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Sample records for cysticercus

  1. Porphyrin content of the cysticercus of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Larralde, C; Zedillo, G M; Lagunoff, D; Ludowyke, R; Montoya, R M; Goodsaid, F; Dreyfus, G; Sciutto, E; Govezensky, T; Diaz, M L

    1986-08-01

    The strong red fluorescence of the cysticercus of Taenia solium depends on the presence of several porphyrins in the vesicular fluid of the parasite: probably protoporphyrin IX, coproporphyin I or III, and 2 decarboxylated porphyrins intermediate between uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin. Cyst porphyrins associated to form conglomerates of high molecular weight that dissociated in acid solutions and were not antigenic themselves nor associated with antigenic molecules. An appreciable fraction of the porphyrins was capable of undergoing oxidation and reduction, indicating that some of the porphyrins were complexed with metal ions. The metabolic basis for the accumulation of porphyrins is unknown. Preliminary results suggest that conditions deleterious to the cysticercus cause release of porphyrins so that the appearance of porphyrins in the cerebrospinal fluid of neurocysticercotic patients may prove useful in monitoring therapeutic attacks on the parasite.

  2. Predictors of Lesion Calcification in Patients with Solitary Cysticercus Granuloma and New-Onset Seizures.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Lalit; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Kumar, Neeraj; Sharma, Praveen Kumar; Verma, Rajesh; Rizvi, Imran

    2016-09-01

    Solitary cysticercus granuloma is a common neuroimaging abnormality in Indian patients with new-onset epilepsy. Calcific transformation of cysticercus granuloma is frequently associated with seizure recurrence. We evaluated predictors of lesion calcification in patients with solitary cysticercus granuloma and new-onset seizures. One hundred twenty-two patients, with new-onset seizures and a solitary cysticercus granuloma of the brain, were enrolled. All patients were clinically and radiologically evaluated and were treated with antiepileptic drug drugs. No patient received albendazole or corticosteroids. The follow-up period was of 1 year. Follow-up computed tomography was performed after 3 and 6 months. In 68 (54.8%) patients, solitary cysticercus granuloma had transformed into a calcified lesion. On logistic regression analysis, moderate-to-severe edema was a significant factor that predicted calcific transformation of the cysticercus granuloma (odds ratio: 3.325; 95% confidence interval: 1.502-7.362). During 1 year of follow-up, 19 (15.6%) patients experienced seizure recurrence. In 16 patients with seizure recurrence, cysticercus granuloma had transformed in to a calcified lesion. In conclusion, in solitary cysticercus granuloma, calcification of the lesion can be predicted if larger amount of perilesional edema is present. Calcification of the granuloma significantly predicts seizure recurrence. PMID:27430545

  3. Anti-cysticercus antibody detection in saliva as a potential diagnostic tool for neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Rumpa; Roy, Priyamvada; Das, Shukla; Shah, Dheeraj; Agarwal, Sunil; Kaur, Iqbal Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was planned to determine the usefulness of anti-cysticercus IgG antibody detection in saliva for neurocysticercosis (NCC) diagnosis, along with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level to serve as a surrogate marker. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study of 14 months duration, blood and saliva samples were collected from 40 patients suspected to be suffering from NCC and were subjected to anti-cysticercus IgG antibody detection by ELISA. Serum CRP levels were estimated as acute-phase reactant by high sensitivity CRP ELISA. Results: Anti-cysticercus IgG was detected in serum and saliva of 34 and 30 patients, respectively. Cases positive for salivary antibody were positive for serum antibody and their serum CRP level was higher than normal. Cases negative for salivary antibody had low serum CRP levels. Anti-cysticercus IgG detection in saliva was 88.24% sensitive, 100% specific, and had a positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 60%. Positive salivary anti-cysticercus IgG and high serum CRP level showed a significant association. Difference between CRP levels of patients positive for anti-cysticercus antibody in both serum and saliva, and patients positive for antibody in serum but not saliva was highly significant. Conclusions: Saliva, being painless and noninvasive, can be used as alternative to serum for NCC diagnosis. PMID:27570404

  4. Morphological characterization of Cysticercus cellulosae in naturally infected pigs in Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Chawhan, Pradeep; Singh, Balbir Bagicha; Sharma, Rajnish; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh

    2016-06-01

    Porcine cysticercosis is an important medical and veterinary concern in the developing world. The present study was carried out to determine the morphological characteristics of Cysticercus cellulosae, so as to differentiate the C. viscerotropica (larval form of T. asiatica) which is having only rudimentary hooks on their rostellum. Morphological analysis was conducted on 22 Cysticercus positive samples. Measurements for number of hooks (large and small), the total length and blade length of large and small hooks per rostellum were carried out as per previous studies. Microscopic examination of all the cysts showed typical characteristic of T. solium i.e. presence of hooks in all the cysts. The results indicated absence of T. asiatica from naturally infected pigs in Punjab (India). PMID:27413285

  5. Transcriptome profiling of the cysticercus stage of the laboratory model Taenia crassiceps, strain ORF.

    PubMed

    García-Montoya, Gisela M; Mesa-Arango, Jairo A; Isaza-Agudelo, Juan P; Agudelo-Lopez, Sonia P; Cabarcas, Felipe; Barrera, Luis F; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a serious public health problem mainly in developing countries. NC caused by the cysticercus stage from cestode Taenia solium is considered by the WHO and ITFDE as a potentially eradicable disease. Definitive diagnosis of NC is challenging because of the unspecific clinical manifestations such as the non-definitive evidence presented by neuroimaging (in most cases) and the lack of definitive serological test. Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain) is a cestode closely related to T. solium and it has frequently been used as a source of antigens for immunodiagnostics. A murine model to study host immune response to infection has also been established by using T. crassiceps. Despite the extensive use of T. crassiceps for research, molecular information for this cestode is scarce in public databases. With the aim of providing more extensive information on T. crassiceps biology, an RNA-seq experiment and subsequent bioinformatic transcriptome processing of this cestode parasite mRNA in its cysticercus stage were carried out. A total of 227,082 read/ESTs were sequenced using the 454-GS FLX Titanium technology and assembled into 10,787 contigs. This transcriptome dataset represents new and valuable molecular information of the cestode T. crassiceps (ORF). This information will substantially improve public information and will help to achieve a better understanding of the biology of T. crassiceps and to identify target proteins for serodiagnosis and vaccination. PMID:26571070

  6. Transcriptome profiling of the cysticercus stage of the laboratory model Taenia crassiceps, strain ORF.

    PubMed

    García-Montoya, Gisela M; Mesa-Arango, Jairo A; Isaza-Agudelo, Juan P; Agudelo-Lopez, Sonia P; Cabarcas, Felipe; Barrera, Luis F; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a serious public health problem mainly in developing countries. NC caused by the cysticercus stage from cestode Taenia solium is considered by the WHO and ITFDE as a potentially eradicable disease. Definitive diagnosis of NC is challenging because of the unspecific clinical manifestations such as the non-definitive evidence presented by neuroimaging (in most cases) and the lack of definitive serological test. Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain) is a cestode closely related to T. solium and it has frequently been used as a source of antigens for immunodiagnostics. A murine model to study host immune response to infection has also been established by using T. crassiceps. Despite the extensive use of T. crassiceps for research, molecular information for this cestode is scarce in public databases. With the aim of providing more extensive information on T. crassiceps biology, an RNA-seq experiment and subsequent bioinformatic transcriptome processing of this cestode parasite mRNA in its cysticercus stage were carried out. A total of 227,082 read/ESTs were sequenced using the 454-GS FLX Titanium technology and assembled into 10,787 contigs. This transcriptome dataset represents new and valuable molecular information of the cestode T. crassiceps (ORF). This information will substantially improve public information and will help to achieve a better understanding of the biology of T. crassiceps and to identify target proteins for serodiagnosis and vaccination.

  7. Evaluation of an antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticercus for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Regina H S; Vaz, Adelaide J; Pardini, Alessandra; Macedo, Heloísa W; Machado, Luis R; De Simone, Salvatori G; Peralta, José M

    2002-08-01

    We report here the evaluation of an antigen from Taenia crassiceps cysticercus as a potential reagent in an enzyme-immunoelectrotransfer blotting assay (EITB) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC) using clinical specimens obtained from patients in different phases of the disease. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 64 patients suspected of having NC according to clinical manifestation and brain computed tomography were tested by ELISA with Taenia solium total saline antigen (ELISA-Tso) and by immunoblotting with T. crassiceps glycoproteins antigen (EITB-gpTcra). Forty-five serum samples were also tested immunoblotting with T. solium glycoproteins antigen (EITB-gpTso) and 30 were tested by ELISA with T. crassiceps 14 kDa glycoprotein (ELISA-gp14Tcra). Serum samples from apparently healthy individuals without any parasitic disease and from patients with other parasitic diseases were included as controls. The results of ELISA-Tso analysis with CSF obtained from 64 patients with NC showed that 53 (83%) were reactive. EITB-gpTcra analysis with serum from the same group of patients showed a sensitivity of 91%. Results of EITB-gpTso and EITB-gpTcra analysis with serum samples demonstrated an agreement of 100% between both tests. ELISA-gp14Tcra was positive in 23 (77%) sera, 22 with paired CSF positive. When ELISA-gp14Tcra results were compared to EITB-Tso results, a relative sensitivity of 95% was observed. All serum samples from the control group were negative in ELISA-gp14Tcra and only one serum from an individual with Taenia saginata was reactive in this assay, showing a specificity of 99% for ELISA-gp14Tcra. This fraction was purified in only one step with a good yield for use in immunoassays. We suggest that the gp14Tcra antigen can be used for detecting anti-cysticercus antibodies in serum samples for epidemiological investigation purposes and also for diagnostic screening of NC patients.

  8. Histopathological and morphological studies on natural Cysticercus fasciolaris infection in liver of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moudgil, Aman Dev; Singla, Lachhman Das; Gupta, Kuldip; Daundkar, Prashant S; Vemu, Bhaskar

    2016-06-01

    Descriptive morphology of multifocal hepatic cysts found in eight of forty five (17.78 %) Wistar rats sacrificed during pharmacological studies related to herbal formulations was studied. The creamish to white cysts were of varying sizes, ranging from 3-8 mm in diameter. Morphological studies of these cysts depicted the presence of metacestodes of Taenia taeniaeformis i.e. Cysticercus fasciolaris inside them. The scolex of metacestode revealed four suckers and rostellum armed with two distinct rows of characteristic pen knife shaped hooks (characteristics of taeniid cestodes). The average size of large hooks was 392.92 ± 10.12 µ and that of small hooks was 240.64 ± 14.26 µ. The average size of suckers was 304.36 ± 12.33 µ. Histopathology of hepatic tissue surrounding the cysts revealed zones of fatty change, inflammation, granulation tissue and metaplasia. However, the histopathology of stomach and small intestines didn't show any significant lesions. PMID:27413289

  9. Albendazole and Corticosteroids for the Treatment of Solitary Cysticercus Granuloma: A Network Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Huang, Tong-Yi; Sun, Kai-Yu; Chen, Shu-Ling; Chen, Ke-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background Solitary cysticercus granuloma (SCG) is the commonest form of neurocysticercosis in the Indian subcontinent and in travelers. Several different treatment options exist for SCG. We conducted a Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to identify the best treatment option to prevent seizure recurrence and promote lesion resolution for patients with SCG. Methods and Principal Findings PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases (up to June 1, 2015) were searched for RCTs that compared any anthelmintics or corticosteroids, alone or in combination, with placebo or head to head and reported on seizure recurrence and lesion resolution in patients with SCG. A total of 14 RCTs (1277 patients) were included in the quantitative analysis focusing on four different treatment options. A Bayesian network model computing odds ratios (OR) with 95% credible intervals (CrI) and probability of being best (Pbest) was used to compare all interventions simultaneously. Albendazole and corticosteroids combination therapy was the only regimen that significantly decreased the risk of seizure recurrence compared with conservative treatment (OR 0.32, 95% CrI 0.10–0.93, Pbest 73.3%). Albendazole and corticosteroids alone or in combination were all efficacious in hastening granuloma resolution, but the combined therapy remained the best option based on probability analysis (OR 3.05, 95% CrI 1.24–7.95, Pbest 53.9%). The superiority of the combination therapy changed little in RCTs with different follow-up durations and in sensitivity analyses. The limitations of this study include high risk of bias and short follow-up duration in most studies. Conclusions Dual therapy of albendazole and corticosteroids was the most efficacious regimen that could prevent seizure recurrence and promote lesion resolution in a follow-up period of around one year. It should be recommended for the management of SCG until more high-quality evidence is available. PMID

  10. Studies on the development of DNA vaccine against Cysticercus cellulosae infection and its efficacy.

    PubMed

    Cai, X; Chai, Z; Jing, Z; Wang, P; Luo, X; Chen, J; Dou, Y; Feng, S; Su, C; Jin, J

    2001-01-01

    DNA vaccine against Cysticercus cellulosae infection was developed and its efficacy was tested. A pair of primers specific to antigen B gene of C. cellulosae was designed which amplified the gene successfully with RT-PCR. The gene was ligated to PV93 vector, and the recombinant of antigen B gene and PV93 was transformed to JM83 cells. The transformed JM83 cells were cultured in a large scale and the plasmid purified. Based on the recombinant plasmid. a DNA vaccine was developed and used to vaccinate two groups of experimental pigs. In each group, there was a routine vaccine, an enhanced vaccine and a control group. Groups 1 and 2 were challenged at 4 months and at 14 days post vaccination respectively with eggs of Taenia solium. The antibody response was also tested with ELISA. The results suggested that all animals vaccinated AgB gene DNA vaccine, no matter by routine or enhanced vaccine, their antibodies reached maximum peak 23 days post vaccination and decreased gradually. When the animals were challenged 4 months after vaccination, they had strong immunity and the parasites decrease rates were 91.2% and 93.1% respectively. When pigs vaccinated with AgB gene DNA vaccine were challenged 14 days post vaccination with 18,000 eggs/pig. The animals showed strong immunity and the parasite decrease rates were 99.5% and 84.9% respectively. However at that time, the antibodies did not reach the peak. While in the control group, the number of C. cellulosae was as many as 2,500. It was concluded that the pigs vaccinated with DNA vaccine had strong immunity against infection of eggs of T. solium.

  11. Clinico-pathology, diagnosis and management of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta co-infection in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Y. Damodar; Arya, Rahul Singh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatment with anthelmintics was given to manage the mortality and infections. Results: The investigation revealed a natural co-infection of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta in wistar rats, which were pathogenic enough to cause mortality. Typical lesions associated with the parasites were found in the dead rats. The mortality and infection were managed with common anthelmintics. Conclusion: C. fasciolaris and H. diminuta infection can cause mortality in wistar rats even when individually they cause asymptomatic infection. The mortality and infection can be managed with common anthelmintics. PMID:27047007

  12. Inflammation Caused by Praziquantel Treatment Depends on the Location of the Taenia solium Cysticercus in Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Cangalaya, Carla; Zimic, Mirko; Marzal, Miguel; González, Armando E.; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.; García, Hector H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC), infection of the central nervous system by Taenia solium cysticerci, is a pleomorphic disease. Inflammation around cysticerci is the major cause of disease but is variably present. One factor modulating the inflammatory responses may be the location and characteristics of the brain tissue adjacent to cysticerci. We analyzed and compared the inflammatory responses to cysticerci located in the parenchyma to those in the meninges or cysticerci partially in contact with both the parenchyma and the meninges (corticomeningeal). Methodology/Principal Findings Histological specimens of brain cysticerci (n = 196) from 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysticerci were used. Four pigs were sacrificed after 2 days and four after 5 days of a single dose of praziquantel; 3 pigs did not receive treatment. All pigs were intravenously injected with Evans Blue to assess disruption of the blood-brain barrier. The degree of inflammation was estimated by use of a histological score (ISC) based on the extent of the inflammation in the pericystic areas as assessed in an image composed of several photomicrographs taken at 40X amplification. Parenchymal cysticerci provoked a significantly greater level of pericystic inflammation (higher ISC) after antiparasitic treatment compared to meningeal and corticomeningeal cysticerci. ISC of meningeal cysticerci was not significantly affected by treatment. In corticomeningeal cysticerci, the increase in ISC score was correlated to the extent of the cysticercus adjacent to the brain parenchyma. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier was associated with treatment only in parenchymal tissue. Significance Inflammatory response to cysticerci located in the meninges was significantly decreased compared to parenchymal cysticerci. The suboptimal inflammatory response to cysticidal drugs may be the reason subarachnoid NCC is generally refractory to treatment compared to parenchymal NCC. PMID:26658257

  13. Historic of therapeutic efficacy of albendazol sulphoxide administered in different routes, dosages and treatment schemes, against Taenia saginata cysticercus in cattle experimentally infected.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Soares, Vando Edésio; Nunes, Jorge Luis N; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Buzzulini, Carolina; Pereira, João Carlos Melo; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soccol, Vanette Thomaz; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to notify the history of albendazole sulphoxide (ALB-SO) and albendazole (ALBZ) efficacy against Taenia saginata cysticercus (Cysticercus bovis) parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. A total of 11 efficacy trials were performed between the years of 2002 and 2010. In order to perform these trials, animals were individually inoculated with 2×10(4) eggs of T. saginata in each study's day zero (D0). For every trial, a positive control group (untreated infected animals) and a negative control group (animals that were neither infected nor treated) were used. ALB-SO or ALB were administered in the different dosages, in different days of treatments. In a last study with this formulation, this active principle was administered orally, mixed with the mineral supplement, on the 60th DPI, in a dosage of 30mg/kg. In all trials, on the 100th DPI, all animals were euthanized and submitted to the sequenced slicing of 26 anatomical segments (fragments of approximately five millimeters) for the survey of T. saginata cysticercus. With the obtained results it is possible to verify that in the first trials, conducted in 2002, ALB-SO reached, independently of dosage and treatment scheme, efficacies superior to 98% (arithmetic means). The trials conducted in 2005 (2.5mg/kg on the 30th, 60th, and 90th DPI) obtained values of efficacy all inferior to 60%. In 2008, the trials with 2.5 and 7.7mg/kg demonstrated efficacy values inferior to 40%, for both dosages and treatment schemes (30th/60th/90th DPI and 60th DPI). When this formulation was administered orally on the dosage of 30mg/kg on the 60th DPI, the efficacy against T. saginata cysticercus reached 88.28%. ALB administered orally showed efficacy values of 0.0%, 29.88% and 28.64% in the dosages of 5, 10 and 15mg/kg, respectively, using the treatment schemes described above for each dosage. Based on the results of these trials, conducted in an eight year period (2002-2010) using the sequenced slicing

  14. Historic of therapeutic efficacy of albendazol sulphoxide administered in different routes, dosages and treatment schemes, against Taenia saginata cysticercus in cattle experimentally infected.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Soares, Vando Edésio; Nunes, Jorge Luis N; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Buzzulini, Carolina; Pereira, João Carlos Melo; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soccol, Vanette Thomaz; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to notify the history of albendazole sulphoxide (ALB-SO) and albendazole (ALBZ) efficacy against Taenia saginata cysticercus (Cysticercus bovis) parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. A total of 11 efficacy trials were performed between the years of 2002 and 2010. In order to perform these trials, animals were individually inoculated with 2×10(4) eggs of T. saginata in each study's day zero (D0). For every trial, a positive control group (untreated infected animals) and a negative control group (animals that were neither infected nor treated) were used. ALB-SO or ALB were administered in the different dosages, in different days of treatments. In a last study with this formulation, this active principle was administered orally, mixed with the mineral supplement, on the 60th DPI, in a dosage of 30mg/kg. In all trials, on the 100th DPI, all animals were euthanized and submitted to the sequenced slicing of 26 anatomical segments (fragments of approximately five millimeters) for the survey of T. saginata cysticercus. With the obtained results it is possible to verify that in the first trials, conducted in 2002, ALB-SO reached, independently of dosage and treatment scheme, efficacies superior to 98% (arithmetic means). The trials conducted in 2005 (2.5mg/kg on the 30th, 60th, and 90th DPI) obtained values of efficacy all inferior to 60%. In 2008, the trials with 2.5 and 7.7mg/kg demonstrated efficacy values inferior to 40%, for both dosages and treatment schemes (30th/60th/90th DPI and 60th DPI). When this formulation was administered orally on the dosage of 30mg/kg on the 60th DPI, the efficacy against T. saginata cysticercus reached 88.28%. ALB administered orally showed efficacy values of 0.0%, 29.88% and 28.64% in the dosages of 5, 10 and 15mg/kg, respectively, using the treatment schemes described above for each dosage. Based on the results of these trials, conducted in an eight year period (2002-2010) using the sequenced slicing

  15. Utility of a Protein Fraction with Cathepsin L-Like Activity Purified from Cysticercus Fluid of Taenia solium in the Diagnosis of Human Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Rueda, Daniel; López, César; Arana, Yanina; Castillo, Yesenia; Calderón, Maritza; Rodriguez, Silvia; Sheen, Patricia; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Gonzales, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, an endemic parasitic disease in most developing countries, is caused by Taenia solium and compromises the human central nervous system. Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including T. solium and constitute important antigens for immunodiagnostics. A protein fraction with cathepsin L-like activity was purified from the cysticercus fluid by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. Cathepsin L-like activity was measured fluorometrically by detecting the hydrolysis of the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. The purified protein fraction included antigens of 53 and 25 kD that were tested in a Western immunoblot and in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of human cysticercosis. The sensitivity of the Western immunoblot was 96% for patients infected with multiple cysts and 78% for patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 98%. The sensitivity of the ELISA was 98% in patients with multiple cysts and 84% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 92.7%. PMID:19478259

  16. The highly antigenic 53/25 kDa Taenia solium protein fraction with cathepsin-L like activity is present in the oncosphere/cysticercus and induces non-protective IgG antibodies in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutiérrez, Andrés H.; Rueda, Luis D.; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verástegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Sheen, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection. PMID:22119017

  17. The highly antigenic 53/25 kDa Taenia solium protein fraction with cathepsin-L like activity is present in the oncosphere/cysticercus and induces non-protective IgG antibodies in pigs.

    PubMed

    Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Gilman, Robert H; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Rueda, Luis D; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verástegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H; Sheen, Patricia

    2012-01-15

    Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection.

  18. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgG, IgM, IgE and IgA against Cysticercus cellulosae in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Odashima, Newton Satoru; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Figueiredo, José Fernando de Castro

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze different immunoglobulins classes (IgG, IgM, IgE and IgA) against Cysticercus cellulosae in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), correlating them to clinical and tomographic profiles in patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC). Eighty-five specimens of CSF were obtained from 43 cases with NCC (26 with the active form and 17 with the inactive form) and from 42 patients with other neurological diseases. The inactive form of NCC presented a profile in CSF similar to the group without NCC. The active form of NCC presented elevation of specific immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgE, and IgA) in decreasing order, with the highest values being detected among the cases with intraventricular cysts, or with inflammation signs in CSF or in those with multiple clinical manifestations. The highest sensitivity and specificity were obtained with ELISA-IgG (88.5% and 93.2%, respectively). This study confirmed the importance of ELISA in the immunologic diagnosis of NCC.

  19. Multi-test analysis and model-based estimation of the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in naturally infected dairy cows in the absence of a 'gold standard' reference test.

    PubMed

    Eichenberger, R M; Lewis, F; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Torgerson, P R; Deplazes, P

    2013-09-01

    The diagnostic values of seven serological tests (ELISAs) and of the obligatory European Union-approved routine visual meat inspection for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis were investigated. A total of 793 slaughtered dairy cows were selected in three European Union approved abattoirs in Switzerland, an endemic area (apparent prevalence by enhanced meat inspection up to 4.5%) with typically low parasite burdens. ELISAs based on a somatic larval antigen, isoelectric focused somatic larval antigen, larval excretory/secretory antigens, peptide HP6-2, peptide Ts45S-10, pooled peptide solution and a monoclonal antibody antigen capture assay were initially screened. As there is no perfect diagnostic 'gold standard' reference test, the obligatory meat inspection and four selected serological tests were further analysed using Bayesian inference to estimate the "true" prevalence and the diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities. The ELISA for specific antibody detection based on excretory/secretory antigens showed highest sensitivity and specificity with 81.6% (95% credible interval: 70-92) and 96.3% (95% credible interval: 94-99), respectively. The Bayesian model estimated the specificity of the ELISA, based on the synthetic peptide Ts45S-10 as 55.2% (95% credible interval: 46-65) and sensitivity as 84.7% (95% credible interval: 82-88). The sensitivity of the ELISA based on mAbs, detecting circulating antigen, was 14.3% (95% credible interval: 9-23) with a specificity of 93.7% (95% credible interval: 92-96). The diagnostic sensitivity of the obligatory standard European Union meat inspection procedure for the detection of T. saginata cysticercus infection at the abattoir was estimated to be 15.6% (95% credible interval: 10-23). Based on these data, the modelled prevalence of cysticercosis in dairy cows presented at abattoirs in Switzerland was estimated to be 16.5% (95% credible interval: 13-21). These cattle also had a high prevalence of infection with

  20. Cysticercus cellulosae antigens in the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Gireesh, AR

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is difficult to diagnose clinically because of its varied clinical presentation. However, an accurate diagnosis is possible only after suspicion on epidemiological grounds, proper interpretation of the clinical data, analysis of the findings on imaging studies, and specific immunological tests on the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The diagnosis of NCC by any single parameter thus continues to remain difficult. In the past, detection of NCC was based on autopsy studies and histological confirmation. In recent times, the advent of imaging methods such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have provided excellent non-invasive tools for easy detection of NCC. Nevertheless, an imaging technique of the brain, although useful, is not considered as a gold standard for the diagnosis of NCC. Serological tests are being increasingly used in adjunct with imaging techniques, to aid the diagnosis of NCC. Immunodiagnostic techniques include detection methods for specific antibodies and for circulating parasite antigens in the serum and CSF. Currently, many of the immunodiagnostic tests, including the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme immunotransfer blot, use purified native antigens for the immunodiagnosis of NCC. Nevertheless, the main problem with the use of native cysticercal antigens is that the native proteins often show cross reactions with sera from humans infected with other parasites. The preparation of native antigens also demand a constant supply of parasitic material from the intermediate host pig. In order to overcome the problems in using native antigens, the recombinant antigens or synthetic peptides, which can be produced under stable conditions, are being evaluated for the serodiagnosis of NCC. PMID:23508242

  1. Cysticercus Antigens in Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples from Patients with Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Vaz, Adelaide José; Machado, Luis Dos Ramos; Livramento, José Antônio

    2001-01-01

    Antigens were detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis (NC) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using polyclonal sera of rabbit anti-Taenia solium cysticerci (anti-Tso) and anti- Taenia crassiceps cysticerci vesicular fluid (anti-Tcra or anti-Tcra <30 kDa). A group of NC patients (n = 174) were studied (NC), including 40 patients in different phases of the disease. ELISAs carried out with the anti-Tso, anti-Tcra, and anti-Tcra <30 kDa showed sensitivities of 81.2, 90, and 95.8% and specificities of 82, 98, and 100%, respectively. The 14- and 18-kDa low-molecular-weight peptides were only detected in CSF samples from patients with NC by immunoblotting with anti-Tso and anti-Tcra sera. Because of the importance of the diagnosis and prognosis of cysticercosis, the detection of antigens may contribute as an additional marker to the study and clarification of the parasite-host relationship. PMID:11526181

  2. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature..., including examination of, but not limited to, the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of...

  3. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature..., including examination of, but not limited to, the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of...

  4. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature..., esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed during normal dressing operations, may be passed for human...

  5. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature..., esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed during normal dressing operations, may be passed for human...

  6. 9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the heart, diaphragm and its pillars, muscles of mastication, esophagus, tongue, and musculature..., esophagus, tongue, and musculature exposed during normal dressing operations, may be passed for human...

  7. Effect of some chemical agents on the viability of Cysticercus bovis.

    PubMed

    Mohamoud, Lily H; El Alfy, Nadia M

    2003-08-01

    The effect of eight chemicals; vinegar, Allium sativum (crude garlic), Acacia auriculiformis, lemon juice, praziquantel, pumpkin, perosan and yomesan on the viability of cysticerci of Taenia saginata in vitro was investigated. The minimum exposure time required for cysticerci to be non-evaginable for the eight chemicals were 5, 10, 25, 40, 55, 75, 90 and 105 minutes respectively. The best one was vinegar and the least effective was yomesan. PMID:14964654

  8. Seroprevalence of Cysticercus Antibodies in Japanese Encephalitis Patients in Upper Assam, India: A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mazumdar, Himangshu; Saikia, Lahari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Co-infection of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Cysticercosis is attributed mainly to the common epidemiological features between the two diseases. Not much is known about the clinical implications of one infection over the other. Aim The study aimed at establishing whether JE-Cysticercosis co-infection is prevalent in the Upper Assam districts and to explore additional details about such co-infections both clinically and epidemiologically. Materials and Methods The present study was a retrospective cross-sectional hospital based study conducted between July 2013 and June 2014 and included 272 Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) patients. Out of this, 137 JE positive and 135 non-JE Acute encephalitis patients were taken as cases and controls respectively. The diagnosis of JE and Cysticercosis was established by ELISA. Statistical Analysis EpiInfo ver. 7 was used for statistical analysis. Chi-square was used and p-value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The association of Cysticercosis with JE was found to be statistically significant (14.6%, p = 0.0019) in the cases with reference to the controls (3.7%). Moreover, the co-infections were found to be more common in case of adults (19.32%, p = 0.0360); with males having a greater odds (5.25, p = 0.0008) of harbouring the parasite as compared to females. Conclusion The study proves that the association of Cysticercosis and JE holds true in this region. PMID:27437215

  9. Evaluation of the protective potential of a Taenia solium cysticercus mimotope on murine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Capelli-Peixoto, Janaína; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Minozzo, João Carlos; Gabardo, Juarez; Teixeira, Kádima Nayara; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Alvarenga, Larissa Magalhães; de Moura, Juliana

    2011-11-28

    An NC-1 mimotope from Taenia solium cysticerci can help identify patients with neurocysticercosis through immunoassay. After chemical synthesis, an NC-1 peptide was coupled to bovine serum albumin (NC-1/BSA) for used as an immunogen in murine Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis, which is an experimental model of cysticercosis caused by T. solium. NC-1/BSA immunisation decreased parasitaemia by inducing 74% protection compared to the 77% protection obtained with T. crassiceps crude antigen. The influence of immunisation was also observed on the size and stage of development of the parasite. Antibodies from NC-1/BSA-immunised mice recognised proteins from the tegument and from the buddings, and intense immunostaining was observed in the final stage of the metacestode. The capacity of NC-1/BSA to induce protective antibodies which are reactive to proteins from the tegument of the metacestode suggests that this mimotope is a potential candidate for a vaccine against human and animal cysticercosis.

  10. [Cysticercus bovis in Turkey and its importance from the public health aspect].

    PubMed

    Kuş, Fatma Selcan; Sevimli, Feride Kırcalı; Miman, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to compare the different regions according to the literature on the prevalence of bovine cysticercosis and T. saginata in Turkey. Bovine cysticercosis and T. saginata status were evaluated retrospectively. The distribution of the data obtained according to provinces and regions were showed in the Table and the minumum / maximum values of this data in different regions in the Figure. The data obtained through the literature showed that the prevalence of C. bovis and T. saginata infections are parallel in the same region. The higher prevalence of both C. bovis and T. saginata infections was determined in the Southeastern Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Central Anatolia regions respectively. PMID:24659701

  11. TsAg5, a Taenia solium cysticercus protein with a marginal trypsin-like activity in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Analiz; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutiérrez, Andrés H.; Piña, Ruby; Chile, Nancy; Carrasco, Sebastián; Larson, Sandra; Mayta, Holger; Verástegui, Manuela; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; García, Héctor H.; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available Taenia solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to E. granulosus Ag5 protein. The Taenia solium cDNA sequence included a proteolytic trypsin-like-domain in the C-terminal region, and a thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain in the N-terminal region. Both the trypsin-like and adherence domains were expressed independently as recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. TsAg5 showed marginal trypsin-like activity and high sequence similarity to Ag5. The purified antigens were tested in a Western immunoblot assay to diagnose human neurocysticercosis. The sensitivity of the trypsin-like-domain was 96.36% in patients infected with extraparenchymal cysts, 75.44% in patients infected with multiple cysts, and 39.62% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 76.70%. The thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain was not specific for neurocysticercosis. PMID:21893105

  12. TsAg5, a Taenia solium cysticercus protein with a marginal trypsin-like activity in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Analiz; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Gilman, Robert H; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Piña, Ruby; Chile, Nancy; Carrasco, Sebastián; Larson, Sandra; Mayta, Holger; Verástegui, Manuela; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; García, Héctor H; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available T. solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to Echinococcus granulosus Ag5 protein. The T. solium cDNA sequence included a proteolytic trypsin-like-domain in the C-terminal region, and a thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain in the N-terminal region. Both the trypsin-like and adherence domains were expressed independently as recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. TsAg5 showed marginal trypsin-like activity and high sequence similarity to Ag5. The purified antigens were tested in a Western immunoblot assay to diagnose human neurocysticercosis. The sensitivity of the trypsin-like-domain was 96.36% in patients infected with extraparenchymal cysts, 75.44% in patients infected with multiple cysts, and 39.62% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 76.70%. The thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain was not specific for neurocysticercosis.

  13. Prevalence of Taenia saginata Larvae (Cysticercus bovis) in Feedlot Cattle Slaughtered in a Federal Inspection Type Abattoir in Northwest México.

    PubMed

    Cueto González, Sergio Arturo; Rodríguez Castillo, José Luis; López Valencia, Gilberto; Bermúdez Hurtado, Rosa María; Hernández Robles, Erika Selene; Monge Navarro, Francisco Javier

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was established using routine postmortem inspection of 52,322 feedlot cattle slaughtered at 1 Federal Inspection Type abattoir (TIF 301) located in the Mexicali Valley in Baja California, México. The study included 31,393 animals (60.0%) purchased and transported to Baja California from stocker operations located in 17 states of México and 20,929 animals (40.0%) native to Baja California. A total of 208 carcasses showed lesions suggestive of cysticercosis, and 109 were confirmed as positive for the parasite with a prevalence of 0.21%, equivalent to 2.1 cases/1000 carcasses inspected, 2.8 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle purchased in other states, and 1.0 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle native from Baja California. The sensitivity of the postmortem inspection, when compared to a gold standard of stereoscopic microscopy, was 52.4%. The prevalence of cysticercosis was 2.8 times higher in cattle from other states compared with those native to Baja California. Cysticerci were most frequently found in the heart, followed by liver and masseter muscles. In cattle from other states, 96.6% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and <4% as viable; in cattle native to Baja California, 29% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and 71% as viable. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis established at TIF 301 was found to be 28% lower than a previous report for Baja California. However, given the sensitivity of the postmortem inspection calculated between 10% and 50%, it is possible that an undetermined number of carcasses pass as being free of cysticerci and that the meat reached both domestic and international wholesale markets, increasing the possibility of human infection and causing substantial economic loss through condemnation of infected meat and trade restrictions for endemic regions. PMID:25803448

  14. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Lisandra Akemi; Rossi, Cláudio Lúcio

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA)=1.17) and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49) and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46) and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12) and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85) and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60) and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.

  15. An ocular cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia caused by Taenia solium Asian genotype.

    PubMed

    Swastika, Kadek; Dewiyani, Cokorda I; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhiko; Sudarmaja, Made; Sutisna, Putu; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2012-06-01

    An ocular cysticercosis case of a nine-year-old Balinese girl in Indonesia is reported. She presented with redness and pain in the left eye and showed a cysticercus in the anterior chamber in December 2010. Morphological feature of the cysticercus removed from the anterior chamber indicated that it was an immature cysticercus of Taenia species with no hooklets. However, mitochondrial DNA analysis using a piece of histopathological specimen revealed it a cysticercus of Taenia solium Asian genotype. Serology by immunoblot and ELISA highly specific to cysticercosis was negative.

  16. An ocular cysticercosis case: Caused by Asian genotype of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Beke, N; Khurana, S; Bhatti, H S; Sehgal, R; Malla, N

    2015-01-01

    An ocular cysticercosis case of a 42-year-old male, who presented with anterior uveitis is being reported. Microscopical examination of the cyst revealed presence of only one hooklet suggestive of T. solium cysticercus. Mitochondrial DNA analysis confirmed it to be T. solium cysticercus of Asian genotype. This is the first report on molecular typing of cysticercus isolate from ocular cysticercosis patient in India. The study suggests that the molecular analysis of cox1 gene may be a useful diagnostic tool in cases where microscopic examination is not confirmatory. PMID:26470970

  17. An ocular cysticercosis case: Caused by Asian genotype of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Beke, N; Khurana, S; Bhatti, H S; Sehgal, R; Malla, N

    2015-01-01

    An ocular cysticercosis case of a 42-year-old male, who presented with anterior uveitis is being reported. Microscopical examination of the cyst revealed presence of only one hooklet suggestive of T. solium cysticercus. Mitochondrial DNA analysis confirmed it to be T. solium cysticercus of Asian genotype. This is the first report on molecular typing of cysticercus isolate from ocular cysticercosis patient in India. The study suggests that the molecular analysis of cox1 gene may be a useful diagnostic tool in cases where microscopic examination is not confirmatory.

  18. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  19. Serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in patients with epileptic seizure using ELISA and immunoblot assay.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Maria M I; Peralta, Regina Helena S; Livramento, José A; Hoshino-Shimizu, Sumie; Peralta, José M; Vaz, Adelaide J

    2006-01-01

    Sera from 88 patients from Santa Catarina and São Paulo states of Brazil, with epileptic seizures who underwent cerebral computed tomography (CT) were analyzed for the detection of antibodies to T. solium cysticercus by ELISA and Immunoblot (IB) with the following antigens: Taenia solium cysticercus total saline (Tso), Taenia crassiceps cysticercus vesicular fluid (Tcra-vf) and T. crassiceps cysticercus glycoproteins (Tcra-gp). ELISA carried out with Tso, Tcra-vf and Tcra-gp antigens showed 95%, 90% and 80% sensitivities, respectively, and 68%, 85% and 93% specificities, respectively. In the epileptic patients group, ELISA positivity was 30%, 51% and 35% with Tso, Tcra-vf and Tcra-gp antigens respectively. Considering the IB as the confirmatory test, the positivity was 16% (14/88) in the epileptic patients total group and 22% (12/54) in the epileptic patients with positive CT and signals of cysticercosis. We found a significant statistical correlation among ELISA or IB results and the phase of the disease when any antigens were used (p < 0.05). We emphasize the need to introduce in the laboratory routine the search for neurocysticercosis (NC) in patients presenting with epileptic seizures because of the high risk of acquiring NC in our region and its potential cause of epilepsy.

  20. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  1. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  2. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  3. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  4. First Case of Human Cerebral Taenia martis Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Benoilid, Aurélien; Kremer, Stéphane; Dalvit, Constanza; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Hansmann, Yves; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Mathieu, Bruno; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Marescaux, Christian; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Taenia martis is a tapeworm affecting mustelids, with rodents serving as intermediate hosts. The larval stage (cysticercus) has been found before only rarely in humans or primates. We hereby describe a case of cerebral T. martis cysticercosis in a French immunocompetent patient, confirmed by DNA analyses of biopsy material. PMID:26019196

  5. Investigation of parasitic and bacterial diseases in pigs with analysis of hematological and serum biochemical profile.

    PubMed

    Kalai, K; Nehete, R S; Ganguly, S; Ganguli, M; Dhanalakshmi, S; Mukhopadhayay, S K

    2012-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate various disease conditions prevalent in slaughtered pigs and zoonotic importance. The study was conducted on two hundred non-descript pigs slaughtered at an organized slaughter house, Mumbai. The animals included in the study were randomly selected. Post mortem examination of the animals was performed to note various disease conditions and tissues were collected for histopathology. Direct examination of stool was found negative for parasites. Gross and microscopical examination revealed presence of Ascarops strongylina, Sarcocyst, Hydatid cyst, Cysticercus cellulosae, Ascaris suum and Cysticercus tenuicollis, along with bacteria like Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Shigella, Streptococci, Proteus and Pasteurella spp. were isolated. Indirect ELISA was performed for detection of antibody titer in the pig serum against classical swine fever. Studies on hematological and serum biochemical profile revealed decreased total protein concentration and globulin level with leukocytosis and neutrophilia and in parasitic infections eosinophilia was evident. PMID:23542948

  6. [Total protein analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis in cysticerci of Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica].

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen; Xiao, Liang-Liang; Bao, Huai-En; Mu, Rong

    2011-06-01

    Two 20-day-old three-way crossed hybrid pigs were infected with 80000 Taenia solium or T. asiatica eggs, respectively. Immature cysticerci of the two species in liver were collected at 40 days after infection. The total proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by Image-Master 2D Platinum 6.0 software. The results showed that there were (236 +/- 12) and (231 +/- 14) protein spots in 2D electrophoresis gel images of T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, with 3 proteins up-regulated and 7 proteins down-regulated in T. solium cysticercus by 2-fold or more compared with those in T. asiatica cysticercus.

  7. Molecular Diagnosis of Human Taenia martis Eye Infection.

    PubMed

    Koch, Till; Schoen, Christoph; Muntau, Birgit; Addo, Marylyn; Ostertag, Helmut; Wiechens, Burkhard; Tappe, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    Taenia martis, a tapeworm harbored in the intestine of mustelids, is a rarely encountered zoonotic cysticercosis pathogen. The larval stage closely resembles the Taenia solium cysticercus, but the natural host and thus the epidemiology of the disease is different. We here report a human eye infection diagnosed molecularly in a previously healthy female German patient. The case represents the third human infection described worldwide; the two previous cases were also European, involving eye and brain. PMID:26928837

  8. [Pediatric neurocysticercosis].

    PubMed

    Malagón Valdez, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Cysticercosis: parasitic disease which affects 3% of the population in Mexico. It is considered that there are more than 50 million infected people in the world, endemic in Mexico, Central and South America, Africa, Asia and India. It is considered the most important neurological infectious disease world-wide for its clinical manifestations. The causal agent in pigs and humans is the cysticercus of the Taenia solium, that can lodge in muscle, brain and ventricles. If pork meat contaminated with cysticercus is eaten, the tapeworm will live in the human intestine and create thousands of eggs that are excreted by the feces. When food contaminated with fecal matter is consumed by man or pig, the cisticercosis is disseminated in several parts of the organism, specially CNS. Man is the only host of the tapeworm and the pig is the only intermediary, reason why the prevalence of the teniasis-cisticercosis depends on this bond. It is diagnosed in endemic zones by the presence of convulsion crises, focal migraine, neurological symptoms, disorders of vision, endocraneal hypertension and CT scan with hypodense zones or cysts with a hyperdense ring. The antiparasitic treatment in children is controversial among pediatricians; it is suggested to use it only in the non calcified cystic phase and in cases associated with epilepsy. Few are the cases of hydrocephalic or intraventricular cysticercus that need surgical treatment.

  9. New Insights in Cysticercosis Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Carmen S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0–5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83–10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50–3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated. PMID:25329903

  10. Cysticerci-related single parenchymal brain enhancing lesions in non-endemic countries

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Nash, Theodore E.; Garcia, Hector H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Review of case reports and case series of patients with single cysticercus granulomas in non-endemic countries to determine the characteristics of this form of neurocysticercosis in these regions. Methods MEDLINE and manual search of patients with single cysticercus granulomas diagnosed in non-endemic countries from 1991 to 2011. Abstracted data included: demographic profile, clinical manifestations, form of neurocysticercosis, and whether the disease occurred in immigrants, international travelers, or citizens from non-endemic countries who had never been abroad. Results A total of 77 patients were found. Of these, 61 (79%) were diagnosed since the year 2000. Thirty-four patients (44%) patients were immigrants from endemic countries, 18 (23%) were international travelers returning from disease-endemic areas, and the remaining 25 (33%) were citizens from non-endemic countries who had never been abroad. Most immigrants and international travelers became symptomatic two or more years after returning home. Countries with the most reported patients were Kuwait (n=18), UK (n=11), Australia (n=8), USA (n=7), Japan (n=6), and Israel (n=5). Conclusions A single cerebral cysticercus granuloma in a non-endemic country is not a rare event. As seen in endemic regions, these cases have a good prognosis although more surgical procedures are performed in non-endemic countries, likely reflecting a decrease of diagnostic suspicion for cysticercosis and an increased availability of surgical options. The mean age of the reported cases was 25 years, and immigrants most often developed the disease greater than two years after arrival into a non-endemic area, suggesting a significant delay between infection and symptoms. However, some may have been infected and developed the disease while residing in non-endemic countries. PMID:22658897

  11. [The current epidemiological situation of cysticercosis in Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Andriantsimahavandy, A; Ravaoalimalala, V E; Rajaonarison, P; Ravoniarimbinina, P; Rakotondrazaka, M; Raharilaza, N; Rakotoarivelo, D; Ratsitorahina, M; Rabarijaona, L P; Ramarokoto, C E; Leutscher, P; Migliani, R

    2003-01-01

    Being associated to fecal-oral transmission, cysticercosis is contracted either by auto-infection or by ingestion of food contaminated with eggs from the pork tape worm (Taenia solium). In the stomach, the larvae named cysticercus (Cysticercus cellulosae) hatches from the eggs and invades the host through the mucosa membrane. Human cysticercosis occurs in highly prevalent proportions in many developing countries including Madagascar where hygiene conditions are deplicable. Serology tests applicable to epidemiological surveillance of cysticercosis and associated pathology in the Malagasy population have been developed: an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for screening purpose, and an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB) for confirmative testing. Two specific bands (13 and 14 kDa) have been identified as significant markers of the cysticercus in an active (vesicle) stage of the infection when cestocidal treatment is strongly indicated. The same bands may on the other hand be absent at early (cyste) as well as late (calcified) stages of the infection. Series of studies, including 4,375 serum samples, have been undertaken from 1994 until 1999 aiming at determinating the cysticercosis sero-prevalence in different provinces of Madagascar. It was confirmed that cysticercosis is highly frequent on the island, and that there exists a marked variation in the prevalence from 7 to 21% between the different provinces: less than 10% in coastal regions (Mahajanga and Toamasina) increasing to 20% in central regions (Ihosy, Ambositra and Mahasolo). It has also been observed that cysticercosis may occur in individuals at any age, and that it is equally distributed in urban as in rural areas. However, it is more frequently detected in women than in men. Madagascar is an endemic country for cysticercosis, which causes major and severe disease with implications in the public health sector. A national control program is, therefore, urgently warranted. PMID

  12. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

  13. Cysticercosis of the fallopian tube: histology and microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.L.; Spore, W.W.; Benirschke, K.

    1982-07-01

    The authors identified a degenerated, focally calcified cestode larva (cysticercus) in the fallopian tube of a 50-year-old woman with endometriosis. The physiologic reaction to the larva was minimal, with some focal granulomatous salpingitis. No other focus of infection was detected. The differential diagnosis included trophoblastic tissue, foreign material, and parasites. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis of the organism revealed concentration of iodine in the subcuticular connective tissue of the larva and confirmed the calcium phosphate composition of the calcareous corpuscles. The presumed source of the iodine was the continued exposure of the larva to an environment rich in iodide secreted by the epithelium of the fallopian tube.

  14. A case of imported neurocysticercosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Valadas, Emilia; Badura, Robert; Marques, Tiago; Neno, Miguel; Boura, Márcia; Sutre, Ana Filipa; Beato, Sílvia; Grácio, Maria Amélia; Neves, José Cordeiro

    2015-01-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in resource-poor countries. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman born and residing in Guinea-Bissau, who was transferred to Portugal two months after the onset of a possible meningitis (fever, headache, seizures, and coma) that did not respond to antibiotic treatment. The diagnosis of NCC was confirmed by MR imaging, which showed multiple lesions compatible with cysticercus, and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the cerebrospinal fluid. After 28 days on albendazole and dexamethasone without improvement, she was started on praziquantel, which she completed in six weeks with progressive recovery.

  15. Aneurysm and Neurocysticercosis: Casual or Causal Relationship? Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Agapejev, Svetlana; Parra-Marinello, João Luiz; Bazan, Rodrigo; Ueda, Anete Kinumi; Zanini, Marco Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Four cases of suggestive inflammatory aneurysms in patients with neurocysticercosis have been described. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman who presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage from a right middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysm and had a casual relationship with neurocysticercosis. At surgery, a viable cysticercus without signs of inflammation or thickened leptomeninges was found in the distal position of the aneurysm. Postoperatively, the patient received albendazole and dextrochlorpheniramine. In the subsequent three years, the patient was asymptomatic and took drugs to prevent convulsion and arterial hypertension. The relationship between NCC and the presence of cerebral aneurysm is discussed. PMID:22110518

  16. Aneurysm and neurocysticercosis: casual or causal relationship? Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Agapejev, Svetlana; Parra-Marinello, João Luiz; Bazan, Rodrigo; Ueda, Anete Kinumi; Zanini, Marco Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Four cases of suggestive inflammatory aneurysms in patients with neurocysticercosis have been described. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman who presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage from a right middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysm and had a casual relationship with neurocysticercosis. At surgery, a viable cysticercus without signs of inflammation or thickened leptomeninges was found in the distal position of the aneurysm. Postoperatively, the patient received albendazole and dextrochlorpheniramine. In the subsequent three years, the patient was asymptomatic and took drugs to prevent convulsion and arterial hypertension. The relationship between NCC and the presence of cerebral aneurysm is discussed.

  17. Parasitism among white-tailed deer and domestic sheep on common range.

    PubMed

    Prestwood, A K; Pursglove, S R; Hayes, F A

    1976-07-01

    Parasitism was studied in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) which shared a common range in eastern West Virginia. Of 30 species of internal parasites, 11 were found in deer and 22 in sheep. Five parasites, Sarcocystis sp., Cysticercus tenuicollis, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Cooperia punctata, and Gongylonema pulchrum, occurred in both deer and sheep. An index of similarity of 17.2 suggests that the parasite faunas of these hosts are distinct, and that it is unlikely that white-tailed deer are reservoirs of common parasites of domestic sheep in the southern Appalachian region.

  18. The terminology of larval cestodes or metacestodes.

    PubMed

    2002-05-01

    The terminology associated with the nomenclature of larval or metacestodes is reviewed as well as the various morphological and developmental characters used to define different types of larval cestodes. Based on a review of the literature, the key characters differentiating the types of larval cestodes are the presence of a primary lacuna and the invagination/retraction of the scolex. The presence of a cercomer and of a bladder-like enlargement of the larval cestode were considered to be useful secondary characteristics. Using these characters, six basic types of larval cestodes were identified: the procercoid, an alacunate form which cannot develop further until ingested by a second intermediate host; the plerocercus, an alacunate form with a retracted scolex; the plerocercoid, an alacunate form with an everted scolex; the merocercoid, an alacunate form with an invaginated scolex; the cysticercoid, a lacunate form with a retracted scolex; and the cysticercus, a lacunate form with an invaginated scolex. The diversity of larval types within the broad classifications of cysticercoid and cysticercus can be differentiated by the use of appropriate prefixes. Deficiencies in knowledge of specific types of larval cestodes are identified and further avenues of research are indicated.

  19. Subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to a ruptured inflammatory aneurysm: a possible manifestation of neurocysticercosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Soto-Hernandez, J L; Gomez-Llata Andrade, S; Rojas-Echeverri, L A; Texeira, F; Romero, V

    1996-01-01

    We report a case of a 32-year-old man who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. As revealed by lumbar puncture, the cerebrospinal fluid had low glucose, high protein levels, and pleocytosis with 5% of eosinophils. Cultures were negative. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and complement fixation reactions for cysticercosis in cerebrospinal fluid were positive. An angiogram revealed an aneurysm of the right anteroinferior cerebellar artery. At surgery, the aneurysm was found to be surrounded by thickened leptomeninges, which histologically presented dense inflammation and remains of Cysticercus. The aneurysm could not be clipped, and it was wrapped. Postoperatively, the patient had dizziness and right ear tinnitus. He received prednisone therapy on alternate days and subsequently received albendazole for subarachnoid cysticerci. At the 4-year follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and had normal cerebrospinal fluid. Although we cannot rule out a congenital aneurysm, its location inside an area of severe arachnoiditis around a cysticercus suggests an inflammatory origin. This type of vascular lesion not reported before should be suspected in patients with chronic cysticercotic meningitis.

  20. Current Status of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2014-01-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

  1. [Subcutaneous Taenia crassiceps-cysticercosis in a dog with Cushing's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nolte, A; Strube, C; Raue, K; Brämer, C; Baumgärtner, W; Wohlsein, P

    2016-01-01

    A male, 12-year-old Cairn terrier suffering from Cushing's syndrome with two therapy-resistant inflammatory subcutaneous lesions was examined pathomorphologically and parasitologically. Within the subcutaneous tissue, there was a suppurative to necrotizing and histiocytic inflammation present with the formation of caverns. Intralesional whitish-grey cysts with a diameter of 1-4 mm were detected. Molecular investigations of the cysts confirmed the preliminary morphological identification as Cysticercus longicollis. The adenohypophysis showed an infiltrative growing carcinoma. Cysticercus longicollis is the metacestode of Taenia (T.) crassiceps, a tapeworm of foxes and coyotes. Small rodents are typical intermediate hosts, in which the metacestode develops within the body cavities as well as in the subcutis. Subcutaneous cysticercosis after infection with eggs of T. crassiceps is also described in different domestic animal species and in humans, who represent aberrant intermediate hosts. Immunosuppression due to Cushing's syndrome, probably caused by the tumor of the adenohypophysis, may have played a role in the pathogenesis of the present case. PMID:26763526

  2. Population genetic structure of Taenia solium from Madagascar and Mexico: implications for clinical profile diversity and immunological technology.

    PubMed

    Vega, Rodrigo; Piñero, Daniel; Ramanankandrasana, Bienvenue; Dumas, Michel; Bouteille, Bernard; Fleury, Agnes; Sciutto, Edda; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis

    2003-11-01

    Taenia solium is a cestode parasitic of humans and pigs that strongly impacts on public health in developing countries. Its larvae (cysticercus) lodge in the brain, causing neurocysticercosis, and in other tissues, like skeletal muscle and subcutaneous space, causing extraneuronal cysticercosis. Prevalences of these two clinical manifestations vary greatly among continents. Also, neurocysticercosis may be clinically heterogeneous, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severely incapacitating and even fatal presentation. Further, vaccine design and diagnosis technology have met with difficulties in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. Parasite diversity underlying clinical heterogeneity and technological difficulties is little explored. Here, T. solium genetic population structure and diversity was studied by way of random amplified polymorphic DNA in individual cysticerci collected from pigs in Madagascar and two regions in Mexico. The amplification profiles of T. solium were also compared with those of the murine cysticercus Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain). We show significant genetic differentiation between Madagascar and Mexico and between regions in Mexico, but less so between cysticerci from different localities in Mexico and none between cysticerci from different tissues from the same pig. We also found restricted genetic variability within populations and gene flow was estimated to be low between populations. Thus, genetic differentiation of T. solium suggests that different evolutionary paths have been taken and provides support for its involvement in the differential tissue distribution of cysticerci and varying degrees of severity of the disease. It may also explain difficulties in the development of vaccines and tools for immunodiagnosis.

  3. Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2014-04-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

  4. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Luzón, Mónica; de la Fuente-López, Concepción; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Fernández-Morán, Jesús; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to Taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in the Madrid Zoo-Aquarium (Madrid, Spain). Under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. Most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. The loss of body weight of the animal after surgical extirpation (566 g) represented 22% of the total weight (body weight before mass removal, 2582 g). The vesicles were identified under light microscopic examination as cysticerci and by molecular diagnosis as Cysticercus longicollis, the larval form of T. crassiceps. The present report represents the first detection of T. crassiceps in the prosimian genus Lemur.

  5. Short report: cysticercosis in an Egyptian mummy of the late Ptolemaic period.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Fabrizio; Masetti, Massimo; Locci, Maria Teresa; Ciranni, Rosalba; Fornaciari, Gino

    2006-04-01

    We describe here an ancient case of cysticercosis that was discovered in an Egyptian mummy of a young woman of about 20 years of age who lived in the late Ptolemaic period (second to first centuries b.c.). On removal of the stomach and its rehydration, a cystic lesion in the stomach wall was observed by naked eye. Microscopical examination of sections of this lesion revealed a cystic structure, with a wall, with numerous projecting eversions, a characteristic feature of the larval stage (cysticercus) of the human tapeworm Taenia solium (or "pig tapeworm"). Immunohistochemical testing with serum from a T. solium-infected human confirmed the identity of the cyst. This finding is the oldest on record of the antiquity of this zoonotic parasite. This observation also confirms that, in Hellenistic Egypt, the farming of swine, along with man an intermediate host of this parasite, was present, and supports other archeological evidence. PMID:16606991

  6. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Luzón, Mónica; de la Fuente-López, Concepción; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Fernández-Morán, Jesús; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to Taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in the Madrid Zoo-Aquarium (Madrid, Spain). Under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. Most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. The loss of body weight of the animal after surgical extirpation (566 g) represented 22% of the total weight (body weight before mass removal, 2582 g). The vesicles were identified under light microscopic examination as cysticerci and by molecular diagnosis as Cysticercus longicollis, the larval form of T. crassiceps. The present report represents the first detection of T. crassiceps in the prosimian genus Lemur. PMID:20597227

  7. Taenia saginata: vaccination against cysticercosis in cattle with recombinant oncosphere antigens.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W; Rolfe, R; Gauci, C G

    1996-12-01

    Taenia saginata is a medically and economically important cestode parasite. Infection with the cysticercus larval stage in cattle causes economic loss in the beef meat industry. A practical vaccine to prevent infection with the parasite in cattle would be valuable and would assist in control of transmission of the parasite to humans, the obligate definitive host. Here we use recombinant DNA techniques to clone oncosphere antigens of T. saginata and use the recombinant antigens in vaccine trials in cattle. Vaccination with a combination of two antigens, designated TSA-9 and TSA-18, induced up to 99.8% protection against experimental challenge infection with T. saginata eggs. Operational characteristics of the vaccine will need to be defined, such as duration of immunity and protection of newborn calves. The vaccine has the potential to be used on a commercial scale for the control of bovine cysticercosis.

  8. State of the Art of Taenia solium as Compared to Taenia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review. PMID:23467388

  9. Anthelmintic profile of methyl 5(6)-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl) carbonylbenzimidazole-2-carbamate in experimental helminthiases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Khan, A M; Jain, M K; Katiyar, J C; Naim, S S; Singh, S K; Sharma, S

    1990-05-01

    Biological evaluation of methyl 5(6)-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl) carbonylbenzimidazole-2-carbamate against Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia obvelata, Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and Cysticercus fasciolaris in experimental animals is reported. The compound (mg/kg) causes 100% elimination of A. ceylanicum (25 x 1), N. brasiliensis (100 x 1), S. obvelata (50 x 1), H. nana (250 x 3) and C. fasciolaris (50 x 10). It was also effective against the developing larvae (L3, L4 and L5) of A. ceylanicum at a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg. Another study indicated that the compound elicits 100% response within 32 hr of drug administration. The drug is well tolerated and LD50 is greater than 4500 mg/kg.

  10. Cysticercosis of the central nervous system: clinical and therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Torrealba, G; Del Villar, S; Tagle, P; Arriagada, P; Kase, C S

    1984-01-01

    In a group of forty cases of cysticercosis of the central nervous system, 59% presented with intracranial hypertension due to obstructive hydrocephalus. Ventricular or cisternal cysts, and chronic cysticercus meningitis were the most common causes of hydrocephalus. Seizures occurred in 40% of the patients, in one-half of them in association with CT-detected parenchymatous cysts. In 20% of the cases progressive mental deterioration was the main clinical feature, at times associated with hydrocephalus. CT scan provided the highest diagnostic yield, being abnormal in 90% of cases. Long term prognosis was poor, with a mortality rate of 38% over a 40-month follow-up period. The most common cause of death (60%) was meningitis. CSF shunting is the treatment of choice for hydrocephalus, irrespective of its mechanism. Surgical resection is indicated in some cases with a single superficial (cortical) or posterior fossa cyst. Supratentorial cysts carry a relatively benign prognosis. Images PMID:6470720

  11. [Cathepsin L cysteine protease from Taenia solium: its biological role in the infection and potential use for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis].

    PubMed

    León, Nancy; Padilla, Carlos; Pajuelo, Mónica; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2013-07-01

    Taenia solium is a plane helminth responsible for taeniasis and human cysticercosis, the latter being the result of the consumption of infective eggs. Cysticerci can develop in different human tissues, often in the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). For the diagnosis of NCC, an adequate interpretation of clinical data, neuroimaging results and serological tests are required. However, serological tests could be improved by developing candidate antigens able to increase their sensibility and specificity. In the last years, a series of surface and secretory proteins of T. solium essential for the parasite-host interaction have been described. One of these families is cathepsin L cysteine proteases, which have a predominant role in the development and survival of the parasite. They take part in the tissue invasion, immune response evasion, excystation and encystment of cysticercus. They are considered potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

  12. State of the art of Taenia solium as compared to Taenia asiatica.

    PubMed

    Flisser, Ana

    2013-02-01

    Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review.

  13. Reversible dementia as a presenting manifestation of racemose neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sudhir; Modi, Manish; Lal, Vivek; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Bhardwaj, Amit; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Racemose cysticercosis is a less frequent presentation of neurocysticercosis (NCC). It's presentation and management is quite different from cerebral parenchymal NCC. Diagnosis of racemose cysticercosis is based on the combination of clinical, epidemiologic, radiographic, and immunologic information. Compared with cysticercus cellulose, which most commonly presents as seizures, racemose NCC due to its extraaxial location presents with raised intracranial pressure and meningitis, and frequently requires neurosurgical intervention. Dementia as a sole presenting feature of NCC is rare. We report a case of racemose NCC with dementia as the presenting manifestation. The outcome of dementia patients with NCC seems favorable in most cases therefore a high index of suspicion for NCC should be kept especially in endemic areas. PMID:23661971

  14. Tetraphyllidean cysticerci in the peritoneal cavity of the common dolphin.

    PubMed

    Norman, R J

    1997-10-01

    Cysticerci of the cestodes Monorygma grimaldii and Phyllobothrium delphini were encountered during necropsy of an adult common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) found dead on the southeastern coast of Australia. Monorygma grimaldii cysticerci were found within highly organized retroperitoneal cysts, whereas P. delphini cysticerci in the subcutaneous blubber did not occupy specialized structures. There was a localized lymphoplasmacytic host response to the presence of cysticerci of both species, but M. grimaldii provoked a more severe suppurative response than P. delphini. The systematics and life history of both parasites are incompletely known, but sharks postulated as the potential definitive hosts are found in the region. A unique cysticercus of M. grimaldii was found lying free in the peritoneal cavity of this dolphin. Two rare records of M. grimaldii cysticerci in pinnipeds from the literature include one case of aberrant migration to the testis.

  15. An investigation on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Bali.

    PubMed

    Simanjuntak, G M; Margono, S S; Schlan, R; Harjono, C; Rasidi, R; Sutopo, B

    1977-12-01

    A survey was carried out in 3 villages in Bali to determine the prevalence of taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in pigs. A total of 548 people were examined and Taenia sp. eggs were found in the faeces of 11. Four individuals passed proglottids; two T. solium and two T. saginata and three of these people also passed eggs in the faeces. A total of 12 or 2.2% were infected. Three pigs from a slaughterhouse were found heavily infected with Cysticercus cellulosae. Socio-ecological data indicate infections to be more common in people who eat raw meat dishes than those who eat fish. Poor sanitary conditions and the easy access of pigs to human faeces perpetuate the infection. PMID:614710

  16. [The National Serum Bank].

    PubMed

    Magos-López, C; Sánchez-Villarreal, F; Gutiérrez, G; Tapia-Conyer, R

    1992-01-01

    A National Serum Bank was established to store sera obtained during the National Seroepidemiological Survey performed in Mexico in 1987. More than 70,000 serum samples were obtained from subjects of either sex 1-99 years of age in each of the 32 states of the country. The current collection of sera includes 28,704 male samples and 40,629 female samples. This paper describes the procedures for handling serum samples, including reception registry, storage and distribution to several laboratories for detection of measles, rubella, poliomyelitis, AIDS, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, brucella, salmonella, amoeba, toxoplasma, American trypanosomiasis and cysticercus. Determinations of total cholesterol were also made in order to describe its distribution and to identify the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia.

  17. Human cysticercosis: antigens, antibodies and non-responders.

    PubMed Central

    Flisser, A; Woodhouse, E; Larralde, C

    1980-01-01

    Immunoelectrophoresis of sera from patients with brain cysticercosis against a crude antigenic extract from Cysticercus cellulosae indicates that nearly 50% of the patients do not make sufficient antibodies to ostensively precipitate. The other 50% of the patients who do make precipitating antibodies show a very heterogeneous response in the number of antigens they recognize as well as in the type of antigen--as classified by their electrophoretic mobilities. The most favoured, called antigen B, is recognized by 84% of positive sera and corresponds to one or a limited number of antigens isoelectric at pH 8.6. Indirect immunofluorescence with monospecific anti-human immunoglobulins, performed upon the immunoelectrophoretic preparations, reveal that all cysticercus antigens induced the synthesis of antibodies in the immunoglobulin classes in the order G greater than M greater than E greater than A greater than D. Finally, antigen H (an anodic component) seems to favour IgE relative to its ability to induce IgG. Thus, although in natural infection a good proportion of cysticercotic patients do not seem to mount an energetic antibody response against the parasite, giving rise to some speculations about immunosuppression, the fact that 50% do synthesize antibodies allows for some optimistic expectations from vaccination of humans--in view of the good results of vaccination in experimental animals mediated by IgG antibodies. A likely prospect for a human vaccine would be antigen B because it is the most frequently detected by humans, although its immunizing and toxic properties remain to be properly studied. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 6 PMID:7389197

  18. Th1 and Th2 indices of the immune response in pigs vaccinated against Taenia solium cysticercosis suggest various host immune strategies against the parasite.

    PubMed

    Díaz, María Alicia; Villalobos, Nelly; de Aluja, Aline; Rosas, Gabriela; Goméz-Conde, Eduardo; Hernández, Pablo; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2003-06-20

    Kinetics of the production of serum antibody levels and Th1 (IL-2, IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines was studied in five pigs vaccinated with a synthetic tri-peptide vaccine (S3Pvac) against Taenia solium, a vaccine that has been shown protects pigs against naturally acquired infection. Healthy pigs of mixed genetic background, similar to those bred in rural villages of Mexico, were vaccinated with S3Pvac or with adjuvant alone, kept in sanitary conditions and bled at different times after vaccination to study the development of their specific immune response. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of vaccinated pigs showed a significant increment in the production of Th1 cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) but not of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) after specific PBLs stimulation with all the individual peptides. A Th1-inclined cytokine profile leading to an exacerbated local inflammation at the early installation stage of the cysticercus may possibly interfere with their successful establishment in the serum antibodies against total cysticercus antigens and against each of the three different peptides comprising S3Pvac were detected 7-51 days after vaccination. Antibodies against GK-1 interfered with the cysticerci development into intestinal tapeworms in prednisolone-treated hamsters. The sub-lethal crippling effect of anti-GK-1 antibodies upon cysticerci indicates to a therapeutic application of S3Pvac in infected pigs having potential epidemiological consequences, as it could aid in decreasing the number of tapeworms expected to develop from the few cysticerci that survive in the vaccinated pigs.

  19. Human cysticercosis: antigens, antibodies and non-responders.

    PubMed

    Flisser, A; Woodhouse, E; Larralde, C

    1980-01-01

    Immunoelectrophoresis of sera from patients with brain cysticercosis against a crude antigenic extract from Cysticercus cellulosae indicates that nearly 50% of the patients do not make sufficient antibodies to ostensively precipitate. The other 50% of the patients who do make precipitating antibodies show a very heterogeneous response in the number of antigens they recognize as well as in the type of antigen--as classified by their electrophoretic mobilities. The most favoured, called antigen B, is recognized by 84% of positive sera and corresponds to one or a limited number of antigens isoelectric at pH 8.6. Indirect immunofluorescence with monospecific anti-human immunoglobulins, performed upon the immunoelectrophoretic preparations, reveal that all cysticercus antigens induced the synthesis of antibodies in the immunoglobulin classes in the order G greater than M greater than E greater than A greater than D. Finally, antigen H (an anodic component) seems to favour IgE relative to its ability to induce IgG. Thus, although in natural infection a good proportion of cysticercotic patients do not seem to mount an energetic antibody response against the parasite, giving rise to some speculations about immunosuppression, the fact that 50% do synthesize antibodies allows for some optimistic expectations from vaccination of humans--in view of the good results of vaccination in experimental animals mediated by IgG antibodies. A likely prospect for a human vaccine would be antigen B because it is the most frequently detected by humans, although its immunizing and toxic properties remain to be properly studied.

  20. NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS IN CHILDREN PRESENTING WITH AFEBRILE SEIZURE: CLINICAL PROFILE, IMAGING AND SERODIAGNOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Seepana, Jyotsna; Padela, Sudarsini; Sahu, Abani Kanta; Subbarayudu, Swarna; Barua, Ankur

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the major causes of childhood seizures in developing countries including India and Latin America. In this study neurological pediatric cases presenting with afebrile seizures were screened for anti-Cysticercus antibodies (IgG) in their sera in order to estimate the possible burden of cysticercal etiology. The study included a total of 61 pediatric afebrile seizure subjects (aged one to 15 years old); there was a male predominance. All the sera were tested using a pre-evaluated commercially procured IgG-ELISA kit (UB-Magiwell Cysticercosis Kit ™). Anti-Cysticercus antibody in serum was positive in 23 of 61 (37.7%) cases. The majority of cases with a positive ELISA test presented with generalized seizure (52.17%), followed by complex partial seizure (26.08%), and simple partial seizure (21.73%). Headaches were the major complaint (73.91%). Other presentations were vomiting (47.82%), pallor (34.78%), altered sensorium (26.08%), and muscle weakness (13.04%). There was one hemiparesis case diagnosed to be NCC. In this study one child without any significant findings on imaging was also found to be positive by serology. There was a statistically significant association found between the cases with multiple lesions on the brain and the ELISA-positivity (p = 0.017). Overall positivity of the ELISA showed a potential cysticercal etiology. Hence, neurocysticercosis should be suspected in every child presenting with afebrile seizure especially with a radio-imaging supportive diagnosis in tropical developing countries or areas endemic for taeniasis/cysticercosis. PMID:24879004

  1. Neurocysticercosis in children presenting with afebrile seizure: clinical profile, imaging and serodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Seepana, Jyotsna; Padela, Sudarsini; Sahu, Abani Kanta; Subbarayudu, Swarna; Barua, Ankur

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the major causes of childhood seizures in developing countries including India and Latin America. In this study neurological pediatric cases presenting with afebrile seizures were screened for anti-Cysticercus antibodies (IgG) in their sera in order to estimate the possible burden of cysticercal etiology. The study included a total of 61 pediatric afebrile seizure subjects (aged one to 15 years old); there was a male predominance. All the sera were tested using a pre-evaluated commercially procured IgG-ELISA kit (UB-Magiwell Cysticercosis Kit ™). Anti-Cysticercus antibody in serum was positive in 23 of 61 (37.7%) cases. The majority of cases with a positive ELISA test presented with generalized seizure (52.17%), followed by complex partial seizure (26.08%), and simple partial seizure (21.73%). Headaches were the major complaint (73.91%). Other presentations were vomiting (47.82%), pallor (34.78%), altered sensorium (26.08%), and muscle weakness (13.04%). There was one hemiparesis case diagnosed to be NCC. In this study one child without any significant findings on imaging was also found to be positive by serology. There was a statistically significant association found between the cases with multiple lesions on the brain and the ELISA-positivity (p = 0.017). Overall positivity of the ELISA showed a potential cysticercal etiology. Hence, neurocysticercosis should be suspected in every child presenting with afebrile seizure especially with a radio-imaging supportive diagnosis in tropical developing countries or areas endemic for taeniasis/cysticercosis.

  2. Taenia solium Infections in a Rural Area of Eastern Zambia-A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Muma, John B.; Zulu, Gideon; de Deken, Reginald; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Background Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. Methods and Findings Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and household questionnaires administered. Taeniosis was diagnosed in stool samples by coprology and by the polyclonal antibody-based copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA), while cysticercosis was diagnosed in serum by the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA). Identification of the collected tapeworm after niclosamide treatment and purgation was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total of 255 households from 20 villages participated in the study, 718 stool and 708 serum samples were collected and examined. Forty-five faecal samples (6.3%) were found positive for taeniosis on copro-Ag ELISA while circulating cysticercus antigen was detected in 5.8% (41/708) individuals. The tapeworm recovered from one of the cases was confirmed to be T. solium on PCR-RFLP. Seropositivity (cysticercosis) was significantly positively related to age (p = 0.00) and to copro-Ag positivity (taeniosis) (p = 0.03) but not to gender. Change point analysis revealed that the frequency of cysticercus antigens increased significantly in individuals above the age of 30. Copro-Ag positivity was not related to age or gender. The following risk factors were noted to be present in the study community: free-range pig husbandry system and poor sanitation with 47.8% of the households visited lacking latrines. Conclusions This study has recorded high taeniosis and cysticercosis prevalences and identified the

  3. Disparities in Beef Tapeworm Identification Rates in the Abattoirs of Gauteng Province, South Africa: A Descriptive Epidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Odoi, Agricola

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus infections (also called bovine cysticercosis or beef measles) is usually diagnosed in cattle only during post-mortem meat inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the identification rates of these infections in and to identify predictors/determinants of variations in the identification rates in abattoirs in Gauteng province, South Africa. Methods Retrospective data for over 1.4 million cattle carcasses inspected in 26 abattoirs between January 2010 and December 2013 were used for the study. The identification rates (proportion of bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus positive carcasses) were computed and generalized estimating equations used to identify predictors/determinants of identification rates. Results The overall identification rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.45, 0.95). Significantly (p< 0.05) lower rates were reported during summer (0.55%) than other seasons. Some geographic areas reported significantly (p<0.05) higher rates than others. The identification rates in high throughput abattoirs was significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 9.4; 95% CI: 4.7–19.1) than in low throughput abattoirs. Similarly, the identification rates among animals from feedlots were significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.7–3.5) than those from non-feedlot sources. No significant (p>0.05) association was identified between identification rates and either the number of meat inspectors per abattoir or the provider of inspection services. Conclusion Although no significant association was found between identification rates and provider of inspection services, follow-up studies will need to be done to specifically investigate the potential conflict of interest arising from the fact that abattoir owners hire meat inspection services directly. Capture of abattoir surveillance data needs to include farm address and for each case to be reported separately. Finally, information on the type of identified cysts (alive or calcified

  4. Neurocysticercosis: the enigmatic disease.

    PubMed

    Agapejev, Svetlana

    2011-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the metacestode larval form of the parasite Taenia sp. Many factors can contribute to the endemic nature of cysticercosis. The inflammatory process that occurs in the tissue surrounding the parasite and/or distal from it can result from several associated mechanisms and may be disproportionate with the number of cysts. This discrepancy may lead to difficulty with the proper diagnosis in people from low endemic regions or regions that lack laboratory resources. In the CNS, the cysticerci have two basic forms, isolated cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae=CC) and racemose cysts (Cysticercus racemosus=CR), and may be meningeal, parenchymal, or ventricular or have a mixed location. The clinical manifestations are based on two fundamental syndromes that may occur in isolation or be associated: epilepsy and intracranial hypertension. They may be asymptomatic, symptomatic or fatal; have an acute, sub-acute or chronic picture; or may be in remission or exacerbated. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be normal, even in patients with viable cysticerci, until the patients begin to exhibit the classical syndrome of NCC in the CSF, or show changes in one or more routine analysed parameters. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have allowed non-invasive diagnoses, but can lead to false negatives. Treatment is a highly controversial issue and is characterised by individualised therapy sessions. Two drugs are commonly used, praziquantel (PZQ) and albendazole (ABZ). The choice of anti-inflammatory drugs includes steroids and dextrochlorpheniramine (DCP). Hydrocephalus is a common secondary effect of NCC. Surgical cases of hydrocephalus must be submitted to ventricle-peritoneal shunt (VPS) immediately before cysticidal treatment, and surgical extirpation of the cyst may lead to an absence of the surrounding inflammatory process. The progression of NCC may be simple or complicated

  5. Systematic review and meta-analysis of metacestodes prevalence in small ruminants in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Sibhat, Berhanu; Abera, Mesele; Haile, Aynalem; Degefu, Hailu; Fentie, Tsegaw; Bekele, Jemere; Terefe, Getachew; Szonyi, Barbara; Robertson, Lucy J; Wieland, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Metacestodes, the larval stages of canid cestode parasites, are among the causes of morbidity, mortality and financial losses in small ruminants in Ethiopia as a result of organ and carcass condemnation at slaughter. Several studies have been conducted over the years; however, these studies often had limited scope and coverage. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to collate the information so far available in order to provide a pooled prevalence estimate at national level and identify potential predictors. Published and grey literature written in English and Amharic in the period from, 1st of January 1990 to June 25, 2015 were searched from electronic databases and repositories of academic and research institutions. Relevant animal level data on 67,743 small ruminants was extracted from 23 published articles and one master's thesis resulting altogether in 86 animal level reports that conformed to predefined criteria. The dataset was analyzed using a meta-analytical approach. The pooled prevalence estimate computed for metacestodes infection was 11.8% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 9.1, 15.4. The highest prevalence estimate 31.2% (95% CI: 23.1, 40.9) was found for Cysticercus tenuicollis (Taenia hydatigena) followed by cystic echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus) 8.8% (95% CI: 5.8, 13.1), Cysticercus ovis (Taenia ovis) 4.9% (95% CI: 2.9, 9.4) and Coenurus cerebralis (Taenia multiceps) 4.6% (95% CI: 1.6, 12.2). Among the predictors considered for heterogeneity analysis only sample size and metacestode type fitted the final multivariable meta-regression model and explained 26.3% of the explainable heterogeneity between studies (p<0.05). The prevalence was noted to decrease with increasing sample size. No significant difference in prevalence was observed between sheep and goats (p>0.05). In conclusion, this review showed a widespread occurrence of metacestodes in small ruminants in Ethiopia. Thus, a holistic approach to break the life

  6. Systematic review and meta-analysis of metacestodes prevalence in small ruminants in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Sibhat, Berhanu; Abera, Mesele; Haile, Aynalem; Degefu, Hailu; Fentie, Tsegaw; Bekele, Jemere; Terefe, Getachew; Szonyi, Barbara; Robertson, Lucy J; Wieland, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Metacestodes, the larval stages of canid cestode parasites, are among the causes of morbidity, mortality and financial losses in small ruminants in Ethiopia as a result of organ and carcass condemnation at slaughter. Several studies have been conducted over the years; however, these studies often had limited scope and coverage. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to collate the information so far available in order to provide a pooled prevalence estimate at national level and identify potential predictors. Published and grey literature written in English and Amharic in the period from, 1st of January 1990 to June 25, 2015 were searched from electronic databases and repositories of academic and research institutions. Relevant animal level data on 67,743 small ruminants was extracted from 23 published articles and one master's thesis resulting altogether in 86 animal level reports that conformed to predefined criteria. The dataset was analyzed using a meta-analytical approach. The pooled prevalence estimate computed for metacestodes infection was 11.8% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 9.1, 15.4. The highest prevalence estimate 31.2% (95% CI: 23.1, 40.9) was found for Cysticercus tenuicollis (Taenia hydatigena) followed by cystic echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus) 8.8% (95% CI: 5.8, 13.1), Cysticercus ovis (Taenia ovis) 4.9% (95% CI: 2.9, 9.4) and Coenurus cerebralis (Taenia multiceps) 4.6% (95% CI: 1.6, 12.2). Among the predictors considered for heterogeneity analysis only sample size and metacestode type fitted the final multivariable meta-regression model and explained 26.3% of the explainable heterogeneity between studies (p<0.05). The prevalence was noted to decrease with increasing sample size. No significant difference in prevalence was observed between sheep and goats (p>0.05). In conclusion, this review showed a widespread occurrence of metacestodes in small ruminants in Ethiopia. Thus, a holistic approach to break the life

  7. Immunodiagnosis of porcine cysticercosis: identification of candidate antigens through immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Masmela, Yuliet; Fragoso, Gladis; Ambrosio, Javier R; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Rosas, Gabriela; Estrada, Karel; Carrero, Julio César; Sciutto, Edda; Laclette, Juan P; Bobes, Raúl J

    2013-12-01

    Cysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is a zoonotic disease affecting pigs and humans that is endemic to developing countries in Latin America, Africa and South East Asia. The prevalence of infection in pigs, the intermediate host for T. solium, has been used as an indicator for monitoring disease transmission in endemic areas. However, accurate and specific diagnostic tools for porcine cysticercosis remain to be established. Using proteomic approaches and the T. solium genome sequence, seven antigens were identified as specific for porcine cysticercosis, namely, tropomyosin 2, alpha-1 tubulin, beta-tubulin 2, annexin B1, small heat-shock protein, 14-3-3 protein, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. None of these proteins were cross-reactive when tested with sera from pigs infected with Ascaris spp., Cysticercus tenuicollis and hydatid cysts of Echinococcus spp. or with serum from a Taenia saginata-infected cow. Comparison with orthologues, indicated that the amino acid sequences of annexin B1 and cAMP-dependent protein kinase possessed highly specific regions, which might make them suitable candidates for development of a specific diagnostic assay for porcine cysticercosis. PMID:24161749

  8. Oxfendazole flukicidal activity in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Pedro; Terrones, Susana; Cabrera, María; Hoban, Cristian; Ceballos, Laura; Moreno, Laura; Canton, Candela; Donadeu, Meritxell; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

    2014-08-01

    Although oxfendazole (OFZ) is a well know broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic, the assessment of its potential trematodicidal activity remains unexplored. OFZ administration at single high doses has been recommended to control Taenia solium cysticercus in pigs. The current study investigated the flukicidal activity obtained after a single high (30mg/kg) oral dose of OFZ in pigs harbouring a natural Fasciola hepatica infection. Sixteen (16) local ecotype pigs were randomly allocated into two (2) experimental groups of 8 animals each named as follow: Untreated control and OFZ treated, in which animals received OFZ (Synanthic(®), Merial Ltd., 9.06% suspension) orally at 30mg/kg. At seven (7) days post-treatment, all the animals were sacrificed and direct adult liver fluke counts were performed following the WAAVP guidelines. None of the animals involved in this experiment showed any adverse event during the study. OFZ treatment as a single 30mg/kg oral dose showed a 100% efficacy against F. hepatica. In conclusion, the trial described here demonstrated an excellent OFZ activity against F. hepatica in naturally infected pigs, after its administration at a single oral dose of 30mg/kg.

  9. Rickettsiae, protozoa, and opisthokonta/metazoa.

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobiales (formerly named Rickettsiales) cause in rare instances meningitis and meningovasculitis, respectively. In case of history of exposure, infection by Rhizobiales needs to be considered since both diagnosis and therapy may be extremely difficult and pathogen-specific. The same applies to protozoa; in this chapter, Babesia species, free-living amoebae and Entamoeba histolytica infection, including severe meningitis and brain abscess, infection by Trypanosoma species (South American and African trypanosomiasis) are discussed with respect to history, epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as differential diagnosis and therapy. Parasitic flatworms and roundworms, potentially able to invade the central nervous system, trematodes (flukes), cestodes (in particular, Cysticercus cellulosae), but also nematodes (in particular, Strongyloides spp. in the immunocompromised) are of worldwide importance. In contrast, filarial worms, Toxocara spp., Trichinella spp., Gnathostoma and Angiostrongylus spp. are seen only in certain geographically confined areas. Even more regionally confined are infestations of the central nervous system by metazoa, in particular, tongue worms (=arthropods) or larvae of flies (=maggots). The aim of this chapter is (1) to alert the neurologist to these infections, and (2) to enable the attending emergency neurologist to take a knowledgeable history, with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as therapeutic management possibilities.

  10. The seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis among epileptic patients in León, Nicaragua, as evaluated by ELISA and western blotting.

    PubMed

    Bucardo, F; Meza-Lucas, A; Espinoza, F; García-Jerónimo, R C; García-Rodea, R; Correa, D

    2005-01-01

    The Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex is an important public-health problem in several countries, where many epileptic seizures appear to be associated with neurocysticercosis. As few data on this problem in Nicaragua exist, the seroprevalence of antibodies reacting with antigens from T. solium cysticerci was investigated among 88 Nicaraguan epileptics (45 males and 43 females, aged 6-53 years). In questionnaire-based interviews, each adult subject and a caregiver of each child investigated were asked about potential risk factors for taeniasis/cysticercosis. When a serum sample from each subject was then checked for anti-cysticercus antibodies, 8.0% of the subjects were found seropositive by ELISA and 14.8% by western blotting. Five samples (all from individuals who had been epileptic for > 5 years) were positive in both tests. When the level of association between each potential risk factor and seropositivity (in ELISA or by blotting) was evaluated, the only statistically significant association detected was that between a positive ELISA and the subject living in a household where pigs were raised (odds ratio = 5.18; 95% confidence interval = 0.8-41.6; P = 0.05). The bands most frequently recognized in the western blots (of 50, 42-39, 24 and 14 kDa) were those previously reported. The results indicate that, in the city of Léon, cysticercosis may be endemic and the cause of a significant proportion of the epilepsy recorded.

  11. First survey of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; He, S W; Li, H; Guo, Q C; Pan, W W; Wang, X J; Zhang, J; Liu, L Z; Liu, W; Liu, Y

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present survey was to reveal the prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, the People's Republic of China. From July 2010 through February 2013, a total of 479 goats slaughtered in local abattoirs and markets were examined for the presence of helminths using a helminthological approach. Eighty-six percent of the examined goats were infected with at least one species of helminths. In total, 15 genera of helminths were found representing 2 phyla, 3 classes, 5 orders, and 11 families. Oesophago-stomum, Ostertagia and Haemonchus were the most prevailing nematode genera, Eurytrema was the predominant trematode genus detected, whereas the infection of adult goats with cestodes was not common, with Cysticercus tenuicollis being the most common genus. The worm burdens showed obvious seasonal variation in that nematodes and cestodes were abundant in summer and winter, and the trematodes peaked in winter, which was consistent with the seasonal precipitation of Hunan Province. The geographical distribution of helminths in goats ascended with altitude. Goats in the mountainous areas were more severely infected with helminths than goats in the hilly areas, whereas infection of goats with helminths was much less in the lake areas. The present investigation highlights the high prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, China, which provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of future prevention and controlling measures against helminth infection in adult goats in this province and elsewhere.

  12. Rapid increase in cystic volume of an anaplastic astrocytoma misdiagnosed as neurocysticercosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Jiang; Han, Hong-Xiu; Feng, Dong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Reports describing a rapid increase in the cystic volume of anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) in a short time frame are rare. The present study reports the case of a 68-year-old male who was admitted to the No. 9 People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine (Shanghai, China), with a small cystic brain lesion and positive immunological testing for cysticercosis. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a cystic lesion, 6 mm in diameter, in the left frontal lobe. Neurocysticercosis was suspected and the patient was treated with a clinical trial of albendazole and steroids. A period of 25 days later, the patient's condition had deteriorated, and MRI revealed a cystic lesion in the left frontal lobe; thereafter, the cystic lesion was removed and a diagnosis of AA was established. The tumor was soft, ivory white and gelatinous due to myxoid degeneration. In this case, tumor-related angiogenesis and microvascular extravasation (blood-brain barrier disruption) may have been the main cause of the rapid increase in the cystic volume in such a short time frame. The similarity of the glioma and cysticercus antigens may have been the cause of the positive reactions in the cystic fluid. The present study reports the rare occurrence of a rapid increase of cystic volume and potential diagnostic difficulties.

  13. Effective production and purification of the glycosylated TSOL18 antigen, which is protective against pig cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xuepeng; Yuan, Gailing; Zheng, Yadong; Luo, Xuenong; Zhang, Shaohua; Ding, Juntao; Jing, Zhizhong; Lu, Chengping

    2008-02-01

    Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium metacestodes is a worldwide public health problem. Important progress in the development of effective and practical vaccines against this disease has been made. In this study, the promising T. solium oncospheral vaccine candidate named TSOL18 antigen was produced in a 5-liter fermentor. During the process of fermentation, the pH of the culture was always kept below 5.0, and in order to prevent foaming, an antifoam agent was added. In addition, the oxygen content of the culture was constantly kept at >50% in our experiment. A high level of the glycosylated protein (2.5 g/liter) was obtained, and the protein was easily purified by gel chromatography. Vaccination trials showed that the recombinant TSOL18 antigen induced 94 and 100% reductions in metacestode burdens in vaccinated pigs, obviously higher than the 89% reduction in pigs immunized with cysticercus crude extracts in trial 1. These are very promising results in the development of an efficient tool to control cysticercosis in Asia.

  14. Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Pratibha

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in developing countries. It can present variably depending on the location and stage of cysts in the nervous system, and the host immune response. The most common presentation of parenchymal NCC is with seizures that are usually focal and brief; status epilepticus occurs in some cases. About a third of cases have headache and vomiting. Diagnosis is made by either CT or MRI. Single, small, contrast enhancing lesions are the most common; visualization of a scolex is diagnostic. Some cases have multiple cysts with a characteristic starry-sky appearance. Although treatment with cysticidal therapy continues to be debated, there is increasing evidence that it helps through increased and faster resolution of CT lesions; whether there is any improvement in long-term seizure control needs further study. It should not be used in cysticercus encephalitis or in ophthalmic NCC and used with caution in extraparenchymal NCC. It is of no use in calcified lesions. Corticosteroids are used simultaneously to reduce cerebral oedema. Seizures respond well to a single antiepileptic, and the seizure recurrence rate is low in cases with single lesions; those with multiple, persistent or calcified lesions usually have recurrent seizures. Extraparenchymal NCC is often associated with intracranial hypertension, hydrocephalous and chronic meningitis; it has a guarded prognosis; surgical intervention is required in many cases. Management of NCC needs to be individualized. NCC is potentially eradicable; proper sanitation, hygiene and animal husbandry are warranted. PMID:21694805

  15. The immunology of human and animal cysticercosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Flisser, A; Pérez-Montfort, R; Larralde, C

    1979-01-01

    In this review of the literature concerning the immunology of animal and human cysticercosis, emphasis is placed on whether previous exposure to the antigen confers protection to the host. Statistical analysis of the published data indicates that immunized animals have a lower risk than non-immunized animals of contracting cysticercosis, there being large variations within and between different host-cysticercus relationships. There is no indication as to which antigen is best for immunization but, although live parasites in all stages of development, or extracts, appear to give protection, embryos, eggs, and excretions are most frequently used. Antibodies appear to be the principal mediators of resistance, but the action seems to be only upon very young larvae, while fully grown cysticerci are unharmed. Several immunological methods are valuable in the diagnosis of cysticercosis, the choice depending more on the purpose of the study than on differences in their ability to discriminate between healthy and sick. The presence of anticysticercus antibodies in the serum of up to 50% of human patients indicates that human vaccination may be possible in high-risk areas; the remaining patients pose an interesting problem open to speculation and research on immunological evasion, immunodepression, and the existence of serotypes.

  16. Recombinant bacteriophage-based multiepitope vaccine against Taenia solium pig cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Manoutcharian, Karen; Díaz-Orea, Alicia; Gevorkian, Goar; Fragoso, Gladis; Acero, Gonzalo; González, Erik; De Aluja, Aline; Villalobos, Nelly; Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Sciutto, Edda

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to test the capacity of recombinant phages to deliver antigens for vaccination against porcine cysticercosis. Thus, three peptides (KETc1, KETc12, GK1) and a recombinant antigen KETc7, previously proven to induce high levels of protection against pig cysticercosis, were expressed on the surface of the M13 bacteriophage at multiple copies. The pool of these four recombinant phages induced high levels of protection against an experimental murine cysticercosis. The immunogenicity of the phage vaccine preparation was therefore, tested in pigs, the natural host of Taenia solium. Subcutaneous or oral vaccination with these phages induced antigen-specific cellular immune responses in pigs. Preliminary data also points to the protective capacity of this recombinant phage vaccine against pig cysticercosis. The immunogenicity of these recombinant phages, together with the low cost of their production, make them a realistic candidate to be tested in pigs as an anti-cysticercus phage vaccine for field trials. This is the first report describing the application of a filamentous bacteriophage as a vaccine in large animals such as pigs, the only intermediate hosts of T. solium, a parasite of major medical importance in developing countries. The potential application of phages as a modern platform for vaccines for human and animal diseases is discussed.

  17. Cysticercosis: identification and cloning of protective recombinant antigens.

    PubMed

    Manoutcharian, K; Rosas, G; Hernandez, M; Fragoso, G; Aluja, A; Villalobos, N; Rodarte, L F; Sciutto, E

    1996-04-01

    We describe the cloning and the evaluation of the protective capacity of 5 recombinant antigens expressed during the cysticercus stage of both Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium. A cDNA library was constructed in bacteriophage lambda ZAP using mRNA isolated from larvae of T. crassiceps of the ORF strain. The recombinant phage library was screened with polyclonal antibodies against 56- and 74-kDa protective antigen fractions. This screening identified 13 recombinant clones, 5 of which were also strongly recognized by pooled sera from pigs experimentally infected with T. solium. The native antigens are proteins of 56 (clones KETcl, 4, 7) and 74 and 78 kDa (clones KETc11, 12) of T. crassiceps cysticerci. Vaccination experiments using these 5 recombinant clones against murine cysticercosis point to the relevance of KETcl, 4, 7, and 12 in host protection, whereas immunization with the clone KETc11 does not modify the parasite load in females and facilitates the parasitosis in males. We report here the DNA and the deduced amino acid sequence (100 amino acids) of the first protective antigen (KETc7) of potential interest for T. solium pig cysticercosis prevention.

  18. Effective Production and Purification of the Glycosylated TSOL18 Antigen, Which Is Protective against Pig Cysticercosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xuepeng; Yuan, Gailing; Zheng, Yadong; Luo, Xuenong; Zhang, Shaohua; Ding, Juntao; Jing, Zhizhong; Lu, Chengping

    2008-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium metacestodes is a worldwide public health problem. Important progress in the development of effective and practical vaccines against this disease has been made. In this study, the promising T. solium oncospheral vaccine candidate named TSOL18 antigen was produced in a 5-liter fermentor. During the process of fermentation, the pH of the culture was always kept below 5.0, and in order to prevent foaming, an antifoam agent was added. In addition, the oxygen content of the culture was constantly kept at >50% in our experiment. A high level of the glycosylated protein (2.5 g/liter) was obtained, and the protein was easily purified by gel chromatography. Vaccination trials showed that the recombinant TSOL18 antigen induced 94 and 100% reductions in metacestode burdens in vaccinated pigs, obviously higher than the 89% reduction in pigs immunized with cysticercus crude extracts in trial 1. These are very promising results in the development of an efficient tool to control cysticercosis in Asia. PMID:18070907

  19. Evaluating the Efficacy of Teaching Methods Regarding Prevention of Human Epilepsy Caused by Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Wohlgemut, Jared; Dewey, Cate; Levy, Mike; Mutua, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a major cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. A questionnaire was administered to 282 Kenyan farmers, followed by a workshop, a second questionnaire, one-on-one training, and a third questionnaire. People who attended workshops were more likely to know how T. solium causes epilepsy in humans in the third visit than the second (P = 0.001). The likelihood that farmers would tether their pigs 100% of the time, limiting exposure to tapeworm eggs, increased after the first (P < 0.001) and second visits (P < 0.001). Farmers were more likely to have heard of Cysticercus cellulosae in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.007), and to know how pigs acquire infection in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.003). Farmers with at least a grade 8 education were more likely to know how T. solium is transmitted to humans in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.009), and were more likely to understand the relationship between epilepsy and T. solium in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.03). Grade 8 education may enhance learning from written material. Workshops followed by individual on-farm training enhanced knowledge acquisition and behavior changes. Training local government extension workers contributed to the sustainability of this project. PMID:20348512

  20. Rapid increase in cystic volume of an anaplastic astrocytoma misdiagnosed as neurocysticercosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Jiang; Han, Hong-Xiu; Feng, Dong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Reports describing a rapid increase in the cystic volume of anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) in a short time frame are rare. The present study reports the case of a 68-year-old male who was admitted to the No. 9 People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine (Shanghai, China), with a small cystic brain lesion and positive immunological testing for cysticercosis. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a cystic lesion, 6 mm in diameter, in the left frontal lobe. Neurocysticercosis was suspected and the patient was treated with a clinical trial of albendazole and steroids. A period of 25 days later, the patient's condition had deteriorated, and MRI revealed a cystic lesion in the left frontal lobe; thereafter, the cystic lesion was removed and a diagnosis of AA was established. The tumor was soft, ivory white and gelatinous due to myxoid degeneration. In this case, tumor-related angiogenesis and microvascular extravasation (blood-brain barrier disruption) may have been the main cause of the rapid increase in the cystic volume in such a short time frame. The similarity of the glioma and cysticercus antigens may have been the cause of the positive reactions in the cystic fluid. The present study reports the rare occurrence of a rapid increase of cystic volume and potential diagnostic difficulties. PMID:27698865

  1. PARASITES TRANSMITTED TO HUMAN BY INGESTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF MEAT, EL-MINIA CITY, EL-MINIA GOVERNORATE, EGYPT.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas Hamed; Kamal, Amany Mohamed; Abdelgelil, Noha Hamed; Abdel-Fatah, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Meat-borne parasites are Sarcocystis species, Toxoplasma gondii, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis. A total of 300 animals including 100 cattle, 100 goat, and 100 pigs, slaughtered in El-Minia governmental slaughterhouses. From each animal, five samples were taken from different muscles (esophageal, tongue and cardiac) and different organs (liver and brain). Meat samples were examined macroscopic and microscopic (direct, homogenization and H&E staining) for detection of the above-mentioned parasites. Serum samples were subjected to IHA for detection of T gondii specific antibodies. This study revealed that Sarcocystis species were the highest parasites that could be detected, with overall prevalence of 80%, which was statistically significant (P < or = 0.001). The digestion method was more sensitive than direct method for detection of Sarcocystis species. On the other hand, T. gondii was only diagnosed by using IHA test as 50.9% serum samples were positive, which was statistically significant (P < or = 0.004). Besides, 20% of examined battle were infected by Cysticercus bovis, and 12% of pigs were infected with C. cellulosae, but without statistical significant (P < or = 0.5). PMID:26939246

  2. Bio-guided identification of proteins for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in swine.

    PubMed

    Nativel, Priscilla; Rahantamalala, Anjanirina; Ramiandrisoa, Sitraka; Rasoamampianinaa, Virginie; Duchateau, Magalie; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Guebey, Remy; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, Harentsoaniaina; Jambou, Ronan

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most prevalent parasitic infection of the brain and the most common cause of seizures in adults in tropical countries. Cysticercosis is caused by larvae of Taenia solium, a human tapeworm. Pig or humans are infected by ingestion of eggs in food contaminated by human feces. Diagnosis and treatment of pigs is a pillar of the control of the disease in a country. However current diagnostic tests are based on ELISA and/or Western blot using native antigens needing laboratory facilities not available in rural areas. Development of a pen side diagnostic test for swines, makes sense. Immunochromatographic test should be adapted for this purpose. To design it we started a bio-guided identification of new proteins in cysticercus fluid. Proteins were analyzed using ion exchange chromatography and 2D separation and were selected by Western blot analysis using sera from infected/non infected pigs. Spots from the Coomassie-stained gel corresponding to these proteins were then analyzed by mass spectroscopy and proteins were identified using a bank of Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) of T. solium. Eighteen new proteins of interest were identified and nine were selected for further development. PMID:26995717

  3. Orbital Cysticercosis - masquerading as preseptal cellulitis with ptosis.

    PubMed

    Raj, Amit; Arya, Sudesh Kumar; Topiwala, Pratik; Gupta, Panchmi; Sood, Sunandan

    2015-07-01

    We are sharing a case of orbital cysticercosis,which presented to us initially with simple ptosis and later on with upper lid inflammation and restricted ocular motility in upgaze. Human cysticercosis, a parasitic infection caused by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of the cestode, Taenia solium, is a benign infection of the subcutaneous tissues, inter-muscular fascia, muscles and other organs. Though it exists worldwide, it is more prevalent in the developing countries of Latin America, Asia and Africa, especially in areas where under-cooked pork is consumed regularly (Pushker et al, 2001). However, 5 year study of 33 cases of Ocular/Adnexal cysticercosis showed seventy percent of patients were of low socioeconomic group and 70% were strictly vegetarians (Atul et al, 1995). The clinical manifestation of orbital cysticercosis is entirely different from neuro-cysticercosis or cysticercosis of other parts of body. Diagnosis of cysticercosis is mainly based on highly specific radiological signs and history of exposure in endemic areas. PMID:27363971

  4. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and Taenia hydatigena in pig in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Danieli Urach; Botton, Sônia de Avila; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Haag, Karen Luisa; Musskopf, Germano; Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Weiblen, Carla; Ribeiro, Tatiana Correa; de la Rue, Mário Luiz

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the parasitical etiologic agents of visceral cysts in pigs from the central/northern region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Fifty-eight cysts were found in livers during veterinary inspection of swine slaughtered from January 2008 to 2012. Collected samples were submitted to macroscopic and molecular analyzes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing and BLAST alignment of sequences was used to molecular characterization of the samples. By PCR 10.3% (6/58) of tested samples were positive for Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and 56.9% (33/58) for Cysticercus tenuicollis. In this study, it was verified the occurrence of larval forms of E. granulosus sensu lato and Taenia hydatigena in pig herds from the central/northern region of Rio Grande do Sul State. The presence of both parasites is relevant due to the economic losses for the meat industry. Additionally, E. granulosus sensu lato has zoonotic importance and may be infecting pig herds in southern Brazil.

  5. The immunology of human and animal cysticercosis: a review

    PubMed Central

    Flisser, A.; Pérez-Montfort, R.; Larralde, C.

    1979-01-01

    In this review of the literature concerning the immunology of animal and human cysticercosis, emphasis is placed on whether previous exposure to the antigen confers protection to the host. Statistical analysis of the published data indicates that immunized animals have a lower risk than non-immunized animals of contracting cysticercosis, there being large variations within and between different host—cysticercus relationships. There is no indication as to which antigen is best for immunization but, although live parasites in all stages of development, or extracts, appear to give protection, embryos, eggs, and excretions are most frequently used. Antibodies appear to be the principal mediators of resistance, but the action seems to be only upon very young larvae, while fully grown cysticerci are unharmed. Several immunological methods are valuable in the diagnosis of cysticercosis, the choice depending more on the purpose of the study than on differences in their ability to discriminate between healthy and sick. The presence of anticysticercus antibodies in the serum of up to 50% of human patients indicates that human vaccination may be possible in high-risk areas; the remaining patients pose an interesting problem open to speculation and research on immunological evasion, immunodepression, and the existence of serotypes. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 4(Contd.) PMID:396058

  6. Immunodiagnosis of porcine cysticercosis: identification of candidate antigens through immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Masmela, Yuliet; Fragoso, Gladis; Ambrosio, Javier R; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Rosas, Gabriela; Estrada, Karel; Carrero, Julio César; Sciutto, Edda; Laclette, Juan P; Bobes, Raúl J

    2013-12-01

    Cysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is a zoonotic disease affecting pigs and humans that is endemic to developing countries in Latin America, Africa and South East Asia. The prevalence of infection in pigs, the intermediate host for T. solium, has been used as an indicator for monitoring disease transmission in endemic areas. However, accurate and specific diagnostic tools for porcine cysticercosis remain to be established. Using proteomic approaches and the T. solium genome sequence, seven antigens were identified as specific for porcine cysticercosis, namely, tropomyosin 2, alpha-1 tubulin, beta-tubulin 2, annexin B1, small heat-shock protein, 14-3-3 protein, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. None of these proteins were cross-reactive when tested with sera from pigs infected with Ascaris spp., Cysticercus tenuicollis and hydatid cysts of Echinococcus spp. or with serum from a Taenia saginata-infected cow. Comparison with orthologues, indicated that the amino acid sequences of annexin B1 and cAMP-dependent protein kinase possessed highly specific regions, which might make them suitable candidates for development of a specific diagnostic assay for porcine cysticercosis.

  7. The influence of habitat fragmentation on helminth communities in rodent populations from a Brazilian Mountain Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, T S; Simões, R O; Luque, J L F; Maldonado, A; Gentile, R

    2016-07-01

    The influence of habitat structure on helminth communities of three sigomdontinae rodent species (Akodon cursor, A. montensis and Oligoryzomys nigripes) was investigated in forest fragments within an agricultural landscape in south-eastern Brazil. This is a pionner study correlating the occurrence of helminth species of rodent hosts with microhabitat characteristics. Rodents were collected from 12 fragments and in a continuous conserved area. Up to 13 nematode, three cestode and two trematode species were identified, and habitat fragmentation was found to have more influence on the helminth composition of O. nigripes compared to the other two rodent species. Fragmentation appeared to limit the development of some helminths' life cycles, e.g. with some species such as Trichofreitasia lenti, Protospirura numidica, Cysticercus fasciolaris and Avellaria sp., occurring mostly in areas with less anthropic impact. However, fragmentation did not seem to affect the life cycles of other dominant helminths, such as the trematode Canaania obesa, the nematodes Stilestrongylus lanfrediae, S. eta and S. aculeata, and the cestode Rodentolepis akodontis. The helminth community structure followed a nested pattern of distribution in A. montensis and O. nigripes. Stilestrongylus lanfrediae seemed to be more associated with dense understorey, C. obesa with open canopy and dense understorey, and Guerrerostrongylus zetta with organic matter on the ground. Their presence in each area may be explained by aspects of their life cycles that take place in the external environment outside the host.

  8. Immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis (Taenia solium) with antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, E; Tavares, C A; Lopes, J D

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were generated from mice immunized with scolex protein antigen of Cysticercus cellulosae. Three monoclonal antibodies specific for cysticercal antigens, which did not show any cross-reactivity with Taenia solium or Taenia saginata antigens, were selected. Each monoclonal antibody coupled to Sepharose could purify one antigen, which appeared as a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies were used to detect antibody in serum samples taken from patients with cysticercosis, taeniasis, and other parasitic infections in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, cross-reactivity was observed until a serum dilution of 1:128 was reached. Since serum samples from unexposed subjects showed positive reactions until a dilution of 1:64 was reached, we chose a discriminative dilution (1:128) above which no cross-reaction was observed. The percent positive serum samples from cysticercosis patients was 100% by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with any of the antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies. Images PMID:3611310

  9. Influence of Gender on Cardiac and Encephalic Inflammation in the Elderly with Cysticercosis: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Corrêa, Rosana Rosa Miranda; Ferraz, Mara Lúcia Fonseca; Rocha, Laura Penna; Faleiros, Ana Carolina Guimarães; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes

    2012-01-01

    Background. The present study explores the influence of the host's age and gender upon the inflammatory infiltrate. We aimed to quantify the inflammatory infiltrate caused by cysticercosis, which is related to aging, in the heart and in the encephalon. Methods. 75 autopsy protocols with cysticercosis diagnosis from department of pathology at a university hospital from 1970 to 2008 were reviewed. Two groups were formed: elderly with cysticercosis and nonelderly with cysticercosis. We used KS-300 (Kontron-Zeiss) software for morphometric analysis of the inflammation. Results. The elderly had an average of 3.1 ± 2.5 cysticerci, whereas the non-elderly had 2.7 ± 3.8 parasites. The non-elderly group with cysticercosis had significantly more inflammation, both cardiac and encephalic, than the elderly group. The elderly females with cysticercosis had more cardiac and encephalic inflammation. Conclusions. In this study, we showed that the non-elderly had significantly more cardiac and encephalic inflammation than the elderly, and that such inflammatory infiltrate decreases with age and depends upon the evolutionary stage of the cysticercus. Furthermore, there are differences concerning gender in the intensity of the inflammatory response due to cysticerci in the heart and brain parenchyma during senescence. Even during this period, women continue to have a more intense response to the parasitosis. PMID:23056059

  10. Genetic similarity between cysticerci of Taenia solium isolated from human brain and from pigs.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa-Juarez, Araceli Consuelo; Sandoval-Balanzario, Miguel; McManus, Donald Peter; Monroy-Ostria, Amalia

    2008-09-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) cox1 and ribosomal ITS1 DNA sequences from Taenia solium cysticercus isolates from pigs and cysticerci (racemose and cellulose types) from patients with neurocysticercosis were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplicons were sequenced in order to determine the genetic relationship between these types of cysticerci. Phylogenetic trees were constructed and evolutionary distances were calculated. ITS1 and mt cox1 cysticerci sequence data were compared with previously published Taenia spp. sequences. The variation in the ITS1 and cox1 sequences of samples collected from Mexico was minimal, regardless of geographical origin, size or colour of cysticerci from either pigs or human brain. These results suggest that the racemose and cellulose types represent genetically identical metacestodes of T. solium. Alignment of the mt cox1 sequences of the Mexican samples with sequences of other Taenia taxa showed that most were very similar to T. solium from Mexico and T. solium from Colombia; one T. solium Mexican isolate and Taenia hydatigena were placed in the same group close to Taenia crassiceps. The ITS1 sequences for the Mexican T. solium samples indicated the majority were in the same group as the Latin American T. solium. Two Mexican T. solium samples and T. solium from Philippines were placed together in a different group.

  11. Cognitive Dysfunction and its Determinants in Patients with Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Vinod; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Christopher, Rita; Rajeswaran, Jamuna; Prasad, Chandrajit; Subasree, R.; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic infection of man. In addition to a headache, seizures, and focal deficits, this is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction. Many studies revealed that the number and location of lesions are not always responsible for cognitive dysfunction. Cholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase are found in the walls of the cysticercus which could contribute to cholinergic depletion and thus cognitive dysfunction. Patients and Methods: A total of 43 patients who presented with NCC were evaluated for cognitive deficits, as well as cholinesterase levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with control CSF from patients undergoing spinal anesthesia. Blood levels of interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were also estimated and correlated with cognitive deficits. Results: There is a mild increase in the acetylcholinesterase in CSF of patients compared to controls, but it did not correlate with cognitive deficits. There is an increase in interleukins to a significant level which correlates with vesicular stage of the organism and cognitive impairment. The number of lesions also correlated with cognitive impairment even though the location did not. The domains of cognitive deficits seen are sustained attention, category fluency, verbal working memory, planning, set shifting, verbal learning, visual memory, and construction. Discussion and Conclusion: NCC is associated with multi-domain cognitive impairment correlates with vescicular stage, proinflammatory cytokines and number of lesions but not location, vesicular stage, and proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:27114627

  12. Analysis of cells in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with neurocysticercosis by means of flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Bueno, E C; Vaz, A J; Oliveira, C A; Machado, L R; Livramento, J A; Mielli, S R; Ueda, M

    1999-06-15

    The events of the cellular immune response in neurocysticercosis (NC) are not fully understood. Studies of the CD3, CD3/CD4, CD3/CD8, CD45/CD19, and CD45/CD56 molecules and activation-related CD69 molecule in cells from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood (PB) of patients with NC may provide a better elucidation of the inflammatory and immunological events occurring in this disease. Seven patients with NC and 3 individuals with other disorders were evaluated by a three-color flow cytometric method. CD69 was detected in a higher percentage of cells in all CSF samples from patients, but not in PB or CSF from the control group. The percentage of CD3+ cells did not differ significantly in CSF and PB cells from patients and controls. The predominance of CD3+CD8+ cells was observed in CSF from one patient and in PB from 2 patients, who were in stage III of the disease (inflammatory process). The percentage of CD45+CD19+ cells was higher in CSF than in PB from patients who presented anti-cysticercus antibodies in CSF. The percentage of CD45+CD56+ cells in CSF was higher than in PB, but this rate was similar to reference values reported by other authors. Our data suggest that the cytometric method applied to a larger number of CSF samples may provide a better understanding of the cell-mediated immune response involved in NC.

  13. Evaluation of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticercal antigens for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Arruda, G C; da Silva, A D T; Quagliato, E M A B; Maretti, M A; Rossi, C L

    2005-10-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of seven cysticercal antigen extracts, four from Taenia solium cysticerci (whole parasite-TsoW, membrane-TsoMe, vesicular fluid-TsoVF and scolex-TsoSc) and three from T. crassiceps cysticerci (whole parasite-TcraW, membrane-TcraMe and vesicular fluid-TcraVF), for serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cysticercus-specific IgG were screened in serum samples from 23 patients with neurocysticercosis, 32 patients with other infections and 48 healthy persons. The best results were obtained with the TsoVF-ELISA (91.3% sensitivity; 96.2% specificity) and TcraVF-ELISA (91.3% sensitivity; 95% specificity). The ELISA done with whole parasite and membrane extracts from cysts of T. solium and T. crassiceps and the scolex extract from T. solium cysts showed a low performance in terms of sensitivity, ranging from 47.8% to 73.9%. None of the antigen preparations from T. solium and T. crassiceps cysticerci used in this study showed outstanding performance for the serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. However, considering the results obtained with the seven antigen preparations, vesicular fluid from T. solium and T. crassiceps cysticerci may be useful for detecting specific antibodies in sera from patients with neurocysticercosis.

  14. Immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using a synthetic peptide selected by phage-display.

    PubMed

    Hell, R C R; Amim, P; de Andrade, H M; de Avila, R A M; Felicori, L; Oliveira, A G; Oliveira, C A; Nascimento, E; Tavares, C A P; Granier, C; Chávez-Olórtegui, C

    2009-04-01

    The usefulness of a synthetic peptide in the serodiagnosis of Taenia solium human neurocysticercosis (NC) has been evaluated. Phage-displayed peptides were screened with human antibodies to scolex protein antigen from cysticercus cellulosae (SPACc). One clone was found to interact specifically with anti-SPACc IgGs. The corresponding synthetic peptide was found to be recognized in ELISA by NC patient's sera. The study was carried out with sera from 28 confirmed NC patients, 13 control sera and 73 sera from patients suffering from other infectious diseases. A 93% sensibility and a 94.3% specificity was achieved. Figures of 89% and 31.4% of sensibility and specificity were obtained in a SPACc-based ELISA. Immunoblotting of SPACc with anti-peptide antibodies revealed a single band of approximately 45 kDa in 1D and four 45 kDa isoforms in 2D-gel electrophoresis. A strong and specific immunostaining in the fibers beneath the suckers, at the base of the rostellum, and in the tissue surrounding the scolex of cysticerci was observed by immunomicroscopy. Our results show that a peptide-based immunodiagnostic of neurocisticercosis can be envisioned.

  15. Neurocysticercosis in Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. An endemic area?

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Coêlho, T D; Coêlho, M D

    1996-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the central nervous system infestation by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium. It is related to poor hygiene habits and sanitation; although Northeast is poorest Region of Brazil, it has been always stated as a non-endemic area. After the installation of computed tomography (CT) service, the incidence of neurocysticercosis began to raise in neurology services in Campina Grande PB, a city where people from the interior Paraíba can find specialized medical facilities. We analyse 5,883 CT record of the TomoHPI Computed Tomography Service from August 1993 to December 1995, observing 1.02% suggestive neurocysticercosis cases and classified them according to sex and age, procedence and socioeconomic condition. Distribution of cases according to age is homogeneous until the age of 50 (mean: 28.36 years old). Men and women are equally affected. Urban areas inhabitants represented 83.33%. Residents of Campina Grande represented 48.33% and 48.34% were residents of cities around Campina Grande (until 50 Km around) and other cities of Paraíba State. Fifty-eight patients were dependent to public health care system. We conclude that neurocysticercosis seems to be endemic in Paraiba State, demanding a more detailed study to determine its incidence/prevalence.

  16. [Report on the first nationwide survey of the distribution of human parasites in China. 1. Regional distribution of parasite species].

    PubMed

    Yu, S; Xu, L; Jiang, Z; Xu, S; Han, J; Zhu, Y; Chang, J; Lin, J; Xu, F

    1994-01-01

    A nationwide (Taiwan Province not included) survey of the distribution of human parasites in China during 1988-1992 was conducted under the auspices of the Ministry of Public Health, with stratified masses randomly sampling. A total of 2,848 pilot sites in 726 counties with a population of 1,477,742 were surveyed, according to unified standard, unified diagnostic method and control quality. The overall infection rate of parasites was 62. 632%. Among them, the infection rate was over 50% in 17 provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities (P/A/M), over 80% in Hainan, Guangxi, Sichuan, Fujian, Zhejiang and Guizhou, being highest in Hainan (94. 735%). Altogether 56 species were detected. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time at home, Echinochasmus liliputanus and Echinostoma angustitestis are reported for the first time at home and abroad. Echinochasmus fujianensis is a new species. E. histolytica, G. lamblia, A. lumbricoides, whipworm and pinworm were distributed nationwide, while Cysticercus (27 P/A/M), Taenia (27), hookworm (26), Balantidium coli (22), Clonorchis sinensis (22), Paragonimus westermani (21), H. diminuta (21), Echinococcus (18), H. nana (17), Fasciolopsis buski (16), T. spiralis (12) were distributed non-nationwide. A preliminary suggestion on intervention of the common and/or most detrimental parasitic diseases was submitted, including hydatidosis, taeniasis, cysticercosis, clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, trichinellosis, hookworm disease, ascariasis, trichuriasis and enterobiasis. PMID:7720194

  17. A preliminary investigation into the genetic variation and population structure of Taenia hydatigena from Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Scala, Antonio; Lahmar, Samia; Pointing, Steve; Craig, Philip S; Dessì, Giorgia; Zidda, Antonella; Pipia, Anna Paola; Varcasia, Antonio

    2015-11-30

    Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena is endemic in Sardinia. Information on the genetic variation of this parasite is important for epidemiological studies and implementation of control programs. Using two mitochondrial genes, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) we investigated the genetic variation and population structure of Cysticercus tenuicollis from Sardinian intermediate hosts and compared it to that from other hosts from various geographical regions. The parsimony cox1 network analysis indicated the existence of a common lineage for T. hydatigena and the overall diversity and neutrality indices indicated demographic expansion. Using the cox1 sequences, low pairwise fixation index (Fst) values were recorded for Sardinian, Iranian and Palestinian sheep C. tenuicollis which suggested the absence of genetic differentiation. Using the ND1 sequences, C. tenuicollis from Sardinian sheep appeared to be differentiated from those of goat and pig origin. In addition, goat C. tenuicollis were genetically different from adult T. hydatigena as indicated by the statistically significant Fst value. Our results are consistent with biochemical and morphological studies that suggest the existence of variants of T. hydatigena. PMID:26296591

  18. An analysis of seroprevalence and risk factors for parasitic infections of economic importance in small ruminants in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kouam, Marc K; Diakou, Anastasia; Kantzoura, Vaia; Feidas, Haralambos; Theodoropoulou, Helen; Theodoropoulos, Georgios

    2014-10-01

    A cross-sectional serological survey was carried out to screen the small ruminants of Thessaly, Greece, for infection with Haemonchus contortus, lungworms (i.e. Cystocaulus ocreatus, Muellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens and Neostrongylus linearis) as a group, and for Cysticercus tenuicolis, Linguatula serrata and Oestrus ovis. A second objective was to determine the risk factors related to herd characteristics, management practices, farmer status and bioclimatic variables associated with these parasitic infections. A total of 361 sheep and 179 goat serum samples were examined. The seroprevalences were 33.9%, 41.5%, 14.1%, 4.6% and 1.4% for H. contortus, lungworms, L. serrata, C. tenuicolis and O. ovis, respectively. The final logistic regression model showed that farm location and temperature were associated with H. contortus, lungworm and L. serrata infections. Anthelmintic treatment, class of anthelmintic and rotation of grazing were associated with H. contortus and lungworm infections, while grazing with other herds was associated with lungworm and L. serrata infections; rain was associated with H. contortus and L. serrata infections. Farm type and age of farmer were associated with H. contortus infections and elevation was associated with lungworm infection. The results may help to formulate appropriate control strategies in Greece and other areas with similar climatic conditions in order to channel limited resources to mitigate only those risk factors which are significant to protect the profitability of the livestock industry.

  19. Genetic variability of Taenia saginata inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Sima; Salavati, Reza; Beech, Robin N; Babaei, Zahra; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2015-04-01

    Taenia saginata is an important tapeworm, infecting humans in many parts of the world. The present study was undertaken to identify inter- and intraspecific variation of T. saginata isolated from cattle in different parts of Iran using two mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA genes. Up to 105 bovine specimens of T. saginata were collected from 20 slaughterhouses in three provinces of Iran. DNA were extracted from the metacestode Cysticercus bovis. After PCR amplification, sequencing of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were carried out and two phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data were generated by Bayesian inference on CO1 and 12S rRNA sequences. Sequence analyses of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes showed 11 and 29 representative profiles respectively. The level of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 gene was 0.3-2.4% while the overall nucleotide variation among all 11 haplotypes was 4.6%. For 12S rRNA sequence data, level of pairwise nucleotide variation was 0.2-2.5% and the overall nucleotide variation was determined as 5.8% among 29 haplotypes of 12S rRNA gene. Considerable genetic diversity was found in both mitochondrial genes particularly in 12S rRNA gene. PMID:25687521

  20. Construction of standardized surveillance indicators for bovine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Demont, Pierre; Ducrot, Christian; Calavas, Didier; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre; Gay, Emilie

    2014-08-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease due to Cysticercus bovis. This study aimed to identify factors that could have an impact on the prevalence of cysticercosis and to use them to build standardized indicators of prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on data from 4,564,065 cattle (91.3% of the cattle population slaughtered in France in 2010) among which 6491 cattle (0.14%) were found to harbor at least one lesion of cysticercosis (including 611 cattle harboring viable cysts, 0.01%). Two multivariate logistic models were fit to the data using as outcome variables either the presence or absence of viable cysts and the presence or absence of cysts whatever their level of development. Age and sex were identified as the main factors influencing bovine cysticercosis prevalence and were used for the construction of standardized prevalence and standardized cysticercosis rate. To illustrate the use of such indicators, they were calculated for the first and second semester of 2010 and for two different areas in France. The differences between raw prevalence and standardized prevalence highlight the use of standardized indicators for comparisons of prevalence between different areas and time periods as the structure of the slaughtered populations differ considerably from one to another. PMID:24745917

  1. Annotation of the Transcriptome from Taenia pisiformis and Its Comparative Analysis with Three Taeniidae Species

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Deying; Fu, Yan; Wu, Xuhang; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Chen, Lin; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Yang, Guangyou

    2012-01-01

    Background Taenia pisiformis is one of the most common intestinal tapeworms and can cause infections in canines. Adult T. pisiformis (canines as definitive hosts) and Cysticercus pisiformis (rabbits as intermediate hosts) cause significant health problems to the host and considerable socio-economic losses as a consequence. No complete genomic data regarding T. pisiformis are currently available in public databases. RNA-seq provides an effective approach to analyze the eukaryotic transcriptome to generate large functional gene datasets that can be used for further studies. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, 2.67 million sequencing clean reads and 72,957 unigenes were generated using the RNA-seq technique. Based on a sequence similarity search with known proteins, a total of 26,012 unigenes (no redundancy) were identified after quality control procedures via the alignment of four databases. Overall, 15,920 unigenes were mapped to 203 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Through analyzing the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and axonal guidance pathways, we achieved an in-depth understanding of the biochemistry of T. pisiformis. Here, we selected four unigenes at random and obtained their full-length cDNA clones using RACE PCR. Functional distribution characteristics were gained through comparing four cestode species (72,957 unigenes of T. pisiformis, 30,700 ESTs of T. solium, 1,058 ESTs of Eg+Em [conserved ESTs between Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis]), with the cluster of orthologous groups (COG) and gene ontology (GO) functional classification systems. Furthermore, the conserved common genes in these four cestode species were obtained and aligned by the KEGG database. Conclusion This study provides an extensive transcriptome dataset obtained from the deep sequencing of T. pisiformis in a non-model whole genome. The identification of conserved genes may provide novel approaches for potential drug targets and

  2. The incidence of human cysticercosis in a rural community of Eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Muma, John B; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A community-based longitudinal study was performed in the Eastern Province of Zambia, in which repeated serological samplings were done to determine the incidence of human cysticercosis. Three sampling rounds were carried out at six months intervals. A total of 867 participants presented for all three samplings. All samples were tested for the presence of cysticercus antigens using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sero-Ag-ELISA), while a randomly selected sub-sample of 161 samples from each sampling round was tested for specific antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Stool samples (n = 226) were also collected during the final round of sampling for taeniosis diagnosis by coprology and coproantigen ELISA. Cysticercosis seroprevalence varied from 12.2% to 14.5% (sero-Ag) and from 33.5% to 38.5% (sero-Ab) during the study period. A taeniosis prevalence of 11.9% was determined. Incidence rates of 6300 (sero-Ag, per 100000 persons-year) and 23600 (sero-Ab, per 100000 persons-year) were determined. Seroreversion rates of 44% for sero-Ag and 38.7% for sero-Ab were recorded over the whole period. In conclusion, this study has shown the dynamic nature of T. solium infections; many of the people at risk become (re)infected due to the high environmental contamination, with a high number turning seronegative within a year after infection. An important number of infections probably never fully establish, leading to transient antibody responses and short-term antigen presence. PMID:23556026

  3. The Incidence of Human Cysticercosis in a Rural Community of Eastern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Muma, John B.; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A community-based longitudinal study was performed in the Eastern Province of Zambia, in which repeated serological samplings were done to determine the incidence of human cysticercosis. Three sampling rounds were carried out at six months intervals. A total of 867 participants presented for all three samplings. All samples were tested for the presence of cysticercus antigens using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sero-Ag-ELISA), while a randomly selected sub-sample of 161 samples from each sampling round was tested for specific antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Stool samples (n = 226) were also collected during the final round of sampling for taeniosis diagnosis by coprology and coproantigen ELISA. Cysticercosis seroprevalence varied from 12.2% to 14.5% (sero-Ag) and from 33.5% to 38.5% (sero-Ab) during the study period. A taeniosis prevalence of 11.9% was determined. Incidence rates of 6300 (sero-Ag, per 100000 persons-year) and 23600 (sero-Ab, per 100000 persons-year) were determined. Seroreversion rates of 44% for sero-Ag and 38.7% for sero-Ab were recorded over the whole period. In conclusion, this study has shown the dynamic nature of T. solium infections; many of the people at risk become (re)infected due to the high environmental contamination, with a high number turning seronegative within a year after infection. An important number of infections probably never fully establish, leading to transient antibody responses and short-term antigen presence. PMID:23556026

  4. Heavy Metal Bioabsorption Capacity of Intestinal Helminths in Urban Rats

    PubMed Central

    TEIMOORI, Salma; SABOUR YARAGHI, Aliakbar; MAKKI, Mahsa Sadat; SHAHBAZI, Farideh; NAZMARA, Shahrokh; ROKNI, Mohhamad Bagher; MESDAGHINIA, Alireza; SALAHI MOGHADDAM, Abdoreza; HOSSEINI, Mostafa; RAKHSHANPOUR, Arash; MOWLAVI, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capability of helminths to absorb heavy metals in comparison with that of the host tissues. Methods We compared the concentration of cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) in urban rats and in their harboring helminthes —Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta and larval stage of Taenia taenaeiformis (Cysticercus fasciolaris). The heavy metal absorption was evaluated in 1g wet weight of parasites and tissues digested in nitric acid, using Inductivity Coupled Plasma (ICP_OES). Results A higher concentration of heavy metals was revealed in the helminths than in the host tissues. Bioconcentration factor (BF= C in parasite/C in tissue) for both Cd and Cr absorption was more than 10-fold higher in M. moniliformis than in the three compared host tissues. The BF of Cd in M. moniliformis compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the host was 9.16, 14.14 and 17.09, respectively. BF in Cr in the same parasite and the same host tissues ranged from 10.67, 7.06 and 4.6. High level of absorption in H. diminuta was significantly likewise; the individual BF of Cd and Cr in H. diminuta compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the hosts was 4.95, 5.94 and 4.67 vs. 2.67, 11.56 and 5.59. The mean concentration of Cd and Cr in C. fasciolaris was also significantly higher than that in the rat livers (P<0.007 and P<0.004, respectively). Conclusion This study claims that parasites of terrestrial animals exposed to heavy metals can be more accurate indicators than the host tissues as new environmental monitoring agents. PMID:25988090

  5. A dot-ELISA using a partially purified cathepsin-L-like protein fraction from Taenia solium cysticerci, for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Piña, R; Gutiérrez, A H; Gilman, R H; Rueda, D; Sifuentes, C; Flores, M; Sheen, P; Rodriguez, S; GarcÍa, H H; Zimic, M

    2011-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by the cestode Taenia solium, is responsible for a significant amount of neurological morbidity and epilepsy in developing countries. The disease remains highly endemic in many areas, despite several efforts and interventions to control it. A simple, cheap and fast diagnostic assay that is suitable for use in field conditions is highly desired. In immunodiagnostics based on western immunoblots or standard ELISA, a cathepsin-L-like protein purified from the cysticercus fluid has previously performed well as an antigen. In a recent study in Peru, the same 53/25-kDa antigen was therefore used in the development of a dot-ELISA that could be employed for mass screenings under field conditions. The assay was standardized and tested not only against sera from a large group of NCC cases but also against sera from patients with other common parasitic infections, so that sensitivity and specificity could be assessed. For NCC, the assay gave better sensitivity in the detection of individuals with extraparenchymal cysts (94·4%–100%) or multiple parenchymal cysts (74·6%–80·0%) than in the detection of individuals with single parenchymal cysts (29·4%–45·1%). The assay also showed a high specificity for NCC (99·0%–100%), with a very low level of cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections. The dot-ELISA developed in this study is a highly specific, simple, cheap and rapid test for NCC that could be used under field conditions, even in the low-resource settings that are common in developing countries. PMID:21871167

  6. Towards a Taenia solium Cysticercosis Vaccine: an Epitope Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Protects Mice against Experimental Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Andrea; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Acero, Gonzalo; Rosas, Gabriela; López-Casillas, Fernando; Garfias, Carlos Kubli; Vázquez, Ricardo; Terrazas, Ignacio; Sciutto, Edda

    1999-01-01

    The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis in 40 to 70% of BALB/cAnN male mice. GK-1 is an 18-amino-acid peptide which contains at least one B-cell epitope, as demonstrated by its ability to induce an antibody response to the peptide and T. crassiceps antigen without need of a carrier protein. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that anti-GK1 antibodies strongly react with the native protein in the tegument of T. crassiceps and also with anatomical structures of T. solium eggs, oncospheres, cysticercus, and tapeworm. GK-1 also contains at least one T-cell epitope, capable of stimulating the proliferation of CD8+ and to a lower extent CD4+ T cells primed either with the free peptide or T. crassiceps total antigen. The supernatant of the stimulated cells contained high levels of gamma interferon and low levels of interleukin-4. Similar results were obtained with T cells tested for intracellular cytokine production, an indication of the peptide’s capacity to induce an inflammatory response. The remarkable protection induced by GK-1 immunization, its physicochemical properties, and its presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to this synthetic peptide as a strong candidate in the construction of a synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:10225916

  7. In Vitro Study of Taenia solium Postoncospheral Form

    PubMed Central

    Chile, Nancy; Clark, Taryn; Arana, Yanina; Ortega, Ynes R.; Palma, Sandra; Mejia, Alan; Angulo, Noelia; Kosek, Jon C.; Kosek, Margaret; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Verastegui, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Background The transitional period between the oncosphere and the cysticercus of Taenia solium is the postoncospheral (PO) form, which has not yet been completely characterized. The aim of this work was to standardize a method to obtain T. solium PO forms by in vitro cultivation. We studied the morphology of the PO form and compared the expression of antigenic proteins among the PO form, oncosphere, and cysticerci stages. Methodology/Principal Findings T. solium activated oncospheres were co-cultured with ten cell lines to obtain PO forms, which we studied at three stages of development–days 15, 30, and 60. A high percentage (32%) of PO forms was obtained using HCT-8 cells in comparison to the other cell lines. The morphology was observed by bright field, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Morphology of the PO form changed over time, with the six hooks commonly seen in the oncosphere stage disappearing in the PO forms, and vesicles and microtriches observed in the tegument. The PO forms grew as they aged, reaching a diameter of 2.5 mm at 60 days of culture. 15–30 day PO forms developed into mature cysticerci when inoculated into rats. Antigenic proteins expressed in the PO forms are also expressed by the oncosphere and cysticerci stages, with more cysticerci antigenic proteins expressed as the PO forms ages. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of an in vitro production method of T. solium PO forms. The changes observed in protein expression may be useful in identifying new targets for vaccine development. In vitro culture of PO form will aid in understanding the host-parasite relationship, since the structural changes of the developing PO forms may reflect the parasite’s immunoprotective mechanisms. A wider application of this method could significantly reduce the use of animals, and thus the costs and time required for further experimental investigations. PMID:26863440

  8. Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, V E; DE ANDRADE BELO, M A; REZENDE, P C B; SOCCOL, V T; FUKUDA, R T; DE OLIVEIRA, G P; DA COSTA, A J

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×104 Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71.42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28.58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3.07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14.37%), head (11.21%), neck+chuck roll (8.05%), heart (7.75%) and top (inside) round (7.18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48.51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3.12%), diaphragm (1.69%) and esophagus (1.60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

  9. Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

    2014-06-16

    Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve

  10. Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it

  11. A Protein Microarray for the Rapid Screening of Patients Suspected of Infection with Various Food-Borne Helminthiases

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Lin; Chen, Jun-Hu; Chen, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Yong-Nian; Cai, Yu-Chun; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2012-01-01

    Background Food-borne helminthiases (FBHs) have become increasingly important due to frequent occurrence and worldwide distribution. There is increasing demand for developing more sensitive, high-throughput techniques for the simultaneous detection of multiple parasitic diseases due to limitations in differential clinical diagnosis of FBHs with similar symptoms. These infections are difficult to diagnose correctly by conventional diagnostic approaches including serological approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, antigens obtained from 5 parasite species, namely Cysticercus cellulosae, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Paragonimus westermani, Trichinella spiralis and Spirometra sp., were semi-purified after immunoblotting. Sera from 365 human cases of helminthiasis and 80 healthy individuals were assayed with semi-purified antigens by both a protein microarray and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity, specificity and simplicity of each test for the end-user were evaluated. The specificity of the tests ranged from 97.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 95.3–98.7%) to 100.0% (95% CI: 100.0%) in the protein microarray and from 97.7% (95% CI: 96.2–99.2%) to 100.0% (95% CI: 100.0%) in ELISA. The sensitivity varied from 85.7% (95% CI: 75.1–96.3%) to 92.1% (95% CI: 83.5–100.0%) in the protein microarray, while the corresponding values for ELISA were 82.0% (95% CI: 71.4–92.6%) to 92.1% (95% CI: 83.5–100.0%). Furthermore, the Youden index spanned from 0.83 to 0.92 in the protein microarray and from 0.80 to 0.92 in ELISA. For each parasite, the Youden index from the protein microarray was often slightly higher than the one from ELISA even though the same antigen was used. Conclusions/Significance The protein microarray platform is a convenient, versatile, high-throughput method that can easily be adapted to massive FBH screening. PMID:23209851

  12. A Classic Case of Subcutaneous Cysticercosis: A Rare Case with Sonological Findings and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Naren Satya, Srinivas M.; Mayilvaganan, Kamala Retnam; Amogh, V.N.; Balakrishna, B.V.; Gautam, Munnangi Satya; Prathyusha, Ivvala Sai

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stages of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. The subcutaneous form of the disease is a relatively rare clinical entity. Despite its rarity, it is imperative for a radiologist to be aware of this subcutaneous form of the disease and its various radiological patterns while evaluating any subcutaneous swelling. In this paper, we aimed to describe a typical case of ‘subcutaneous cysticercosis involving the left anterior chest wall’ with high resolution ultrasound findings. We also discussed the role of other imaging modalities in a case of subcutaneous cysticercosis. To the best of our knowledge, our case is only the second documented case report of sonological evaluation of subcutaneous cysticercosis involving the left anterior chest wall and the first case with high resolution ultrasound images of the lesion. Case Report An 11-year-old male presented with a painless, subcutaneous swelling over the left anterior chest wall for the last 2 months. High resolution ultrasound showed a well-defined, thin-walled, cystic lesion with an eccentric, echogenic focus in the subcutaneous plane. On change of the posture of the patient, this focus showed mobility. The hypoechoic area surrounding this cyst showed significant exudative fluid collection with diffuse, floating echoes and thin, incomplete internal septations. The adjacent soft tissues were thickened and irregular, suggestive of edema. This was followed by an excision biopsy. Histopathological examination revealed cysticercus cellulose parasite with an extensive mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate in the surrounding tissue. The patient was also administered oral antihelminthic therapy. Repeat ultrasound examination at the end of this management regimen showed complete healing with no e/o any remnant or recurrent cystic lesion, abscess or edema in the subcutaneous plane. Conclusions Subcutaneous cysticercosis is a relatively rare form of

  13. Parasites in cross-bred pigs in the Upper East region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Permin, A; Yelifari, L; Bloch, P; Steenhard, N; Hansen, N P; Nansen, P

    1999-11-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Upper East Region (UER) of Ghana in order to estimate the prevalence of parasitic infections in local cross-bred pigs. Out of 60 villages with a human population of 200-1000 inhabitants, 10 villages were randomly selected for the study. The number of pigs varied from 50 to 200 pigs per village. In total 259 faecal samples from growers were collected and examined. Ninety-one percent of the animals excreted parasite eggs. Among these the prevalence of Eimeria spp. was 77.2%, Isospora suis (27%) and Balantidium coli (19.3%).The following helminth eggs were identified: Metastrongylus salmi (19.3%); Physocephalus sexalatus (17.4%); Oesophagostomum spp./Hyostrongylus rubidus (60.6%); Trichuris suis (4.6%); Ascaris suum (12.7%); Ascarops strongylina (8.1%); Brachylaemus suis (1.9%); Paragonimus suis (0.8%); Globocephalus urosubulatus (2.7%); and Schistosoma suis (0.4%). Furthermore, six growers were selected from each village for clinical and postmortem examinations, i.e. 60 in total. The clinical examinations revealed ectoparasites on 98.3% of the animals. The ectoparasites were: Haematopinus suis (66.7%); Boophilus spp. (58.3%); Amblyomma spp (45.0%); Sarcoptes suis (38.3%); and Rhipicephalus spp. (8.3%). All pigs were examined for the presence of haemoparasites. It was found that 23.3% of the animals had haemoparasites. These were: Babesia perroncitoi (23.3%); Babesia trautmanni (13.3%); and Eperytrozoon suis (1.7%). Based on postmortem examinations the following adult worms were identified: Metastrongylus salmi (83.3%); Oesophagostomum dentatum (63.3%); Oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum (38.3%); Hyostrongylus rubidus (23.3%); Ascarops strongylina (76.7%); Globocephalus urosubulatus (20.0%); Strongyloides spp. (1.7%); and Physocephalus sexalatus (65.0%). Cysts of the human tapeworm Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, were present in 11.7% of the animals. Small pieces of the diaphragm were examined for the presence of