin W.; Rüber, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    Danionella dracula is a new species of sexually dimorphic, miniature and highly developmentally truncated cyprinid fish. Compared with its close relative, the zebrafish Danio rerio, it lacks 44 bones or parts thereof and represents one of the most developmentally truncated vertebrates. Absence of the majority of bones appears to be due to developmental truncation via terminal deletion. In contrast to these larval-like features, D. dracula also shows several hyperossifications. Uniquely, among carp-like fishes, male D. dracula have a series of long, pointed odontoid processes on the jaws greatly resembling the jaw dentition of teleosts with true teeth. The anterior-most process in each jaw is extended as a canine-like fang projecting through the epithelium. True jaw teeth are absent from all 3700 species of cypriniforms and were lost at least in the Upper Eocene. It remains to be investigated, however, whether the conserved pathways to regulate tooth development in cypriniforms have been used in D. dracula to form and pattern the odontoid processes. This new species represents a remarkable example linking progenetic paedomorphosis via heterochronic change in developmental timing to the evolution of morphological novelties. PMID:19324738

  12. Spectacular morphological novelty in a miniature cyprinid fish, Danionella dracula n. sp.

    PubMed

    Britz, Ralf; Conway, Kevin W; Rüber, Lukas

    2009-06-22

    Danionella dracula is a new species of sexually dimorphic, miniature and highly developmentally truncated cyprinid fish. Compared with its close relative, the zebrafish Danio rerio, it lacks 44 bones or parts thereof and represents one of the most developmentally truncated vertebrates. Absence of the majority of bones appears to be due to developmental truncation via terminal deletion. In contrast to these larval-like features, D. dracula also shows several hyperossifications. Uniquely, among carp-like fishes, male D. dracula have a series of long, pointed odontoid processes on the jaws greatly resembling the jaw dentition of teleosts with true teeth. The anterior-most process in each jaw is extended as a canine-like fang projecting through the epithelium. True jaw teeth are absent from all 3700 species of cypriniforms and were lost at least in the Upper Eocene. It remains to be investigated, however, whether the conserved pathways to regulate tooth development in cypriniforms have been used in D. dracula to form and pattern the odontoid processes. This new species represents a remarkable example linking progenetic paedomorphosis via heterochronic change in developmental timing to the evolution of morphological novelties.

  13. Characteristics of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in different phases of infection: implications for disease transmission and control.

    PubMed

    Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J; Schat, Karel A; Slobedman, Barry; Barnes, Andrew C; Walker, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) is an emerging and highly contagious viral disease of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), causing mass mortalities and huge economic losses to the carp aquaculture industry. The disease has spread rapidly to 28 countries worldwide. However, mechanisms of koi herpesvirus (species Cyprinid herpesvirus 3; CyHV-3) transmission remain unclear. A potential experimental model of CyHV-3 infection in carp was used to characterise CyHV-3 in different phases of infection and to demonstrate that CyHV-3 persists in survivor fish and has the capacity to reactivate and transmit the disease to healthy fish. During acute infection, which occurred when fish were maintained at 22°C, viral genes were abundantly expressed and infectious virus was produced in association with tissue damage, clinical disease and mortality. In fish maintained at a lower temperature (11°C), viral DNA was present but viral gene expression was absent or greatly restricted, infectious virus was not recovered and there was no evidence of disease. Productive replication was re-initiated following an increase in water temperature to 22°C, resulting in 45% mortality. Shedding of reactivated virus killed 75% of cohabitating naïve fish, suggesting a potential risk for disease transmission.

  14. Characteristics of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in different phases of infection: implications for disease transmission and control.

    PubMed

    Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J; Schat, Karel A; Slobedman, Barry; Barnes, Andrew C; Walker, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) is an emerging and highly contagious viral disease of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), causing mass mortalities and huge economic losses to the carp aquaculture industry. The disease has spread rapidly to 28 countries worldwide. However, mechanisms of koi herpesvirus (species Cyprinid herpesvirus 3; CyHV-3) transmission remain unclear. A potential experimental model of CyHV-3 infection in carp was used to characterise CyHV-3 in different phases of infection and to demonstrate that CyHV-3 persists in survivor fish and has the capacity to reactivate and transmit the disease to healthy fish. During acute infection, which occurred when fish were maintained at 22°C, viral genes were abundantly expressed and infectious virus was produced in association with tissue damage, clinical disease and mortality. In fish maintained at a lower temperature (11°C), viral DNA was present but viral gene expression was absent or greatly restricted, infectious virus was not recovered and there was no evidence of disease. Productive replication was re-initiated following an increase in water temperature to 22°C, resulting in 45% mortality. Shedding of reactivated virus killed 75% of cohabitating naïve fish, suggesting a potential risk for disease transmission. PMID:24704574

  15. Rapid Detection of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 in Latently Infected Koi by Recombinase Polymerase Amplification.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Meagan A; Reed, Aimee N; Jin, Ling; Pastey, Manoj K

    2016-09-01

    Since the emergence of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), outbreaks have been devastating to Common Carp Cyprinus carpio and koi (a variant of Common Carp), leading to high economic losses. Current diagnostics for detecting CyHV-3 are limited in sensitivity and are further complicated by latency. Here we describe the detection of CyHV-3 by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The RPA assay can detect as low as 10 copies of the CyHV-3 genome by an isothermal reaction and yields results in approximately 20 min. Using the RPA assay, the CyHV-3 genome can be detected in the total DNA of white blood cells isolated from koi latently infected with CyHV-3, while less than 10% of the latently infected koi can be detected by a real-time PCR assay in the total DNA of white blood cells. In addition, RPA products can be detected in a lateral flow device that is cheap and fast and can be used outside of the diagnostic lab. The RPA assay and lateral flow device provide for the rapid, sensitive, and specific amplification of CyHV-3 that with future modifications for field use and validation could lead to enhanced surveillance and early diagnosis of CyHV-3 in the laboratory and field. Received September 14, 2015; accepted April 9, 2016.

  16. The Uncommon Localization of Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Herpes zoster is an acute, cutaneous viral infection caused by the reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that is the cause of varicella. It is an acute neurological disease which can often lead to serious postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Different nerves can be included with the skin rash in the area of its enervation especially cranial nerves (CV) and intercostal nerves. Case report: In this report we present a patient with herpes zoster which involved ulnar nerve with skin rash in the region of ulnar innervations in women with no disease previously diagnosed. The failure of her immune system may be explained by great emotional stress and overwork she had been exposed to with neglecting proper nutrition in that period. Conclusion: Herpes zoster may involve any nerve with characteristic skin rash in the area of its innervations, and failure in immune system which leads reactivation of VZV may be caused by other factors besides the underlying illness. PMID:26980938

  17. [How I treat...recurrent labial herpes].

    PubMed

    Nikkels, A F; Piérard, G E

    2008-11-01

    Recurrent oro-labial herpes is predominantly caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1. Following the primary infection, the virus remains in a latent stage in the trigeminal ganglion. After episodic reactivations, it is transported via the V1 or V2 axons to the lower or upper lip. Although no causal treatment exists, a series of therapeutic options are currently available. It now appears that recurrent oro-labial herpes can be treated with shorter treatment schedules with the currently available antiviral drugs. In these instances, similar clinical efficacy was obtained with increased compliance of the patient, and reduction in both the economical impact and the amount of drug intake. Newer treatment strategies are emerging including non medicated hydrocolloid dressings and combinations of a systemic antiviral drug with a topical corticosteroid. PMID:19112988

  18. Preventing herpes simplex virus in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide. Approximately 22% of pregnant women are infected genitally with HSV, and most of them are unaware of this. The most devastating consequence of maternal genital herpes is HSV disease in the newborn. Although neonatal HSV infections remain uncommon, due to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with the infection, HSV infection in the newborn is often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. This review summarizes the epidemiology and management of neonatal HSV infections and discusses strategies to prevent HSV infection in the newborn.

  19. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: An Uncommon Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sunil; Bhatia, Rohan; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2016-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis is an uncommon illness, with about 2 cases per 250,000 per year. Most are caused by HSV-1, with 10% having HSV-2 as the aetiologic factor. We present a case of Herpes simplex type1encephalitis in a 70 year old male with an uncommon presentation. The patient was a known case of endogenous depression with no medical records and on no treatment for the same, reported with acute changes in mental state for the past five days. He was talking irrelevantly, had hallucinations and was unduly aggressive and violent. He was subjected to a thorough clinical and diagnostic work-up which included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, CT head and MRI brain. MRI brain was suggestive of mild subdural effusion which hinted towards infectious cause of encephalitis. The cerebrospinal fluid viral serology panel detected herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) that was later confirmed by CSF Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Hence, acyclovir was initiated by intravenous route at a dosage of 10mg/kg body weight and continued for two weeks. This case holds significance in view of the fact that organic causes must be excluded in suspected cases of psychiatric illness especially in the absence of fever. Also, CSF-PCR testing plays a pivotal role in diagnosing herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:27437286

  20. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: An Uncommon Presentation.

    PubMed

    Kaeley, Nidhi; Bansal, Sunil; Bhatia, Rohan; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2016-05-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis is an uncommon illness, with about 2 cases per 250,000 per year. Most are caused by HSV-1, with 10% having HSV-2 as the aetiologic factor. We present a case of Herpes simplex type1encephalitis in a 70 year old male with an uncommon presentation. The patient was a known case of endogenous depression with no medical records and on no treatment for the same, reported with acute changes in mental state for the past five days. He was talking irrelevantly, had hallucinations and was unduly aggressive and violent. He was subjected to a thorough clinical and diagnostic work-up which included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, CT head and MRI brain. MRI brain was suggestive of mild subdural effusion which hinted towards infectious cause of encephalitis. The cerebrospinal fluid viral serology panel detected herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) that was later confirmed by CSF Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Hence, acyclovir was initiated by intravenous route at a dosage of 10mg/kg body weight and continued for two weeks. This case holds significance in view of the fact that organic causes must be excluded in suspected cases of psychiatric illness especially in the absence of fever. Also, CSF-PCR testing plays a pivotal role in diagnosing herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:27437286

  1. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

  2. Comparative analysis of testis transcriptomes from triploid and fertile diploid cyprinid fish.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kang; Wen, Ming; Duan, Wei; Ren, Li; Hu, Fangzhou; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-04-01

    The fertility of fish is a key factor in fish breeding. RNA-seq is widely used in high-throughput sequencing and provides a rapid method to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying a biological process. To probe fertility-related molecular mechanisms, we obtained testis transcriptomes from diploid and triploid cyprinid fish and tested for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the testis. A total of 6730 transcripts were differentially expressed between the triploid and diploid fish. In these transcripts, 2428 transcripts showed reduced expression and 4302 transcripts were overexpressed in triploid fish compared to the diploid fish. Functional analyses revealed that partial genes related to reproductive, developmental, and locomotion processes, and the axoneme, were differentially expressed in triploid fish relative to diploid fish. Pathway analysis indicated that variations in the gene expression levels of the "ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis pathway" and the "apoptotic pathway" played a central role in the sterility of triploid male fish. A series of genes (DNAHs, DNAL1, IFTs, and DNAAF1) associated with sperm flagellar assembly and motility, and testis-specific candidate markers (Tcte1, Tekt1, Tekt4, Spag17, Spag5, Spag9a, Spag1b, and Spef2), had low expression levels in the testis of triploid fish. We validated these DEGs in triploid fish using quantitative PCR to quantify expression of eight representative genes. Furthermore, 276 putative transcription factors, 6 chromatin remodeling factors, and 35 transcription cofactors exhibited differential expression in triploid compared to diploid fish. This study provides insight into the regulatory mechanisms causing sterility in male triploid fish.

  3. Molecular cloning of preproinsulin cDNAs from several osteoglossomorphs and a cyprinid.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahrouki, A A; Irwin, D M; Graham, L C; Youson, J H

    2001-03-28

    Several preproinsulin cDNAs were isolated and characterized from four members of the Osteoglossomorpha (an ancient teleost group); Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (arawana), Pantodon buchholzi (butterfly fish), Notopterus chitala (feather fin knife fish), Hiodon alosoides (goldeye) and Gnathonemus petersii (elephantnose). In addition, we isolated and characterized the preproinsulin cDNA from Catostomus commersoni (white sucker, as a representative of a generalized teleost). The comparative analysis of the sequences revealed conservation of the cystine residues known to be involved in the formation of the disulfide bridges, as well as residues involved in the hexamer formation, except for B-17 in the butterfly fish, the arawana and the goldeye. However, the N-terminus of the B-chain was very weakly conserved among the species studied. Residues known to be significant for maintaining receptor-binding conformation and those known to comprise the receptor-binding domain were all conserved, except for a conservative substitution at B13, aspartate substituted glutamate in the arawana, goldeye, butterfly fish and white sucker, and at B16, phenylalanine substituted tyrosine in the elephantnose. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed a monophyletic grouping of the osteoglossomorphs, and showed that they were not the most basal living teleost. Comparative sequence analysis of preproinsulins among the osteoglossomorphs was useful in assessment of intergroup relationship, relating elephantnose with the feather fin knife fish and the arawana, butterfly fish, and goldeye. This arrangement of species is consistent with relationships based on other more classical parameters, except for the goldeye which was assessed as being sister to all the osteoglossomorphs. The white sucker was grouped with the common carp and both are cyprinids.

  4. Susceptibility of Japanese Cyprininae fish species to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2).

    PubMed

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2014-03-14

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Recently, the virus has also been detected from Prussian carp (C. gibelio) and crucian carp (C. carassius) from European and Asian countries. To analyze the risk of spreading to new host species, the susceptibility of other fish species to the virus is essential. In this study experimental infections of indigenous Cyprininae species in Japan were performed by immersion in and intraperitoneal injection of a CyHV-2 isolate. Although Edonishiki, a variety of goldfish, immersed with the virus showed a cumulative mortality of 90%, no mortality was observed in ginbuna C. auratus langsdorfii, nagabuna C. auratus buergeri, nigorobuna C. auratus grandoculis and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Cumulative mortality was 100, 20 and 10% in intraperitoneally injected Edonishiki, ginbuna and nagabuna, respectively. Furthermore all Edonishiki immersed with the virus died. However, even after stimuli of sudden temperature changes, the immersed ginbuna and nagabuna did not die. Moreover no mortality was observed in co-reared Ranchu, another variety of goldfish, with immersed ginbuna and nagabuna although all three Ranchu co-reared with immersed Edonishiki died. CyHV-2 DNA was detected and the virus was re-isolated from all dead fish. Moreover CyHV-2 DNA was detected from some of the surviving Carassius spp. These results revealed that susceptibility of Japanese indigenous Cyprininae fish species to CyHV-2 is much lower than for goldfish. In addition, ability of replication of CyHV-2 might be different among Carassius fish species.

  5. Hematological and Histological Changes in Prussian Carp Carassius gibelio Infected with Cyprinid Herpesvirus 2.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Lu, Hongda; Cao, Genping

    2016-09-01

    Outbreaks of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) disease, also known as herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis, among cultured Prussian Carp Carassius gibelio has occurred each year in Jiangsu province, China, since 2009. In autumn 2014, hematological, blood biochemical, and histological changes in naturally infected moribund Prussian Carp were investigated after CyHV-2 was confirmed as the sole etiologic agent by etiological analyses. Total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, and thrombocyte count were significantly reduced (P < 0.01), whereas erythrocyte osmotic brittleness was significantly increased (P < 0.01) in infected fish compared with control fish. In addition, monocyte count was higher (P < 0.01) and lymphocyte count was lower (P < 0.01) in diseased fish than in control fish. The blood biochemical analyses indicated significant increases (P < 0.01) in the activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase as well as in the levels of total protein, globulin, total bilirubin, creatinine, and urea along with significant decreases (P < 0.01) in glucose and albumin in the diseased group. Histopathological examinations indicated that the kidneys and spleens of moribund Prussian Carp were the most severely lesioned organs, followed by the gills and hearts. Hypertrophied nuclei with marginated chromatin also appeared in the hearts and renal tubular epithelia from diseased fish. Pathological analysis of blood cells showed that approximately 78% of erythrocytes and 94% of leukocytes were lesioned with different levels of degeneration and necrosis in the diseased group. These previously unreported observations may be useful in the diagnosis of CyHV-2 disease. Received May 11, 2015; accepted March 24, 2016. PMID:27484729

  6. Distribution and Abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini Metacercariae in Cyprinid Fish in Northeastern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Onsurathum, Sudarat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Chaidee, Apisit; Haonon, Ornuma; Limviroj, Wutipong; Tesana, Smarn; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2013-01-01

    To increase public health awareness for prevention of opisthorchiasis caused by eating raw freshwater fish, the distribution and abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OV MC) was investigated in freshwater fish obtained from 20 provinces in northeastern Thailand between April 2011 and February 2012. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 12,890 fish consisting of 13 species randomly caught from 26 rivers, 10 dams, and 38 ponds/lakes. Fish, were collected in each of the rainy and winter seasons from each province. Fish were identified, counted, weighed, and digested using pepsin-HCl. Samples were examined for OV MC by a sedimentation method, and metacercariae were identified under a stereomicroscope. OV MC were found in 6 species of fish; i.e., Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Puntius orphoides, Hampala dispar, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Osteochilus hasselti, and Puntioplites proctozysron from localities in 13 provinces. Among the sites where OV MC-infected fish were found, 70.0% were dams, 23.7% were ponds/lakes, and 7.7% were rivers. The mean intensity of OV MC ranged from 0.01 to 6.5 cysts per fish (or 1.3-287.5 cysts per kg of fish). A high mean intensity of OV MC per fish (>3 cysts) was found in 5 provinces: Amnat Charoen (6.5 cysts), Nakhon Phanom (4.3), Mukdahan (4.1), Khon Kaen, (3.5) and Si Sa Ket (3.4). In conclusion, OV MC are prevalent in natural cyprinid fish, with the infection rate varying according to fish species and habitats. PMID:24516277

  7. Interspecific variation in hypoxia tolerance, swimming performance and plasticity in cyprinids that prefer different habitats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shi-Jian; Fu, Cheng; Yan, Guan-Jie; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Zhang, An-Jie; Pang, Xu

    2014-02-15

    This study quantified and compared hypoxia tolerance and swim performance among cyprinid fish species from rapid-, slow- and intermediate-flow habitats (four species per habitat) in China. In addition, we explored the effects of short-term acclimation on swim performance, maximum metabolic rate (M(O2,max)) and gill remodelling to detect habitat-associated patterns of plastic response to hypoxia. Indices of hypoxia tolerance included oxygen threshold for loss of equilibrium (LOE50) and aquatic surface respiration (ASR50), and critical oxygen tension for routine metabolic rate (Pcrit). Critical swimming speed (Ucrit) and M(O2,max) were measured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions after 48 h acclimation to normoxia and hypoxia, and gill remodelling was estimated after 48 h of hypoxia exposure. Both traditional ANCOVA and phylogenetically independent contrast (PDANOVA) analyses showed that fish species from rapid-flow habitats exhibited lower LOE50 compared with fish from intermediate- and slow-flow habitats. Habitat-specific differences in Pcrit and Ucrit were detected using PDANOVA but not traditional ANCOVA analyses, with fish species from rapid-flow habitats exhibiting lower Pcrit but higher Ucrit values compared with fish from intermediate- and slow-flow habitats. Fish species from rapid-flow habitats were also characterized by less plasticity in swim performance and gill morphology in response to hypoxia acclimation compared with species from slow-flow habitats, but a greater drop in swim performance in response to acute hypoxia exposure. The study detected a habitat-specific difference in hypoxia tolerance, swimming performance and its plasticity among fish from habitats with different flow conditions, possibly because of the long-term adaptation to the habitat caused by selection stress. The PDANOVA analyses were more powerful than traditional statistical analyses according to the habitat effects in both hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance in this

  8. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Yawn, Barbara P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010–2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results. We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P < .05). Herpes zoster was not associated with trauma, smoking, tonsillectomy, diet, or reported exposure to pesticides or herbicides (P > .1). Conclusions. We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown. PMID:27382600

  9. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Yawn, Barbara P

    2016-09-01

    Background.  The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods.  We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010-2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results.  We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P < .05). Herpes zoster was not associated with trauma, smoking, tonsillectomy, diet, or reported exposure to pesticides or herbicides (P > .1). Conclusions.  We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown. PMID:27382600

  10. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Yawn, Barbara P

    2016-09-01

    Background.  The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods.  We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010-2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results.  We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P < .05). Herpes zoster was not associated with trauma, smoking, tonsillectomy, diet, or reported exposure to pesticides or herbicides (P > .1). Conclusions.  We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown.

  11. Frog Virus 3 DNA Replication Occurs in Two Stages

    PubMed Central

    Goorha, R.

    1982-01-01

    Viral DNA synthesis in frog virus 3 (FV3)-infected cells occurs both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm (Goorha et al., Virology 84:32-51, 1978). Relationships between viral DNA molecules synthesized in these two compartments and their role in the virus replication were examined. The data presented here suggest that (i) FV3 DNA replicated in two stages and (ii) nucleus and cytoplasm were the sites of stages 1 and 2 of DNA replication, respectively. Stages 1 and 2 were further distinguished by their temporal appearance during infection and by the sizes of the replicating DNA as determined by sedimentation in neutral sucrose gradients. In stage 1, replicating molecules, between the size of unit and twice the unit length, were produced early in infection (2 h postinfection). In contrast, stage 2 of DNA replication occurred only after 3 h postinfection, and replicating molecules were large concatemers. Results of pulse-chase experiments showed that the concatemeric DNA served as the precursor for the production of mature FV3 DNA. Denaturation of concatemeric DNA with alkali or digestion with S1 nuclease reduced it to less than genome size molecules, indicating the presence of extensive single-stranded regions. Analysis of replicating DNA by equilibrium centrifugation in CsCl gradients after a pulse-chase suggested that these single-stranded regions were subsequently repaired. Based on these and previous data, a scheme of FV3 replication is presented. According to this scheme, FV3 utilizes the nucleus for early transcription and stage 1 of DNA replication. The viral DNA is then transported to the cytoplasm, where it participates in stage 2 DNA replication to form a concatemeric replication complex. The processing of concatemers to produce mature viral DNA and virus assembly also occurs in the cytoplasm. This mode of replication is strikingly different from any other known DNA virus. PMID:7109033

  12. Herpes Zoster Vaccination: Controversies and Common Clinical Questions.

    PubMed

    Van Epps, Puja; Schmader, Kenneth E; Canaday, David H

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster, clinically referred to as shingles, is an acute, cutaneous viral infection caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox. The incidence of herpes zoster and its complications increase with decline in cell-mediated immunity, including age-associated decline. The most effective management strategy for herpes zoster is prevention of the disease through vaccination in those who are most vulnerable. Despite the demonstrated efficacy in reducing the incidence and severity of herpes zoster, the uptake of vaccine remains low. Here, we will discuss the controversies that surround the live herpes zoster vaccine and address the common clinical questions that arise. We will also discuss the new adjuvanted herpes zoster vaccine currently under investigation.

  13. A review of famciclovir in the management of genital herpes.

    PubMed Central

    Faro, S

    1998-01-01

    The frequent occurrence of genital herpes continues to be a serious clinical problem. Although not life threatening, the physical symptoms of the disease, and the ensuing psychosocial complications, can be overwhelming to patients. The life cycle of the herpes simplex virus is complex, comprising multiple stages. Following infection, the virus establishes life-long latency in its host and can reactivate at any time as a recurrent infection. Successful management of genital herpes simplex infections involves patient education and psychological support, as well as antiviral agents. The antiviral agent famciclovir has been shown to shorten the course and decrease the severity of episodes of recurrent genital herpes. In addition, famciclovir has been shown to be effective in suppressing recurrent genital herpes. A review of the clinical experience with famciclovir in the treatment of genital herpes is presented. PMID:9678146

  14. Improving immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines for genital herpes containing herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita; Shaw, Carolyn; Friedman, Harvey

    2014-12-01

    No vaccines are approved for prevention or treatment of genital herpes. The focus of genital herpes vaccine trials has been on prevention using herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) alone or combined with glycoprotein B. These prevention trials did not achieve their primary end points. However, subset analyses reported some positive outcomes in each study. The most recent trial was the Herpevac Trial for Women that used gD2 with monophosphoryl lipid A and alum as adjuvants in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 seronegative women. Unexpectedly, the vaccine prevented genital disease by HSV-1 but not HSV-2. Currently, HSV-1 causes more first episodes of genital herpes than HSV-2, highlighting the importance of protecting against HSV-1. The scientific community is conflicted between abandoning vaccine efforts that include gD2 and building upon the partial successes of previous trials. We favor building upon success and present approaches to improve outcomes of gD2-based subunit antigen vaccines.

  15. Pharmacologic management of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed Central

    Mamdani, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Herpes zoster is an infection caused by reactivation of dormant varicella-zoster virus. The acute course of herpes zoster is generally benign; however, some patients will experience postherpetic neuralgia characterized by severe, relentless, and at times disabling pain that is often refractory to treatment. While herpes zoster responds to acyclovir, cost-benefit considerations limit the drug's usefulness to only a select group. Postherpetic neuralgia requires a holistic approach, including pharmacologic therapy using several different classes of drugs. PMID:7907508

  16. 2014 UK national guideline for the management of anogenital herpes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Raj; Green, John; Clarke, Emily; Seneviratne, Kanchana; Abbt, Naomi; Evans, Ceri; Bickford, Jane; Nicholson, Marian; O'Farrell, Nigel; Barton, Simon; FitzGerald, Mark; Foley, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    These guidelines concern the management of anogenital herpes simplex virus infections in adults and give advice on diagnosis, management, and counselling of patients. This guideline replaces the 2007 BASHH herpes guidelines and includes new sections on herpes proctitis, key points to cover with patients regarding transmission and removal of advice on the management of HSV in pregnancy which now has a separate joint BASHH/RCOG guideline.

  17. [Diagnostic pitfall: herpes simplex recidivans on the finger].

    PubMed

    Weisenseel, Peter; Sander, Erika; Prinz, Jörg

    2003-11-01

    Herpes simplex recidivans is one of the most common dermatological infections. In typical (perioral, labial or genital) localization, the diagnosis is simple and often made by the patient. In atypical locations, the disease may be misdiagnosed by the physician. A 28-year-old patient presented with recurrent herpes simplex virus exacerbations on his left index finger, accompanied by neuralgic pains and lymphadenitis. He had been misdiagnosed by a variety of specialists for several years and had often been unable to work. The diagnosis of recurrent herpes simplex was made by the patient's history and the clinical symptoms and was confirmed by the detection of Herpes simplex virus-specific DNA by PCR.

  18. Herpes zoster laryngitis accompanied by Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Joo, Young Eun; Lim, Sang Chul

    2013-01-01

    The most common presentation of herpes zoster in the head and neck region is called Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS), which rarely accompanies multiple cranial neuropathy. Herpes zoster also involves the mucous membrane of the tongue, palate, pharynx, and larynx. Herpes zoster infection of the larynx accompanied by Ramsay Hunt syndrome with cranial polyneuropathy is extremely rare, with only few reported cases in the literature. At the time of this report, a review of the medical literature disclosed 4 reported cases of herpes zoster laryngitis accompanied by Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Herein, we present 2 additional cases and report the clinical outcome of cranial polyneuropathy with a review of the literature.

  19. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Two Fatal Cases

    PubMed Central

    Hader, W.; Bayatpour, M.; Dempster, G.; Rozdilsky, B.

    1967-01-01

    The clinical and pathological features of the first two reported cases of herpes simplex encephalitis occurring in Saskatchewan are presented. The clinical history of an acute onset, an early organic mental syndrome followed by coma, neurologic disturbances, rapid progression and death suggests the diagnosis. The acute, diffuse, inflammatory process with predominant involvement of the temporal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres and the presence of intranuclear inclusions in nerve and glial cells are illustrated. The viral particles were found in electron micrographs from the brain tissue of both patients. The definitive diagnosis was established by the isolation, from postmortem brain tissue, of the herpes simplex virus, which was grown in tissue culture and shown to be pathogenic in suckling mice. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 7Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4290725

  20. Herpes zoster post-herpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Jadwat, Y; Bouckaert, M

    2005-11-01

    Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most frequent complication of herpes zoster and often results in significant morbidity and a reduction in the patient's quality of life. The peripheral nerve injury that occurs during the acute phase of herpes zoster (HZ) leads to an abnormal tonic impulse discharge from primary nociceptive afferent neurons which induce slow temporal summation. This "wind-up" phenomenon is responsible for continuous partial depolarisation of second-order neurons with increased spontaneous impulse discharge and expanded receptive fields within the dorsal horn nociceptive neurons. The abnormal central processing involves the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors resulting in neuropathic pain, characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia which is typical of PHN. In addition, tonic input from non-nociceptive AB afferent neurons, maintained by sympathetic efferent activity, contribute to the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain in general, and a burning sensation in particular.

  1. [Ocular hypertension in herpes simplex keratouveitis].

    PubMed

    Burcea, M; Avram, Corina-Ioana; Stamate, Alina-Cristina; Malciolu, R; Oprea, S; Zemba, M

    2014-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus is one of the most common pathogens in humans, who are seropositive for the virus in 90% of the cases at the adult age. It determines reccurent infections in more than a third of the population and these infections depend on the immune response of the host. Ocular infections of newborns are due to the herpes simplex virus type 2, meanwhile type 1 is found predominantly at adults; almost all ocular structures can be affected. HSV-1 in the most frequent etiologic agent in infectious anterior uveitis (with the varicelo-zosterian virus) and it is responsible for 6-10% of all cases of anterior uveitis. More than half of the keratouveitides due to HSV will develop intraocular hypertension and open-angle secondary glaucoma, during reccurences and most of them will resolve after proper control of inflammation.

  2. Valacyclovir for Herpes Simplex Encephalitis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pouplin, Thomas; Pouplin, Julie Nguyen; Van Toi, Pham; Lindegardh, Niklas; Rogier van Doorn, H.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; Török, M. Estée; Chau, Tran Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    The recommended treatment for herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) remains intravenous acyclovir. In resource-poor countries, however, intravenous formulations are usually unavailable or unaffordable. We report the penetration of acyclovir into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with HSE, treated with the oral prodrug valacyclovir at 1,000 mg three times daily. The oral therapy achieved adequate acyclovir concentrations in the CSF and may be an acceptable early treatment for suspected HSE in resource-limited settings. PMID:21576427

  3. Herpes Viral Origin of the Parsonage-Turner Syndrome: Highlighting of Serological Immune Anti-Herpes Deficiency Cured by Anti-Herpes Therapy.

    PubMed

    Goaster, Jacqueline Le; Bourée, Patrice; Ifergan, Charles; Tangy, Frederic; Olivier, René; Haenni, Anne-Lise

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a 50 year-old athletic male presented with weakness, pain and unilateral phrenic paralysis, followed by bilateral phrenic paralysis with deep dyspnea. In 2013, the Parsonage-Turner syndrome was diagnosed. When the patient was seen in September 2014 for the first time, he was facing phrenic neuromuscular failure, which led to the hypothesis of neurotropic herpes viruses. A control of the global serological anti-Herpes immunity to analyze his antibody (Ab) levels confirmed herpes immune genetic deficiency. An appropriate herpes chemotherapy treatment was proposed. Immediately, a spectacular recovery of the patient was observed, and after a few weeks, the respiratory function tests showed normal values. The hypothesis of the inductive role of viruses of the herpes family in the Parsonage-Turner syndrome was thus substantiated. The patient's immune deficiency covers the HSV2, HHV3, HHV4, HHV5 and HHV6 Ab levels. This led to the control of herpes in the family lineage: indeed, his daughter presented alterations of her serological herpes Ab levels.

  4. Herpes Viral Origin of the Parsonage-Turner Syndrome: Highlighting of Serological Immune Anti-Herpes Deficiency Cured by Anti-Herpes Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Goaster, Jacqueline Le; Bourée, Patrice; Ifergan, Charles; Tangy, Frederic; Olivier, René; Haenni, Anne-Lise

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a 50 year-old athletic male presented with weakness, pain and unilateral phrenic paralysis, followed by bilateral phrenic paralysis with deep dyspnea. In 2013, the Parsonage-Turner syndrome was diagnosed. When the patient was seen in September 2014 for the first time, he was facing phrenic neuromuscular failure, which led to the hypothesis of neurotropic herpes viruses. A control of the global serological anti-Herpes immunity to analyze his antibody (Ab) levels confirmed herpes immune genetic deficiency. An appropriate herpes chemotherapy treatment was proposed. Immediately, a spectacular recovery of the patient was observed, and after a few weeks, the respiratory function tests showed normal values. The hypothesis of the inductive role of viruses of the herpes family in the Parsonage-Turner syndrome was thus substantiated. The patient's immune deficiency covers the HSV2, HHV3, HHV4, HHV5 and HHV6 Ab levels. This led to the control of herpes in the family lineage: indeed, his daughter presented alterations of her serological herpes Ab levels. PMID:26078744

  5. Mitochondrial Haplogroups as a Risk Factor for Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Rebecca T.; Hulgan, Todd; Kalams, Spyros A.; Fessel, Joshua P.; Samuels, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Herpes zoster, or shingles, is a common, painful reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection. Understanding host factors that predispose to herpes zoster may permit development of more effective prevention strategies. Our objective was to examine mitochondrial haplogroups as a potential host factor related to herpes zoster incidence. Methods. Study participants were drawn from BioVU, a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biobank connected to deidentified electronic medical records (EMRs) from Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Our study used 9691 Caucasian individuals with herpes zoster status determined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 053–053.9. Cases and controls were matched on sex and date of birth within 5 years. Mitochondrial haplogroups were defined from mitochondrial DNA variants genotyped on the Illumina 660W or Illumina Infinium Human-Exome Beadchip. Sex and date of birth were extracted from the EMR. Results. European mitochondrial haplogroup H had a protective association with herpes zoster status (odds ratio [OR] = .82; 95% confidence interval [CI], .71–.94; P = .005), whereas haplogroup clade IWX was a risk factor for herpes zoster status (OR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.07–1.77; P = .01). Conclusions. Mitochondrial haplogroup influences herpes zoster risk. Knowledge of a patient's mitochondrial haplogroup could allow for a precision approach to the management of herpes zoster risk through vaccination strategies and management of other modifiable risk factors. PMID:27807590

  6. Genital herpes and its treatment in relation to preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Kun; Raebel, Marsha A; Cheetham, T Craig; Hansen, Craig; Avalos, Lyndsay; Chen, Hong; Davis, Robert

    2014-12-01

    To examine the risks of genital herpes and antiherpes treatment during pregnancy in relation to preterm delivery (PTD), we conducted a multicenter, member-based cohort study within 4 Kaiser Permanente regions: northern and southern California, Colorado, and Georgia. The study included 662,913 mother-newborn pairs from 1997 to 2010. Pregnant women were classified into 3 groups based on genital herpes diagnosis and treatment: genital herpes without treatment, genital herpes with antiherpes treatment, and no herpes diagnosis or treatment (unexposed controls). After controlling for potential confounders, we found that compared with being unexposed, having untreated genital herpes during first or second trimester was associated with more than double the risk of PTD (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.76). The association was stronger for PTD due to premature rupture of membrane (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 2.53, 5.06) and for early PTD (≤35 weeks gestation) (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 2.22, 3.71). In contrast, undergoing antiherpes treatment during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of PTD compared with not being treated, and the PTD risk was similar to that observed in the unexposed controls (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.38). The present study revealed increased risk of PTD associated with genital herpes infection if left untreated and a potential benefit of antiherpes medications in mitigating the effect of genital herpes infection on the risk of PTD.

  7. Growth and longevity of the cui-ui and longevity of other catostomids and cyprinids in western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G.G.; Coleman, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Annulus formation on opercula of the cui-ui Chasmistes cujus in Pyramid Lake, Nevada, was validated over an 8-year interval. Many fish were old, as old as 41 years of age, As many as three annuli were hidden (covered by supporting bone) in older fish. Growth was rapid during the first 10 years, slow from 10 to 20 years, and extremely slow or nil after 20 years. Age and growth were strongly correlated for about the first 10 years of life, but less so when fish became sexually mature. Examination of opercula of 15 additional species of large catostomids and cyprinids of western North America revealed that they were older than had previously been thought.

  8. Paedocypris, a new genus of Southeast Asian cyprinid fish with a remarkable sexual dimorphism, comprises the world's smallest vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Kottelat, Maurice; Britz, Ralf; Hui, Tan Heok; Witte, Kai-Erik

    2006-01-01

    Paedocypris is a new genus of paedomorphic cyprinid fish from highly acidic blackwater peat swamps in Southeast Asia. It includes two new species, one of which (Paedocypris progenetica) appears to be the smallest fish and vertebrate known, with the smallest mature female measuring a mere 7.9 mm. Paedocypris has many ’larval’ features typically associated with paedomorphic fish (e.g. narrow frontals that leave the brain unprotected dorsally by bone and a precaudal larval-fin-fold), but, uniquely among fishes, males also possess highly modified pelvic fins with hypertrophied muscles and a keratinized pad in front of the pelvic girdle, which, we hypothesize, function together as a clasping or holding device, thereby suggesting an unusual reproductive mode. Unfortunately, habitat destruction jeopardizes the survival of these fishes and thus opportunities for further research. PMID:16627273

  9. Immune response and protection in gibel carp, Carassius gibelio, after vaccination with β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linlin; Ma, Jie; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Xu, Jin; Liu, Wenzhi; Gu, Zemao; Zeng, Lingbing

    2016-02-01

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) is a newly emerged infectious disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) and has caused huge economic losses in aquaculture operations. Currently, no effective methods are available for the control of the disease. In this study, β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) vaccine was prepared, and the immune response and protection in cultured gibel carp after vaccination was thoroughly investigated. This included blood cell counting and classification, phagocytic activity, lysozyme and superoxide dismutase activity, neutralizing antibody titration, immune gene expression analysis, and determination of the relative percent survival in vaccinated gibel carp. The results of blood cell counts indicated that the numbers of the red and white blood cells in the peripheral blood of immunized gibel carp increased significantly at day 4 and day 7 after vaccination (p < 0.01). The differential leukocyte count of neutrophils and monocytes were significantly different compared to the control group at day 4 and 7 and the percentage of lymphocytes reached a peak at day 21. The phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index peaked at day 4 post-vaccination. The lysozyme activity and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly increased compared to the control group (p < 0.01). The serum neutralizing antibody titer peaked (203.03 ± 13.44) at day 21. The qPCR analysis revealed that the expression of the immune genes interlukin 11 and complement component C3 were significantly up-regulated in the immunized group. The challenge test demonstrated that the immunized group had a relative survival rate of 71.4%. These results indicate that the inactivated CyHV-2 vaccine induced both non-specific and specific anti-viral immune responses that resulted in significant protection against HVHN disease and mortality in gibel carp.

  10. Characterizing the trophic niches of stocked and resident cyprinid fishes: consistency in partitioning over time, space and body sizes.

    PubMed

    Bašić, Tea; Britton, J Robert

    2016-07-01

    Hatchery-reared fish are commonly stocked into freshwaters to enhance recreational angling. As these fishes are often of high trophic position and attain relatively large sizes, they potentially interact with functionally similar resident fishes and modify food-web structure. Hatchery-reared barbel Barbus barbus are frequently stocked to enhance riverine cyprinid fish communities in Europe; these fish can survive for over 20 years and exceed 8 kg. Here, their trophic consequences for resident fish communities were tested using cohabitation studies, mainly involving chub Squalius cephalus, a similarly large-bodied, omnivorous and long-lived species. These studies were completed over three spatial scales: pond mesocosms, two streams and three lowland rivers, and used stable isotope analysis. Experiments in mesocosms over 100 days revealed rapid formation of dietary specializations and discrete trophic niches in juvenile B. barbus and S. cephalus. This niche partitioning between the species was also apparent in the streams over 2 years. In the lowland rivers, where fish were mature individuals within established populations, this pattern was also generally apparent in fishes of much larger body sizes. Thus, the stocking of these hatchery-reared fish only incurred minor consequences for the trophic ecology of resident fish, with strong patterns of trophic niche partitioning and diet specialization. Application of these results to decision-making frameworks should enable managers to make objective decisions on whether cyprinid fish should be stocked into lowland rivers according to ecological risk. PMID:27547336

  11. Immune response and protection in gibel carp, Carassius gibelio, after vaccination with β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linlin; Ma, Jie; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Xu, Jin; Liu, Wenzhi; Gu, Zemao; Zeng, Lingbing

    2016-02-01

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) is a newly emerged infectious disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) and has caused huge economic losses in aquaculture operations. Currently, no effective methods are available for the control of the disease. In this study, β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) vaccine was prepared, and the immune response and protection in cultured gibel carp after vaccination was thoroughly investigated. This included blood cell counting and classification, phagocytic activity, lysozyme and superoxide dismutase activity, neutralizing antibody titration, immune gene expression analysis, and determination of the relative percent survival in vaccinated gibel carp. The results of blood cell counts indicated that the numbers of the red and white blood cells in the peripheral blood of immunized gibel carp increased significantly at day 4 and day 7 after vaccination (p < 0.01). The differential leukocyte count of neutrophils and monocytes were significantly different compared to the control group at day 4 and 7 and the percentage of lymphocytes reached a peak at day 21. The phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index peaked at day 4 post-vaccination. The lysozyme activity and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly increased compared to the control group (p < 0.01). The serum neutralizing antibody titer peaked (203.03 ± 13.44) at day 21. The qPCR analysis revealed that the expression of the immune genes interlukin 11 and complement component C3 were significantly up-regulated in the immunized group. The challenge test demonstrated that the immunized group had a relative survival rate of 71.4%. These results indicate that the inactivated CyHV-2 vaccine induced both non-specific and specific anti-viral immune responses that resulted in significant protection against HVHN disease and mortality in gibel carp. PMID:26772479

  12. [Genetic susceptibility to herpes simplex encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, F

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare but severe complication of frequent and mostly benign infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although rapid and sensitive diagnosis tools and active antiviral drugs are available, HSE morbidity/mortality levels remain unsatisfactory. Molecular and cellular determinants of HSE are incompletely understood. The rarity and severity of the disease have suggested an increased susceptibility of some subjects to HSV infection. Numerous experimental studies have investigated the respective role of host and viral factors in HSE. The results of these studies have illustrated the major role of the innate immune response, in particular interferons (IFNs), in limiting access of the virus into and/or virus replication in the central nervous system (CNS). In a few children with HSE, specific defects of the immune innate response have been identified, which impair the IFN-α/β and IFN-λ production of fibroblasts and/or neurons infected with HSV and render these cells more permissive to infection. The mutations affect proteins involved in the IFN pathway induced by stimulation of the TLR3 receptor. The patients' susceptibility to infection is restricted to HSV CNS invasion, underlining the major role of TLR3 in CNS protection against viral infection. The incomplete clinical penetrance of these molecular defects suggests that other factors (age, infectious dose) are involved in HSE. Whether pathogenesis of adult HSE is similar has not been investigated.

  13. [Neonatal herpes simplex encephalitis: clinical profile versus molecular biology].

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Giannina; Cofré, José; Torres, J Pablo; Venegas, Gerardo; Vergara, Alejandra; Farfán, Mauricio

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is a diagnostic challenge and causes high morbidity and mortality in children. Early suspicion of the disease and a rapid, safe and useful diagnostic test are relevant because up to 70% of the cases may die. We report the case of a newborn girl aged 25 days, who presented with a clinical picture that was compatible with herpes simplex encephalitis where the confirmation of the etiological diagnosis was delayed. Only by repeated real-time polymerase chain reaction it was possible to confirm the presence of herpes simplex virus type 1 in the cerebrospinal fluid.

  14. Primary Herpes Labialis Acquired during Scuba Diving Course.

    PubMed

    Potasman; Pick

    1997-09-01

    Primary herpes infections usually require intimate contact of mucous membranes by either oral or sexual means.1,2 Infrequently, other types of contact have been described.3-5 Such was the case with an outbreak of herpes gladiatorum at a high-school wrestling camp, or a dental student who became infected from a patient.3,4 Reports charging fomites as vehicles of transmission of this virus seem anecdotal.6-8 Is it really that rare? We wish to present a hitherto unreported mode-of-transmission of primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection.

  15. Primary herpes simplex virus infection mimicking cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Andrew; White, Catherine; Higgins, Stephen Peter

    2015-06-02

    We report the case of an 18-year-old woman presenting with ulceration of the cervix caused by primary type 2 herpes simplex infection in the absence of skin lesions. The differential diagnosis included cervical cancer and we referred the patient for urgent colposcopy. However, laboratory tests proved the viral aetiology of the cervical ulceration and the cervix had healed completely 3 weeks later. The case highlights the need to consider herpes simplex infection in the differential diagnosis of ulceration of the cervix even when there are no cutaneous signs of herpes.

  16. Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

    1985-05-01

    In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

  17. Protective immunity in gibel carp, Carassius gibelio of the truncated proteins of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Jiang, Nan; Ma, Jie; Fan, Yuding; Zhang, Linlin; Xu, Jin; Zeng, Lingbing

    2015-12-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) infection is a newly emerged infectious disease of farmed gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China and causes huge economic losses to the aquaculture industry. In this study, the three membrane proteins encoded by genes ORF25, ORF25C, and ORF25D of CyHV-2 were truncated and expressed in yeast, Pichia pastoris. Screening of the recombinant yeasts was done by detecting the truncated proteins using Western blot. Through immunogold labeling, it was shown that proteins binding the colloidal gold were presented on the surface of cells. In the experiment of inhibition of virus binding by the recombinant truncated proteins, the TCID50 of the tORF25 group (10(4.1)/ml) was lower than that of tORF25C (10(4.6)/ml) or tORF25D groups (10(5)/ml). These results suggested that the proteins may be involved in attachment of the virus to the cell surface. Healthy gibel carp were immunized with 20 μg of tORF25, tORF25C, and tORF25D proteins, and the control group received PBS. Interleukin 11 (IL-11) expression in the spleens of the immunized fish peaked at day 4 and the complement component C3 (C3) genes were significantly up-regulated at day 7 post-immunization. Specific antibodies were measured in the three immunized groups and the titer detected in the tORF25 group reached 327, that was significantly higher than the tORF25C (247) or tORF25D (228) groups. When the immunized fish were challenged with live CyHV-2 by intraperitoneal injection the relative percent survival (RPS) of the tORF25, tORF25C, and tORF25D immunized groups was 75%, 63%, and 54%, respectively. The feasibility of the P. pastoris yeast expression system for the production of the recombinant truncated proteins and their apparent bioactivity suggests that tORF25, tORF25C, and tORF25D are potential candidate vaccines against Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 infection in gibel carp. PMID:26564473

  18. Injections Might Help Prevent Genital Herpes Transmission for Months: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injections Might Help Prevent Genital Herpes Transmission for Months: Study Three-shot regimen seems to control lesions ... placebo group. Testing was repeated periodically for 12 months after dosing and included analyzing genital swab samples ...

  19. Herpes zoster on the face in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Preeti; Gharote, Harshkant; Singh, Pooja; Jain-Choudhary, Palak

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a localised disease caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that enters the cutaneous nerve endings during an earlier episode of chicken pox, travels to the dorsal root ganglia, and remains in latent form. The condition is characterised by occurrence of multiple, painful, unilateral vesicles and ulceration, and shows a typical single dermatome innervated by single dorsal root or cranial sensory ganglion. Involvement of three or more dermatomes is known as disseminated zoster and seen in immunocompromised individuals. Complications of herpes zoster include ocular sequelae, bacterial superinfection of the lesions, meningoencephalitis and postherpetic neuralgia. The incidence of herpes zoster increases with age and immunosuppression, therefore prompt management is necessary to avoid morbidity and mortality in these individuals. We present two case reports of herpes zoster, one involving the maxillary and mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve while the other involves all branches of the trigeminal nerve. PMID:25331144

  20. AIDS and Herpes Carry Weighty Policy Implications for Your Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Few schools have policies to deal specifically with herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Discusses some schools and states that have developed such policies and includes a source list for more information. (MD)

  1. Typical and atypical lesions of herpes genitalis.

    PubMed

    De Punzio, C; Masoni, S; Conaldi, P G; Fioretti, P

    1990-01-01

    143 women with suspected Herpes Genitalis (HG), recurrent or common drug resistant vaginitis, unexplained or threatened abortion were examined by colposcopy, Pap test, viral culture and HSV-specific antibodies titration. HG was detected in 34 cases: 16 resulted positive for virus isolation. For the patients with negative culture HG was diagnosed by means of clinical examination, anamnesis and therapeutic criteria ex juvantibus. Serology proved to give little information. Most of the patients showed typical HG manifestations, but 8 of them were affected by atypical lesions. The infection proved to be not necessarily related to specific factors of risk, and it was not always possible to individuate the source of contamination. Only 9 out of the 33 sexual partners of the patients had asymptomatic manifestations. Many problems concerning HG diagnosis, epidemiology and therapy remain to be solved. The authors think that an engagement at different levels (population, practitioners, gynaecologists, politicians) is needed to face this issue fairly.

  2. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E.; Nikkels, Arjen F.

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7–C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  3. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster.

    PubMed

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E; Nikkels, Arjen F

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7-C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  4. Selective language aphasia from herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ku, A; Lachmann, E A; Nagler, W

    1996-09-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old right-handed Chinese/English bilingual patient who developed herpes simplex encephalitis involving the left temporal lobe, with resultant aphasia. His native language was Mandarin, but he had received extensive training in English for 6 years after moving to the United States and was fluent in English. One week after admission, he could not speak, comprehend, repeat, name, read, or write in English, but he had relative preservation of most of these facilities in Mandarin. He could not write in Mandarin, and his syntax was simplified. Two months later, along with intensive bilingual speech therapy, his reading, writing, and naming in English had almost recovered.

  5. Immunomodulating and antiviral therapy in herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Topciu, V; Mihăilescu, R

    1996-01-01

    Two groups of patients with herpes zoster were followed up. The first group was subjected, beside a symptomatic therapy, to an immunological and antiviral treatment. The control group was treated only symptomatically. The immunological preparations used were: the immunostimulant SRE (Corynebacterium parvum), which stimulated the lymphocytes and macrophages, Moroxidin (Virustat-Paris) and Antiherpin (interferon inductor), which acted by blocking the virus replication. The preparations were indigenous and atoxic. A significant difference between the courses of disease in the two groups was observed, namely, the severity and duration of subjective and objective symptoms were more than double and followed by persistent neurological sequelae in the control group in comparison with the patients of the experimental group. PMID:9495784

  6. [Immunopathological findings in herpes gestationis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Scherer, R; Wolff, H H; Braun-Falco, O

    1977-08-12

    Herpes gestationis occurred in a 26-year-old woman during the last weeks of her second pregnancy. Within 8 days of the delivery the disease had progressed to such an extent that systemic treatment became necessary. Whereas pre-delivery treatment had consisted exclusively of local desinfection, and steroid and antibiotic ointments, treatment after delivery also included systemic use of prednisolone. After treatment for 3 weeks the skin changes had disappeared except for minimal pigmentation. Using immunofluorescent microscopy a complement activation in the dermo-epidermal junction and in adjacent clinically healthy skin could be demonstrated: There were massive linear depositions of C3, C1q and C4. In the basal membrane of the epidermis IgM could be demonstrated as an unusual finding. Further immunopathological features were found in the form of an immune complex vasculitis which could be shown during the active phase of the disease.

  7. Dose response of red imported fire ant colonies treated with Solenopsis invicta virus 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baiting tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) doses on fire ant colonies. Actively growing, early stage, fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) laboratory colonies were pulse-exposed to six concentrations of SINV-3 in a 10% sucrose bait and monitored r...

  8. Life history change in response to fishing and an introduced predator in the East African cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Diana M T; Wandera, Silvester B; Chapman, Lauren J

    2012-01-01

    Fishing and introduced species are among the most important stressors affecting freshwaters and can also be strong selective agents. We examined the combined effects of commercial fishing and an introduced predator (Nile perch, Lates niloticus) on life history traits in an African cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) native to the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa. To understand whether these two stressors have driven shifts in life history traits of R. argentea, we tested for associations between life history phenotypes and the presence/absence of stressors both spatially (across 10 Ugandan lakes) and temporally (over four decades in Lake Victoria). Overall, introduced Nile perch and fishing tended to be associated with a suite of life history responses in R. argentea, including: decreased body size, maturation at smaller sizes, and increased reproductive effort (larger eggs; and higher relative fecundity, clutch volume, and ovary weight). This is one of the first well-documented examples of fisheries-induced phenotypic change in a tropical, freshwater stock; the magnitude of which raises some concerns for the long-term sustainability of this fishery, now the most important (by mass) in Lake Victoria. PMID:23144655

  9. Evidence for skipped spawning in a potamodromous cyprinid, humpback chub (Gila cypha), with implications for demographic parameter estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Kristen Nicole; Kendall, William; Winkelman, Dana L.; Persons, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Our findings reveal evidence for skipped spawning in a potamodromous cyprinid, humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha  ). Using closed robust design mark-recapture models, we found, on average, spawning HBC transition to the skipped spawning state () with a probability of 0.45 (95% CRI (i.e. credible interval): 0.10, 0.80) and skipped spawners remain in the skipped spawning state () with a probability of 0.60 (95% CRI: 0.26, 0.83), yielding an average spawning cycle of every 2.12 years, conditional on survival. As a result, migratory skipped spawners are unavailable for detection during annual sampling events. If availability is unaccounted for, survival and detection probability estimates will be biased. Therefore, we estimated annual adult survival probability (S), while accounting for skipped spawning, and found S remained reasonably stable throughout the study period, with an average of 0.75 ((95% CRI: 0.66, 0.82), process varianceσ2 = 0.005), while skipped spawning probability was highly dynamic (σ2 = 0.306). By improving understanding of HBC spawning strategies, conservation decisions can be based on less biased estimates of survival and a more informed population model structure.

  10. Characterization, tissue distribution and regulation of agouti-related protein (AgRP) in a cyprinid fish (Schizothorax prenanti).

    PubMed

    Wei, RongBin; Yuan, DengYue; Wang, Tao; Zhou, ChaoWei; Lin, FangJun; Chen, Hu; Wu, HongWei; Yang, ShiYong; Wang, Yan; Liu, Ju; Gao, YunDi; Li, ZhiQiong

    2013-09-15

    Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an important neuropeptide involved in the regulation of feeding in both mammals and fish. In this study, we have cloned the full-length cDNA sequence for AgRP in a cyprinid fish (Schizothorax prenanti). The AgRP gene, encoding 126-amino acids, was strongly expressed in the brain. The AgRP gene was detected in embryos at developmental stages. Further, its mRNA was detectable in unfertilized eggs. An experiment was conducted to determine the expression profile of AgRP during short-term and long-term fasting of the hypothalamus. The expression level of AgRP in unfed fish was significantly increased at 3 and 4h post-fasting than in fed fish but did not affect AgRP mRNA expression after 14 days fasting. Overall, our results suggest that AgRP is a conserved peptide that might be involved in the regulation of short-term feeding and other physiological function in Schizothorax prenanti.

  11. Development and characterization of an embryonic cell line from endangered endemic cyprinid Honmoroko Gnathopogon caerulescens (Sauvage, 1883).

    PubMed

    Higaki, Shogo; Shimada, Manami; Koyama, Yoshie; Fujioka, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Noriyoshi; Takada, Tatsuyuki

    2015-09-01

    Establishing a cell line from endemic species facilitates the cell biological research of these species in the laboratory. In this study, an epithelium-like cell line RME1 was established from the blastula-stage embryos of the critically endangered cyprinid Honmoroko Gnathopogon caerulescens, which is endemic to ancient Lake Biwa in Japan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first embryonic cell line from an endangered fish species. This cell line is well adapted to grow at 28°C in the culture medium, which was successfully used for establishing testicular and ovarian cell lines of G. caerulescens, and has displayed stable growth over 60 passages since its initiation in June 2011. Although RME1 did not express the genes detected in blastula-stage embryos, such as oct4, sox2, nanog, and klf4, it showed a high euploidy rate (2n = 50; 67.2%) with normal diploid karyotype morphology, suggesting that RME1 retains the genomic organization of G. caerulescens and can prove to be a useful tool to investigate the unique properties of endangered endemic fishes at cellular level.

  12. Transmission of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) from goldfish to naïve common carp by cohabitation.

    PubMed

    El-Matbouli, Mansour; Soliman, Hatem

    2011-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) has spread worldwide and has had a major impact on koi and common carp production. Previous studies on the host range of the CyHV-3 found that fish species other than koi and common carp are fully resistant to natural virus exposure. Recently, CyHV-3 was detected in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) that were in contact with CyHV-3 infected koi. In the present study, a specific RT-PCR product was amplified from the viral thymidine kinase gene in gills, intestine and brain tissues of CyHV-3 infected goldfish. This implied that CyHV-3 replicated in these goldfish. Also, in the presence of a stress factor such as temperature fluctuation, the CyHV-3 infected goldfish transmitted the virus to cohabitated naïve SPF common carp. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in the cohabitated naïve carp tissues by PCR. The results of this study demonstrate that goldfish is a carrier for CyHV-3, permit virus propagation, and disseminate the virus to susceptible carp causing the disease.

  13. Environmental chemical exposures and risk of herpes zoster.

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, V; Vine, M F; Weigle, K

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated whether residence in Aberdeen, North Carolina, the location of the Aberdeen pesticides dumps site (a national priority list Superfund site containing organochlorine pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and metals), is associated with immune suppression as indicated by a higher incidence of herpes zoster and recent occurrences of other common infectious diseases. Study participants included 1,642 residents, 18-64 years of age, who responded to a telephone survey concerning potential occupational and recreational exposures to pesticides and other chemicals, lifetime history of herpes zoster (shingles), and the recent occurrence of other common infectious diseases. Stratified and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the cumulative incidence of herpes zoster among Aberdeen residents and residents of nearby communities. There was little evidence of an overall increased risk of herpes zoster among Aberdeen residents during the period 1951-1994 [relative risk (RR), 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-2.1]. However, an elevated risk of herpes zoster was noted consistently among Aberdeen residents of younger ages as compared to residents of the nearby communities. The RR was 2.0 (CI, 1.0-4.0) among those 18-40 years of age and was not affected by controlling for potential confounders. The RR of herpes zoster was also consistently elevated in all age groups for the period before 1985. No differences were noted between residents of Aberdeen and those of the nearby communities with respect to the recent occurrence of other common infectious diseases. These results support the plausibility of an association between exposure to the Aberdeen pesticides dumps site and immune suppression and the potential use of herpes zoster as a marker of immune suppression in studies of environmental chemical exposures. Images Figure 1 PMID:10504152

  14. Latent Herpes Viruses Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight has many adverse effects on human physiology. Changes in multiple systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems have occurred (12, 32, 38, 39). Alterations in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (12), nutritional needs (31), renal stone formation (40), and microbial flora (2) have also been reported. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of some changes may increase with time in space. A variety of changes in immunity have been reported during both short (.16 days) and long (>30 days) space missions. However, it is difficult to determine the medical significance of these immunological changes in astronauts. Astronauts are in excellent health and in superb physical condition. Illnesses in astronauts during space flight are not common, are generally mild, and rarely affect mission objectives. In an attempt to clarify this issue, we identified the latent herpes viruses as medically important indicators of the effects of space flight on immunity. This chapter demonstrates that space flight leads to asymptomatic reactivation of latent herpes viruses, and proposes that this results from marked changes in neuroendocrine function and immunity caused by the inherent stressfullness of human space flight. Astronauts experience uniquely stressful environments during space flight. Potential stressors include confinement in an unfamiliar, crowded environment, isolation, separation from family, anxiety, fear, sleep deprivation, psychosocial issues, physical exertion, noise, variable acceleration forces, increased radiation, and others. Many of these are intermittent and variable in duration and intensity, but variable gravity forces (including transitions from launch acceleration to microgravity and from microgravity to planetary gravity) and variable radiation levels are part of each mission and contribute to a stressful environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth. Radiation outside the Earth

  15. Comparative mapping for bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) against model and non-model fishes provides insights into the genomic evolution of cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuankun; Tong, Jingou; Yu, Xiaomu; Guo, Wenjie

    2015-08-01

    Comparative mapping provides an efficient method to connect genomes of non-model and model fishes. In this study, we used flanking sequences of the 659 microsatellites on a genetic map of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to comprehensively study syntenic relationships between bighead carp and nine model and non-model fishes. Of the five model and two food fishes with whole genome data, Cyprinus carpio showed the highest rate of positive BLAST hits (95.3 %) with bighead carp map, followed by Danio rerio (70.9 %), Oreochromis niloticus (21.7 %), Tetraodon nigroviridis (6.4 %), Gasterosteus aculeatus (5.2 %), Oryzias latipes (4.7 %) and Fugu rubripes (3.5 %). Chromosomal syntenic analyses showed that inversion was the basic chromosomal rearrangement during genomic evolution of cyprinids, and the extent of inversions and translocations was found to be positively correlated with evolutionary relationships among fishes studied. Among the five investigated cyprinids, linkage groups (LGs) of bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idella exhibited a one-to-one relationship. Besides, LG 9 of bighead carp and homologous LGs of silver carp and grass carp all corresponded to the chromosomes 10 and 22 of zebrafish, suggesting that chromosomal fission may have occurred in the ancestor of zebrafish. On the other hand, LGs of bighead carp and common carp showed an approximate one-to-two relationship with extensive translocations, confirming the occurrence of a 4th whole genome duplication in common carp. This study provides insights into the understanding of genome evolution among cyprinids and would aid in transferring positional and functional information of genes from model fish like zebrafish to non-model fish like bighead carp.

  16. Comparative mapping for bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) against model and non-model fishes provides insights into the genomic evolution of cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuankun; Tong, Jingou; Yu, Xiaomu; Guo, Wenjie

    2015-08-01

    Comparative mapping provides an efficient method to connect genomes of non-model and model fishes. In this study, we used flanking sequences of the 659 microsatellites on a genetic map of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to comprehensively study syntenic relationships between bighead carp and nine model and non-model fishes. Of the five model and two food fishes with whole genome data, Cyprinus carpio showed the highest rate of positive BLAST hits (95.3 %) with bighead carp map, followed by Danio rerio (70.9 %), Oreochromis niloticus (21.7 %), Tetraodon nigroviridis (6.4 %), Gasterosteus aculeatus (5.2 %), Oryzias latipes (4.7 %) and Fugu rubripes (3.5 %). Chromosomal syntenic analyses showed that inversion was the basic chromosomal rearrangement during genomic evolution of cyprinids, and the extent of inversions and translocations was found to be positively correlated with evolutionary relationships among fishes studied. Among the five investigated cyprinids, linkage groups (LGs) of bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idella exhibited a one-to-one relationship. Besides, LG 9 of bighead carp and homologous LGs of silver carp and grass carp all corresponded to the chromosomes 10 and 22 of zebrafish, suggesting that chromosomal fission may have occurred in the ancestor of zebrafish. On the other hand, LGs of bighead carp and common carp showed an approximate one-to-two relationship with extensive translocations, confirming the occurrence of a 4th whole genome duplication in common carp. This study provides insights into the understanding of genome evolution among cyprinids and would aid in transferring positional and functional information of genes from model fish like zebrafish to non-model fish like bighead carp. PMID:25627158

  17. [Herpes zoster in immunocompetent pregnant women and their perinatal outcome].

    PubMed

    Casanova Román, Gerardo; Reyna Figueroa, Jesús; Figueroa Damián, Ricardo; Ortiz Ibarra, Javier

    2004-02-01

    A prospective and descriptive study was done in pregnant women diagnosed with herpes zoster, to know the demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations as well as maternal and/or neonatal complications to cause by this viral infection during pregnancy. The study included all pregnant women diagnosed with herpes zoster at the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia México, between 1994 and 2002. A total of 17 women were included in the study. All were given clinical and ultrasound follow-up to discard any maternal or fetal complications also at the moment of birth. A review in the newborn was made to establish the demographic, anthropometric and clinical characteristics; also the data collected included mother's age, gestational age at the moment of diagnosis with herpes zoster, anatomical lesion site, treatments administered, ultrasound characteristics, newborn's gestational age, weight, height, Apgar at birth and type of delivery. The most frequent site (58.8%) for herpes zoster lesions on the mother was the intercostal area, followed by the scapular region, the lumbar region and the limbs. None of the patients experienced complications during pregnancy, including post-herpetic pain. Sixteen of the newborns had no complications and one was a stillborn due to 60% of placental separation. These findings suggest a benign evolution of herpes zoster during pregnancy, supporting similar findings in the literature. No complications during pregnancy are suggested, and no phenotypical alterations occurred in the child at the moment of birth.

  18. Recent progress in herpes simplex virus immunobiology and vaccine research.

    PubMed

    Koelle, David M; Corey, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) cause prevalent, chronic infections that have serious outcomes in some individuals. Neonatal herpes may occur when the infant traverses the cervix during maternal genital herpes. Genital herpes is a major risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. Considerable efforts have been made to design and test vaccines for HSV, focusing on genital infection with HSV-2. Several protein subunit vaccines based on HSV-2 envelope glycoproteins have reached advanced-phase clinical trials. These antigens were chosen because they are the targets of neutralizing-antibody responses and because they elicit cellular immunity. Encouraging results have been reported in studies of treatment of HSV-seronegative women with a vaccine consisting of truncated glycoprotein D of HSV-2 and a novel adjuvant. Because most sexual HSV transmission occurs during asymptomatic shedding, it is important to evaluate the impact of vaccination on HSV-2 infection, clinically apparent genital herpes, and HSV shedding among vaccine recipients who acquire infection. There are several other attractive formats, including subunit vaccines that target cellular immune responses, live attenuated virus strains, and mutant strains that undergo incomplete lytic replication. HSV vaccines have also been evaluated for the immunotherapy of established HSV infection. PMID:12525427

  19. Prevention strategies: herpes zoster, post-herpetic neuralgia and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Levin, Myron J; Schmader, Kenneth

    2007-09-01

    Herpes zoster is a common condition that can have a significant impact on quality of life among older adults. A significant proportion of older subjects with herpes zoster develop post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), a chronic condition that is difficult to treat. The Shingles Prevention Study was a large-scale clinical trial to determine the efficacy of a live, attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine ('zoster vaccine') for preventing or attenuating herpes zoster in subjects aged > or =60 years. A total of 38 546 subjects were given either zoster vaccine or placebo. The burden of illness (pain severity-by-duration), incidence of herpes zoster, and PHN decreased by 61.1%, 51.3% and 66.5% (all P<0.001), respectively, following vaccination. Vaccine efficacy was maintained for a 4-year follow-up period. A sub-study of the vaccine trial evaluated VZV-specific immunity in approximately 1200 vaccine or placebo recipients prior to vaccination, at 3 months and annually for 3 years. VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was boosted significantly by the zoster vaccine. This boost remained substantially intact for the 3 years of follow-up. It is likely that the vaccine-induced boost in VZV-specific CMI reversed the natural decline in these responses that occurs as part of the ageing process, thereby protecting vaccine recipients against herpes zoster and its complications.

  20. Experimental investigation of herpes simplex virus latency.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, E K; Bloom, D C

    1997-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of herpes simplex virus infection generally involve a mild and localized primary infection followed by asymptomatic (latent) infection interrupted sporadically by periods of recrudescence (reactivation) where virus replication and associated cytopathologic findings are manifest at the site of initial infection. During the latent phase of infection, viral genomes, but not infectious virus itself, can be detected in sensory and autonomic neurons. The process of latent infection and reactivation has been subject to continuing investigation in animal models and, more recently, in cultured cells. The initiation and maintenance of latent infection in neurons are apparently passive phenomena in that no virus gene products need be expressed or are required. Despite this, a single latency-associated transcript (LAT) encoded by DNA encompassing about 6% of the viral genome is expressed during latent infection in a minority of neurons containing viral DNA. This transcript is spliced, and the intron derived from this splicing is stably maintained in the nucleus of neurons expressing it. Reactivation, which can be induced by stress and assayed in several animal models, is facilitated by the expression of LAT. Although the mechanism of action of LAT-mediated facilitation of reactivation is not clear, all available evidence argues against its involving the expression of a protein. Rather, the most consistent models of action involve LAT expression playing a cis-acting role in a very early stage of the reactivation process. PMID:9227860

  1. Charles Bonnet syndrome after herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ömer Faruk; Ince, Hülya; Taşdemir, Haydar Ali; Özyürek, Hamit

    2012-04-01

    Visual impairment associated with Charles Bonnet syndrome is rarely reported in childhood. We describe a child who presented with visual hallucinations and postinfectious bilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis. The patient had undergone acyclovir therapy for 3 weeks because of herpes encephalitis. Four days after therapy was completed, he experienced visual impairment in both eyes. He manifested a bilateral decrease in visual acuity, with normal funduscopic findings. The patient experienced visual hallucinations for about 1 week, and then experienced total loss of vision. During his hallucinations, the patient did not exhibit behavioral changes or cognitive impairment. The visual hallucinations included unfamiliar children hiding under his bed, and he spoke to someone whom he did not know. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated bilateral optic nerve hyperintensity on T(2)-weighted and contrast-enhanced images. The patient received corticosteroid therapy for his retrobulbar optic neuritis, and his vision returned to normal after 1 month. Although rare, visual impairment can be associated with complex visual hallucinations indicative of Charles Bonnet syndrome.

  2. Exposing native cyprinid (Barbus plebejus) juveniles to river sediments leads to gonadal alterations, genotoxic effects and thyroid disruption.

    PubMed

    Viganò, Luigi; De Flora, Silvio; Gobbi, Marco; Guiso, Giovanna; Izzotti, Alberto; Mandich, Alberta; Mascolo, Giuseppe; Roscioli, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Juveniles (50 days post hatch) of a native cyprinid fish (Barbus plebejus) were exposed for 7 months to sediments from the River Lambro, a polluted tributary impairing the quality of the River Po for tens of kilometers from their confluence. Sediments were collected upstream of the city of Milan and downstream at the closure of the drainage basin of the River Lambro. Chemical analyses revealed the presence of a complex mixture of bioavailable endocrine-active chemicals, with higher exposure levels in the downstream section of the tributary. Mainly characterized by brominated flame retardants, alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, and minor co-occurring personal care products and natural hormones, the sediment contamination induced reproductive disorders, as well as other forms of endocrine disruption and toxicity. In particular, exposed male barbel exhibited higher biliary PAH-like metabolites, overexpression of the cyp1a gene, vitellogenin production in all specimens, the presence of oocytes (up to 22% intersex), degenerative alterations in their testis, liver fat vacuolization, a marked depression of total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) plasma levels, and genotoxic damages determined as hepatic DNA adducts. These results clearly demonstrate that Lambro sediments alone are responsible for recognizable changes in the structure and function of the reproductive and, in general, the endocrine system of a native fish species. In the real environment, exposure to waterborne and food-web sources of chemicals are responsible for additional toxic loads, and the present findings thus provide evidence for a causal role of this tributary in the severe decline observed in barbel in recent decades and raise concern that the fish community of the River Po is exposed to endocrine-mediated health effects along tens of kilometres of its course. PMID:26580918

  3. A new fish-based multi-metric assessment index for cyprinid streams in the Iranian Caspian Sea Basin

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Hossein; Schinegger, Rafaela; Melcher, Andreas; Moder, Karl; Mielach, Carina; Schmutz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    A major issue for water resource management is the assessment of environmental degradation of lotic ecosystems. The overall aim of this study is to develop a multi-metric fish index for the cyprinid streams of the Caspian Sea Basin (MMICS) in Iran. As species diversity and composition as well as population structure in the studied streams are different to other regions, there is a substantial need to develop a new fish index. We sampled fish and environmental data of 102 sites in medium sized streams. We analysed human pressures at different spatial scales and determined applicable fish metrics showing a response to human pressures. In total, five structural and functional types of metrics (i.e. biodiversity, habitat, reproduction, trophic level and water quality sensitivity) were considered. In addition, we used 29 criteria describing major anthropogenic human pressures at sampling sites and generated a regional pressure index (RPI) that accounted for potential effects of multiple human pressures. For the MMICS development, we first defined reference sites (least disturbed) and secondly quantified differences of fish metrics between reference and impaired sites. We used a Generalised Linear Model (GLM) to describe metric responses to natural environmental differences in least disturbed conditions. By including impaired sites, the residual distributions of these models described the response range of each metric to human pressures, independently of natural environmental influence. Finally, seven fish metrics showed the best ability to discriminate between impaired and reference sites. The multi-metric fish index performed well in discriminating human pressure classes, giving a significant negative linear response to a gradient of the RPI. These methods can be used for further development of a standardised monitoring tool to assess the ecological status and trends in biological condition for streams of the whole country, considering its complex and diverse geology

  4. Acute toxicity, respiratory reaction, and sensitivity of three cyprinid fish species caused by exposure to four heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongjun; Liang, Youguang; Li, Sixin; Chang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Using 3 cyprinid fish species zebra fish, rare minnow, and juvenile grass carp, we conducted assays of lethal reaction and ventilatory response to analyze sensitivity of the fish to 4 heavy metals. Our results showed that the 96 h LC50 of Hg(2+) to zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnow were 0.14 mg L(-1), 0.23 mg L(-1), and 0.10 mg L(-1), respectively; of Cu(2+)0.17 mg L(-1), 0.09 mg L(-1), and 0.12 mg L(-1) respectively; of Cd(2+)6.5 mg L(-1), 18.47 mg L(-1), 5.36 mg L(-1), respectively; and of Zn(2+)44.48 mg L(-1), 31.37 mg L(-1), and 12.74 mg L(-1), respectively. Under a 1-h exposure, the ventilatory response to the different heavy metals varied. Ventilatory frequency (Vf) and amplitude (Va) increased in zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnows exposed to Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) (P<0.05), and the Vf and Va of the 3 species rose initially and then declined when exposed to Cd(2+). Zn(2+) had markedly different toxic effects than the other heavy metals, whose Vf and Va gradually decreased with increasing exposure concentration (P<0.05). The rare minnow was the most highly susceptible of the 3 fish species to the heavy metals, with threshold effect concentrations (TEC) of 0.019 mg L(-1), 0.046 mg L(-1), 2.142 mg L(-1), and 0.633 mg L(-1) for Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+), respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to use ventilatory parameters as a biomarker for evaluating the pollution toxicity of metals and to recognize early warning signs by using rare minnows as a sensor.

  5. Rational development of an attenuated recombinant cyprinid herpesvirus 3 vaccine using prokaryotic mutagenesis and in vivo bioluminescent imaging.

    PubMed

    Boutier, Maxime; Ronsmans, Maygane; Ouyang, Ping; Fournier, Guillaume; Reschner, Anca; Rakus, Krzysztof; Wilkie, Gavin S; Farnir, Frédéric; Bayrou, Calixte; Lieffrig, François; Li, Hong; Desmecht, Daniel; Davison, Andrew J; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2015-02-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV 3) is causing severe economic losses worldwide in common and koi carp industries, and a safe and efficacious attenuated vaccine compatible with mass vaccination is needed. We produced single deleted recombinants using prokaryotic mutagenesis. When producing a recombinant lacking open reading frame 134 (ORF134), we unexpectedly obtained a clone with additional deletion of ORF56 and ORF57. This triple deleted recombinant replicated efficiently in vitro and expressed an in vivo safety/efficacy profile compatible with use as an attenuated vaccine. To determine the role of the double ORF56-57 deletion in the phenotype and to improve further the quality of the vaccine candidate, a series of deleted recombinants was produced and tested in vivo. These experiments led to the selection of a double deleted recombinant lacking ORF56 and ORF57 as a vaccine candidate. The safety and efficacy of this strain were studied using an in vivo bioluminescent imaging system (IVIS), qPCR, and histopathological examination, which demonstrated that it enters fish via skin infection similar to the wild type strain. However, compared to the parental wild type strain, the vaccine candidate replicated at lower levels and spread less efficiently to secondary sites of infection. Transmission experiments allowing water contamination with or without additional physical contact between fish demonstrated that the vaccine candidate has a reduced ability to spread from vaccinated fish to naïve sentinel cohabitants. Finally, IVIS analyses demonstrated that the vaccine candidate induces a protective mucosal immune response at the portal of entry. Thus, the present study is the first to report the rational development of a recombinant attenuated vaccine against CyHV 3 for mass vaccination of carp. We also demonstrated the relevance of the CyHV 3 carp model for studying alloherpesvirus transmission and mucosal immunity in teleost skin.

  6. Feeding Cyprinus carpio with infectious materials mediates cyprinid herpesvirus 3 entry through infection of pharyngeal periodontal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also known as Koi herpesvirus, is the etiological agent of a mortal disease in common and koi carp. Recently, we investigated the entry of CyHV-3 in carp using bioluminescence imaging and a CyHV-3 recombinant strain expressing luciferase (LUC). We demonstrated that the skin is the major portal of entry after inoculation of carp by immersion in water containing CyHV-3. While this model of infection mimics some natural conditions in which infection takes place, other epidemiological conditions could favour entry of virus through the digestive tract. Here, we investigated whether ingestion of infectious materials mediates CyHV-3 entry through the digestive tract. Carp were fed with materials contaminated with the CyHV-3 LUC recombinant (oral contamination) or immersed in water containing the virus (contamination by immersion). Bioluminescence imaging analyses performed at different times post-infection led to the following observations: (i) the pharyngeal periodontal mucosa is the major portal of entry after oral contamination, while the skin is the major portal of entry after contamination by immersion. (ii) Both modes of inoculation led to the spreading of the infection to the various organs tested. However, the timing and the sequence in which some of the organs turned positive were different between the two modes of inoculation. Finally, we compared the disease induced by the two inoculation modes. They led to comparable clinical signs and mortality rate. The results of the present study suggest that, based on epidemiological conditions, CyHV-3 can enter carp either by skin or periodontal pharyngeal mucosal infection. PMID:22276598

  7. Acute toxicity, respiratory reaction, and sensitivity of three cyprinid fish species caused by exposure to four heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongjun; Liang, Youguang; Li, Sixin; Chang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Using 3 cyprinid fish species zebra fish, rare minnow, and juvenile grass carp, we conducted assays of lethal reaction and ventilatory response to analyze sensitivity of the fish to 4 heavy metals. Our results showed that the 96 h LC50 of Hg(2+) to zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnow were 0.14 mg L(-1), 0.23 mg L(-1), and 0.10 mg L(-1), respectively; of Cu(2+)0.17 mg L(-1), 0.09 mg L(-1), and 0.12 mg L(-1) respectively; of Cd(2+)6.5 mg L(-1), 18.47 mg L(-1), 5.36 mg L(-1), respectively; and of Zn(2+)44.48 mg L(-1), 31.37 mg L(-1), and 12.74 mg L(-1), respectively. Under a 1-h exposure, the ventilatory response to the different heavy metals varied. Ventilatory frequency (Vf) and amplitude (Va) increased in zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnows exposed to Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) (P<0.05), and the Vf and Va of the 3 species rose initially and then declined when exposed to Cd(2+). Zn(2+) had markedly different toxic effects than the other heavy metals, whose Vf and Va gradually decreased with increasing exposure concentration (P<0.05). The rare minnow was the most highly susceptible of the 3 fish species to the heavy metals, with threshold effect concentrations (TEC) of 0.019 mg L(-1), 0.046 mg L(-1), 2.142 mg L(-1), and 0.633 mg L(-1) for Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+), respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to use ventilatory parameters as a biomarker for evaluating the pollution toxicity of metals and to recognize early warning signs by using rare minnows as a sensor. PMID:23755209

  8. Cyprinid herpesvirus-2 causing mass mortality in goldfish: applying electron microscopy to histological samples for diagnostic virology.

    PubMed

    Lovy, J; Friend, S E

    2014-02-01

    In June 2013, a major fish kill of adult goldfish Carassius auratus occurred in Runnemede Lake, New Jersey, USA: an estimated 3000 to 5000 fish died within ~5 d. Necropsy of 4 moribund fish revealed severely pale gills, and histopathology showed type I and II fusion of the gills, diffuse necrosis of hematopoietic tissue in anterior and posterior kidney, and multifocal necrosis of the spleen. Within necrotic areas, pyknosis and enlarged nuclei with marginalized chromatin were observed. Cyprinid herpesvirus-2, the etiological agent for herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis disease, was confirmed in all 4 fish using PCR. We assessed the efficacy of identifying herpesviral infections (viral morphogenesis and cellular ultrastructure) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) when applied to tissues fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF) and tissue that was removed from paraffin blocks. Both sample types could be used to detect the virus within cells at similar concentrations. Tissues reprocessed from 10% NBF contained all the known stages of viral morphogenesis including empty capsids, capsids with an inner linear concentric density, capsids with an electron-dense core, and in the cytoplasm, mature capsids containing an envelope. Paraffin-embedded tissues showed similar stages, but viral capsids with an inner linear concentric density were rare and mature enveloped virions were not observed. In previously paraffin-embedded tissues, cellular membranes were not preserved, making identification of cell types and organelles difficult, whereas membrane preservation was good in tissues processed from 10% NBF. The results demonstrated that routinely fixed and paraffin-embedded samples can be successfully utilized to diagnose herpesviruses, and formalin-fixed tissue could be used to describe viral morphogenesis by TEM, making this a useful and reliable method for diagnostic virology when other samples are not available. PMID:24492049

  9. Functional characterization of viral tumor necrosis factor receptors encoded by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) genome.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yang; Qi, Hemei; Yuan, Jimin; Wang, Rui; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Dong, Chuanfu

    2015-08-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) is a large double-stranded DNA virus of Alloherpesviridae family in the order Herpesvirales. It causes significant morbidity and mortality in common carp and its ornamental koi variety, and threatens the aquaculture industries worldwide. Mimicry of cytokines and cytokine receptors is a particular strategy for large DNA viruses in modulating the host immune response. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two novel viral homologues of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) encoded by CyHV3-ORF4 and -ORF12, respectively. CyHV3-ORF4 was identified as a homologue of HVEM and CyHV3-ORF12 as a homologue of TNFRSF1. Overexpression of ORF4 and ORF12 in zebrafish embryos results in embryonic lethality, morphological defects and increased apoptosis. Although we failed to identify any interaction between the two vTNFRs and their potential ligands in zebrafish TNF superfamily by yeast two-hybrid system, the expression of some genes in TNF superfamily or TNFR superfamily were mis-regulated in ORF4 or ORF12-overexpressing embryos, especially the death receptor zHDR and its cognate ligand DL1b. Further studies showed that the apoptosis induced by the both CyHV3 vTNFRs is mainly activated through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and requires the crosstalk between the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Additionally, using RT-qPCR and Western blot assays, the expression patterns of the both vTNFRs were also analyzed during CyHV3 productive infection. Collectively, this is the first functional study of two unique vTNFRs encoded by a herpesvirus infecting non-mammalian vertebrates, which may provide novel insights into viral immune regulation mechanism and the pathogenesis of CyHV3 infection. PMID:26052019

  10. Isolated, complete paralytic mydriasis secondary to herpes zoster ophthalmicus.

    PubMed

    Czyz, Craig N; Bacon, Thomas S; Petrie, Thomas P; Justice, Joshua D; Cahill, Kenneth V

    2013-06-01

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus is a manifestation of herpes zoster when the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve becomes involved. Ocular symptoms are varied and mainly due to inflammatory mechanisms. Total, external and/or internal ophthalmoplegias, as well as isolated third, fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsies have all been reported as complications. In a minority of cases, concurrent pupillary paralysis has been documented. The presentation of complete paralytic mydriasis as the sole cranial nerve complication following herpes zoster ophthalmicus infection is a rare finding. The postulated pathophysiologic aetiology is a partial third nerve palsy with the pupillary fibres for light and accommodation-convergence affected and motor fibres spared. The mechanism responsible for the postulated lesion is speculative.

  11. Herpes Zoster Immunization in Older Adults Has Big Benefits.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Harald

    2015-09-01

    A case of acute herpes zoster neuralgia (shingles) in a 78-year-old patient is described. The value and importance of immunizing against herpes zoster to decrease the incidence and severity of both acute herpes zoster neuralgia and postherpetic neuralgia are described. --This report is adapted from paineurope 2015: Issue 1, ©Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd., and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, Ltd., and is distributed free of charge to health care professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be viewed via the Web site: www.paineurope.com , at which health professionals can find links to the original articles and request copies of the quarterly publication and access additional pain education and pain management resources.

  12. Common questions about herpes: analysis of chat-room transcripts.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lisa K; Omisore, Folashade

    2009-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with genital herpes typically undergo a period of psychological adjustment. Although healthcare providers can play a key role in this adjustment, in several patient surveys patients have expressed dissatisfaction with the information and counselling offered by professionals. To address this gap, providers must first identify the common questions and myths that are not addressed, or are addressed inadequately. This article is that first step. Through a content analysis of herpes chat-room transcripts captured on their website from autumn 2001 to spring 2006, researchers from the American Social Health Association identified common herpes questions and myths. The 1968 chat passages were coded into 12 themes and 50 sub-themes. Frequently, visitors' questions concerned transmission, symptoms and diagnosis followed by natural history, psychosocial issues and treatment options. The results of this analysis will aid in the creation of tailored messages to address common factual questions and provide psychosocial support.

  13. Herpes simplex virus-2 infection. An emerging disease?

    PubMed

    Schomogyi, M; Wald, A; Corey, L

    1998-03-01

    Genital herpes infections continue to increase in the world. As outlined previously, several factors play a role in the continued transmission of genital herpes worldwide. Reducing the medical consequences of HSV-2 infection will not be easy. It is also sobering to realize that widespread penetration of HSV-2 into the population had preceded the spread of sexually acquired HIV in most countries. The biological rationale for a connection between HIV and HSV continues to be strengthened. Currently, a specific program to decrease the transmission of genital herpes does not exist. Recent studies with antiviral agents indicate the potential of these compounds to reduce shedding in HIV-negative and in HIV-positive persons and potentially may be useful in preventing some aspects of HSV transmission. Advances in laboratory techniques to assist in the diagnosis of genital herpes infections have added to our knowledge of the natural history and epidemiology of infection. Because of imperfect laboratory tests, negative results do not always indicate lack of infection; this has important public health implications. Large numbers of unrecognized symptomatic cases and frequent asymptomatic shedding are the likely source of continued genital HSV-2 transmission. Solutions for reducing the transmission of genital herpes range from simple, such as counseling patients regarding symptoms and signs of genital herpes and the frequency of subclinical shedding, to complex and expensive, such as screening high risk populations (e.g., STD clinic attendees) for HSV-2 infection. Chronic antiviral therapy may be indicated in HSV-2 seropositive persons without monogamous relationships as they are at risk to transmit HSV to multiple persons. The authors' aim in this review is to provoke discussion of such a control program and to raise the consciousness of the feasibility of instituting control measures for selected populations. We hope to elicit pilot programs designed to reduce the morbidity

  14. Human herpes simplex virus: life cycle and development of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kukhanova, M K; Korovina, A N; Kochetkov, S N

    2014-12-01

    WHO reports that 90% of human population is infected by different types of herpesviruses, which develop latency or cause oral and genital herpes, conjunctivitis, eczema herpeticum, and other diseases. Herpesvirus almost always accompanies HIV-infection and complicates AIDS treatment. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the most wide spread viruses from the Herpesviridae family. HSV virion, genome structure, replication mechanisms, antiherpes drug development strategies, including design of prodrugs, and mutations causing ACV-resistance in clinical HSV isolates are discussed in this review. PMID:25749169

  15. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection.

  16. Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed

    Kwong, A D; Kruper, J A; Frenkel, N

    1988-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) virions contain one or more functions which mediate the shutoff of host protein synthesis and the degradation of host mRNA. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants deficient in the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis (vhs mutants) were isolated and were found to be defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, it was found that viral mRNAs in cells infected with the vhs 1 mutant have a significantly longer functional half-life than viral mRNAs in wild-type virus-infected cells. In the present study we have mapped the vhs1 mutation affecting the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis to a 265-base-pair NruI-XmaIII fragment spanning map coordinates 0.604 to 0.606 of the HSV-1 genome. The mutation(s) affecting the functional half-lives of host mRNA as well as the alpha (immediate-early), beta (early), and gamma (late) viral mRNAs were also mapped within this 265-base-pair fragment. Thus, the shutoff of host protein synthesis is most likely mediated by the same function which decreases the half-life of viral mRNA. The shorter half-life of infected-cell mRNAs may allow a more rapid modulation of viral gene expression in response to changes in the transcription of viral genes. Interestingly, the vhs1 mutation of HSV-1 maps within a region which overlaps the Bg/II-N sequences of HSV-2 DNA shown previously to transform cells in culture. The possible relationship between the transformation and host shutoff functions are discussed.

  17. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  18. Zebrafish: modeling for herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Thessicar Evadney; Jones, Kevin S; Dale, Rodney M; Shukla, Deepak; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2014-02-01

    For many years, zebrafish have been the prototypical model for studies in developmental biology. In recent years, zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model system to study infectious diseases, including viral infections. Experiments conducted with herpes simplex virus type-1 in adult zebrafish or in embryo models are encouraging as they establish proof of concept with viral-host tropism and possible screening of antiviral compounds. In addition, the presence of human homologs of viral entry receptors in zebrafish such as 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate, nectins, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14-like receptor bring strong rationale for virologists to test their in vivo significance in viral entry in a zebrafish model and compare the structure-function basis of virus zebrafish receptor interaction for viral entry. On the other end, a zebrafish model is already being used for studying inflammation and angiogenesis, with or without genetic manipulations, and therefore can be exploited to study viral infection-associated pathologies. The major advantage with zebrafish is low cost, easy breeding and maintenance, rapid lifecycle, and a transparent nature, which allows visualizing dissemination of fluorescently labeled virus infection in real time either at a localized region or the whole body. Further, the availability of multiple transgenic lines that express fluorescently tagged immune cells for in vivo imaging of virus infected animals is extremely attractive. In addition, a fully developed immune system and potential for receptor-specific knockouts further advocate the use of zebrafish as a new tool to study viral infections. In this review, we focus on expanding the potential of zebrafish model system in understanding human infectious diseases and future benefits.

  19. Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, A D; Kruper, J A; Frenkel, N

    1988-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) virions contain one or more functions which mediate the shutoff of host protein synthesis and the degradation of host mRNA. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants deficient in the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis (vhs mutants) were isolated and were found to be defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, it was found that viral mRNAs in cells infected with the vhs 1 mutant have a significantly longer functional half-life than viral mRNAs in wild-type virus-infected cells. In the present study we have mapped the vhs1 mutation affecting the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis to a 265-base-pair NruI-XmaIII fragment spanning map coordinates 0.604 to 0.606 of the HSV-1 genome. The mutation(s) affecting the functional half-lives of host mRNA as well as the alpha (immediate-early), beta (early), and gamma (late) viral mRNAs were also mapped within this 265-base-pair fragment. Thus, the shutoff of host protein synthesis is most likely mediated by the same function which decreases the half-life of viral mRNA. The shorter half-life of infected-cell mRNAs may allow a more rapid modulation of viral gene expression in response to changes in the transcription of viral genes. Interestingly, the vhs1 mutation of HSV-1 maps within a region which overlaps the Bg/II-N sequences of HSV-2 DNA shown previously to transform cells in culture. The possible relationship between the transformation and host shutoff functions are discussed. Images PMID:2828686

  20. Retargeting Strategies for Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; Petrovic, Biljana; Leoni, Valerio; Gianni, Tatiana; Avitabile, Elisa; Casiraghi, Costanza; Gatta, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Most of the oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) exhibit a high safety profile achieved through attenuation. They carry defects in virulence proteins that antagonize host cell response to the virus, including innate response, apoptosis, authophagy, and depend on tumor cell proliferation. They grow robustly in cancer cells, provided that these are deficient in host cell responses, which is often the case. To overcome the attenuation limits, a strategy is to render the virus highly cancer-specific, e.g., by retargeting their tropism to cancer-specific receptors, and detargeting from natural receptors. The target we selected is HER-2, overexpressed in breast, ovarian and other cancers. Entry of wt-HSV requires the essential glycoproteins gD, gH/gL and gB. Here, we reviewed that oncolytic HSV retargeting was achieved through modifications in gD: the addition of a single-chain antibody (scFv) to HER-2 coupled with appropriate deletions to remove part of the natural receptors’ binding sites. Recently, we showed that also gH/gL can be a retargeting tool. The insertion of an scFv to HER-2 at the gH N-terminus, coupled with deletions in gD, led to a recombinant capable to use HER-2 as the sole receptor. The retargeted oncolytic HSVs can be administered systemically by means of carrier cells-forcedly-infected mesenchymal stem cells. Altogether, the retargeted oncolytic HSVs are highly cancer-specific and their replication is not dependent on intrinsic defects of the tumor cells. They might be further modified to express immunomodulatory molecules. PMID:26927159

  1. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the Appenine endemic cyprinid fish Squalius lucumonis and three other Italian leuciscines using chromosome banding and FISH with rDNA probes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Anna Rita; Milana, Valentina; Hett, Anne Kathrin; Tancioni, Lorenzo

    2012-12-01

    Karyotype and other chromosomal characteristics of the Appenine endemic cyprinid fish, Toscana stream chub Squalius lucumonis, were analysed using conventional banding and FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA probes. The diploid chromosome number (2n = 50) and karyotype characteristics including pericentromeric heterochromatic blocks and GC-rich CMA(3)-positive sites corresponding to both positive Ag-NORs and 45S rDNA loci on the short arms of a single medium-sized submetacentric chromosome pair were consistent with those found in most European leuciscine cyprinids. On other hand, 5S rDNA FISH in the Toscana stream chub and three other Italian leuciscines, S. squalus, Rutilus rubilio and Telestes muticellus, revealed a species-specific hybridization pattern, i.e. signals on four (S. lucumonis), three (S. squalus and R. rubilio) and two (T. muticellus) chromosome pairs. Whereas all the species shared the 5S rDNA loci on the largest subtelocentric chromosome pair, a "leuciscine" cytotaxonomic marker, S. lucumonis showed both classes of rDNA loci tandem aligned on the short arms of chromosome pair No. 12. The present findings suggest that the observed high variability of 5S rDNA loci provides a powerful tool for investigation of karyotype differentiation in karyologically conservative leuciscine fishes.

  2. Detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in peripheral blood cells of silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), suggests its potential in viral diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Xu, Lj; Lu, Lq

    2016-02-01

    Epidemics caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in domestic cyprinid species have been reported in both European and Asian countries. Although the mechanisms remain unknown, acute CyHV-2 infections generally result in high mortality, and the surviving carps become chronic carriers displaying no external clinical signs. In this study, in situ hybridization analysis showed that CyHV-2 tended to infect peripheral blood cells during either acute or chronic infections in silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Laboratory challenge experiments coupled with real-time PCR quantification assays further indicated that steady-state levels of the viral genomic copy number in fish serum exhibited a typical 'one-step' growth curve post-viral challenge. Transcriptional expression of open reading frames (ORF) 121, which was selected due to its highest transcriptional levels in almost all tested tissues, was monitored to represent the replication kinetics of CyHV-2 in peripheral blood cells. Similar kinetic curve of active viral gene transcription in blood cells was obtained as that of serum viral load, indicating that CyHV-2 replicated in peripheral blood cells as well as in other well-characterized tissues. This study should pave the way for designing non-invasive and cost-effective serum diagnostic methods for quick detection of CyHV-2 infection.

  3. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the Appenine endemic cyprinid fish Squalius lucumonis and three other Italian leuciscines using chromosome banding and FISH with rDNA probes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Anna Rita; Milana, Valentina; Hett, Anne Kathrin; Tancioni, Lorenzo

    2012-12-01

    Karyotype and other chromosomal characteristics of the Appenine endemic cyprinid fish, Toscana stream chub Squalius lucumonis, were analysed using conventional banding and FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA probes. The diploid chromosome number (2n = 50) and karyotype characteristics including pericentromeric heterochromatic blocks and GC-rich CMA(3)-positive sites corresponding to both positive Ag-NORs and 45S rDNA loci on the short arms of a single medium-sized submetacentric chromosome pair were consistent with those found in most European leuciscine cyprinids. On other hand, 5S rDNA FISH in the Toscana stream chub and three other Italian leuciscines, S. squalus, Rutilus rubilio and Telestes muticellus, revealed a species-specific hybridization pattern, i.e. signals on four (S. lucumonis), three (S. squalus and R. rubilio) and two (T. muticellus) chromosome pairs. Whereas all the species shared the 5S rDNA loci on the largest subtelocentric chromosome pair, a "leuciscine" cytotaxonomic marker, S. lucumonis showed both classes of rDNA loci tandem aligned on the short arms of chromosome pair No. 12. The present findings suggest that the observed high variability of 5S rDNA loci provides a powerful tool for investigation of karyotype differentiation in karyologically conservative leuciscine fishes. PMID:23238894

  4. Revision of Khawia spp. (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fish, including a key to their identification and molecular phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tomás; Brabec, Jan; Král'ová-Hromadová, Ivica; Oros, Mikulás; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Ermolenko, Alexey; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2011-09-01

    Monozoic cestodes of the genus Khawia Hsü, 1935 (Caryophyllidea: Lytocestidae), parasites of cyprinid fish in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America, are revised on the basis of taxonomic evaluation of extensive materials, including recently collected specimens of most species. This evaluation has made it possible to critically assess the validity of all 17 nominal species of the genus and to provide redescriptions of the following seven species considered to be valid: Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (type species); K. armeniaca (Cholodkovsky, 1915); K. baltica Szidat, 1941; K. japonensis (Yamaguti, 1934); K. parva (Zmeev, 1936); K. rossittensis (Szidat, 1937); and K. saurogobii Xi, Oros, Wang, Wu, Gao et Nie, 2009. Several new synonyms are proposed: Khawia barbi Rahemo et Mohammad, 2002 and K. lutei Al-Kalak et Rahemo, 2003 are synonymized with K. armeniaca; K. coregoni Kritscher, 1990 with Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (family Caryophyllaeidae); K. cyprini Li, 1964 and K. iowensis Calentine et Ulmer, 1961 with K. japonensis; K. dubia (Szidat, 1937) (syn. Bothrioscolex dubius Szidat, 1937) with K. rossittensis; and Tsengia neimongkuensis Li, 1964 and T. xiamenensis Liu, Yang et Lin, 1995 with K. sinensis. Khawia prussica (Szidat, 1937) (syn. Bothrioscolex prussicus Szidat, 1937) is considered to be species incertae sedis, but its morphology indicates it may belong to Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 (Caryophyllaeidae). The molecular analysis of all seven valid species, based on comparison of sequences of two nuclear ribosomal and two mitochondrial genes, has shown that the species form three major groups clustered according to their fish hosts. Five species from common and crucian carp and goldfish were grouped together, whereas K. armeniaca from barbels (Barbinae) and K. baltica from tench (Tinca) formed separate clades. In contrast, geographical distribution does not seem to play a crucial role in grouping of individual taxa. A phylogenetic tree based on

  5. Mollaret's meningitis and herpes simplex virus type 2 infections.

    PubMed

    Farazmand, P; Woolley, P D; Kinghorn, G R

    2011-06-01

    Benign recurrent aseptic meningitis is a rare disorder described by Mollaret in 1944. When initially described, this form of aseptic meningitis had no identifiable infecting agent. New sophisticated diagnostic tools have now identified herpes simplex type 2 virus as the most commonly isolated agent. Antiviral treatment has been used successfully for prophylaxis and treatment.

  6. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus disease in a professional population.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S L; Rowe, N H; Drach, J C; Shipman, C; Young, S K

    1981-01-01

    By virtue of occupation, dentists are frequently exposed to the herpes simplex virus. The risk of infection by the virus was evaluated by assessing disease experience as shown by history compared with the results of complement fixing or antibody titration tests, or both.

  7. Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla

    PubMed Central

    Oxford, Kristie L.; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A.; Cranfield, Michael R.; Lowenstine, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  8. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  13. Human herpes simplex virus type 1 in confiscated gorilla.

    PubMed

    Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Oxford, Kristie L; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A; Cranfield, Michael R; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2014-11-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans.

  14. [Herpes simplex virus hepatitis; rare in immunocompetent patients].

    PubMed

    Ozokcu, Leyla; de Bruijckere, Leo M; Jansen, Jan; van den Berge, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman was referred with fever and abdominal pain with peritoneal irritation. A diagnostic laparoscopy showed hepatic lesions. Histopathological investigation of the liver biopsy showed hepatitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). The patient was treated with acyclovir and recovered well. HSV is a rare cause of viral hepatitis and has a high mortality rate.

  15. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodu, Brad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

  16. The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.

    1979-01-01

    Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

  17. Nucleotide sequence of an immediate-early frog virus 3 gene.

    PubMed

    Willis, D; Foglesong, D; Granoff, A

    1984-12-01

    We have used "gene walking" with synthetic oligonucleotides and M13 dideoxynucleotide sequencing techniques to obtain the complete coding and flanking sequences of the gene encoding a major immediate-early RNA (molecular weight, 169,000) of frog virus 3. R-loop mapping of the cloned XbaI K fragment of frog virus 3 DNA with immediate-early RNA from infected cells showed that an RNA of approximately 500 to 600 nucleotides (the right size to code for the immediate-early viral 18-kilodalton protein of unknown function) hybridized to a region within 100 base pairs of one end of the XbaI K fragment; no evidence for splicing was observed in the electron microscope or by single-strand nuclease analysis. Further restriction mapping narrowed the location of the gene to the XbaI end of a 2-kilobase-pair XbaI-Bg/II fragment, which was bidirectionally subcloned into the bacteriophage pair mp10 and mp11 for sequencing. Mung bean nuclease mapping was used to identify both the 5' and the 3' ends of the mRNA. The 5' end mapped within an AT-rich region 19 base pairs upstream from two in-phase AUG start codons that were immediately followed by an open reading frame of 157 amino acids. Another AT-rich sequence was found at -29 base pairs from the 5' end of the mRNA start site; this sequence may function as a TATA box. The 3' end of the message displayed considerable microheterogeneity, but clearly terminated within a third AT-rich region 50 to 60 base pairs from the translation stop codon. The eucaryotic polyadenylic acid addition signal (AATAAA) was not present, a finding to be expected since frog virus 3 mRNA is not polyadenylated. Both the single-stranded mp10 clone of the XbaI-Bg/II fragment and a 15-base oligonucleotide complementary to the region flanking the two AUG translation start codons inhibited translation of the immediate-early 18-kilodalton protein in vitro, confirming the identity of the sequenced gene. As the regulatory sequences of this gene did not resemble those of

  18. Replication-Competent Controlled Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David C.; Feller, Joyce; McAnany, Peterjon; Vilaboa, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present the development and characterization of a replication-competent controlled herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Replication-essential ICP4 and ICP8 genes of HSV-1 wild-type strain 17syn+ were brought under the control of a dually responsive gene switch. The gene switch comprises (i) a transactivator that is activated by a narrow class of antiprogestins, including mifepristone and ulipristal, and whose expression is mediated by a promoter cassette that comprises an HSP70B promoter and a transactivator-responsive promoter and (ii) transactivator-responsive promoters that drive the ICP4 and ICP8 genes. Single-step growth experiments in different cell lines demonstrated that replication of the recombinant virus, HSV-GS3, is strictly dependent on an activating treatment consisting of administration of a supraphysiological heat dose in the presence of an antiprogestin. The replication-competent controlled virus replicates with an efficiency approaching that of the wild-type virus from which it was derived. Essentially no replication occurs in the absence of activating treatment or if HSV-GS3-infected cells are exposed only to heat or antiprogestin. These findings were corroborated by measurements of amounts of viral DNA and transcripts of the regulated ICP4 gene and the glycoprotein C (gC) late gene, which was not regulated. Similar findings were made in experiments with a mouse footpad infection model. IMPORTANCE The alphaherpesviruses have long been considered vectors for recombinant vaccines and oncolytic therapies. The traditional approach uses vector backbones containing attenuating mutations that restrict replication to ensure safety. The shortcoming of this approach is that the attenuating mutations tend to limit both the immune presentation and oncolytic properties of these vectors. HSV-GS3 represents a novel type of vector that, when activated, replicates with the efficiency of a nonattenuated virus and whose safety is derived from deliberate

  19. Incidence of herpes zoster infections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Nimmrich, S; Horneff, G

    2015-03-01

    The risk of herpes zoster among patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) exposed to biologics has not been evaluated. We determined incidence rates of herpes zoster among children with JIA in correlation with medication at time of occurrence and total drug exposure. The German biologics register database was used to identify patients with herpes zoster. Crude infection rates and incidence ratios (IRR) were compared to published rates. Demographics and overall exposure and particular exposure time to corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs and biologics were analyzed. The JIA cohort included 3,042 patients with 5,557.9 person-years of follow-up; 1,628 have used corticosteroids, 2,930 methotrexate and 1,685 etanercept. In total, 17 herpes zoster events have been documented [6/1,000 patients (3.5-9.0); 3.1/1,000 patient-years (1.9-4.9)]. Thus, the incidence rate in JIA patients was higher than expected [IRR 2.9 (1.8-4.5), p < 0.001]. In all patients, the event resolved completely. There were two complications, one patient developed intercostal neuralgia, and one had a recurrent herpes zoster. Compared to the healthy population, a significant higher IRR is observed in JIA patients who received a monotherapy with etanercept or in combination with steroids and methotrexate, but not in JIA patients exposed to methotrexate without biologics. In comparison with our control group of patients treated with methotrexate, the IRR was higher for exposure to etanercept monotherapy and combination of etanercept and corticosteroids irrespective of methotrexate use. A generally higher incidence rate in JIA patients treated with etanercept was observed. No serious or refractory manifestations occurred.

  20. Topical application of polyethylenimine as a candidate for novel prophylactic therapeutics against genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kyoko; Onoue, Hiroki; Sasaki, Kohei; Lee, Jung-Bum; Kumar, Penmetcha K R; Gopinath, Subash C B; Maitani, Yoshie; Kai, Takashi; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2014-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) cause genital herpes, which can enhance the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus. The development of anti-HSV agents with novel mechanisms of action is urgently required in the topical therapy of genital herpes. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-HSV effects of Epomin SP-012(®), a highly cationic polyethylenimine, were evaluated. When the in vitro antiviral effects of SP-012 were assessed, this compound showed potent activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2. It inhibited the attachment of HSV-2 to host cells and cell-to-cell spread of infection in a concentration-dependent manner and exerted a virucidal effect. No SP-012-resistant HSV-2 was found when the virus was successively passaged in the presence of SP-012. In a mouse genital herpes model, topically administered SP-012 inhibited the progression of the disease caused by HSV infection. These data illustrate that SP-012 may be a novel class of HSV inhibitor that would be acceptable for long-term topical application.

  1. Acute retinal necrosis caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 in children: reactivation of an undiagnosed latent neonatal herpes infection.

    PubMed

    Grose, Charles

    2012-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is known to cause acute retinal necrosis (ARN). The availability of HSV-2-specific polymerase chain reaction tests for diagnostic analysis has greatly increased our ability to discriminate ARN caused by HSV-2 from ARN caused by either herpes simplex virus type 1 or varicella zoster virus (VZV). Of great interest, HSV-2 appears to be the most common cause of viral ARN in children and adolescents. Although a few children with ARN are known to have had neonatally acquired herpes infection, most children lack a history of known herpes disease. Thus, the origin of the HSV-2 infection is a mystery. The hypothesis of this review is that HSV-2 ARN in children and adolescents may be the first sign of a previously undiagnosed and asymptomatic neonatal HSV-2 infection, which has reactivated several years later from latency in a cranial nerve and entered the retina. The review brings together 7 previously published ARN cases, plus one new case is added. Thus, this review also expands the spectrum of complications from neonatal HSV-2 infection.

  2. [Battle with herpes for 37 years].

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) remains latent in the human trigeminal ganglion after primarily infecting the cornea and conjunctiva. Mental stress, heat stimulation, ultraviolet ray and immunosuppression are among the reactivating factors of HSV-1, which can lead to epithelial herpetic keratitis, stromal herpetic keratitis, and other complications. I have been working with HSV-1 for a long time, concentrating especially on its latency and reactivation. I would like to introduce some of the recent research results. 1. Herpetic keratitis cases at the Department of Ophthalmology, Kinki University. There were 129 eyes of 128 patients who visited the Cornea Service in our university hospitals at Osayasayama, Sakai and Nara over 13 years and were diagnosed with herpetic keratitis and followed up for at least one year. They were investigated as to the type of herpetic keratitis at the initial visit and its recurrence. Initial types of herpetic keratitis and number of eyes of each type were: Epithelial type, 65 eyes (50%); Stromal type, 30 eyes (23%); Combined epithelial and stromal types, 18 eyes (14%). Recurrence was seen in 47% of the total 129 eyes. Recurrent cases of the epithelial type were mostly epithelial type. Frequently recurrent cases of the stromal type presented with repeated epithelial, stromal, and combined types. 2. Effects of antiherpetics on mouse epithelial herpetic keratitis. Acyclovir (ACV) eye ointment is usually prescribed for several weeks to treat human epithelial herpetic keratitis. Our question is: Is this long administration really necessary? To find the answer to this question, we investigated time-dependent effects of antiherpetics on mouse epithelial herpetic keratitis. Mouse corneas were infected with HSV-1 and either ACV eye ointment, oral valaciclovir (VACV) or oral famciclovir (FCV) was administered. No virus was detected in the tear fluid examined by viral culture 4 days after start of ACV eye ointment or oral VACV and 6 days after

  3. Herpes zoster guideline of the German Dermatology Society (DDG).

    PubMed

    Gross, G; Schöfer, H; Wassilew, S; Friese, K; Timm, A; Guthoff, R; Pau, H W; Malin, J P; Wutzler, P; Doerr, H W

    2003-04-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox), remains dormant in dorsal root and cranial nerve ganglia and can be reactivated as a consequence of declining VZV-specific cellular immunity leading to herpes zoster (shingles). Patients older than 50 years of age affected by herpes zoster may suffer a significant decrease of quality of life. These patients and immunocompromised individuals are at increased risks for severe complications, involving the eye, the peripheral and the central nervous system (prolonged pain, postherpetic neuralgia). Such complications occur with and without cutaneous symptoms. The German Dermatology Society (DDG) has released guidelines in order to guarantee updated management to anyone affected by herpes zoster. Diagnosis is primarily clinical. The gold standard of laboratory diagnosis comprises PCR and direct identification of VZV in cell cultures. Detection of IgM- and IgA-anti VZV antibodies may be helpful in immunocompromised patients. Therapy has become very effective in the last years. Systemic antiviral therapy is able to shorten the healing process of acute herpes zoster, to prevent or to alleviate pain and other acute and chronic complications, particularly, when given within 48 h to a maximum of 72 h after onset of the rash. Systemic antiviral therapy is urgently indicated in patients beyond the age of 50 years and in patients at any age with herpes zoster in the head and neck area, especially in patients with zoster ophthalmicus. Further urgent indications are severe herpes zoster on the trunk and on the extremities, herpes zoster in immunosuppressed patients and in patients with severe atopic dermatitis and severe ekzema. Only relative indications for antiviral therapy exist in patients younger than 50 years with zoster on the trunk and on the extremities. In Germany acyclovir, valacyclovir, famciclovir and brivudin are approved for the systemic antiviral treatment of herpes zoster. These compounds are all well

  4. Structure and Genome Release Mechanism of the Human Cardiovirus Saffold Virus 3

    PubMed Central

    Mullapudi, Edukondalu; Nováček, Jiří; Pálková, Lenka; Kulich, Pavel; Lindberg, A. Michael; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to initiate an infection, viruses need to deliver their genomes into cells. This involves uncoating the genome and transporting it to the cytoplasm. The process of genome delivery is not well understood for nonenveloped viruses. We address this gap in our current knowledge by studying the uncoating of the nonenveloped human cardiovirus Saffold virus 3 (SAFV-3) of the family Picornaviridae. SAFVs cause diseases ranging from gastrointestinal disorders to meningitis. We present a structure of a native SAFV-3 virion determined to 2.5 Å by X-ray crystallography and an 11-Å-resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of an “altered” particle that is primed for genome release. The altered particles are expanded relative to the native virus and contain pores in the capsid that might serve as channels for the release of VP4 subunits, N termini of VP1, and the RNA genome. Unlike in the related enteroviruses, pores in SAFV-3 are located roughly between the icosahedral 3- and 5-fold axes at an interface formed by two VP1 and one VP3 subunit. Furthermore, in native conditions many cardioviruses contain a disulfide bond formed by cysteines that are separated by just one residue. The disulfide bond is located in a surface loop of VP3. We determined the structure of the SAFV-3 virion in which the disulfide bonds are reduced. Disruption of the bond had minimal effect on the structure of the loop, but it increased the stability and decreased the infectivity of the virus. Therefore, compounds specifically disrupting or binding to the disulfide bond might limit SAFV infection. IMPORTANCE A capsid assembled from viral proteins protects the virus genome during transmission from one cell to another. However, when a virus enters a cell the virus genome has to be released from the capsid in order to initiate infection. This process is not well understood for nonenveloped viruses. We address this gap in our current knowledge by studying the genome release of

  5. Identification of a cyprinid fish, the tench Tinca tinca L., as a carrier of the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, causative agent of furunculosis in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Bernoth, E M; Körting, W

    1992-10-01

    A typical, pigment-producing strain of Aeromonas salmonicida (A. sal.), the causative agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish species, was isolated from a cyprinid species, the tench Tinca tinca L. with papilloma-like skin alterations. Histopathology of the papilloma-like skin alterations in tench revealed "round holes", distinctly lined by thick layers of epithelial cells, but no bacteria. The organism was isolated from skin, gills and fins, but not internal organs. The isolate proved highly virulent for both juvenile tench and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in experimental infection, but it did not reproduce the clinical picture. The causative role of A. sal. for the surface lesions remains questionable. However, there is a perceived risk of the organism's transmission between tench and other susceptible species of fish, especially farmed trout. PMID:1462724

  6. Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H. ); Murray, R.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, Denver, CO )

    1988-04-01

    Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia.

  7. Rare Occurrence of Herpes Zoster of Trigeminal Nerve following Extraction of Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Christy, A. Winnifred; Raja Deva Thanmbi, T. Jones; Leelavathy, J.; Rhema Louis, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    Herpes Zoster also known as Shingles is an acute viral infection which is an extremely painful and incapacitating ailment. It results from the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. The triggering factors for the onset of an attack of Herpes Zoster include some form of immunosuppression. The diagnosis of Herpes Zoster can be made on proper medical history and a thorough clinical examination. Here is the report of a male patient affected by Herpes Zoster infection which followed after extraction of a lower first molar. PMID:26819783

  8. Waterborne infectivity of the Ranavirus frog virus 3 in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Robert, Jacques; George, Erica; De Jesús Andino, Francisco; Chen, Guangchun

    2011-09-01

    Ranaviruses like frog virus 3 (FV3) are responsible for emerging infectious diseases spreading worldwide to fish, amphibian and reptilian species. We have developed, in Xenopus laevis, an experimental model to investigate viral transmission. We show that FV3 released in water by immunocompromised infected adults can infect adult and larval stages of Xenopus within 3h of exposure. Time course of virus load and viral transcription in different tissues suggests that early waterborne FV3 infection through the digestive tract leads to dissemination in the kidney. Finally, a fraction of adult macrophages becomes infected following exposure to waterborne FV3 as visualized by fluorescence microscopy using macrophage- and FV3-specific antibodies. Little cytopathicity and apoptosis were detected in infected macrophages, which is consistent with our proposition that macrophages are permissive to FV3. These data highlight the efficiency of FV3 infectivity by the water route and the ability of FV3 to adapt to its hosts.

  9. Temperature-sensitive mutants of frog virus 3: biochemical and genetic characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Chinchar, V G; Granoff, A

    1986-01-01

    Nineteen frog virus 3 temperature-sensitive mutants were isolated after mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine and assayed for viral DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, as well as assembly site formation at permissive (25 degrees C) and nonpermissive (30 degrees C) temperatures. In addition, mutants were characterized for complementation by both quantitative and qualitative assays. Based on the genetic and biochemical data, the 19 mutants, along with 9 mutants isolated earlier, were ordered into four phenotypic classes which define defects in virion morphogenesis (class I), late mRNA synthesis (class II), viral assembly site formation (class III), and viral DNA synthesis (class IV). In addition, we used two-factor crosses to order 11 mutants, comprising 7 complementation groups, onto a linkage map spanning 77 recombination units. Images PMID:3951023

  10. Virological course of herpes zoster in otherwise normal hosts.

    PubMed

    Cevenini, R; Donati, M; Rumpianesi, F; Moroni, A; Tosti, A; Patrizi, A; Varotti, C; Negosanti, M

    1983-08-01

    The virological course of herpes zoster infection in 42 otherwise normal hosts was studied by virus isolation and antibody titration. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was isolated from vesicle fluid from all three patients examined on the first day of the vesicular eruption and from five out of six examined on the second day. The isolation rate fell to one out of six patients on the seventh day of illness and VZV was not isolated from patients at a later stage of the illness. IgG antibodies were detected by IFAMA and ELISA, in sera from all the patients by the end of the first week of illness; IgG antibody titres were highest during the second and the third weeks. IgM antibodies to VZV were detected in sera from six of the 42 patients with herpes zoster after fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography.

  11. [Erroneous prescriptions of aciclovir and valaciclovir in herpes zoster treatment].

    PubMed

    Fica C, Alberto; Jadue A, Carla; Donaire R, Luisa

    2007-04-01

    Medical prescription errors are frequent in community settings and information exploring its magnitude during antiviral treatment of herpes zoster is scarce. A questionnaire was applied to 31 physicians working in hospital- or community-based settings in Santiago, Chile in order to characterize their dosing and timing preferences for aciclovir or valaciclovir prescriptions. Aciclovir was more often prescribed than valaciclovir (71.9 and 28.1%, respectively), but less than a third of prescription (27.3%) fulfilled the minimal aciclovir dosing and timing criteria for clinical efficacy (4 gr per day and <72 hours since rash initiation). The limited size of the simple prevented exploring factors linked to a misleading prescription. Appropriate knowledge on dosing and timing of aciclovir/valaciclovir therapy for herpes zoster was infrequent in a sample of physicians working in various clinical settings in Chile.

  12. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis of the Parietal Lobe: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Tkachenko, Lara; Moisi, Marc; Rostad, Steven; Umeh, Randle; Zwillman, Michael E; Tubbs, R. Shane; Page, Jeni; Newell, David W.; Delashaw, Johnny B

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old female with a history of breast cancer and hypertension presented with a rare case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) isolated to her left parietal lobe. The patient’s first biopsy was negative for herpes simplex virus (HSV) I/II antigens, but less than two weeks later, the patient tested positive on repeat biopsy. This initial failure to detect the virus and the similarities between HSE and symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) suggests repeat testing for HSV in the presence of ICH. Due to the frequency of patients with extra temporal HSE, a diagnosis of HSE should be more readily considered, particularly when a patient may not be improving and a concrete diagnosis has not been solidified. PMID:27774355

  13. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later. PMID:25833911

  14. Herpes simplex virus bronchiolitis in a cannabis user

    PubMed Central

    Libraty, Daniel H.; Bocelli, Lisa; Fraire, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) lower respiratory tract infections in adults are uncommon. We present a case of HSV bronchiolitis and pneumonitis in an immunocompetent individual, likely linked to chronic habitual marijuana use and a herpetic orolabial ulcer. The case serves as a reminder to consider HSV as a potential unusual cause of lower respiratory tract infection/inflammation in individuals with chronic habitual marijuana use. PMID:26912481

  15. Management and Prevention of Herpes Zoster Ocular Disease.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elisabeth J

    2015-10-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) in people who have had chicken pox, usually resulting in a painful, unilateral, dermatomal, vesicular rash. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when the first division of cranial nerve V is involved. HZ is common, with approximately 1 million new cases per year in the United States, and occurs in 1 in 3 persons. Although the rate of HZ increases with age, over half of all cases occur under the age of 60 years. Complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus include eye disease, postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), and strokes. VZV has also been found in temporal arteritis biopsies. There is growing evidence that HZ is followed by chronic active VZV infection contributing to these complications. In view of this, and the efficacy of suppressive antiviral treatment in reducing recurrent herpes simplex keratitis, a randomized controlled trial of suppressive valacyclovir to reduce new or worsening anterior segment disease and/or PHN is needed. The zoster vaccine (ZV) is safe and effective in reducing the burden of illness, severity of PHN, and incidence of HZ. It is Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended for persons aged 60 years and above without impaired cellular immunity, and Food and Drug Administration approved for those aged 50 and older. It is most effective in preventing HZ in recipients in their 50s. Because of underusage of the ZV, it has not impacted the epidemiology of the disease. Barriers to its use include cost, variable reimbursement, frozen storage, and lack of a strong recommendation by doctors.

  16. Early decompressive hemicraniectomy in fulminant herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Maraite, N; Mataigne, F; Pieri, V; Dang, T; Diederich, N J

    2010-01-01

    Herpes encephalitis can be a life-threatening condition, despite early instauration of acyclovir treatment. In particular patients may succumb to rapidly progressive cerebral oedema. We report a 66-year patient with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 6 and incipient uncus herniation of the right temporal lobe on the third day. Decompressive hemicraniectomy was immediately performed. The long-term outcome was satisfactory with unassisted gait and a Barthel Index score of 70 after 9 months.

  17. Early decompressive hemicraniectomy in fulminant herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Maraite, N; Mataigne, F; Pieri, V; Dang, T; Diederich, N J

    2009-01-01

    Herpes encephalitis can be a life-threatening condition, despite early instauration of acyclovir treatment. In particular patients may succumb to rapidly progressive cerebral oedema. We report a 66-year patient with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 6 and incipient uncus herniation of the right temporal lobe on the third day. Decompressive hemicraniectomy was immediately performed. The long-term outcome was satisfactory with unassisted gait and a Barthel Index score of 70 after 9 months.

  18. Eye and Periocular Skin Involvement in Herpes Zoster Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeropoulos, Chris D.; Bassukas, Ioannis D.; Moschos, Marilita M.; Tabbara, Khalid F.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) is a clinical manifestation of the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection and is more common in people with diminished cell-mediated immunity. Lesions and pain correspond to the affected dermatomes, mostly in first or second trigeminal branch and progress from maculae, papules to vesicles and form pustules, and crusts. Complications are cutaneous, visceral, neurological, ocular, but the most debilitating is post-herpetic neuralgia. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus may affect all the ophthalmic structures, but most severe eye-threatening complications are panuveitis, acute retinal necrosis (ARN) and progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as well. Antiviral medications remain the primary therapy, mainly useful in preventing ocular involvement when begun within 72 hours after the onset of the rash. Timely diagnosis and management of HZO are critical in limiting visual morbidity. Vaccine in adults over 60 was found to be highly effective to boost waning immunity what reduces both the burden of herpes zoster (HZ) disease and the incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). PMID:27800502

  19. Pentyl Gallate Nanoemulsions as Potential Topical Treatment of Herpes Labialis.

    PubMed

    Kelmann, Regina G; Colombo, Mariana; De Araújo Lopes, Sávia Caldeira; Nunes, Ricardo J; Pistore, Morgana; Dall Agnol, Daniele; Rigotto, Caroline; Silva, Izabella Thais; Roman, Silvane S; Teixeira, Helder F; Oliveira Simões, Cláudia M; Koester, Letícia S

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the antiherpes activity of pentyl gallate (PG), suggesting that it could be a promising candidate for the topical treatment of human herpes labialis. PG low aqueous solubility represents a major drawback to its incorporation in topical dosage forms. Hence, the feasibility of incorporating PG into nanoemulsions, the ability to penetrate the skin, to inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 replication, and to cause dermal sensitization or toxicity were evaluated. Oil/water nanoemulsions containing 0.5% PG were prepared by spontaneous emulsification. The in vitro PG distribution into porcine ear skin after topical application of nanoemulsions was assessed, and the in vitro antiviral activity against HSV-1 replication was evaluated. Acute dermal toxicity and risk of dermal sensitization were evaluated in rat model. Nanoemulsions presented nanometric particle size (from 124.8 to 143.7 nm), high zeta potential (from -50.1 to -66.1 mV), loading efficiency above 99%, and adequate stability during 12 months. All formulations presented anti-HSV-1 activity. PG was able to reach deeper into the dermis more efficiently from the nanoemulsion F4. This formulation as well as PG were considered safe for topical use. Nanoemulsions seem to be a safe and effective approach for topically delivering PG in the treatment of human herpes labialis infection.

  20. Isolation of herpes simplex viruses by chick embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Akter, T; Tabassum, S; Jahan, M; Nessa, A; Islam, M N; Giasuddin, M

    2013-04-01

    The chick embryo is a versatile host system in diagnostic virology, especially for isolation of herpes simplex viruses. In this study, samples obtained from 57 clinically diagnosed patients with active herpetic lesions (35 genital & 22 non-genital) were cultured by chick embryo method for isolation of herpes simplex virus. After inoculation onto the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 10-11 days old chick embryo, typical CAM reactions (pocks) appeared in 23(40.3%) samples after 3 days. CAM reactions were identified and typed by direct fluorescence antibody test and 22(95.6%) of 23 isolates gave positive results. Of this, 9(40.9%) were HSV-1 & 13(59.1%) were HSV-2. HSV-1 was isolated from 8(36.4%) of non-genital samples and from 1(7.1%) genital sample. HSV-2 was isolated from 13(92.8%) of genital samples, but none were isolated from non-genital samples. High isolation rate was obtained from vesicular stage of both non-genital (71.5%) and genital (57.1%) samples and from early lesions (sampled within 72 hours) of non-genital (50%) and genital (52.9%) specimen. The chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryo it is a simple, cheap and efficient method of cultivation of some viruses, including HSV. Thus, in settings where cell culture facilities are not available, it can be used for the isolation of herpes simplex viruses from clinical samples.

  1. [Neuropathic pain due to herpes zoster infection with atypical localization].

    PubMed

    Sağır, Özlem; Özaslan, Sabri; Meriç, Yücel; Arslan, İsmail; Köroğlu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Acute herpes zoster infection appears in the situation of depression of immune system and reactivation of varicella zoster virus which causes small pox. Pain and maculopapular lesion accompany clinical symptoms. Various pharmacological and invasive methods can be used for treatment. Efficient therapy is important for prevention of postherpetic neuralgia and cure of acute pain and dermatological lesions. A 55 years old, 160 cm height and 65 kg weight female patient with complaints of severe pain, sensation of burning, tingling at the right hand and forearm was admitted to our pain department. The patient who was diagnosed as cervical hernia at an other medical center had a normal physical servical spine examination. Patient history and physical examination findings with acute herpes zoster infection was considered. Right stellate ganglion blockade for diagnosis and treatment was performed because of regressed and atypically located lesions and a visual analog scale score of 10. VAS score decreased 50% at 9th min after block, VAS score at 2nd hour was 2. Antiviral, gabapentin, and tricyclic antidepressant treatment was started after stellat ganglion blockade and patient was discharged. After 3 months complaints dissapeared and drug doses were discreased and stopped. In conclusion we think that stellate ganglion blockade can be useful in diagnosis, acute pain control, improving patient comfort and compatibility to drug therapy in atypically located herpes zoster.

  2. Herpes simplex virus type 2 in Brazil: seroepidemiologic survey.

    PubMed

    Da Rosa-Santos, O L; Gonçalves Da Silva, A; Pereira, A C

    1996-11-01

    The incidence of genital herpes is increasing worldwide and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital ulcerations among sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Findings are reported from an assessment of the prevalence of antibodies to HSV-2 in low- and high-risk populations in Brazil. 155 voluntary blood donors and 85 HIV-seropositive homosexual and promiscuous heterosexual men were screened with ELISA for infection with HSV-2 during February-August 1994. 20 highly active prostitutes were also studied during May-July 1994. The subjects were of mean age 30 years, 70% were sexually active at the time of the study, and 6.55% used condoms. Antibodies to HSV-2 were detected in 29.1% of the blood donors, 73% of the HIV-seropositive men, and 72% of the overall high-risk group. Only 10%, however, admitted to ever having episodes of genital herpes. HSV-2 infection was significantly and independently associated with years of sexual activity, history of previous STDs, number of sex partners in the previous month, number of pregnancies, number of induced abortions, and the percentage of sex acts involving receptive anal intercourse. Routine screening for HSV-2 infection should be considered in populations at high risk for STDs.

  3. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus-1 following epilepsy surgery☆

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro; Crippa, Ana; Cruz, Cristina; de Paola, Luciano; de Souza, Luciana Paula; Noronha, Lucia; Torres, Luis Fernando Bleggi; Koneski, Julio A.S.; Pessa, Luis Felipe Cavalli; Nogueira, Meri Bordignon; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Silvado, Carlos Eduardo; Vidal, Luine Rosele

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study reports a case of encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), following surgical manipulation of the site of a primary infection. Methods Herpes simplex virus-1 infection was confirmed by CSF PCR and DNA sequencing. Results The patient was an 11-year-old girl who required temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy. She had meningoencephalitis due to HSV at the age of 20 months, and she was treated with acyclovir. Three years later, the patient developed uncontrolled seizures that became more frequent and changed in character at 11 years of age. On the 12th postoperative day, she developed fever and seizures, and she was diagnosed with HSV-1 by positive CSF PCR. She was treated with acyclovir (30 mg/kg/day for 21 days). In this report, we describe the patient and review the relevant literature. Conclusion The authors stress the potential risk of reactivation of HSV encephalitis after intracranial surgery. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis must be considered in neurosurgical patients who develop postoperative seizures and fever. PMID:26543809

  4. Herpes simplex virus: isolation, cytopathological characterization and antiviral sensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Nozawa, Carlos; Hattori, Lilian Yumi; Galhardi, Ligia Carla Faccin; Lopes, Nayara; Bomfim, Wesley Andrade; de Cândido, Ligyana Korki; de Azevedo, Elbens Marcos Minoreli; Gon, Airton dos Santos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is an endemic disease and it is estimated that 6095% of the adult population are infected with symptoms that are usually self-limiting, though they can be serious, extensive and prolonged in immunocompromised individuals, highlighted by the emergence of drug-resistant strains. The study of the wild-type HSV strains based on the cytopathogenic features and its antiviral sensitivity are important in the establishment of an antivirogram for controlling the infection. OBJECTIVE This study sought to isolate and examine the cytopathological characteristics of circulating strains of the Herpes simplex virus, from clinical specimens and their sensitivity to commercially available antiherpesvirus drugs, acyclovir, phosphonophormic acid and trifluridine. METHODS Herpes simplex virus isolation, cytopathological features and antiviral sensitivity assays were performed in cell culture by tissue culture infectious dose or plaque forming unit assay. RESULTS From twenty-two clinical specimens, we isolated and adapted nine strains. Overall, the cytopathic effect was detected 24 h post-infection (p.i.) and the presence of syncytia was remarkable 48 h p.i., observed after cell staining. Out of eight isolates, four developed plaques of varying sizes. All the isolates were sensitive to acyclovir, phosphonophormic and trifluridine, with the percentage of virus inhibition (%VI) ranging from 49.7-100%. CONCLUSIONS The methodology for HSV isolation and characterization is a straightforward approach, but the drug sensitivity test, regarded as being of great practical importance, needs to be better understood. PMID:24937819

  5. Evaluation of a Novel, Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Compound, Acyclovir Elaidate (P-4010), in the Female Guinea Pig Model of Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, R.; Smith, T. L.; Myhren, F.; Phillips, J.; Sandvold, M. L.

    1999-01-01

    The antiviral effect of acyclovir elaidate in the female guinea pig model of genital herpes was investigated in a series of experiments. The antiherpesvirus effects of this novel compound, 9-(2′-[trans-9"-octadecenoyloxyl]ethoxymethyl)guanine (code no. P-4010), were studied in both primary and recurrent genital herpes in the female guinea pig, following oral gavage or intraperitoneal injection, with different formulations of the compound, and in comparison with acyclovir (ACV) or penciclovir (PCV). The results indicate that compound P-4010 has a greater capability than either ACV or PCV in reducing the clinical symptoms of primary genital herpes induced following the inoculation of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) intravaginally into guinea pigs. In addition, the administration of P-4010 twice daily over a 10-day period by the intraperitoneal route (15 to 40 mg/kg of body weight/day) or by oral gavage (50 to 200 mg/kg/day), commencing 4 h subsequent to intravaginal HSV-2 infection, resulted in a degree of reduction in the incidence and severity of spontaneous, recurrent genital herpes in these animals. The findings are discussed in the light of the value and relevance of the female guinea pig model of genital herpes for the assessment of anti-herpes simplex virus compounds. PMID:9869565

  6. [PCR study of the human herpes virus type 6 and other viruses of the herpes group in eye diseases].

    PubMed

    Slepowa, O S; Svetlova, E V; Kovaleva, L A; Makarov, P V; Kugusheva, A E; Denisova, E V; Vahova, E S; Zaharova, G Yu; Kondrat'eva, Yu A; Andryushin, A E; Demkin, V V

    2015-01-01

    To study the role of the HHV-6 type in the development of eye diseases PCR tests of blood (152), cornea biopsies (61), and intraocular fluids (11) for HHV-6 and other viruses of the herpes group (HSV type 1 and 2, CMV, EBV) were conducted. It was found that the HHV-6, along with other representatives of the Herpesviridae, can be detected in patients with different clinical forms of ophthalmopathology (174 patients were surveyed). Viral DNA was detected in blood, cornea, and in the anterior chamber fluid. The obtained data allow that the HHV-6 to be suggested as a possible cause of the ophthalmic herpes along with the other viruses of this group. It makes finding the virus DNA an essential step towards setting the etiologic diagnosis of the ophthalmological patients. PMID:27024918

  7. Herpes zoster vaccine effectiveness and manifestations of herpes zoster and associated pain by vaccination status.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Yawn, Barbara P; Hales, Craig M; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Zhang, John; Kurland, Marge J; Harpaz, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Options for managing herpes zoster (HZ)-related pain and complications have limited effectiveness, making HZ prevention through vaccination an important strategy. Limited data are available on HZ vaccine effectiveness against confirmed HZ and manifestations of HZ among vaccinated persons. We conducted a matched case-control study to assess HZ vaccine effectiveness for prevention of HZ and other HZ-related outcomes and a cohort study of persons with HZ to compare HZ-related outcomes by vaccination status. Cases were identified through active surveillance among persons age ≥ 60 years with HZ onset and health-care encounters during 2010-2011 in Southeastern Minnesota. Controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Data were collected by medical record review and from participants via interviews and daily pain diaries. 266 HZ case-patients and 362 matched controls were enrolled in the vaccine effectiveness studies and 303 case-patients in the cohort study of HZ characteristics by vaccination status. Vaccination was associated with 54% (95% CI:32%-69%) reduction in HZ incidence, 58% (95% CI:31%-75%) reduction in HZ prodromal symptoms, and 70% (95% CI:33%-87%) reduction in medically-attended prodrome. HZ vaccine was statistically significant effective at preventing postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) measured at 30 d after rash onset, 61% (95% CI: 22%-80%). Among persons who developed HZ, no differences were found by vaccination status in severity or duration of HZ pain after rash onset. In this population-based study, HZ vaccination was associated with >50% reduction in HZ, HZ prodrome, and medically-attended prodrome.

  8. Herpes simplex virus 2 meningitis: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephanie; Mateen, Farrah J; Aksamit, Allen J

    2013-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 is a leading cause of viral meningitis and the most commonly recognized infectious cause of benign, recurrent meningitis. We report a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) meningitis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The terms "herpes simplex," "meningitis," or "encephalitis" were searched in the medical records system of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota (1995-2008). Patients were included if they had a clinical diagnosis of meningitis and HSV-2 detected by PCR in the CSF. There were 28 patients with 33 episodes identified (83 % female; mean age at presentation of meningitis 36 years, range 17-53; mean time to HSV2 detection from symptom onset 3 days, range 0-6; history of genital herpes 23 %). No patient took oral antiviral treatment at the time of presentation. Episodes were most likely to include headache (100 %), photophobia (47 %), self-reported fever (45 %), meningismus (44 %), and nausea and/or vomiting (29 %). CSF at the time of meningitis was notable for elevated protein (mean 156 g/dL, range 60-258) and white cell count (mean 504 cells/μL, range 86-1,860) with normal glucose (mean 54 mg/dL, range 32-80). Mollaret cells were never detected. Neuroimaging was most often normal (83 %) when performed, although some cases showed nonspecific (14 %) or meningeal changes (3 %). There was no consistent relationship to genital herpes. The duration of treatment with intravenous acyclovir ranged from 3 to 14 days for the first meningitic episode (daily dose range from 500 to 1,000 mg and total dose range from 500 mg q8h for 3 days to 800 mg q8h for 14 days). For subsequent episodes, the duration of treatment of intravenous acyclovir ranged from less than 1 to 14 days (total dose range from 1,390 mg for 1 day to 900 mg q8h for 10 days). The dose of valacyclovir ranged from 500 mg once daily to 500 mg four times daily. The median duration

  9. Susceptibility of herpes simplex virus isolated from genital herpes lesions to ASP2151, a novel helicase-primase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Weinberg, Adriana; Chono, Koji; Takakura, Shoji; Kontani, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    ASP2151 (amenamevir) is a helicase-primase inhibitor against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus. To evaluate the anti-HSV activity of ASP2151, susceptibility testing was performed on viruses isolated from patients participating in a placebo- and valacyclovir-controlled proof-of-concept phase II study for recurrent genital herpes. A total of 156 HSV strains were isolated prior to the dosing of patients, and no preexisting variants with less susceptibility to ASP2151 or acyclovir (ACV) were detected. ASP2151 inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication with mean 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)s) of 0.043 and 0.069 μM, whereas ACV exhibited mean EC(50)s of 2.1 and 3.2 μM, respectively. Notably, the susceptibilities of HSV isolates to ASP2151 and ACV were not altered after dosing with the antiviral agents. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ASP2151 inhibits the replication of HSV clinical isolates more potently than ACV, and HSV resistant to this novel helicase-primase inhibitor as well as ACV may not easily emerge in short-term treatment for recurrent genital herpes patients.

  10. Susceptibility of Herpes Simplex Virus Isolated from Genital Herpes Lesions to ASP2151, a Novel Helicase-Primase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Weinberg, Adriana; Chono, Koji; Takakura, Shoji; Kontani, Toru

    2012-01-01

    ASP2151 (amenamevir) is a helicase-primase inhibitor against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus. To evaluate the anti-HSV activity of ASP2151, susceptibility testing was performed on viruses isolated from patients participating in a placebo- and valacyclovir-controlled proof-of-concept phase II study for recurrent genital herpes. A total of 156 HSV strains were isolated prior to the dosing of patients, and no preexisting variants with less susceptibility to ASP2151 or acyclovir (ACV) were detected. ASP2151 inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication with mean 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 0.043 and 0.069 μM, whereas ACV exhibited mean EC50s of 2.1 and 3.2 μM, respectively. Notably, the susceptibilities of HSV isolates to ASP2151 and ACV were not altered after dosing with the antiviral agents. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ASP2151 inhibits the replication of HSV clinical isolates more potently than ACV, and HSV resistant to this novel helicase-primase inhibitor as well as ACV may not easily emerge in short-term treatment for recurrent genital herpes patients. PMID:22526302

  11. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: mapping of structural proteins, ribosomal frameshifting, and similarities to Acyrthosiphon pisum virus and kelp fly virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We show that the second open reading frame (ORF) of the dicistronic genome is expressed via a frameshifting mechanism and that the sequences encoding the stru...

  12. Herpes zoster in a 2-year-old vaccinated against varicella.

    PubMed

    Ulman, Catherine A; Trevino, Julian J; Gandhi, Rishi K

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster is uncommon in the pediatric population. We report a case of herpes zoster in a 2-year-old boy who received the live attenuated varicella zoster virus vaccination at his 12-month pediatric visit. The child was treated with acyclovir and recovered without complications.

  13. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

  14. The Dynamics of HCF-1 Modulation of Herpes Simplex Virus Chromatin during Initiation of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Successful infection of herpes simplex virus is dependent upon chromatin modulation by the cellular coactivator host cell factor-1 (HCF-1). This review focuses on the multiple chromatin modulation components associated with HCF-1 and the chromatin-related dynamics mediated by this coactivator that lead to the initiation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) immediate early gene expression. PMID:23698399

  15. Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.

    2000-06-01

    Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

  16. Recurrent Transcortical Motor Aphasia-Another CNS Infectious Syndrome Associated with Herpes Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Raghav; Salgado, Efrain

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is an acute/subacute illness that causes both general and focal signs of cerebral dysfunction with fever, headache, and confusion as cardinal features. Recurrent herpes simplex meningitis, also known as Mollaret's meningitis, is another manifestation of central nervous system herpetic infection with recurrent episodes of fever, headache, and nuchal rigidity associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evidence of active herpes simplex infection. Bell's palsy is yet another manifestation of a herpes virus infection in at least some reported cases documented by CSF analysis. We report a case of a 70-year-old male who presented with acute transcortical motor aphasia initiating a stroke work-up that was negative. Physical examination revealed genital vesicles, and the CSF was consistent with active herpes simplex infection. PMID:26958155

  17. Recurrent Transcortical Motor Aphasia—Another CNS Infectious Syndrome Associated with Herpes Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, Raghav; Salgado, Efrain

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is an acute/subacute illness that causes both general and focal signs of cerebral dysfunction with fever, headache, and confusion as cardinal features. Recurrent herpes simplex meningitis, also known as Mollaret’s meningitis, is another manifestation of central nervous system herpetic infection with recurrent episodes of fever, headache, and nuchal rigidity associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evidence of active herpes simplex infection. Bell’s palsy is yet another manifestation of a herpes virus infection in at least some reported cases documented by CSF analysis. We report a case of a 70-year-old male who presented with acute transcortical motor aphasia initiating a stroke work-up that was negative. Physical examination revealed genital vesicles, and the CSF was consistent with active herpes simplex infection. PMID:26958155

  18. Contacts with children and young people and adult risk of suffering herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Salleras, M; Domínguez, A; Soldevila, N; Prat, A; Garrido, P; Torner, N; Borrás, E; Salleras, L

    2011-10-13

    We carried out a matched case-control study to analyze the possible association between exposure to the children and the risk of suffering herpes-zoster in adulthood. Cases of herpes zoster in immunocompetent healthy patients aged ≥ 25 years seen in the dermatology department of the Sagrado Corazón Hospital in 2007-2008 were matched with four controls. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. 153 cases and 604 matched controls were included. Contacts with children were significantly associated with a reduction in the risk of suffering herpes zoster in adulthood (adjusted OR 0.56 [0.37-0.85]). Herpes-zoster vaccination in immunocompetent people aged ≥ 50 years could counteract the possible negative effects of mass varicella vaccination in childhood on the epidemiology of herpes zoster in adults.

  19. CSF herpes virus and autoantibody profiles in the evaluation of encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Linnoila, Jenny J.; Binnicker, Matthew J.; Majed, Masoud; Klein, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To report the frequency of coexisting herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1] or HSV-2, varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], cytomegalovirus, or human herpes virus 6 [HHV-6]) and autoantibodies in patients with encephalitis (herpes or autoimmune) in clinical laboratory service. Methods: Three groups were evaluated for herpes viruses and antibodies: group 1—patients whose CSF was positive for a herpes virus by real-time PCR over a period of 6 months; group 2—patients whose CSF was positive for an autoimmune encephalitis–associated antibody over 5 years (e.g., NMDA receptor [NMDA-R] antibody), and the same number of controls without autoimmune/infectious disease; and group 3—incidental autoimmune parainfectious encephalitis cases encountered over 1 year. Results: In group 1, antibodies were detected in 27 of 100 herpes PCR-positive CSF specimens (CSFs), either unclassified neural or nonneural in all but one patient with NMDA-R antibody detected after EBV infection. Antibodies were also detected in 3 of 7 CSFs submitted for repeat PCR testing (unclassified, 2; AMPA receptor, 1). In group 2, herpes viruses were detected in 1 of 77 controls (HHV-6) and 4 of 77 patients with autoimmune encephalitis (EBV, 2; HHV-6, 2); autoantibodies targeted NMDA-R in 3/4 and GABAB-R in 1/4. In group 3, NMDA-R antibody was detected in 7 patients post–HSV-1 encephalitis. Of the remaining 3 patients, 2 had unclassified neural antibodies detected, and one had GABAB-R autoimmunity. Concomitant neoplasms were discovered in 2 patients each from groups 2 and 3. Conclusions: Autoantibodies and herpes virus DNA frequently coexist in encephalitic CSF. Some patients develop parainfectious autoimmunity following viral CNS infection (usually HSV-1 encephalitis). The significance of detecting herpes nucleic acids in others remains unclear. PMID:27308306

  20. Increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with herpes zoster: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Po-yuan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Lee, Yuan-Teh

    2014-05-01

    The association between herpes zoster and cardiovascular complications remains vague with limited study on the association between these two disorders. This study evaluated the risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with herpes zoster. From insurance claims data of Taiwan, 19,483 patients with herpes zoster diagnosed in 1998-2008 and 77,932 subjects without herpes zoster were identified in this study. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2010 to measure the incidence of arrhythmia and coronary artery disease. The incidence rate ratio and adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of the cardiovascular complications with 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. The incidence of arrhythmia was 1.17-fold greater in the herpes zoster cohort than in the non-herpes zoster cohort (13.2 vs. 11.3 per 1,000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 1.16 (P < 0.01). The coronary artery disease incidence in the herpes zoster cohort was 1.16-fold higher than that in the non-herpes zoster cohort (9.02 vs. 7.83 per 1,000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 1.11 (P < 0.01). Over the stratified follow-up years, adjusted HRs were 1.22 (95% CI = 1.12-1.34) for arrhythmia and 1.14 (95% CI = 1.02-1.28) for coronary artery disease within 2 years after herpes zoster diagnosis. The risk measured for these disorders declined over time. Comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia also contributed to these cardiovascular disorders with greater extent. It is concluded that the contribution of herpes zoster to the risk of arrhythmia and cardiovascular diseases is less strong than that of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia.

  1. Survival of Frog Virus 3 in Freshwater and Sediment from an English Lake.

    PubMed

    Munro, James; Bayley, Amanda E; McPherson, Nicola J; Feist, Stephen W

    2016-01-01

    Ranaviruses can be transmitted by contaminated water and sediment but must retain infectivity for a sufficient period to reach and infect a susceptible host. To determine the risk a virus represents once it enters the environment, its persistence in that environment must be determined. We evaluated the survival of frog virus 3 (FV3) in water and sediment from an English lake at temperatures of 4, 15, 20, and 30 C over time. The virus survived in both water and sediment; however, survival times were significantly lower in sediment. The virus lost infectivity in both matrices with a rise in temperature. In water, time required for a 90% reduction in virus titer decreased from 34 d at 4 C to 5 d at 30 C. In sediment, required time for a 90% reduction decreased from 10 d at 4 C to 1 d at 30 C. These results can be used to estimate the persistence of FV3 in the environment and indicate that the virus could remain infectious in temperate locations for extended periods during winter.

  2. Inflammation-Induced Reactivation of the Ranavirus Frog Virus 3 in Asymptomatic Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jacques; Grayfer, Leon; Edholm, Eva-Stina; Ward, Brian; De Jesús Andino, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Natural infections of ectothermic vertebrates by ranaviruses (RV, family Iridoviridae) are rapidly increasing, with an alarming expansion of RV tropism and resulting die-offs of numerous animal populations. Notably, infection studies of the amphibian Xenopus laevis with the ranavirus Frog Virus 3 (FV3) have revealed that although the adult frog immune system is efficient at controlling RV infections, residual quiescent virus can be detected in mononuclear phagocytes of otherwise asymptomatic animals following the resolution of RV infections. It is noteworthy that macrophage-lineage cells are now believed to be a critical element in the RV infection strategy. In the present work, we report that inflammation induced by peritoneal injection of heat-killed bacteria in asymptomatic frogs one month after infection with FV3 resulted in viral reactivation including detectable viral DNA and viral gene expression in otherwise asymptomatic frogs. FV3 reactivation was most prominently detected in kidneys and in peritoneal HAM56+ mononuclear phagocytes. Notably, unlike adult frogs that typically clear primary FV3 infections, a proportion of the animals succumbed to the reactivated FV3 infection, indicating that previous exposure does not provide protection against subsequent reactivation in these animals. PMID:25390636

  3. Inflammation-induced reactivation of the ranavirus Frog Virus 3 in asymptomatic Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Robert, Jacques; Grayfer, Leon; Edholm, Eva-Stina; Ward, Brian; De Jesús Andino, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Natural infections of ectothermic vertebrates by ranaviruses (RV, family Iridoviridae) are rapidly increasing, with an alarming expansion of RV tropism and resulting die-offs of numerous animal populations. Notably, infection studies of the amphibian Xenopus laevis with the ranavirus Frog Virus 3 (FV3) have revealed that although the adult frog immune system is efficient at controlling RV infections, residual quiescent virus can be detected in mononuclear phagocytes of otherwise asymptomatic animals following the resolution of RV infections. It is noteworthy that macrophage-lineage cells are now believed to be a critical element in the RV infection strategy. In the present work, we report that inflammation induced by peritoneal injection of heat-killed bacteria in asymptomatic frogs one month after infection with FV3 resulted in viral reactivation including detectable viral DNA and viral gene expression in otherwise asymptomatic frogs. FV3 reactivation was most prominently detected in kidneys and in peritoneal HAM56+ mononuclear phagocytes. Notably, unlike adult frogs that typically clear primary FV3 infections, a proportion of the animals succumbed to the reactivated FV3 infection, indicating that previous exposure does not provide protection against subsequent reactivation in these animals.

  4. Characterization of Frog Virus 3 knockout mutants lacking putative virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Andino, Francisco De Jesús; Grayfer, Leon; Chen, Guangchun; Chinchar, V Gregory; Edholm, Eva-Stina; Robert, Jacques

    2015-11-01

    To identify ranavirus virulence genes, we engineered Frog Virus 3 (FV3) knockout (KO) mutants defective for a putative viral caspase activation and recruitment domain-containing (CARD) protein (Δ64R-FV3) and a β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase homolog (Δ52L-FV3). Compared to wild type (WT) FV3, infection of Xenopus tadpoles with Δ64R- or Δ52L-FV3 resulted in significantly lower levels of mortality and viral replication. We further characterized these and two earlier KO mutants lacking the immediate-early18kDa protein (FV3-Δ18K) or the truncated viral homolog of eIF-2α (FV3-ΔvIF-2α). All KO mutants replicated as well as WT-FV3 in non-amphibian cell lines, whereas in Xenopus A6 kidney cells replication of ΔvCARD-, ΔvβHSD- and ΔvIF-2α-FV3 was markedly reduced. Furthermore, Δ64R- and ΔvIF-2α-FV3 were more sensitive to interferon than WT and Δ18-FV3. Notably, Δ64R-, Δ18K- and ΔvIF-2α- but not Δ52L-FV3 triggered more apoptosis than WT FV3. These data suggest that vCARD (64R) and vβ-HSD (52L) genes contribute to viral pathogenesis.

  5. The molecular biology of frog virus 3 and other iridoviruses infecting cold-blooded vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Chinchar, V Gregory; Yu, Kwang H; Jancovich, James K

    2011-10-01

    Frog virus 3 (FV3) is the best characterized member of the family Iridoviridae. FV3 study has provided insights into the replication of other family members, and has served as a model of viral transcription, genome replication, and virus-mediated host-shutoff. Although the broad outlines of FV3 replication have been elucidated, the precise roles of most viral proteins remain unknown. Current studies using knock down (KD) mediated by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (asMO) and small, interfering RNAs (siRNA), knock out (KO) following replacement of the targeted gene with a selectable marker by homologous recombination, ectopic viral gene expression, and recombinant viral proteins have enabled researchers to systematically ascertain replicative- and virulence-related gene functions. In addition, the application of molecular tools to ecological studies is providing novel ways for field biologists to identify potential pathogens, quantify infections, and trace the evolution of ecologically important viral species. In this review, we summarize current studies using not only FV3, but also other iridoviruses infecting ectotherms. As described below, general principles ascertained using FV3 served as a model for the family, and studies utilizing other ranaviruses and megalocytiviruses have confirmed and extended our understanding of iridovirus replication. Collectively, these and future efforts will elucidate molecular events in viral replication, intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to disease outbreaks, and the role of the host immune system in protection from disease. PMID:22069524

  6. Evolutionary origins of human herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Wertheim, Joel O; Smith, Martin D; Smith, Davey M; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L

    2014-09-01

    Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus-host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses.

  7. Immunological study of the aqueous humor in ocular herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Denis, J

    1976-01-01

    (1) Isolation of herpetic virus and immunological studies of the serum and aqueous humor are two complementary methods of investigation in the diagnosis of ocular herpes simplex infection, their relative value depending on the clinical situation. (2) Of the different immunological techniques that of antibody titration by the hemagglutination method is an easy, sensitive test, but only if the Goldmann-Witner ratio is calculated. By this technique, the diagnosis of herpetic infection can be made in unusual clinical presentations or old cases in which all specificity had disappeared.

  8. Manipulation of herpes simplex virus type 1 by dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, M P; Morgan, H; Rixon, F J; Burt, J P; Pethig, R

    1998-09-16

    The frequency-dependent dielectrophoretic behaviour of an enveloped mammalian virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 is described. It is demonstrated that over the range 10 kHz-20 MHz, these viral particles, when suspended in an aqueous medium of conductivity 5 mS m(-1), can be manipulated by both positive and negative dielectrophoresis using microfabricated electrode arrays. The observed transition from positive to negative dielectrophoresis at frequencies around 4.5 MHz is in qualitative agreement with a simple model of the virus as a conducting particle surrounded by an insulating membrane.

  9. [Virus-induced anorectal diseases. Condylomata acuminata and herpes simplex].

    PubMed

    Wienert, V

    2004-03-01

    Genital warts (condylomata acuminata) are very common sexually transmitted infections which may be present in perianal, anal and rarely rectal sites. Their incidence in the population is about 0.1%. As a rule, the diagnosis is simple and can be made by inspection; some variants pose a diagnostic challenge. The therapy is not uniform; it must be adjusted to the clinical manifestations and can be conservative or operative. Herpes simplex infections are also common; they too may be transferred by sexual intercourse and then commonly appear in the perianal skin and the rectal mucosa. While the clinical diagnosis is often difficult, the treatment is simple and effective.

  10. [Japanese guidelines for the management of herpes simplex encephalitis; comparison with those from the International Management Herpes Forum].

    PubMed

    Shoji, Hiroshi

    2006-11-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is still recognized as a severe sporadic encephalitis, although the mortality and morbidity rates have been decreased to 10% and 30%, respectively. This disease is diagnosed using clinical symptoms, CSF, EEG, CT, MRI, and virologic tests such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA). Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for HSE. However, the early symptoms of this disease are various, and the laboratory diagnostic criteria are unclear to the non-specialist. In 2005, Japanese guidelines for the management of HSE have been issued via two sets of Workshops at the Japanese Neuroinfectious Disease Congress. The diagnostic and therapeutic criteria were discussed in comparison with those from the International Management Herpes Forum (IMHF) in 2004. For a definitive diagnosis, CSF PCR for herpes simplex virus (HSV) is recommended, and the detection rate has been reported to be 60 to 80% within the 7th day of the illness. In the IMHF, the PCR method has also been the primary method for early diagnosis and for monitoring the therapy. Further, quantitative real-time PCR has become available for measuring the effectiveness of aciclovir therapy. To measure HSV antibody levels, complement antibody (CF), neutralizing antibody (NT), or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or EIA) are available. Significant elevation of EIA IgG or intrathecal HSV antibody production should be shown, although these antibody responses often appear two weeks after the onset of HSE. Regarding anti-herpesvirus drugs, in both Japanese and IMHF guidelines aciclovir is consistent with the first choice, and it is recommended that its administration would be started as soon as HSE is suspected on the basis of clinical pictures, CT * MRI, EEG, or CSF findings. However, antiviral therapy may be discontinued if a negative CSF HSV PCR is obtained at > 72 hours after onset. A recent Japanese study shows the efficacy of a combination

  11. Mengo virus 3C proteinase: recombinant expression, intergenus substrate cleavage and localization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hall, D J; Palmenberg, A C

    1996-01-01

    Mengo virus 3C proteinase was cloned and expressed to high levels in a bacterial vector system. The protein was solubilized from inclusion bodies then purified to homogeneity (> 95%) by ion exchange chromatography. The recombinant enzyme was proteolytically active in cell-free processing assays with a Mengo capsid precursor substrate, L-P1-2A, correctly and proficiently cleaving it into L, 1AB, 1C, 1D and 2A protein products. Further analyses with synthetic peptide substrates encompassing the Mengo or rhinovirus-14 2C/3A cleavage sequences, showed the Mengo 3C could recognize and process specific glutamine-glycine sites within these peptides. The reactivity with the rhinovirus peptide was unexpected, because cross-reactivity between a picornavirus 3C enzyme and a protein substrate from different genus of this family has otherwise never been observed. In reciprocal reactions, a rhinovirus-14 3C preparation was unable to cleave the Mengo-derived synthetic peptide substrate. The recombinant Mengo 3C reactions were also characterized with regard to substrate Km, optimum pH and temperature. The protein was additionally used to raise monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in mice, which in turn localized natural 3C, 3ABC, 3CD and P3 in immunoblots, immunoprecipitations and indirect immunofluorescence assays of Mengo-infected HeLa cells. The monoclonals showed cross-reactivity with 3C and 3C-containing precursors from encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), but did not react with 3C proteins from rhinovirus-14 or poliovirus-1M. PMID:8972564

  12. Structure of the Acidianus Filamentous Virus 3 and Comparative Genomics of Related Archaeal Lipothrixviruses▿

    PubMed Central

    Vestergaard, Gisle; Aramayo, Ricardo; Basta, Tamara; Häring, Monika; Peng, Xu; Brügger, Kim; Chen, Lanming; Rachel, Reinhard; Boisset, Nicolas; Garrett, Roger A.; Prangishvili, David

    2008-01-01

    Four novel filamentous viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes, namely, Acidianus filamentous virus 3 (AFV3), AFV6, AFV7, and AFV8, have been characterized from the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus, and they are assigned to the Betalipothrixvirus genus of the family Lipothrixviridae. The structures of the approximately 2-μm-long virions are similar, and one of them, AFV3, was studied in detail. It consists of a cylindrical envelope containing globular subunits arranged in a helical formation that is unique for any known double-stranded DNA virus. The envelope is 3.1 nm thick and encases an inner core with two parallel rows of protein subunits arranged like a zipper. Each end of the virion is tapered and carries three short filaments. Two major structural proteins were identified as being common to all betalipothrixviruses. The viral genomes were sequenced and analyzed, and they reveal a high level of conservation in both gene content and gene order over large regions, with this similarity extending partly to the earlier described betalipothrixvirus Sulfolobus islandicus filamentous virus. A few predicted gene products of each virus, in addition to the structural proteins, could be assigned specific functions, including a putative helicase involved in Holliday junction branch migration, a nuclease, a protein phosphatase, transcriptional regulators, and glycosyltransferases. The AFV7 genome appears to have undergone intergenomic recombination with a large section of an AFV2-like viral genome, apparently resulting in phenotypic changes, as revealed by the presence of AFV2-like termini in the AFV7 virions. Shared features of the genomes include (i) large inverted terminal repeats exhibiting conserved, regularly spaced direct repeats; (ii) a highly conserved operon encoding the two major structural proteins; (iii) multiple overlapping open reading frames, which may be indicative of gene recoding; (iv) putative 12-bp genetic elements; and (v) partial gene

  13. Sex differences in health care provider communication during genital herpes care and patients' health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ports, Katie A; Reddy, Diane M; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L

    2013-01-01

    Research in primary care medicine demonstrates that health care providers' communication varies depending on their sex, and that these sex differences in communication can influence patients' health outcomes. The present study aimed to examine the extent to which sex differences in primary care providers' communication extend to the sensitive context of gynecological care for genital herpes and whether these potential sex differences in communication influence patients' herpes transmission prevention behaviors and herpes-related quality of life. Women (N = 123) from the United States recently diagnosed with genital herpes anonymously completed established measures in which they rated (a) their health care providers' communication, (b) their herpes transmission prevention behaviors, and (c) their herpes-related quality of life. The authors found significant sex differences in health care providers' communication; this finding supports that sex differences in primary care providers' communication extend to gynecological care for herpes. Specifically, patients with female health care providers indicated that their providers engaged in more patient-centered communication and were more satisfied with their providers' communication. However, health care providers' sex did not predict women's quality of life, a finding that suggests that health care providers' sex alone is of little importance in patients' health outcomes. Patient-centered communication was significantly associated with greater quality-of-life scores and may provide a promising avenue for intervention.

  14. SEROLOGIC SCREENING FOR HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2 IN PERSONS WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    VAN WAGONER, NICHOLAS J; MORROW, RHODA; LEE, JEANNETTE; DIXON, PAULA; HOOK, EDWARD W.

    2013-01-01

    Screening for subclinical HSV-2 may be a useful adjunct in HIV care. However, HSV-2 serologic tests have been suggested to perform less well in HIV-infected populations. We compared HerpeSelect® HSV-2 ELISA to the Sure-Vue® Rapid HSV-2 Test for HSV-2 screening of sera from 310 HIV-infected persons receiving care at an HIV-dedicated clinic in the Southeastern United States. We determined assay agreement and whether performance of both tests, rather than 1 test alone, would improve screening accuracy. Overall percent test agreement was 96%. Negative percent agreement was best at a HerpeSelect® index value < 0.90 and positive percent agreement was best at a HerpeSelect® index value ≥ 3.0 (97% and 100%, respectively). Using the manufacturer’s established cutoffs for a HerpeSelect® positive versus negative test result discordant results between assays occurred in 4% of cases and the majority of these occurred when the HerpeSelect® index value was between 0.9 and 2.9. These data suggest good correlation between HerpeSelect® and the Sure-Vue® HSV-2 Rapid Test in a U.S. HIV-infected population and suggest that confirmatory testing may not help in HSV-2 diagnosis except in cases where HerpeSelect® index values are between 0.9–3.0. PMID:23154653

  15. Low prevalence of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Found in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) collected from nine locations in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Emily R; Anderson, Gregory B; Wooster, Gregory A; Getchell, Rodman G; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Casey, James W; Bain, Mark B; Bowser, Paul R

    2012-10-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) is a viral disease of fish first detected in the United States in 1998. Since that time, mortality events in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) have occurred in several locations within the Great Lakes basin, but not within the Great Lakes themselves. We sampled 675 carp from 20 sites across the Great Lakes and Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA, between 19 July and 26 September 2010. We tested the gill and a pooled internal organ sample from each fish for CyHV3 with the use of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Virus was detected in 18 fish from nine sites in four lakes (Lakes Michigan, Huron, St. Clair, and Ontario). Tissues from these 18 fish were also tested for CyHV3 with the use of the PCR assay recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health; amplification was achieved from two fish and confirmation by sequencing of CyHV3 from one fish collected in Lake St. Clair. The results of this study suggest that CyHV3 is present in the Great Lakes.

  16. Comparative analysis of differential gene expression in kidney tissues of moribund and surviving crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in response to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijuan; Podok, Patarida; Xie, Jun; Lu, Liqun

    2014-08-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) has recently been associated with high mortality of cultured crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in eastern China. In this study, we established a real-time PCR method to confirm viral infection of crucian carp and to quantify CyHV-2 particles obtained by sucrose gradient centrifugation from diseased fish. Virus-free crucian carp were artificially infected with CyHV-2 using an injection method, which resulted in a dose-dependent death rate. In situ hybridization analysis indicated that there was extensive viral replication and lysis in the kidneys of moribund fish, in contrast to very limited replication in surviving fish. To probe the host immune response to viral infection at the level of gene expression, we identified virus-responsive genes using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in head kidney tissues, the principal immune organ of fish, from moribund and surviving crucian carps after viral challenge. From the moribund SSH library, 363 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 234 unigenes (including 15 singletons and 45 contigs). From the survivor SSH library, 599 ESTs was clustered to 549 unigenes (including 107 singletons and 105 contigs). We further analyzed the transcriptional levels of all immune-related genes by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, which confirmed the upregulation of 90.48 % of these genes. The significantly upregulated immune-related genes identified in this study can serve as candidate marker genes for acute CyHV-2 infection.

  17. Herpes simplex virus infections in neonates and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kimberlin, David W

    2005-10-01

    Of the commonly considered congenital infections, those caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), syphilis, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) are frequently (CMV, HSV) or exclusively (syphilis) acquired sexually by the mother, with subsequent transmission to the developing fetus. Of the other commonly considered congenital infections, including rubella and toxoplasma infections, the mother is exposed to the infectious agent via interpersonal or environmental contacts. Unlike each of these other pathogens, which are transmitted transplacentally to the developing fetus following maternal infection though, HSV usually is transmitted perinatally as the neonate is exposed to the virus during passage through an infected birth canal. This difference in timing of acquisition of infection has had important consequence in the therapeutic advances achieved during the last 30 years in the management of neonatal HSV infections. Because the time period between the acquisition of infection and initiation of effective antiviral therapy is shorter in neonatal herpes than in congenital toxoplasmosis or CMV infections, the outcomes of therapy have the potential to be markedly different. This article will summarize the current state of neonatal HSV disease presentation, diagnosis, and management. PMID:16210107

  18. Efficacy of continuous epidural block in acute herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoo Na; Kim, Dae Woo; Kim, Eung Don

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate efficacy of continuous epidural block for prevent postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) progression in cases of acute herpes zoster with severe pain and also to identify predictive factors for PHN in such conditions. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of patients with herpes zoster who underwent continuous epidural block between March 2013 and October 2015. Time points were set as 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after zoster onset. PHN was defined as the presence of pain with NRS ≥3 at certain time points. The incidence of developing PHN was 38.1%, 27.0%, and 19.0% 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after zoster onset, respectively. Age and duration of catheterization were predictive factors for PHN at 1 month. Age, duration of catheterization, and NRS at first visit were identified as predictive factors for PHN at 3 months. Presence of diabetes, duration of catheterization, and NRS during catheterization were significant predictive factors for PHN at 6 months. The incidence of PHN is higher in zoster patients with severe pain that requires continuous epidural block compared to incidence in the general population. Advanced age and severe initial pain intensity were predictive factors of PHN development. Prolonged catheterization resulting from weak response to treatment strongly suggested progression to PHN. PMID:27512887

  19. Rapid Detection of Herpes Viruses for Clinical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; Mehta, Satish

    2013-01-01

    There are eight herpes viruses that infect humans, causing a wide range of diseases resulting in considerable morbidity and associated costs. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpes virus that causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. Approximately 1,000,000 new cases of shingles occur each year; post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) follows shingles in 100,000 to 200,000 people annually. PHN is characterized by debilitating, nearly unbearable pain for weeks, months, and even years. The onset of shingles is characterized by pain, followed by the zoster rash, leading to blisters and severe pain. The problem is that in the early stages, shingles can be difficult to diagnose; chickenpox in adults can be equally difficult to diagnose. As a result, both diseases can be misdiagnosed (false positive/negative). A molecular assay has been adapted for use in diagnosing VZV diseases. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is a non-invasive, rapid, sensitive, and highly specific method for VZV DNA detection. It provides unequivocal results and can effectively end misdiagnoses. This is an approximately two-hour assay that allows unequivocal diagnosis and rapid antiviral drug intervention. It has been demonstrated that rapid intervention can prevent full development of the disease, resulting in reduced likelihood of PHN. The technology was extended to shingles patients and demonstrated that VZV is shed in saliva and blood of all shingles patients. The amount of VZV in saliva parallels the medical outcome.

  20. [Diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for acyclovir-resistant herpes encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Saijo, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Acyclovir (ACV), which inhibits the replication of herpes simplex virus, is the standard drug for the treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis. Thanks to the introduction of ACV, the morbidity and mortality of HSE patients have significantly improved. However, the disease is still the severe infection, because it makes some patients with HSE suffer from severe consequences. The sensitivity test of the etiological HSV to ACV is very difficult due to the inability of isolation of the virus from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The cases of the ACV treatment-resistant HSE patients have been reported. However, these cases were not virologically confirmed. The first case of encephalitis in newborn baby with HSE caused by an ACV-resistant HSV-1, which was virologically confirmed, was reported by our group. According to the sensitivity profile of the causative viruses to antiviral drugs, the drugs of choice for HSE should be properly considered. Strategy for diagnoses of HSE including antiviral sensitivity assessment and selection of drugs in HSE is reviewed.

  1. Unusual Initial Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus as Inguinal Lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Sarah A.; Strickler, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are a common cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy. However, surgical excision of enlarged inguinal nodes is almost never performed to initially diagnose genital herpes simplex virus, due to the distinct external presentation of genital herpetic vesicles that usually occur with the first symptoms of infection. Therefore, the histologic and immunophenotypic features of HSV-associated inguinal lymphadenopathy are unfamiliar to most pathologists. The current report describes the lymph node pathology of two immunocompetent patients, whose initial HSV diagnosis was established through surgical excision of enlarged inguinal lymph nodes. Histologic examination showed features consistent with viral lymphadenopathy, including florid follicular hyperplasia, monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia, and paracortical hyperplasia without extensive necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains for HSV antigens, using polyclonal anti-HSV I and II antibodies, demonstrate strong immunoreactivity for HSV in a small number of cells in the subcapsular sinuses, especially in areas with monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia. Rare scattered HSV-positive cells also are identified in paracortical areas and germinal centers. We conclude that an initial diagnosis of genital HSV infection may be established by inguinal lymph node biopsy. PMID:25815228

  2. Unusual initial presentation of herpes simplex virus as inguinal lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Sarah A; Strickler, John G

    2015-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are a common cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy. However, surgical excision of enlarged inguinal nodes is almost never performed to initially diagnose genital herpes simplex virus, due to the distinct external presentation of genital herpetic vesicles that usually occur with the first symptoms of infection. Therefore, the histologic and immunophenotypic features of HSV-associated inguinal lymphadenopathy are unfamiliar to most pathologists. The current report describes the lymph node pathology of two immunocompetent patients, whose initial HSV diagnosis was established through surgical excision of enlarged inguinal lymph nodes. Histologic examination showed features consistent with viral lymphadenopathy, including florid follicular hyperplasia, monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia, and paracortical hyperplasia without extensive necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains for HSV antigens, using polyclonal anti-HSV I and II antibodies, demonstrate strong immunoreactivity for HSV in a small number of cells in the subcapsular sinuses, especially in areas with monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia. Rare scattered HSV-positive cells also are identified in paracortical areas and germinal centers. We conclude that an initial diagnosis of genital HSV infection may be established by inguinal lymph node biopsy.

  3. Concomitant herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis in a man with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Varun K.; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel J.; Quigley, Brian C.; Farris, Alton B.; Norvell, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Herpesvirus infections often complicate the clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; however, invasive disease due to herpes simplex virus is distinctly uncommon. Methods: We present a case of herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis, review all the previously published cases of herpes simplex virus colitis, and discuss common clinical features and outcomes. We also discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of herpes simplex virus infections, focusing specifically on patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Results: A 43-year-old man with ulcerative colitis, previously controlled with an oral 5-aminosalicylic agent, developed symptoms of a colitis flare that did not respond to treatment with systemic corticosteroid therapy. One week later he developed orolabial ulcers and progressive hepatic dysfunction, with markedly elevated transaminases and coagulopathy. He underwent emergent total colectomy when imaging suggested bowel micro-perforation. Pathology from both the colon and liver was consistent with herpes simplex virus infection, and a viral culture of his orolabial lesions and a serum polymerase chain reaction assay also identified herpes simplex virus. He was treated with systemic antiviral therapy and made a complete recovery. Conclusions: Disseminated herpes simplex virus infection with concomitant involvement of the colon and liver has been reported only 3 times in the published literature, and to our knowledge this is the first such case in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk of invasive herpes simplex virus infections increases with some, but not all immunomodulatory therapies. Optimal management of herpes simplex virus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease includes targeted prophylactic therapy for patients with evidence of latent infection, and timely initiation of antiviral therapy for those patients suspected to have invasive disease. PMID:27759636

  4. Cutaneous neonatal herpes simplex virus infection type 2: a case report*

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; Freitas, Lívia Karlla Marinho; Drago, Marion Guimarães; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; do Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdo

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal herpes is a serious condition. Newborns can be contaminated in utero via transplacental hematogenic transmission, upon delivery (the most frequent route), or during the postnatal period (indirect transmission). Optimal management requires prompt and accurate recognition, particularly in newborns, in order to prevent complications. Acyclovir is the treatment of choice, but its implementation is often delayed while awaiting test results, such as PCR and serology. Cytology for diagnostic purposes is rarely used in dermatology, despite the quick and reliable results. We report a case of neonatal herpes caused by type 2 herpes simplex virus diagnosed by cytology. PMID:27192523

  5. Herpes Zoster Meningitis Complicating Combined Tocilizumab and Cyclosporine Therapy for Adult-Onset Still's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsurukawa, Shinichiro; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Kawahara, Chieko; Shukuwa, Tetsuo; Inamoto, Miwako; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A 56-year-old female with refractory adult-onset Still's disease presented with ocular herpes zoster infection during TCZ treatment. After three days of acyclovir treatment (5 mg/kg), she developed a severe headache and high fever. Viral DNA isolation and cerebral spinal fluid abnormalities led to a herpes zoster meningitis diagnosis. Her meningitis was cured by high doses of intravenous acyclovir (10 mg/kg for 14 days). To our knowledge, this is the first report of meningeal herpes zoster infection in rheumatic diseases under TCZ treatment. PMID:27092286

  6. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, S.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

  7. Limb hypoplasia resulting from intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Carola, D; Skibo, M; Cannon, S; Cam, K M; Hyde, P; Aghai, Z H

    2014-11-01

    Intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus, although very rare, has devastating effects on multiple organ systems in the fetus and can lead to in utero fetal demise. Neonates born following intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection commonly manifest with cutaneous lesions, ocular damage and/or brain abnormalities. We describe the case of a dichorionic, diamniotic twin gestation complicated by intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection. This infection led to the fetal demise of twin A and a very uncommon presentation of limb hypoplasia in twin B.

  8. Herpes Zoster Meningitis Complicating Combined Tocilizumab and Cyclosporine Therapy for Adult-Onset Still's Disease.

    PubMed

    Tsurukawa, Shinichiro; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Kawahara, Chieko; Shukuwa, Tetsuo; Inamoto, Miwako; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A 56-year-old female with refractory adult-onset Still's disease presented with ocular herpes zoster infection during TCZ treatment. After three days of acyclovir treatment (5 mg/kg), she developed a severe headache and high fever. Viral DNA isolation and cerebral spinal fluid abnormalities led to a herpes zoster meningitis diagnosis. Her meningitis was cured by high doses of intravenous acyclovir (10 mg/kg for 14 days). To our knowledge, this is the first report of meningeal herpes zoster infection in rheumatic diseases under TCZ treatment. PMID:27092286

  9. Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein Vaccines and CLDC Adjuvant on Genital Herpes Infection in the Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D.; Bravo, Fernando J.; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R.; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2011-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines. PMID:21238569

  10. The challenges and opportunities for the development of a T-cell epitope-based herpes simplex vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tiffany; Wang, Christine; Badakhshan, Tina; Chilukuri, Sravya; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-11-28

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) infections have been prevalent since the ancient Greek times. To this day, they still affect a staggering number of over a billion individuals worldwide. HSV-1 infections are predominant than HSV-2 infections and cause potentially blinding ocular herpes, oro-facial herpes and encephalitis. HSV-2 infections cause painful genital herpes, encephalitis, and death in newborns. While prophylactic and therapeutic HSV vaccines remain urgently needed for centuries, their development has been difficult. During the most recent National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop titled "Next Generation Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: The Challenges and Opportunities", basic researchers, funding agencies, and pharmaceutical representatives gathered: (i) to assess the status of herpes vaccine research; and (ii) to identify the gaps and propose alternative approaches in developing a safe and efficient herpes vaccine. One "common denominator" among previously failed clinical herpes vaccine trials is that they either used a whole virus or a whole viral protein, which contain both "pathogenic symptomatic" and "protective asymptomatic" antigens and epitopes. In this report, we continue to advocate developing "asymptomatic" epitope-based sub-unit vaccine strategies that selectively incorporate "protective asymptomatic" epitopes which: (i) are exclusively recognized by effector memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells (TEM cells) from "naturally" protected seropositive asymptomatic individuals; and (ii) protect human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic animal models of ocular and genital herpes. We review the role of animal models in herpes vaccine development and discuss their current status, challenges, and prospects.

  11. Efficacy Results of a Trial of a Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Belshe, Robert B.; Leone, Peter A.; Bernstein, David I.; Wald, Anna; Levin, Myron J.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Gorfinkel, Iris; Morrow, Rhoda L. Ashley; Ewell, Marian G.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Dubin, Gary; Heineman, Thomas C.; Schulte, Joann M.; Deal, Carolyn D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Two previous studies of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) subunit vaccine containing glycoprotein D in HSV-discordant couples revealed 73% and 74% efficacy against genital disease in women who were negative for both HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 antibodies. Efficacy was not observed in men or HSV-1 seropositive women. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind efficacy field trial involving 8323 women 18 to 30 years of age who were negative for antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2. At months 0, 1, and 6, some subjects received the investigational vaccine, consisting of 20 μg of glycoprotein D from HSV-2 with alum and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A as an adjuvant; control subjects received the hepatitis A vaccine, at a dose of 720 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units. The primary end point was occurrence of genital herpes disease due to either HSV-1 or HSV-2 from month 2 (1 month after dose 2) through month 20. Results The HSV vaccine was associated with an increased risk of local reactions as compared with the control vaccine, and it elicited ELISA and neutralizing antibodies to HSV-2. Overall, the vaccine was not efficacious; vaccine efficacy was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI], −29 to 50) against genital herpes disease. However, efficacy against HSV-1 genital disease was 58% (95% CI, 12 to 80). Vaccine efficacy against HSV-1 infection (with or without disease) was 35% (95% CI, 13 to 52), but efficacy against HSV-2 infection was not observed (−8%; 95% CI, −59 to 26). Conclusions In a study population that was representative of the general population of HSV-1– and HSV-2–seronegative women, the investigational vaccine was effective in preventing HSV-1 genital disease and infection but not in preventing HSV-2 disease or infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and GlaxoSmithKline; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00057330.) PMID:22216840

  12. Disseminated herpes simplex infection during pregnancy, rare but important to recognise.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Nawar Younis; Uriel, Alison; Mammen, Catherine; Bonington, Alec

    2014-01-01

    Disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection during pregnancy is a rare, but potentially fatal condition. We present a case where prompt treatment with intravenous acyclovir resulted in a successful outcome for both mother and baby.

  13. [Use of the nested polymerase chain reaction in the differential diagnosis of human herpes simplex virus].

    PubMed

    Glukhov, A I; Gordeev, S A; Al'tshuler, M L; Severin, S E

    2003-02-01

    Herpes is one of the most widespread human viral pathologies. The article depicts a special modification of polymerized chain reaction--(PCR)--(referred to as "nested"), which has a higher sensitivity, specificity and reliability as compared to the ordinary PCR, and which is designed to detect the herpes viruses. The method was initially tested at purified preparation of viral DNA, and later--at clinical materials obtained from patients and healthy donors. Secretions from the urogenital tract (smears), scrapes from the urogenital tracts and urinal cellular samples were examined in patients. Herpes simplex was detected in all cases. As for the healthy people, the identical examinations produced in them mainly the negative findings. Therefore, the nested PCR is a simple, sensitive and effective instrument in the diagnostics and prevention of herpes; it can be recommended for a comprehensive usage in medical practice.

  14. New concepts in herpes simplex virus vaccine development: notes from the battlefield.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Gargi; Chentoufi, Aziz A; Nesburn, Anthony B; Wechsler, Steven L; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2009-08-01

    The recent discovery that T cells recognize different sets of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 epitopes from seropositive symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals might lead to a fundamental immunologic advance in vaccine development against herpes infection and diseases. The newly introduced needle-free mucosal (i.e., topical ocular and intravaginal) lipopeptide vaccines provide a novel strategy that might target ocular and genital herpes and possibly provide 'heterologous protection' from HIV-1. Indeed, mucosal self-adjuvanting lipopeptide vaccines are easy to manufacture, simple to characterize, extremely pure, cost-effective, highly immunogenic and safe. In this review, we bring together recent published and unpublished data that illuminates the status of epitope-based herpes vaccine development and present an overview of our recent approach to an 'asymptomatic epitope'-based lipopeptide vaccine.

  15. Herpes Zoster Risk Reduction through Exposure to Chickenpox Patients: A Systematic Multidisciplinary Review

    PubMed Central

    Ogunjimi, Benson; Van Damme, Pierre; Beutels, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and may subsequently reactivate to cause herpes zoster later in life. The exogenous boosting hypothesis states that re-exposure to circulating VZV can inhibit VZV reactivation and consequently also herpes zoster in VZV-immune individuals. Using this hypothesis, mathematical models predicted widespread chickenpox vaccination to increase herpes zoster incidence over more than 30 years. Some countries have postponed universal chickenpox vaccination, at least partially based on this prediction. After a systematic search and selection procedure, we analyzed different types of exogenous boosting studies. We graded 13 observational studies on herpes zoster incidence after widespread chickenpox vaccination, 4 longitudinal studies on VZV immunity after re-exposure, 9 epidemiological risk factor studies, 7 mathematical modeling studies as well as 7 other studies. We conclude that exogenous boosting exists, although not for all persons, nor in all situations. Its magnitude is yet to be determined adequately in any study field. PMID:23805224

  16. Chronic active destructive herpes simplex encephalitis with recovery of viral DNA 12 years after disease onset.

    PubMed

    Asenbauer, B; McEntagart, M; King, M D; Gallagher, P; Burke, M; Farrell, M A

    1998-06-01

    Acute herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) carries significant morbidity and mortality even after early treatment with antiviral agents (7). As well as causing acute neurological disease, Herpes viruses are associated with relapsing--remitting (Varicella--Zoster, Epstein-Barr) and chronic (Rasmussen encephalitis) disease processes (1). A two-year-old girl developed acute HSE which was followed by a 10-year neurologic illness characterised by asymmetric spastic tetraparesis, pseudobulbar palsy, the opercular syndrome of Foix-Chavany-Marie (4) and seizures. The neurological signs remained static until the child died suddenly 12 years after disease onset. Neuropathologic examination demonstrated active chronic encephalitis. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA was recovered from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded brain tissue. This case provides additional evidence for the development of chronic neurological disease attributable to persistence of herpes simplex virus type 1. PMID:9706620

  17. Transmission of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in rugby players.

    PubMed

    White, W B; Grant-Kels, J M

    1984-07-27

    Skin infections, both bacterial and viral, are endemic in contact sports such as wrestling and rugby football. In this report, we describe four cases of extensive cutaneous herpes simplex virus in players on a rugby team. All players had a prodrome of fever, malaise, and anorexia with a weight loss of 3.6 to 9.0 kg. Two players experienced ocular lesions associated with cutaneous vesicular lesions of the face. A third player, who had herpetic lesions on his lower extremity, experienced paresthesias, weakness, and intermittent urinary retention and constipation. All infected players on the team were forwards or members of the "scrum," which suggests a field-acquired infection analogous to the herpetic infections seen in wrestlers (herpes gladiatorum). Considering the serious sequelae of recurrent herpes simplex keratitis, the traumatic skin lesions in rugby football players should be cultured for herpes virus, and infected individuals should be restricted from playing until crusted lesions have disappeared. PMID:6737650

  18. Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

    1999-06-01

    An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

  19. Herpes Simplex Virus Sepsis in a Young Woman with Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lea-Maxie; Hofmann, Jörg; Kredel, Lea Isabell; Holzem, Christina; Kühl, Anja A; Taube, Eliane T; Schubert, Stefan; Siegmund, Britta; Epple, Hans-Jörg

    2015-12-01

    We present the case of a herpes simplex virus-1 [HSV-1] sepsis with severe herpes hepatitis in a young female treated with triple immunosuppressive therapy [adalimumab, azathioprine, prednisolone] for refractory Crohn's disease [CD]. The patient presented with high fever, generalised abdominal tenderness, strongly elevated transaminases, coagulopathy, and pancytopenia. Comprehensive diagnostics including blood HSV-1 polymerase chain reaction [PCR], liver biopsy, and immunohistochemistry revealed the diagnosis of fulminant herpes hepatitis. HSV-1 positivity of cutaneous lesions proved the disseminated nature of the infection. Early treatment with intravenous acyclovir led to a rapid improvement of the patient's condition and resulted in a full recovery of her liver function. This is the first reported case of HSV-sepsis in a patient with CD. Physicians treating inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] patients with combined immunosuppressive therapy should be aware of the possibility of herpes hepatitis, and early empirical antiviral therapy should be considered in immunosuppressed patients presenting with fever and severe anicteric hepatitis.

  20. Legal and Moral Considerations in Educating Children with Herpes in Public School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guess, Doug; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The article examines legal and moral implications in providing classroom education to children with herpes. Conclusions suggest the integration of the child into educationally appropriate programs during the disease's inactive stage. (CL)

  1. Herpes zoster reactivation after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Krishnamoorthy; Pillai, Biju S; Bansal, Devesh

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a reactivated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of the sensory nerve ganglion, peripheral nerve, and its branches. Mechanical trauma to the nervous system can reactivate VZV. It is well known that extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) can produce mechanical damage to the tissue. We report a rare case of herpes zoster reactivation after SWL for treatment of 1.2 cm size renal stone in a 63-year-old male patient.

  2. Herpes simplex virus infections. New treatment approaches make early diagnosis even more important.

    PubMed

    Nadelman, C M; Newcomer, V D

    2000-03-01

    The herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2 cause problems for millions of people worldwide. Infections range from simple cold sores and fever blisters to severe central nervous system disorders. Development of effective antiviral medications has made prompt recognition important in primary care practice. Appropriate therapy can significantly reduce both medical and psychosocial ramifications of herpes infections and can greatly improve the quality of life for many patients.

  3. [IMMUNE SYSTEM DATA IN PATIENTS WITH PERSISTENT RECURENT HERPES VIRUS INFECTIONS IN DYNAMICS OF COMPLEX THERAPY].

    PubMed

    Rudenko, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    The positive clinical, serolgical and immunological effects of Glutamyl-Triptophan in patients on persistent herpes virus infections are shown. Treatment resulted in the increase of avidity on HSV 1, HSV 2, CMV, EBV antibody, the levels of CD3+-, ICD8+-, CD16+-, CD3+HLA-DR+- (%, abs) and.CD3+CD25t-cells (%), that indicates the optimization of the immune systemdata. The data received allow to recommend Bestim for patients with persistent herpes virus infections. PMID:27089710

  4. Herpes zoster reactivation after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Hariharan, Krishnamoorthy; Pillai, Biju S.; Bansal, Devesh

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a reactivated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of the sensory nerve ganglion, peripheral nerve, and its branches. Mechanical trauma to the nervous system can reactivate VZV. It is well known that extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) can produce mechanical damage to the tissue. We report a rare case of herpes zoster reactivation after SWL for treatment of 1.2 cm size renal stone in a 63-year-old male patient. PMID:27555686

  5. Increased risk of herpes zoster in children with cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Chao, Yu-Hua; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Yen, Ting-Yu; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Jhong-Lin; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2016-07-01

    Herpes zoster is rare in healthy children, but immunocompromised persons have an increased risk of herpes zoster and severe diseases. Considering the very limited information on herpes zoster in children with cancer, we performed a nationwide population-based cohort study to estimate the incidence of herpes zoster in children with cancer and to explore the association between the 2 diseases.Data were obtained from the National Health Research Institutes Database in Taiwan. A total of 4432 children with newly diagnosed cancer between 2000 and 2007 were identified as the cancer cohort, and 17,653 children without cancer frequency-matched by sex and age at entry were considered the noncancer cohort. The association between herpes zoster and childhood cancer was determined.Children with cancer had a higher risk of herpes zoster. The incidence rate of herpes zoster was higher in the cancer cohort than in the noncancer cohort (20.7 vs 2.4 per 10,000 person-years; IRR = 8.6; 95% CI = 4.8-15.6). The cumulative incidence was significantly higher in the cancer cohort (P < 0.0001). Leukemia, lymphoma, and solid tumor were all associated with the increased risk, and leukemia had the highest magnitude of strength of association.This nationwide population-based cohort study demonstrated that children with cancer were associated with an increased risk of herpes zoster. In addition to early antiviral treatment, vaccination with heat-treated zoster vaccine or adjuvanted subunit vaccine could be an appropriate policy to decrease the incidence in children with cancer. PMID:27472677

  6. Herpes zoster reactivation after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Krishnamoorthy; Pillai, Biju S; Bansal, Devesh

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a reactivated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of the sensory nerve ganglion, peripheral nerve, and its branches. Mechanical trauma to the nervous system can reactivate VZV. It is well known that extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) can produce mechanical damage to the tissue. We report a rare case of herpes zoster reactivation after SWL for treatment of 1.2 cm size renal stone in a 63-year-old male patient. PMID:27555686

  7. Non-healing genital herpes mimicking donovanosis in an immunocompetent man.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Khute, Prakash; Patel, Anjali; Gupta, Somesh

    2016-01-01

    Although atypical presentations of herpetic infection in immunocompetent individuals are common, they very rarely have the extensive, chronic and verrucous appearances seen in the immunocompromised host. We report a case of genital herpes manifesting as painless chronic non-healing genital ulcers with exuberant granulation tissue in an immunocompetent man. Owing to this morphology, the ulcers were initially mistaken for donovanosis. To the best of our knowledge, such a presentation of genital herpes in an immunocompetent individual has not been described previously.

  8. Increased risk of herpes zoster in children with cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Chao, Yu-Hua; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Yen, Ting-Yu; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Jhong-Lin; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2016-07-01

    Herpes zoster is rare in healthy children, but immunocompromised persons have an increased risk of herpes zoster and severe diseases. Considering the very limited information on herpes zoster in children with cancer, we performed a nationwide population-based cohort study to estimate the incidence of herpes zoster in children with cancer and to explore the association between the 2 diseases.Data were obtained from the National Health Research Institutes Database in Taiwan. A total of 4432 children with newly diagnosed cancer between 2000 and 2007 were identified as the cancer cohort, and 17,653 children without cancer frequency-matched by sex and age at entry were considered the noncancer cohort. The association between herpes zoster and childhood cancer was determined.Children with cancer had a higher risk of herpes zoster. The incidence rate of herpes zoster was higher in the cancer cohort than in the noncancer cohort (20.7 vs 2.4 per 10,000 person-years; IRR = 8.6; 95% CI = 4.8-15.6). The cumulative incidence was significantly higher in the cancer cohort (P < 0.0001). Leukemia, lymphoma, and solid tumor were all associated with the increased risk, and leukemia had the highest magnitude of strength of association.This nationwide population-based cohort study demonstrated that children with cancer were associated with an increased risk of herpes zoster. In addition to early antiviral treatment, vaccination with heat-treated zoster vaccine or adjuvanted subunit vaccine could be an appropriate policy to decrease the incidence in children with cancer.

  9. Basal Autophagy Is Required for Herpes simplex Virus-2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yakoub, Abraam M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process of the cell, which plays an important role in regulating plethora of infections. The role of autophagy in Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is unknown. Here, we found that HSV-2 does not allow induction of an autophagic response to infection, but maintains basal autophagy levels mostly unchanged during productive infection. Thus, we investigated the importance of basal autophagy for HSV-2 infection, using pharmacological autophagy suppression or cells genetically deficient in an autophagy-essential gene (ATG5). Interference with basal autophagy flux in cells significantly reduced viral replication and diminished the infection. These results indicate that basal autophagy plays an indispensable role required for a productive infection. Importantly, this study draws a sharp distinction between induced and basal autophagy, where the former acts as a viral clearance mechanism abrogating infection, while the latter supports infection. PMID:26248741

  10. Anaerobic bacteria and herpes simplex virus in genital ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    Masfari, A N; Kinghorn, G R; Hafiz, S; Barton, I G; Duerden, B I

    1985-01-01

    Of 91 patients with genital ulceration, herpes simplex virus was isolated from 52 (57%) and Haemophilus ducreyi from 12 (13%); none had syphilis. The difference in incidence of other aerobes in patients and controls was not significant. Anaerobes, predominantly Bacteroides spp, were isolated from a large proportion (77%) of men and women patients with ulcers but from few control men. The most common anaerobic species were B asaccharolyticus and B ureolyticus, with fewer isolates of the melaninogenicus/oralis group. The bacterial flora of herpetic and non-herpetic ulcers were similar, but Candida albicans was isolated significantly more often from non-herpetic ulcers. Anaerobic bacteria may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital ulcers. PMID:2984108

  11. Lytic Promoters Express Protein during Herpes Simplex Virus Latency

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Tiffany A.; Tscharke, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has provided the prototype for viral latency with previously well-defined acute or lytic and latent phases. More recently, the deep quiescence of HSV latency has been questioned with evidence that lytic genes can be transcribed in this state. However, to date the only evidence that these transcripts might be translated has come from immunological studies that show activated T cells persist in the nervous system during latency. Here we use a highly sensitive Cre-marking model to show that lytic and latent phases are less clearly defined in two significant ways. First, around half of the HSV spread leading to latently infected sites occurred beyond the initial acute infection and second, we show direct evidence that lytic promoters can drive protein expression during latency. PMID:27348812

  12. Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, Esther; Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Tobler, Kurt; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Sonda, Sabrina; Kaech, Andres; Lucas, Miriam S.; Ackermann, Mathias; Wild, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes acquiring an envelope composed of phospholipids. Hence, we measured incorporation of phospholipid precursors into these membranes, and quantified changes in size of cellular compartments by morphometric analysis. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-choline into both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes was significantly enhanced upon infection. [{sup 3}H]-choline was also part of isolated virions even grown in the presence of brefeldin A. Nuclei expanded early in infection. The Golgi complex and vacuoles increased substantially whereas the endoplasmic reticulum enlarged only temporarily. The data suggest that HSV-1 stimulates phospholipid synthesis, and that de novo synthesized phospholipids are inserted into nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes to i) maintain membrane integrity in the course of nuclear and cellular expansion, ii) to supply membrane constituents for envelopment of capsids by budding at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes, and iii) to provide membranes for formation of transport vacuoles.

  13. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  14. Immunological Aspects of Acute and Recurrent Herpes Simplex Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Hus, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) belongs to the major causes of visual morbidity worldwide and available methods of treatment remain unsatisfactory. Primary infection occurs usually early in life and is often asymptomatic. Chronic visual impairment and visual loss are caused by corneal scaring, thinning, and vascularization connected with recurrent HSV infections. The pathogenesis of herpetic keratitis is complex and is still not fully understood. According to the current knowledge, corneal scarring and vascularization are the result of chronic inflammatory reaction against HSV antigens. In this review we discuss the role of innate and adaptive immunities in acute and recurrent HSV ocular infection and present the potential future targets for novel therapeutical options based on immune interventions. PMID:25276842

  15. Primary cutaneous dermal mucinosis on herpes zoster scars.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Diana; Feltes, Federico; Machán, Salma; Pielasinski, Úrsula; Fariña, María C; Gavin, Eduardo; Requena, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The term isotopic response refers to the appearance of a new skin disease at the site of another unrelated and already healed skin disorder. Often, the first disease is herpes zoster (HZ). Several cutaneous reactions have been described in a dermatome recently affected by HZ. We present the case of a 33-year-old man who developed whitish papules with a zosteriform distribution on HZ scars. Histopathologic study with hematoxylin and eosin and Alcian blue (pH 2.5) staining demonstrated abundant deposits of mucin interstitially arranged between collagen bundles of the papillary dermis. Cutaneous dermal mucinosis as a postherpetic isotopic response is rare, but it should be added to the list of cutaneous reactions arising in HZ scars. PMID:27529717

  16. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  17. Confirmation of herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in herpes-like genital lesions by a simple complement-fixation test.

    PubMed

    Arsenakis, M; May, J T

    1982-02-01

    The presence of complement-fixing antibody to an early herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antigen (the AG-4 antigen) was correlated with HSV-2 infection in the sera of patients with genital herpes. Eighty-eight per cent of sera taken two weeks after clinical diagnosis of a primary or recurrent herpes infection in patients, confirmed to have HSV-2 by virus isolation and typing, contained the anti-AG-4 complement-fixing antibody. None of the patients with genital HSV-1 had the antibody, and only 9% of controls or patients with facial HSV-1 infection had positive results for the antibody. This correlation was used to identify genital HSV-2 infections when either no virus sample had been taken or when virus isolations had been unsuccessful. Thus, a simple complement-fixation test can confirm an HSV-2 virus infection without isolation of the virus from the herpetic lesion.

  18. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Atanur, Santosh; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Saba, Laura; Warnecke, Andreas; Khademi, Mohsen; Studahl, Marie; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Garcia-Diaz, Ana; Denis, Cécile V.; Bergström, Tomas; Sköldenberg, Birgit; Kockum, Ingrid; Aitman, Timothy; Hübner, Norbert; Olsson, Tomas; Pravenec, Michal; Diez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway). Notably, both strains have HSV-1 spread to the CNS at four days after infection. A genome wide linkage analysis of 29 infected HXB/BXH RILs (recombinant inbred lines—generated from the prior two strains), displayed variable susceptibility to HSE enabling the definition of a significant QTL (quantitative trait locus) named Hse6 towards the end of chromosome 4 (160.89–174Mb) containing the Vwf (von Willebrand factor) gene. This was the only gene in the QTL with both cis-regulation in the brain and included several non-synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). Intriguingly, in human chromosome 12 several SNPs within the intronic region between exon 43 and 44 of the VWF gene were associated with human HSE pathogenesis. In particular, rs917859 is nominally associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 1.11–2.02; p-value = 0.008) after genotyping in 115 HSE cases and 428 controls. Although there are possibly several genetic and environmental factors involved in development of HSE, our study identifies variants of the VWF gene as candidates for susceptibility in experimental and human HSE. PMID:27224245

  19. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Abdelmagid, Nada; Bereczky-Veress, Biborka; Atanur, Santosh; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Saba, Laura; Warnecke, Andreas; Khademi, Mohsen; Studahl, Marie; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Garcia-Diaz, Ana; Denis, Cécile V; Bergström, Tomas; Sköldenberg, Birgit; Kockum, Ingrid; Aitman, Timothy; Hübner, Norbert; Olsson, Tomas; Pravenec, Michal; Diez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway). Notably, both strains have HSV-1 spread to the CNS at four days after infection. A genome wide linkage analysis of 29 infected HXB/BXH RILs (recombinant inbred lines-generated from the prior two strains), displayed variable susceptibility to HSE enabling the definition of a significant QTL (quantitative trait locus) named Hse6 towards the end of chromosome 4 (160.89-174Mb) containing the Vwf (von Willebrand factor) gene. This was the only gene in the QTL with both cis-regulation in the brain and included several non-synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). Intriguingly, in human chromosome 12 several SNPs within the intronic region between exon 43 and 44 of the VWF gene were associated with human HSE pathogenesis. In particular, rs917859 is nominally associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 1.11-2.02; p-value = 0.008) after genotyping in 115 HSE cases and 428 controls. Although there are possibly several genetic and environmental factors involved in development of HSE, our study identifies variants of the VWF gene as candidates for susceptibility in experimental and human HSE.

  20. Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, F; Bélec, L; Hilton, D A; Flament-Saillour, M; Guillon, F; Wingertsmann, L; Baudrimont, M; de Truchis, P; Keohane, C; Vital, C; Love, S; Gray, F

    1996-10-01

    Herpes simplex (HSV) infection of the central nervous system is uncommon in AIDS and usually has an atypical topography. This review is centred around the case of a 49-year-old homosexual patient with AIDS who died from diffuse encephalopathy. Neuropathological examination revealed necrotic and haemorrhagic changes involving both temporal lobes, insulae and cingulate gyri. Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusion bodies were abundant but inflammation was minimal. Electron microscopy confirmed characteristic herpes virus particles. Immunocyto-chemistry was positive for HSV type 1 and 2. In situ hybridization and PCR, however, were positive for HSV type 1 but excluded HSV type 2. There was associated cytomegalovirus ventriculitis but clearly separated from HSV encephalitis. There were no histological features of HIV encephalitis and HIV could not be demonstrated by immunocytochemistry or by PCR to demonstrate proviral DNA. Apoptotic neurons were numerous in areas with a severe macrophage reaction. Only two pathological cases with characteristic limbic distribution and necrotic haemorrhagic histologic have been reported previously. The rarity of these reports suggests that in advanced AIDS, the immune reaction causing a typical necrotizing encephalitis cannot be mounted. Distinction between HSV type 1 and 2 infection may be difficult by immunocytochemistry and usually requires in situ hybridization, tissue culture or PCR. In AIDS patients, HSV-1 has been identified as responsible for encephalitis whereas HSV-2 has been more responsible for myelitis. Associated productive HIV infection of the CNS was found in none of the cases. In contrast, cytomegalovirus encephalitis was found in nine of 11 cases of AIDS-associated HSV encephalitis. PMID:8930949

  1. Isolation of a new herpes virus from human CD4 sup + T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Frenkel, N.; Schirmer, E.C.; Wyatt, L.S.; Katsafanas, G.; Roffman, E.; Danovich, R.M. ); June, C.H. )

    1990-01-01

    A new human herpes virus has been isolated from CD4{sup +} T cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy individual (RK), following incubation of the cells under conditions promoting T-cell activation. The virus could not be recovered from nonactivated cells. Cultures of lymphocytes infected with the RK virus exhibited a cytopathic effect, and electron microscopic analyses revealed a characteristic herpes virus structure. RK virus DNA did not hybridize with large probes derived from herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and human cytomegalovirus. The genetic relatedness of the RK virus to the recently identified T-lymphotropic human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) was investigated by restriction enzyme analyses using 21 different enzymes and by blot hydridization analyses using 11 probes derived from two strains of HHV-6 (Z29 and U1102). Whereas the two HHV-6 strains exhibited only limited restriction enzyme polymorphism, cleavage of the RK virus DNA yielded distinct patterns. Of the 11 HHV-6 DNA probes tested, only 6 cross-hybridized with DNA fragments derived from the RK virus. Taken together, the maximal homology amounted to 31 kilobases of the 75 kilobases tested. The authors conclude that the RK virus is distinct from previously characterized human herpesviruses. The authors propose to designate it as the prototype of a new herpes virus, the seventh human herpes virus identified to date.

  2. The Short- and Long-Term Risk of Stroke after Herpes Zoster: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuechun; Guan, Yeming; Hou, Liang; Huang, Haili; Liu, Hongjuan; Li, Chuanwen; Zhu, Yingying; Tao, Xingyong; Wang, Qingsong

    2016-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that stroke risk may be increased following herpes zoster. The aim of this study is to perform a meta-analysis of current literature to systematically analyze and quantitatively estimate the short and long-term effects of herpes zoster on the risk of stroke. Methods Embase, PubMed and Cochrane library databases were searched for relevant studies up to March 2016. Studies were selected for analysis based on certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relative risks with 95% confidence interval (CI) were extracted to assess the association between herpes zoster and stroke. Results A total of 8 articles were included in our analysis. The present meta-analysis showed that the risks of stroke after herpes zoster were 2.36 (95% CI: 2.17–2.56) for first 2 weeks, 1.56 (95% CI: 1.46–1.66) for first month, 1.17 (95% CI: 1.13–1.22) for first year, and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02–1.16) for more than 1 year, respectively. Conclusion The results of our study demonstrated that herpes zoster was associated with a higher risk of stroke, but the risks decreased along with the time after herpes zoster. PMID:27768762

  3. Clinical Presentation of Herpes Zoster in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Hospitalized Children Treated With Acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Kuchar, Ernest; Szenborn, Leszek; Lis, Izabela; Jaroszewska, Anna; Czeladzka, Justyna

    2016-07-01

    Herpes zoster, defined as the reactivation of a latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, used to be a serious disease in immunocompromised children until recently. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical presentation of herpes zoster in hospitalized immunocompromised children compared with hospitalized immunocompetent counterparts. We reviewed the hospital charts of 72 children aged 6 months to 18 years diagnosed with herpes zoster and treated with acyclovir in our department covering a 19-year period. Forty-six of the children were immunocompromised which was mainly due to hematologic diseases. There were no differences in the age at which herpes zoster occurred, length of hospitalization, and the location or extent of the skin eruption. General symptoms were observed more frequently in the hospitalized immunocompetent patients compared with the hospitalized immunocompromised children (80% vs. 56%). The average age at which primary VZV infection occurred was higher among the immunocompromised children than the immunocompetent children with the latter group suffering from significantly more primary VZV infections during infancy. The presentation of herpes zoster in immunocompromised children is similar to that of herpes zoster in hospitalized immunocompetent children. PMID:27347778

  4. Ascent ability of brown trout, Salmo trutta, and two Iberian cyprinids − Iberian barbel, Luciobarbus bocagei, and northern straight-mouth nase, Pseudochondrostoma duriense − in a vertical slot fishway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanz-Ronda, Fco. Javier; Bravo-Cordoba, F.J.; Fuentes-Perez, J.F.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    Passage performance of brown trout (Salmo trutta), Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei), and northern straight-mouth nase (Pseudochondrostoma duriense) was investigated in a vertical slot fishway in the Porma River (Duero River basin, Spain) using PIT telemetry. We analysed the effects of different fishway discharges on motivation and passage success. Both cyprinid species ascended the fishway easily, performing better than the trout despite their theoretically weaker swimming performance. Fishway discharge affected fish motivation although it did not clearly influence passage success. Observed results can guide design and operation criteria of vertical slot fishways for native Iberian fish.

  5. Whole-genome sequence of a novel Chinese cyprinid herpesvirus 3 isolate reveals the existence of a distinct European genotype in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Lee, Xuezhu; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Dong, Chuanfu

    2015-02-25

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3), also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), can be subdivided primarily into European and Asian genotypes, which are represented by CyHV3-U or CyHV3-I and CyHV3-J, respectively. In this study, the whole genome sequence of a novel Chinese CyHV3 isolate (GZ11) was determined and annotated. CyHV3-GZ11 genome was found to contain 295,119 nucleotides with 52.9% G/C content, which is highly similar to those of published CyHV3-U, CyHV3-I, and CyHV3-J strains. With reference to CyHV3-U, CyHV3-I, and CyHV3-J, CyHV3-GZ11 was also classified into 164 open reading frames (ORF), which include eight repeated ORFs. On the basis of the 12 alloherpeviruses core genes, results from phylogenetic analysis showed that CyHV3-GZ11 had closer evolutionary relationships with CyHV3-U and CyHV3-I than with CyHV3/KHV-J, which were also supported by genome wide-based single nucleotide substitution analysis and the use of a series of developed molecular markers. This study was the first to reveal the presence of a distinct European CyHV3 genotype in East and Southeast Asia at a whole genome level, which will evoke new insights on exploring the origin, evolution, and epidemiology of the virus.

  6. Characterization of a new cell line from caudal fin of koi, Cyprinus carpio koi, and first isolation of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chuanfu; Weng, Shaoping; Li, Wei; Li, Xuezhu; Yi, Yang; Liang, Qiuling; He, Jianguo

    2011-11-01

    A new continuous cell line (KCF-1) from caudal fin of koi, Cyprinus carpio koi, was developed and sub-cultured more than 100 passages since the present study was initiated in March 2006. KCF-1 predominantly consisted of short fibroblast-like cells and grew well in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Chromosome analysis revealed that 56% of the KCF-1 cells maintained normal diploid chromosome number (2n=100) at Passage 82. Using the KCF-1 cell line, a strain of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (designated as CyHV-3-QY08) was isolated from the diseased koi. CyHV-3-QY08 continuously propagated in the KCF-1 cells, as confirmed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). KCF-1 cells infected with CyHV-3-QY08 produced typical cytopathic effects characterized by severe vacuolation, deformation of nuclei, and marginalization of the nuclear chromatin, which are consistent with those of previous reports. CyHV-3-QY08 was purified and subsequently analyzed by SDS-PAGE and TEM. The results showed that the purified virions contained two types of morphologies and were composed of more than 30 obvious viral polypeptides. An infectivity experiment revealed that CyHV-3-QY08 could cause 100% mortality in the infected koi. Based on the genome sequence of CyHV-3-I/U, the CyHV-3(I/U)-ORF136 homologue in CyHV-3-QY08 was cloned and sequenced. Multiple sequence alignments of CyHV-3-I/U-ORF136 homologues showed that CyHV-3-QY08 belonged to the typical Asian genotype. The CyHV-3(I/U)-ORF136 homologue seems to be a novel molecule marker, which can be used to distinguish Asia isolates from Europe-America strains.

  7. When Anthropogenic River Disturbance Decreases Hybridisation between Non-Native and Endemic Cyprinids and Drives an Ecomorphological Displacement towards Juvenile State in Both Species.

    PubMed

    Corse, Emmanuel; Pech, Nicolas; Sinama, Melthide; Costedoat, Caroline; Chappaz, Rémi; Gilles, André

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impact of non-native species on native species is a major challenge in molecular ecology, particularly for genetically compatible fish species. Invasions are generally difficult to study because their effects may be confused with those of environmental or human disturbances. Colonized ecosystems are differently impacted by human activities, resulting in diverse responses and interactions between native and non-native species. We studied the dynamics between two Cyprinids species (invasive Chondrostoma nasus and endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma) and their hybrids in 16 populations (from allopatric to sympatric situations and from little to highly fragmented areas) corresponding to 2,256 specimens. Each specimen was assigned to a particular species or to a hybrid pool using molecular identification (cytochrome b and 41 microsatellites). We carried out an ecomorphological analysis based on size, age, body shape, and diet (gut vacuity and molecular fecal contents). Our results contradicted our initial assumptions on the pattern of invasion and the rate of introgression. There was no sign of underperformance for the endemic species in areas where hybridisation occurred. In the unfragmented zone, the introduced species was found mostly downstream, with body shapes similar to those in allopatric populations while both species were found to be more insectivorous than the reference populations. However, high level of hybridisation was detected, suggesting interactions between the two species during spawning and/or the existence of hybrid swarm. In the disturbed zone, introgression was less frequent and slender body shape was associated with diatomivorous behaviour, smaller size (juvenile characteristics) and greater gut vacuity. Results suggested that habitat degradation induced similar ecomorphological trait changes in the two species and their hybrids (i.e. a transition towards a pedomorphic state) where the invasive species is more affected than the

  8. Infection level of the Asian tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) in the cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger, from Anchar Lake, relative to season, sex, length and condition factor.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Ummer Rashid; Chishti, M Z; Yousuf, A R; Ahmed, Fayaz

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have shown that the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi causes great economic loss in hatcheries, fish farms as well as in lakes. In order to understand the seasonal variation of infection in a nutrient-enriched lake, parasitological investigation was carried out in the indigenous cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838 from September, 2008 to August, 2009. Overall, this study revealed definite seasonality of infection (p < 0.05), with greater infection in summer (prevalence = 39.5%) and lesser in winter (prevalence = 8.1%). The prevalence among different seasons revealed significant differences (p < 0.05). Sex was not an important factor influencing the prevalence of the Asian tapeworm. A strong positive correlation (Pearson's correlation, r = 0.7; p = 0.02) between total length of S. niger and number of Asian fish tapeworms was observed. Similarly, a strong positive correlation existed between weight of fish and number of tapeworms (Pearson's correlation, r = 0.7; p = 0.005). Prevalence and mean abundance were positively and significantly correlated with water temperature (r = 0.8, p < 0.01 and r = 0.8, p < 0.01, respectively). Thus seasonal dynamics, total length and weight of the host significantly influenced the tapeworm infection. The above findings will be useful in devising the appropriate control strategies for the Asian tapeworm in wild fish in Kashmir valley as well as in similar climatic zones of other parts of the world. Also, information from this study will be used to assess the spread and extent of B. acheilognathi which is a potential threat to the indigenous fish fauna of Anchar Lake. PMID:21739312

  9. Phylogeography, historical demography and habitat suitability modelling of freshwater fishes inhabiting seasonally fluctuating Mediterranean river systems: a case study using the Iberian cyprinid Squalius valentinus.

    PubMed

    Perea, S; Doadrio, I

    2015-07-01

    The Mediterranean freshwater fish fauna has evolved under constraints imposed by the seasonal weather/hydrological patterns that define the Mediterranean climate. These conditions have influenced the genetic and demographic structure of aquatic communities since their origins in the Mid-Pliocene. Freshwater species in Mediterranean-type climates will likely constitute genetically well-differentiated populations, to varying extents depending on basin size, as a consequence of fragmentation resulting from drought/flood cycles. We developed an integrative framework to study the spatial patterns in genetic diversity, demographic trends, habitat suitability modelling and landscape genetics, to evaluate the evolutionary response of Mediterranean-type freshwater fish to seasonal fluctuations in weather. To test this evolutionary response, the model species used was Squalius valentinus, an endemic cyprinid of the Spanish Levantine area, where seasonal weather fluctuations are extreme, although our findings may be extrapolated to other Mediterranean-type species. Our results underscore the significant role of the Mediterranean climate, along with Pleistocene glaciations, in diversification of S. valentinus. We found higher nuclear diversity in larger drainage basins, but higher mitochondrial diversity correlated to habitat suitability rather than basin size. We also found strong correlation between genetic structure and climatic factors associated with Mediterranean seasonality. Demographic and migration analyses suggested population expansion during glacial periods that also contributed to the current genetic structure of S. valentinus populations. The inferred models support the significant contribution of precipitation and temperature to S. valentinus habitat suitability and allow recognizing areas of habitat stability. We highlight the importance of stable habitat conditions, fostered by typical karstic springs found on the Mediterranean littoral coasts, for the

  10. When Anthropogenic River Disturbance Decreases Hybridisation between Non-Native and Endemic Cyprinids and Drives an Ecomorphological Displacement towards Juvenile State in Both Species

    PubMed Central

    Sinama, Melthide; Costedoat, Caroline; Chappaz, Rémi; Gilles, André

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impact of non-native species on native species is a major challenge in molecular ecology, particularly for genetically compatible fish species. Invasions are generally difficult to study because their effects may be confused with those of environmental or human disturbances. Colonized ecosystems are differently impacted by human activities, resulting in diverse responses and interactions between native and non-native species. We studied the dynamics between two Cyprinids species (invasive Chondrostoma nasus and endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma) and their hybrids in 16 populations (from allopatric to sympatric situations and from little to highly fragmented areas) corresponding to 2,256 specimens. Each specimen was assigned to a particular species or to a hybrid pool using molecular identification (cytochrome b and 41 microsatellites). We carried out an ecomorphological analysis based on size, age, body shape, and diet (gut vacuity and molecular fecal contents). Our results contradicted our initial assumptions on the pattern of invasion and the rate of introgression. There was no sign of underperformance for the endemic species in areas where hybridisation occurred. In the unfragmented zone, the introduced species was found mostly downstream, with body shapes similar to those in allopatric populations while both species were found to be more insectivorous than the reference populations. However, high level of hybridisation was detected, suggesting interactions between the two species during spawning and/or the existence of hybrid swarm. In the disturbed zone, introgression was less frequent and slender body shape was associated with diatomivorous behaviour, smaller size (juvenile characteristics) and greater gut vacuity. Results suggested that habitat degradation induced similar ecomorphological trait changes in the two species and their hybrids (i.e. a transition towards a pedomorphic state) where the invasive species is more affected than the

  11. Response to fish specific reproductive hormones and endocrine disrupting chemicals of a Sertoli cell line expressing endogenous receptors from an endemic cyprinid Gnathopogon caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Shogo; Koyama, Yoshie; Shimada, Manami; Ono, Yuriko; Tooyama, Ikuo; Fujioka, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Noriyoshi; Ikeuchi, Toshitaka; Takada, Tatsuyuki

    2013-09-15

    Fish Sertoli cells play a critical role in spermatogenesis by mediating androgen and progestogen signaling. Their hormonal response, however, considerably differ among species. Therefore it would be ideal to use Sertoli cells originated from the fish of interest to investigate the effects of hormones as well as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the responses to reproductive hormones and EDCs of a Sertoli cell line that we established from an endemic cyprinid Gnathopogon caerulescens. As the Sertoli cell line expressed endogenous androgen and progestogen receptors, we were able to detect hormone responses by transfecting only a reporter vector (pGL4.36) expressing luciferase under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus-long terminal repeat (MMTV-LTR) promoter into the cell line. Unlike previous reporter gene assays using fish steroid hormone receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines, luciferase activities were induced by the fish specific androgen (11-ketotestosterone) and progestogen (17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one), but not by testosterone and progesterone, at physiologically relevant concentrations. Furthermore, we found 4-nonylphenol (NP) but not bisphenol A showed strong anti-androgenic effects, implying that NP may have direct anti-androgenic effects on fish Sertoli cells in vivo. This is the first evidence, to the best of our knowledge, of anti-androgenic effects of NP in a fish Sertoli cell line. In addition, neither NP nor BPA showed anti-progestogenic effects. These results suggest that the Sertoli cell line established from the fish of interest can be a useful in vitro tool for investigating the mechanisms of reproductive hormones and EDCs in the specific fish. PMID:23770217

  12. When Anthropogenic River Disturbance Decreases Hybridisation between Non-Native and Endemic Cyprinids and Drives an Ecomorphological Displacement towards Juvenile State in Both Species.

    PubMed

    Corse, Emmanuel; Pech, Nicolas; Sinama, Melthide; Costedoat, Caroline; Chappaz, Rémi; Gilles, André

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impact of non-native species on native species is a major challenge in molecular ecology, particularly for genetically compatible fish species. Invasions are generally difficult to study because their effects may be confused with those of environmental or human disturbances. Colonized ecosystems are differently impacted by human activities, resulting in diverse responses and interactions between native and non-native species. We studied the dynamics between two Cyprinids species (invasive Chondrostoma nasus and endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma) and their hybrids in 16 populations (from allopatric to sympatric situations and from little to highly fragmented areas) corresponding to 2,256 specimens. Each specimen was assigned to a particular species or to a hybrid pool using molecular identification (cytochrome b and 41 microsatellites). We carried out an ecomorphological analysis based on size, age, body shape, and diet (gut vacuity and molecular fecal contents). Our results contradicted our initial assumptions on the pattern of invasion and the rate of introgression. There was no sign of underperformance for the endemic species in areas where hybridisation occurred. In the unfragmented zone, the introduced species was found mostly downstream, with body shapes similar to those in allopatric populations while both species were found to be more insectivorous than the reference populations. However, high level of hybridisation was detected, suggesting interactions between the two species during spawning and/or the existence of hybrid swarm. In the disturbed zone, introgression was less frequent and slender body shape was associated with diatomivorous behaviour, smaller size (juvenile characteristics) and greater gut vacuity. Results suggested that habitat degradation induced similar ecomorphological trait changes in the two species and their hybrids (i.e. a transition towards a pedomorphic state) where the invasive species is more affected than the

  13. Interferon type I responses to virus infections in carp cells: In vitro studies on Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and Rhabdovirus carpio infections.

    PubMed

    Adamek, Mikołaj; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Chyb, Jarosław; Brogden, Graham; Huebner, Arne; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2012-09-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are secreted mediators that play a fundamental role in the innate immune response against viruses among all vertebrate classes. Common carp is a host for two highly contagious viruses: spring viraemia of carp virus (Rhabdovirus carpio, SVCV) and the Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), which belong to Rhabdoviridae and Alloherpesviridae families, respectively. Both viruses are responsible for significant losses in carp aquaculture. In this paper we studied the mRNA expression profiles of genes encoding for proteins promoting various functions during the interferon pathway, from pattern recognition receptors to antiviral genes, during in vitro viral infection. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of the interferon pathway (stimulated with poly I:C) on CyHV-3 replication and the speed of virus spreading in cell culture. The results showed that two carp viruses, CyHV-3 and SVCV induced fundamentally different type I IFN responses in CCB cells. SVCV induced a high response in all studied genes, whereas CyHV-3 seems to induce no response in CCB cells, but it induces a response in head kidney leukocytes. The lack of an IFN type I response to CyHV-3 could be an indicator of anti-IFN actions of the virus, however the nature of this mechanism has to be evaluated in future studies. Our results also suggest that an activation of type I IFN in CyHV-3 infected cells can limit the spread of the virus in cell culture. This would open the opportunity to treat the disease associated with CyHV-3 by an application of poly I:C in certain cases.

  14. Establishment of a novel and highly permissive cell line for the efficient replication of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2).

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Jiang, Nan; LaPatra, Scott E; Jin, Ling; Xu, Jin; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Zeng, Lingbing

    2015-06-12

    Haematopoietic necrosis of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) and has caused huge economic losses in aquaculture worldwide. Currently the isolation and propagation of CyHV-2 in vitro is very difficult due to the lack of permissive cell lines. Studies on the pathogenesis of CyHV-2 have been hampered because the virus has not been extensively characterized. In this study, a novel cell line from the brain of gibel carp, denoted GiCB, has been established and characterized. Sustainable propagation of CyHV-2 in the GiCB cell line has been confirmed by virus infection and titration, PCR, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The GiCB cells showed typical cytopathic effect by day 6 post-infection with CyHV-2 including cell shrinkage, rounding, and cell fusion with cytoplasmic vacuolization. The virus titer reached 10(7.5 ± 0.37)TCID₅₀/ml and has been successfully passaged over 50 times in the GiCB cell line. Electron microscopy analysis revealed the complete replication of CyHV-2 in GiCB cells. CyHV-2-infected GiCB cells reacted strongly with polyclonal antibodies against CyHV-2 and CyHV-2 RNA in cells hybridized specifically with the virus RNA probes. Additionally, an experimental infection demonstrated that CyHV-2 produced in GiCB cells caused 100% mortality in gibel carp. All the results provide solid evidence that the GiCB cell line is highly permissive for the isolation and propagation of CyHV-2. This is a significant advancement that will promote additional research on CyHV-2 infection in fish in the future.

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of koi (Cyprinus carpio) spleen tissue upon cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) infection using next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xuezhu; Yi, Yang; Weng, Shaoping; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Hetong; He, Jianguo; Dong, Chuanfu

    2016-02-01

    Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can infect and specifically cause a huge economic loss in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi variety. The molecular mechanisms underlying CyHV-3 infection are not well understood. In this study, koi spleen tissues of both mock and CyHV-3 infection groups were collected, and high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at the transcriptome level. A total of 105,356,188 clean reads from two libraries were obtained. After the de novo assembly of the transcripts, 129,314 unigenes were generated. Of these unigenes, 70,655 unigenes were matched to the known proteins in the database, while 2190 unigenes were predicted by ESTScan software. Comparing the infection group to the mock group, a total of 23,029 significantly differentially expressed unigenes were identified, including 10,493 up-regulated DEGs and 12,536 down-regulated DEGs. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation and functional enrichment analysis indicated that all of the DEGs were annotated into GO terms in three main GO categories: biological process, cellular component and molecular function. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis of the DEGs showed that a total of 12,002 DEG unigenes were annotated into 256 pathways classified into 6 main categories. Additionally, 20 differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. As the first report of a transcriptome analysis of koi carp with CyHV-3 infection, the data presented here provide knowledge of the innate immune response against CyHV-3 in koi carp and useful data for further research of the molecular mechanism of CyHV-3 infection. PMID:26690666

  16. Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) disturbs osmotic balance in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)--A potential cause of mortality.

    PubMed

    Negenborn, J; van der Marel, M C; Ganter, M; Steinhagen, D

    2015-06-12

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) causes a fatal disease in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi varieties which seriously affects production and trade of this fish species globally. Up to now, the pathophysiology of this disease remains unclear. Affected individuals develop most prominent lesions in gills, skin and kidney, in tissues which are involved in the osmotic regulation of freshwater teleosts. Therefore, here serum and urine electrolyte levels were examined during the course of an experimental infection of carp with CyHV-3. In infected carp an interstitial nephritis with a progressive deterioration of nephric tubules developed, which was paralleled by elevated electrolyte losses, mainly Na(+) in the urine. The urine/plasma ratio for Na(+) increased from 0.03 in uninfected carp to 0.43-0.83 in carp under CyHV-3 infection, while concentration of divalent ions were not significantly changed. These electrolyte losses could not be compensated since plasma osmolality and Na(+) concentration dropped significantly in CyHV-3 infected carp. This was most probably caused by the progressive deterioration of the branchial epithelium, which in teleosts plays a prominent role in osmoregulation, and which was seen concomitantly with decreasing electrolyte levels in the serum of carp under CyHV-3 infection. Immediately after infection with CyHV-3, by day 2 post exposure, affected carp showed severe anaemia and prominent leucocytosis indicating the development of an acute inflammation, which could intensify the observed hydro-mineral imbalances. The data presented here show that an infection with CyHV-3 induces an acute inflammation and a severe dysfunction of osmoregulation in affected carp or koi, which may lead to death in particular in the case of acute disease progression. PMID:25888311

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of koi (Cyprinus carpio) spleen tissue upon cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) infection using next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xuezhu; Yi, Yang; Weng, Shaoping; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Hetong; He, Jianguo; Dong, Chuanfu

    2016-02-01

    Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can infect and specifically cause a huge economic loss in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi variety. The molecular mechanisms underlying CyHV-3 infection are not well understood. In this study, koi spleen tissues of both mock and CyHV-3 infection groups were collected, and high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at the transcriptome level. A total of 105,356,188 clean reads from two libraries were obtained. After the de novo assembly of the transcripts, 129,314 unigenes were generated. Of these unigenes, 70,655 unigenes were matched to the known proteins in the database, while 2190 unigenes were predicted by ESTScan software. Comparing the infection group to the mock group, a total of 23,029 significantly differentially expressed unigenes were identified, including 10,493 up-regulated DEGs and 12,536 down-regulated DEGs. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation and functional enrichment analysis indicated that all of the DEGs were annotated into GO terms in three main GO categories: biological process, cellular component and molecular function. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis of the DEGs showed that a total of 12,002 DEG unigenes were annotated into 256 pathways classified into 6 main categories. Additionally, 20 differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. As the first report of a transcriptome analysis of koi carp with CyHV-3 infection, the data presented here provide knowledge of the innate immune response against CyHV-3 in koi carp and useful data for further research of the molecular mechanism of CyHV-3 infection.

  18. Sequence structure and intragenomic variability of ribosomal ITS2 in monozoic tapeworms of the genus Khawia (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fish.

    PubMed

    Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Oros, Mikuláš; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-10-01

    The sequence structure of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) was determined for six species of Khawia (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fish in the Holarctic Region. Homologous intragenomic ITS2 structure was found in Khawia armeniaca, Khawia baltica, and Khawia rossittensis; whereas divergent intragenomic ITS2 copies were detected in Chinese, Japanese, and Slovak isolates of Khawia sinensis and in Khawia japonensis, both parasitic in common carp, and in Khawia saurogobii, recently described from Chinese lizard gudgeon in China. Despite distinct morphological differences between K. saurogobii and K. sinensis, both species display very high level of molecular homogeneity. Variation in number of short repetitive motifs [(GCCT)(n) (GCCC)(n)], [(GTG)(n)], [(ATAC)(n)], [ACGTGT (TCGTGT)(n)], [(GT)(n)], [(GT)(n)], and [(ACCT)(n) (GCCT)(n)] resulted in assortment of ITS2 sequences in four ITS2 variants in K. saurogobii from China, three in Chinese and Japanese isolates of K. sinensis, and five ITS2 variants in K. sinensis from Slovakia. In K. japonensis, the structure and arrangement of microsatellites was different from those of K. sinensis and K. saurogobii. The heterogeneity in the number of two microsatellite regions [(TG)(n); (TTG)(n)] divided ITS2 clones into two variants-first ITS2 variant (472 bp) with (TG)(5) and (TTG)(6), and second variant with (TG)(7) and (TTG)(2) (465 bp). Sequence identity of K. saurogobii with all but one (K. sinensis) congeneric species ranged between 49.5 and 69.2%, which corresponds to the interspecific differences. In contrast, sequence identity of K. saurogobii and K. sinensis (87.6-95.0%) failed into the range of intraspecific variation determined for K. sinensis samples. This close genetic similarity indicates that recently described K. saurogobii may have undergone morphological divergence as a result of ongoing sympatric speciation by host switching. PMID:22814768

  19. Prominent Amphibian (Xenopus laevis) Tadpole Type III Interferon Response to the Frog Virus 3 Ranavirus

    PubMed Central

    Grayfer, Leon; De Jesús Andino, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ranaviruses (Iridoviridae) are posing an increasing threat to amphibian populations, with anuran tadpoles being particularly susceptible to these viral infections. Moreover, amphibians are the most basal phylogenetic class of vertebrates known to possess both type I and type III interferon (IFN)-mediated immunity. Moreover, little is known regarding the respective roles of the IFN mediators in amphibian antiviral defenses. Accordingly, we transcriptionally and functionally compared the amphibian Xenopus laevis type I (IFN) and III (IFN-λ) IFNs in the context of infections by the ranavirus frog virus 3 (FV3). X. laevis IFN and IFN-λ displayed distinct tissue expression profiles. In contrast to our previous findings that X. laevis tadpoles exhibit delayed and modest type I IFN responses to FV3 infections compared to the responses of adults, here we report that tadpoles mount timely and robust type III IFN gene responses. Recombinant forms of these cytokines (recombinant X. laevis IFN [rXlIFN] and rXlIFN-λ) elicited antiviral gene expression in the kidney-derived A6 cell line as well as in tadpole leukocytes and tissues. However, rXlIFN-λ was less effective than rXlIFN in preventing FV3 replication in A6 cells and tadpoles and inferior at promoting tadpole survival. Intriguingly, FV3 impaired A6 cell and tadpole kidney type III IFN receptor gene expression. Furthermore, in A6 cultures rXlIFN-λ conferred equal or greater protection than rXlIFN against recombinant viruses deficient for the putative immune evasion genes, the viral caspase activation and recruitment domain (vCARD) or a truncated vIF-2α gene. Thus, in contrast to previous assumptions, tadpoles possess intact antiviral defenses reliant on type III IFNs, which are overcome by FV3 pathogens. IMPORTANCE Anuran tadpoles, including those of Xenopus laevis, are particularly susceptible to infection by ranavirus such as FV3. We investigated the respective roles of X. laevis type I and type III

  20. The Challenges and Opportunities for Development of a T-Cell Epitope-Based Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tiffany; Wang, Christine; Badakhshan, Tina; Chilukuri, Sravya; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-01-01

    The infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) have been prevalent since the ancient Greek times. To this day, they still affect a staggering number of over a half billion individuals worldwide. HSV-2 infections cause painful genital herpes, encephalitis, and death in newborns. HSV-1 infections are more prevalent than HSV-2 infections and cause potentially blinding ocular herpes, oro-facial herpes and encephalitis. While genital herpes in mainly caused by HSV-2 infections, in recent years, there is an increase in the proportion of genital herpes caused by HSV-1 infections in young adults, which reach 50% in some western societies. While prophylactic and therapeutic HSV vaccines remain urgently needed for centuries their development has been notoriously difficult. During the most recent National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop titled "Next Generation Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: The Challenges and Opportunities", basic researchers, funding agencies, and pharmaceutical representatives gathered: (i) to assess the status of herpes vaccine research; and (ii) to identify the gaps and propose alternative approaches in developing a safe and efficient herpes vaccine. One “common denominator” among previously failed clinical herpes vaccine trials is that they either used a whole virus or whole viral proteins, which contain both pathogenic “symptomatic” and protective “asymptomatic” antigens/epitopes. In this report, we continue to advocate that using an “asymptomatic” epitope-based vaccine strategy that selectively incorporates protective epitopes which: (i) are exclusively recognized, in vitro, by effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ TEM cells from “naturally” protected seropositive asymptomatic individuals; and (ii) protect, in vivo, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic animal models from ocular and genital herpes infections and diseases, could be the answer to many of the scientific challenges facing HSV vaccine

  1. Herp depletion arrests the S phase of the cell cycle and increases estradiol synthesis in mouse granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fenglei; Wang, Nan; Yang, Diqi; Wen, Xin; Mahmoud, Tagwa Norain; Zhou, Dong; Tang, Keqiong; Lin, Pengfei; Wang, Aihua; Jin, Yaping

    2016-04-22

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response has been implicated in the development, atresia and luteinization of ovarian follicles. However, there have been few reports concerning the role of Herp, an ER stress-induced protein, in follicular development. The present study aims to detect the distribution and cyclic variations of Herp during the estrous cycle and to reveal the roles of Herp in regulating the cell cycle, apoptosis and steroid hormone biosynthesis in mouse granulosa cells. In this study, immunohistochemistry staining showed that Herp expression was primarily in the granulosa cells and oocytes. Furthermore, we constructed recombinant lentiviral vectors for Herp short hairpin interfering RNA (shRNA) expression; immunofluorescence staining, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis revealed that Herp was successfully knocked down. Flow cytometry showed that knockdown of Herp arrested granulosa cells at the S phase of the cell cycle. More importantly, ELISA analysis revealed that Herp knockdown significantly upregulated the concentration of estradiol (E2) in the culture supernatants. RT-qPCR was performed to determine the regulatory mechanism of Herp knockdown in the cell cycle, and in steroid synthesis, RT-qPCR analysis revealed that Herp knockdown upregulated the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Cyp19a1) and downregulated metabolic enzymes (Cyp1b1) and cell cycle factors (cyclin A1, cyclin B1 and cyclin D2). These results suggest that Herp may regulate the cell cycle and hormone secretions in mouse granulosa cells. The present study helps to elucidate the physiological functions of Herp as they relate to reproduction. PMID:26781490

  2. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antibody Mediated Neurologic Relapse Post Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Sarah; Walsh, Aoibhinn; King, Mary D; Lynch, Bryan; Webb, David; Twomey, Eilish; Ronan Leahy, T; Butler, Karina; Gavin, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Despite the advent of antiviral therapy, herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) remains a devastating condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Neurologic relapse after initial improvement is generally attributed to herpes simplex virus reactivation. In 2013, inflammation caused by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies was reported in association with cases of neurologic relapse after herpes simplex encephalitis. We present 3 such cases and discuss diagnostic and management dilemmas.

  3. Disease burden of herpes zoster in Sweden - predominance in the elderly and in women - a register based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden is not well investigated. There is no Swedish immunization program to prevent varicella zoster virus infections. A vaccine against herpes zoster and its complications is now available. The aim of this study was to estimate the herpes zoster burden of disease and to establish a pre-vaccination baseline of the minimum incidence of herpes zoster. Methods Data were collected from the Swedish National Health Data Registers including the Patient Register, the Pharmacy Register, and the Cause of Death Register. The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden was estimated by analyzing the overall, and age and gender differences in the antiviral prescriptions, hospitalizations and complications during 2006-2010 and mortality during 2006-2009. Results Annually, 270 per 100,000 persons received antiviral treatment for herpes zoster, and the prescription rate increased with age. It was approximately 50% higher in females than in males in the age 50+ population (rate ratio 1.39; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.58). The overall hospitalization rate for herpes zoster was 6.9/100,000 with an approximately three-fold increase for patients over 80 years of age compared to the age 70-79 group. A gender difference in hospitalization rates was observed: 8.1/100,000 in females and 5.6/100,000 in males. Herpes zoster, with a registered complication, was found in about one third of the hospitalized patients and the most common complications involved the peripheral and central nervous systems. Death due to herpes zoster was a rare event. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate the significant burden of herpes zoster disease in the pre-zoster vaccination era. A strong correlation with age in the herpes zoster- related incidence, hospitalization, complications, and mortality rates was found. In addition, the study provides further evidence of the female predominance in herpes zoster disease. PMID:24330510

  4. Hospital admissions for herpes zoster in Portugal between 2000 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Margarida; Froes, Filipe

    2013-01-01

    Introdução e Objectivos: O aumento da incidência de herpes zoster e da nevralgia pós-herpética estão associados ao envelhecimento da população. Estas patologias podem ser francamente debilitantes e ter um grande impacto na qualidade de vida dos doentes. Numa população envelhecida como a portuguesa, é esperado que o impacto do herpes zoster e da post-herpetic neuralgia aumentem. No entanto, não existe no país nenhum sistema específico de monitorização da doença e não foram encontrados dados epidemiológicos portugueses nas últimas décadas. A vacina contra o herpes zoster, já recomendada noutros países europeus, ainda não se encontra disponível em Portugal. Conhecer o impacto do herpes zoster é importante para fundamentar medidas de saúde pública relacionadas com a vacinação.Material e Métodos: Procedeu-se a uma análise retrospetiva da base de dados da Administração Central dos Sistemas de Saúde com a informação clínica codificada dos internamentos hospitalares de todos os indivíduos com o diagnóstico principal de herpes zoster (ICD-9-CM 053) e que tiveram alta entre 2000 e 2010.Resultados: Em Portugal, entre 2000 e 2010, ocorreram 1 706 internamentos hospitalares com o diagnóstico principal de herpes zoster. A maioria dos doentes era idosa. Do total de internados, 10,6% tinham formas potencialmente graves de imunocompromisso. A doença predominante de herpes zoster sem complicações, seguido de herpes zoster do sistema nervoso e oftálmico. A duração média dos internamentos foi de 9,3 dias, aumentando com a idade. A letalidade intra-hospitalar foi de 1%. Considerando o período de 2000-2009 e apenas a população adulta, a média anual da incidência dos internamentos hospitalares com o diagnóstico principal deherpes zoster foi de 1,9 por 100 000 habitantes, aumentando com a idade.Conclusão: Este estudo confirma que, em Portugal, as formas graves de herpes zoster estão relacionadas com a idade e associadas a

  5. The Structure of the Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 ORF112-Zα·Z-DNA Complex Reveals a Mechanism of Nucleic Acids Recognition Conserved with E3L, a Poxvirus Inhibitor of Interferon Response.

    PubMed

    Kuś, Krzysztof; Rakus, Krzysztof; Boutier, Maxime; Tsigkri, Theokliti; Gabriel, Luisa; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Athanasiadis, Alekos

    2015-12-25

    In vertebrate species, the innate immune system down-regulates protein translation in response to viral infection through the action of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR). In some teleost species another protein kinase, Z-DNA-dependent protein kinase (PKZ), plays a similar role but instead of dsRNA binding domains, PKZ has Zα domains. These domains recognize the left-handed conformer of dsDNA and dsRNA known as Z-DNA/Z-RNA. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infects common and koi carp, which have PKZ, and encodes the ORF112 protein that itself bears a Zα domain, a putative competitive inhibitor of PKZ. Here we present the crystal structure of ORF112-Zα in complex with an 18-bp CpG DNA repeat, at 1.5 Å. We demonstrate that the bound DNA is in the left-handed conformation and identify key interactions for the specificity of ORF112. Localization of ORF112 protein in stress granules induced in Cyprinid herpesvirus 3-infected fish cells suggests a functional behavior similar to that of Zα domains of the interferon-regulated, nucleic acid surveillance proteins ADAR1 and DAI. PMID:26559969

  6. Unilateral Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus Results in Bilateral Corneal Nerve Alteration

    PubMed Central

    Hamrah, Pedram; Cruzat, Andrea; Dastjerdi, Mohammad H.; Prüss, Harald; Zheng, Lixin; Shahatit, Bashar M.; Bayhan, Hasan A.; Dana, Reza; Pavan-Langston, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO), thought to be a unilateral disease, results in loss of corneal sensation, leading to neurotrophic keratopathy. This study aimed to analyze bilateral corneal nerve changes in patients with HZO by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and their correlation with corneal sensation as a measure of nerve function. Design Prospective, cross-sectional, controlled, single-center study. Participants Twenty-seven eyes with the diagnosis of HZO and their contralateral clinically unaffected eyes were studied and compared with normal controls (n = 15). Methods In vivo confocal microscopy (Confoscan 4; Nidek Technologies, Gamagori, Japan) and corneal esthesiometry (Cochet-Bonnet; Luneau Ophthalmologie, Chartres, France) of the central cornea were performed bilaterally in all patients and controls. Patients were grouped into normal (>5.5 cm), mild (>2.5–5.5 cm), and severe (<2.5 cm) loss of sensation. Main Outcome Measures Changes in corneal nerve density, total nerve number, main nerve trunks, branching, and tortuosity were evaluated after IVCM and were correlated to corneal sensation, disease duration, and number of recurrences. Results Eyes with herpes zoster ophthalmicus had a significant (P<0.001) decrease in total nerve length (595.8±358.1 vs. 2258.4±989.0 μm/frame), total number of nerves (5.4±2.8 vs. 13.1±3.8), number of main nerve trunks (2.3±1.1 vs. 4.7±1.2), and number of nerve branches (3.2±2.3 vs. 8.4±3.7) as compared with controls. In the contralateral clinically unaffected eyes, total nerve length (1053.1±441.4 μm/frame), total number of nerves (8.3±2.9), and main nerve trunks (3.1±1.0) also were decreased significantly as compared with controls (P<0.01). Reduced nerve density, total nerve count, main trunks, and tortuosity was correlated significantly with corneal sensation across all subgroups (P<0.001). Conclusions Patients with unilateral HZO demonstrated a profound and significant bilateral loss of the

  7. Molecular and serologic diagnostic approaches; the prevalence of herpes simplex in idiopathic men infertile

    PubMed Central

    Amirjannati, Nasser; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Sehhat, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human pathogens that can cause infertility may also affect sperm count and quality. Viral infections can be considered as direct and/or indirect cause of male factor infertility. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the prevalence of herpes simplex virus in the semen of infertile men attending the Avicenna Infertility Clinic, and to compare it with the herpes virus serology results. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. Infertile men participating without any clinical signs of infection with herpes simplex virus, and no obvious cause for their infertility were included. Semen and blood samples were used for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and serologic testing for these people. Two samples were collected: one ml semen sample to verify the existence of genital herpes simplex virus in infertile men, and blood samples of 217 individuals tested for antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16. Results: According to the PCR results of semen samples the prevalence of herpes simplex in semen was 12% and serologic test showed 3.2% prevalence within blood. Nine to 10% of IgM negative were PCR positive and only 2-3% of IgM positive were PCR positive. Between herpes serologic studies with positive controls and negative controls by using both tests, there was a significant positive relationship (r=0.718 and p<0.001). The relationship between semen PCR test results and serological survey of herpes patients with a negative control in both Pearson and Spearman tests was positive and significant (r=0.229 and p=0.001). Correlation between the PCR results of semen samples with two positive control subjects and a positive IgM test was statistically confirmed (r=0.235 and p<0.001). Conclusion: We recommend that if there is suspicion to herpes simplex as a microorganism that theoretically could impact semen parameters and cause infertility it is prudent to use PCR technique on semen sample rather than ELISA

  8. The effects of caudal fin loss and regeneration on the swimming performance of three cyprinid fish species with different swimming capacities.

    PubMed

    Fu, Cheng; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2013-08-15

    In nature, the caudal fins of fish species are frequently lost to some extent by aggressive behaviour, predation and diseases. To test whether the swimming performance of fish with different swimming capacities would be differentially affected due to caudal fin loss and regeneration, we investigated the critical swimming speed (Ucrit), swimming metabolic rate (M(O2)), tail beat frequency (f(TB)) and tail beat amplitude (A(TB)) after caudal fin loss and regeneration (20 days) in juveniles of three cyprinid fish species: the qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis; strong swimmer), the common carp (Cyprinus carpio; intermediate swimmer) and the goldfish (Carassius auratus; poor swimmer). The Ucrit values of the caudal-fin-lost qingbo, common carp and goldfish were 49, 32 and 35% significantly lower than those of the control groups, respectively. The maximum tail beat amplitude (A(TBmax)) (all three fishes), the maximum tail beat frequency (f(TBmax)) (only the common carp and the goldfish) and/or the active metabolic rate (M(O2active)) (only the common carp) of the caudal-fin-lost fish were significantly higher than those of the control groups. After 20 days of recovery, the caudal fins recovered to 41, 47 and 24% of those of the control groups for the qingbo, the common carp and the goldfish, respectively. However, the Ucrit values of the fin-regenerated qingbo, common carp and goldfish recovered to 86, 91 and 95% of those of the control group, respectively. The caudal-fin-regenerated qingbo and common carp showed a significantly higher A(TBmax) and f(TBmax), respectively, compared with those of the control groups. The qingbo had a higher f(TBmax) but a lower A(TBmax) than the common carp and the goldfish, which suggested that a strong swimmer may maintain swimming speed primarily by maintaining a greater f(TBmax), for which the caudal fin plays a more important role during swimming, than a poor swimmer. The M(O2active) of fish (common carp) with a redundant respiratory

  9. Effects of experimentally induced infections of goldfish Carassius auratus with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) at various water temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2014-08-11

    In this study, we examined the influence of water temperature on the development of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus after experimentally induced infection with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2). In Expt 1, Ryukin goldfish were infected with CyHV-2 by intraperitoneal injection and maintained at 4 different water temperatures. Cumulative mortalities of the 15, 20, 25 and 30°C groups were 10, 90, 90 and 60%, respectively. Therefore, the temperature range of 20-25°C is considered highly permissive for HVHN. One of 6 surviving fish of the 15°C group died after a rapid temperature increase to 25°C at 30 d post infection. All 3 Edonishiki goldfish, co-reared with the surviving Ryukin in tanks where the water temperature was increased from 15 to 25°C, died. In Expt 2, Edonishiki goldfish were exposed to CyHV-2 by bath immersion at 13 or 24°C, resulting in cumulative mortalities of 0 and 87%, respectively, at 28 d post-exposure. No mortality of the surviving Edonishiki in the 13°C treatment was observed when the water temperature was increased to 24°C. In addition, in Expt 2, no mortality was observed in any Ranchu co-reared with CyHV-2-immersed Edonishiki in the group where water temperature was increased from 13 to 24°C, even after re-immersion challenge with CyHV-2. It is interesting to note that CyHV-2 DNA was detected in the kidneys of 4 of the 5 surviving Ranchu co-reared with the CyHV-2-immersed Edonishiki group where the water temperature was increased from 13 to 24°C. Therefore, it is likely that the surviving Edonishiki of the 13°C group were virus carriers. This study indicates that most fish infected with CyHV-2 at 13-15°C acquire resistance to HVHN, but as carriers they are able to infect naïve fish.

  10. Effects of effects of suspended sediment on early-life stage survival of Yaqui chub, an endangered USA–Mexico borderlands cyprinid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barkalow, Stephani L. Clark; Bonar, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of total suspended sediment (TSS) can have negative consequences on fishes, such as altering food supply, lowering food acquisition, clogging gills, and disrupting reproduction. While effects of TSS on salmonids and estuarine fish are well studied, less is known about possible negative impacts of suspended sediment on desert fishes. Several imperiled desert fishes inhabit streams and springs near the U.S.–Mexico border and are potentially threatened by increased sediment loads from borderlands activity such as livestock grazing, road building, illegal traffic, and law enforcement patrols. One such species is the Yaqui Chub Gila purpurea, a federally listed endangered cyprinid. We exposed Yaqui Chub embryos and fry (mean TL = 12.6 mm; SE = 0.42) to a range of TSS levels commonly found in one of the only streams they inhabit, Black Draw, which crosses the Arizona–Mexico border. We tested effects of 0; 300; 500; 1,000; 5,000; and 10,000 mg/L TSS loads on fry and embryos over a 5-d period in three replicate containers for each treatment. Fifty percent hatch rate (i.e., median lethal concentration, LC50) was 3,977 mg/L for embryos. The LC50 for fry (concentration at which half died) was 8,372 mg/L after 12 h of exposure; however, after 5-d exposure, LC50 leveled at 1,197 mg/L. The TL of fry did not change significantly in any treatment over the 5-d period. Suspended sediment in Black Draw reached concentrations lethal to Yaqui Chub embryo and fry during four floods in 2012. Although some desert fishes have evolved in rivers and streams subject to elevated TSS and are tolerant to high TSS concentrations, other fish species are less tolerant and may be impacted by land practices which increase erosion into stream systems. Management of critically endangered desert fishes should include considerations of the effects of increased suspended sediment.

  11. Epidemiological Study on the Incidence of Herpes Zoster in Nearby Cheonan

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ho Soon; Kang, Jin Ku

    2015-01-01

    Background Herpes Zoster is a disease that occurs after the virus is reactivated due to infection of the varicella virus in childhood. Risk factors are advanced age, malignant neoplasm, organ transplantation, immunosuppressive agents taking are known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the seasonal effect and other risk factors on the incidence of herpes zoster. Methods The medical records of 1,105 patients admitted to the outpatient diagnosed with herpes zoster were retrospectively examined. The patients' sex, age, dermatome, onset, underlying disease, residential areas were collected. Results The incidence of women outnumbered men and increased for those above the age of 50. The number of occurrences of herpes zoster patients was higher in the spring and summer than in winter. Unlike men, women had the most frequent outbreaks in March. The most common occurrence of dermatome is in the thoracic region. The number of occurrence was similar on the left as the right. Conclusions In this study, herpes zoster occurs more often in women than in men and more frequently occurs in women in the spring and summer. PMID:26175879

  12. Acute herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: effects of acyclovir and outcome of treatment with amitriptyline.

    PubMed Central

    Bowsher, D

    1992-01-01

    This retrospective study was designed to assess the effects of acyclovir treatment of acute herpes zoster on subsequent postherpetic neuralgia, and to examine the effects of amitriptyline in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Eighty seven patients with postherpetic neuralgia of three or more months' duration were studied: 24 of them had had their herpes zoster treated with oral acyclovir. At first presentation, only 25% of the 24 patients who had had their herpes zoster treated with acyclovir selected the word group containing burning on the McGill pain questionnaire compared with 76% of the 63 patients who had not received acyclovir. A higher proportion of patients who had had acyclovir than had not selected the word group which contains the word aching (63% versus 49%). Acyclovir thus appears to change the nature of postherpetic neuralgia. Postherpetic neuralgia was treated with amitriptyline, alone or in combination with distigmine and/or sodium valproate. There was a strong correlation between pain relief and the interval between the occurrence of herpes zoster and the initiation of treatment with amitriptyline--early treatment is almost twice as likely to be successful as late. Since conventional analgesics and sympatholytic drugs are of no benefit in the treatment of established postherpetic neuralgia, the sequelae of herpes zoster must, therefore, be recognized and treated with amitriptyline as soon as possible. PMID:1419247

  13. Replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Birch, J.; Fink, C. G.; Skinner, G. R.; Thomas, G. H.; Jordan, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture was investigated. The temporal profile of virus replication was related to the initial virus inoculum; high input inocula induced a rapid increase in virus titre while lower multiplicities induced a more slow-rising increase in virus titre. Our evidence suggested that explants were capable of initiating and supporting virus replication for at least 2 weeks following establishment of the culture. Virus yields were optimal when explants were cultured at 37 degrees and in serum-supplemented medium. Explants also supported the replication of type 1 herpes simplex virus and a "non-human" herpes simplex virus (pseudo-rabies virus). The optimal conditions for replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical explants have been established and will provide a model permitting precise investigation of lytic or other virus-cervical cell interactions and their possible relationship to herpes virus-induced pre-invasive carcinoma of this organ. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:183806

  14. The use of FTIR microscopy for evaluation of herpes viruses infection development kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Mukmanov, Igor; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2004-08-01

    The kinetics of Herpes simplex infection development was studied using an FTIR microscopy (FTIR-M) method. The family of herpes viruses includes several members like H. simplex types I and II (HSV I, II), Varicella zoster (VZV) viruses which are involved in various human and animal infections of different parts of the body. In our previous study, we found significant spectral differences between normal uninfected cells in cultures and cells infected with herpes viruses at early stages of the infection. In the present study, cells in cultures were infected with either HSV-I or VZV and at various times post-infection they were examined either by optical microscopy or by advanced FTIR-M. Spectroscopic measurements show a consistent decrease in the intensity of the carbohydrate peak in correlation with the viral infection development, observed by optical microscopy. This decrease in cellular carbohydrate level was used as indicator for herpes viruses infection kinetics. This parameter could be used as a basis for applying a spectroscopic method for the evaluation of herpes virus infection development. Our results show also that the development kinetics of viral infection has an exponential character for these viruses.

  15. New helicase-primase inhibitors as drug candidates for the treatment of herpes simplex disease.

    PubMed

    Kleymann, Gerald; Fischer, Rüdiger; Betz, Ulrich A K; Hendrix, Martin; Bender, Wolfgang; Schneider, Udo; Handke, Gabriele; Eckenberg, Peter; Hewlett, Guy; Pevzner, Veniamin; Baumeister, Judith; Weber, Olaf; Henninger, Kerstin; Keldenich, Jörg; Jensen, Axel; Kolb, Jörg; Bach, Ute; Popp, Andreas; Mäben, Jutta; Frappa, Isabelle; Haebich, Dieter; Lockhoff, Oswald; Rübsamen-Waigmann, Helga

    2002-04-01

    The vast majority of the world population is infected with at least one member of the human herpesvirus family. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are the cause of cold sores and genital herpes as well as life-threatening or sight-impairing disease mainly in immunocompromized patients, pregnant women and newborns. Since the milestone development in the late 1970s of acyclovir (Zovirax), a nucleosidic inhibitor of the herpes DNA polymerase, no new non-nucleosidic anti-herpes drugs have been introduced. Here we report new inhibitors of the HSV helicase-primase with potent in vitro anti-herpes activity, a novel mechanism of action, a low resistance rate and superior efficacy against HSV in animal models. BAY 57-1293 (N-[5-(aminosulfonyl)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-N-methyl-2-[4-(2-pyridinyl)phenyl]acetamide), a well-tolerated member of this class of compounds, significantly reduces time to healing, prevents rebound of disease after cessation of treatment and, most importantly, reduces frequency and severity of recurrent disease. Thus, this class of drugs has significant potential for the treatment of HSV disease in humans, including those resistant to current medications. PMID:11927946

  16. Functional decline and herpes zoster in older people: an interplay of multiple factors.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Herpes zoster is a frequent painful infectious disease whose incidence and severity increase with age. In older people, there is a strong bidirectional link between herpes zoster and functional decline, which refers to a decrement in ability to perform activities of daily living due to ageing and disabilities. However, the exact nature of such link remains poorly established. Based on the opinion from a multidisciplinary group of experts, we here propose a new model to account for the interplay between infection, somatic/psychiatric comorbidity, coping skills, polypharmacy, and age, which may account for the functional decline related to herpes zoster in older patients. This model integrates the risk of decompensation of underlying disease; the risk of pain becoming chronic (e.g. postherpetic neuralgia); the risk of herpes zoster non-pain complications; the detrimental impact of herpes zoster on quality of life, functioning, and mood; the therapeutic difficulties due to multimorbidity, polypharmacy, and ageing; and the role of stressful life events in the infection itself and comorbid depression. This model underlines the importance of early treatment, strengthening coping, and vaccine prevention.

  17. The herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed

    Kwong, A D; Frenkel, N

    1989-11-01

    The virion host shutoff (vhs) function of herpes simplex virus (HSV) limits the expression of genes in the infected cells by destabilizing both host and viral mRNAs. vhs function mutants have been isolated which are defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, the half-life of viral mRNAs is significantly longer in cells infected with the vhs-1 mutant virus than in cells infected with the wild-type (wt) virus. Recent data have shown that the vhs-1 mutation resides within the open reading frame UL41. We have analyzed the shutoff of host protein synthesis in cells infected with a mixture of the wt HSV-1 (KOS) and the vhs-1 mutant virus. The results of these experiments revealed that (i) the wt virus shutoff activity requires a threshold level of input virions per cell and (ii) the mutant vhs-1 virus protein can irreversibly block the wt virus shutoff activity. These results are consistent with a stoichiometric model in which the wt vhs protein interacts with a cellular factor which controls the half-life of cell mRNA. This wt virus interaction results in the destabilization of both host and viral mRNAs. In contrast, the mutant vhs function interacts with the cellular factor irreversibly, resulting in the increased half-life of both host and viral mRNAs.

  18. Herpes zoster infection increases the risk of peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Te-Yu; Yang, Fu-Chi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Tse-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Varicella-zoster virus infection can cause meningoencephalitis, myelitis, ocular disorders, and vasculopathy. However, no study has investigated the association between herpes zoster (HZ) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We identified newly diagnosed HZ from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database recorded during 2000 to 2010, with a follow-up period extending until December 31, 2011. In addition, we included a comparison cohort that was randomly frequency-matched with the HZ cohort according to age, sex, and index year. We analyzed the risk of PAD with respect to sex, age, and comorbidities by using Cox proportional-hazards regression models. In total, 35,391 HZ patients and 141,556 controls were enrolled in this study. The risk of PAD was 13% increased in the HZ cohort than in the comparison cohort after adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities. The Kaplan–Meier survival curve showed that the risk of PAD was significantly higher in the HZ cohort than in the non-HZ cohort (P < 0.001). This nationwide population-based cohort study revealed a higher risk of PAD in patients with HZ infection than in those without the infection. Careful follow-up and aggressive treatment is recommended for patients with HZ to reduce the risk of PAD. PMID:27583856

  19. Inhibitors of nucleotidyltransferase superfamily enzymes suppress herpes simplex virus replication.

    PubMed

    Tavis, John E; Wang, Hong; Tollefson, Ann E; Ying, Baoling; Korom, Maria; Cheng, Xiaohong; Cao, Feng; Davis, Katie L; Wold, William S M; Morrison, Lynda A

    2014-12-01

    Herpesviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious human diseases. Herpesvirus DNA replication depends on multiple processes typically catalyzed by nucleotidyltransferase superfamily (NTS) enzymes. Therefore, we investigated whether inhibitors of NTS enzymes would suppress replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. Eight of 42 NTS inhibitors suppressed HSV-1 and/or HSV-2 replication by >10-fold at 5 μM, with suppression at 50 μM reaching ∼1 million-fold. Five compounds in two chemical families inhibited HSV replication in Vero and human foreskin fibroblast cells as well as the approved drug acyclovir did. The compounds had 50% effective concentration values as low as 0.22 μM with negligible cytotoxicity in the assays employed. The inhibitors suppressed accumulation of viral genomes and infectious particles and blocked events in the viral replication cycle before and during viral DNA replication. Acyclovir-resistant mutants of HSV-1 and HSV-2 remained highly sensitive to the NTS inhibitors. Five of six NTS inhibitors of the HSVs also blocked replication of another herpesvirus pathogen, human cytomegalovirus. Therefore, NTS enzyme inhibitors are promising candidates for new herpesvirus treatments that may have broad efficacy against members of the herpesvirus family.

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus and Varicella-Zoster Virus.

    PubMed

    Levin, Myron J; Weinberg, Adriana; Schmid, D Scott

    2016-06-01

    The most common specimens from immunocompromised patients that are analyzed for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are from skin lesions. Many types of assays are applicable to these samples, but some, such as virus isolation and direct fluorescent antibody testing, are useful only in the early phases of the lesions. In contrast, nucleic acid (NA) detection methods, which generally have superior sensitivity and specificity, can be applied to skin lesions at any stage of progression. NA methods are also the best choice, and sometimes the only choice, for detecting HSV or VZV in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous or vitreous humor, and from mucosal surfaces. NA methods provide the best performance when reliability and speed (within 24 hours) are considered together. They readily distinguish the type of HSV detected or the source of VZV detected (wild type or vaccine strain). Nucleic acid detection methods are constantly being improved with respect to speed and ease of performance. Broader applications are under study, such as the use of quantitative results of viral load for prognosis and to assess the efficacy of antiviral therapy. PMID:27337486

  1. Evaluation of the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection

    PubMed Central

    Panatto, Donatella; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Rizzitelli, Emanuela; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Icardi, Giancarlo; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection. The review was conducted in accordance with the standards of the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses” guidelines. The following databases were accessed: ISI/Web of Knowledge (WoS), MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, the Cochrane Library and EconLit. Specific literature on health economics was also manually inspected. Thirty-three studies were included. The quality of the studies assessed in accordance with the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist was good. All studies evaluated direct costs, apart from one which dealt only with indirect costs. Indirect costs were evaluated by 12 studies. The economic burden of HZ has increased over time. HZ management and drug prescriptions generate the highest direct costs. While increasing age, co-morbidities and drug treatment were found to predict higher direct costs, being employed was correlated with higher indirect costs, and thus with the onset age of the disease. Despite some differences among the selected studies, particularly with regard to indirect costs, all concur that HZ is a widespread disease which has a heavy social and economic burden. PMID:25483704

  2. Evaluation of the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection.

    PubMed

    Panatto, Donatella; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Rizzitelli, Emanuela; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Icardi, Giancarlo; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection.   The review was conducted in accordance with the standards of the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" guidelines. The following databases were accessed: ISI/Web of Knowledge (WoS), MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, the Cochrane Library and EconLit. Specific literature on health economics was also manually inspected. Thirty-three studies were included. The quality of the studies assessed in accordance with the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist was good. All studies evaluated direct costs, apart from one which dealt only with indirect costs. Indirect costs were evaluated by 12 studies. The economic burden of HZ has increased over time. HZ management and drug prescriptions generate the highest direct costs. While increasing age, co-morbidities and drug treatment were found to predict higher direct costs, being employed was correlated with higher indirect costs, and thus with the onset age of the disease. Despite some differences among the selected studies, particularly with regard to indirect costs, all concur that HZ is a widespread disease which has a heavy social and economic burden.

  3. Subassemblies and Asymmetry in Assembly of Herpes Simplex Virus Procapsid

    PubMed Central

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Newcomb, William W.; Cheng, Naiqian; Winkler, Dennis C.; Fontana, Juan; Heymann, J. Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) capsid is a massive particle (~200 MDa; 1,250-Å diameter) with T=16 icosahedral symmetry. It initially assembles as a procapsid with ~4,000 protein subunits of 11 different kinds. The procapsid undergoes major changes in structure and composition as it matures, a process driven by proteolysis and expulsion of the internal scaffolding protein. Assembly also relies on an external scaffolding protein, the triplex, an α2β heterotrimer that coordinates neighboring capsomers in the procapsid and becomes a stabilizing clamp in the mature capsid. To investigate the mechanisms that regulate its assembly, we developed a novel isolation procedure for the metastable procapsid and collected a large set of cryo-electron microscopy data. In addition to procapsids, these preparations contain maturation intermediates, which were distinguished by classifying the images and calculating a three-dimensional reconstruction for each class. Appraisal of the procapsid structure led to a new model for assembly; in it, the protomer (assembly unit) consists of one triplex, surrounded by three major capsid protein (MCP) subunits. The model exploits the triplexes’ departure from 3-fold symmetry to explain the highly skewed MCP hexamers, the triplex orientations at each 3-fold site, and the T=16 architecture. These observations also yielded new insights into maturation. PMID:26443463

  4. A Mucosal Vaccination Approach for Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2

    PubMed Central

    Tirabassi, Rebecca S.; Ace, Christopher I.; Levchenko, Tatyana; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Selin, Liisa K.; Nie, Siwei; Guberski, Dennis L.; Yang, Kejian

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 1 out of every 5 Americans is infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Efforts in developing a potent vaccine for HSV-2 have shown limited success. Here we describe a heterologous vaccination strategy for HSV-2 based on an intramuscular DNA prime followed by a liposome-encapsulated antigen boost delivered intranasally. Both portions of the vaccine express the immunogenic HSV-2 glycoprotein D. In female Balb/c mice, this heterologous immunisation regimen stimulated high titers of serum neutralising antibodies, a DNA priming dose dependent T helper type response, enhanced mucosal immune responses and potent protective immunity at the portal of entry for the virus: the vaginal cavity. A clear synergistic effect on immune responses and protection from infection was seen using this heterologous immunisation approach. Suboptimal DNA prime (0.5 μg) followed by the liposome boost resulted in an 80% survival rate when mice were infected 2 weeks after immunisation. A higher dose of DNA priming (5 μg) followed by the liposome boost resulted in sterilising immunity in 80% of mice. The vaccine induced durable protection in mice, demonstrated by a 60% survival rate when lethal infections were performed 20 weeks after the immunization primed with 0.5μg of DNA vaccine. PMID:21134447

  5. Herpes simplex virus type 1-derived recombinant and amplicon vectors.

    PubMed

    Fraefel, Cornel; Marconi, Peggy; Epstein, Alberto L

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogen whose lifestyle is based on a long-term dual interaction with the infected host, being able to establish both lytic and latent infections. The virus genome is a 153 kbp double-stranded DNA molecule encoding more than 80 genes. The interest of HSV-1 as gene transfer vector stems from its ability to infect many different cell types, both quiescent and proliferating cells, the very high packaging capacity of the virus capsid, the outstanding neurotropic adaptations that this virus has evolved, and the fact that it never integrates into the cellular chromosomes, thus avoiding the risk of insertional mutagenesis. Two types of vectors can be derived from HSV-1, recombinant vectors and amplicon vectors, and different methodologies have been developed to prepare large stocks of each type of vector. This chapter summarizes (1) the two approaches most commonly used to prepare recombinant vectors through homologous recombination, either in eukaryotic cells or in bacteria, and (2) the two methodologies currently used to generate helper-free amplicon vectors, either using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based approach or a Cre/loxP site-specific recombination strategy.

  6. Sectorial corneal infiltrates and pannus in herpes zoster ophthalmicus.

    PubMed

    Mondino, B J; Farley, M K; Aizuss, D H

    1986-01-01

    We report four patients with herpes zoster ophthalmicus who developed a dense pannus limited to a sector of the superior cornea that advanced to the central region of the cornea. The pannus appeared to develop in response to peripheral infiltrates in a subepithelial or anterior stromal location and not in association with disciform corneal edema, interstitial keratitis, or scleritis. The corneal pannus developed insidiously as a late complication without associated ulceration and with little or no anterior uveitis or conjunctival reaction. Additionally, all four patients developed anterior and mid-stromal infiltrates in a punctate or incomplete ring configuration at the leading border of the pannus that threatened the visual axis. In the three patients that were treated with topical corticosteroids, the infiltrates resolved with preservation of visual acuity. The other patient developed central scarring with a permanent reduction in vision. Patients with infiltrates and pannus in a sector of the cornea should be followed carefully and treated with topical corticosteroids when infiltrates appear to prevent progression to the central cornea.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination against herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Pieter T; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common disease among elderly, which may develop into a severe pain syndrome labeled postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). A live-attenuated varicella zoster virus vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence and burden of illness of HZ and PHN, providing the opportunity to prevent significant health-related and financial consequences of HZ. In this review, we summarize the available literature on cost-effectiveness of HZ vaccination and discuss critical parameters for cost-effectiveness results. A search in PubMed and EMBASE was performed to identify full cost-effectiveness studies published before April 2013. Fourteen cost-effectiveness studies were included, all performed in western countries. All studies evaluated cost-effectiveness among elderly above 50 years and used costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained as primary outcome. The vast majority of studies showed vaccination of 60- to 75-year-old individuals to be cost-effective, when duration of vaccine efficacy was longer than 10 years. Duration of vaccine efficacy, vaccine price, HZ incidence, HZ incidence and discount rates were influential to the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). HZ vaccination may be a worthwhile intervention from a cost-effectiveness point of view. More extensive reporting on methodology and more detailed results of sensitivity analyses would be desirable to address uncertainty and to guarantee optimal comparability between studies, for example regarding model structure, discounting, vaccine characteristics and loss of quality of life due to HZ and PHN.

  8. Reducing the burden of Herpes Zoster in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gabutti, Giovanni; Franco, Elisabetta; Bonanni, Paolo; Conversano, Michele; Ferro, Antonio; Lazzari, Marzia; Maggi, Stefania; Rossi, Alessandro; Scotti, Silvestro; Vitale, Francesco; Volpi, Antonio; Greco, Donato

    2015-01-01

    Herpes Zoster (HZ) is a viral disease with painful neuro-dermatologic manifestations. Incidence increases with age. In Italy, the estimated incidence is 6.3 cases/1000 person/year; hospital admissions are less than 2%, 69% in patients aged over 65 years. The most frequent complication of HZ is Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN) characterized by metameric pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia. In Italy 20.6% and 9.2% of HZ patients experience PHN after 3 and 6 months, respectively. Available antiviral and analgesic treatments are relatively unsatisfactory in reducing pain and length of the disease. Prevention has recently become possible with the live attenuated vaccine Oka/Merck. Clinical studies show a reduction of 51% in the incidence of the disease, 61% of its burden and 67% of PHN in vaccinees. Protection seems to be long lasting and vaccine safety matches registration requirements. Available evidence suggests that the costs for QALY (less than € 20 000) and avoided cases is favorable. Due to the heavy burden of disease, it is time to offer this vaccination to elderly population.

  9. Association of Herpes Zoster and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Yeh, Su-Yin; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of our study was to determine the association of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and the risk of herpes zoster (HZ). Methods In this cohort study, we selected 4736 patients with T1DM registered in the Catastrophic Illness Patient Database who received insulin therapy before 2003 and 18944 participants without DM who were selected by frequency matched based on sex and age. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to measure the hazard ratios (HRs) of HZ in the T1DM group compared with that in the non-T1DM group. Results Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that the adjusted HR of HZ was 2.38 times higher for patients in the T1DM group (95% CI = 1.77–3.19) than for those in the non-T1DM group. According to diabetes severity, mild and serious T1DM patients were associated with a higher risk of HZ (adjusted HR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.67–3.05; and adjusted HR = 5.08, 95% CI = 2.66–9.71, respectively) than subjects without T1DM. Conclusion Patients with T1DM are at a higher risk of HZ than those without T1DM. PMID:27171477

  10. A Rare Complication of Herpes Zoster: Segmental Zoster Paresis

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Hooi Khee; Chawla, Mayank; Kaushik, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a common presentation in both the community and emergency department; however segmental zoster paresis is a rare complication that can lead to misdiagnosis. We present a case of a 74-year-old Indian gentleman with a background of well controlled diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischaemic heart disease who presented with sudden right lower limb weakness. This was preceded by a 5-day history of paraesthesia starting in the right foot and ascending up the right lower limb. On examination, there was a characteristic vesicular rash in the L2/3 region with MRC grading 3/5 in the right hip flexors. The rest of the neurological examination was unremarkable. MRI of the spine did not show any evidence of spinal disease. The patient was initiated on IV acyclovir with improvement of the lower limb weakness to MRC grading 5/5 as the vesicles improved. This is an interesting case as it highlights a rare presentation of zoster: segmental motor paresis that recovered fully with resolution of the rash. It shows the importance of recognizing motor neuropathy as a complication of shingles as it has a very good prognosis with most patients regaining full motor function of the affected limb with treatment. PMID:27313622

  11. A Prospective Study of Herpes Zoster in Children

    PubMed Central

    Katakam, Bhumesh Kumar; Kiran, Geeta; Kumar, Udaya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Herpes zoster (HZ) is a dermatomal viral infection, caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) that persists in the posterior root ganglion. HZ is uncommonly reported in immunocompetent children. It may be due to intrauterine VZV infection or secondary to postnatal exposure to VZV at an early age. Aims: Our study was to review clinico-epidemiological data for HZ in children for early diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2014. Consecutive cases clinically diagnosed as HZ in the pediatric age group were taken up. Results: We report the clinico-epidemiological study of 26 cases of HZ, their benign course and recovery among children. Conclusions: HZ is a rare disease in childhood. Varicella in early childhood is a risk factor of HZ in immunocompromised and immunocompetent children. Childhood zoster occurs in either healthy or underlying immunodeficient children. The appearance of HZ in a young child does not always imply an underlying immunodeficiency or malignancy. But the identification of HZ with or without immunodeficiency is of prime importance from the treatment and prognostic point of view and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vesicular eruptions. The prognosis is generally good in healthy children. PMID:27688444

  12. Expression of herpes virus thymidine kinase in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, M S; Selker, E U; Lin, B; Roberts, C J; Luo, Z; Vaught-Alexander, D; Margolin, B S

    1997-01-01

    The expression of thymidine kinase in fungi, which normally lack this enzyme, will greatly aid the study of DNA metabolism and provide useful drug-sensitive phenotypes. The herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase gene ( tk ) was expressed in Neurospora crassa. tk was expressed as a fusion to N.crassa arg-2 regulatory sequences and as a hygromycin phosphotransferase-thymidine kinase fusion gene under the control of cytomegalovirus and SV40 sequences. Only strains containing tk showed thymidine kinase enzyme activity. In strains containing the arg-2 - tk gene, both the level of enzyme activity and the level of mRNA were reduced by growth in arginine medium, consistent with control through arg-2 regulatory sequences. Expression of thymidine kinase in N.crassa facilitated radioactive labeling of replicating DNA following addition of [3H]thymidine or [14C]thymidine to the growth medium. Thymidine labeling of DNA enabled demonstration that hydroxyurea can be used to block replication and synchronize the N.crassa mitotic cycle. Strains expressing thymidine kinase were also more sensitive than strains lacking thymidine kinase to anticancer and antiviral nucleoside drugs that are activated by thymidine kinase, including 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouridine and trifluorothymidine. Finally, expression of thymidine kinase in N. crassa enabled incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into DNA at levels sufficient to separate newly replicated DNA from old DNA using equilibrium centrifugation. PMID:9171090

  13. Increased Risk of Herpes Zoster Following Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shin-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wong, Ying-Chi; Yang, Tse-Yen; Kuo, Chien-Feng; Cheng, Jiung-Mou; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study explored the possible association between dermatomyositis or polymyositis (DM or PM) and the subsequent risk of herpes zoster (HZ). We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) system to address the research topic. The exposure cohort comprised 2023 patients with new diagnoses of DM or PM. Each patient was frequency matched according to age, sex, index year, and comorbidities including diabetes, renal disease, obesity, malignancy, rheumatoid arthritis, immunodeficiency virus infection, autoimmune disease not elsewhere classified, mixed connective tissue disease, or vasculitis with 4 participants from the general population who did not have a history of HZ (control cohort). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relationship between DM or PM and the risk of subsequent HZ. The incidence of HZ in the exposure and control cohorts was 35.8 and 7.01 per 1000 person-years, respectively. The exposure cohort had a significantly higher overall risk of subsequent HZ than did the control cohort (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 3.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.18–4.77). The risk of HZ in patients with DM or PM in whichever stratification (including sex, age, and comorbidity) was also higher than that of the control cohort. The findings from this population-based retrospective cohort study suggest that DM or PM is associated with an increased risk of subsequent HZ. A synergistic effect was observed between DM or PM and one of the comorbidities. PMID:26181551

  14. Herpes zoster segmental paresis in an immunocompromised breast cancer woman

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar, Shirvan; Mahdavi, Sadegh Baradaran; Mahmoudi, Farhad; Basiri, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster is an infectious disease with neurological complications caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus in dorsal root ganglia of spinal cord which is also known as “Shingles.” Suppression of immune system is the major predisposing factor for reactivation of latent virus. Disease is mainly characterized by rash, vesicles and pain along one or more dermatomes which are innervated from one or more spinal nerve roots. Complications may be present after a while despite of patient treatment. Motor involvement is included. Some previous studies showed segmental zoster paresis as a rare complication, a few weeks after first presentation, among immunocompetent individuals. We present post herpetic motor involvement of C5 and C6 in a 59-year-old woman who underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy due to breast cancer, manifesting left upper limb weakness and paresis, 6 months after left partial mastectomy. Segmental paresis of zoster virus should be considered as a cause of motor impairment in an immunocompromised person suffering from shingles. PMID:26436084

  15. Nutritional factors in herpes zoster, postherpetic neuralgia, and zoster vaccination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Yin; Chang, Chia-Yu; Lin, Yung-Song; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2012-12-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) results from a reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV). HZ and its most common complication, termed postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), often cause long-term psychological distress and physical disabilities leading to profoundly negative impacts on the quality of patients' lives. The incidence and severity of HZ and PHN increase with advanced age as a consequence of declining cell-mediated immunity. Aging has been linked to progressive senescence of the immune system and also is associated with a greater susceptibility to nutritional deficiencies. Suppressing VZV reactivation depends on intact cell-mediated immunity, which requires adequate nutrients to maintain its efficient function. Contrarily, nutritional deficiencies may lead to dysfunction of the host immune responses. Recently, micronutrient deficiencies have been shown to increase the risk of HZ and PHN and to affect the immune response to vaccinations, whereas nutritional supplements effectively reduce herpetic pain and pain in patients with PHN. As the elderly population grows, the incidence and severity of HZ and PHN are expected to increase and cause a substantial financial burden on the health care system. Thus, enhancing knowledge of the risk factors of HZ and PHN and developing better interventions to treat and prevent HZ and PHN are important to public health. This article provides an overview of the present understanding of the association among nutritional deficiencies, diminished cell-mediated immunity, and the risk of HZ and PHN, and then illustrates the potential of nutritional intervention in the prevention, vaccination, and management of HZ and PHN.

  16. Herpes zoster granulomatous dermatitis: histopathologic findings in a case series.

    PubMed

    Ferenczi, Katalin; Rosenberg, Arlene S; McCalmont, Timothy H; Kwon, Eun Ji; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Somach, Stephen C

    2015-10-01

    Several types of cutaneous reactions have been reported to arise at the site of herpes zoster (HZ) infection weeks to years after the acute disease. Among these, granulomatous reactions are the most frequently reported. In this study, we describe the spectrum of histopathologic findings of HZ granulomatous reactions observed in 26 patients with cutaneous lesions confined to the area of previous HZ eruption and compare them with biopsy specimens taken from 25 patients with acute HZ. All patients with persistent reactions from whom history was available presented within 12 weeks of the onset of the acute eruption. The most frequent findings were interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with lymphocytes, histiocytes and multinucleated giant cells displaying elastophagocytosis and a perineural, perivascular and perieccrine mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate rich in lymphocytes and plasma cells. Less common features included intra-arrector and peri-arrector pili granulomas, follicular dilatation and hyperkeratosis, and vasculitis. Specimens from patients with acute HZ were found to have small numbers of perineural plasma cells and most had subtle granulomatous inflammation, in patterns similar to the group with late granulomatous reactions. Our findings suggest that granulomatous reactions to varicella zoster virus represent a persistent evolving inflammatory reaction after acute infection.

  17. A Prospective Study of Herpes Zoster in Children

    PubMed Central

    Katakam, Bhumesh Kumar; Kiran, Geeta; Kumar, Udaya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Herpes zoster (HZ) is a dermatomal viral infection, caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) that persists in the posterior root ganglion. HZ is uncommonly reported in immunocompetent children. It may be due to intrauterine VZV infection or secondary to postnatal exposure to VZV at an early age. Aims: Our study was to review clinico-epidemiological data for HZ in children for early diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2014. Consecutive cases clinically diagnosed as HZ in the pediatric age group were taken up. Results: We report the clinico-epidemiological study of 26 cases of HZ, their benign course and recovery among children. Conclusions: HZ is a rare disease in childhood. Varicella in early childhood is a risk factor of HZ in immunocompromised and immunocompetent children. Childhood zoster occurs in either healthy or underlying immunodeficient children. The appearance of HZ in a young child does not always imply an underlying immunodeficiency or malignancy. But the identification of HZ with or without immunodeficiency is of prime importance from the treatment and prognostic point of view and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vesicular eruptions. The prognosis is generally good in healthy children.

  18. Radioimmunoassay for herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    McGuirt, P.V.; Keller, P.M.; Elion, G.B.

    1982-01-30

    A sensitive RIA for HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) has been developed. This assay is based on competition for the binding site of a rabbit antibody against purified HSV-1 TK, between a purified /sup 3/H-labeled HSV-1 TK and a sample containing an unknown amount of viral TK. The assay is capable of detecting 8 ng or more of the HSV enzyme. Purified HSV-1 TK denatured to <1% of its original kinase activity is as effective in binding to the antibody as is native HSV-1 TK. Viral TK is detectable at ranges of 150-460 ng/mg protein of cell extract from infected cells or cells transformed by HSV or HSV genetic material. HSV-2 TK appears highly cross-reactive, VZV TK is slightly less so, and the vaccinia TK shows little or no cross-reactivity. This RIA may serve as a tool for monitoring the expression of the HSV TK during an active herpes virus infection, a latent ganglionic infection, or in neoplastic cells which may have arisen by viral transformation.

  19. An unusual presentation of herpes simplex encephalitis with negative PCR.

    PubMed

    Buerger, Kelly J; Zerr, Kayleigh; Salazar, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old man presented with acute right-sided hemiparesis and epilepsia partialis continua in association with fever and confusion. Initial workup revealed possible cerebritis in the left medial frontal lobe without involvement of the temporal lobes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed minimal lymphocytic pleocytosis but negative real-time herpes simplex virus (HSV) PCR. Acyclovir was discontinued on day 5 due to a negative infectious workup and clinical improvement. On day 9 his condition deteriorated and he was transferred to a higher level of acuity for advanced supportive care. Worsening encephalopathy and refractory status epilepticus ensued despite medical care. Repeat CSF analysis showed mild lymphocytic pleocytosis with negative real-time HSV PCR. Brain MRI revealed progression of cortical enhancement. Immunosuppressive therapy and plasma exchange were attempted without clinical response. On day 24, another lumbar puncture showed only mild lymphocytic pleocytosis. Brain MRI showed involvement of the right medial temporal lobe. Subsequently, acyclovir was resumed. The HSV-1 PCR result was positive on day 30. Unfortunately, the patient expired.

  20. Stabilising the Herpes Simplex Virus capsid by DNA packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuite, Gijs; Radtke, Kerstin; Sodeik, Beate; Roos, Wouter

    2009-03-01

    Three different types of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) nuclear capsids can be distinguished, A, B and C capsids. These capsids types are, respectively, empty, contain scaffold proteins, or hold DNA. We investigate the physical properties of these three capsids by combining biochemical and nanoindentation techniques. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments show that A and C capsids are mechanically indistinguishable whereas B capsids already break at much lower forces. By extracting the pentamers with 2.0 M GuHCl or 6.0 M Urea we demonstrate an increased flexibility of all three capsid types. Remarkably, the breaking force of the B capsids without pentamers does not change, while the modified A and C capsids show a large drop in their breaking force to approximately the value of the B capsids. This result indicates that upon DNA packaging a structural change at or near the pentamers occurs which mechanically reinforces the capsids structure. The reported binding of proteins UL17/UL25 to the pentamers of the A and C capsids seems the most likely candidate for such capsids strengthening. Finally, the data supports the view that initiation of DNA packaging triggers the maturation of HSV-1 capsids.

  1. Penile herpes simplex virus type 1 infection presenting two and a half years after Jewish ritual circumcision of an infant.

    PubMed

    Yossepowitch, Orit; Gottesman, Tamar; Schwartz, Orna; Stein, Michal; Serour, Francis; Dan, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The association between Jewish ritual circumcision and genital herpes simplex virus type 1 infection has been well described. We report a case of genital herpes that first presented at the age of 2½ years. We believe that the infection was acquired asymptomatically through direct orogenital suction performed during circumcision in the newborn period.

  2. To Test or Not to Test? Campus Health Officials Grapple with Questions about Screening Students for Genital Herpes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be…

  3. Acyclovir Prophylaxis Reduces the Incidence of Herpes Zoster Among HIV-Infected Individuals: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Barnabas, Ruanne V; Baeten, Jared M; Lingappa, Jairam R; Thomas, Katherine K; Hughes, James P; Mugo, Nelly R; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Gray, Glenda; Rees, Helen; Mujugira, Andrew; Ronald, Allan; Stevens, Wendy; Kapiga, Saidi; Wald, Anna; Celum, Connie

    2016-02-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have higher rates of herpes zoster than HIV-uninfected individuals. We assessed whether twice daily treatment with 400 mg of oral acyclovir reduces the incidence of herpes zoster in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among 3408 persons coinfected with HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2. During 5175 person-years of follow-up, 26 cases of herpes zoster occurred among those assigned acyclovir, compared with 69 cases among those assigned placebo (rates, 1.00 and 2.68/100 person-years, respectively), a relative decrease of 62% (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, .24-.67; P < .001). Daily acyclovir prophylaxis significantly reduced herpes zoster incidence among HIV-infected persons.

  4. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus presenting as orbital abscess along with superior orbital fissure syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lavaju, Poonam; Badhu, Badri Prasad; Shah, Sangeeta

    2015-09-01

    Orbital abscess and superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS) are rare manifestations of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Herein, we report a case of orbital abscess along with SOFS in a 2.5-year-old-male child secondary to herpes zoster infection. He presented with a 5-day history of proptosis and ptosis of the right eye that had been preceded by vesicular eruptions on the right forehead and scalp. Computed tomography scan of the head and orbit showed orbital abscess and right cavernous sinus thrombosis. A diagnosis of orbital abscess with SOFS secondary to herpes infection was made. The condition subsequently improved following antiviral therapy, intravenous vancomycin and amikacin, and oral corticosteroids. PMID:26632131

  5. Sacral Herpes Zoster Associated with Voiding Dysfunction in a Young Patient with Scrub Typhus.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jian

    2015-06-01

    When a patient presents with acute voiding dysfunction without a typical skin rash, it may be difficult to make a diagnosis of herpes zoster. Here, we present a case of scrub typhus in a 25-year-old man with the complication of urinary dysfunction. The patient complained of loss of urinary voiding sensation and constipation. After eight days, he had typical herpes zoster eruptions on the sacral dermatomes and hypalgesia of the S1-S5 dermatomes. No cases of dual infection with varicella zoster virus and Orientia tsutsugamushi were found in the literature. In the described case, scrub typhus probably induced sufficient stress to reactivate the varicella zoster virus. Early recognition of this problem is imperative for prompt and appropriate management, as misdiagnosis can lead to long-term urinary dysfunction. It is important that a diagnosis of herpes zoster be considered, especially in patients with sudden onset urinary retention.

  6. A role for a new herpes virus (KSHV) in different forms of Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Schalling, M; Ekman, M; Kaaya, E E; Linde, A; Biberfeld, P

    1995-07-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a previously rare, tumour-like lesion of controversial biological nature. KS has since the early 1980s become frequent in patients with AIDS, particularly in homosexuals. KS is also endemic in Central Africa predominantly in otherwise healthy men but also in women and children. Recently, evidence for the presence of novel, herpes virus DNA sequences in more than 90% of AIDS Kaposi lesions (AKS) was presented. This DNA was identified using representational difference analysis (RDA) generating short, unique sequences with variable homology to several herpes virus, but no intact virus was recovered. If these DNA-sequences are also present in other, non-HIV-associated forms of Kaposi's sarcoma this would strongly suggest a specific, aetiopathological involvement of this putative new herpes virus in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma, rather than a contamination of yet another opportunistic virus in immunosuppressed AIDS patients.

  7. Electrochemical direct immobilization of DNA sequences for label-free herpes virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Phuong Dinh; Trung, Tran; Tuan, Mai Anh; Chien, Nguyen Duc

    2009-09-01

    DNA sequences/bio-macromolecules of herpes virus (5'-AT CAC CGA CCC GGA GAG GGA C-3') were directly immobilized into polypyrrole matrix by using the cyclic voltammetry method, and grafted onto arrays of interdigitated platinum microelectrodes. The morphology surface of the obtained PPy/DNA of herpes virus composite films was investigated by a FESEM Hitachi-S 4800. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the PPy/DNA film and to study the specific interactions that may exist between DNA biomacromolecules and PPy chains. Attempts are made to use these PPy/DNA composite films for label-free herpes virus detection revealed a response time of 60 s in solutions containing as low as 2 nM DNA concentration, and self life of six months when immerged in double distilled water and kept refrigerated.

  8. Frog Virus 3 dissemination in the brain of tadpoles, but not in adult Xenopus, involves blood brain barrier dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    De Jesús Andino, Francisco; Jones, Letitia; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.; Robert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    While increasing evidence points to a key role of monocytes in amphibian host defenses, monocytes are also thought to be important in the dissemination and persistent infection caused by ranavirus. However, little is known about the fate of infected macrophages or if ranavirus exploits immune privileged organs, such as the brain, in order to establish a reservoir. The amphibian Xenopus laevis and Frog Virus 3 (FV3) were established as an experimental platform for investigating in vivo whether ranavirus could disseminate to the brain. Our data show that the FV3 infection alters the BBB integrity, possibly mediated by an inflammatory response, which leads to viral dissemination into the central nervous system in X. laevis tadpole but not adult. Furthermore, our data suggest that the macrophages play a major role in viral dissemination by carrying the virus into the neural tissues. PMID:26931458

  9. Frog virus 3 ORF 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, is essential for virus replication in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, Dexter S.; Yu, Kwang; Sample, Robert C.; Sinning, Allan; Henegar, Jeffrey; Norcross, Erin; Chinchar, V. Gregory

    2010-09-30

    Although previous work identified 12 complementation groups with possible roles in virus assembly, currently only one frog virus 3 protein, the major capsid protein (MCP), has been linked with virion formation. To identify other proteins required for assembly, we used an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide to target 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, and showed that treatment resulted in marked reductions in 53R levels and a 60% drop in virus titers. Immunofluorescence assays confirmed knock down and showed that 53R was found primarily within viral assembly sites, whereas transmission electron microscopy detected fewer mature virions and, in some cells, dense granular bodies that may represent unencapsidated DNA-protein complexes. Treatment with a myristoylation inhibitor (2-hydroxymyristic acid) resulted in an 80% reduction in viral titers. Collectively, these data indicate that 53R is an essential viral protein that is required for replication in vitro and suggest it plays a critical role in virion formation.

  10. A prospective study of the relationship between genital herpes and carcinoma of the uterine cervix. I. Seroepidemiology of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in women with a previous history of clinically diagnosed genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, B F

    1982-01-01

    The development of a simple, sensitive and reliable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the exact titration of herpes simplex virus type 1 -- and type 2 -- specific antibodies in human serum has made it possible to perform large serological HSV type-specific diagnosis of clinical cases of post and present genital HSV infections. The distribution of HSV type-specific IgG antibody in 473 sera from women with a first episode of symptomatic genital herpes (group A), 602 sera from women with a previous history of symptomatic genital herpes (group B) and 945 sera from non-selected adult Danes (controls, group C) gave the following results: 34 percent of the women in group B had antibodies only to HSV type compared to 6 and 4 percent in group A and C respectively. 64 percent of women in group A were sero-negative, while only 9 and 18 percent sero-negative were found in group B and C respectively. A majority of the sero-negative in group A seroconverted. One third developed antibodies to HSV type 1 and two thirds to HSV type 2.

  11. Recurrent meningitis attributable to herpes simplex virus-2 in a child.

    PubMed

    Moustaki, Maria; Sharifi, Fariba; Stasinopoulou, Anastasia; Fretzayas, Andrew; Karpathios, Themistocles

    2010-05-01

    A boy manifested episodes of recurrent meningitis that were attributed to herpes simplex virus-2 infection. He presented no concurrent or previous history of involvement of the genitourinary system. He exhibited headaches, dizziness, photophobia, loss of balance, and vomiting. He underwent three episodes of aseptic meningitis. The herpes simplex virus-2 etiology was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction of the cerebrospinal fluid in the last two episodes. After the third occurrence, he was treated with acyclovir. Five years have elapsed since then, without the recurrence of aseptic meningitis.

  12. Cytotoxic T cells against herpes simplex virus in Behçet's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hamzaoui, K; Kahan, A; Ayed, K; Hamza, M

    1990-01-01

    Lymphocytes from 36 patients with Behçet's disease (20 in remission and 16 in active phase) were stimulated in vitro with herpes simplex virus and then tested for their ability to generate cytotoxic T cell responses to the virus. Significant cytotoxic responses were found. CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulations from the patients in remission generated specific cytotoxic activity against autologous target cells. These observations suggested that CD4+ and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells may have an important host response in herpes virus infection in Behçet's disease. PMID:2168823

  13. Herpes simplex-like infection in a bottlenose dolphin stranded in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Esperón, F; Fernández, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2008-08-19

    A bottlenose dolphin, stranded in the Canary Islands in 2001 exhibited non-suppurative encephalitis. No molecular detection of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) was found, but a herpesviral-specific band of 250 bp was detected in the lung and brain. The sequenced herpesviral PCR product was compared with GenBank sequences, obtaining 98% homology (p-distance of 0.02) with Human herpesvirus 1 (herpes simplex virus 1 or HSV-1). This is the first report of a herpes simplex-like infection in a stranded dolphin. PMID:18828564

  14. Preparation and immunogenicity of vaccine Ac NFU1 (S-) MRC towards the prevention of herpes genitalis.

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, G R; Woodman, C B; Hartley, C E; Buchan, A; Fuller, A; Durham, J; Synnott, M; Clay, J C; Melling, J; Wiblin, C; Wilkins, J

    1982-01-01

    A subunit antigenoid vaccine, Ac NFU1 (S-) MRC, was used to prevent primary herpes genitalis in 60 subjects considered to be at risk of this infection. There was no evidence of serious local or general side effects. Neutralising antibody responses were detected in 59% and 90% of subjects receiving the low and high doses of vaccine respectively; immunoprecipitating antibody was detected at a lower frequency, namely in 23% and 43% of subjects receiving the low and high doses respectively. After a mean follow-up period of 18 months none of the vaccinated subjects contracted herpes genitalis after completing the vaccination course. Images PMID:6293640

  15. Tumour-like presentations of anogenital herpes simplex in HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Ranu, H; Lee, J; Chio, M; Sen, P

    2011-04-01

    Genital and perianal ulcers seen in patients with HIV are commonly due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. While it is well known that the characteristic presentation of HSV is a vesicular rash or crops of erosions, the clinical presentation of genital HSV infection in HIV is varied and can assume vegetative, hypertrophic, condyloma-like, nodular, ulcerative and tumour-like nodules or plaques. These unusual presentations often lead to a delayed diagnosis. We describe five immunocompromised HIV-positive patients with CD4 counts ranging from 114 to 326 cells/μL with unusual presentations of anogenital herpes.

  16. Herpes Genitalis in Patients Attending a Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, David; Gutman, Mory; Hrytzay, Millie; McLachlin, Jeanette

    1983-01-01

    In a prospective study of 210 patients attending a hospital-based sexually transmitted disease clinic, we documented the prevalence of genital herpes infection (GHI) and its association with gonococcal infection (GI). Herpes simplex virus type 2 was cultured from 58% of symptomatic patients and 0.5% of asymptomatic patients. The ratio of GI to GHI was 41:31 by clinical criteria. The laboratory-confirmed ratio was 41:18. These ratios are much higher than those normally used to estimate the caseload of GHI. PMID:21283317

  17. Herpes zoster as a risk factor for osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Tung, Yi-Ching; Lu, Ying-Yi; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Tzou, Rong-Dar; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of osteoporosis in patients with herpes zoster (HZ) infection using a nationwide population-based dataset. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to compare data between 11,088 patients aged 20 to 49 years diagnosed with HZ during 1996 to 2010 and a control group of 11,088 patients without HZ. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2010 to measure the incidence of osteoporosis. Cox proportional-hazards regression and Kaplan–Meier analyses were used to calculate hazard ratio and cumulative incidences of osteoporosis, respectively. The overall risk of osteoporosis was 4.55 times greater in the HZ group than in the control group (2.48 vs. 0.30 per 1000 person-years, respectively) after adjusting for age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and related comorbidities. Compared with controls, patients with HZ and subsequent postherpetic neuralgia had a 4.76-fold higher likelihood of developing osteoporosis (95% confidence interval: 2.44–9.29), which was a statistically significant difference (P <0.001). Osteoporosis risk factors included female gender, age, advanced Charlson Comorbidity Index, depression, and postherpetic neuralgia. This study identified HZ is associated with an increased osteoporosis risk. Further evaluation of the value of bone mineral density test in detecting osteoporosis after HZ may be suggested. HZ vaccination could also be evaluated to lower the incidence of HZ and possibly subsequent osteoporosis. Physicians should be alerted to this association to improve early identification of osteoporosis in patients with HZ. PMID:27336887

  18. Herpes simplex encephalitis in Iceland 1987-2011.

    PubMed

    Dagsdóttir, Heiður Mist; Sigurðardóttir, Bryndís; Gottfreðsson, Magnús; Kristjánsson, Már; Löve, Arthur; Baldvinsdóttir, Guðrún Erna; Guðmundsson, Sigurður

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a serious disease with 10-20% mortality and high rate of neuropsychiatric sequelae. This study is a long-term, nationwide study in a single country, Iceland. Clinical data were obtained from patient records and from DNA PCR and antibody assays of CSF. Diagnosis of HSE was classified as definite, possible or rejected based on symptoms, as well as virological, laboratory and brain imaging criteria. A total of 30 definite cases of HSE were identified during the 25 year period 1987-2011 corresponding to incidence of 4.3 cases/106 inhabitants/year. Males were 57% of all patients, median age 50 years (range, 0-85). Fever (97%), cognitive deficits (79%), impaired consciousness (79% with GCS < 13), headache (55%) and seizures (55%) were the most common symptoms. Brain lesions were found in 24 patients (80%) by MRI or CT. All patients received intravenous acyclovir for a mean duration of 20 days. Three patients (10%) died within one year and 21/28 pts (75%) had a Karnofsky performance score of <70% with memory loss (59%), dysphasia (44%), frontal symptoms (44%) and seizures (30%) as the most frequent sequelae. Mean delay from onset of symptoms to treatment was 6 days; this was associated with adverse outcome. In conclusion, the incidence of `HSE is higher than recently reported in a national registry study from Sweden. Despite advances in rapid diagnosis and availability of treatment of HSE, approximately three of every four patients die or are left with serious neurological impairment. PMID:25279315

  19. Dynasore Disrupts Trafficking of Herpes Simplex Virus Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mues, Mascha B.; Cheshenko, Natalia; Wilson, Duncan W.; Gunther-Cummins, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dynasore, a small-molecule inhibitor of the GTPase activity of dynamin, inhibits the entry of several viruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), but its impact on other steps in the viral life cycle has not been delineated. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that dynamin is required for viral protein trafficking and thus has pleiotropic inhibitory effects on HSV infection. Dynasore inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection of human epithelial and neuronal cells, including primary genital tract cells and human fetal neurons and astrocytes. Similar results were obtained when cells were transfected with a plasmid expressing dominant negative dynamin. Kinetic studies demonstrated that dynasore reduced the number of viral capsids reaching the nuclear pore if added at the time of viral entry and that, when added as late as 8 h postentry, dynasore blocked the transport of newly synthesized viral proteins from the nucleus to the cytosol. Proximity ligation assays demonstrated that treatment with dynasore prevented the colocalization of VP5 and dynamin. This resulted in a reduction in the number of viral capsids isolated from sucrose gradients. Fewer capsids were observed by electron microscopy in dynasore-treated cells than in control-treated cells. There were also reductions in infectious progeny released into culture supernatants and in cell-to-cell spread. Together, these findings suggest that targeting dynamin-HSV interactions may provide a new strategy for HSV treatment and prevention. IMPORTANCE HSV infections remain a global health problem associated with significant morbidity, particularly in neonates and immunocompromised hosts, highlighting the need for novel approaches to treatment and prevention. The current studies indicate that dynamin plays a role in multiple steps in the viral life cycle and provides a new target for antiviral therapy. Dynasore, a small-molecule inhibitor of dynamin, has pleiotropic effects on HSV-1 and HSV-2

  20. Herpes and polyoma family viruses in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    STAMATIOU, DIMITRIS P.; DERDAS, STAVROS P.; ZORAS, ODYSSEAS L.; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.

    2016-01-01

    virus families, the herpes and polyoma family viruses, and we discuss their potential role as causative agents in thyroid carcinogenesis. PMID:26998055

  1. Human cytomegalovirus function inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Cockley, K.D.; Shiraki, K.; Rapp, F.

    1988-01-01

    Human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 h as well as a consistent, almost 3 log inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 h after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. Treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells with cycloheximide (100 ..mu..g/ml) for 3 or 24 h was demonstrated effective in blocking HCMV protein synthesis, as shown by immunoprecipitation with HCMV antibody-positive polyvalent serum. Cycloheximide treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells and removal of the cycloheximide block before superinfection inhibited HSV-1 replication more efficiently than non-drug-treated superinfected controls. HCMV DNA-negative temperature-sensitive mutants restricted HSV as efficiently as wild-type HCMV suggesting that immediate-early and/or early events which occur before viral DNA synthesis are sufficient for inhibition of HSV. Inhibition of HSV-1 in HCMV-infected HEL cells was unaffected by elevated temperature (40.5/sup 0/C). However, prior UV irradiation of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HSV-2 replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Superinfection of HCMV-infected HEL cells with HSV-1 labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine provided evidence that the labeled virus could penetrate to the nucleus of cells after superinfection. Evidence for penetration of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was also provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in cells infected with HSV alone versus superinfected cell cultures at 0 and 48 h after superinfection.

  2. Purification and structural characterization of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, G.E.; Baker, S.A.; Merajver, S.D.; Coligan, J.E.; Levine, M.; Glorioso, J.C.; Nairn, R.

    1987-01-27

    Purification of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C (gC) in microgram amounts yielded sufficient material for an analysis of its secondary structure. Purification was facilitated by using the mutant virus gC-3, which bears a point mutation that interrupts the putative hydrophobic membrane anchor sequence, causing the secretion of gC-3 protein into the cell culture medium. gC-3 protein was purified by size fractionation of concentrated culture medium from infected cells on a gel filtration column of Sephacryl S-200, followed by immunoaffinity chromatography on a column constructed of gC-specific monoclonal antibodies cross-linked to a protein A-Sepharose CL-4B matrix. Purified gC-3 had a molecular weight of 130,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the size expected for gC, was reactive with gC-specific monoclonal antibodies in protein immunoblots, and contained amino acid sequences characteristic of gC as determined by radiochemical amino acid microsequence analyses. Polyclonal antisera obtained from a rabbit immunized with gC-3 reacted with wild-type gC in immunoprecipitation, enzyme immunoassay, and immunoelectroblot (western blot) assays. Deglycosylation by treatment with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid reduced the molecular weight of gC-3 by approximately 35%. Analyses of both native and deglycosylated gC-3 by Raman spectroscopy showed that the native molecule consists of about 17%..cap alpha..-helix, 24% ..beta..-sheet, and 60% disordered secondary structures, whereas deglycosylated gC-3 consists of about 8% ..cap alpha..-helix, 10% ..beta..-sheet, 81% disordered structures. These data were in good agreement with the 11% ..cap alpha..-helix, 18% ..beta..-sheet, 61% ..beta..-turn, and 9% disordered structures calculated from Chou-Fasman analysis of the primary sequence of gC-3.

  3. Natural history of sensory function after herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Karin L; Rowbotham, Michael C

    2010-07-01

    The natural history of sensory function in the first 6months after herpes zoster (HZ) was determined in a cohort of 94 subjects at elevated risk for developing post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). All four visits included ratings of pain and sensory symptoms, mapping areas of altered sensation and allodynia, and quantitative thermal and mechanical sensory testing. The last three visits included the capsaicin response test. Sensory thresholds in distant control skin were stable. Mirror-image skin was persistently hyperesthetic to warming and mechanical stimuli and hyperalgesic to heat compared to distant control skin. HZ skin showed deficits in all thermal modalities. Sensory recovery was limited and selective. Allodynia area and severity, hyperalgesia to von Frey hair, and cold detection threshold improved, but deficits to warmth and heat pain did not. Capsaicin on HZ skin significantly aggravated pain and allodynia in the majority of subjects at 6-8weeks after HZ onset. At study entry, eventual PHN subjects had significantly more impairment in detecting warmth and cold, a larger area of altered sensation, a larger area of allodynia, and more severe allodynia. The results support the study hypothesis that severity of initial injury predicts PHN, especially impaired cold sensation in HZ skin. The hypothesis that PHN develops because of a failure to recover normal neural function was not supported. Sensory recovery proceeded at the same rate in eventual pain-free and eventual PHN subjects and is not a requirement for pain resolution. Early interventions that reduce neural injury or enhance recovery should be of benefit.

  4. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein B Epitope-Specific Effector and Memory CD8+ T Cells from Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Individuals with Ocular Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arif A.; Srivastava, Ruchi; Spencer, Doran; Garg, Sumit; Fremgen, Daniel; Vahed, Hawa; Lopes, Patricia P.; Pham, Thanh T.; Hewett, Charlie; Kuang, Jasmine; Ong, Nicolas; Huang, Lei; Scarfone, Vanessa M.; Nesburn, Anthony B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein B (gB)-specific CD8+ T cells protect mice from herpes infection and disease. However, whether and which HSV-1 gB-specific CD8+ T cells play a key role in the “natural” protection seen in HSV-1-seropositive healthy asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease) remain to be determined. In this study, we have dissected the phenotypes and the functions of HSV-1 gB-specific CD8+ T cells from HLA-A*02:01 positive, HSV-1 seropositive ASYMP and symptomatic (SYMP) individuals (with a history of numerous episodes of recurrent ocular herpes disease). We found the following. (i) Healthy ASYMP individuals maintained a significantly higher proportion of differentiated HSV-1 gB-specific effector memory CD8+ T cells (TEM cells) (CD45RAlow CCR7low CD44high CD62Llow). In contrast, SYMP patients had frequent less-differentiated central memory CD8+ T cells (TCM cells) (CD45RAlow CCR7high CD44low CD62Lhigh). (ii) ASYMP individuals had significantly higher proportions of multifunctional effector CD8+ T cells which responded mainly to gB342–350 and gB561–569 “ASYMP” epitopes, and simultaneously produced IFN-γ, CD107a/b, granzyme B, and perforin. In contrast, effector CD8+ T cells from SYMP individuals were mostly monofunctional and were directed mainly against nonoverlapping gB17–25 and gB183–191 “SYMP” epitopes. (iii) Immunization of an HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mouse model of ocular herpes with “ASYMP” CD8+ TEM cell epitopes, but not with “SYMP” CD8+ TCM cell epitopes, induced a strong CD8+ T cell-dependent protective immunity against ocular herpes infection and disease. Our findings provide insights into the role of HSV-specific CD8+ TEM cells in protection against herpes and should be considered in the development of an effective vaccine. IMPORTANCE A significantly higher proportion of differentiated and multifunctional HSV-1 gB-specific effector memory CD8+ T cells (TEM

  5. First description of herpes simplex virus type 1 epididymo-orchitis: A new clinical form of herpes simplex virus infection during septic shock?

    PubMed

    Fromentin, Dr Mélanie; Gauzit, Remy; Gille, Benoit; Samama, Charles Marc

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is increasingly caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), but recurrences are less frequent than with HSV-2. Distinguishing between primary genital infection and reactivation can be difficult, but HSV-1 more often causes severe primary infections and fewer recurrences. However, as virus reactivation is common during septic shock, a severe form of HSV-1 reactivation can occur in locations other than the lungs, which remain the most common site. The case of a 79-year-old Caucasian man who presented with HSV-1 epididymo-orchitis after three episodes of severe sepsis or septic shock in the context of acute biliary necrotizing pancreatitis is described. This is the first reported case of HSV-1 epididymo-orchitis due to virus reactivation during sepsis. PMID:27672563

  6. The effects of caudal fin amputation on metabolic interaction between digestion and locomotion in juveniles of three cyprinid fish species with different metabolic modes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Cheng; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2013-03-01

    Metabolic competitive modes between digestion and locomotion are classified into three categories, termed the additive, digestion- and locomotion-priority modes. In nature, the caudal fin is frequently observed to sustain damage as a result of social rank, predation or disease. To test whether the metabolic mode changed differently for fish with different metabolic mode after caudal fin amputation as a consequence of intensified energy competition, we investigated the swimming performance of fasting and fed fish with and without the caudal fin in juveniles of three cyprinid fish species: qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis, locomotion-priority mode), common carp (Cyprinus carpio, additive mode) and goldfish (Carassius auratus, digestion-priority mode). The critical swimming speed (U(crit)) of fasting qingbo, common carp and goldfish decreased significantly by 49%, 32% and 35% after caudal fin amputation. The maximum tail beat amplitude (TBA(max)) (all three fishes), maximum tail beat frequency (TBF(max)) (only common carp and goldfish) and (or) active metabolic rate (M˙O(2active)) (only common carp) increased significantly after caudal fin amputation. In the control fish, digestion let to a significantly lower U(crit) in goldfish but not in qingbo and common carp, and the M˙O(2active) of digesting common carp was higher than that of fasting fish, suggesting locomotion-priority, additive and digestion-priority metabolic modes in qingbo, common carp and goldfish, respectively. However, after fin amputation, digestion showed no effect on U(crit) in any of the three fishes, and only the digesting common carp showed a higher M˙O(2active) than their fasting counterparts. This result suggested that the metabolic mode of the goldfish changed from the digestion- to the locomotion-priority mode, whereas the metabolic mode of the other two fishes remained the same after fin amputation. The metabolic mode of the common carp showed no change after fin amputation likely due to the

  7. Development of a PCR procedure for the detection of a herpes-like virus infecting oysters in France.

    PubMed

    Renault, T; Le Deuff, R M; Lipart, C; Delsert, C

    2000-07-01

    A PCR-based procedure for detecting a herpes-like virus that infects the Japanese oyster, Crassostrea gigas, in France was developed. Two primers were designed to provide specific amplification products ranging in size from 917 to 1001 bp when carried out on oyster herpes-like virus DNA. No amplification was observed of oyster genomic DNA nor of the DNA from vertebrate herpesviruses. Crude samples were prepared and submitted to nested PCR, allowing amplification of DNA fragments of the expected size when carried out on infected larval and spat samples. The procedure used to prepare the sample for PCR was found to be critical because of the presence of unidentified substances in oyster tissues that inhibit the PCR reaction. A rapid and convenient sample preparation using ground tissues allowed a sensitive detection of the herpes-like virus infected oysters. The ability of the defined PCR protocol to diagnose herpes-like virus infections in oysters was compared to the transmission electron microscopy technique using 15 C. gigas larval batches with or without mortalities. PCR amplification is as sensitive a diagnostic assay for herpes-like virus as transmission electron microscopy. However, the nested PCR protocol is more convenient and less time consuming. The relationship between reported mortalities among C. gigas oyster spat and herpes-like virus DNA detection by PCR was also investigated. Statistical analysis showed that virus detection and mortalities are correlated. This observation highlights the importance of studying the causative role of herpes-like virus in oyster spat mortalities.

  8. Epidemiology and burden of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Australia, Asia and South America.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Lara Quirino; Macintyre, C Raina; Vujacich, Claudia

    2007-09-01

    Following the development of a herpes zoster vaccine and the successful introduction of widespread varicella vaccination in the USA, many countries are considering similar vaccination programmes. However, before implementing such programmes, it is important to describe the regional baselines of varicella and herpes zoster epidemiology, both to aid the design of vaccination strategies and to observe trends after the introduction of vaccination. In many areas of the world, this information is difficult to gather, and the epidemiology of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in these regions is poorly understood. In Australia, available national data sources of varicella and herpes zoster, including serological data, provide reliable estimates of disease and reveal similar rates of incidence and complications to those in Europe and the USA. However, the average age of infection in Australia is higher than in Europe and in the USA. Epidemiological data from Asia and South America are scarce. Unexpectedly for tropical countries, the incidences of herpes zoster in Asia and South America also appear to be comparable with those in Europe and the USA, despite the delayed acquisition of varicella-zoster virus infection in Asia. In Brazil, there is some evidence for higher than expected incidence rates for herpes zoster in young adults. The epidemiology of herpes zoster in Asia and South America suggests that recommendations on treatment and prevention from Europe and the USA may be relevant to these countries.

  9. Different presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii in schizophrenia: meta-analysis and analytical study

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, José; Luna del Castillo, Juan de Dios; Mañanes-González, Sara; Carrillo-Ávila, José Antonio; Gutiérrez, Blanca; Cervilla, Jorge A; Sorlózano-Puerto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we have performed both a meta-analysis and an analytical study exploring the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in a sample of 143 schizophrenic patients and 143 control subjects. The meta-analysis was performed on papers published up to April 2014. The presence of serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. The detection of microbial DNA in total peripheral blood was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction. The meta-analysis showed that: 1) C. pneumoniae DNA in blood and brain are more common in schizophrenic patients; 2) there is association with parasitism by T. gondii, despite the existence of publication bias; and 3) herpes viruses were not more common in schizophrenic patients. In our sample only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G was more prevalent and may be a risk factor related to schizophrenia, with potential value for prevention. PMID:25848282

  10. Condoms do not cover everything: an unusual presentation of herpes simplex virus-2 infection.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, R R; van der Meijden, W I

    2007-04-01

    We report on a patient who presented with an unusual manifestation of primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Furthermore, this case again shows that even the correct use of a condom has limited protecting value. We emphasize the usefulness of informing patients carefully about transmission risks of HSV. PMID:17509182

  11. [Fatal fulminating hepatitis due to Herpes simplex virus type 2 in a young immunocompetent female].

    PubMed

    Chauveau, E; Martin, J; Saliba, F; Nicolas, X; Richecoeur, M; Klotz, F

    1999-01-01

    Fulminant herpes simplex viral hepatitis is uncommon in immunocompetent subjects. A 24-year-old woman presenting hepatomegaly with fever was hospitalized after returning from a trip to southern Africa. The patient was neither pregnant nor immunocompromised. Because of recent tropical travel, differential diagnosis included alphabetic hepatotropic virus infection, yellow fever, African hemorrhagic fever, and arbovirus infection. After ruling out other common viral etiologies, a definitive diagnosis of herpes simplex viral infection was made on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings showing high fever, leukopenia, and thrombopenia; of histological examination of the native liver after transplantation showing non-inflammatory confluent focal hemorrhagic necrosis; and on serologic tests demonstrating seroconversion for herpes simplex virus type 2. Outcome after transplantation was rapidly fatal but the death was not directly related to infection. The most likely etiology of fulminant hepatitis in a young woman returning from travel in a tropical area is hepatitis virus B or hepatitis virus E in cases involving pregnancy. However herpes simplex virus should be included in differential diagnosis even in immunocompetent subjects.

  12. Herpes zoster and meningitis due to reactivation of varicella vaccine virus in an immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Young; Hanson, David C; Way, Sing Sing

    2011-03-01

    Neurologic complications from varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation are rare. In this article, we describe a previously immunized child who developed herpes zoster with meningitis. Vaccine strain of VZV was recovered from a skin swab and the cerebrospinal fluid. Reactivation of the vaccine strain of VZV should be recognized as a potential cause of meningitis in children.

  13. Hazards from simian herpes viruses: reactivation of skin lesions with virus shedding.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, K; Tosolini, F A

    1975-03-22

    A new simian herpes virus with biological properties similar to herpes simplex and to simian "B" virus has been used as a model system for studying virus latency in dorsal root spinal sensory ganglia. Following intradermal injection, virus is present in the skin lesions and corresponding ganglia only, during the acute stage of the disease. By organ-culture techniques, latent virus was rescued from ganglia up to 2 years later. No latent virus was ever found in skin organ cultures of the primary site. Treatment with cortisone up to 18 months later reactivated virus latent in the ganglia, and virus returned to the skin where it produced small but typical herpes lesions which shed virus. Reactivation of Herpesvirus tamarinus was achieved after 28 months. This is believed to be the first report of a model system for the study of herpes latency in which skin lesions are found to recur, and provides an opportunity for more detailed investigations of the mechanisms of virus latency in man. The presumption that reactivation of skin lesions will also be possible in rhesus monkeys seropositive for "B" virus points to a possibly grave and largely unsuspected hazard for those engaged in primate research.

  14. Immunological Signaling During Herpes Simplex Virus-2 and Cytomegalovirus Vaginal Shedding After Initiation of Antiretroviral Treatment.

    PubMed

    Nason, Martha C; Patel, Eshan U; Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Prodger, Jessica L; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Tobian, Aaron A R; Gianella, Sara; Kalibbala, Sarah; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Kaul, Rupert; Gray, Ronald H; Quinn, Thomas C; Serwadda, David; Reynolds, Steven J; Redd, Andrew D

    2016-03-01

    Vaginal proinflammatory cytokine expression during herpes virus reactivation was examined in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Vaginal swabs were screened for levels of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-γ. The relative risk (RR) of herpes simplex virus-2 or cytomegalovirus (CMV) shedding being associated with cytokine levels above the median were estimated. Herpes simplex virus-2 shedding was significantly associated with higher levels of IL-6 (RR = 1.4, P = .003) and TNF-α (RR = 1.3, P = .010), whereas CMV shedding was associated with higher IL-6 (RR = 1.3, P = .006) and IL-2 (RR = 1.4, P = .01). The association of viral shedding with higher IL-6 levels suggests that herpes virus reactivation may be playing a role in immune activation after ART initiation. PMID:27191006

  15. Immunological Signaling During Herpes Simplex Virus-2 and Cytomegalovirus Vaginal Shedding After Initiation of Antiretroviral Treatment.

    PubMed

    Nason, Martha C; Patel, Eshan U; Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Prodger, Jessica L; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Tobian, Aaron A R; Gianella, Sara; Kalibbala, Sarah; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Kaul, Rupert; Gray, Ronald H; Quinn, Thomas C; Serwadda, David; Reynolds, Steven J; Redd, Andrew D

    2016-03-01

    Vaginal proinflammatory cytokine expression during herpes virus reactivation was examined in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Vaginal swabs were screened for levels of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-γ. The relative risk (RR) of herpes simplex virus-2 or cytomegalovirus (CMV) shedding being associated with cytokine levels above the median were estimated. Herpes simplex virus-2 shedding was significantly associated with higher levels of IL-6 (RR = 1.4, P = .003) and TNF-α (RR = 1.3, P = .010), whereas CMV shedding was associated with higher IL-6 (RR = 1.3, P = .006) and IL-2 (RR = 1.4, P = .01). The association of viral shedding with higher IL-6 levels suggests that herpes virus reactivation may be playing a role in immune activation after ART initiation.

  16. Immunological Signaling During Herpes Simplex Virus-2 and Cytomegalovirus Vaginal Shedding After Initiation of Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nason, Martha C.; Patel, Eshan U.; Kirkpatrick, Allison R.; Prodger, Jessica L.; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Gianella, Sara; Kalibbala, Sarah; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Kaul, Rupert; Gray, Ronald H.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Serwadda, David; Reynolds, Steven J.; Redd, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal proinflammatory cytokine expression during herpes virus reactivation was examined in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Vaginal swabs were screened for levels of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-γ. The relative risk (RR) of herpes simplex virus-2 or cytomegalovirus (CMV) shedding being associated with cytokine levels above the median were estimated. Herpes simplex virus-2 shedding was significantly associated with higher levels of IL-6 (RR = 1.4, P = .003) and TNF-α (RR = 1.3, P = .010), whereas CMV shedding was associated with higher IL-6 (RR = 1.3, P = .006) and IL-2 (RR = 1.4, P = .01). The association of viral shedding with higher IL-6 levels suggests that herpes virus reactivation may be playing a role in immune activation after ART initiation. PMID:27191006

  17. Molecular requirement for sterols in herpes simplex virus entry and infectivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) required cholesterol for virion-induced membrane fusion. HSV successfully entered DHCR24-/-cells, which lack a desmosterol-to-cholesterol conversion enzyme, indicating entry can occur independently of cholesterol. Depletion of desmosterol from these cells resulted in d...

  18. Neuropathic pain with features of complex regional syndrome in the upper extremity after herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Milà, Marc; Busquets, Carme; Ojeda, Antonio; Faulí, Adela; Moreno, Luis Alfonso; Videla, Sebastian

    2014-02-01

    We report a case of a 73-year-old female who developed unbearable neuropathic pain after a herpes zoster episode. The pain persisted and could not be controlled despite multimodal analgesia. In addition to postherpetic neuralgia, myelitis and complex regional pain syndrome were diagnosed during the evolution of neuropathic pain. This complex neuropathic pain was resolved after sympathetic ganglion block.

  19. Alphaherpesvirus antigen quantitation to optimize the diagnosis of herpes B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Katz, David; Shi, Wei; Krug, Peter W; Hilliard, Julia K

    2002-05-01

    Standardized, quantified virus antigen stocks are essential for dependable quality control of diagnostic assays. Five simple, rapid and economical direct enzyme linked immunoassays (dELISA) were developed to standardize and optimize antigen from five major cross-reacting alphaherpesviruses: herpes B virus, herpesvirus papio 2, langur monkey herpesvirus, herpes simplex virus-1 and herpes simplex virus-2. Each dELISA relied on pools of convalescent sera from rhesus monkeys, baboons, langurs and humans. Conjugates were prepared from purified IgG preparations, fractionated from the same sera and then labeled with peroxidase. Serum coated microplates could be stored at -70 degrees C for at least 1 year before use. The duration of the test was approximately 2.5 h if plates were prepared at an earlier time. Virus antigen titers could be determined from titration curves or from single dilutions using a standard curve. The sensitivity of detection was approximately 8x10(5) PFU/ml. This sensitivity sufficed for the determination of viral antigen mass in live or detergent treated virus stocks that usually contain at least 1x10(8) PFU/ml. The assays were valuable for quality assurance of diagnostic serological assays for herpes B virus and other alphaherpesviruses.

  20. Characteristics Associated with Genital Herpes Testing among Young Adults: Assessing Factors from Two National Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lisa K.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Roberts, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were…

  1. [Analysis on clinical features and treatment of herpes zoster patients hospitalized in real world].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ling-Lian; Wang, Lian-Xin; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Yang, Zhi-Xin; Zhuang, Yan; Zhang, Yun-Bi

    2014-09-01

    From the hospital information system (HIS) of 20 national grade III-A general hospitals, 2 960 cases of herpes zoster as the research object, analyzes the relations between the general information, syndrome of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), western medicine combined diseases, the relationship between the solar term and the incidence of herpes zoster, and the combined use of Chinese and western medicine. Among the patients with 46-65 year old has the highest percentage of diseased; admission to general outpatient clinic is the most; the most common medical payment is medicare; combined disease such as hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease is more common; early treatment effect of herpes zoster is better than the sequelae; summer and autumn solar term patients is hospitalized more, TCM syndrome is damp heat of liver fire; about drugs, western medicine is the most commonly used vitamin B1 and mecobalamin, traditional Chinese medicine is the most frequently used Danhong injection, combination therapy with promoting blood circulation drugs and neurotrophic drugs. Thus, herpes zoster, more common in elderly patients, with no obvious relationship between solar term, should be early diagnosis and early treatment, often with combination of Chinese traditional and western medicine treatment. PMID:25532379

  2. Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone Associated with Localized Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih-Chiang; Shiang, Jeng-Chuan; Chen, Jiann-Tomg

    2010-01-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) associated with localized herpes zoster is rarely reported and may be under-appreciated. We describe two diabetic men with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) who developed hyponatremia (114 and 116 mmol/L) during acute illness. Both were euvolemic and had elevated urine osmolality (435 and 368 mmol/kg.H2O) and sodium (Na+) concentration (61 and 63 mmol/L) along with normal cardiac, renal, liver, and endocrine function consistent with the diagnosis of SIADH. Thorough investigation for other causes of SIADH, including detailed physical examination, laboratory studies, and computed tomography of the brain, chest, and abdomen, were negative. Despite antiviral therapy (acyclovir) for herpes zoster, ophthalmoplegia, keratitis, and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) developed. Even with fluid restriction and high salt diet, SIADH lasted for 3 to 4 months and resolved concomitantly with resolution of PHN, suggesting an association between SIADH and HZO. These two cases raise the potential for herpes zoster infection, especially HZO, to involve the regulatory pathway of ADH secretion, contributing to SIADH. The presence of PHN, which reflects greater neural damage may, at least in part, explain the prolonged ADH secretion and hyponatremia. PMID:20878495

  3. Herpes Zoster Induced Osteomyelitis in the Immunocompromised Patients: A 10-year Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Reza; Dehghani Nazhvani, Ali; Vahedi, Amir; Gholami, Mehdi; Zare, Raziyeh; Etemadi Parsa, Raha

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Alveolar bone necrosis induced by Herpes zoster infection is considered as a rare manifestation of osteomyelitis and few case reports are presented in the literature. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate mandibular osteomyelitis caused by herpes zoster in the immunocompromised patients with histopathologically documented osteomyelitis in the mandible and herpes zoster infection. Materials and Method: 30 patients were recruited in this cross-sectional study. 19 patients were completely edentulous, 4 patients were partially edentulous and 7 with complete dentition. In all cases, specimens were analyzed using a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for varicella zoster virus.  Results: 16 patients underwent dialysis, 9 patients received chemotherapy treatments and 5 patients had transplantation (four kidneys and one liver). Histopathological assessment demonstrated a nonspecific bone necrosis exhibiting an eosinophilic, homogeneous non-vital bone tissue with peripheral resorption surrounded by reactive connective tissue. PCR test was positive in 21 cases. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the frequency of osteomyelitis induced by herpes zoster could be more than the records provided by previous studies. Histopathological findings might be nonspecific in such patients. PCR test was not positive for all HZ induced osteomyelitis patients. PMID:25191659

  4. Three cases of herpes zoster radiculitis in MS patients treated with natalizumab.

    PubMed

    Yamout, Bassem I; Abou Zeid, Nuhad; Taha, Ali J; Zeineddine, Maya M; Khoury, Samia J

    2016-09-01

    Natalizumab was the first FDA-approved monoclonal antibody for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). We report on 3 natalizumab-treated patients who developed herpes zoster infections. In addition to progressive multifocal leukoencephelopathy, other opportunistic infections have been rarely reported during Natalizumab treatment. We believe that clinicians need heightened awareness of these infections in view of the risks of serious complications.

  5. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of necrotizing herpes stromal keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun-Xin; Wang, Lin-Nong; Zhou, Ru-Xia; Yu, Yang; Du, Tong-Xin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To design, optimize and validate a rapid, internally controlled real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the diagnosis of necrotizing herpes stromal keratitis. METHODS Tears alone or together with corneal epithelium scrapings from 30 patients (30 eyes) suspected of necrotizing herpes stromal keratitis were tested for HSV DNA by RT-PCR. The samples were collected during the first visit and then on the subsequent 7, 14, 28, 42, and 56d. The symptoms of the patients were scored before treatment to determine the correlation between HSV concentration in the corneal epithelium scrapings and clinical scores. RESULTS The positive rate (46.4%) in the corneal epithelium group before the therapy was significantly higher than that (13.3%) in the tears group (P=0.006). There were 13 positive HSV patients before the therapy, the concentration of HSV DNA in corneal epithelium scrapings group was significantly higher than that in the tears group (paired t-test, P=0.0397). Multilevel mixed-effects model analysis showed that the difference between the corneal epithelium scrapings group and the tears group was statistically significant (P=0.0049). The Spearman rank correlation analysis indicated a positive correlation between the HSV concentration in the corneal epithelium scrapings and clinical scores before the treatment (r=0.844, P<0.0001). CONCLUSION RT-PCR appears to be a powerful molecular tool for the diagnosis of necrotizing herpes stromal keratitis. PMID:27275421

  6. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:…

  7. Isolation and characterization of Solenopsis invicta virus 3, a new positive-strand RNA virus infecting the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the discovery of a new virus from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) represents the third virus identified from this ant species using the metagenomics approach. The single (positive)-strand RNA, monopartite, bicistronic genome of SINV-3 wa...

  8. Double encephalitis with herpes simplex virus type II and cytomegalovirus in an elder Chinese: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Chaobiao; Chen, Shaoxian; Lin, Qi; Zhou, Houshi; Huang, Chuming; Lin, Jiyuan; Xie, Weihang; Chen, Kai; Zhou, Dongming; Ma, Wan; Ma, Feiyu; Xu, Haiyun

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is a rare disease. In adults, most of the reported cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are seen in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of 67-year-old Chinese male with the coinfection of CMV and herpes simplex virus type II (HSV-II). He had no history of being treated with immunosuppressants, showed symptoms of psychosis and was scored 109 on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. This patient presented with a rare case of coinfection of CMV and herpes simplex virus type II with psychotic symptoms. PMID:26586947

  9. Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Lal, Himal; Kovac, Martina; Chlibek, Roman; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Godeaux, Olivier; Levin, Myron J; McElhaney, Janet E; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Vesikari, Timo; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zahaf, Toufik; Ahonen, Anitta; Athan, Eugene; Barba-Gomez, Jose F; Campora, Laura; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Downey, H Jackson; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Gorfinkel, Iris; Korhonen, Tiina; Leung, Edward; McNeil, Shelly A; Oostvogels, Lidia; Rombo, Lars; Smetana, Jan; Weckx, Lily; Yeo, Wilfred; Heineman, Thomas C

    2016-09-15

    Background A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50. Results In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the

  10. Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Lal, Himal; Kovac, Martina; Chlibek, Roman; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Godeaux, Olivier; Levin, Myron J; McElhaney, Janet E; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Vesikari, Timo; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zahaf, Toufik; Ahonen, Anitta; Athan, Eugene; Barba-Gomez, Jose F; Campora, Laura; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Downey, H Jackson; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Gorfinkel, Iris; Korhonen, Tiina; Leung, Edward; McNeil, Shelly A; Oostvogels, Lidia; Rombo, Lars; Smetana, Jan; Weckx, Lily; Yeo, Wilfred; Heineman, Thomas C

    2016-09-15

    Background A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50. Results In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the

  11. Herpes Zoster and Tofacitinib Therapy in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Winthrop, Kevin L; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Valdez, Hernan; Mortensen, Eric; Chew, Robert; Krishnaswami, Sriram; Kawabata, Thomas; Riese, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for herpes zoster (HZ) (i.e., shingles). The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with tofacitinib increases the risk of HZ in patients with RA. Methods HZ cases were identified as those reported by trial investigators from the databases of the phase II, phase III, and long-term extension (LTE) clinical trials in the Tofacitinib RA Development Program. Crude incidence rates (IRs) of HZ per 100 patient-years (with 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) were calculated by exposure group. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate potential risk factors for HZ (e.g., age, prednisone use). Results Among 4,789 participants, 239 were identified as having tofacitinib-associated HZ during the phase II, phase III, and LTE trials, of whom 208 (87%) were female and whose median age was 57 years (range 21–75 years). One HZ case (0.4%) was multidermatomal; none of the cases involved visceral dissemination or death. Twenty-four patients with HZ (10%) permanently discontinued treatment with tofacitinib, and 16 (7%) were either hospitalized or received intravenous antiviral drugs. The crude HZ IR across the development program was 4.4 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 3.8–4.9), but the IR was substantially higher within Asia (7.7 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 6.4–9.3). Older age was associated with HZ (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.6), and IRs for HZ were similar between patients receiving 5 mg tofacitinib twice daily (4.4 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3.2–6.0) and those receiving 10 mg twice daily (4.2 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3.1–5.8). In the phase III trials among placebo recipients, the incidence of HZ was 1.5 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 0.5–4.6). Conclusion In the Tofacitinib RA Development Program, increased rates of HZ were observed in patients treated with tofacitinib compared with those receiving placebo, particularly among patients within Asia. Complicated HZ

  12. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Catalonia (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Salleras, Luis; Salleras, Montse; Salvador, Patricia; Soldevila, Núria; Prat, Andreu; Garrido, Patricio; Domínguez, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the descriptive epidemiology and costs of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in people aged ≥50 years in Catalonia (Spain). The incidence of HZ in Catalonia was estimated by extrapolating the incidence data from Navarre (Spain) to the population of Catalonia. The incidence of PHN was estimated according to the proportion of cases of HZ in the case series of the Hospital del Sagrado Corazón de Barcelona that evolved to PHN. Drug costs were obtained directly from the prescriptions included in the medical record (according to official prices published by the General Council of the College of Pharmacists). The cost of care was obtained by applying the tariffs of the Catalan Health Institute to the number of outpatient visits and the number and duration of hospital admissions. The estimated annual incidence of HZ was 31 763, of which 21 532 (67.79%) were in patients aged ≥50 years. The respective figures for PHN were 3194 and 3085 (96.59) per annum, respectively. The mean cost per patient was markedly higher in cases of PHN (916.66 euros per patient) than in cases of HZ alone (301.52 euros per patient). The cost increased with age in both groups of patients. The estimated total annual cost of HZ and its complications in Catalonia was € 9.31 million, of which 6.54 corresponded to HZ and 2.77 to PHN. This is the first Spanish study of the disease burden of HZ in which epidemiological data and costs were collected directly from medical records. The estimated incidence of HZ is probably similar to the real incidence. In contrast, the incidence of PHN may be an underestimate, as around 25% of patients in Catalonia attend private clinics financed by insurance companies. It is also probable that the costs may be an underestimate as the costs derived from the prodromal phase were not included. In Catalonia, HZ and PHN cause an important disease burden (21 532 cases of HZ and 3085 de PHN with an annual cost

  13. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling; Chan, Woan-Eng; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lai, Jiann-Shiun; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2013-10-01

    The gD–E317-Fab complex crystal revealed the conformational epitope of human mAb E317 on HSV gD, providing a molecular basis for understanding the viral neutralization mechanism. Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.

  14. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Catalonia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Salleras, Luis; Salleras, Montse; Salvador, Patricia; Soldevila, Núria; Prat, Andreu; Garrido, Patricio; Domínguez, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the descriptive epidemiology and costs of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in people aged ≥50 years in Catalonia (Spain). The incidence of HZ in Catalonia was estimated by extrapolating the incidence data from Navarre (Spain) to the population of Catalonia. The incidence of PHN was estimated according to the proportion of cases of HZ in the case series of the Hospital del Sagrado Corazón de Barcelona that evolved to PHN. Drug costs were obtained directly from the prescriptions included in the medical record (according to official prices published by the General Council of the College of Pharmacists). The cost of care was obtained by applying the tariffs of the Catalan Health Institute to the number of outpatient visits and the number and duration of hospital admissions. The estimated annual incidence of HZ was 31 763, of which 21 532 (67.79%) were in patients aged ≥50 years. The respective figures for PHN were 3194 and 3085 (96.59) per annum, respectively. The mean cost per patient was markedly higher in cases of PHN (916.66 euros per patient) than in cases of HZ alone (301.52 euros per patient). The cost increased with age in both groups of patients. The estimated total annual cost of HZ and its complications in Catalonia was € 9.31 million, of which 6.54 corresponded to HZ and 2.77 to PHN. This is the first Spanish study of the disease burden of HZ in which epidemiological data and costs were collected directly from medical records. The estimated incidence of HZ is probably similar to the real incidence. In contrast, the incidence of PHN may be an underestimate, as around 25% of patients in Catalonia attend private clinics financed by insurance companies. It is also probable that the costs may be an underestimate as the costs derived from the prodromal phase were not included. In Catalonia, HZ and PHN cause an important disease burden (21 532 cases of HZ and 3085 de PHN with an annual cost

  15. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies in an STD clinic in Paris.

    PubMed

    Janier, M; Lassau, F; Bloch, J; Spindler, E; Morel, P; Gérard, P; Aufrère, A

    1999-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HSV-1 in a population of men and women attending the STD clinic of Hôpital St-Louis (Paris, France). Four hundred and eighty-seven patients (264 men and 223 women) were tested for HSV-2 and HSV-1 antibodies by specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Smithkline-Beecham Biologicals). Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out for correlations with clinical, socio-epidemiological and behavioural data. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 55% (44.7% in men, 67.3% in women). HSV-1 seroprevalence was 93% (94.7% in men, 91% in women). The predictive factors of HSV-2 seropositivity being female (OR: 3.37), age (OR: 1.04), country of origin (Central Africa OR: 3.52, North Africa OR: 1.36), history of genital herpes (OR: 10.97), hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers (OR: 1.92) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) markers (OR: 3.96). The only protective factor was HSV-1 seropositivity (OR: 0.25). The predictive factors of HSV-1 seropositivity were only the country of origin (Central Africa OR: 2.95, North Africa OR: 1.83) and the absence of genital herpes (OR: 11.01). Only 23 (8.6%) HSV-2 seropositive patients had a history of genital herpes. This study underlines the very high HSV-2 seroprevalence of patients with STDs, only a few of whom have a history of genital herpes. Detection and counselling is urgently needed for these patients. PMID:10471101

  16. Evaluation of Chosen Cytokine Levels among Patients with Herpes Zoster as Ability to Provide Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Zajkowska, Agata; Garkowski, Adam; Świerzbińska, Renata; Kułakowska, Alina; Król, Monika Emilia; Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Nowicka-Ciełuszecka, Anna; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Czupryna, Piotr; Moniuszko, Anna; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Background Herpes zoster is a viral disease caused by the reactivation of varicella–zoster virus (VZV) which remained latent in the cranial nerve or dorsal root ganglia. Cell-mediated immunity is known to decline with age as part of immunosenescence and can lead to the reactivation of VZV. Whereas herpes zoster is usually mild in healthy young persons, older patients are at increased risk for complications. In the present study we investigated the serum cytokine profile (IL-17, IL-23, IL-21, IL-4, IL-12), representing cellular and humoral immunity and assessed the level of VZV IgG antibodies in patients with herpes zoster. Methods We investigated the serum concentrations of IL-17, IL-23, IL-21, IL-4, IL-12 and the level of VZV IgG antibodies in 23 patients with herpes zoster who did not develop superinfection. The control group was represented by 21 individuals in similar age with no inflammatory and infectious diseases. Cytokine and antibodies levels were measured by ELISA method. Statistical analysis was performed using the ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic), t-test, Welch’s t-test, and nonparametric tests with STATISTICA 10 software. Results In patients with herpes zoster, the serum level of IL-17, IL-23, IL-21, IL-4 and IL-12 as well as VZV IgG antibodies titer were statistically significantly increased compared to control group. Conclusion Our results confirm the broad activation of the immune system involving humoral and cell-mediated immunity. PMID:26934574

  17. Peptic ulcer as a risk factor for postherpetic neuralgia in adult patients with herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Yin; Lan, Kuo-Mao; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Tseng, Su-Feng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication of herpes zoster. Identifying predictors for postherpetic neuralgia may help physicians screen herpes zoster patients at risk of postherpetic neuralgia and undertake preventive strategies. Peptic ulcer has been linked to immunological dysfunctions and malnutrition, both of which are predictors of postherpetic neuralgia. The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to determine whether adult herpes zoster patients with peptic ulcer were at greater risk of postherpetic neuralgia. Adult zoster patients without postherpetic neuralgia and postherpetic neuralgia patients were automatically selected from a medical center's electronic database using herpes zoster/postherpetic neuralgia ICD-9 codes supported with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Consequently, medical record review was performed to validate the diagnostic codes and all pertaining data including peptic ulcer, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and ulcerogenic medications. Because no standard pain intensity measurement exists, opioid usage was used as a proxy measurement for moderate to severe pain. In total, 410 zoster patients without postherpetic neuralgia and 115 postherpetic neuralgia patients were included. Multivariate logistic regressions identified 60 years of age and older, peptic ulcer and greater acute herpetic pain as independent predictors for postherpetic neuralgia. Among etiologies of peptic ulcer, H. pylori infection and usage of non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were significantly associated with the increased risk of postherpetic neuralgia; conversely, other etiologies were not significantly associated with the postherpetic neuralgia risk. In conclusion, 60 years of age and older, peptic ulcer and greater acute herpetic pain are independent predictors for postherpetic neuralgia in adult herpes zoster patients.

  18. An update on short-course episodic and prevention therapies for herpes genitalis.

    PubMed

    Corey, Lawrence; Bodsworth, Neil; Mindel, Adrian; Patel, Raj; Schacker, Timothy; Stanberry, Lawrence

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of herpes genitalis (genital herpes) has increased markedly over the past three decades. The most common cause is infection with the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), but it can also occur as a result of HSV-1 infection. Herpes genitalis can cause substantial psychosexual as well as physical morbidity and, in immunocompromised individuals, such as those who are HIV-positive, HSV infection can result in severe disease with progressive and extensive lesions. The natural history of herpes genitalis and the pathways of infection are now well known; however, the factors associated with reactivation have yet to be fully defined. A number of management approaches with antiviral medications are commonly used, including episodic and suppressive treatments. For episodic therapy, the duration of both lesions and symptoms, as well as the proportion of aborted episodes, are the most important measures of efficacy. For suppressive therapy, the time to first recurrence and frequency of recurrences over time are the most important clinical measures of antiviral benefit. Regarding the duration of episodic regimens, comparisons of 1-, 2- and 3-day antiviral courses with standard 5-day regimens show similar benefits on healing and relief of symptoms, with the obvious improvement in convenience, economy and compliance. In HIV-positive patients, antiherpes therapy has proved effective in speeding healing of lesions and reducing subclinical shedding, and can be used to treat genital HSV-2 infections in this group. Suppressive antiviral therapy has been shown to decrease the risk of HSV transmission in heterosexual couples. New approaches to the prevention of HSV infection, including vaccines and topical microbicides, are under investigation.

  19. An update on short-course intermittent and prevention therapies for herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Stanley; Corey, Lawrence; Cunningham, Anthony; Malkin, Jean-Elie; Stanberry, Lawrence; Whitley, Richard; Spruance, Spotswood

    2007-06-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) has increased in prevalence worldwide over the past two decades, making it a major public health concern. Approximately 90% of recurrent HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infections manifest as non-genital disease, primarily as orofacial lesions known as herpes labialis. Improvements in our understanding of the natural history of herpes labialis support the rationale for early treatment (during the prodrome or erythema stages) with high doses of antiviral agents in order to maximize drug benefit. When evaluating the efficacy of different antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents in clinical trials, episode duration, lesion healing time, reduction in maximum lesion size and the proportion of aborted lesions should be used as the most reliable measures of therapeutic efficacy. There has also been considerable research into the most beneficial treatment for recurrent episodes of herpes labialis in immunocompetent individuals. Data from clinical studies confirm that short-course, high-dose oral antiviral therapy should be offered to patients with recurrent herpes labialis to accelerate healing, reduce pain and most likely increase treatment adherence. Optimal benefits may be obtained when these oral antiviral agents are combined with topical corticosteroids, but more research is needed with this combination. Patients undergoing facial cosmetic procedures (i.e.facial resurfacing) are at risk of HSV reactivation, but further data are required on the actual risk according to the specific procedure. Aciclovir, valaciclovir and famciclovir all provide effective prophylaxis against HSV-1 reactivation following ablative facial resurfacing. However, no definitive recommendations can be made regarding prophylactic therapy for minimally invasive procedures at present.

  20. Association of Herpes Viruses with Mild, Moderate and Severe Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Renu; Bhat, Kishore; Happy, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is an inflammatory condition of the supporting tissues of the teeth. It is a multi-factorial and multi-etiological infectious disease process. Recent evidences shows that human herpes viruses could be putative pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of Herpes viruses especially Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and 2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods A total of 75 patients with periodontitis were included in the study (25 each with mild, moderate and severe periodontitis) with ethical approval and informed consent. Sub gingival plaque sample was collected and subjected to extraction of DNA and further analysis with multiplex Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of herpes viral DNA. The collected data was entered in the excel sheet format. It was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software. The Chi-Square statistical tests was applied and p-value<0.05 was taken as significant. Results The overall association of HSV-1, HSV-2, EBV and CMV was 28%, 32%, 30.66% and 37.33% respectively in the present study from the cases of chronic periodontitis. Conclusion Epstein Barr viruses were detected from all types of cases of chronic periodontitis in the present study. Though, EBV was not significantly associated with periodontitis; they were significantly increased in severe periodontitis. Herpes viruses were significantly associated with periodontal disease, more so with severe periodontal disease. They could thus be playing a role in increasing the severity of the disease. Therapeutic and prophylactic intervention planned against these viruses could decrease the tooth loss associated with this disease. PMID:26393126

  1. [Postoperative therapy after penetrating keratoplasty in herpes simplex keratitis].

    PubMed

    Süveges, Ildikó; Füst, Ágnes; Imre, László

    2013-12-29

    Bevezetés: A herpes simplex vírus által okozott szaruhártya-gyulladás a leggyakoribb oka a cornea centrumában kialakuló hegnek, amely látásvesztést okozhat. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célul tűzték ki a perforáló keratoplasztika eredményességének felmérését a szisztémás antiherpeses és immunszuppresszív terápia alkalmazásának tükrében. Módszer: Perforáló keratoplasztikán átesett 12 betegen végezték a retrospektív randomizált vizsgálatot. A műtéti beavatkozásig eltelt idő az első keratitis megjelenésétől számítva átlag 18 év volt (5–40 év). A műtéti indikáció 9 esetben a látás javítása, 3 esetben a cornea perforációjának megelőzése volt. Szisztémás kezelésként 9 beteg herpeszvírus elleni (acyclovir) és immunszuppresszív (mycophenolat mofetil), 2 beteg csak herpeszvírus elleni kezelést kapott, egy betegnél nem alkalmaztak szisztémás terápiát. Az átlagos követési idő 53,1 hónap volt (16–84 hó). Eredmények: A látásjavító célú 9 műtét közül 8 esetben a transzplantátum átlátszóan, ereződés nélkül gyógyult. Mind a 8 beteg acyclovir és mycophenolat mofetil kezelésben részesült. Egy esetben – amikor a beteg szisztémás kezelést nem kapott – recidíva és rejectio is fellépett. Az akut gyulladásos tünetekben végzett műtétek közül egyben gyógyult a transzplantátum átlátszóan, recidíva- és rejectiomentesen; a beteg acyclovir és mycophenolat mofetil terápiában részesült. Két esetben recidíva és rejectio is fellépett. Ezek közül egyben a beteg acyclovir és mycophenolat mofetil, egyben csak acyclovirkezelést kapott. A látóélesség minden esetben javult, 3 esetben a látást egyéb tényezők befolyásolták. Következtetések: A szisztémás acyclovir és mycophenolat mofetil terápia sikerrel alkalmazható herpes simplex keratitisben végzett perforáló keratoplasztikák után. Az acyclovir csökkenti a recidívák számát, a

  2. New disease records for hatchery-reared sturgeon. I. Expansion of frog virus 3 host range into Scaphirhynchus albus.

    PubMed

    Waltzek, Thomas B; Miller, Debra L; Gray, Matthew J; Drecktrah, Bruce; Briggler, Jeffrey T; MacConnell, Beth; Hudson, Crystal; Hopper, Lacey; Friary, John; Yun, Susan C; Malm, Kirsten V; Weber, E Scott; Hedrick, Ronald P

    2014-10-16

    In 2009, juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus, reared at the Blind Pony State Fish Hatchery (Missouri, USA) to replenish dwindling wild stocks, experienced mass mortality. Histological examination revealed extensive necrosis of the haematopoietic tissues, and a virus was isolated from affected organs in cell culture and then observed by electron microscopy. Experimental infection studies revealed that the virus is highly pathogenic to juvenile pallid sturgeon, one of several species of sturgeon currently listed as Endangered. The DNA sequence of the full length major capsid protein gene of the virus was identical to that of the species Frog virus 3 (FV3), the type species for the genus Ranavirus, originally isolated from northern leopard frog Lithobates pipiens. Although FV3 infections and epizootics in amphibians and reptiles are well documented, there is only 1 prior report of a natural infection of FV3 in fish. Our results illustrate the broad potential host range for FV3, with the known potential to cause significant mortality in poikilothermic vertebrates across 3 taxonomic classes including bony fishes, anuran and caudate amphibians, and squamate and testudine reptiles.

  3. New disease records for hatchery-reared sturgeon. I. Expansion of frog virus 3 host range into Scaphirhynchus albus.

    PubMed

    Waltzek, Thomas B; Miller, Debra L; Gray, Matthew J; Drecktrah, Bruce; Briggler, Jeffrey T; MacConnell, Beth; Hudson, Crystal; Hopper, Lacey; Friary, John; Yun, Susan C; Malm, Kirsten V; Weber, E Scott; Hedrick, Ronald P

    2014-10-16

    In 2009, juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus, reared at the Blind Pony State Fish Hatchery (Missouri, USA) to replenish dwindling wild stocks, experienced mass mortality. Histological examination revealed extensive necrosis of the haematopoietic tissues, and a virus was isolated from affected organs in cell culture and then observed by electron microscopy. Experimental infection studies revealed that the virus is highly pathogenic to juvenile pallid sturgeon, one of several species of sturgeon currently listed as Endangered. The DNA sequence of the full length major capsid protein gene of the virus was identical to that of the species Frog virus 3 (FV3), the type species for the genus Ranavirus, originally isolated from northern leopard frog Lithobates pipiens. Although FV3 infections and epizootics in amphibians and reptiles are well documented, there is only 1 prior report of a natural infection of FV3 in fish. Our results illustrate the broad potential host range for FV3, with the known potential to cause significant mortality in poikilothermic vertebrates across 3 taxonomic classes including bony fishes, anuran and caudate amphibians, and squamate and testudine reptiles. PMID:25320034

  4. Successful transmission of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 to Solenopsis invicta fire ant colonies in oil, sugar, and cricket bait formulations.

    PubMed

    Valles, Steven M; Porter, Sanford D; Choi, Man-Yeon; Oi, David H

    2013-07-01

    Tests were conducted to evaluate whether Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) could be delivered in various bait formulations to fire ant colonies and measure the corresponding colony health changes associated with virus infection in Solenopsis invicta. Three bait formulations (10% sugar solution, cricket paste, and soybean oil adsorbed to defatted corn grit) effectively transmitted SINV-3 infections to S. invicta colonies. Correspondingly, viral infection was shown to be detrimental to colony health and productivity. By day 32, all ant colonies exposed to a single 24h pulse treatment of SINV-3 became infected with the virus regardless of the bait formulation. However, the SINV-3 sugar and cricket bait-treated colonies became infected more rapidly than the oil-treated colonies. Sugar and cricket-treated colonies exhibited significant declines in their brood ratings compared with the untreated control and oil bait-treated colonies. Measures of colony health and productivity evaluated at the end of the study (day 47) showed a number of differences among the bait treatments and the control group. Statistically significant and similar patterns were exhibited among treatments for the quantity of live workers (lower), live brood (lower), total colony weight (lower), worker mortality (higher), proportion larvae (lower), and queen weight (lower). Significant changes were also observed in the number of eggs laid by queens (lower) and the corresponding ovary rating in SINV-3-treated colonies. The study provides the first successful demonstration of SINV-3 as a potential biopesticide against fire ants.

  5. Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 effectively treated by imiquimod.

    PubMed

    McKendry, Anna; Narayana, Srinivasulu; Browne, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus have been described in HIV. We report two cases with hypertrophic presentations which were effectively treated with imiquimod, one of which is the first reported case occurring in a patient with HIV-2.

  6. Lymphopaenia, anti-Ro/anti-RNP autoantibodies, renal involvement and cyclophosphamide use correlate with increased risk of herpes zoster in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Lin, Chi-Ling; Lu, Yi-Wei; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Yu, Hsin-Su; Wu, Ching-Shuang; Lan, Cheng-Che E

    2013-05-01

    Herpes zoster occurs with increased frequency in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate clinical and laboratory risk factors associated with development of herpes zoster in patients with SLE. A retrospective case-control study was performed in a population of patients with SLE. Patients were identified as cases if their first episode of herpes zoster occurred after diagnosis of SLE. Patients with SLE who never developed herpes zoster were enrolled as controls. Medical charts and laboratory data for both cases and control patients were comprehensively reviewed. A total of 65 cases and 105 controls were included. Risk factors associated with the development of herpes zoster in patients with SLE were found to be lymphopaenia, anti-Ro antibodies, anti-RNP antibodies, neuropsychiatric manifestations, renal involvement and cyclophosphamide use. Therefore, the presence of certain disease manifestations in patients with SLE represents risk factors for the development of herpes zoster.

  7. The Amphibian (Xenopus laevis) Type I Interferon Response to Frog Virus 3: New Insight into Ranavirus Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Grayfer, Leon; De Jesús Andino, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The increasing prevalence of ranavirus (RV; Iridoviridae) infections of wild and commercially maintained aquatic species is raising considerable concerns. While Xenopus laevis is the leading model for studies of immunity to RV, amphibian antiviral interferon (IFN) responses remain largely uncharacterized. Accordingly, an X. laevis type I interferon was identified, the expression of the gene for this IFN was examined in RV (frog virus 3 [FV3])-infected tadpoles and adult frogs by quantitative PCR, and a recombinant form of this molecule (recombinant X. laevis interferon [rXlIFN]) was produced for the purpose of functional studies. This rXlIFN protected the kidney-derived A6 cell line and tadpoles against FV3 infection, decreasing the infectious viral burdens in both cases. Adult frogs are naturally resistant to FV3 and clear the infection within a few weeks, whereas tadpoles typically succumb to this virus. Hence, as predicted, virus-infected adult X. laevis frogs exhibited significantly more robust FV3-elicited IFN gene expression than tadpoles; nevertheless, they also tolerated substantially greater viral burdens following infection. Although tadpole stimulation with rXlIFN prior to FV3 challenge markedly impaired viral replication and viral burdens, it only transiently extended tadpole survival and did not prevent the eventual mortality of these animals. Furthermore, histological analysis revealed that despite rXlIFN treatment, infected tadpoles had considerable organ damage, including disrupted tissue architecture and extensive necrosis and apoptosis. Conjointly, these findings indicate a critical protective role for the amphibian type I IFN response during ranaviral infections and suggest that these viruses are more pathogenic to tadpole hosts than was previously believed, causing extensive and fatal damage to multiple organs, even at very low titers. IMPORTANCE Ranavirus infections are threatening wild and commercially maintained aquatic species. The

  8. Frog virus 3 prevalence in tadpole populations inhabiting cattle-access and non-access wetlands in Tennessee, USA.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew J; Miller, Debra L; Schmutzer, A Chandler; Baldwin, Charles A

    2007-09-14

    Ranaviruses have been associated with most of the reported larval anuran die-offs in the United States. It is hypothesized that anthropogenically induced stress may increase pathogen prevalence in amphibian populations by compromising immunity. Cattle use of wetlands may stress resident tadpole populations by reducing water quality. We isolated a Ranavirus from green frog Rana clamitans (n = 80) and American bullfrog R. catesbeiana (n = 104) tadpoles collected at 5 cattle-access and 3 non-access wetlands on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee, USA. Sequencing confirmed Frog virus 3 (FV3); therefore, we compared its prevalence between tadpole populations inhabiting cattle-access and non-access wetlands, and among 3 seasons (winter, summer, and autumn) in 2005. We found FV3 in both tadpole species and cattle land-use types; however, prevalence of FV3 was greater in green frog tadpoles residing in cattle-access wetlands compared to those in non-access wetlands. No difference in FV3 prevalence was detected between cattle land uses for American bullfrog tadpoles. A seasonal trend in FV3 prevalence also existed, with prevalence greater in autumn and winter than in summer for both species. In addition, we found that FV3 prevalence decreased significantly as Gosner stage increased in American bullfrog tadpoles. No trend was detected between FV3 prevalence and developmental stage for green frog tadpoles. Our results suggest that cattle use of wetlands may increase prevalence of FV3 in Rana tadpoles, although this effect may depend on species, season, and tadpole developmental stage. PMID:17972750

  9. Potential role of hands in the spread of respiratory viral infections: studies with human parainfluenza virus 3 and rhinovirus 14.

    PubMed

    Ansari, S A; Springthorpe, V S; Sattar, S A; Rivard, S; Rahman, M

    1991-10-01

    Hands often become contaminated with respiratory viruses, either directly or through contact with contaminated surfaces. Spread of such viruses could then occur by touching the nasal mucosa or the conjunctivae. In this quantitative study, we compared the survival of mucin-suspended human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV-3) and rhinovirus 14 (RV-14) and the transfer of the viruses to and from the fingers of adult volunteers. When each finger pad was contaminated with 10 microliters of either HPIV-3 (1.3 x 10(5) to 5.5 x 10(5) PFU) or RV-14 (2.1 x 10(4) to 1.1 x 10(5) PFU), less than 1.0% of HPIV-3 and 37.8% of RV-14 remained viable after 1 h; after 3 h, nearly 16% of RV-14 could still be detected, whereas HPIV-3 became undetectable. Tests on the potential spread of viruses from contaminated hands or surfaces were conducted 20 min after contamination of the donor surface by pressing together donor and recipient surfaces for 5 s. Transfer of HPIV-3 from finger to finger or finger to metal disk could not be detected, but 1.5% of infectious HPIV-3 was transferred from disk to finger. Irrespective of the type of donor or recipient surface, 0.7 to 0.9% of RV-14 was transferred. The relatively rapid loss of HPIV-3 infectivity on hands suggests that their role in the direct spread of parainfluenza viruses is limited. However, the findings of this study further reinforce the view that hands can be vehicles for rhinovirus colds. These results also suggest a role for nonporous environmental surfaces in the contamination of hands with respiratory viruses.

  10. Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B by a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus and Protection of Mice against Lethal Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantin, Edouard M.; Eberle, Richard; Baldick, Joseph L.; Moss, Bernard; Willey, Dru E.; Notkins, Abner L.; Openshaw, Harry

    1987-08-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain F gene encoding glycoprotein gB was isolated and modified at the 5' end by in vitro oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The modified gB gene was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome and expressed under the control of a vaccinia virus promoter. The mature gB glycoprotein produced by the vaccinia virus recombinant was glycosylated, was expressed at the cell surface, and was indistinguishable from authentic HSV-1 gB in terms of electrophoretic mobility. Mice immunized intradermally with the recombinant vaccinia virus produced gB-specific neutralizing antibodies and were resistant to a lethal HSV-1 challenge.

  11. Herpes virus-like sequences are specifically found in Kaposi sarcoma lesions.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, E; Henson, T H; Ghorbani, A J; Land, M A; Webber, B L; Garcia, J V

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To detect the prevalence of herpes virus-like DNA sequences in AIDS associated Kaposi sarcoma (KSHV) lesions and normal tissue. METHODS: KSHV detection was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using four different sets of primers. PCR products were cloned, sequenced, and analysed. RESULTS: All of four biopsies of Kaposi sarcoma lesions and all of three paraffin embedded Kaposi sarcoma tissues were positive for KSHV, while normal tissue from the same patients was negative. Sequence analysis of amplification products revealed polymorphisms that result in amino acid changes of the predicted sequence. CONCLUSIONS: KSHV is prevalent in tissues from Kaposi sarcoma, suggesting a role in the development of the tumour. On this basis, anti-herpes virus agents should be considered to control Kaposi sarcoma. Images PMID:8655706

  12. Midtrimester fetal herpes simplex-2 diagnosis by serology, culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Curtin, William M; Menegus, Marilyn A; Patru, Maria-Magdalena; Peterson, C Jeanne; Metlay, Leon A; Mooney, Robert A; Stanwood, Nancy L; Scheible, Amy L; Dorgan, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in utero comprises a minority of neonatal herpes infections. Prenatal diagnosis is rare. We describe a midtrimester diagnosis of fetal HSV-2 infection. Ultrasound at 20 weeks for elevated maternal serum α-fetoprotein (MSAFP) showed lagging fetal growth, echogenic bowel, echogenic myocardium, and liver with a mottled pattern of echogenicity. Amniocentesis demonstrated normal karyotype, elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase. Culture isolated HSV-2 with an aberrant growth pattern. Maternal serology was positive for HSV-2. Quantitative DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed 59 million copies/ml. Fetal autopsy demonstrated widespread tissue necrosis but only sparse HSV-2 inclusions. Fetal HSV-2 infection can be suspected when an elevated MSAFP accompanies ultrasound findings suggesting perinatal infection. Maternal HSV serology, amniotic fluid culture and quantitative PCR are recommended for diagnostic certainty and counseling.

  13. [The efficiency of combined therapy of herpes virus infection in HIV infected patients].

    PubMed

    Papuashvili, M N; Shchelkanov, M Iu

    2004-01-01

    The target of the case study was to investigate the efficiency of an alternative combined therapy scheme of herpes simplex infections versus the routine therapy by acyclovir or famvir as applicable to HIV-infected patients. leukinferon was shown to induce the antoherpetic acyclovir efficiency. The use of the latter concurrently with cycloferon for the treatment of infections provoked by herpes simple virus-1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 in HIV-infected patients prolongs the remission period in case of the above opportunistic infections. The leukinferon anti-herpetic efficiency is, obviously, related with the phagocytosis stimulation and with its positive influence exerted on hemopoiesis. The combined therapy can be stated to be most effective in HIV, clinical stages B1 and 2.

  14. Vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and herpes zoster: immunization guidelines for adults.

    PubMed

    Hendriksz, Tami; Malouf, Philip; Foy, James E

    2011-10-01

    Although vaccinations are most commonly associated with the pediatric population, it is important for healthcare professionals to be familiar with the vaccines that are recommended for adults. The authors discuss 3 vaccines-the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, the varicella vaccine, and the herpes zoster vaccine-including information about the diseases and complications that they protect against. Two doses, separated by 4 weeks, of both the MMR and varicella vaccines are recommended for all adults who do not have immunization or contraindications. All adults aged 60 years or older should receive a single dose of the herpes zoster vaccine unless they have contraindications. These 3 vaccines offer protection from illnesses that can have serious sequelae and substantial public health implications.

  15. Spectroscopic investigation of herpes simplex viruses infected cells and their response to antiviral therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to evaluate the antiviral activity of known antiviral agents against herpes viruses. The antiviral activity of Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) (which is an active compound of propolis) against herpes simplex type 1 and 2 was examined in cell culture. The advantage of microscopic FTIR spectroscopy over conventional FTIR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell culture or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and non-infected cells, and between infected cells treated with the used antiviral agent and those not treated. In infected cells, there was a considerable increase in phosphate levels. Our results show that treatment with used antiviral agent considerably abolish the spectral changes induced by the viral infection. In addition, it is possible to track by FTIR microscopy method the deferential effect of various doses of the drug.

  16. Concerning the management of pain associated with herpes zoster and of postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    King, R B

    1988-04-01

    This simple method of achieving substantial pain control in patients with documented herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia has been effective in each of the patients in whom it has been used (the most recent 12 cases have been summarized for this report). It has been more effective than narcotic analgesics, oral anti-inflammatory analgesics, sedatives, tranquilizers, TENS, hypnosis and the wide variety of operative measures we have tried in the past. Although it was initially used pragmatically, there is now a reasonable rationale for its effectiveness that can be proposed based on more recent insights into the anatomy and neurophysiology of cutaneous nociceptors and the neuropharmacology of aspirin. In view of the widely held persuasion that the management of pain syndromes associated with herpes zoster (especially severe postherpetic neuralgia) is an unsatisfactory and frustrating venture, it seemed reasonable to report these more favorable clinical observations.

  17. Nuclear Sensing of Viral DNA, Epigenetic Regulation of Herpes Simplex Virus Infection, and Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Knipe, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) undergoes a lytic infection in epithelial cells and a latent infection in neuronal cells, and epigenetic mechanisms play a major role in the differential gene expression under the two conditions. Herpes viron DNA is not associated with histones but is rapidly loaded with heterochromatin upon entry into the cell. Viral proteins promote reversal of the epigenetic silencing in epithelial cells while the viral latency-associated transcript promotes additional heterochromatin in neuronal cells. The cellular sensors that initiate the chromatinization of foreign DNA have not been fully defined. IFI16 and cGAS are both essential for innate sensing of HSV DNA, and new evidence shows how they work together to initiate innate signaling. IFI16 also plays a role in the heterochromatinization of HSV DNA, and this review will examine how IFI16 integrates epigenetic regulation and innate sensing of foreign viral DNA to show how these two responses are related. PMID:25742715

  18. A rapid and sensitive culture test for the laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes in women.

    PubMed Central

    Darougar, S; Walpita, P; Thaker, U; Goh, B T; Dunlop, E M

    1986-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive cell culture test has been developed to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV) in women with genital herpes. The virus is cultured by inoculation and centrifugation of cell monolayers, and the virus inclusions are detected using an indirect immunofluorescence test. The test takes only 48 hours to complete compared with the conventional cell culture test, which may take up to eight days. Of a total of 2100 cervical specimens collected from unselected women attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic and inoculated in parallel, HSV was isolated from 55 specimens by either or both tests. Of these 55 positive specimens, 54(98%) were positive by the rapid test but only 24(44%) by the conventional test (McNemars test; p less than 0.001). Images PMID:3013758

  19. An outbreak of herpes rugbiorum managed by vaccination of players and sociosexual contacts.

    PubMed

    Skinner, G R; Davies, J; Ahmad, A; McLeish, P; Buchan, A

    1996-11-01

    An outbreak of herpes rugbiorum involved nine players including the scrum half and the full back. The infection was characterized by significant constitutional upset with decreased levels of general fitness and match performance for 1-4 months following the outbreak; one player had herpetic lesions on his right eyelid and corneum. Every infected player, 15 non-infected players and five sociosexual contacts received two vaccinations with intracellular subunit vaccine NFU. Ac. HSV-1 (S-MRC5). None of the players or contacts developed cutaneous herpetic recurrence during a follow-up period of 3 years; the player with ocular disease had one recurrence at 30 months following the original episode. These findings encourage consideration of prophylactic or post-exposure vaccination of participants in rugby or other contact sports with this or other appropriate herpes simplex vaccine. PMID:8945704

  20. Genital herpes in guinea pigs: pathogenesis of the primary infection and description of recurrent disease.

    PubMed

    Stanberry, L R; Kern, E R; Richards, J T; Abbott, T M; Overall, J C

    1982-09-01

    Guinea pigs inoculated intravaginally with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) developed a self-limiting infection characterized by vesiculo-ulcerative lesions on the external genital skin, urinary retention, and hindlimb paralysis. Infection rarely resulted in death. Virologic, histologic, and immunoperoxidase data suggested the following scheme for viral pathogenesis: initial replication in the introitus, vagina, and bladder; spread via sensory nerves to the lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord, and transmission via peripheral nerves to the external genital skin to produce the characteristic lesions. After recovery from primary infection, animals developed recurrent vesicular lesions, shed virus from genital sites in the absence of lesions, and harbored latent HSV-2 in dorsal root ganglia. Genital infection in the guinea pig shares many features with genital herpes in humans and provides a model to explore mechanisms of latency and reactivation and to evaluate several methods for control of recurrent disease.

  1. Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: photosensitivity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-treated virions

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, N.; Bzik, D.; Person, S.; Snipes, W.

    1981-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is photosensitized by treatment with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The inactivation of FITC-treated virions upon subsequent exposure to light is inhibited by the presence of sodium azide, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the process. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that treatment with FITC plus light induces crosslinks in viral envelope glycoproteins. Treatment of virions with high concentrations of FITC (50 ..mu..g/ml) plus light causes a reduction in the adsorption of the virus to monolayers of human embryonic lung cells. For lower concentrations of FITC (10 ..mu..g/ml) plus light, treated virions adsorb to the host cells, but remain sensitive to light until entry occurs. The loss of light sensitivity coincides with the development of resistance to antibodies. These results are most consistent with a mechanism of entry for herpes simplex virus involving fusion of the viral membrane with the plasma membrane of the host cell.

  2. Novel method for genotyping clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 isolates.

    PubMed

    Glück, Brigitte; Möbius, Susanne; Pfaff, Florian; Zell, Roland; Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Up to now, three distinct genotypes, A, B and C, of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), based on polymorphisms in the US4 and US7 genes, have been reported. Here, we propose to include an additional polymorphism of the US2 gene. The refined genotyping method was validated using 423 clinical isolates from patients with different HSV-1 diseases. The proportions of three US2 genotypes were A, 46.6%; B, 23.2%; and C, 30.2 %. Genotype A of US2 and US4/US7 showed a highly significant correlation. In addition, the frequency of genotype A was significantly higher in women than in men with herpes labialis. PMID:26280525

  3. Social Stress and the Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, David A.; Sheridan, John F.; Dorne, Julianne; Berntson, Gary G.; Candelora, Jessica; Glaser, Ronald

    1998-06-01

    Psychological stress is thought to contribute to reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although several animal models have been developed in an effort to reproduce different pathogenic aspects of HSV keratitis or labialis, until now, no good animal model existed in which application of a psychological laboratory stressor results in reliable reactivation of the virus. Reported herein, disruption of the social hierarchy within colonies of mice increased aggression among cohorts, activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and caused reactivation of latent HSV type 1 in greater than 40% of latently infected animals. However, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis using restraint stress did not activate the latent virus. Thus, the use of social stress in mice provides a good model in which to investigate the neuroendocrine mechanisms that underlie behaviorally mediated reactivation of latent herpes-viruses.

  4. Application of low-intensity laser in the treatment of Herpes simplex recidivans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunov, Tzonko T.; Uzunov, T.; Grozdanova, R.

    2004-06-01

    We made our aim to investigate the effect of the low intensive laser with λ=630 nm in the visible red spectrum of light at Herpes simplex treatment. For this purpose we carried out a clinical research upon 62 persons with Herpes simplex lesions which have been divided into two groups of 31 persons. At the first group the effect of laser with power density 100 mW/cm2 +/- 5 mW/cm2 and time of exposure 3 min. on field was traced out. At the second group the low intensive laser with the same characteristics has been used but in combination with the patent medicine Granofurin H as a photosensibilizer. The clinical approbations of this method showed high therapeutical effectiveness. The obtained results showed that at both groups there is an expressed anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory and regeneration stimulating effect and at the second group with the use of Granofurin H the reconvalescent period is shorter.

  5. Glycoprotein D protects mice against lethal challenge with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.

    PubMed Central

    Long, D; Madara, T J; Ponce de Leon, M; Cohen, G H; Montgomery, P C; Eisenberg, R J

    1984-01-01

    Glycoprotein D is a virion envelope component of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. Sets of mice were immunized with purified gD-1 or gD-2 and were challenged with a lethal dose of herpes simple virus, either type 1 or type 2. All or virtually all of the immunized mice survived challenge with either agent, whereas challenge of sham-immunized mice was almost always fatal. Serum samples taken before challenge contained gD-specific antibodies which had 50% neutralization titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:512 against homologous and heterologous virus types. We conclude that either gD-1 or gD-2 is a potential candidate for a subunit vaccine against herpetic infections. Images PMID:6319291

  6. Herpes gladiatorum with ocular involvement in a mixed martial arts fighter.

    PubMed

    Meulener, Marc; Smith, Barry L

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of herpes gladiatorum (HG) in a professional mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter. The eruption appeared following a sparring session with a new partner and progressed to involve the left eye. Fever and facial rash prompted the patient to go to the hospital where he was treated with antiviral therapy. The considerable increase in popularity of MMA may lead to a greater prevalence of HG as well as other cutaneous infections contracted through skin-to-skin contact. PMID:21488573

  7. [Herpes zoster oticus -- neuropathologic contribution to the genesis of concomitant facial paralysis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pilz, P

    1981-12-25

    A woman of 71 years suffered from herpes zoster oticus, 7th and 10th nerve paralysis, vertigo and hearing loss; she died after 5 weeks. Neuropathologic examination revealed intensive inflammation in the pons and medulla oblongata and necrotizing arteritis in the cerebello-pontine angle, predominantly on the clinically affected side. The adjacent facial nerve was severely damaged. For the first time, necrotizing arteritis appears as important cause of facial paralysis in the Ramsey-Hunt syndrome.

  8. Valaciclovir compared with acyclovir for improved therapy for herpes zoster in immunocompetent adults.

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, K R; Friedman, D J; Forszpaniak, C; Andersen, P L; Wood, M J

    1995-01-01

    Acyclovir treatment of acute herpes zoster speeds rash healing and decreases pain and ocular complications. The limited oral bioavailability of acyclovir necessitates frequent dosing. Valaciclovir, the l-valyl ester of acyclovir, is rapidly and almost completely converted to acyclovir in vivo and gives three- to fivefold increases in acyclovir bioavailability. In a randomized, double-blind, multicenter study, the safety and efficacy of oral valaciclovir given at a dosage of 1,000 mg three times daily for 7 or 14 days and oral acyclovir given at a dosage of 800 mg five times daily for 7 days were compared in immunocompetent adults aged > or = 50 years with herpes zoster. Patients were evaluated for 6 months. The intent-to-treat analysis (1,141 patients) showed that valaciclovir for 7 or 14 days significantly accelerated the resolution of herpes zoster-associated pain (P = 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively) compared with acyclovir; median pain durations were 38 and 44 days, respectively, versus 51 days for acyclovir. Treatment with valaciclovir also significantly reduced the duration of postherpetic neuralgia and decreased the proportion of patients with pain persisting for 6 months (19.3 versus 25.7%). However, there were no differences between treatments in pain intensity or quality-of-life measures. Cutaneous manifestations resolved at similar rates in all groups. Adverse events were similar in nature and prevalence among groups, and no clinically important changes occurred in hematology or clinical chemistry parameters. Thus, in the management of immunocompetent patients > or = 50 years of age with localized herpes zoster, valaciclovir given at 1,000 mg three times daily for 7 days accelerates the resolution of pain and offers simpler dosing, while it maintains the favorable safety profile of acyclovir. PMID:7492102

  9. Effect of the extract of Annona muricata and Petunia nyctaginiflora on Herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Padma, P; Pramod, N P; Thyagarajan, S P; Khosa, R L

    1998-05-01

    Annona muricata (Annonaceae) and Petunia nyctaginiflora (Solanaceae) were screened for their activity against Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and clinical isolate (obtained from the human keratitis lesion). We have looked at the ability of extract(s) to inhibit the cytopathic effect of HSV-1 on vero cells as indicative of anti-HSV-1 potential. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanolic extract of A. muricata and aqueous extract of P. nyctaginiflora was found to be 1 mg/ml.

  10. Abnormal spatial localization in patients with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Evidence for the presence of proprioceptive information.

    PubMed

    Campos, E C; Chiesi, C; Bolzani, R

    1986-08-01

    Patients with herpes zoster of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and normal ocular motility were examined. They were asked to point to targets without the sight of their own hand. Significant errors were found on the affected side. Proprioceptive information of the extraocular muscles is assumed to travel in the trigeminal nerve, and these results thus suggest the existence of peripheral afferent signals influencing eye-hand coordination.

  11. Herpes gladiatorum with ocular involvement in a mixed martial arts fighter.

    PubMed

    Meulener, Marc; Smith, Barry L

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of herpes gladiatorum (HG) in a professional mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter. The eruption appeared following a sparring session with a new partner and progressed to involve the left eye. Fever and facial rash prompted the patient to go to the hospital where he was treated with antiviral therapy. The considerable increase in popularity of MMA may lead to a greater prevalence of HG as well as other cutaneous infections contracted through skin-to-skin contact.

  12. [Sensitivity and specificity of the passive hemagglutination reaction applied to titration of herpes antibodies].

    PubMed

    Huraux, J M; Bogossian, M; Fortier, B; Bricout, F

    1976-05-01

    52 human sera were checked for herpes virus hominis type 1 antibodies by passive hemagglutination, complement fixation, neutralization tests and plaque reduction in presence of complement. A good correlation was observed among the results obtained by the passive hemagglutination test and the plaque reduction in presence of complement. The rapidity of the indirect hemagglutination test and the sensitivity of the reaction are in favour of its routine use.

  13. Three cases of herpes zoster radiculitis in MS patients treated with natalizumab.

    PubMed

    Yamout, Bassem I; Abou Zeid, Nuhad; Taha, Ali J; Zeineddine, Maya M; Khoury, Samia J

    2016-09-01

    Natalizumab was the first FDA-approved monoclonal antibody for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). We report on 3 natalizumab-treated patients who developed herpes zoster infections. In addition to progressive multifocal leukoencephelopathy, other opportunistic infections have been rarely reported during Natalizumab treatment. We believe that clinicians need heightened awareness of these infections in view of the risks of serious complications. PMID:27645358

  14. Ascending in utero herpes simplex virus infection in an initially healthy-appearing premature infant.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Morven S; Popek, Edwina J; Wise, Brittany; Hatzenbuehler, Lindsay; Arunachalam, Athis R; Hair, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    The usual route of acquisition for intrauterine herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is transplacental. We evaluated a premature infant with in utero acquisition of HSV resulting from ascending infection. Histopathologic evidence of chronic chorioamnionitis and positive staining with immunohistochemistry for HSV in the placenta and umbilical cord established the diagnosis. The clinical presentation was also of interest in that the infant was initially healthy appearing.

  15. Detection and genotyping of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Lucotte, G; Bathelier, C; Lespiaux, V; Bali, C; Champenois, T

    1995-10-01

    A simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure was developed for simultaneous detection and typing of herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. It was possible to detect and type HSV using two primers pairs in a simultaneous double PCR reaction, where the type of HSV present was determined on the basis of an ethidium-bromide-stained band after agarose gel electrophoresis. This PCR assay was tested on about 500 clinical specimens.

  16. Infrared spectral changes identified during different stages of herpes viruses infection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Erukhimovitch, V; Bogomolny, E; Huleihil, M; Huleihel, M

    2011-07-01

    Microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which is based on the characteristic molecular vibrational spectra of cells was previously applied for the identification of various biological samples. In the present study, FTIR spectroscopy was used for the characterization of different stages during the development of herpes viruses infection. Vero cells in culture were infected with high and low doses of different herpes viruses [herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1, -2) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV)], and cellular changes were observed by optical and electron microscopy and analyzed by FTIR microscopy at different periods of time post-infection. Specific different spectral changes were observed at various stages of the viral infection development. The spectral intensity in the 1220-1260 cm(-1) region (mainly attributed to phosphate levels) was considerably increased in all infected cells compared to normal uninfected cells during the early stages of the viral infection development. However, at the late stages of the viral infection development (when all the cells in the infected culture lost their spindle shape and became circular) the spectral intensities in this region significantly decreased in the infected compared to the control cells. In addition, the peak at 1023 cm(-1), attributed to carbohydrates, almost fully disappeared at early stages of the viral infection development, whereas at late stages of the infection it raised to an equivalent or higher level than that of the uninfected control cells. These results support the potential of developing FTIR microspectroscopy as a simple, reagent free method for the early detection and accurate differentiation of different stages during the development of herpes virus infection.

  17. Contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 envelope proteins to entry by endocytosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the ...

  18. Genome Sequence of the Anterograde-Spread-Defective Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Strain MacIntyre

    PubMed Central

    Tafuri, Yolanda R.; Parsons, Lance; Shreve, Jacob T.; Engel, Esteban A.; Enquist, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    We used paired-end Illumina deep sequencing and de novo assembly to determine the genome sequence of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain MacIntyre (aka McIntyre). The MacIntyre strain originated from the brain of a patient with lethal HSV encephalitis and has a unique limitation in its neuronal spread, moving solely in the retrograde direction. PMID:25395637

  19. Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

  20. Herpes-like viral dermatitis in a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Barr, B; Dunn, J L; Daniel, M D; Banford, A

    1989-10-01

    Approximately 3.5 mo following its capture, a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) developed focal pale gray skin lesions. These lesions persisted for at least 8 mo. A biopsy from one of these sites revealed epithelial intranuclear inclusions. Herpes-like viral particles were seen by transmission electron microscopy. The eventual regression of skin lesions and lack of other clinical signs suggests the virus was only mildly pathogenic in this animal.

  1. Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, G; Battinelli, L; Pompeo, C; Serrilli, A M; Rossi, R; Sauzullo, I; Mengoni, F; Vullo, V

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81), in comparison with acyclovir. The cytotoxicity of the extract on Vero cells was previously tested by evaluating the cellular death and was confirmed by the Trypan blue test. Lemon balm showed to reduce the cytopathic effect of HSV-2 on Vero cells, in the range of non-toxic concentrations of 0.025-1 mg mL(-1) (with reference to the starting crude herbal material). The maximum inhibiting effect (60%) was obtained with 0.5 mg mL(-1). The viral binding assay showed that the extract does not prevent the entry of HSV-2 in the cells, thus suggesting a mechanism of action subsequent to the penetration of the virus in the cell. The extract was also chemically characterised by NMR and HPLC analysis; it showed to contain cinnamic acid-like compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid (4.1% w/w). Our experiments support the use of lemon balm for treating Herpes simplex lesions and encourage clinical trials on this medicinal plant. PMID:19023806

  2. Predictors of the Sexual Well-being of Individuals Diagnosed with Herpes and Human Papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Foster, Lyndsay R; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that having a sexually transmitted infection (STI) such as genital herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV) can negatively affect sexual well-being. However, there is little research examining factors associated with poorer sexual well-being among individuals with a STI. This study investigated the extent to which stigma experiences, individual characteristics, and STI characteristics were associated with multiple aspects of sexual well-being among individuals diagnosed with herpes and/or HPV. Participants were an average of 36 years old (SD = 11.58) and included 188 individuals with herpes and/or HPV who completed measures of sexual activity, sexual problems, and sexual cognitive-affective factors. The results showed that experiences of stigmatization were the most important predictors of sexual well-being. Participants who perceived were stigmatized by others as well as those who internalized negative social attitudes to a greater extent reported poorer sexual well-being across all dimensions, over and above individual and STI characteristics. The implications of these findings for sexual health professionals are discussed. PMID:25408498

  3. Temporal Lobe Encephalitis Need not Always be Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Think of Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Madireddi, Jagadesh; Reddy, Gowtham; Stanley, Weena; Prabu, Mukhyaprana

    2016-05-01

    Historically, temporal lobe encephalitis is considered as a pathognomonic feature of Herpes simplex encephalitis. This rule may not always be true and we believe that clinicians should keep their differential open. We here report once such. Case of a 36-year-old Indian male who developed altered sensorium following a prodrome of headache and fever. Examination and imaging suggested Temporal Lobe Encephalitis (TLE). Herpes encephalitis was considered and he was started on anti-virals awaiting lumbar puncture reports. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis for Herpes Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) turned out to be negative. Later, to our surprise PCR for tuberculosis (TB) was positive. CSF was 100% lymphocytic and Adenosine deaminase was 12. He was started on 5 drug anti-tuberculosis regimen following which he showed a significant clinical improvement. Given the prevalence of tuberculosis in the sub-continent, clinicians must be aware of this diagnostic possibility when a patient with TLE does not respond to anti-virals. Apart from disease specific therapy, multi-disciplinary approach involving speech therapy is warranted. An early aetiological characterization of TLE has both diagnostic and prognostic implications, failing which patient may succumb. PMID:27437274

  4. Temporal Lobe Encephalitis Need not Always be Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Think of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Gowtham; Stanley, Weena; Prabu, Mukhyaprana

    2016-01-01

    Historically, temporal lobe encephalitis is considered as a pathognomonic feature of Herpes simplex encephalitis. This rule may not always be true and we believe that clinicians should keep their differential open. We here report once such. Case of a 36-year-old Indian male who developed altered sensorium following a prodrome of headache and fever. Examination and imaging suggested Temporal Lobe Encephalitis (TLE). Herpes encephalitis was considered and he was started on anti-virals awaiting lumbar puncture reports. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis for Herpes Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) turned out to be negative. Later, to our surprise PCR for tuberculosis (TB) was positive. CSF was 100% lymphocytic and Adenosine deaminase was 12. He was started on 5 drug anti-tuberculosis regimen following which he showed a significant clinical improvement. Given the prevalence of tuberculosis in the sub-continent, clinicians must be aware of this diagnostic possibility when a patient with TLE does not respond to anti-virals. Apart from disease specific therapy, multi-disciplinary approach involving speech therapy is warranted. An early aetiological characterization of TLE has both diagnostic and prognostic implications, failing which patient may succumb. PMID:27437274

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus Hepatitis in an Immunocompetent Adult: A Fatal Outcome due to Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Poley, Rachel A.; Snowdon, Jaime F.; Howes, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To present a case of a healthy 41-year-old female who developed fulminant hepatic failure leading to death. The cause of hepatic failure identified on postmortem exam was herpes simplex virus hepatitis. Design. Observation of a single patient. Setting. Intensive care unit of a tertiary care university teaching hospital in Canada. Patient. 41-year-old previously healthy female presenting with a nonspecific viral illness and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Intervention. The patient was treated with intravenous fluids and broad-spectrum antibiotics. On the second day of admission, she was found to have elevated transaminases, and, over 48 hours, she progressed to fulminant liver failure with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, refractory lactic acidosis, and shock. She progressed to respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. She was started on N-acetylcysteine, a bicarbonate infusion, hemodialysis, and multiple vasopressors and inotropes. Measurements and Main Results. Despite treatment, the patient died roughly 70 hours after her initial presentation to hospital. Her postmortem liver biopsy revealed herpes simplex virus hepatitis as her cause of death. Conclusions. Herpes simplex virus must be considered in all patients presenting with liver failure of unknown cause. If suspected, prompt treatment with acyclovir should be initiated. PMID:24826316

  6. Aciclovir + hydrocortisone. Herpes labialis: a topical antiviral drug perhaps, but not a steroid.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    Management of episodes of herpes labialis (cold sores) in otherwise healthy individuals is mainly based on hygiene measures intended to avoid transmitting the virus. At best, topical treatment with aciclovir, an antiviral drug, simply reduces the duration of the episode. A cream containing 5% aciclovir and 1% hydrocortisone has been authorised in France for symptomatic treatment of herpes labialis in adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older. In a double-blind randomised trial comparing the combination versus topical aciclovir alone in 1443 adults, the cream did not significantly reduce the number of patients whose lesions became ulcerated, or the duration of the episode. In another comparative double-blind randomised trial in 107 immunocompromised patients, the efficacy of the aciclovir and hydrocortisone combination did not differ from that of aciclovir alone. Whatever the mode of administration, corticosteroids might aggravate infections. In clinical trials involving immunocompetent adults or adolescents, most adverse effects associated with the hydrocortisone + aciclovir combination were local and mild. Hypersensitivity reactions are possible, however. This combination should be avoided during pregnancy, given the mild nature of herpes labialis and concerns over the risks of corticosteroids for the unborn child. In practice, there is no firm evidence that the aciclovir + hydrocortisone combination is more effective than aciclovir alone. Given the inherent risks associated with hydrocortisone, it is better to recommend simple hygiene measures and, possibly, aciclovir alone.

  7. Herpes Simplex Vaccines: Prospects of Live-attenuated HSV Vaccines to Combat Genital and Ocular infections

    PubMed Central

    Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin Gus

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and its closely related type-2 (HSV-2) viruses cause important clinical manifestations in humans including acute ocular disease and genital infections. These viruses establish latency in the trigeminal ganglionic and dorsal root neurons, respectively. Both viruses are widespread among humans and can frequently reactivate from latency causing disease. Currently, there are no vaccines available against herpes simplex viral infections. However, a number of promising vaccine approaches are being explored in pre-clinical investigations with few progressing to early phase clinical trials. Consensus research findings suggest that robust humoral and cellular immune responses may partially control the frequency of reactivation episodes and reduce clinical symptoms. Live-attenuated viral vaccines have long been considered as a viable option for generating robust and protective immune responses against viral pathogens. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) belongs to the same alphaherpesvirus subfamily with herpes simplex viruses. A live-attenuated VZV vaccine has been extensively used in a prophylactic and therapeutic approach to combat primary and recurrent VZV infection indicating that a similar vaccine approach may be feasible for HSVs. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical approaches to HSV vaccine development and current efforts to test certain vaccine approaches in human clinical trials. Also, we discuss the potential advantages of using a safe, live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine strain to protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. PMID:27114893

  8. Varicella and herpes zoster vaccines: WHO position paper, June 2014--Recommendations.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations for the use of varicella and herpes zoster vaccination from the WHO position paper on varicella and herpes zoster vaccines - June 2014, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. This position paper summarizes the WHO position on the use of varicella and herpes zoster vaccines. The current document replaces the position paper on the use of varicella vaccines published in 1998 [2]. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its April 2014 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html.

  9. Attachment and penetration of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus are inhibited by Melissa officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Astani, Akram; Navid, Mojdeh Heidary; Schnitzler, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel source of drugs for antiherpetic agents, because herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis and the phenolic compounds caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acyclovir-sensitive and clinical isolates of acyclovir-resistant strains in vitro. When drugs were added during the intracellular replication of HSV-1 infected cells, no antiviral effect was observed by plaque reduction assay. However, Melissa extract interacted directly with free viral particles of two acyclovir-resistant HSV strains at low IC50 values of 0.13 and 0.23 µg/mL and high selectivity indices of 2692 and 1522, respectively. The Melissa extract and rosmarinic acid inhibited HSV-1 attachment to host cells in a dose-dependent manner for acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant strains. These results indicate that mainly rosmarinic acid contributed to the antiviral activity of Melissa extract. Penetration of herpes viruses into cells was inhibited by Melissa extract at 80% and 96% for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant viruses, respectively. Melissa extract exhibits low toxicity and affects attachment and penetration of acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSVs in vitro.

  10. Update On Emerging Antivirals For The Management Of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections: A Patenting Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani D.; Vadlapatla, Ramya K.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can be treated efficiently by the application of antiviral drugs. The herpes family of viruses is responsible for causing a wide variety of diseases in humans. The standard therapy for the management of such infections includes acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV) with their respective prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir. Though effective, long term prophylaxis with the current drugs leads to development of drug-resistant viral isolates, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, some drugs are associated with dose-limiting toxicities which limit their further utility. Therefore, there is a need to develop new antiherpetic compounds with different mechanisms of action which will be safe and effective against emerging drug resistant viral isolates. Significant advances have been made towards the design and development of novel antiviral therapeutics during the last decade. As evident by their excellent antiviral activities, pharmaceutical companies are moving forward with several new compounds into various phases of clinical trials. This review provides an overview of structure and life cycle of HSV, progress in the development of new therapies, update on the advances in emerging therapeutics under clinical development and related recent patents for the treatment of Herpes simplex virus infections. PMID:23331181

  11. Association between malaria exposure and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus seropositivity in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nalwoga, Angela; Cose, Stephen; Wakeham, Katie; Miley, Wendell; Ndibazza, Juliet; Drakeley, Christopher; Elliott, Alison; Whitby, Denise; Newton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unlike other herpes viruses, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is not ubiquitous worldwide and is most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The reasons for this are unclear. As part of a wider investigation of factors that facilitate transmission in Uganda, a high prevalence country, we examined the association between antimalaria antibodies and seropositivity against KSHV. Methods Antibodies against P. falciparum merozoite surface protein (PfMSP)-1, P. falciparum apical membrane antigen (PfAMA)-1 and KSHV antigens (ORF73 and K8.1) were measured in samples from 1164 mothers and 1227 children. Results Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus seroprevalence was 69% among mothers and 15% children. Among mothers, KSHV seroprevalence increased with malaria antibody titres: from 60% to 82% and from 54% to 77%, comparing those with the lowest and highest titres for PfMSP-1 and PfAMA-1, respectively (P < 0.0001). Among children, only antibodies to PfAMA-1 were significantly associated with KSHV seropositivity, (P < 0.0001). In both mothers and children, anti-ORF73 antibodies were more strongly associated with malaria antibodies than anti-K8.1 antibodies. Conclusion The association between malaria exposure and KSHV seropositivity suggests that malaria is a cofactor for KSHV infection or reactivation. PMID:25611008

  12. Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, G; Battinelli, L; Pompeo, C; Serrilli, A M; Rossi, R; Sauzullo, I; Mengoni, F; Vullo, V

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81), in comparison with acyclovir. The cytotoxicity of the extract on Vero cells was previously tested by evaluating the cellular death and was confirmed by the Trypan blue test. Lemon balm showed to reduce the cytopathic effect of HSV-2 on Vero cells, in the range of non-toxic concentrations of 0.025-1 mg mL(-1) (with reference to the starting crude herbal material). The maximum inhibiting effect (60%) was obtained with 0.5 mg mL(-1). The viral binding assay showed that the extract does not prevent the entry of HSV-2 in the cells, thus suggesting a mechanism of action subsequent to the penetration of the virus in the cell. The extract was also chemically characterised by NMR and HPLC analysis; it showed to contain cinnamic acid-like compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid (4.1% w/w). Our experiments support the use of lemon balm for treating Herpes simplex lesions and encourage clinical trials on this medicinal plant.

  13. Valaciclovir versus aciclovir for the treatment of primary genital herpes simplex: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Pinder, Melissa; Wright, Alison

    2015-11-01

    The current guidelines for the treatment of primary herpes simplex in the Genito-urinary department in Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, recommend valaciclovir as a first-line medication. This is a prodrug of aciclovir, which has been used for many years as a treatment for primary herpes simplex virus. The basis of the recommendation largely relates to valaciclovir being more bioavailable than aciclovir. However, there is no evidence to suggest this has an effect on overall outcome with regard to symptom control and viral shedding. The purpose of the service evaluation was to discover if significant cost savings could be made by changing the prescribing policy to make aciclovir the drug of choice for primary herpes simplex virus. Based on 160 patients receiving valaciclovir (500 mg BD) during April 2013 and March 2014, if they had been treated with aciclovir (400 mg TDS) instead, a saving of £828.80 (66% reduction) could have been made.

  14. A little-known relationship between immune recovery syndrome and herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Bhandage, Supriya; Kurki, Manjunath; Hosur, Vagdevi; Sukhija, Piyush; Bajoria, Atul

    2016-06-01

    Following anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or highly active antiretroviral therapy, there is an increased response to latent infections such as herpes zoster, which may lead to their reactivation. This is a result of improved immunity brought about by ART, also termed immune recovery syndrome. A 75-year-old male patient arrived at our institute with widespread vesicles and scabs on the right half of his face and oral cavity, suggesting the involvement of the trigeminal nerve. The patient had a history of being on ART two months earlier and a history of tooth extraction eight days prior to his arrival at our institute. The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive cases amongst herpes zoster cases is high, and these patients become susceptible to infections following ART. Therefore, regardless of the presence of risk factors, every herpes zoster patient should be tested for HIV infection, and high anti-retroviral therapy should be commenced/reinstituted as soon as possible. In addition, the treating physician should maintain a high level of vigilance for the patient during the first few months of ART, the peak incidence of immune recovery inflammatory disease. PMID:27429941

  15. A young woman with recurrent vesicles on the lower lip: fixed drug eruption mimicking herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Benedix, Frauke; Schilling, Melany; Schaller, Martin; Röcken, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo

    2008-01-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with recurrent herpetiform vesicles of the lower lip, but all diagnostic measures for herpes virus infection including herpes viridae specific PCR were negative. Medical history revealed that she also had chronic recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, which had been treated with various regimes, including repetitive applications of fluconazole. Consequently, fluconazole-induced fixed drug eruption was suspected, but skin tests performed with fluconazole remained with-out response. Consecutive repeated oral provocation tests with fluconazole were carried out and resulted in the development of burning herpetiform vesicles of the lower lip. Histopathology revealed a subepidermal and superficial perivascular infiltrate, basal vacuolated and apoptotic keratinocytes, intra-epidermal lymphocytes and intra-epidermal multilocular vesicles. Together with the clinical history and picture, fluconazole-induced fixed drug eruption mimicking labial herpes simplex virus infection was diagnosed. Oral provocation tests with an alternative systemic antifungal treatment, itraconazole, were well tolerated, systemic therapy with itraconazole was initiated, and no further labial vesicles developed. PMID:18779889

  16. A little-known relationship between immune recovery syndrome and herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Following anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or highly active antiretroviral therapy, there is an increased response to latent infections such as herpes zoster, which may lead to their reactivation. This is a result of improved immunity brought about by ART, also termed immune recovery syndrome. A 75-year-old male patient arrived at our institute with widespread vesicles and scabs on the right half of his face and oral cavity, suggesting the involvement of the trigeminal nerve. The patient had a history of being on ART two months earlier and a history of tooth extraction eight days prior to his arrival at our institute. The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive cases amongst herpes zoster cases is high, and these patients become susceptible to infections following ART. Therefore, regardless of the presence of risk factors, every herpes zoster patient should be tested for HIV infection, and high anti-retroviral therapy should be commenced/reinstituted as soon as possible. In addition, the treating physician should maintain a high level of vigilance for the patient during the first few months of ART, the peak incidence of immune recovery inflammatory disease. PMID:27429941

  17. Acute pancreatitis associated with herpes zoster: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Ye, Jun; Han, Yue-Hua

    2014-12-21

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a type of herpes virus known to cause varicella, mainly in young children, and herpes zoster in adults. Although generally non-lethal, VZV infection can be associated with serious complications, particularly in adults. Acute pancreatitis caused by VZV infection is a rare event, with reports primarily concerning immunocompromised individuals. Here we report a 44-year-old immunocompetent female who developed acute pancreatitis associated with VZV infection. The patient presented with vomiting and persistent pain in the upper quadrant less than one week after diagnosis and treatment for a herpes zoster-related rash with stabbing pain on the abdomen and dorsal right trunk side. A diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was confirmed based on abdominal pain, elevated levels of urine and serum amylase, and findings of peri-pancreatic exudation and effusions by computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. This case highlights that, though rare, acute pancreatitis should be considered in VZV patients who complain of abdominal pain, especially in the epigastric area. Early detection and proper treatment are needed to prevent the condition from deteriorating further and to minimize mortality.

  18. Complex regional pain syndrome-like symptoms during herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Berry, James D; Rowbotham, Michael C; Petersen, Karin Lottrup

    2004-07-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) associated with herpes zoster (HZ) was first reported by Sudeck in 1901 (Sudeck, 1901) and is recognized clinically. However, only 13 cases have been published in the literature, and nothing is known about the incidence, prevalence, or natural history (Chester, 1992; Foster et al., 1989; Grosslight et al., 1986; Ketz and Schliack,1968; Kishimoto et al., 1995; Querol and Cisneros, 2001; Sudeck, 1901; Visitsunthorn and Prete, 1981). The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of CRPS-like symptoms in a prospectively gathered cohort of subjects with HZ and to follow the natural history of their pain and sensory disturbance during the first 6 months after onset of HZ. Subjects were evaluated at four time points after HZ: 2-6 weeks, 6-8 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Only subjects aged 50 or older with pain VAS ratings of >/=20/100 at 2-6 weeks were eligible. The first (screening) visit included a neurological and physical examination that was updated at each subsequent visit. Assessments included ratings of pain intensity, allodynia severity, and rash severity. The neurological exam included determination of presence or absence of the following CRPS-like symptoms: (1) increased sweating, (2) color changes, (3) skin temperature changes, (4) weakness of the affected area based on physical exam, (5) edema, and (6) extension of CRPS-like symptoms outside the affected dermatome. For subjects with HZ in dermatomes that can include the limbs (C4-T2 and L1-S2), extremity involvement was considered present if allodynia or rash extended beyond the neck of the humerus (upper extremity), the inguinal ligament (anterior lower extremity), or gluteal sulcus (posterior lower extremity). Involvement of the extremity was considered proximal if neither HZ rash nor allodynia extended past the elbow (upper extremity) or knee (lower extremity). Of the first 75 subjects recruited, 25 had HZ outbreaks in dermatomes that extended into the

  19. The treatment of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmus, K R

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial keratitis is the most common presentation of ocular infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Quantitative assessment of available therapy is needed to guide evidence-based ophthalmology. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of various treatments for dendritic or geographic HSV epithelial keratitis and to evaluate the role of various clinical characteristics on epithelial healing. METHODS: Following a systematic review of the literature, information from clinical trials of HSV dendritic or geographic epithelial keratitis was extracted, and the methodological quality of each study was scored. Methods of epithelial cauterization and curettage were grouped as relatively equivalent physicochemical therapy, and solution and ointment formulations of a given topical antiviral agent were combined. The proportion healed with 1 week of therapy, a scheduled follow-up day that approximated the average time of resolution with antiviral therapy, was selected as the primary outcome based on a masked evaluation of maximum treatment differences in published healing curves. The proportion healed at 14 days was recorded as supplemental information. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analysis models were used to obtain summary estimates by pooling results from comparative treatment trials. Hypotheses about which prognostic factors might affect epithelial healing during antiviral therapy were developed by multivariate analysis of the Herpetic Eye Disease Study dataset. RESULTS: After excluding 48 duplicate reports, 14 nonrandomized studies, 15 studies with outdated or similar treatments, and 29 trials lacking sufficient data on healing or accessibility, 76 primary reports were identified. These reports involved 4,251 patients allocated to 93 treatment comparisons of dendritic epithelial keratitis in 28 categories and 9 comparisons of geographic epithelial keratitis in 6 categories. For dendritic keratitis, idoxuridine was better than placebo at 7 days

  20. The treatment of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmus, K R

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial keratitis is the most common presentation of ocular infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Quantitative assessment of available therapy is needed to guide evidence-based ophthalmology. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of various treatments for dendritic or geographic HSV epithelial keratitis and to evaluate the role of various clinical characteristics on epithelial healing. METHODS: Following a systematic review of the literature, information from clinical trials of HSV dendritic or geographic epithelial keratitis was extracted, and the methodological quality of each study was scored. Methods of epithelial cauterization and curettage were grouped as relatively equivalent physicochemical therapy, and solution and ointment formulations of a given topical antiviral agent were combined. The proportion healed with 1 week of therapy, a scheduled follow-up day that approximated the average time of resolution with antiviral therapy, was selected as the primary outcome based on a masked evaluation of maximum treatment differences in published healing curves. The proportion healed at 14 days was recorded as supplemental information. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analysis models were used to obtain summary estimates by pooling results from comparative treatment trials. Hypotheses about which prognostic factors might affect epithelial healing during antiviral therapy were developed by multivariate analysis of the Herpetic Eye Disease Study dataset. RESULTS: After excluding 48 duplicate reports, 14 nonrandomized studies, 15 studies with outdated or similar treatments, and 29 trials lacking sufficient data on healing or accessibility, 76 primary reports were identified. These reports involved 4,251 patients allocated to 93 treatment comparisons of dendritic epithelial keratitis in 28 categories and 9 comparisons of geographic epithelial keratitis in 6 categories. For dendritic keratitis, idoxuridine was better than placebo at 7 days

  1. Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis by ELISA Using Antipeptide Antibodies Against Type-Common Epitopes of Glycoprotein B of Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Shradha S; Chandak, Nitin H; Baheti, Neeraj N; Purohit, Hemant J; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F; Kashyap, Rajpal S

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) represents one of the most severe infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). As effective antiviral drugs are available, an early, rapid, and reliable diagnosis has become important. The objective of this article was to develop a sensitive ELISA protocol for herpes simplex viruses (HSV) antigen detection and quantitation by assessing the usefulness of antipeptide antibodies against potential peptides of HSV glycoprotein B (gB). A total of 180 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of HSE and non-HSE patients were analyzed using a panel of antipeptide antibodies against synthetic peptides of HSV glycoprotein gB. The cases of confirmed and suspected HSE showed 80% and 51% positivity for antipeptide against synthetic peptide QLHDLRF and 77% and 53% positivity for antipeptide against synthetic peptide MKALYPLTT, respectively for the detection of HSV antigen in CSF. The concentration of HSV antigen was found to be higher in confirmed HSE as compared to suspected HSE group and the viral load correlated well with antigen concentration obtained using the two antipeptides in CSF of confirmed HSE group. This is the first article describing the use of antibodies obtained against synthetic peptides derived from HSV in diagnostics of HSE using patients' CSF samples.

  2. Burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain during a seven-year period (1998–2004)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A thorough epidemiological surveillance and a good understanding of the burden of diseases associated to VZV are crucial to asses any potential impact of a prevention strategy. A population-based retrospective epidemiological study to estimate the burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain was conducted. Methods This study was conducted by using data from the national surveillance system for hospital data, Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD). Records of all patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of herpes zoster (ICD-9-MC codes 053.0–053.9) during a 7-year period (1998–2004) were selected. Results A total of 23,584 hospitalizations with a primary or secondary diagnosis of herpes zoster in patients ≥ 30 years of age were identified during the study period. Annually there were 13.4 hospitalizations for herpes zoster per 100,000 population in patients ≥ 30 years of age. The rate increases with age reaching a maximum in persons ≥ 80 years of age (54.3 admissions per 100,000 population >80 years of age). The mean cost of a hospitalization for herpes zoster in adult patients was 3,720 €. The estimated annual cost of hospitalizations for herpes zoster in patients ≥ 30 years of age in Spain was 12,731,954 €. Conclusion Herpes zoster imposes an important burden of hospitalizations and result in large cost expenses to the Spanish National Health System, especially in population older than 50 years of age PMID:19422687

  3. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Kuniholm, Mark H.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Chen, Sabrina; Desai, Seema; Edlin, Brian R.; Peters, Marion G.; Plankey, Michael; Sharp, Gerald B.; Strickler, Howard D.; Villacres, Maria C.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Gange, Stephen J.; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; O’Brien, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815) genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-ΔG allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-ΔG, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-ΔG/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV–1 and HSV–2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported) oral herpes, (self-reported) genital sores and (clinician-observed) genital ulcers; HSV–2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens. IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-ΔG/ΔG or IFNL4-TT/ΔG genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-ΔG carriers) to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV–1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV–2. We observed no association between IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV–1 or HSV–2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons); oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35); genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71); genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53); detectable HSV–2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49); HSV–2 DNA level (p = 0.68). In this large

  4. Is peptic ulcer disease a risk factor of postherpetic neuralgia in patients with herpes zoster?

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Yin; Chang, Chia-Yu; Lan, Kuo-Mao; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Lu, Chin-Li; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2013-11-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication of herpes zoster which is caused by a reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus. The pathogenesis of postherpetic neuralgia may involve peripheral and central mechanisms. Reported risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia include female gender, old age, diminished cell-mediated immunity and nutritional deficiencies. Based on our clinical observation which revealed that peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is one of the common comorbidities in patients with postherpetic neuralgia, we hypothesize that herpes zoster patients with PUD may be at a greater risk for the development of postherpetic neuralgia due to their impaired cellular immunity and depressed nutritional status. Major causes of PUD include Helicobacter pylori infection and usage of ulcerogenic medications. Patients with H. pylori infection may develop T cell dysfunctions and nutritional deficiencies including vitamin C, iron, cobalamin, carotenes and alpha-tocopherol. Ulcerogenic medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids have been found not only to be ulcerogenic but also immunosuppressive to T cells. In addition, usage of steroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may cause deficiencies of alpha-tocopherol, carotenes, cobalamin, iron, zinc and vitamin C. Vitamin C, carotenes and alpha-tocopherol are anti-inflammatory and the major oxidant scavengers in the aqua phase and biomembranes. Deficiencies of these nutrients may induce dysregulated inflammation and oxidative damage leading to neuropathic pain in patients with herpes zoster. Furthermore, nutrient deficiencies including zinc, iron, cobalamin and vitamin C are associated with dysregulation of Ca(v)3.2 T-channels and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, upregulation of nitric oxide synthase, the increase of nitric oxide formation and dysfunction of central norepinephrine inhibitory pain pathway. Prospective cohort studies are suggested to test the hypothesis. We further

  5. Validity of the coding for herpes simplex encephalitis in the Danish National Patient Registry

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Laura Krogh; Dalgaard, Lars Skov; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup; Nørgaard, Mette; Mogensen, Trine Hyrup

    2016-01-01

    Background Large health care databases are a valuable source of infectious disease epidemiology if diagnoses are valid. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the recorded diagnosis coding of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). Methods The DNPR was used to identify all hospitalized patients, aged ≥15 years, with a first-time diagnosis of HSE according to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision (ICD-10), from 2004 to 2014. To validate the coding of HSE, we collected data from the Danish Microbiology Database, from departments of clinical microbiology, and from patient medical records. Cases were classified as confirmed, probable, or no evidence of HSE. We estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of the HSE diagnosis coding stratified by diagnosis type, study period, and department type. Furthermore, we estimated the proportion of HSE cases coded with nonspecific ICD-10 codes of viral encephalitis and also the sensitivity of the HSE diagnosis coding. Results We were able to validate 398 (94.3%) of the 422 HSE diagnoses identified via the DNPR. Hereof, 202 (50.8%) were classified as confirmed cases and 29 (7.3%) as probable cases providing an overall PPV of 58.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 53.0–62.9). For “Encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus” (ICD-10 code B00.4), the PPV was 56.6% (95% CI: 51.1–62.0). Similarly, the PPV for “Meningoencephalitis due to herpes simplex virus” (ICD-10 code B00.4A) was 56.8% (95% CI: 39.5–72.9). “Herpes viral encephalitis” (ICD-10 code G05.1E) had a PPV of 75.9% (95% CI: 56.5–89.7), thereby representing the highest PPV. The estimated sensitivity was 95.5%. Conclusion The PPVs of the ICD-10 diagnosis coding for adult HSE in the DNPR were relatively low. Hence, the DNPR should be used with caution when studying patients with encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus. PMID:27330328

  6. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes.

    PubMed

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A; Kuniholm, Mark H; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Chen, Sabrina; Desai, Seema; Edlin, Brian R; Peters, Marion G; Plankey, Michael; Sharp, Gerald B; Strickler, Howard D; Villacres, Maria C; Quinn, Thomas C; Gange, Stephen J; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Greenblatt, Ruth M; O'Brien, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815) genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-ΔG allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-ΔG, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-ΔG/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported) oral herpes, (self-reported) genital sores and (clinician-observed) genital ulcers; HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens. IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-ΔG/ΔG or IFNL4-TT/ΔG genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-ΔG carriers) to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV-1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV-2. We observed no association between IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons); oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35); genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71); genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53); detectable HSV-2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49); HSV-2 DNA level (p = 0.68). In this large prospective study, IFNL4-

  7. High Risk of Herpes Zoster among Patients with Advance Acute Kidney Injury--A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Shun; Hu, Fu-Chang; Chen, Meng-Kan; Ko, Wen-Je; Chen, Likwang; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Wu, Vin-Cent

    2015-09-03

    The risk for herpes zoster (HZ) in acute kidney injury (AKI) survivors was never explored. We identified 2,387 adults in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who recovered from dialysis-requiring AKI and matched them with non-recovery and non-AKI patients by propensity score. During a mean follow-up of 2.7 years, the incidences of HZ were 6.9, 8.2 and 4.8 episodes per 1,000 person-years in AKI-non-recovery, AKI-recovery and non-AKI group, respectively. The recovery group was more likely to develop herpes zoster than those without acute kidney injury [incidence-rate ratios 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.52; p = 0.007]. Patients without acute kidney injury were less likely to develop herpes zoster than those AKI, recovered from dialysis or not (hazard ratio HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46-0.95). Dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury poses a long-term risk of herpes zoster after hospital discharge. Even patients who have recovered from dialysis still carry a significantly higher risk of developing herpes zoster.

  8. A Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Human Asymptomatic CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes-Based Vaccine Protects Against Ocular Herpes in a “Humanized” HLA Transgenic Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A.; Huang, Jiawei; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Wechsler, Steven L.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. A clinical vaccine that protects from ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and disease still is lacking. In the present study, preclinical vaccine trials of nine asymptomatic (ASYMP) peptides, selected from HSV-1 glycoproteins B (gB), and tegument proteins VP11/12 and VP13/14, were performed in the “humanized” HLA–transgenic rabbit (HLA-Tg rabbit) model of ocular herpes. We recently reported that these peptides are highly recognized by CD8+ T cells from “naturally” protected HSV-1–seropositive healthy ASYMP individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease). Methods. Mixtures of three ASYMP CD8+ T-cell peptides derived from either HSV-1 gB, VP11/12, or VP13/14 were delivered subcutaneously to different groups of HLA-Tg rabbits (n = 10) in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, twice at 15-day intervals. The frequency and function of HSV-1 epitope-specific CD8+ T cells induced by these peptides and their protective efficacy, in terms of survival, virus replication in the eye, and ocular herpetic disease were assessed after an ocular challenge with HSV-1 (strain McKrae). Results. All mixtures elicited strong and polyfunctional IFN-γ– and TNF-α–producing CD107+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, associated with a significant reduction in death, ocular herpes infection, and disease (P < 0.015). Conclusions. The results of this preclinical trial support the screening strategy used to select the HSV-1 ASYMP CD8+ T-cell epitopes, emphasize their valuable immunogenic and protective efficacy against ocular herpes, and provide a prototype vaccine formulation that may be highly efficacious for preventing ocular herpes in humans. PMID:26098469

  9. [Analysis of corneal pathologic changes and laboratory parameters in herpes simplex karatitis patients with ganhuo-shangyanzheng or ganshengyinxuzheng].

    PubMed

    Zhang, H N; Li, X Q; Liang, Q H

    2001-02-28

    In order to investigate the relationship between Ganhuo shangyanzheng and Can-shengyin xuzheng in herpes simplex karatitis patients, we observed corneal pathologic changes and examined blood levels of prostaglandin F2 (PGF2), prostaglandin E2 (PGF2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), arginine vasopressin (AVP), norepinephrine (NR), epinephrine (E) in sixty herpes simplex karatitis patients with Ganhou shangyanzheng or Gan-shengyinxuzheng. The results showed that the corneal pathologic changes were corneal ulcer infiltrating to stroma of cornea in Ganhuo shangyanzheng patients, and refractary corneal ulcer with large amount of corneal neovascularizaton and infiltration of corneal stroma in Gan-shengyinxuzheng patients, the blood levels of PGF2, PGE2, TNF, AVP, NE, E in Ganhuo shangyanzheng patients were higher than those in Gan-shengyinxuzheng patients or healthy persons. The results suggest that these parameters may be objective parameters for differential diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine Zheng types in patients with herpes simplex karatitis.

  10. Physical mapping of the herpes simplex virus type 2 nuc- lesion affecting alkaline exonuclease activity by using herpes simplex virus type 1 deletion clones.

    PubMed

    Wathen, M W; Hay, J

    1984-07-01

    The nuc- lesion affecting alkaline exonuclease activity in the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) mutant ts1348 had previously been mapped to the EcoRI-D restriction enzyme fragment of HSV-1. Eight clones with deletions representing most of HSV-1 EcoRI fragment D were selected with lambda gtWES hybrids. These clones were tested for their ability to rescue the alkaline exonuclease activity of HSV-2 nuc- ts1348 virus. The sequences colinear with the HSV-2 nuc- lesion were found to map between 0.169 and 0.174 map units on the HSV-1 Patton genome, representing an 0.8-kilobase-pair region that is 12.9 to 13.7 kilobase pairs from the left end of HSV-1 EcoRI fragment D.

  11. Remote semantic memory in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and herpes encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Michael D; Bright, Peter; Fulker, Helena; Hinton, Nicola; Morrison, Amy; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-03-01

    Performance of patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and herpes encephalitis was compared on a retrograde amnesia (RA) test, asking subjects to recall and recognize the definitions of words that had come into the language at different time periods. Performance was also compared on a related test in which participants were asked to produce the words to definitions they were given in free recall and cued recall versions. It was hypothesized that, if the temporal gradient in remote memory results from a shift of information from episodic to semantic memory, then there should be a temporal gradient on these tasks, possibly steeper (i.e., greater relative sparing of early memories) in the patients in the Korsakoff group than in the herpes encephalitis group, who have widespread temporal lobe damage. Furthermore, in comparing semantic and episodic remote memory tests, consolidation theory would predict uniform temporal gradients across such tasks, whereas multiple trace theory would predict a differential pattern. The results showed that patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and patients with herpes encephalitis were significantly impaired across all time periods on the vocabulary tests, with only minimal evidence of temporal gradients, relative to healthy participants, and there was no evidence of a differential pattern of impairment between the two patient groups. Comparison with performance on measures of episodic retrograde amnesia, in which there was a differential pattern of temporal gradient, suggests that the relative preservation of early episodic remote memories in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome does not result from an episodic-to-semantic shift in the quality with which memories are stored. These findings are discussed in relation to existing theories of RA and to the patients' underlying patterns of neuropathology. PMID:19254087

  12. Are reported stress and coping style associated with frequent recurrence of genital herpes?

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, L; Meadows, J; Catalán, J; Barton, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper reports on the cross sectional data from the longitudinal study examining the impact of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection on quality of life. In particular the report sought to study the relation between recurrence of genital HSV and coping style, mood, personality, and quality of life, among other factors. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: 116 patients with a known history of genital herpes simplex infection attending the Department of Genitourinary Medicine at Chelsea and Westminster Hospital. METHODS: Psychosocial factors (stress, anxiety, depression, health locus of control, personality, social support, coping skills, and quality of life) and the reported frequency of genital herpes episodes were measured using self administered questionnaires designed to examine the relation between psychosocial status and the frequency of genital HSV episodes. RESULTS: The number of recurrences reported by patients was significantly related to the style of coping skills used. Higher recurrences were less likely to use problem focused coping skills of planning and active coping, and the emotion focused coping skills of positive reinterpretation and growth. There was a significant difference in the number of patients who believed that psychological stress was related to the number of recurrences they experienced. This belief was related to neuroticism on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire scale, and not to any of the other measures investigated. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that it is the way individuals cope, and their personality characteristics rather than actual levels of psychological stress, that influence their belief in a link between recurrent genital HSV and stress. HSV may become the focus of existing concerns and be viewed as the physical manifestation of stress. PMID:9389946

  13. National Lupus Hospitalization Trends Reveal Rising Rates of Herpes Zoster and Declines in Pneumocystis Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Sara G.; Schmajuk, Gabriela; Trupin, Laura; Gensler, Lianne; Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Yazdany, Jinoos

    2016-01-01

    Objective Infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therapeutic practices have evolved over the past 15 years, but effects on infectious complications of SLE are unknown. We evaluated trends in hospitalizations for severe and opportunistic infections in a population-based SLE study. Methods Data derive from the 2000 to 2011 United States National Inpatient Sample, including individuals who met a validated administrative definition of SLE. Primary outcomes were diagnoses of bacteremia, pneumonia, opportunistic fungal infection, herpes zoster, cytomegalovirus, or pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). We used Poisson regression to determine whether infection rates were changing in SLE hospitalizations and used predictive marginals to generate annual adjusted rates of specific infections. Results We identified 361,337 SLE hospitalizations from 2000 to 2011 meeting study inclusion criteria. Compared to non-SLE hospitalizations, SLE patients were younger (51 vs. 62 years), predominantly female (89% vs. 54%), and more likely to be racial/ethnic minorities. SLE diagnosis was significantly associated with all measured severe and opportunistic infections. From 2000 to 2011, adjusted SLE hospitalization rates for herpes zoster increased more than non-SLE rates: 54 to 79 per 10,000 SLE hospitalizations compared with 24 to 29 per 10,000 non-SLE hospitalizations. Conversely, SLE hospitalizations for PCP disproportionately decreased: 5.1 to 2.5 per 10,000 SLE hospitalizations compared with 0.9 to 1.3 per 10,000 non-SLE hospitalizations. Conclusions Among patients with SLE, herpes zoster hospitalizations are rising while PCP hospitalizations are declining. These trends likely reflect evolving SLE treatment strategies. Further research is needed to identify patients at greatest risk for infectious complications. PMID:26731012

  14. Cost of Herpes Zoster in Patients With Selected Immune-Compromised Conditions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Chen, Shih-Yin; Burstin, Stuart J; Levin, Myron J; Suaya, Jose A

    2016-04-01

    Background.  This retrospective study investigates the healthcare costs of herpes zoster (HZ) in patients with selected immune-compromised (IC) conditions in the United States (US). Methods.  Patients with incident HZ diagnosis (index date) were selected from nationwide administrative claims databases from 2005 to 2009. Baseline IC groups, analyzed separately, included adults aged 18-64 years with the following: human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV), solid organ transplant (SOT), bone marrow or stem cell transplant (BMSCT), or cancer; and older adults (aged ≥65 years) with cancer. Herpes zoster patients (n = 2020, n = 1053, n = 286, n = 13 178, and n = 9089, respectively) were 1-to-1 matched to controls without HZ (with randomly selected index date) in the same baseline group. The healthcare resource utilization and costs (2014 US dollars) during the first 2 postindex quarters were compared between matched cohorts with continuous enrollment during the quarter. Results.  Herpes zoster patients generally had greater use of inpatient, emergency room and outpatient services, and pain medications than matched controls (P < .05). The incremental costs of HZ during the first postindex quarter were $3056, $2649, $13 332, $2549, and $3108 for HIV, SOT, BMSCT, cancer in adults aged 18-64 years, and cancer in older adults, respectively (each P < .05). The incremental costs of HZ during the second quarter were only significant for adults aged 18-64 years with cancer ($1748, P < .05). The national incremental costs of HZ were projected to be $298 million annually across the 5 IC groups. Conclusions.  The healthcare cost associated with HZ among patients with studied IC conditions was sizable and occurred mainly during the first 90 days after diagnosis. PMID:27419151

  15. A spectrophotometric assay for quantitative determination of kcat of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase substrates.

    PubMed

    Schelling, P; Folkers, G; Scapozza, L

    2001-08-01

    A simple method to determine the in vitro catalytic turnover constant of several substrates of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase is presented in this study. The method is based on a continuous spectroscopic enzyme-coupled assay and allows one to monitor the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase activity in the presence of unlabeled substrates. A clear correlation between the catalytic turnover constant and the rate of decrease in absorbance over time during the assay has been demonstrated. Exploiting this correlation, this method has been used to determine rapidly and precisely the catalytic turnover constant of antiviral lead compounds not readily available in the radioactive labeled form.

  16. Mandibular osteonecrosis following herpes zoster infection in the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster virus (HZV) infections are caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. Reactivation symptoms commonly affect the thoracolumbar trunk, and rarely affect the mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve. When the mandibular branches are involved, lesions appear proximal to the innervation area. This condition may be associated with exfoliation of the teeth and osteonecrosis of the jawbone. We report a case of mandibular osteomyelitis after herpes zoster infection and we present a review of the literature on mandibular-branch involvement of HZV-related osteonecrosis. PMID:26733193

  17. Use of Adeno-Associated and Herpes Simplex Viral Vectors for In Vivo Neuronal Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Penrod, Rachel D.; Wells, Audrey M.; Carlezon, William A.; Cowan, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses and the herpes simplex virus are the two most widely used vectors for the in vivo expression of exogenous genes. Advances in the development of these vectors have enabled remarkable temporal and spatial control of gene expression. This unit provides methods for storing, delivering, and verifying expression of adeno-associated and herpes simplex viruses in the adult mouse brain. It also describes important considerations for experiments using in vivo expression of these viral vectors, including serotype and promoter selection, as well as timing of expression. Additional protocols are provided that describe methods for preliminary experiments to determine the appropriate conditions for in vivo delivery. PMID:26426386

  18. Use of Adeno-Associated and Herpes Simplex Viral Vectors for In Vivo Neuronal Expression in Mice.

    PubMed

    Penrod, Rachel D; Wells, Audrey M; Carlezon, William A; Cowan, Christopher W

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses and the herpes simplex virus are the two most widely used vectors for the in vivo expression of exogenous genes. Advances in the development of these vectors have enabled remarkable temporal and spatial control of gene expression. This unit provides methods for storing, delivering, and verifying expression of adeno-associated and herpes simplex viruses in the adult mouse brain. It also describes important considerations for experiments using in vivo expression of these viral vectors, including serotype and promoter selection, as well as timing of expression. Additional protocols are provided that describe methods for preliminary experiments to determine the appropriate conditions for in vivo delivery.

  19. Herpes zoster caused by vaccine-strain varicella zoster virus in an immunocompetent recipient of zoster vaccine.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Schmid, D Scott; Harpaz, Rafael; LaRussa, Philip; Jensen, Nancy J; Rivailler, Pierre; Radford, Kay; Folster, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2014-04-01

    We report the first laboratory-documented case of herpes zoster caused by the attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) contained in Zostavax in a 68-year-old immunocompetent adult with strong evidence of prior wild-type VZV infection. The complete genome sequence of the isolate revealed that the strain carried 15 of 42 (36%) recognized varicella vaccine-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms, including all 5 of the fixed vaccine markers present in nearly all of the strains in the vaccine. The case of herpes zoster was relatively mild and resolved without complications.

  20. Herpes simplex virus 1 counteracts viperin via its virion host shutoff protein UL41.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guanghui; Wang, Kezhen; Wang, Shuai; Cai, Mingsheng; Li, Mei-li; Zheng, Chunfu

    2014-10-01

    The interferon (IFN)-inducible viperin protein restricts a broad range of viruses. However, whether viperin plays a role during herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is poorly understood. In the present study, it was shown for the first time that wild-type (WT) HSV-1 infection couldn't induce viperin production, and ectopically expressed viperin inhibited the replication of UL41-null HSV-1 but not WT viruses. The underlying molecular mechanism is that UL41 counteracts viperin's antiviral activity by reducing its mRNA accumulation.