... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in... PARTS § 311.23 Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... humerus. (2) Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but not...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in... PARTS § 311.23 Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... humerus. (2) Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but not...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in... PARTS § 311.23 Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... humerus. (2) Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but not...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in... PARTS § 311.23 Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... humerus. (2) Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but not...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in... PARTS § 311.23 Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of... humerus. (2) Carcasses of cattle showing one or more tapeworm lesions of cysticercus bovis but not...
Liu, Xiao-yan; Guo, Guang-wu; Wang, Heng
The cysticerci of Taenia asiatica were cultured in vitro with different concentrations of water decoction of Carpesium abrotanoides (20, 40, and 60 mg/ml). The killing effect of C. abrotanoides on T. asiatica and the morphological change of cysticerci were observed under microscope 24 hours post-culture. The water decoction of C. abrotanoides showed significant killing effect on the cysticerci. The mortality of the parasites(95.0%, 57/60) was highest in 60 mg/ml group. The dead body of cysticercus shows shrunken with the enlarged scolex, and sucker tissue degenerated.
Hussain, Shabbir; Hussain, Kosar; Hussain, Sahar
Neurocysticercosis is recognised as a significant cause of neurological morbidity in endemic regions. The wide range of pleomorphic and non-specific neurological manifestations of neurocysticercosis must be kept in mind by physicians, as the disease has shown resurgence in developed countries. When an atypical presentation of an unusual tropical disease occurs in non-endemic regions, the diagnosis is often missed. We describe a case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with a history of transient bilateral loss of vision with headache and vomiting. Brain MRI revealed the presence of a single cysticercus granuloma in the occipital lobe. A diagnosis of symptomatic occipital lobe seizure secondary to neurocysticercosis was made. She was given a course of albendazole. There was no recurrence of symptoms at 3 years follow-up. Occipital seizures that are associated with ictal amaurosis closely mimic basilar migraine. Such cases benefit from neuroimaging in order to rule out the underlying structural causes.
Saha, Rumpa; Roy, Priyamvada; Das, Shukla; Shah, Dheeraj; Agarwal, Sunil; Kaur, Iqbal Rajinder
Objectives: This study was planned to determine the usefulness of anti-cysticercus IgG antibody detection in saliva for neurocysticercosis (NCC) diagnosis, along with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level to serve as a surrogate marker. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study of 14 months duration, blood and saliva samples were collected from 40 patients suspected to be suffering from NCC and were subjected to anti-cysticercus IgG antibody detection by ELISA. Serum CRP levels were estimated as acute-phase reactant by high sensitivity CRP ELISA. Results: Anti-cysticercus IgG was detected in serum and saliva of 34 and 30 patients, respectively. Cases positive for salivary antibody were positive for serum antibody and their serum CRP level was higher than normal. Cases negative for salivary antibody had low serum CRP levels. Anti-cysticercus IgG detection in saliva was 88.24% sensitive, 100% specific, and had a positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 60%. Positive salivary anti-cysticercus IgG and high serum CRP level showed a significant association. Difference between CRP levels of patients positive for anti-cysticercus antibody in both serum and saliva, and patients positive for antibody in serum but not saliva was highly significant. Conclusions: Saliva, being painless and noninvasive, can be used as alternative to serum for NCC diagnosis. PMID:27570404
Parija, Subhash Chandra; Balamurungan, N; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Subbaiah, S P
The aim of the present study was to screen the serum of blood donors, which are apparently healthy and residing in Pondicherry or its neighboring districts of Tamil Nadu State, for specific detection of Cysticercus antigens and antibodies. A total of 216 blood samples were collected from blood donors at the Central Blood Bank, JIPMER Hospital, Pondicherry, India during January and February 2004. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to demonstrate anti-Cysticercus antibodies and the Co-agglutination (CoA) was used to detect antigen in sera. 14 (6.48 %) males were positive for either anti-Cysticercus antibodies or antigens. Of these eight sera were positive for anti-Cysticercus antibodies and six were positive for antigens. Results of the present study show that serum Cysticercus antigen detection may be a useful adjunct to antibody testing for seroprevalence studies of cysticercosis in the community. The present study is the first kind of study, carried out to determine both cysticercal antibodies as well as antigens in the serum samples collected from the healthy blood donors.
Chacko, G.; Rajshekhar, V.; Chandy, M.; Chandi, S.
Fifty four cases of single small (<20 mm) enhancing CT lesions (SSECTLs) of the brain that were excised between 1987 and 1995were reviewed histologically. In 28 cases the entire cysticercus or its parts were found. In the remaining 26 cases, most had a histological picture suggestive of a parasitic granuloma. In six of these 26 cases, small ovoid masses corresponding in morphology to the intracorporeal vacuoles of a cysticercus were seen lying free in the cavitary space of the granuloma. This lends further strength to the contention that SSECTLs of the brain are caused by cysticercus, and that in the event of a surgical excision, absence of obvious parasitic parts should necessitate a closer search, as calcareous residues of the parasite might be the only evidence of the cysticercal aetiology in the granuloma. PMID:10990517
Konjević, Dean; Živičnjak, Tatjana; Kurilj, Andrea Gudan; Sindičić, Magda; Martinković, Franjo; Jan, Dagny Stojčević
First case of Cysticercus longicollis, larval stage of Taenia crassiceps, was diagnosed in a wild adult male red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The fox was killed by dogs at Nature Park Medvednica and presented to the University of Zagreb Faculty of Veterinary Medicine with history of being unable to run away and having skin lesions on legs that resembled to those of mange. Necropsy revealed whitish fluctuant mass full of cysticercus-like structures, surrounded by fibrous capsule and placed between the leg muscles, and numerous of spherical cysts in the subcutis and in the peritoneal cavity. Cysticerci were identified as C. longicollis based on their size, number and size of the rostellar hooks, mode of proliferation and DNA analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of T. crassiceps cysticercosis in a wild carnivore.
García-Montoya, Gisela M; Mesa-Arango, Jairo A; Isaza-Agudelo, Juan P; Agudelo-Lopez, Sonia P; Cabarcas, Felipe; Barrera, Luis F; Alzate, Juan F
Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a serious public health problem mainly in developing countries. NC caused by the cysticercus stage from cestode Taenia solium is considered by the WHO and ITFDE as a potentially eradicable disease. Definitive diagnosis of NC is challenging because of the unspecific clinical manifestations such as the non-definitive evidence presented by neuroimaging (in most cases) and the lack of definitive serological test. Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain) is a cestode closely related to T. solium and it has frequently been used as a source of antigens for immunodiagnostics. A murine model to study host immune response to infection has also been established by using T. crassiceps. Despite the extensive use of T. crassiceps for research, molecular information for this cestode is scarce in public databases. With the aim of providing more extensive information on T. crassiceps biology, an RNA-seq experiment and subsequent bioinformatic transcriptome processing of this cestode parasite mRNA in its cysticercus stage were carried out. A total of 227,082 read/ESTs were sequenced using the 454-GS FLX Titanium technology and assembled into 10,787 contigs. This transcriptome dataset represents new and valuable molecular information of the cestode T. crassiceps (ORF). This information will substantially improve public information and will help to achieve a better understanding of the biology of T. crassiceps and to identify target proteins for serodiagnosis and vaccination.
Verma, Rajesh; Lalla, Rakesh
Migraine is a common clinical disorder, quite disabling and affecting the quality of life in majority of patients. The visual aura is the commonest among all types of aura. Various types of migraine aura described in the literature are photopsia, fortification spectra, scotoma, visual distortion, haemianopia and metamorphsia. The epileptic visual aura differs from aura associated with migraine in certain features: short lasting for 2-3 minutes, occurring in clusters, multicoloured and circular in shape. The ictal manifestations of occipital lobe lesions can mimic episodes of migraine with visual aura according to some reports. In this case report, we intended to highlight aggravation and increased frequency of headache attacks and changed pattern of aura induced by occipital lobe cysticercus granuloma in a patient diagnosed of migraine with aura. The importance of neuroimaging of brain in state of unexpected increased frequency of headache episodes has been emphasised. PMID:22962401
Sinniah, Bharathalingam; Narasiman, Muniandy; Habib, Saequa; Gaik Bei, Ong
Humans can get infected with several zoonotic diseases from being in close contact with rats. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and histopathological changes caused by Calodium hepaticum and Cysticercus fasciolaris in infected livers of wild caught urban rats. Of the 98 urban rats (Rattus rattus diardii and Rattus norvegicus) autopsied, 64.3% were infected; 44.9% were infected with Caladium hepatica, 39.3% were infected with Cysticercus fasciolaris, and 20.4% were infected with both parasites. High infection rates suggest that urban rats are common reservoir for both parasites, which are potentially a threat to man. Calodium hepaticum infections were identified by the presence of ova or adults in the liver parenchyma. They appear as yellowish white nodules, measuring 1–7 mm in diameter or in streaks scattered widely over the serosal surface of the liver. Cysticercus fasciolaris infections are recognized morphologically by their shape (round or oval) and are creamy white in colour. Histological studies of Calodium hepaticum showed areas of granulomatous lesions with necrotic areas around the dead ova and adults. In almost all cases, the rats appeared robust, looked healthy, and showed no visible signs of hepatic failure despite the fact that more than 64.0% of their livers were infected by either one or both parasites. PMID:26464920
Nakajima, Hideaki; Huang, Tong-Yi; Sun, Kai-Yu; Chen, Shu-Ling; Chen, Ke-Bing
Background Solitary cysticercus granuloma (SCG) is the commonest form of neurocysticercosis in the Indian subcontinent and in travelers. Several different treatment options exist for SCG. We conducted a Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to identify the best treatment option to prevent seizure recurrence and promote lesion resolution for patients with SCG. Methods and Principal Findings PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases (up to June 1, 2015) were searched for RCTs that compared any anthelmintics or corticosteroids, alone or in combination, with placebo or head to head and reported on seizure recurrence and lesion resolution in patients with SCG. A total of 14 RCTs (1277 patients) were included in the quantitative analysis focusing on four different treatment options. A Bayesian network model computing odds ratios (OR) with 95% credible intervals (CrI) and probability of being best (Pbest) was used to compare all interventions simultaneously. Albendazole and corticosteroids combination therapy was the only regimen that significantly decreased the risk of seizure recurrence compared with conservative treatment (OR 0.32, 95% CrI 0.10–0.93, Pbest 73.3%). Albendazole and corticosteroids alone or in combination were all efficacious in hastening granuloma resolution, but the combined therapy remained the best option based on probability analysis (OR 3.05, 95% CrI 1.24–7.95, Pbest 53.9%). The superiority of the combination therapy changed little in RCTs with different follow-up durations and in sensitivity analyses. The limitations of this study include high risk of bias and short follow-up duration in most studies. Conclusions Dual therapy of albendazole and corticosteroids was the most efficacious regimen that could prevent seizure recurrence and promote lesion resolution in a follow-up period of around one year. It should be recommended for the management of SCG until more high-quality evidence is available. PMID
Jayaraman, T; Prabhakaran, V; Babu, P; Raghava, M Venkata; Rajshekhar, V; Dorny, P; Muliyil, J; Oommen, A
We evaluated the exposure of a community in Vellore district of south India to Taenia solium infection and its relationship to the prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC) causing active epilepsy. Seroprevalence of Taenia cysticercus antigens and antibodies were determined in 1064 randomly chosen asymptomatic individuals, antibodies to T. solium ova in 197 selected sera, and prevalence of taeniasis by a coproantigen test in 729 stool samples. The prevalence of NCC causing active epilepsy in Vellore district was determined in a population of 50 617. Coproantigens were detected in 0.8% (6 samples), Taenia cysticercus antigens in 4.5% (48 sera) and cysticercus IgG antibodies in 15.9% (169 sera) of the population. Cysticercus antibodies were directed against relatively low molecular weight cyst glycoprotein antigens in 14.9% (158 sera) of the population. IgG antibodies to Taenia ova were found in 81 (41.1%) of the selected samples. Prevalence of NCC causing active epilepsy was 1.3 per 1000 population. These results show high exposure of the population to the parasite and a relatively high prevalence of active infections (4.5% antigen positives) but a low prevalence of NCC causing active epilepsy (0.13%). These findings may indicate that the population is protected against developing neurocysticercosis. IgG antibodies directed against Taenia ova and low molecular weight cyst antigens may contribute to protection.
Singh, Y. Damodar; Arya, Rahul Singh
Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatment with anthelmintics was given to manage the mortality and infections. Results: The investigation revealed a natural co-infection of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta in wistar rats, which were pathogenic enough to cause mortality. Typical lesions associated with the parasites were found in the dead rats. The mortality and infection were managed with common anthelmintics. Conclusion: C. fasciolaris and H. diminuta infection can cause mortality in wistar rats even when individually they cause asymptomatic infection. The mortality and infection can be managed with common anthelmintics. PMID:27047007
Lee, Byung-Woo; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Yoon, Byung-Il
Cysticercus fasciolaris, the larval form of Taenia taeniaeformis, is commonly encountered in rodents. In our study, 287 wild rats (Rattus norvegicus) in South Korea were examined in 2010 and 2011. Of 287 rats, 97 (33.8%) were infected with C. fasciolaris A strong positive correlation was found between the host body weight and prevalence in both sexes, regardless of the year of collection. The liver was the most common habitat of the parasite, and the lung was the most frequent ectopic region, followed by mesentery, pleura, abdominal wall, and kidney. The lesions of the affected organs were generally characterized by well-developed cysts, each containing a larva. However, the cysts within kidney and abdominal wall were poorly organized, filled with abscess, and lacked larvae. Collagen types I and III, but not type IV, played significant roles in constructing the cysts at differential stages, addressed by immunohistochemistry. During cyst wall development, both collagen types contributed equally to cyst formation at the early stage, whereas collagen type I was the major component at the late stage (p < 0.05). In early-stage cysts, distribution of collagens was interestingly differential depending on the development stage, as collagen type I was localized in the outer layer and type III was located in the inner layer. Our results suggest that an appropriate remodeling process of collagen fibers is necessary for C. fasciolaris to build the well-conditioned cysts in the target organs for survival.
Marshall, L R; Prakashbabu, B Chengat; Ferreira, J Pinto; Buzdugan, S N; Stärk, K D C; Guitian, J
Bovine cysticercosis is caused by Taenia saginata cysticercus, the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. Recent European initiatives have highlighted the poor sensitivity of current surveillance for this parasite in cattle at slaughter; calling for more targeted, risk based and cost effective methods of T. saginata cysticercus detection. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that could inform such improved meat inspection activities in the United Kingdom (UK). The study included three components: (i) a farm-level case control study; (ii) the characterization of the network of movements of T. saginata cysticercus infected and non-infected animals, and an assessment of the strength of association between having passed through a farm that had previously originated an infected animal and the risk of infection; (iii) the assessment of the relationship between bovine age and gender and risk of infection. Abattoir records and cattle movement history data were used to identify farms of likely acquisition of infection (case farms) and a suitable control group. A questionnaire was used to gather farm-level characteristics and logistic regression was carried out to identify farm-level risk factors for the production of cattle found to be infected at slaughter. The case-control study provided evidence that farms situated close to a permanent potential source of human faecal contamination, and farms which used manure from animals other than cattle, were at higher risk of producing cattle later found to be infected with T. saginata cysticercus at slaughter. No other farm characteristics were identified as a risk factor for this. Analysis of the networks of animal movements showed that some individual farms played a key role as a source of T. saginata cysticercus infection; it was estimated that cattle with a history of being on a farm which previously appeared in the movement history of an infected animal were 4.27 times (P<0.001; 95% CI: 3.3-5.52) more
Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Panti-May, J A; Parada-López, J; Hernández-Betancourt, S F; Ruiz-Piña, H A
Cysticercus fasciolaris is the larval stage of the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis, whose definitive hosts are mainly cats. This larval stage uses a wide variety of small rodents, and occasionally birds and humans, as intermediate hosts. In the Yucatan, there are no reports of the presence of this cestode in animal populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of C. fasciolaris in rodent populations from the Cuxtal ecological reserve, Yucatan, Mexico. Trapping of rodents was conducted from October 2009 to April 2010 in 40 households in Molas, in which Sherman traps were placed both inside and outside backyards. Rodents were dissected to inspect the liver for the presence of the worm. To determine risk factors associated with infection, univariate analysis was performed using sex, age, species, trapping site, and season as independent variables. Variables with a P value < 0.2 were analysed using a logistic regression model. In this study, 411 individuals of six rodent species were trapped; Mus musculus was the most abundant (78%), followed by Rattus rattus (13%) and the wild species Peromyscus yucatanicus, Ototylomys phyllotis, Heteromys gaumeri and Reithrodontomys gracilis (9%). Only 7.5% (n = 31) of M. musculus and R. rattus were infected with C. fasciolaris (demonstrated by the presence of liver cysts) with a prevalence of 9.0% and 3.5%, respectively. Both adults and male mice were 4.33 and 3.46 (OR values) times more likely to have C. fasciolaris than juveniles and females respectively. We can conclude that in the Cuxtal Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico, the prevalence of C. fasciolaris is higher in M. musculus, and that adult males had a higher probability of infection. Wild species, mainly P. yucatanicus, were not found to be infected with the cestode, but its presence in the backyards of households could result in a potential risk of acquiring this infection.
Cangalaya, Carla; Zimic, Mirko; Marzal, Miguel; González, Armando E.; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.; García, Hector H.
Background Neurocysticercosis (NCC), infection of the central nervous system by Taenia solium cysticerci, is a pleomorphic disease. Inflammation around cysticerci is the major cause of disease but is variably present. One factor modulating the inflammatory responses may be the location and characteristics of the brain tissue adjacent to cysticerci. We analyzed and compared the inflammatory responses to cysticerci located in the parenchyma to those in the meninges or cysticerci partially in contact with both the parenchyma and the meninges (corticomeningeal). Methodology/Principal Findings Histological specimens of brain cysticerci (n = 196) from 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysticerci were used. Four pigs were sacrificed after 2 days and four after 5 days of a single dose of praziquantel; 3 pigs did not receive treatment. All pigs were intravenously injected with Evans Blue to assess disruption of the blood-brain barrier. The degree of inflammation was estimated by use of a histological score (ISC) based on the extent of the inflammation in the pericystic areas as assessed in an image composed of several photomicrographs taken at 40X amplification. Parenchymal cysticerci provoked a significantly greater level of pericystic inflammation (higher ISC) after antiparasitic treatment compared to meningeal and corticomeningeal cysticerci. ISC of meningeal cysticerci was not significantly affected by treatment. In corticomeningeal cysticerci, the increase in ISC score was correlated to the extent of the cysticercus adjacent to the brain parenchyma. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier was associated with treatment only in parenchymal tissue. Significance Inflammatory response to cysticerci located in the meninges was significantly decreased compared to parenchymal cysticerci. The suboptimal inflammatory response to cysticidal drugs may be the reason subarachnoid NCC is generally refractory to treatment compared to parenchymal NCC. PMID:26658257
Kumar, Neeraj; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Praveen Kumar
Objective To evaluate the role of advanced magnetic resonance (MR) sequences (fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA), T2 star-weighted angiography (SWAN) and spoiled gradient recalled echo (SPGR)) in patients with single small enhancing computed tomography lesions and scolex demonstration in typical and atypical parenchymal neurocysticercosis. Methods In this study, 59 patients of new-onset seizures with single small enhancing computed tomography lesions of the brain were included. Along with routine MR sequences, advanced MR sequences, like SWAN, FIESTA, and pre and post-contrast SPGR, were performed. Follow-up MR studies focussing on the morphology of the lesions and demonstration of scolex were performed 6 monthly for 3 years. Results The majority of patients (62.7%) were men with partial seizure as the most common manifestation. On SPGR, contrast lesions were identified as either ‘typical’ (42, 71.2%) or ‘atypical’ (17, 28.8%). In the typical lesion group, SWAN and FIESTA sequences detected scolex in 30 (71.4%) and 32 (76.2%), respectively. The combination of SPGR-contrast, FIESTA and SWAN sequences detected scolex in 35 (83.3%) patients compared to 19 (45.2%) by routine sequences (P < 0.001). In the atypical lesion group, SWAN and FIESTA sequences detected scolex in 15 (88.2%) and 16 (94.1%) patients, respectively. The combination of SPGR-contrast, FIESTA and SWAN sequences detected scolex in 16 (94.1%) patients compared to 10 (58.8%) by routine sequences (P < 0.001). Follow-up showed greater resolution with lesser calcification in the typical group compared to the atypical group. Conclusion This study provides an insight into the natural course of typical and atypical solitary cysticercus granuloma lesions, and the utility of SPGR-contrast, FIESTA and SWAN MR sequences in scolex demonstration and identification of atypical lesions. PMID:26659345
Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Gilman, Robert H; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Rueda, Luis D; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verástegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H; Sheen, Patricia
Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection.
Capelli-Peixoto, Janaína; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Minozzo, João Carlos; Gabardo, Juarez; Teixeira, Kádima Nayara; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Alvarenga, Larissa Magalhães; de Moura, Juliana
An NC-1 mimotope from Taenia solium cysticerci can help identify patients with neurocysticercosis through immunoassay. After chemical synthesis, an NC-1 peptide was coupled to bovine serum albumin (NC-1/BSA) for used as an immunogen in murine Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis, which is an experimental model of cysticercosis caused by T. solium. NC-1/BSA immunisation decreased parasitaemia by inducing 74% protection compared to the 77% protection obtained with T. crassiceps crude antigen. The influence of immunisation was also observed on the size and stage of development of the parasite. Antibodies from NC-1/BSA-immunised mice recognised proteins from the tegument and from the buddings, and intense immunostaining was observed in the final stage of the metacestode. The capacity of NC-1/BSA to induce protective antibodies which are reactive to proteins from the tegument of the metacestode suggests that this mimotope is a potential candidate for a vaccine against human and animal cysticercosis.
Rossi, N; Rivas, I; Hernández, M; Urdaneta, H
Different antigenic extracts of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps were evaluated in connection with the detection of antibodies in patients with neurocysticercosis aimed at selecting immunorelevant antigens for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis by means of the immunoenzymatic assay and immunoblotting. The vesicular fluid of T. crassiceps proved to be more sensitive (100%) and specific (86%). On using the immunoblotting technique it was also observed that this extract was the most sensitive and specific. Within the protein profile of the antigen the band of 18 kDa was mostly recognized by the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurocysticercosis. The vesicular fluid of T. crassiceps represents an alternative in the optimization of the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid and in the substitution of T. solium antigens due to its high sensitivity and specificity and to its easy obtention under controlled laboratory conditions.
Khalid, Saifullah; Obaid, Amber; Sharma, Raman M.; Mahmood, Asad; Narayanasamy, Sabarish
Background: Isolated intraventricular neurocysticercosis (NCC) is less frequently seen and can be missed on plain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence is an extremely helpful sequence in identifying the lesion but is rarely used routinely. Case Description: Here, we report a case of young male adult who presented with diminution of vision and headache. MRI of the brain revealed hydrocephalus, and on using CISS sequence only, the lesion could be identified in the fourth ventricle. He was treated with medical management, and ventriculoperitoneal shunting of cerebrospinal fluid was done to relieve the hydrocephalus. It resulted in immediate relief with aggravation of headache few days later. Repeat MRI revealed intraventricular migration into the left foramen of monro leading to left lateral ventricle dilatation necessitating endoscopic removal of the lesion. Conclusion: CISS sequence is definitely the sequence of choice in identifying intraventricular NCC. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting can result in the intraventricular migration of the cyst due to sudden decompression necessitating repeat surgery. Endoscopic removal of NCC has a high success rate with limited complications. PMID:28031989
Morais, Dayana Firmino de; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Santos, Vinícius Mamede Dos; Gouveia, Vitória Régia; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Azevêdo, Sérgio Santos de
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for C. tenuicollis among goats and sheep in slaughterhouses in Paraíba. 390 animals (195 goats and 195 sheep) in the municipalities of Patos and Esperança, Paraíba, Brazil, were inspected between February and May 2014. The prevalence of C. tenuicollis was 39% (76/195) in goats and 17.4% (34/195) in sheep. In both species, most of the cysticerci vesicles were located at the omentum and mesentery. The only risk factor found was extensive sheep farming. It can be concluded that C. tenuicollis is highly prevalent in small ruminants in Paraíba, being more prevalent in goats than in sheep. Extensively-reared sheep were twice as likely to develop infection by this parasite.
Rueda, Analiz; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Gilman, Robert H; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Piña, Ruby; Chile, Nancy; Carrasco, Sebastián; Larson, Sandra; Mayta, Holger; Verástegui, Manuela; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; García, Héctor H; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko
Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available T. solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to Echinococcus granulosus Ag5 protein. The T. solium cDNA sequence included a proteolytic trypsin-like-domain in the C-terminal region, and a thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain in the N-terminal region. Both the trypsin-like and adherence domains were expressed independently as recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. TsAg5 showed marginal trypsin-like activity and high sequence similarity to Ag5. The purified antigens were tested in a Western immunoblot assay to diagnose human neurocysticercosis. The sensitivity of the trypsin-like-domain was 96.36% in patients infected with extraparenchymal cysts, 75.44% in patients infected with multiple cysts, and 39.62% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 76.70%. The thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain was not specific for neurocysticercosis.
Cueto González, Sergio Arturo; Rodríguez Castillo, José Luis; López Valencia, Gilberto; Bermúdez Hurtado, Rosa María; Hernández Robles, Erika Selene; Monge Navarro, Francisco Javier
The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was established using routine postmortem inspection of 52,322 feedlot cattle slaughtered at 1 Federal Inspection Type abattoir (TIF 301) located in the Mexicali Valley in Baja California, México. The study included 31,393 animals (60.0%) purchased and transported to Baja California from stocker operations located in 17 states of México and 20,929 animals (40.0%) native to Baja California. A total of 208 carcasses showed lesions suggestive of cysticercosis, and 109 were confirmed as positive for the parasite with a prevalence of 0.21%, equivalent to 2.1 cases/1000 carcasses inspected, 2.8 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle purchased in other states, and 1.0 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle native from Baja California. The sensitivity of the postmortem inspection, when compared to a gold standard of stereoscopic microscopy, was 52.4%. The prevalence of cysticercosis was 2.8 times higher in cattle from other states compared with those native to Baja California. Cysticerci were most frequently found in the heart, followed by liver and masseter muscles. In cattle from other states, 96.6% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and <4% as viable; in cattle native to Baja California, 29% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and 71% as viable. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis established at TIF 301 was found to be 28% lower than a previous report for Baja California. However, given the sensitivity of the postmortem inspection calculated between 10% and 50%, it is possible that an undetermined number of carcasses pass as being free of cysticerci and that the meat reached both domestic and international wholesale markets, increasing the possibility of human infection and causing substantial economic loss through condemnation of infected meat and trade restrictions for endemic regions.
Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies.
Suzuki, Lisandra Akemi; Rossi, Cláudio Lúcio
In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses) and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA)=1.17) and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49) and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46) and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12) and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85) and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60) and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.
Swastika, Kadek; Dewiyani, Cokorda I; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhiko; Sudarmaja, Made; Sutisna, Putu; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira
An ocular cysticercosis case of a nine-year-old Balinese girl in Indonesia is reported. She presented with redness and pain in the left eye and showed a cysticercus in the anterior chamber in December 2010. Morphological feature of the cysticercus removed from the anterior chamber indicated that it was an immature cysticercus of Taenia species with no hooklets. However, mitochondrial DNA analysis using a piece of histopathological specimen revealed it a cysticercus of Taenia solium Asian genotype. Serology by immunoblot and ELISA highly specific to cysticercosis was negative.
Sharma, M; Beke, N; Khurana, S; Bhatti, H S; Sehgal, R; Malla, N
An ocular cysticercosis case of a 42-year-old male, who presented with anterior uveitis is being reported. Microscopical examination of the cyst revealed presence of only one hooklet suggestive of T. solium cysticercus. Mitochondrial DNA analysis confirmed it to be T. solium cysticercus of Asian genotype. This is the first report on molecular typing of cysticercus isolate from ocular cysticercosis patient in India. The study suggests that the molecular analysis of cox1 gene may be a useful diagnostic tool in cases where microscopic examination is not confirmatory.
Whipp, Christopher James; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Conboy, Gary; Gelens, Hans
A large abdominal mass containing numerous cysticerci identified as those of Taenia crassiceps (=Cysticercus longicollis) was found in the pelvic region of the abdominal cavity of a severely constipated and emaciated red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Cysticercosis has not previously been reported in a wild canid in North America.
Benoilid, Aurélien; Kremer, Stéphane; Dalvit, Constanza; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Hansmann, Yves; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Mathieu, Bruno; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Marescaux, Christian; Candolfi, Ermanno
Taenia martis is a tapeworm affecting mustelids, with rodents serving as intermediate hosts. The larval stage (cysticercus) has been found before only rarely in humans or primates. We hereby describe a case of cerebral T. martis cysticercosis in a French immunocompetent patient, confirmed by DNA analyses of biopsy material. PMID:26019196
Li, Yan; Liu, Hang; Yang, Yi-Mei
The traditional identification of Taenia spp. based on morphological features of adult and cysticercus has difficulties in identifying the morphologically similar species. The recent development of molecular techniques provides more scientific ways for distinguishing Taenia species. This paper summarizes the application of molecular biological techniques in the identification of Taenia, such as analysis of DNA sequence, PCR-RFLP and LAMP.
Brunet, Julie; Benoilid, Aurélien; Kremer, Stéphane; Dalvit, Constanza; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Hansmann, Yves; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Mathieu, Bruno; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter; Pfaff, Alexander W; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Marescaux, Christian; Candolfi, Ermanno
Taenia martis is a tapeworm affecting mustelids, with rodents serving as intermediate hosts. The larval stage (cysticercus) has been found before only rarely in humans or primates. We hereby describe a case of cerebral T. martis cysticercosis in a French immunocompetent patient, confirmed by DNA analyses of biopsy material.
...; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal... DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.25 Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm... tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus ovis, so-called sheep measles, not transmissible to man), such carcasses may...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...
...; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal... DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.25 Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm... tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus ovis, so-called sheep measles, not transmissible to man), such carcasses may...
...; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal... DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.25 Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm... tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus ovis, so-called sheep measles, not transmissible to man), such carcasses may...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...
Scandrett, W Brad; Gajadhar, Alvin A
Degenerate taeniid-like eggs consistent with Taenia saginata were recovered from sediment in the water supply of a beef feedlot under quarantine for Cysticercus bovis. Nine degenerate eggs in total were recovered from 482 modified flotation assays. Flotation controls of sediment spiked with known numbers of T. saginata eggs had poor egg recoveries, supporting the need for more sensitive assays for environmental samples.
Fang, Wen; Xiao, Liang-Liang; Bao, Huai-En; Mu, Rong
Two 20-day-old three-way crossed hybrid pigs were infected with 80000 Taenia solium or T. asiatica eggs, respectively. Immature cysticerci of the two species in liver were collected at 40 days after infection. The total proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by Image-Master 2D Platinum 6.0 software. The results showed that there were (236 +/- 12) and (231 +/- 14) protein spots in 2D electrophoresis gel images of T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, with 3 proteins up-regulated and 7 proteins down-regulated in T. solium cysticercus by 2-fold or more compared with those in T. asiatica cysticercus.
Scala, A; Urrai, G; Varcasia, A; Nicolussi, P; Mulas, M; Goddi, L; Pipia, A P; Sanna, G; Genchi, M; Bandino, E
An acute outbreak of Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis, causing mortality in 5 of 21 (23.8%) female lambs, is reported. Gross post-mortem examinations and histology showed Cysticercus tenuicollis as the cause of death. Biochemical parameters in infected lambs confirmed severe hepatitis. Praziquantel, given once at 15 mg/kg body weight (bw), was administered and a dramatic improvement in the clinical condition and biochemical parameters was observed up to 30 days following treatment.
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Arreola-Valenzuela, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-Briones, Alfredo; Alanís-Quiñones, Olga Patricia; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Luevanos-Becerra, Carlos; Martínez-Saenz, Luis Felipe; Martínez-García, Sergio Arturo; Ramírez-Valles, Eda Guadalupe; Ibarra-Torres, Isaac; González-Verdín, Cesar Arnulfo
We sought to determine the frequency of serological markers of selected infections in a population of psychiatric patients in Durango City, Mexico, and to determine whether there are any epidemiological characteristics of the subjects associated with the infections. One hundred and five inpatients of a public psychiatric hospital of Durango were examined for HBsAg, anti-HCV antibodies, anti-HIV antibodies, anti-Brucella antibodies, rapid plasma reagin and anti-Cysticercus antibodies by commercially available assays. Anti-Cysticercus antibodies were confirmed by Western blot and HBsAg by neutralization assay. Epidemiological data from each participant were also obtained. Seroprevalences of HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, anti-Brucella, rapid plasma reagin and anti-Cysticercus antibodies found were 0.0%, 4.8%, 0.9%, 0.0%, 1.9%, and 0.9%, respectively. Overall, 9 (8.6%) inpatients showed seropositivity to any infection marker. We concluded that our psychiatric inpatients have serological evidence of a number of infections. HCV is an important pathogen among our psychiatric inpatients. Health care strategies for prevention and control of infections in Mexican psychiatric patients should be considered.
Malagón Valdez, Jorge
Cysticercosis: parasitic disease which affects 3% of the population in Mexico. It is considered that there are more than 50 million infected people in the world, endemic in Mexico, Central and South America, Africa, Asia and India. It is considered the most important neurological infectious disease world-wide for its clinical manifestations. The causal agent in pigs and humans is the cysticercus of the Taenia solium, that can lodge in muscle, brain and ventricles. If pork meat contaminated with cysticercus is eaten, the tapeworm will live in the human intestine and create thousands of eggs that are excreted by the feces. When food contaminated with fecal matter is consumed by man or pig, the cisticercosis is disseminated in several parts of the organism, specially CNS. Man is the only host of the tapeworm and the pig is the only intermediary, reason why the prevalence of the teniasis-cisticercosis depends on this bond. It is diagnosed in endemic zones by the presence of convulsion crises, focal migraine, neurological symptoms, disorders of vision, endocraneal hypertension and CT scan with hypodense zones or cysts with a hyperdense ring. The antiparasitic treatment in children is controversial among pediatricians; it is suggested to use it only in the non calcified cystic phase and in cases associated with epilepsy. Few are the cases of hydrocephalic or intraventricular cysticercus that need surgical treatment.
Martinez, H R; Rangel-Guerra, R; Arredondo-Estrada, J H; Marfil, A; Onofre, J
In a prospective non-controlled study we have treated 161 consecutive cases of Active Neurocysticercosis (NCC) diagnosed by Magnetic Resonance (MR). Active NCC was classified in: (1) brain parenchymal cysts (85 cases); (2) ventricular cysts (24 cases); (3) subarachnoid cysts (46 cases); and (4) cysticercus racemose (6 cases). All patients had MR follow up 1 month after treatment. Twenty five patients had MR with gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd) contrast enhancement. Cine MR was performed in one patient. Medical treatment with albendazole (ABZ) or Praziquantel (PZQ) was applied in 136 cases. Drug efficacy, assessed by disappearance of the lesion on MR, was 92.5% with ABZ and 60% with PZQ. Thirty patients were treated by surgery. Five patients of group I were treated surgically due either to refractory seizures or persistent abnormalities on MR. Ventricular cysts were removed in 20 cases; 4 cases with cysticercus racemose and one with subarachnoid spinal cyst were also treated by surgery. Two patients with 4th ventricle cysts received ABZ and ventricular shunt only. Two cases with intraventricular cysts (lateral ventricles) and two with racemose cysts were successfully treated with ABZ. The Gd infusion showed enhancement in cysts with adjacent inflammatory reaction or edema and in cases with meningeal inflammation. Cine MR was useful in the differential diagnosis with congenital arachnoid cyst. We conclude that (1) MR is sensitive in the diagnosis of active NCC and may be useful in evaluating degenerative changes in the parasite; (2) ABZ is highly effective in the treatment of parenchymal and subarachnoidal NCC; (3) Parenchymal lesions which remain with abnormal appearance on MR (Degenerative cysticerci or gliosis) and refractory seizures should be treated by surgery; (4) Cysticercus racemose without intracranial hypertension may be treated with ABZ; (5) Ventricular cysts are treated by surgical removal, however, ABZ and ventricular peritoneal shunt may also be an
Abraham, J L; Spore, W W; Benirschke, K
The authors identified a degenerated, focally calcified cestode larva (cysticercus) in the fallopian tube of a 50-year-old woman with endometriosis. The physiologic reaction to the larva was minimal, with some focal granulomatous salpingitis. No other focus of infection was detected. The differential diagnosis included trophoblastic tissue, foreign material, and parasites. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis of the organism revealed concentration of iodine in the subcuticular connective tissue of the larva and confirmed the calcium phosphate composition of the calcareous corpuscles. The presumed source of the iodine was the continued exposure of the larva to an environment rich in iodide secreted by the epithelium of the fallopian tube.
Abraham, J.L.; Spore, W.W.; Benirschke, K.
The authors identified a degenerated, focally calcified cestode larva (cysticercus) in the fallopian tube of a 50-year-old woman with endometriosis. The physiologic reaction to the larva was minimal, with some focal granulomatous salpingitis. No other focus of infection was detected. The differential diagnosis included trophoblastic tissue, foreign material, and parasites. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis of the organism revealed concentration of iodine in the subcuticular connective tissue of the larva and confirmed the calcium phosphate composition of the calcareous corpuscles. The presumed source of the iodine was the continued exposure of the larva to an environment rich in iodide secreted by the epithelium of the fallopian tube.
Ito, Megumi; Itagaki, Tadashi
Wild rodents (58 Apodemus speciosus, 29 A. argenteus and 7 Microtus montebelli) were surveyed for endoparasites in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, from October to December 1995 and from April to October 1996. Two trematodes (Echinostoma macrorchis, Plagiorchis muris), 4 or more cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, Raillietina coreensis, Cladothyridium spp., Cysticercus fasciolaris), 12 nematodes (Carolinensis minutus, Eucoleus sp., Heligmosomoides kurilensis, H. protobullosus, H. speciosus, Heterakis spumosa, Rhabditis (Pelodera) orbitalis, Rictularia cristata, Syphacia emileromani, S. frederici, S. montana, Trichuris sp.) and 3 protozoans (Giardia sp., Trichomonas sp., Trypanosoma sp.) were identified. The two species of Apodemus were similar to each other, but they were extremely different from M. montebelli in parasite fauna.
Vega, Rodrigo; Piñero, Daniel; Ramanankandrasana, Bienvenue; Dumas, Michel; Bouteille, Bernard; Fleury, Agnes; Sciutto, Edda; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis
Taenia solium is a cestode parasitic of humans and pigs that strongly impacts on public health in developing countries. Its larvae (cysticercus) lodge in the brain, causing neurocysticercosis, and in other tissues, like skeletal muscle and subcutaneous space, causing extraneuronal cysticercosis. Prevalences of these two clinical manifestations vary greatly among continents. Also, neurocysticercosis may be clinically heterogeneous, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severely incapacitating and even fatal presentation. Further, vaccine design and diagnosis technology have met with difficulties in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. Parasite diversity underlying clinical heterogeneity and technological difficulties is little explored. Here, T. solium genetic population structure and diversity was studied by way of random amplified polymorphic DNA in individual cysticerci collected from pigs in Madagascar and two regions in Mexico. The amplification profiles of T. solium were also compared with those of the murine cysticercus Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain). We show significant genetic differentiation between Madagascar and Mexico and between regions in Mexico, but less so between cysticerci from different localities in Mexico and none between cysticerci from different tissues from the same pig. We also found restricted genetic variability within populations and gene flow was estimated to be low between populations. Thus, genetic differentiation of T. solium suggests that different evolutionary paths have been taken and provides support for its involvement in the differential tissue distribution of cysticerci and varying degrees of severity of the disease. It may also explain difficulties in the development of vaccines and tools for immunodiagnosis.
Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S.
Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954
Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V
An epidemiological study on taeniasis and cysticercosis in northern India has recently updated the epidemiology of Taenia asiatica. Practically, all the detected cases of taeniasis were caused by T. asiatica, cited for the first time in humans in that country. The finding widens the geographical distribution of T. asiatica, a species wrongly considered an exclusive South-Eastern Asian parasite. Due to the introduction of molecular techniques in Taenia diagnosis, the species is slowly showing its true distribution. A human Taenia species with cosmopolitan hosts (the same as the other two Taenia species) but limited to a specific geographical area and not affected by globalisation would certainly be hard to believe. Regarding cysticercosis, there is a remarkable finding concerning T. asiatica pig cysticercosis, specifically the presence of the cysticercus of T. asiatica not only in the liver (its preferential infection site) but also in muscle. This is the first time that the cysticercus of T. asiatica has been found in muscle in a naturally infected pig. This fact is actually relevant since people are at a greater risk of becoming infected by T. asiatica than previously expected since the liver is no longer the only site of pig infection. The Taenia species causing Taenia saginata-like taeniasis around the world, as well as pig and human cysticercosis, should always be molecularly confirmed since T. asiatica could be involved.
Thomas, Lian F; de Glanville, William A; Cook, Elizabeth A J; Bronsvoort, Barend M De C; Handel, Ian; Wamae, Claire N; Kariuki, Samuel; Fèvre, Eric M
The tapeworm Taenia solium is the parasite responsible for neurocysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease of public health importance, thought to cause approximately 1/3 of epilepsy cases across endemic regions. The consumption of undercooked infected pork perpetuates the parasite's life-cycle through the establishment of adult tapeworm infections in the community. Reducing the risk associated with pork consumption in the developing world is therefore a public health priority. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of any one pork meal in western Kenya containing a potentially infective T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption, an aspect of the parasite transmission that has not been estimated before. To estimate this, we used a quantitative food chain risk assessment model built in the @RISK add-on to Microsoft Excel. This model indicates that any one pork meal consumed in western Kenya has a 0.006 (99% Uncertainty Interval (U.I). 0.0002-0.0164) probability of containing at least one viable T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption and therefore being potentially infectious to humans. This equates to 22,282 (99% U.I. 622-64,134) potentially infective pork meals consumed in the course of one year within Busia District alone. This model indicates a high risk of T. solium infection associated with pork consumption in western Kenya and the work presented here can be built upon to investigate the efficacy of various mitigation strategies for this locality.
Patro, Shubhransu; Jena, Payod Kumar; Swain, Santosh Kumar; Das, Bidyut Kumar
Introduction Neurocysticercosis being a potential to human transmitted disease, is the major cause of seizures and a public health problem in tropical countries. Though India is known to be highly endemic, there are many provinces where reports are still unavailable thereby underestimating its actual burden. Materials and Methods Anti-Cysticercus IgG antibodies in sera from cases presenting with seizures were screened by ELISA in a preliminary study in Odisha state which is a province in Eastern coastal India that was never explored before. Patients presenting with recent onset of seizures within age group 5 to 50 years, either local residents of Odisha or inhabitants from other parts of the country living for at least one year period in the study area were included. Results The present study showed 28.12% cases with seizures to be confirmed neurocysticercosis (NCC) based on serology and brain imaging. However, statistically no association was established between anti-Cysticercus antibody detection and radio imaging characteristics (location, number of lesions, and stage). Conclusion This is the first study in Odisha presenting a series of cases with serological evidence of exposure to the parasite along with imaging characteristics which was consistent with NCC. It is recommended that NCC must be considered for a differential diagnosis in each active epilepsy case irrespective of prior prevalence information in all unexplored provinces in India and other endemic regions; also a compulsory reporting is warranted in order to aid in quantifying its actual burden. PMID:26155476
Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S
Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated.
Kowal, Jerzy; Nosał, Paweł; Adamczyk, Ireneusz; Kornaś, Sławomir; Wajdzik, Marek; Tomek, Andrzej
An investigation aimed to check the influence of Taenia taeniaeformis larvae on morphometrical parameters of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) was carried. A total of 30 animals were hunted down in upper Vistula river basin in south Poland, then measured, weighed and dissected. Statistical comparison were done using U Mann-Whitney test. T. taeniaeformis larvae--cysticercus fasciolaris was found in the liver of 24 muskrats (80%). Significant differences between infected and non infected animals are reported, as regards their body mass, total length, abdomen circumference (p < 0.01) and also in body length (total minus tail length), head length, or chest and neck circumference (p < 0.05). The effect of infection on both muskrat condition and the presence of adult cestodes in definitive hosts are discussed.
León, Nancy; Padilla, Carlos; Pajuelo, Mónica; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko
Taenia solium is a plane helminth responsible for taeniasis and human cysticercosis, the latter being the result of the consumption of infective eggs. Cysticerci can develop in different human tissues, often in the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). For the diagnosis of NCC, an adequate interpretation of clinical data, neuroimaging results and serological tests are required. However, serological tests could be improved by developing candidate antigens able to increase their sensibility and specificity. In the last years, a series of surface and secretory proteins of T. solium essential for the parasite-host interaction have been described. One of these families is cathepsin L cysteine proteases, which have a predominant role in the development and survival of the parasite. They take part in the tissue invasion, immune response evasion, excystation and encystment of cysticercus. They are considered potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.
Fleury, A; Bouteille, B; Garcia, E; Marquez, C; Preux, P M; Escobedo, F; Sotelo, J; Dumas, M
Cysticercosis is an infestation of Cysticercus cellulosae. When it occurs in the brain, chronic neurological complications can ensue, most commonly seizures. Neurocysticercosis is usually diagnosed by neuroimaging, a technique not available in most endemic countries. Hence immunological tests are valuable for diagnosis and epidemiological surveys. We evaluated the suitability of paper for storing blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) until subsequent testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), by testing whole blood samples on filter paper from 305 patients and CSF samples from 117 patients stored on ordinary white typing paper and on filter paper. Optimal preservation of biological samples is achieved when whole blood is stored on filter paper, CSF on white paper, and when samples are frozen within 1 week after collection. Our results could improve diagnostic capabilities and facilitate epidemiological surveys in endemic countries where immunodiagnostic tests cannot be rapidly performed because of inadequate laboratory infrastructure.
Solaymani-Mohammadi, S; Mobedi, I; Rezaian, M; Massoud, J; Mohebali, M; Hooshyar, H; Ashrafi, K; Rokni, M B
Seven helminth species were obtained from 12 wild boars (Sus scrofa) during a survey from 2000 to 2001 in Luristan province, western Iran. These species include the cestode larvae Cysticercus tenuicollis (25%), C. cellulosae (8.3%), the nematodes Metastrongylus apri (41.6%), M. pudendotectus (16.6%), M. salmi (8.3%), Trichuris suis (8.3%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (41.6%). No trematodes were found. Seven wild boars (58.3%) were identified as having at least one helminth species. A single infection was detected in 16.6% of cases, but a three species infection covered the highest rank (25%). All these helminths have been reported from other areas of Iran including the north, northeast and southwest, but not in Luristan. Among seven helminths identified, at least three species are transmissible to humans. The public health significance of these helminths is discussed.
Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review. PMID:23467388
Norman, R J
Cysticerci of the cestodes Monorygma grimaldii and Phyllobothrium delphini were encountered during necropsy of an adult common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) found dead on the southeastern coast of Australia. Monorygma grimaldii cysticerci were found within highly organized retroperitoneal cysts, whereas P. delphini cysticerci in the subcutaneous blubber did not occupy specialized structures. There was a localized lymphoplasmacytic host response to the presence of cysticerci of both species, but M. grimaldii provoked a more severe suppurative response than P. delphini. The systematics and life history of both parasites are incompletely known, but sharks postulated as the potential definitive hosts are found in the region. A unique cysticercus of M. grimaldii was found lying free in the peritoneal cavity of this dolphin. Two rare records of M. grimaldii cysticerci in pinnipeds from the literature include one case of aberrant migration to the testis.
Hailemariam, Z; Nakao, M; Menkir, S; Lavikainen, A; Iwaki, T; Yanagida, T; Okamoto, M; Ito, A
Bovine cysticercosis causing damage to the beef industry is closely linked to human taeniasis due to Taenia saginata. In African countries, Taenia spp. from wildlife are also involved as possible sources of infections in livestock. To identify the aetiological agents of bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia, cysticerci were collected from 41 cattle slaughtered in the eastern and central areas during 2010-2012. A single cysticercus per animal was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the resultant sequence was compared with those of members of the genus Taenia. Although 38 out of 41 cysticerci (92.7%) were identified as T. saginata, three samples (7.3%) showed the hitherto unknown sequences of Taenia sp., which is distantly related to Taenia solium, Taenia arctos and Taenia ovis. Old literatures suggest it to be Taenia hyaenae, but morphological identification of species could not be completed by observing only the larval samples.
Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review.
Free movement of safe and wholesome food is an essential aspect of any society. This article contains an updated description of the regulatory issues associated with preharvest food safety within the European Union. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Trichinella, antimicrobial resistance, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are dealt with in detail. Moreover, Cysticercus bovis/Taenia saginata, Toxoplasma, Yersinia, verotoxigenic/shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria, and foodborne viruses are briefly covered. The article describes how the focus in the European Union is changing to involve a supply chain view with a focus on cost-effectiveness. The precautionary principle-as well as the use of private standards as an instrument to ensure compliance-is dealt with. In addition, actions in the pipeline are presented and discussed.
Luzón, Mónica; de la Fuente-López, Concepción; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Fernández-Morán, Jesús; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco
Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to Taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in the Madrid Zoo-Aquarium (Madrid, Spain). Under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. Most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. The loss of body weight of the animal after surgical extirpation (566 g) represented 22% of the total weight (body weight before mass removal, 2582 g). The vesicles were identified under light microscopic examination as cysticerci and by molecular diagnosis as Cysticercus longicollis, the larval form of T. crassiceps. The present report represents the first detection of T. crassiceps in the prosimian genus Lemur.
Chiesa, Francesco; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Bellio, Alberto; Martinetti, Manuela; Gili, Stefano; Civera, Tiziana
Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. According to European data on meat inspection, the prevalence ranges from 0.007% to 6.8%, but the real prevalence is considered to be at least 10 times higher. Laboratory confirmation of the etiological agent is based on gross, stereomicroscopic, and histological examination of submitted specimens. False identifications may occur, possibly because of death and degeneration of cysts, or because taeniid larvae and other tissue parasites, such as Sarcocystis spp., may cause similar macroscopic morphological lesions. Therefore, tests that can warrant sure identification of taeniid lesions and calcified cysts in the muscle are needed. The focus of our study was to develop a suitable postmortem test that could be applied on putative lesions by T. saginata cysticerci, as ambiguously diagnosed after routine meat inspection. In particular, we proposed a biomolecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). For developing the polymerase chain reaction assay, viable cysts of Cysticercus bovis (n = 10) were used as positive reference samples, and those of Echinococcus granulosus (n = 3), Cysticercus tenuicollis (n = 3), and Sarcocystis spp. (n = 4) as reference negative controls. Further, to evaluate the applicability of the proposed assay, 171 samples of bovine muscular tissue, obtained from local slaughterhouses and containing lesions recognized as T. saginata cysticerci by macroscopic examination, were tested. The proposed test confirmed the diagnosis at postmortem inspection in 94.7% (162/171) of samples. In conclusion, the assay developed in this study, amplifying a short fragment from the mitochondrial gene COI, showed to be suitable for samples containing both viable and degenerating T. saginata cysticerci, yielding an unequivocal diagnosis.
Flisser, A; Woodhouse, E; Larralde, C
Immunoelectrophoresis of sera from patients with brain cysticercosis against a crude antigenic extract from Cysticercus cellulosae indicates that nearly 50% of the patients do not make sufficient antibodies to ostensively precipitate. The other 50% of the patients who do make precipitating antibodies show a very heterogeneous response in the number of antigens they recognize as well as in the type of antigen--as classified by their electrophoretic mobilities. The most favoured, called antigen B, is recognized by 84% of positive sera and corresponds to one or a limited number of antigens isoelectric at pH 8.6. Indirect immunofluorescence with monospecific anti-human immunoglobulins, performed upon the immunoelectrophoretic preparations, reveal that all cysticercus antigens induced the synthesis of antibodies in the immunoglobulin classes in the order G greater than M greater than E greater than A greater than D. Finally, antigen H (an anodic component) seems to favour IgE relative to its ability to induce IgG. Thus, although in natural infection a good proportion of cysticercotic patients do not seem to mount an energetic antibody response against the parasite, giving rise to some speculations about immunosuppression, the fact that 50% do synthesize antibodies allows for some optimistic expectations from vaccination of humans--in view of the good results of vaccination in experimental animals mediated by IgG antibodies. A likely prospect for a human vaccine would be antigen B because it is the most frequently detected by humans, although its immunizing and toxic properties remain to be properly studied. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 6 PMID:7389197
Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Seepana, Jyotsna; Padela, Sudarsini; Sahu, Abani Kanta; Subbarayudu, Swarna; Barua, Ankur
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the major causes of childhood seizures in developing countries including India and Latin America. In this study neurological pediatric cases presenting with afebrile seizures were screened for anti-Cysticercus antibodies (IgG) in their sera in order to estimate the possible burden of cysticercal etiology. The study included a total of 61 pediatric afebrile seizure subjects (aged one to 15 years old); there was a male predominance. All the sera were tested using a pre-evaluated commercially procured IgG-ELISA kit (UB-Magiwell Cysticercosis Kit ™). Anti-Cysticercus antibody in serum was positive in 23 of 61 (37.7%) cases. The majority of cases with a positive ELISA test presented with generalized seizure (52.17%), followed by complex partial seizure (26.08%), and simple partial seizure (21.73%). Headaches were the major complaint (73.91%). Other presentations were vomiting (47.82%), pallor (34.78%), altered sensorium (26.08%), and muscle weakness (13.04%). There was one hemiparesis case diagnosed to be NCC. In this study one child without any significant findings on imaging was also found to be positive by serology. There was a statistically significant association found between the cases with multiple lesions on the brain and the ELISA-positivity (p = 0.017). Overall positivity of the ELISA showed a potential cysticercal etiology. Hence, neurocysticercosis should be suspected in every child presenting with afebrile seizure especially with a radio-imaging supportive diagnosis in tropical developing countries or areas endemic for taeniasis/cysticercosis. PMID:24879004
de Glanville, William A.; Cook, Elizabeth A. J.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. De C.; Handel, Ian; Wamae, Claire N.; Kariuki, Samuel; Fèvre, Eric M.
The tapeworm Taenia solium is the parasite responsible for neurocysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease of public health importance, thought to cause approximately 1/3 of epilepsy cases across endemic regions. The consumption of undercooked infected pork perpetuates the parasite’s life-cycle through the establishment of adult tapeworm infections in the community. Reducing the risk associated with pork consumption in the developing world is therefore a public health priority. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of any one pork meal in western Kenya containing a potentially infective T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption, an aspect of the parasite transmission that has not been estimated before. To estimate this, we used a quantitative food chain risk assessment model built in the @RISK add-on to Microsoft Excel. This model indicates that any one pork meal consumed in western Kenya has a 0.006 (99% Uncertainty Interval (U.I). 0.0002–0.0164) probability of containing at least one viable T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption and therefore being potentially infectious to humans. This equates to 22,282 (99% U.I. 622–64,134) potentially infective pork meals consumed in the course of one year within Busia District alone. This model indicates a high risk of T. solium infection associated with pork consumption in western Kenya and the work presented here can be built upon to investigate the efficacy of various mitigation strategies for this locality. PMID:28212398
Background Bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus infections (also called bovine cysticercosis or beef measles) is usually diagnosed in cattle only during post-mortem meat inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the identification rates of these infections in and to identify predictors/determinants of variations in the identification rates in abattoirs in Gauteng province, South Africa. Methods Retrospective data for over 1.4 million cattle carcasses inspected in 26 abattoirs between January 2010 and December 2013 were used for the study. The identification rates (proportion of bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus positive carcasses) were computed and generalized estimating equations used to identify predictors/determinants of identification rates. Results The overall identification rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.45, 0.95). Significantly (p< 0.05) lower rates were reported during summer (0.55%) than other seasons. Some geographic areas reported significantly (p<0.05) higher rates than others. The identification rates in high throughput abattoirs was significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 9.4; 95% CI: 4.7–19.1) than in low throughput abattoirs. Similarly, the identification rates among animals from feedlots were significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.7–3.5) than those from non-feedlot sources. No significant (p>0.05) association was identified between identification rates and either the number of meat inspectors per abattoir or the provider of inspection services. Conclusion Although no significant association was found between identification rates and provider of inspection services, follow-up studies will need to be done to specifically investigate the potential conflict of interest arising from the fact that abattoir owners hire meat inspection services directly. Capture of abattoir surveillance data needs to include farm address and for each case to be reported separately. Finally, information on the type of identified cysts (alive or calcified
Asmare, Kassahun; Sibhat, Berhanu; Abera, Mesele; Haile, Aynalem; Degefu, Hailu; Fentie, Tsegaw; Bekele, Jemere; Terefe, Getachew; Szonyi, Barbara; Robertson, Lucy J; Wieland, Barbara
Metacestodes, the larval stages of canid cestode parasites, are among the causes of morbidity, mortality and financial losses in small ruminants in Ethiopia as a result of organ and carcass condemnation at slaughter. Several studies have been conducted over the years; however, these studies often had limited scope and coverage. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to collate the information so far available in order to provide a pooled prevalence estimate at national level and identify potential predictors. Published and grey literature written in English and Amharic in the period from, 1st of January 1990 to June 25, 2015 were searched from electronic databases and repositories of academic and research institutions. Relevant animal level data on 67,743 small ruminants was extracted from 23 published articles and one master's thesis resulting altogether in 86 animal level reports that conformed to predefined criteria. The dataset was analyzed using a meta-analytical approach. The pooled prevalence estimate computed for metacestodes infection was 11.8% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 9.1, 15.4. The highest prevalence estimate 31.2% (95% CI: 23.1, 40.9) was found for Cysticercus tenuicollis (Taenia hydatigena) followed by cystic echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus) 8.8% (95% CI: 5.8, 13.1), Cysticercus ovis (Taenia ovis) 4.9% (95% CI: 2.9, 9.4) and Coenurus cerebralis (Taenia multiceps) 4.6% (95% CI: 1.6, 12.2). Among the predictors considered for heterogeneity analysis only sample size and metacestode type fitted the final multivariable meta-regression model and explained 26.3% of the explainable heterogeneity between studies (p<0.05). The prevalence was noted to decrease with increasing sample size. No significant difference in prevalence was observed between sheep and goats (p>0.05). In conclusion, this review showed a widespread occurrence of metacestodes in small ruminants in Ethiopia. Thus, a holistic approach to break the life
Dermauw, Veronique; Ganaba, Rasmané; Cissé, Assana; Ouedraogo, Boubacar; Millogo, Athanase; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Hul, Anke Van; Gabriël, Sarah; Carabin, Hélène; Dorny, Pierre
Taenia hydatigena is a non-zoonotic cestode that has canines as definitive hosts and ruminants and pigs as intermediate hosts. In pigs, its presence causes cross-reactivity in serological testing for Taenia solium cysticercosis. Therefore, knowledge on the occurrence of T. hydatigena is paramount for validly estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs. In a cross-sectional abattoir study, we estimated the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs slaughtered in Koudougou, Burkina Faso. Carcasses of 452 pigs were examined by investigators for perceived and suspected T. hydatigena cysticercus lesions in the abdominal cavity or on the surface of abdominal organs. Routine meat inspection was performed by local inspectors to identify T. solium cysticerci. All lesions were subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis in order to differentiate Taenia spp. Additionally, individual blood samples were examined for the presence of circulating cysticercus antigens using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Perceived T. hydatigena cysticerci were found in 13 pigs, whereas meat inspectors found seven carcasses infected with T. solium cysticerci. All were confirmed by molecular analysis. Of pigs with other suspected lesions, mostly located in the liver, 27 and six were found to harbour T. hydatigena and T. solium cysticerci, respectively. Overall, 8.8% of pigs (40/452) were found infected with T. hydatigena and 2.9% (13/452) with T. solium. Of these positive pigs, one was found infected with both Taenia spp. (0.2%, 1/452). Blood samples of 48.5% of pigs (219/452) were positive in the Ag-ELISA. Pigs with confirmed cysts of T. hydatigena and T. solium had a positive Ag-ELISA result in 57.5% (23/40) and 61.5% (8/13) of cases, respectively. The observed T. hydatigena prevalence in this study is relatively high in comparison to other studies in Africa. Estimates of the occurrence of active porcine T. solium infection using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA should therefore be adjusted for the presence of T
Monteiro, Danieli Urach; Botton, Sônia de Avila; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Haag, Karen Luisa; Musskopf, Germano; Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Weiblen, Carla; Ribeiro, Tatiana Correa; de la Rue, Mário Luiz
This study aimed to identify the parasitical etiologic agents of visceral cysts in pigs from the central/northern region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Fifty-eight cysts were found in livers during veterinary inspection of swine slaughtered from January 2008 to 2012. Collected samples were submitted to macroscopic and molecular analyzes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing and BLAST alignment of sequences was used to molecular characterization of the samples. By PCR 10.3% (6/58) of tested samples were positive for Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and 56.9% (33/58) for Cysticercus tenuicollis. In this study, it was verified the occurrence of larval forms of E. granulosus sensu lato and Taenia hydatigena in pig herds from the central/northern region of Rio Grande do Sul State. The presence of both parasites is relevant due to the economic losses for the meat industry. Additionally, E. granulosus sensu lato has zoonotic importance and may be infecting pig herds in southern Brazil.
Ma, J; He, S W; Li, H; Guo, Q C; Pan, W W; Wang, X J; Zhang, J; Liu, L Z; Liu, W; Liu, Y
The objective of the present survey was to reveal the prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, the People's Republic of China. From July 2010 through February 2013, a total of 479 goats slaughtered in local abattoirs and markets were examined for the presence of helminths using a helminthological approach. Eighty-six percent of the examined goats were infected with at least one species of helminths. In total, 15 genera of helminths were found representing 2 phyla, 3 classes, 5 orders, and 11 families. Oesophago-stomum, Ostertagia and Haemonchus were the most prevailing nematode genera, Eurytrema was the predominant trematode genus detected, whereas the infection of adult goats with cestodes was not common, with Cysticercus tenuicollis being the most common genus. The worm burdens showed obvious seasonal variation in that nematodes and cestodes were abundant in summer and winter, and the trematodes peaked in winter, which was consistent with the seasonal precipitation of Hunan Province. The geographical distribution of helminths in goats ascended with altitude. Goats in the mountainous areas were more severely infected with helminths than goats in the hilly areas, whereas infection of goats with helminths was much less in the lake areas. The present investigation highlights the high prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, China, which provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of future prevention and controlling measures against helminth infection in adult goats in this province and elsewhere.
Li, Hong-Jiang; Han, Hong-Xiu; Feng, Dong-Fu
Reports describing a rapid increase in the cystic volume of anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) in a short time frame are rare. The present study reports the case of a 68-year-old male who was admitted to the No. 9 People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine (Shanghai, China), with a small cystic brain lesion and positive immunological testing for cysticercosis. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a cystic lesion, 6 mm in diameter, in the left frontal lobe. Neurocysticercosis was suspected and the patient was treated with a clinical trial of albendazole and steroids. A period of 25 days later, the patient's condition had deteriorated, and MRI revealed a cystic lesion in the left frontal lobe; thereafter, the cystic lesion was removed and a diagnosis of AA was established. The tumor was soft, ivory white and gelatinous due to myxoid degeneration. In this case, tumor-related angiogenesis and microvascular extravasation (blood-brain barrier disruption) may have been the main cause of the rapid increase in the cystic volume in such a short time frame. The similarity of the glioma and cysticercus antigens may have been the cause of the positive reactions in the cystic fluid. The present study reports the rare occurrence of a rapid increase of cystic volume and potential diagnostic difficulties. PMID:27698865
Schuster, Rolf K; Sivakumar, Saritha; Wieckowsky, Tadeus
Three hundred carcasses of young goats aged between 3 and 6 months were found to be infested with cysts at routine meat inspection at an abattoir in Dubai in 2008. Two types of cestode larvae were situated in the liver, abdominal cavities, under the skin and between the fasciae of the skeletal muscles. Sixty-two typical coenuri loaded with multiple scolices (between 46 and 474) and situated in clusters (between 6 and 17) at the inner membrane of the bladder were recorded in numbers between one and 12 in 30 animals. The volume of coenuri cysts varied between one and 40 ml. The rostellum of 300-400 microm in diameter carried 26 to 32 hooks arranged in two circles. The average length of larger and smaller hooks was 160 and 114 microm, respectively. All other metacestodes were determined as Cysticercus tenuicollis. Although the structure of coenuri and the measurements of scolices were identical with Coenurus cerebralis, the location of these metacestodes outside the central nervous system, suggests that these larvae might belong to a different strain of Multiceps multiceps or even to a closely related species.
Diaz-Masmela, Yuliet; Fragoso, Gladis; Ambrosio, Javier R; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Rosas, Gabriela; Estrada, Karel; Carrero, Julio César; Sciutto, Edda; Laclette, Juan P; Bobes, Raúl J
Cysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is a zoonotic disease affecting pigs and humans that is endemic to developing countries in Latin America, Africa and South East Asia. The prevalence of infection in pigs, the intermediate host for T. solium, has been used as an indicator for monitoring disease transmission in endemic areas. However, accurate and specific diagnostic tools for porcine cysticercosis remain to be established. Using proteomic approaches and the T. solium genome sequence, seven antigens were identified as specific for porcine cysticercosis, namely, tropomyosin 2, alpha-1 tubulin, beta-tubulin 2, annexin B1, small heat-shock protein, 14-3-3 protein, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. None of these proteins were cross-reactive when tested with sera from pigs infected with Ascaris spp., Cysticercus tenuicollis and hydatid cysts of Echinococcus spp. or with serum from a Taenia saginata-infected cow. Comparison with orthologues, indicated that the amino acid sequences of annexin B1 and cAMP-dependent protein kinase possessed highly specific regions, which might make them suitable candidates for development of a specific diagnostic assay for porcine cysticercosis.
Hinojosa-Juarez, Araceli Consuelo; Sandoval-Balanzario, Miguel; McManus, Donald Peter; Monroy-Ostria, Amalia
Mitochondrial (mt) cox1 and ribosomal ITS1 DNA sequences from Taenia solium cysticercus isolates from pigs and cysticerci (racemose and cellulose types) from patients with neurocysticercosis were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplicons were sequenced in order to determine the genetic relationship between these types of cysticerci. Phylogenetic trees were constructed and evolutionary distances were calculated. ITS1 and mt cox1 cysticerci sequence data were compared with previously published Taenia spp. sequences. The variation in the ITS1 and cox1 sequences of samples collected from Mexico was minimal, regardless of geographical origin, size or colour of cysticerci from either pigs or human brain. These results suggest that the racemose and cellulose types represent genetically identical metacestodes of T. solium. Alignment of the mt cox1 sequences of the Mexican samples with sequences of other Taenia taxa showed that most were very similar to T. solium from Mexico and T. solium from Colombia; one T. solium Mexican isolate and Taenia hydatigena were placed in the same group close to Taenia crassiceps. The ITS1 sequences for the Mexican T. solium samples indicated the majority were in the same group as the Latin American T. solium. Two Mexican T. solium samples and T. solium from Philippines were placed together in a different group.
Cardoso, T S; Simões, R O; Luque, J L F; Maldonado, A; Gentile, R
The influence of habitat structure on helminth communities of three sigomdontinae rodent species (Akodon cursor, A. montensis and Oligoryzomys nigripes) was investigated in forest fragments within an agricultural landscape in south-eastern Brazil. This is a pionner study correlating the occurrence of helminth species of rodent hosts with microhabitat characteristics. Rodents were collected from 12 fragments and in a continuous conserved area. Up to 13 nematode, three cestode and two trematode species were identified, and habitat fragmentation was found to have more influence on the helminth composition of O. nigripes compared to the other two rodent species. Fragmentation appeared to limit the development of some helminths' life cycles, e.g. with some species such as Trichofreitasia lenti, Protospirura numidica, Cysticercus fasciolaris and Avellaria sp., occurring mostly in areas with less anthropic impact. However, fragmentation did not seem to affect the life cycles of other dominant helminths, such as the trematode Canaania obesa, the nematodes Stilestrongylus lanfrediae, S. eta and S. aculeata, and the cestode Rodentolepis akodontis. The helminth community structure followed a nested pattern of distribution in A. montensis and O. nigripes. Stilestrongylus lanfrediae seemed to be more associated with dense understorey, C. obesa with open canopy and dense understorey, and Guerrerostrongylus zetta with organic matter on the ground. Their presence in each area may be explained by aspects of their life cycles that take place in the external environment outside the host.
Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund
Rhizobiales (formerly named Rickettsiales) cause in rare instances meningitis and meningovasculitis, respectively. In case of history of exposure, infection by Rhizobiales needs to be considered since both diagnosis and therapy may be extremely difficult and pathogen-specific. The same applies to protozoa; in this chapter, Babesia species, free-living amoebae and Entamoeba histolytica infection, including severe meningitis and brain abscess, infection by Trypanosoma species (South American and African trypanosomiasis) are discussed with respect to history, epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as differential diagnosis and therapy. Parasitic flatworms and roundworms, potentially able to invade the central nervous system, trematodes (flukes), cestodes (in particular, Cysticercus cellulosae), but also nematodes (in particular, Strongyloides spp. in the immunocompromised) are of worldwide importance. In contrast, filarial worms, Toxocara spp., Trichinella spp., Gnathostoma and Angiostrongylus spp. are seen only in certain geographically confined areas. Even more regionally confined are infestations of the central nervous system by metazoa, in particular, tongue worms (=arthropods) or larvae of flies (=maggots). The aim of this chapter is (1) to alert the neurologist to these infections, and (2) to enable the attending emergency neurologist to take a knowledgeable history, with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as therapeutic management possibilities.
Sarti, E; Schantz, P M; Avila, G; Ambrosio, J; Medina-Santillán, R; Flisser, A
An intervention study with mass treatment against taeniasis to prevent neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium in a rural community in Mexico was performed in 1991-96. Information and biological samples were obtained at the beginning of the study, at 6 months and at 42 months after mass treatment with praziquantel at a single dose of 5 mg/kg. Prevalence rates of taeniasis were measured by the detection of Taenia coproantigens and Taenia eggs in faeces; neurocysticercosis was suggested by clinical data and by serum antibodies in humans and also in swine. A reduction of 53% after 6 months and of 56% after 42 months for human taeniasis was seen after treatment. Late-onset general seizures decreased 70%. Anti-cysticercus antibodies in the human population were reduced by 75% after 42 months. Antibodies in pigs also showed a significant reduction of 55% after 6 months. In conclusion, an impact of mass chemotherapy against taeniasis to control cysticercosis in the short and long term was demonstrated. Praziquantel for tapeworm treatment should not be given at doses lower than 10 mg/kg. Late-onset convulsive crisis and specific antibodies are good indicators of neurocysticercosis and of exposure to the parasite, respectively.
Lara-Aguilera, R; Mendoza-Cruz, J F; Martinez-Toledo, J L; Macias-Sanchez, R; Willms, K; Altamirano-Rojas, L; Santamaria-Llano, A
A case of neurocysticercosis in a six-year-old Mexican boy and a case of Taenia solium taeniasis in his five-year-old brother are reported. Neurocysticercosis was suspected based on clinical findings and was confirmed by computed tomography scanning. A parasitologic examination with zinc-sulfate flotation and formalin-ether sedimentation techniques was carried out on the whole family, and revealed Taenia sp. eggs in three stool samples from the five-year-old boy. The entire family agreed to undergo chemotherapy with niclosamide, but only the child passing taeniid eggs eliminated T. solium. No additional taeniasis cases were found in an examination of 20% of the village population, using the same parasitologic techniques. The results of an ELISA using cysticercus antigens were negative for the boy with neurocysticercosis, for other family members, and for 24 village volunteers, but were positive for the T. solium tapeworm carrier. It was concluded that in this family, person-to-person transmission of the tapeworm occurred due to poor living conditions and hygiene.
Yang, Deying; Ren, Yongjun; Fu, Yan; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong
Taenia pisiformis is one of the most important parasites of canines and rabbits. T. pisiformis cysticercus (the larval stage) causes severe damage to rabbit breeding, which results in huge economic losses. In this study, the genetic variation of T. pisiformis was determined in Sichuan Province, China. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) (922 bp) gene were amplified in 53 isolates from 8 regions of T. pisiformis. Overall, 12 haplotypes were found in these 53 cytb sequences. Molecular genetic variations showed 98.4% genetic variation derived from intra-region. FST and Nm values suggested that 53 isolates were not genetically differentiated and had low levels of genetic diversity. Neutrality indices of the cytb sequences showed the evolution of T. pisiformis followed a neutral mode. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. These findings indicate that 53 isolates of T. pisiformis keep a low genetic variation, which provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for future control strategies. PMID:24039288
Nascimento, E; Tavares, C A; Lopes, J D
Monoclonal antibodies were generated from mice immunized with scolex protein antigen of Cysticercus cellulosae. Three monoclonal antibodies specific for cysticercal antigens, which did not show any cross-reactivity with Taenia solium or Taenia saginata antigens, were selected. Each monoclonal antibody coupled to Sepharose could purify one antigen, which appeared as a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies were used to detect antibody in serum samples taken from patients with cysticercosis, taeniasis, and other parasitic infections in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, cross-reactivity was observed until a serum dilution of 1:128 was reached. Since serum samples from unexposed subjects showed positive reactions until a dilution of 1:64 was reached, we chose a discriminative dilution (1:128) above which no cross-reaction was observed. The percent positive serum samples from cysticercosis patients was 100% by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with any of the antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies. Images PMID:3611310
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in developing countries. It can present variably depending on the location and stage of cysts in the nervous system, and the host immune response. The most common presentation of parenchymal NCC is with seizures that are usually focal and brief; status epilepticus occurs in some cases. About a third of cases have headache and vomiting. Diagnosis is made by either CT or MRI. Single, small, contrast enhancing lesions are the most common; visualization of a scolex is diagnostic. Some cases have multiple cysts with a characteristic starry-sky appearance. Although treatment with cysticidal therapy continues to be debated, there is increasing evidence that it helps through increased and faster resolution of CT lesions; whether there is any improvement in long-term seizure control needs further study. It should not be used in cysticercus encephalitis or in ophthalmic NCC and used with caution in extraparenchymal NCC. It is of no use in calcified lesions. Corticosteroids are used simultaneously to reduce cerebral oedema. Seizures respond well to a single antiepileptic, and the seizure recurrence rate is low in cases with single lesions; those with multiple, persistent or calcified lesions usually have recurrent seizures. Extraparenchymal NCC is often associated with intracranial hypertension, hydrocephalous and chronic meningitis; it has a guarded prognosis; surgical intervention is required in many cases. Management of NCC needs to be individualized. NCC is potentially eradicable; proper sanitation, hygiene and animal husbandry are warranted. PMID:21694805
Sreedevi, Chennuru; Hafeez, Mohammad; Kumar, Putcha Anand; Rayulu, Vukka Chengalva; Subramanyam, Kothapalli Venkata; Sudhakar, Krovvidi
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was employed to detect Taenia solium DNA in muscle lesions for validation of the meat inspection results of slaughtered pigs. Two sets of oligonucleotide primers, one targeted against the large subunit rRNA gene (TBR primers) and the other targeted against cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox1 primers) of T. solium were used in this study. On reactivity in PCR test, the TBR primers and the Cox1 primers yielded products of 286 and 984 bp, respectively, in cysticercosis positive cases. Both the sets of primers were found to be highly specific, since they did not yield any PCR product in negative controls. A total of 225 pig carcasses were screened for cysticercosis by meat inspection, out of which 25 carcasses with visible cysts (16 viable and 9 degenerated cysts) were also confirmed to be positive for cysticercosis in PCR test. However, out of the 35 carcasses with suspected lesions on meat inspection, only two were found to be positive for cysticercosis in PCR test. The detection limits for both the primer sets were analyzed. The TBR primer set could detect up to 10 pg of cysticercus DNA, whereas the Cox1 primer set could detect only up to 1 ng. It is evident from the study that PCR test is an efficient tool for validation of meat inspection results and also to rule out ambiguity in carcass judgment of suspected cases of porcine cysticercosis.
Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas Hamed; Kamal, Amany Mohamed; Abdelgelil, Noha Hamed; Abdel-Fatah, Mohamed
Meat-borne parasites are Sarcocystis species, Toxoplasma gondii, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis. A total of 300 animals including 100 cattle, 100 goat, and 100 pigs, slaughtered in El-Minia governmental slaughterhouses. From each animal, five samples were taken from different muscles (esophageal, tongue and cardiac) and different organs (liver and brain). Meat samples were examined macroscopic and microscopic (direct, homogenization and H&E staining) for detection of the above-mentioned parasites. Serum samples were subjected to IHA for detection of T gondii specific antibodies. This study revealed that Sarcocystis species were the highest parasites that could be detected, with overall prevalence of 80%, which was statistically significant (P < or = 0.001). The digestion method was more sensitive than direct method for detection of Sarcocystis species. On the other hand, T. gondii was only diagnosed by using IHA test as 50.9% serum samples were positive, which was statistically significant (P < or = 0.004). Besides, 20% of examined battle were infected by Cysticercus bovis, and 12% of pigs were infected with C. cellulosae, but without statistical significant (P < or = 0.5).
Rostami, Sima; Salavati, Reza; Beech, Robin N; Babaei, Zahra; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Harandi, Majid Fasihi
Taenia saginata is an important tapeworm, infecting humans in many parts of the world. The present study was undertaken to identify inter- and intraspecific variation of T. saginata isolated from cattle in different parts of Iran using two mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA genes. Up to 105 bovine specimens of T. saginata were collected from 20 slaughterhouses in three provinces of Iran. DNA were extracted from the metacestode Cysticercus bovis. After PCR amplification, sequencing of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were carried out and two phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data were generated by Bayesian inference on CO1 and 12S rRNA sequences. Sequence analyses of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes showed 11 and 29 representative profiles respectively. The level of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 gene was 0.3-2.4% while the overall nucleotide variation among all 11 haplotypes was 4.6%. For 12S rRNA sequence data, level of pairwise nucleotide variation was 0.2-2.5% and the overall nucleotide variation was determined as 5.8% among 29 haplotypes of 12S rRNA gene. Considerable genetic diversity was found in both mitochondrial genes particularly in 12S rRNA gene.
Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Demont, Pierre; Ducrot, Christian; Calavas, Didier; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre; Gay, Emilie
Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease due to Cysticercus bovis. This study aimed to identify factors that could have an impact on the prevalence of cysticercosis and to use them to build standardized indicators of prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on data from 4,564,065 cattle (91.3% of the cattle population slaughtered in France in 2010) among which 6491 cattle (0.14%) were found to harbor at least one lesion of cysticercosis (including 611 cattle harboring viable cysts, 0.01%). Two multivariate logistic models were fit to the data using as outcome variables either the presence or absence of viable cysts and the presence or absence of cysts whatever their level of development. Age and sex were identified as the main factors influencing bovine cysticercosis prevalence and were used for the construction of standardized prevalence and standardized cysticercosis rate. To illustrate the use of such indicators, they were calculated for the first and second semester of 2010 and for two different areas in France. The differences between raw prevalence and standardized prevalence highlight the use of standardized indicators for comparisons of prevalence between different areas and time periods as the structure of the slaughtered populations differ considerably from one to another.
GHOLIPOURY, Monireh; REZAI, Hamid Reza; NAMROODI, Somayeh; ARAB KHAZAELI, Fatemeh
Background: This study was conducted to collect informative data on the parasitic infection of wild rodents, emphasizing on finding parasites, which have medical importance to human. Methods: During 2012–2014, a total number of 91 wild rodents were captured from rural areas of Turkmen Sahra, Golestan Province, using handmade traps. Animals were anesthetized, surveyed for any ectoparasite and then their carcasses were carefully dissected for examination of endoparsites. Results: Four species of rodents including Mus musculus (52.75%), Rattus norvegicus (38.46%), Rhombomys opimus (4.40%) and Meriones libycus (4.40%) were captured. Parasitic infestation was detected in 38.5% of sampled rodents. Parasite infestation rates of sampled rodents was Hymenolepis diminuta = 7.7%, Cryptosporidium spp = 6.6%, Trichuris spp.= 5.5%, Cysticercus fasciolaris = 2.20%, Angiostrongylus spp.= 2.20%, Capillaria sp.= 1.09%, Rhipicephalus spp. = 8.70%, Nosopsyllus fasciatus = 1.09%, and Laelaps nuttalli = 3.29%. Among 10 genera/species of identified parasites, at least 8 of them were zoonotic with public health importance. L. nuttalli and N. fasciatus were the only two non-zoonotic detected parasites in this survey. Conclusion: Harboring a wide variety of zoonotic parasites in sampled wild rodents particularly when they live nearby villages, represents a potential risk to native inhabitants. Hence, controlling rodents’ population in residential regions and improving awareness of local people about the risk of disease transmission through rodents seems to be entirely necessary. PMID:28127340
Gonzalez, A E; Cama, V; Gilman, R H; Tsang, V C; Pilcher, J B; Chavera, A; Castro, M; Montenegro, T; Verastegui, M; Miranda, E
Swine cysticercosis, a severe zoonotic disease which is part of the Taenia solium life cycle, causes major economic losses in pig husbandry. Throughout South America, farmers diagnose cysticercosis by examining the tongues of their pigs for cysticercus nodules. Farmers do not bring pigs believed to be infected to the slaughterhouse for fear of confiscation. Therefore, reliable statistics on porcine cysticercosis can only be acquired at the household level. We examined the utility of the tongue test as a diagnostic tool for porcine cysticercosis. The results of the tongue test was compared with 2 serologic methods for the detection of cysticercosis, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB), and with necropsy results. We examined 11 animals from an endemic area (Huancayo) and 42 animals from an area free of cysticercosis (Lima). The tongue test has a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 100%, the EITB a sensitivity and specificity of 100%, and the ELISA a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 75%. Thus, the tongue examination, being a test essentially without cost and having fair sensitivity and high specificity, can be useful in epidemiological surveys. Prevalence for porcine cysticercosis in Huancayo is 23.4% by tongue examination, 31.2% by necropsy, 37.7% by ELISA, and 51.9% by EITB.
Yang, Deying; Ren, Yongjun; Fu, Yan; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou
Taenia pisiformis is one of the most important parasites of canines and rabbits. T. pisiformis cysticercus (the larval stage) causes severe damage to rabbit breeding, which results in huge economic losses. In this study, the genetic variation of T. pisiformis was determined in Sichuan Province, China. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) (922 bp) gene were amplified in 53 isolates from 8 regions of T. pisiformis. Overall, 12 haplotypes were found in these 53 cytb sequences. Molecular genetic variations showed 98.4% genetic variation derived from intra-region. FST and Nm values suggested that 53 isolates were not genetically differentiated and had low levels of genetic diversity. Neutrality indices of the cytb sequences showed the evolution of T. pisiformis followed a neutral mode. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. These findings indicate that 53 isolates of T. pisiformis keep a low genetic variation, which provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for future control strategies.
ZAREI, Zabiholah; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; HEIDARI, Zahra; DAVOODI, Jaber; SHABESTARI, Afshin; MOTEVALLI HAGHI, Afsaneh; KHANALIHA, Khadijeh; KIA, Eshrat Beigom
Background: Rodents have important role as reservoirs of different parasites. The aim of this study was to determine helminth parasites of abundant rodents in Meshkin-Shahr, Ardabil Province northwest Iran. Methods: From April 2014 to March 2015; 205 rodents including 118 Meriones persicus, 63 Mus musculus and 24 Cricetulus migratorius were collected, using live traps. All rodents were dissected and their different tissues examined for infectivity with helminth parasites. Results: Overall, 74.2% of rodents were infected with helminth parasites. The rate of infectivity in M. persicus, M. musculus and C. migratorius was 82.2%, 61.9%, 66.7%, respectively. In general, among all 205 rodents, the species and infection rates of helminthes were as follows: Nematoda: Trichuris sp. (46.8%), Capillaria hepatica (18.1%), Syphacia frederici (14.2%), Aspicularis tetraptera (3.4%), Trichuris rhombomidis (2%), Heligmosomom sp. (2%), Streptopharagus kuntzi (0.5%), Spiruridae gen. sp. (0.5%); Cestoda: Hymenolepis nana fraterna (16.6%) Hymenolepis diminuta (7.3%) tetratiridium of Mesocestoides sp. (1%), Paranoplocephala sp. (0.5%), Cysticercus fasciolaris (0.5%), Taenia endothoracicus larva (0.5%), and Acanthocephala: Moniliformis moniliformis (18.5%). Conclusions: Variable species of helminthes circulate in the rodents of the study area. Presence of several zoonotic species highlights the potential risk of infections for public health. PMID:28096855
Wohlgemut, Jared; Dewey, Cate; Levy, Mike; Mutua, Florence
Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a major cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. A questionnaire was administered to 282 Kenyan farmers, followed by a workshop, a second questionnaire, one-on-one training, and a third questionnaire. People who attended workshops were more likely to know how T. solium causes epilepsy in humans in the third visit than the second (P = 0.001). The likelihood that farmers would tether their pigs 100% of the time, limiting exposure to tapeworm eggs, increased after the first (P < 0.001) and second visits (P < 0.001). Farmers were more likely to have heard of Cysticercus cellulosae in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.007), and to know how pigs acquire infection in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.003). Farmers with at least a grade 8 education were more likely to know how T. solium is transmitted to humans in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.009), and were more likely to understand the relationship between epilepsy and T. solium in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.03). Grade 8 education may enhance learning from written material. Workshops followed by individual on-farm training enhanced knowledge acquisition and behavior changes. Training local government extension workers contributed to the sustainability of this project. PMID:20348512
Wohlgemut, Jared; Dewey, Cate; Levy, Mike; Mutua, Florence
Taenia solium neurocysticercosis is a major cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. A questionnaire was administered to 282 Kenyan farmers, followed by a workshop, a second questionnaire, one-on-one training, and a third questionnaire. People who attended workshops were more likely to know how T. solium causes epilepsy in humans in the third visit than the second (P = 0.001). The likelihood that farmers would tether their pigs 100% of the time, limiting exposure to tapeworm eggs, increased after the first (P < 0.001) and second visits (P < 0.001). Farmers were more likely to have heard of Cysticercus cellulosae in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.007), and to know how pigs acquire infection in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.003). Farmers with at least a grade 8 education were more likely to know how T. solium is transmitted to humans in the second (P = 0.001) and third visits (P = 0.009), and were more likely to understand the relationship between epilepsy and T. solium in the second (P = 0.03) and third visits (P = 0.03). Grade 8 education may enhance learning from written material. Workshops followed by individual on-farm training enhanced knowledge acquisition and behavior changes. Training local government extension workers contributed to the sustainability of this project.
Wu, Hai-Wei; Ito, Akira; Ai, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Acosta, Luz P; Lee Willingham Iii, Arve
The parasitic zoonoses cysticercosis/taeniasis is among the 17 major Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) identified by the WHO as a focus for research and control. It is caused by a larval stage (cysticercus) infection of Taenia solium tapeworm in both humans and pigs. Cysticercosis occurs in many resource-poor countries, especially those with warm and mild climates in the regions of Latin America (LA), Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The prevalence of human cysticercosis is marked in those areas where individuals are traditionally keen to consume raw or insufficiently cooked pork and/or where the husbandry of pigs is improper. The worldwide burden of cysticercosis is unclear and notably, large-scale control initiatives are lacking in all regions. This review focuses on the current endemic status of cysticercosis caused by T. solium infection in both humans and pigs living in 13 Southeast Asian countries. We will also emphasize epidemiological data as well as prevention and control of human neurocysticercosis.
Liu, Xiao-yan; Guo, Guang-wu; Chen, Li-hong; Mo, Xing-ze; Yu, Yue-sheng
The Taenia asiatica eggs pre-incubated with sodium hypochlorite solution for 4 min, 6 min and 8 mins were subcutaneously injected into mice with normal immune function(groups Al-A3 respectively, n=20 in each) and mice with immunosuppression (groups B1-B3, n=20 in each). All groups of mice began to show body discomfort on day 5 after infection and develop lumps on the back about on day 15. In groups Al-A3, animal death occurred during days 7-15, with a same survival rate of 95.0%(19/20) and infection rate of 89.4%(17/19), 73.6%(14/19) and 47.3%(9/19) respectively. In groups B1-B3, animal death occurred during days 7-50, with survival rate of 60%(13/20), 55%(11/20)and 55%(11/20) and infection rate of 76.9% (10/13), 54.5% (6/11) and 45.4% (5/11) respectively. After the scolex of cysticercus was evaginated with 15% pig bile, four suckers, an apparent rostellum and two distinct hook-like puncta structures were seen. These results indicate that mice with normal immune function can be used as a replacement of immunosuppressive mice to establish a T. asiatica oncosphere infection model. In addition, the T. asiatica eggs pre-incubated with sodium hypochlorite solution for 4 min have the strongest infection ability.
Boufana, Belgees; Scala, Antonio; Lahmar, Samia; Pointing, Steve; Craig, Philip S; Dessì, Giorgia; Zidda, Antonella; Pipia, Anna Paola; Varcasia, Antonio
Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena is endemic in Sardinia. Information on the genetic variation of this parasite is important for epidemiological studies and implementation of control programs. Using two mitochondrial genes, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) we investigated the genetic variation and population structure of Cysticercus tenuicollis from Sardinian intermediate hosts and compared it to that from other hosts from various geographical regions. The parsimony cox1 network analysis indicated the existence of a common lineage for T. hydatigena and the overall diversity and neutrality indices indicated demographic expansion. Using the cox1 sequences, low pairwise fixation index (Fst) values were recorded for Sardinian, Iranian and Palestinian sheep C. tenuicollis which suggested the absence of genetic differentiation. Using the ND1 sequences, C. tenuicollis from Sardinian sheep appeared to be differentiated from those of goat and pig origin. In addition, goat C. tenuicollis were genetically different from adult T. hydatigena as indicated by the statistically significant Fst value. Our results are consistent with biochemical and morphological studies that suggest the existence of variants of T. hydatigena.
Varghese, Vinod; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Christopher, Rita; Rajeswaran, Jamuna; Prasad, Chandrajit; Subasree, R.; Issac, Thomas Gregor
Introduction: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic infection of man. In addition to a headache, seizures, and focal deficits, this is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction. Many studies revealed that the number and location of lesions are not always responsible for cognitive dysfunction. Cholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase are found in the walls of the cysticercus which could contribute to cholinergic depletion and thus cognitive dysfunction. Patients and Methods: A total of 43 patients who presented with NCC were evaluated for cognitive deficits, as well as cholinesterase levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with control CSF from patients undergoing spinal anesthesia. Blood levels of interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were also estimated and correlated with cognitive deficits. Results: There is a mild increase in the acetylcholinesterase in CSF of patients compared to controls, but it did not correlate with cognitive deficits. There is an increase in interleukins to a significant level which correlates with vesicular stage of the organism and cognitive impairment. The number of lesions also correlated with cognitive impairment even though the location did not. The domains of cognitive deficits seen are sustained attention, category fluency, verbal working memory, planning, set shifting, verbal learning, visual memory, and construction. Discussion and Conclusion: NCC is associated with multi-domain cognitive impairment correlates with vescicular stage, proinflammatory cytokines and number of lesions but not location, vesicular stage, and proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:27114627
Flisser, A.; Pérez-Montfort, R.; Larralde, C.
In this review of the literature concerning the immunology of animal and human cysticercosis, emphasis is placed on whether previous exposure to the antigen confers protection to the host. Statistical analysis of the published data indicates that immunized animals have a lower risk than non-immunized animals of contracting cysticercosis, there being large variations within and between different host—cysticercus relationships. There is no indication as to which antigen is best for immunization but, although live parasites in all stages of development, or extracts, appear to give protection, embryos, eggs, and excretions are most frequently used. Antibodies appear to be the principal mediators of resistance, but the action seems to be only upon very young larvae, while fully grown cysticerci are unharmed. Several immunological methods are valuable in the diagnosis of cysticercosis, the choice depending more on the purpose of the study than on differences in their ability to discriminate between healthy and sick. The presence of anticysticercus antibodies in the serum of up to 50% of human patients indicates that human vaccination may be possible in high-risk areas; the remaining patients pose an interesting problem open to speculation and research on immunological evasion, immunodepression, and the existence of serotypes. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 4(Contd.) PMID:396058
Chand, Sharad; Mishra, Madan; Singh, Gaurav; Singh, Abhishek; Tandon, Sapna
Cysticercosis is common in developing countries in which the combination of rural society, crowding, and poor sanitation facilities allows greater contact between humans and pigs and thus more opportunities for fecal contamination of food and water occurs. They are rarely located in oral and perioral tissues, particularly in the muscles of mastication, muscle of the facial expression, suprahyoid muscles, and postcervical musculature and also as in the tongue, buccal mucosa, and lip. Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease that rarely found in the maxillofacial region in humans. This paper reports the case of a young female patient presented with isolated lesion of cysticercosis involving buccinator muscle. In conclusion, we suggest that cysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraoral solitary nodules within the oral and maxillofacial region, especially in endemic areas. High-resolution ultrasonography is an excellent noninvasive and cost-effective modality for the diagnosis and also suggests that localized parasitic infections such as Cysticercus cellulosae can be successfully treated with conservative management using oral antiparasitic (antihelminthic) medication. PMID:28356697
Keilbach, N M; de Aluja, A S; Sarti-Gutierrez, E
A study was carried out in a rural community of the state of Guerrero in order to find ways to control human taeniasis/cysticercosis (Taenia solium). At the beginning of the study the frequency of porcine cysticercosis was established to be around 6.6%. Fecal examination in the human population showed that of 760 persons, 24 were carriers of Taenia sp (3%). Of 440 human sera tested for antibodies against cysticercus cellulosae, 9 showed absorbance values of 0.2 or higher (2.3%). 900 persons received treatment against taeniasis. 400 soil samples and 600 flies were examined for the presence of eggs of Taenioae, all with negative results. Meetings with the adult population were organized to explain the disease and the life cycle of the parasite. Lectures and demonstrations for adults were given at the school for primary and secondary grade children. Special emphasis was given to the need to construct latrines in every home, as it was found that defaecation was practiced mainly in the open, usually at places where pigs had immediate access and ingested the faeces. One year after the initiation of the programme, pigs under the age of 1 year were inspected, to determine whether the cestocide treatment of humans has had an effect on the degree of parasitized pigs and if hygiene had improved. 11% of these animals were found to have cysticerci in their tongue. Two years after the initiation of the programme 78% of the children and 2% of adults answered questions about the lifecycle of the parasite correctly. The results of the trial are discussed and suggestions for future programmes are made.
Nwosu, C O; Ogunrinade, A F; Fagbemi, B O
A total of 120 gastro-intestinal tracts and 960 faecal samples were examined to assess the prevalence and seasonal changes in the gastro-intestinal helminth parasites of Red Sokoto (maradi) goats slaughtered at Ibadan between May 1991 and April 1992. Egg types of strongyles, Strongyloides, Trichuris, Skrjabinema, Dicrocoelium and Moniezia were encountered in 93%, 83%, 44%, 0.9%, 2.3% and 31% of the faecal samples respectively. However, only strongyle, Strongyloides and Trichuris eggs occurred in large numbers and were more common during the rainy season than in the dry season. The parasites recorded and their prevalences were Haemonchus contortus (90.0%), H. ovis (5.0%), Strongyloides papillosus (80.8%), Trichostrongylus colubriformis (78.3%), T. axei (69.2%), Trichuris ovis (72.5%), T. globulosa (38.3%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (67.5%), Cooperia curticei (58.3%) Gaigeria pachyscelis (40.8%), Skrjabinema ovis (5.0%), Nematodirus battus (5.8%), Moniezia expansa (29.2%), M. benedeni (10.0%), Paramphistomum spp. (5.0%) and Cysticercus tenuicollis (33.3%). Haemonchus ovis is reported for the first time in Nigeria. Mixed infections were most prevalent. Young goats were more commonly infected and had higher worm counts than adult goats. Only Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides and Cooperia spp. occurred in large numbers. Irrespective of the age of the goats, higher worm counts were generally encountered during the rainy season than in the dry season. The results are discussed in relation to the control of helminthiasis in grazing animals in Nigeria.
Mendlovic, Fela; Carrillo-Farga, Joaquín; Torres, José; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Flisser, Ana
Taenia solium, a cestode that causes neurocysticercosis and taeniasis in humans, has a complex life cycle. The adult tapeworm develops in the intestine of human beings and is also responsible for neurocysticercosis, which is caused by the metacestode or cysticercus that develops in the brain. Recently, we have cloned the coding region for T. solium calreticulin (TsCRT) as a functional Ca(2+)-binding protein. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous protein involved in cellular Ca2+ homeostasis and protein folding. These important functions affect several aspects of cell physiology. To explore the expression of TsCRT during the T. solium life cycle, we used a specific polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant TsCRT to localize this protein by immunolabeling techniques. In sections of cysticerci obtained from swine muscle, as well as of adult tapeworms obtained after infection of hamsters with cysticerci, TsCRT was preferentially localized in tegumentary and muscle cytons of the suckers and rostellum. In mature proglottids obtained from infected humans, positive staining was observed in spermatogonia, ovogonia, uterine epithelium, and cells of the vas deferens. In the gravid uterus, the morula and early stage embryos were highly positive to TsCRT. However, expression diminished as embryonic development progressed and was absent in fully developed oncospheres that were surrounded by an embryophore. A similar down regulation was observed during spermatogenesis. Although early spermatocytes showed a high expression of TsCRT, mature spermatozoa present in the vas deferens were completely negative. These data indicate that calreticulin expression is spatially and temporally regulated during development of T. solium, especially during germ cell development and embryogenesis. In addition, these original images illustrate, for the first time, these processes at a histological level.
Toledo, Andrea; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis; Gevorkian, Goar; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Acero, Gonzalo; Rosas, Gabriela; López-Casillas, Fernando; Garfias, Carlos Kubli; Vázquez, Ricardo; Terrazas, Ignacio; Sciutto, Edda
The Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigen KETc7 has been shown to be effective as a vaccine against experimental murine cysticercosis, a laboratory model used to test potentially promising molecules against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence of this proline-rich polypeptide, three fragments, GK-1, GK-2, and GK-3, were chemically synthesized in linear form. Of the three peptides, only GK-1 induced sterile protection against T. crassiceps cysticercosis in 40 to 70% of BALB/cAnN male mice. GK-1 is an 18-amino-acid peptide which contains at least one B-cell epitope, as demonstrated by its ability to induce an antibody response to the peptide and T. crassiceps antigen without need of a carrier protein. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that anti-GK1 antibodies strongly react with the native protein in the tegument of T. crassiceps and also with anatomical structures of T. solium eggs, oncospheres, cysticercus, and tapeworm. GK-1 also contains at least one T-cell epitope, capable of stimulating the proliferation of CD8+ and to a lower extent CD4+ T cells primed either with the free peptide or T. crassiceps total antigen. The supernatant of the stimulated cells contained high levels of gamma interferon and low levels of interleukin-4. Similar results were obtained with T cells tested for intracellular cytokine production, an indication of the peptide’s capacity to induce an inflammatory response. The remarkable protection induced by GK-1 immunization, its physicochemical properties, and its presence in all developmental stages of T. solium point to this synthetic peptide as a strong candidate in the construction of a synthetic vaccine against T. solium pig cysticercosis. PMID:10225916
Vecchio, Rosa Fontana Del; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Cacopardo, Bruno
Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Neurocysticerosis Symptoms: Diplopia • fever • headache • insomnia • neck stiffness • vomiting Medication: Albendazole Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Neurology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Neurocysticercosis is a brain infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia (T.) solium. It is the most important parasitic disease of the human central nervous system and represents the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in developing countries. Case Report: Here, we report the case of a 23-year-old Chinese man who presented to the emergency department with a 7-day history of helmet headache radiating to the nuchal region and associated with vomiting, confusion, and fever. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was clear, with increased pressure, lymphocytic pleocytosis, decreased glucose, and increased protein levels. Bacterial antigen detection test on CSF was negative, as were CSF bacterial and fungal cultures. Despite broad-spectrum antibiotic and antiviral therapy, the patient still complained of insomnia, diplopia, headache, neck stiffness, and pain in the sacral region. A second LP was performed and CSF had the same characteristics as the first LP. A brain and spinal cord MRI revealed widespread arachnoiditis and small septated cysts with CSF-like signal in the cisterna magna, within the fourth ventricle, and at the level of L3–L4. Cysticercus-specific immunoglobin G antibodies were detected by ELISA in the CSF. The patient received albendazole (15 mg/kg/day) and dexamethasone (5 mg/day) for 4 weeks, with progressive resolution of neurological symptoms. Conclusions: This case shows that, even if rare, neurocysticercosis may be responsible for meningeal symptoms and should be included in the differential diagnosis, especially in patients from endemic countries. PMID:24459541
MANSOURI, Majid; SARKARI, Bahador; MOWLAVI, Gholam Reza
Background: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, of wide distribution considered as a potential source of zoonotic parasites. The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of helminth infections in wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area (Bushehr Province), Southwestern Iran. Methods: Twenty-five wild boars, including 11 males and 14 females, were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in the Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran in 2013. The specimen were immediately dissected and carefully searched for the parasites. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any helminthic agents. Tissue samples were taken from each organ. Moreover, samples were taken from the content of digestive system. Blood samples were also collected from each boar. All the samples were evaluated for helminth infections by parasitological methods. Results: Twenty-two (88%) of the wild boars were infected with at least one helminth. Out of 25 wild boars, 1 (4%) were infected with Cysticercus tenuicollis, the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena, 13 (52%) with Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, 17 (68%) with Metastrongylus spp, and 20 (80%) with Ascarops spp. Hydatid cyst was detected in the lung of one of the wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in any of the tissues of the animals when evaluated by artificial digestion method. In addition, no contamination with microfilaria was detected in any of animals when the blood samples were tested with Knott’s method. Conclusion: Wild boars are contaminated by some helminthes including zoonotic ones. These animals could be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic helminth by acting as reservoir hosts. This in turn may bring potential risk for locals and residents of the Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran. PMID:28127344
Yang, Deying; Fu, Yan; Wu, Xuhang; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Chen, Lin; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Yang, Guangyou
Background Taenia pisiformis is one of the most common intestinal tapeworms and can cause infections in canines. Adult T. pisiformis (canines as definitive hosts) and Cysticercus pisiformis (rabbits as intermediate hosts) cause significant health problems to the host and considerable socio-economic losses as a consequence. No complete genomic data regarding T. pisiformis are currently available in public databases. RNA-seq provides an effective approach to analyze the eukaryotic transcriptome to generate large functional gene datasets that can be used for further studies. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, 2.67 million sequencing clean reads and 72,957 unigenes were generated using the RNA-seq technique. Based on a sequence similarity search with known proteins, a total of 26,012 unigenes (no redundancy) were identified after quality control procedures via the alignment of four databases. Overall, 15,920 unigenes were mapped to 203 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Through analyzing the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and axonal guidance pathways, we achieved an in-depth understanding of the biochemistry of T. pisiformis. Here, we selected four unigenes at random and obtained their full-length cDNA clones using RACE PCR. Functional distribution characteristics were gained through comparing four cestode species (72,957 unigenes of T. pisiformis, 30,700 ESTs of T. solium, 1,058 ESTs of Eg+Em [conserved ESTs between Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis]), with the cluster of orthologous groups (COG) and gene ontology (GO) functional classification systems. Furthermore, the conserved common genes in these four cestode species were obtained and aligned by the KEGG database. Conclusion This study provides an extensive transcriptome dataset obtained from the deep sequencing of T. pisiformis in a non-model whole genome. The identification of conserved genes may provide novel approaches for potential drug targets and
Wu, Wei; Qian, Xiaohua; Huang, Yixin; Hong, Qingbiao
Clonorchiasis sinensis and Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis are major foodborne parasitoses. Clonorchiasis sinensis is actively transmitted in some areas of China, Korea, Russia, Vietnam, etc. Currently, it is estimated that more than 200 million people are at risk of infection, 15-20 million people are infected, and 1.5-2 million show symptoms or complications. In China, it is relatively heavily transmitted in Zhujiang River Delta, including Hong Kong and Macao, and Northeast China, where many Korean people live. The transmission is related to the unhealthy habits of residents who like to have raw fish or half-raw fish. The infection of Clonorchis sinensis could result in serious liver and biliary system damages, and chronic cases may induce liver and bile duct cancers. T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is distributed around the world except the areas where the residents have a taboo against pork for religious reasons. Recent years, the urban inhabitants infected with T. solium/Cysticercus are increasing in China. T. solium results in intestinal diseases, and cysticercosis is a very serious disease, especially nervous system cysticercosis. Its symptoms include headache, epilepsy, sudden death, etc. Health education and health promotion, environmental reconstruction, and chemotherapy are the main control measures for these diseases. Through several decades of efforts in China, the achievements of control of clonorchiasis and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis are great. For example, in one of the main clonorchiasis-endemic provinces, Shandong Province, clonorchiasis has been controlled. In 31 T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis-endemic counties of Henan Province, through a 6-year control program, the decline rates of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis were 90.8 and 96.8 %, respectively. This paper reviews the researches on the control of clonorchiasis and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in China past decades so as to provide references for other countries
Scala, A; Pipia, A P; Dore, F; Sanna, G; Tamponi, C; Marrosu, R; Bandino, E; Carmona, C; Boufana, B; Varcasia, A
The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and transmission of Taenia hydatigena in sheep and dogs from Sardinia and the economic estimation of losses due to this metacestodosis in lambs. A total of 7781 Sarda breed lambs were examined at abattoirs for the detection of Cysticercus tenuicollis or necrotic-haemorrhagic tracks of their migration. Morphological and molecular identification of parasites was carried out. Individual faecal samples from 300 dogs were examined for copromicroscopic investigations and coproELISA assay. An overall prevalence of 14.6% for T. hydatigena cysticercosis was found in the examined lambs. In total, 10,807 parasitary tracks were found, with an abundance of 1.39 and an average intensity of 9.52. The molecular analysis of the isolates showed an overall pairwise nucleotide divergence for the CO1 and ND1 was of 0-3.1 and 0-3.3%, respectively. Low intra- and interspecific variation was recorded for C. tenuicollis isolates used in this study which suggested the absence of differentiation. Microscopic examination of dog faeces showed a total prevalence of 31.3% for endoparasites in the examined samples (94/300). Taeniid eggs were found in 8.3% of the dogs. The results of the monoclonal antibody ATH4 ELISA test showed a prevalence of 11% (33/300) for T. hydatigena coproantigens. The total economic costs related to cysticercosis amounted to almost € 330,000. The prevalence of C. tenuicollis in 14.6% of 30-40-day-old lambs highlights the high parasitic pressure by T. hydatigena in the territory of Sardinia, Italy.
TEIMOORI, Salma; SABOUR YARAGHI, Aliakbar; MAKKI, Mahsa Sadat; SHAHBAZI, Farideh; NAZMARA, Shahrokh; ROKNI, Mohhamad Bagher; MESDAGHINIA, Alireza; SALAHI MOGHADDAM, Abdoreza; HOSSEINI, Mostafa; RAKHSHANPOUR, Arash; MOWLAVI, Gholamreza
Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capability of helminths to absorb heavy metals in comparison with that of the host tissues. Methods We compared the concentration of cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) in urban rats and in their harboring helminthes —Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta and larval stage of Taenia taenaeiformis (Cysticercus fasciolaris). The heavy metal absorption was evaluated in 1g wet weight of parasites and tissues digested in nitric acid, using Inductivity Coupled Plasma (ICP_OES). Results A higher concentration of heavy metals was revealed in the helminths than in the host tissues. Bioconcentration factor (BF= C in parasite/C in tissue) for both Cd and Cr absorption was more than 10-fold higher in M. moniliformis than in the three compared host tissues. The BF of Cd in M. moniliformis compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the host was 9.16, 14.14 and 17.09, respectively. BF in Cr in the same parasite and the same host tissues ranged from 10.67, 7.06 and 4.6. High level of absorption in H. diminuta was significantly likewise; the individual BF of Cd and Cr in H. diminuta compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the hosts was 4.95, 5.94 and 4.67 vs. 2.67, 11.56 and 5.59. The mean concentration of Cd and Cr in C. fasciolaris was also significantly higher than that in the rat livers (P<0.007 and P<0.004, respectively). Conclusion This study claims that parasites of terrestrial animals exposed to heavy metals can be more accurate indicators than the host tissues as new environmental monitoring agents. PMID:25988090
Meiry, M; Brenner, G; Markovitcs, A; Klement, E
Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is an important disease because of its zoonotic nature. There is a significant variation in the prevalence of BC in different countries, ranging from <0.01% to more than 20%. In this study, we followed the changes of BC prevalence in Israel during the last four decades and examined its association with import of live cattle. During 1973-2007, 629,549 cattle were subjected to post-mortem inspection conducted in 'Marbek' slaughterhouse located in the south of Israel. A specific comparison was made between the prevalence of BC in local and imported cattle during 2003-2007. Of 629,549 cattle, 2568 were infected with Cysticercus bovis (0.4%). From 1980, there was a gradual decrease in the prevalence of BC (R(2) = 0.53) with exceptional peaks. Moreover, from 1973 to 1998, only 4% of the documented cases appeared in outbreaks as opposed to 38% after 1998 when mass importation of live cattle to Israel was initiated. All of these late outbreak cases appeared in imported cattle of which 95% originated from Australia. During the years 2002-2007, importation from Australia was found as a significant risk factor for infection with BC, with prevalence in these cattle reaching 1.8% in 2006. The time from importation to BC detection suggests that infection occurred either in Australia or during the transport into Israel. We conclude that despite a reduction in the prevalence of BC as a result of a possible improvement in sanitary conditions at the farms, meticulous meat inspection is still essential in Israel and possibly in other developed countries exporting and importing live cattle.
Chile, Nancy; Clark, Taryn; Arana, Yanina; Ortega, Ynes R.; Palma, Sandra; Mejia, Alan; Angulo, Noelia; Kosek, Jon C.; Kosek, Margaret; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Verastegui, Manuela
Background The transitional period between the oncosphere and the cysticercus of Taenia solium is the postoncospheral (PO) form, which has not yet been completely characterized. The aim of this work was to standardize a method to obtain T. solium PO forms by in vitro cultivation. We studied the morphology of the PO form and compared the expression of antigenic proteins among the PO form, oncosphere, and cysticerci stages. Methodology/Principal Findings T. solium activated oncospheres were co-cultured with ten cell lines to obtain PO forms, which we studied at three stages of development–days 15, 30, and 60. A high percentage (32%) of PO forms was obtained using HCT-8 cells in comparison to the other cell lines. The morphology was observed by bright field, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Morphology of the PO form changed over time, with the six hooks commonly seen in the oncosphere stage disappearing in the PO forms, and vesicles and microtriches observed in the tegument. The PO forms grew as they aged, reaching a diameter of 2.5 mm at 60 days of culture. 15–30 day PO forms developed into mature cysticerci when inoculated into rats. Antigenic proteins expressed in the PO forms are also expressed by the oncosphere and cysticerci stages, with more cysticerci antigenic proteins expressed as the PO forms ages. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of an in vitro production method of T. solium PO forms. The changes observed in protein expression may be useful in identifying new targets for vaccine development. In vitro culture of PO form will aid in understanding the host-parasite relationship, since the structural changes of the developing PO forms may reflect the parasite’s immunoprotective mechanisms. A wider application of this method could significantly reduce the use of animals, and thus the costs and time required for further experimental investigations. PMID:26863440
Kaushal, N A; Hussain, R; Ottesen, E A
In order to compare the immunodiagnostic value of excretory-secretory (E-S) antigens derived from adult Brugia malayi worms with somatic antigens derived from adults, microfilariae (Mf) and infective larvae (L3) of these parasites, well defined serum pools from patients with filarial (brugia, bancrofti, loa and perstans) and non-filarial (ascaris, stronglyoides, toxocara, echinococcus, cysticercus and schistosoma) helminth infections were tested against antigens derived from these different life cycle stages of B. malayi in a Staphylococcus aureus radioimmunoprecipitation assay (S. aureus RIA). The adult brugia antigens proved significantly more discriminatory than those of the other parasite stages, with the homologous brugia serum pool also showing greater reactivity to adult than to L3 and Mf antigens. Similar results were obtained when individual sera from patients (rather than serum pools) were tested in the same assay. The most surprising finding was the minimal reactivity seen between the adult filarial antigens and the non-filarial serum pools despite the presence in these pools of strong antibody reactivity with their homologous antigens. The reasons underlying the unexpected specificity of this S. aureus RIA for discriminating among sera from filarial and non-filarial infections were analysed qualitatively by immunoprecipitation techniques. It was found that use of the chloramine-T method for radioiodination resulted in preferential labelling of the low molecular weight (mol. wt) proteins (10-70,000 daltons) in the B. malayi adult somatic antigen and that these antigens were bound primarily by the filarial and not the non-filarial serum pools. These findings suggest that lower mol. wt helminth antigens may show greater species specificity than those with higher mol. wt, and those with higher mol. wt, greater cross-reactivity. If substantiated by further analysis, such results would have important implications for the subsequent isolation of diagnostically
Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda
Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August-December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it would appear
Ai, Lin; Chen, Jun-Hu; Chen, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Yong-Nian; Cai, Yu-Chun; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong
Background Food-borne helminthiases (FBHs) have become increasingly important due to frequent occurrence and worldwide distribution. There is increasing demand for developing more sensitive, high-throughput techniques for the simultaneous detection of multiple parasitic diseases due to limitations in differential clinical diagnosis of FBHs with similar symptoms. These infections are difficult to diagnose correctly by conventional diagnostic approaches including serological approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, antigens obtained from 5 parasite species, namely Cysticercus cellulosae, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Paragonimus westermani, Trichinella spiralis and Spirometra sp., were semi-purified after immunoblotting. Sera from 365 human cases of helminthiasis and 80 healthy individuals were assayed with semi-purified antigens by both a protein microarray and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity, specificity and simplicity of each test for the end-user were evaluated. The specificity of the tests ranged from 97.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 95.3–98.7%) to 100.0% (95% CI: 100.0%) in the protein microarray and from 97.7% (95% CI: 96.2–99.2%) to 100.0% (95% CI: 100.0%) in ELISA. The sensitivity varied from 85.7% (95% CI: 75.1–96.3%) to 92.1% (95% CI: 83.5–100.0%) in the protein microarray, while the corresponding values for ELISA were 82.0% (95% CI: 71.4–92.6%) to 92.1% (95% CI: 83.5–100.0%). Furthermore, the Youden index spanned from 0.83 to 0.92 in the protein microarray and from 0.80 to 0.92 in ELISA. For each parasite, the Youden index from the protein microarray was often slightly higher than the one from ELISA even though the same antigen was used. Conclusions/Significance The protein microarray platform is a convenient, versatile, high-throughput method that can easily be adapted to massive FBH screening. PMID:23209851
Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda
Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it
Tsukamoto, Y; Muraoka, I; Yoshimasu, N; Yoshioka, M
A 59-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with the history of epileptick attack of six years' duration. The seizure was associated with Jacksonian march starting in the right hand and then generalized. Todd's paresis of the right arm followed occasionally to the seizure. He was admitted to neurosurgical unit of other hospital in 1968 and 1971, but on each occasion no tumor or vascular abnormality was detected by extensive examiniations such as brain angiography, pneumoencephalography or brain scanning. He continued his hob as an engineer with anticonvulsant. He once lived in Manchuria in 1930s and had history of pulmonary tuberculosis. He was suffering from diabetes mellitus and chronic otitis media. Recentry he developed headache, forgetfulness, speech disturbance and right hemiparesis and was admitted to our department through psychiatric unit. On examination he was fully conscious but showed typical Gerstmann's syndrome and conduction aphasia. He also revealed bilateral choked disc, right hemiparesis, right hemihypesthesia and right homonymous hemianopsia. The cerebral angiograms and peneumoencephalogram suggested a left parietal cystic tumor. Brain scan with technetium 99m was negative. The spinal fluid was clear but showed slight pleocytosis (99/3/ml). Leucocyte count in the peripheral blood was 6600 per cubic meter with eosinophils of 3%. On craniotomy, small white patches were scattered at the subarachnoidal space suggesting of history of some meningitis. In the left parietooccipital region at Brodmann's area 19, a greyish yellow transparent cystic tumor was found in the subarachnoidal space which was confirmed to be one of the multilocular grape-like cystic tumors extending from area 19, gyrus angularis towards the arcuate fasciculus without continuity with the left lateral ventricle. Microscopic examination showed the racemosal type of cysticercus but no scolex was found. The fluid of the cysts was similar to the spinal fluid. He is totally symptome
Naren Satya, Srinivas M.; Mayilvaganan, Kamala Retnam; Amogh, V.N.; Balakrishna, B.V.; Gautam, Munnangi Satya; Prathyusha, Ivvala Sai
Summary Background Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stages of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. The subcutaneous form of the disease is a relatively rare clinical entity. Despite its rarity, it is imperative for a radiologist to be aware of this subcutaneous form of the disease and its various radiological patterns while evaluating any subcutaneous swelling. In this paper, we aimed to describe a typical case of ‘subcutaneous cysticercosis involving the left anterior chest wall’ with high resolution ultrasound findings. We also discussed the role of other imaging modalities in a case of subcutaneous cysticercosis. To the best of our knowledge, our case is only the second documented case report of sonological evaluation of subcutaneous cysticercosis involving the left anterior chest wall and the first case with high resolution ultrasound images of the lesion. Case Report An 11-year-old male presented with a painless, subcutaneous swelling over the left anterior chest wall for the last 2 months. High resolution ultrasound showed a well-defined, thin-walled, cystic lesion with an eccentric, echogenic focus in the subcutaneous plane. On change of the posture of the patient, this focus showed mobility. The hypoechoic area surrounding this cyst showed significant exudative fluid collection with diffuse, floating echoes and thin, incomplete internal septations. The adjacent soft tissues were thickened and irregular, suggestive of edema. This was followed by an excision biopsy. Histopathological examination revealed cysticercus cellulose parasite with an extensive mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate in the surrounding tissue. The patient was also administered oral antihelminthic therapy. Repeat ultrasound examination at the end of this management regimen showed complete healing with no e/o any remnant or recurrent cystic lesion, abscess or edema in the subcutaneous plane. Conclusions Subcutaneous cysticercosis is a relatively rare form of