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Sample records for cytokines content irradiated

  1. Profiling of Cytokines Secreted by Conventional Aqueous Outflow Pathway Endothelial Cells Activated In Vitro and Ex Vivo With Laser Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Jorge A.; Chau, Phuonglan; Wu, Jianfeng; Juster, Richard; Shifera, Amde Selassie; Geske, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To profile which cytokine genes are differentially expressed (DE) as up- or downregulated by cultured human trabecular meshwork (TMEs) and Schlemm's canal endothelial cells (SCEs) after three experimental treatments consisting of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) irradiation, exposure to media conditioned either by SLT-irradiated TMEs (TME-cm) or by SCEs (SCE-cm). Also, to profile which cytokines are upregulated ex vivo in SLT-irradiated human conventional aqueous outflow pathway (CAOP) tissues. Methods After each treatment, Affymetrix microarray assays were used to detect upregulated and downregulated genes for cytokines and their receptors in TMEs and SCEs. ELISA and protein antibody arrays were used to detect upregulated cytokines secreted in SLT-irradiated CAOP tissues ex vivo. Results The SLT irradiation upregulated numerous cytokine genes in TMEs, but only a few in SCEs. Exposure to TME- and SCE-cm induced SCEs to upregulate many more cytokine genes than TMEs. Selective laser trabeculoplasty irradiation and exposure to TME-cm downregulated several cytokine genes in TMEs but none in SCEs. Selective laser trabeculoplasty irradiation induced one upregulated and three downregulated cytokine-receptor genes in TMEs but none in SCEs. Exposure to TME-cm induced upregulation of one and downregulation of another receptor gene in TMEs, whereas two unique cytokine-receptor genes were upregulated in SCEs. Cytokine protein expression analysis showed that at least eight cytokines were upregulated in SLT-irradiated human CAOP tissues in situ/ex vivo. Conclusions This study has helped us identify a cytokine signaling pathway and to consider newly identified mechanisms regulating aqueous outflow that may lay the foundation for the future development of cytokine-based glaucoma therapies. PMID:26529044

  2. Cytokine production of the neutrophils and macrophages in time of phagocytosis under influence of infrared low-level laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudik, Dmitry V.; Tikhomirova, Elena I.; Tuchina, Elena S.

    2006-08-01

    Influence of infrared low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on induction of synthesis of some cytokines such as interleykin-1 (Il-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (INF-γ), interleykin-8 (Il-8) and interleykin-4 (Il-4) by the neutrophils and macrophages in time of bacterial cells phagocytosis that was searched. As the object of analysis we used peritoneal macrophages from white mice and neutrophils from peripheral blood of healthy donors. We used the laser diod with spectrum maximum of 850 nm with doses 300, 900 and 1500 mJ (exposition -60, 180 and 300 s respectively; capacity - 5 mW). We carried out the Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay (ELISA) to determine cytokine content during phagocytosis after 3 h and 6 h. We found dynamics in production of the cytokines, which was different for the neutrophils and macrophages. We showed that the infrared LLLI has significant stimulating activity on the proinflammatory cytokines production by neutrophils and macrophages. Moreover we revealed dynamics changing in the Il-8 and Il-4 production.

  3. The influence of Gamma Irradiation on flavonoïds content during storage of irradiated clementina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oufedjikh, H.; Mahrouz, M.; Lacroix, M.; Amiot, M. J.; Taccini, M.

    1998-06-01

    The influence of Gamma irradiation on content of some important flavonoïds (flavonones glycosides and polymethoxylated flavones) was evaluated during storage of Moroccan clementina treated at a mean dose of 0.3 kGy and stored three months at 3'C. Results shows that at day one, gamma irradiation induced degradation of small quantities of these flavonoïds, however after 14 days of storage, the content of these compounds was significantly higher (p≤0.05) in irradiated samples. Irradiation stimulated biosynthesis of flavonoïds after 14 days of storage. Hesperidin was the major flavanones compounds in clementines. Nobiletin and Heptamethoxyflavone were the major polymethoxylated flavones in clementines. Our study demonstrated that the content of these compounds was significantly higher (p≤0.05) in irradiated samples.

  4. Evaluation of low level laser therapy irradiation parameters on rat muscle inflammation through systemic blood cytokines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantineo, Matias; Pinheiro, João. P.; Morgado, António M.

    2014-02-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for inflammation treatment. Here, we evaluate the effect of different doses, using continuous (830 and 980 nm) and pulsed illumination (830 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through cytokines concentration in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. Animals were randomly divided into five groups per wavelength (5 animals per group: 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mW) plus a control group. LLLT was applied during five days, with constant exposure time and irradiated area (3 minutes; 0.5026 cm2). Blood was collected on days 0, 3 and 6. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Rats were killed on day 6. Muscle inflammatory cells were counted using optical microscopy. Treatment effects occurred for all applied doses (largest effect at 40 mW: 7.2 J, 14 J/cm2 per irradiation), with reduction of proinflammatory TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 cytokines and lower number of inflammatory cells. Results were better for 830 nm. Identical methodology was used with pulsed illumination. Average power (40 mW) and duty cycle were kept constant (80%) at five frequencies (5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 Hz). Treatment effects were observed at higher frequencies, with no significant differences between them. However, the treatment effect was lower than for continuous illumination. LLLT effect on inflammation treatment can be monitored by measuring systemic blood cytokines. A larger treatment effect was observed with continuous illumination, where results seem to be compatible with a biphasic dose response.

  5. Corrugated Waveguide Mode Content Analysis Using Irradiance Moments

    PubMed Central

    Jawla, Sudheer K.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Idei, Hiroshi; Temkin, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel, relatively simple method for determining the mode content of the linearly polarized modes of a corrugated waveguide using the moments of the intensity pattern of the field radiated from the end of the waveguide. This irradiance moment method is based on calculating the low-order irradiance moments, using measured intensity profiles only, of the radiated field from the waveguide aperture. Unlike the phase retrieval method, this method does not use or determine the phase distribution at the waveguide aperture. The new method was benchmarked numerically by comparison with sample mode mixtures. The results predict less than ±0.7% error bar in the retrieval of the mode content. The method was also tested using high-resolution experimental data from beams radiated from 63.5 mm and 19 mm corrugated waveguides at 170 and 250 GHz, respectively. The results showed a very good agreement of the mode content retrieved using the irradiance moment method versus the phase retrieval technique. The irradiance moment method is most suitable for cases where the modal power is primarily in the fundamental HE11 mode, with <8% of the power in high-order modes. PMID:25821260

  6. The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Increases Cytokine Production and Cutaneous Inflammation in Response to Ultraviolet Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    El-Abaseri, Taghrid Bahig; Repertinger, Susan K.; Hansen, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated in cutaneous keratinocytes upon ultraviolet (UV) exposure and has been implicated in ultraviolet-(UV-)induced inflammation and skin tumorigenesis. Egfr mutant mice and EGFR inhibitors were used to investigate the hypothesis that EGFR activation augments inflammation following UV irradiation. Topical treatment of mouse skin with the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 before UV exposure suppressed UV-induced erythema, edema, mast cell infiltration, and neutrophil infiltration. Genetic ablation of Egfr and EGFR inhibition by AG1478 also suppressed the increase in the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1α, KC (murine IL-8), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) after UV exposure of cultured keratinocytes. Finally, genetic ablation of inhibition of EGFR in cultured keratinocytes decreased p38 activation after UV, while inhibition of p38 kinase reduced COX-2 expression after UV. These data demonstrate that EGFR regulates multiple aspects of UV-induced inflammation and suggest activation of p38 kinase leading to increased COX-2 and cytokine expression as one mechanism through which it acts. PMID:23878744

  7. Dynamic and Static Exercises Differentially Affect Plasma Cytokine Content in Elite Endurance- and Strength-Trained Athletes and Untrained Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kapilevich, Leonid V; Zakharova, Anna N; Kabachkova, Anastasia V; Kironenko, Tatyana A; Orlov, Sergei N

    2017-01-01

    Extensive exercise increases the plasma content of IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and several other cytokines via their augmented transcription in skeletal muscle cells. However, the relative impact of aerobic and resistant training interventions on cytokine production remains poorly defined. In this study, we compared effects of dynamic and static load on cytokine plasma content in elite strength- and endurance-trained athletes vs. healthy untrained volunteers. The plasma cytokine content was measured before, immediately after, and 30 min post-exercise using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pedaling on a bicycle ergometer increased IL-6 and IL-8 content in the plasma of trained athletes by about 4- and 2-fold, respectively. In contrast to dynamic load, weightlifting had negligible impact on these parameters in strength exercise-trained athletes. Unlike IL-6 and IL-8, dynamic exercise had no impact on IL-15 and LIF, whereas static load increases the content of these cytokines by ~50%. Two-fold increment of IL-8 content seen in athletes subjected to dynamic exercise was absent in untrained individuals, whereas the ~50% increase in IL-15 triggered by static load in the plasma of weightlifting athletes was not registered in the control group. Thus, our results show the distinct impact of static and dynamic exercises on cytokine content in the plasma of trained athletes. They also demonstrate that both types of exercises differentially affect cytokine content in plasma of athletes and untrained persons.

  8. Dynamic and Static Exercises Differentially Affect Plasma Cytokine Content in Elite Endurance- and Strength-Trained Athletes and Untrained Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kapilevich, Leonid V.; Zakharova, Anna N.; Kabachkova, Anastasia V.; Kironenko, Tatyana A.; Orlov, Sergei N.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive exercise increases the plasma content of IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and several other cytokines via their augmented transcription in skeletal muscle cells. However, the relative impact of aerobic and resistant training interventions on cytokine production remains poorly defined. In this study, we compared effects of dynamic and static load on cytokine plasma content in elite strength- and endurance-trained athletes vs. healthy untrained volunteers. The plasma cytokine content was measured before, immediately after, and 30 min post-exercise using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pedaling on a bicycle ergometer increased IL-6 and IL-8 content in the plasma of trained athletes by about 4- and 2-fold, respectively. In contrast to dynamic load, weightlifting had negligible impact on these parameters in strength exercise-trained athletes. Unlike IL-6 and IL-8, dynamic exercise had no impact on IL-15 and LIF, whereas static load increases the content of these cytokines by ~50%. Two-fold increment of IL-8 content seen in athletes subjected to dynamic exercise was absent in untrained individuals, whereas the ~50% increase in IL-15 triggered by static load in the plasma of weightlifting athletes was not registered in the control group. Thus, our results show the distinct impact of static and dynamic exercises on cytokine content in the plasma of trained athletes. They also demonstrate that both types of exercises differentially affect cytokine content in plasma of athletes and untrained persons. PMID:28194116

  9. Labile iron pool and ferritin content in developing rat brain gamma-irradiated in utero.

    PubMed

    Robello, Elizabeth; Galatro, Andrea; Puntarulo, Susana

    2009-05-01

    This study was aimed to assess the content of total Fe, Ferritin (Ft) and labile Fe pool (LIP) in developing rat brain exposed in utero to 1 Gy of gamma-irradiation. A significant increase (2.3-fold) in the total Fe content of the fetal rat brain irradiated in utero was observed from 1 to 4h post-irradiation, as compared to the content in non-irradiated brain. Ft was analyzed by immunoblotting. The Ft protein was composed by 20 kDa subunits. According to the analysis of the band density in the Western blot, the Ft content decreased by 77+/-15% 2h after gamma-irradiation, as compared to the values in non-irradiated samples. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the LIP was studied by both electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and by a fluorescence technique employing calcein (CA). A reduction on the LIP was detected at 2h post-irradiation, independently of the methodology employed for the assay. Since NO content increased in the same time frame of LIP decreasing, a protective role for NO is suggested in fetal rat brain exposed to gamma-irradiation. The data presented in this work are the first experimental evidence suggesting that, as part of the network of the cellular response to limit irradiation-dependent injury, a complex interaction between Fe and NO could be triggered.

  10. ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2011-05-01

    ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the γ-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  11. Effects of γ-irradiation on phenolics content, antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of whole grainrice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yafang; Tang, Fufu; Xu, Feifei; Wang, Yuefei; Bao, Jinsong

    2013-04-01

    Three rice genotypes with different color were gamma irradiated at a dose of 2, 4, 6, 8and 10 kGy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the phenolics content and the antioxidant activity, as well as physicochemical properties of whole grain rice. The bound phenolics content in all the genotypes were significantly increased with the increase of dose of irradiation. Gamma irradiation at high dose significantly increased the free, bound and total antioxidant activities of three rice genotypes except for the free antioxidant activities of red rice. Though the color parameters were slightly changed, these changes could not be visibly identified. Rapid visco-analyzer (RVA) viscosities and gel hardness decreased continuously with the increase of the irradiation doses. It is suggested that gamma irradiation enhanced the antioxidant potential and eating quality of whole grainrice.

  12. Régulation de la production, par des cellules endothéliales, de cytokines pro-inflammatoires après irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meeren, A.; Lafont, H.; Mathé, D.

    1998-04-01

    Gamma irradiation leads to an increased production of interleukin- (IL)-6 and IL-8 by human endothelial cells. In order to regulate the radio-induced production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, we used the immunoregulatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. These agents were added either before or after a 10 Gy-irradiation. Our results show that it is possible to decrease the radio-induced production of IL-6 and IL-8 with the use of IL-4 and IL-10. Differences in the intensity of the response have been observed according to the time of treatment. The anti-inflammatory potential of both IL-4 and IL-10 was more pronounced when added after irradiation. Après irradiation gamma, des cellules endothéliales humaines ont une production accrue des interleukines (IL-) -6 et -8. Dans le but de réguler la production de ces cytokines pro-inflammatoires, nous avons utilisé des cytokines dites anti-inflammatoires, l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Ces agents ont été ajoutés soit avant soit après une irradiation de 10Gy. Nos résultats montrent qu'il est possible de diminuer les productions radio-induites d'IL-6 et d'IL-8 par l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Des différences dans l'intensité de la réponse ont toutefois été observées selon que l'IL-4 ou l'IL-10 ont été ajoutées avant ou après irradiation; leur efficacité anti-inflammatoire étant plus marquée lorsque les cytokines sont ajoutées après l'irradiation.

  13. Gene expression of hematoregulatory cytokines is elevated endogenously after sublethal gamma irradiation and is differentially enhanced by therapeutic administration of biologic response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, V.M.; Adamovicz, J.J.; Madonna, G.S.; Gause, W.C.; Elliott, T.B.; Moore, M.M.; Ledney, G.D.; Jackson, W.E. III

    1994-09-01

    Prompt, cytokine-mediated restoration of hematopoiesis is a prerequisite for survival after irradiation. Therapy with biologic response modifiers (BRMs), such as LPS, 3D monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), and synthetic trehalose dicrynomycolate (S-TDCM) presumably accelerates hematopoietic recovery after irradiation are poorly defined. One hour after sublethal (7.0 Gy) {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation, B6D2F1/J female mice received a single i.p. injection of LPS, MPL, S-TDCM, an extract from Serratia marcescens (Sm-BRM), or Tween 80 in saline (TS). Five hours later, a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay demonstrated marked splenic gene expression for IL-1{beta}, IL-3, IL-6, and granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF). Enhanced gene expression for TNF-{alpha}, macrophage-CSF (M-CSF), and stem cell factor (SCF) was not detected. Injection of any BRM further enhanced cytokine gene expression and plasma levels of CSF activity within 24 h after irradiation and hastened bone marrow recovery. Mice injected with S-TDCM or Sm-BRM sustained expression of the IL-6 gene for at least 24 h after irradiation. Sm-BRM-treated mice exhibited greater gene expression for IL-1{beta}, IL-3, TNF-{alpha}, and G-CSF at day 1 than any other BRM. When challenged with 2 LD{sub 50/30} of Klebsiella pneumoniae 4 days after irradiation, 100% of Sm-BRM-treated mice and 70% of S-TDCM-treated mice survived, whereas {le}30% of mice treated with LPS, MPL, or TS survived. Thus, sublethal irradiation induces transient, splenic cytokine gene expression that can be differentially amplified and prolonged by BRMs. BRMs that sustained and/or enhanced irradiation-induced expression of specific cytokine genes improved survival after experimental infection. 67 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Increased metallothionein content in rat liver induced by x irradiation and exposure to high oxygen tension

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, N.; Aono, K.; Utsumi, K.

    1983-08-01

    X irradiation and exposure to high oxygen tension are known to induce lipid peroxidation. The effects of these stresses on hepatic content of metallothionein, which may be involved in the regulation of zinc and copper metabolism, have been studied. The amount of metallothionein in rat liver was increased 11-fold by a high dose of X irradiation (1000 R). Increased metallothionein content (about 15 times) was also observed in liver of rats exposed to high oxygen tension for 3 days.

  15. Effects of helium content of microstructural development in Type 316 stainless steel under neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.

    1985-11-01

    This work investigated the sensitivity of microstructural evolution, particularly precipitate development, to increased helium content during thermal aging and during neutron irradiation. Helium (110 at. ppM) was cold preinjected into solution annealed (SA) DO-heat type 316 stainess steel (316) via cyclotron irradiation. These specimens were then exposed side by side with uninjected samples. Continuous helium generation was increased considerably relative to EBR-II irradiation by irradiation in HFIR. Data were obtained from quantitative analytical electron microscopy (AEM) in thin foils and on extraction replicas. 480 refs., 86 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body gamma-irradiation: II. Hematological variables and cytokines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gridley, D. S.; Pecaut, M. J.; Miller, G. M.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of part II of this study was to evaluate the effects of gamma-radiation on circulating blood cells, functional characteristics of splenocytes, and cytokine expression after whole-body irradiation at varying total doses and at low- and high-dose-rates (LDR, HDR). Young adult C57BL/6 mice (n = 75) were irradiated with either 1 cGy/min or 80 cGy/min photons from a 60Co source to cumulative doses of 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 Gy. The animals were euthanized at 4 days post-exposure for in vitro assays. Significant dose- (but not dose-rate-) dependent decreases were observed in erythrocyte and blood leukocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced 3H-thymidine incorporation, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion by activated spleen cells when compared to sham-irradiated controls (p < 0.05). Basal proliferation of leukocytes in the blood and spleen increased significantly with increasing dose (p < 0.05). Significant dose rate effects were observed only in thrombocyte counts. Plasma levels of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and splenocyte secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were not affected by either the dose or dose rate of radiation. The data demonstrate that the responses of blood and spleen were largely dependent upon the total dose of radiation employed and that an 80-fold difference in the dose rate was not a significant factor in the great majority of measurements.

  17. Irradiation Effect on Oxidative Condition and Tocopherol Content of Vegetable Oils

    PubMed Central

    Lalas, Stavros; Gortzi, Olga; Tsaknis, John; Sflomos, Konstantinos

    2007-01-01

    The effect on induction period and tocopherol content after γ-irradiation on samples of olive oil and seed oils (sunflower and soybean) was determined. In seed oil samples 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of δ-tocopherol were added before irradiation with 1, 2 and 3kGy. The results of induction period showed that, after irradiation, all samples presented a significant decreased in resistance to oxidation. However, this decrease was minimized when δ-tocopherol was added. Irradiation significantly decreased the level of tocopherols. δ-Tocopherol appeared more sensitive in irradiation process than α- and γ-tocopherol. The addition of δ-tocopherol significantly reduced, in most cases, the depletion of the other tocopherols.

  18. Effect of nickel content on the neutron irradiation embrittlement of Ni-Mo-Cr steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Kasada, R.; Kimura, A.; Lee, Bong-Sang; Suh, Dong-Woo; Lee, Hu-Chul

    2013-11-01

    The influence of nickel on the neutron irradiation embrittlement of Ni-Mo-Cr reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels was investigated using alloys containing nickel in the range of 0.9-3.5 wt%. In all investigated alloys, the neutron irradiation with two dose conditions of 4.5 × 1019 neutron/cm2 at 290 °C and 9.0 × 1019 neutron/cm2 at 290 °C, respectively, increased the hardness and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). However, the increases of the hardness and DBTT resulting from the neutron irradiation were primarily affected by the irradiation dose that is closely related to the generation of irradiation defects, but not by the nickel content. In addition, a linear relationship between the changes in the hardness and DBTT subjected to the irradiation was confirmed. These results demonstrate that increasing the nickel content up to 3.5 wt% does not have a harmful effect on the irradiation embrittlement of Ni-Mo-Cr reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels.

  19. The Effect of Solar Irradiated Vibrio cholerae on the Secretion of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines by the JAWS II Dendritic Cell Line In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ssemakalu, Cornelius Cano; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Motaung, Keolebogile Shirley; Pillay, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The use of solar irradiation to sterilize water prior to its consumption has resulted in the reduction of water related illnesses in waterborne disease endemic communities worldwide. Currently, research on solar water disinfection (SODIS) has been directed towards understanding the underlying mechanisms through which solar irradiation inactivates the culturability of microorganisms in water, enhancement of the disinfection process, and the health impact of SODIS water consumption. However, the immunological consequences of SODIS water consumption have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the effect that solar irradiated V. cholerae may have had on the secretion of cytokines and chemokines by the JAWS II dendritic cell line in vitro. The JAWS II dendritic cell line was stimulated with the different strains of V. cholerae that had been: (i) prepared in PBS, (ii) inactivated through a combination of heat and chemical, (iii) solar irradiated, and (iv) non-solar irradiated, in bottled water. As controls, LPS (1 μg/ml) and CTB (1 μg/ml) were used as stimulants. After 48 hours of stimulation the tissue culture media from each treatment was qualitatively and quantitatively analysed for the presence of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-15, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-2, RANTES, TNF-α, IL-23 and IL-27. Results showed that solar irradiated cultures of V. cholerae induced dendritic cells to secrete significant (p<0.05) levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in comparison to the unstimulated dendritic cells. Furthermore, the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by the dendritic cells in response to solar irradiated cultures of V. cholerae was not as high as observed in treatments involving non-solar irradiated cultures of V. cholerae or LPS. Our results suggest that solar irradiated microorganisms are capable of inducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This novel finding is key towards understanding the

  20. Role of Cytokines in Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Pain and Disc-content

    PubMed Central

    Risbud, Makarand V.; Shapiro, Irving. M

    2014-01-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disc is the major contributor to back/neck and radicular pain. It is characterized by an elevation in levels of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1 α/β, IL-6 and IL-17 secreted by the disc cells themselves; these cytokines promote matrix degradation, chemokine production and changes in cell phenotype. The resulting imbalance between catabolic and anabolic responses leads to degeneration, as well as herniation and radicular pain. Release of chemokines from degenerating discs promote infiltration and activation of T and B cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and mast cells further amplifying the inflammatory cascade. Immunocyte migration into the disc is accompanied by the appearance of microvasculature and nerve fibers arising from the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). In this inflammatory milieu, neurogenic factors in particular nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derive neurotrophic factor (BDNF) generated by disc and immune cells induce expression of pain associated cation channels in DRGs. Depolarization of these channels is likely to promote discogenic and radicular pain and reinforce the cytokine-mediated degenerative cascade. Taken together, the enhanced understanding of the contribution of cytokines and immune cells to catabolic and nociceptive processes provide new targets for treating symptomatic disc disease. PMID:24166242

  1. Content of proinflammatory cytokine in patients with clinical remission of chronic herpes infection during immunocorrection.

    PubMed

    Obukhova, O O; Shvayuk, A P; Gorbenko, O M; Trunov, A N; Trunova, L A

    2008-12-01

    The concentrations of cytokines (interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and interferon-gamma) in blood plasma from patients with remission of chronic herpes infection were measured during immunocorrective therapy. Our results indicate that immunocorrection is pathogenetically substantiated and immunologically effective. It was manifested in reduction of inflammation and activation of antiviral protection.

  2. Influence of nickel and beryllium content on swelling behavior of copper irradiated with fast neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.N.; Garner, F.A.; Edwards, D.J.; Evans, J.H.

    1996-10-01

    In the 1970`s, the effects of nickel content on the evolution of dislocation microstructures and the formation and growth of voids in Cu-Ni alloys were studied using 1 MeV electrons in a high voltage electron microscope. The swelling rate was found to decrease rapidly with increasing nickel content. The decrease in the swelling rate was associated with a decreasing void growth rate with increasing nickel content at irradiation temperatures up to 450{degrees}C. At 500{degrees}C, both void size and swelling rate were found to peak at 1 and 2% Ni, respectively, and then to decrease rapidly with increasing nickel content. However, recent work has demonstrated that the swelling behavior of Cu-5%Ni irradiated with fission neutrons is very similar for that of pure copper. The present experiments were designed to investigate this apparent discrepancy.

  3. Evaluation of the effect of led irradiator spectral content on the development of greenhouse plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turanov, S. B.; Yakovlev, A. N.; Korepanov, V. I.; Buzmakova, D. A.; Grechkina, T. V.

    2016-11-01

    The work presents the results of an experiment studying the effect of radiation spectral content (considering its equal intensity in terms of photosynthetically active radiation) on the growth and development of greenhouse model plants. The results demonstrate that the effective development of model subjects requires the adaptation of radiation spectral content according to the growth period and plant type, unlike the illumination level. The obtained results demonstrate the necessity of the creation of adaptive irradiation unit.

  4. The effects of gamma irradiation on the vitamin E content and sensory qualities of pecan nuts ( Carya illinoensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C. A.; Rodas, Maria A. B.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2009-07-01

    Pecan nuts ( Carya illinoensis) were treated with gamma irradiation and evaluated for changes in vitamin E content and sensory properties. Irradiation at 1 and 3 kGy resulted in no changes in vitamin E content measured as α-tocopherol equivalents by a colorimetric method. A trained sensory panel found that irradiation at 1 kGy produced no significant changes in appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes. The vitamin E content of irradiated pecan nuts remained stable, but from the point of view of sensory quality a dose of merely 1 kGy can be considered as recommendable.

  5. Drying and irradiation of calf and horse serum. II. Influence on mycoplasma content of the calf sera.

    PubMed

    Jurmanová, K; Veber, P; Lesko, J; Hána, L

    1975-05-01

    Drying of calf sera produced only a negligible change in their content of Acholeplasma laidlawii organisms and reduced the content of Mycoplasma arginini organisms by 2 to 4 logs. Gamma-irradiation of liquid and dried calf sera killed M. arginini and A. laidlawii organisms at irradiation levels of 0.2-0.3 and 0.4-0.6 Mrads, respectively.

  6. Antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents increase with gamma irradiation in two types of Malaysian honey.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Saba Zuhair; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd; Makpol, Suzana; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2011-07-27

    Two types of monofloral Malaysian honey (Gelam and Nenas) were analyzed to determine their antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents, with and without gamma irradiation. Our results showed that both types of honey can scavenge free radicals and exhibit high antioxidant-reducing power; however, Gelam honey exhibited higher antioxidant activity (p < 0.05) than Nenas honey, which is in good correlation (r = 0.9899) with its phenolic contents. Interestingly, we also noted that both irradiated honeys have higher antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to nonirradiated honeys by Folin-Ciocalteu and UV-spectrophotometry methods, respectively. However, HPLC analysis for phenolic compounds showed insignificant increase between irradiated and nonirradiated honeys. The phenolic compounds such as: caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, p- coumaric acid, quercetin and hesperetin as indicated by HPLC method were found to be higher in Gelam honey versus Nenas honey. In conclusion, irradiation of honey causes enhanced antioxidant activities and flavonoid compounds.

  7. Magnesium Sulfate Prevents Placental Ischemia-Induced Increases in Brain Water Content and Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokines in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linda W.; Warrington, Junie P.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is the most widely used therapy in the clinic to prevent the progression of preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, to eclampsia. Eclampsia, manifested as unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum, accounts for ~13% of maternal deaths worldwide. While MgSO4 continues to be used in the clinic, the mechanisms by which it exerts its protective actions are not well understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MgSO4 protects against placental ischemia-induced increases in brain water content and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines. To test this hypothesis, MgSO4 was administered via mini-osmotic pump (60 mg/day, i.p.) to pregnant and placental ischemic rats, induced by mechanical reduction of uterine perfusion pressure, from gestational day 14–19. This treatment regimen of MgSO4 led to therapeutic level of 2.8 ± 0.6 mmol/L Mg in plasma. MgSO4 had no effect on improving placental ischemia-induced changes in mean arterial pressure, number of live fetuses, or fetal and placental weight. Placental ischemia increased, while MgSO4 prevented the increase in water content in the anterior cerebrum. Cytokine and chemokine levels were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid using a multi-plex assay. Results demonstrate that cerebrospinal fluid, obtained via the cisterna magna, had reduced protein, albumin, interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-18, IL-2, eotaxin, fractalkine, interferon gamma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 following MgSO4 treatment. These data support the hypothesis that MgSO4 offers neuroprotection by preventing placental ischemia-induced cerebral edema and reducing levels of cytokines/chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:28008305

  8. Technical Letter Report on the Cracking of Irradiated Cast Stainless Steels with Low Ferrite Content

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Alexandreanu, B.; Natesan, K.

    2014-11-01

    Crack growth rate and fracture toughness J-R curve tests were performed on CF-3 and CF-8 cast austenite stainless steels (CASS) with 13-14% of ferrite. The tests were conducted at ~320°C in either high-purity water with low dissolved oxygen or in simulated PWR water. The cyclic crack growth rates of CF-8 were higher than that of CF-3, and the differences between the aged and unaged specimens were small. No elevated SCC susceptibility was observed among these samples, and the SCC CGRs of these materials were comparable to those of CASS alloys with >23% ferrite. The fracture toughness values of unirradiated CF-3 were similar between unaged and aged specimens, and neutron irradiation decreased the fracture toughness significantly. The fracture toughness of CF-8 was reduced after thermal aging, and declined further after irradiation. It appears that while lowering ferrite content may help reduce the tendency of thermal aging embrittlement, it is not very effective to mitigate irradiation-induced embrittlement. Under a combined condition of thermal aging and irradiation, neutron irradiation plays a dominant role in causing embrittlement in CASS alloys.

  9. Changes in human bone marrow fat content associated with changes in hematopoietic stem cell numbers and cytokine levels with aging.

    PubMed

    Tuljapurkar, Sonal R; McGuire, Timothy R; Brusnahan, Susan K; Jackson, John D; Garvin, Kevin L; Kessinger, Margaret A; Lane, Judy T; O' Kane, Barbara J; Sharp, John G

    2011-11-01

    Hematological deficiencies increase with aging, including anemias, reduced responses to hematopoietic stress and myelodysplasias. This investigation tested the hypothesis that increased bone marrow (BM) fat content in humans with age was associated with decreased numbers of side population (SP) hematopoietic stem cells, and this decrease correlated with changes in cytokine levels. BM was obtained from the femoral head and trochanteric region of the femur removed at surgery for total hip replacement (N = 100 subjects). In addition, BM from cadavers (N = 36), with no evidence of hip disease, was evaluated for fat content. Whole trabecular marrow samples were ground in a sterile mortar and pestle, and cellularity and lipid content determined. Marrow cells were stained with Hoechst dye and SP profiles were acquired. Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1 and interleukin (IL)-6 were measured using ELISA. Fat content in the BM of human subjects and cadavers increased with age. The numbers of SP stem cells in BM as well as plasma IGF-1 and SDF-1 levels decreased in correlation with increased BM fat. IL-6 had no relationship to changes in marrow fat. These data suggest that increased BM fat may be associated with a decreased number of SP stem cells and IGF-1 and SDF-1 levels with aging. These data further raise a more general question as to the role of adipose cells in the regulation of tissue stem cells.

  10. Literature review of United States utilities computer codes for calculating actinide isotope content in irradiated fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.; Lu, Ming-Shih

    1991-12-01

    This paper reviews the accuracy and precision of methods used by United States electric utilities to determine the actinide isotopic and element content of irradiated fuel. After an extensive literature search, three key code suites were selected for review. Two suites of computer codes, CASMO and ARMP, are used for reactor physics calculations; the ORIGEN code is used for spent fuel calculations. They are also the most widely used codes in the nuclear industry throughout the world. Although none of these codes calculate actinide isotopics as their primary variables intended for safeguards applications, accurate calculation of actinide isotopic content is necessary to fulfill their function.

  11. The megakaryocyte DNA content and platelet formation after the sublethal whole body irradiation of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tanum, G.

    1984-04-01

    The DNA content of rat bone marrow megakaryocytes (MK) was studied by Feulgen photometry, following whole body irradiation with 2 Gy. The DNA measurements were preceded by acetylcholinesterase staining to avoid missing the smaller 2N-8N MK. The number of 2N-8N MK declined immediately following irradiation, whereas the number of 16N-64N MK remained normal for 4 days before decreasing. The number of 2N-8N and 16N-64N MK reached minimum around days 7 and 10, respectively, and thereafter increased to supranormal values at days 14 and 20, respectively. Platelet production, measured by /sup 35/S incorporation into platelets, increased during the first 4 days, then decreased to minimum about day 10. A rise to supranormal values was present at day 20. All values were about normal 30 days after exposure. The observed pattern may be explained as follows: Most of the 16N-64N MK survive the applied dose and maintain their ability to produce platelets. Some of the 2N-4N and 8N MK survive irradiation and transform into platelet-producing MK. No influx of cells from the MK stem cell compartment into the MK compartment can be observed before day 7 after irradiation. One explanation for this time lag may be that thrombocytopenia, which does not occur before then, is an essential stimulus for MK stem cell activation.

  12. Effects of PVA, agar contents, and irradiation doses on properties of PVA/ws-chitosan/glycerol hydrogels made by γ-irradiation followed by freeze-thawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaomin; Zhu, Zhiyong; Liu, Qi; Chen, Xiliang; Ma, Mingwang

    2008-08-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/water soluble chitosan (ws-chitosan)/glycerol hydrogels were prepared by γ-irradiation and γ-irradiation followed by freeze-thawing, respectively. The effects of irradiation dose and the contents of PVA and agar on the swelling, rheological, and thermal properties of these hydrogels were investigated. The swelling capacity decreases while the mechanical strength increases with increasing PVA or agar content. Increasing the irradiation dose leads to an increase in chemical crosslinking density but a decrease in physical crosslinking density. Hydrogels made by irradiation followed by freeze-thawing own smaller swelling capacity but larger mechanical strength than those made by pure irradiation. The storage modulus of the former hydrogels decreases above 50 °C and above 70 °C it comes to the same value as that prepared by irradiation. The ordered association of PVA is influenced by both chemical and physical crosslinkings and by the presence of ws-chitosan and glycerol. These hydrogels are high sensitive to pH and ionic strength, indicating that they may be useful in stimuli-responsive drug release system.

  13. Effects of added fermentable carbohydrates in the diet on intestinal proinflammatory cytokine-specific mRNA content in weaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Pié, S; Awati, A; Vida, S; Falluel, I; Williams, B A; Oswald, I P

    2007-03-01

    There is increasing evidence showing that dietary supplementation with prebiotics can be effective in the treatment of intestinal inflammation. Because weaning time is characterized by rapid intestinal inflammation, this study investigated the effect of a diet supplemented with a combination of 4 fermentable carbohydrates (lactulose, inulin, sugarbeet pulp, and wheat starch) on the mRNA content of proinflammatory cytokines in newly weaned piglets. Cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) were analyzed using a semiquantitative reverse-transcription PCR technique on d 1, 4, and 10 in the ileum and colon of piglets fed either a test diet (CHO) or a control diet. In addition to the diet, the effect of enforced fasting on cytokine mRNA content was also evaluated. No effect of fasting was observed on the pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA content. Our results showed that the CHO diet induced an up-regulation of IL-6 mRNA content in the colon of piglets 4 d postweaning. This up-regulation was specific for the animals fed the CHO diet and was not observed in animals fed the control diet. An increase in IL-1beta mRNA content was also observed on d 4 postweaning in all of the piglets. Correlations between proinflammatory cytokines and the end-products of fermentation indicated that the regulation of cytokines may be linked with some of the fermentation end-products such as branched-chain fatty acids, which are in turn end-products of protein fermentation.

  14. Water color affects the stratification, surface temperature, heat content, and mean epilimnetic irradiance of small lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houser, J.N.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of water color on lake stratification, mean epilimnetic irradiance, and lake temperature dynamics were examined in small, north-temperate lakes that differed widely in water color (1.5-19.8 m -1). Among these lakes, colored lakes differed from clear lakes in the following ways: (i) the epilimnia were shallower and colder, and mean epilimnetic irradiance was reduced; (ii) the diel temperature cycles were more pronounced; (iii) whole-lake heat accumulation during stratification was reduced. The depth of the epilimnion ranged from 2.5 m in the clearest lake to 0.75 m in the most colored lake, and 91% of the variation in epilimnetic depth was explained by water color. Summer mean morning epilimnetic temperature was ???2??C cooler in the most colored lake compared with the clearest lake. In clear lakes, the diel temperature range (1.4 ?? 0.7??C) was significantly (p = 0.01) less than that in the most colored lake (2.1 ?? 1.0??C). Change in whole-lake heat content was negatively correlated with water color. Increasing water color decreased light penetration more than thermocline depth, leading to reduced mean epilimnetic irradiance in the colored lakes. Thus, in these small lakes, water color significantly affected temperature, thermocline depth, and light climate. ?? 2006 NRC.

  15. Paramagnetic Defects in Electron-Irradiated Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia: Effect of Yttria Content

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Beuneu, Francois; Morrison-Smith, Sarah; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the effect of the yttria content on the paramagnetic centres in electron-irradiated yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2: Y3+) or YSZ. Single crystals with 9.5 mol% or 18 mol% Y2O3 were irradiated with electrons of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 MeV. The paramagnetic centre production was studied by X-band EPR spectroscopy. The same paramagnetic centres were identified for both chemical compositions, namely two electron centres, i.e. i) F+-type centres (involving singly ionized oxygen vacancies), and ii) so-called T centres (Zr3+ in a trigonal symmetry site), and hole-centres. A strong effect is observed on the production of hole-centres which are strongly enhanced when doubling the yttria content. However, no striking effect is found on the electron centres (except the enhancement of an extra line associated to the F+-type centres). It is concluded that hole-centres are produced by inelastic interactions, whereas F+-type centres are produced by elastic collisions with no effect of the yttria content on the defect production rate. In the latter case, the threshold displacement energy (Ed) of oxygen is estimated from the electron-energy dependence of the F+-type centre production rate, with no significant effect of the yttria content on Ed. An Ed value larger than 120 eV is found. Accordingly, classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a Buckingham-type potential show that Ed values for Y and O are likely to be in excess of 200 eV. Due to the difficulty in displacing O or Y atoms, the radiation-induced defects may alternatively be a result of Zr atom displacements for Ed = 80 1 eV with subsequent defect re-arrangement.

  16. Paramagnetic defects in electron-irradiated yttria-stabilized zirconia: Effect of yttria content

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Beuneu, Francois; Morrison-Smith, Sarah E.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Weber, William J.

    2011-12-20

    We have studied the effect of the yttria content on the paramagnetic centres in electron-irradiated yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2: Y3+) or YSZ. Single crystals with 9.5 mol% or 18 mol% Y2O3 were irradiated with electrons of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 MeV. The paramagnetic centre production was studied by X-band EPR spectroscopy. The same paramagnetic centres were identified for both chemical compositions, namely two electron centres, i.e. i) F+-type centres (involving singly ionized oxygen vacancies), and ii) so-called T centres (Zr3+ in a trigonal symmetry site), and hole-centres. A strong effect is observed on the production of hole-centres which are strongly enhanced when doubling the yttria content. However, no striking effect is found on the electron centres (except the enhancement of an extra line associated to the F+-type centres). It is concluded that hole-centres are produced by inelastic interactions, whereas F+-type centres are produced by elastic collisions with no effect of the yttria content on the defect production rate. In the latter case, the threshold displacement energy (Ed) of oxygen is estimated from the electron-energy dependence of the F+-type centre production rate, with no significant effect of the yttria content on Ed. An Ed value larger than 120 eV is found. Accordingly, classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a Buckingham-type potential show that Ed values for Y and O are likely to be in excess of 200 eV. It is concluded that F+-type centres might be actually oxygen divacancies (F2+-type centres). Due to the difficulty in displacing O or Y atoms, the radiation-induced defects may alternatively be a result of Zr atom displacements for Ed = 80 ± 1 eV with subsequent defect re-arrangement.

  17. How do tissues respond to damage at the cellular level? The role of cytokines in irradiated tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The capacity of ionizing radiation to affect tissue function, control tumor growth and elicit pathological sequelae has been attributed in great part to its effects on cellular DNA, which, as the transmitter of genetic information, can both register damage and perpetuate it. Nonetheless, multicellular organisms function as the result of the cooperation of many cell types. What then occurs when individual cells are damaged by ionizing radiation? Is tissue response a sum of cellular effects such as cell death and DNA damage? Or does the tissue respond as a coherent unit to the damage of its parts? In this paper, data in support of the latter model that indicate a role for cytokines, in particular transforming growth factor beta1, as critical components of extracellular signaling pathways that mediate tissue response to radiation will be reviewed. The key to manipulating the consequences of radiation exposure lies in understanding the complex interplay of events initiated at the cellular level, but acting on the tissue.

  18. Vitamin D2, Ergosterol, and Vitamin B2 Content in Commercially Dried Mushrooms Marketed in China and Increased Vitamin D2 Content Following UV-C Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guocheng; Cai, Weixi; Xu, Baojun

    2016-11-21

    Mushrooms are a great source of vitamin D and vitamin B2; however, the content of these vitamins in dried mushrooms has not fully been investigated. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the contents of vitamin D2, ergosterol, and vitamin B2 in commercially dried edible mushrooms in China and to investigate the effect of UV-C irradiation on fresh mushrooms. Among the 35 species of dried mushrooms considered for this study, the average ergosterol content was 1.98 mg/g, while the average vitamin D2 content was 16.88 µg/g. The average vitamin B2 content in dried mushrooms was 12.68 µg/g. Fresh shaggy ink caps and oyster mushrooms, when exposed to UV-C at 254 nm at a dose of 0.25 J/cm(2) for 10, 30, and 60 min, showed significantly (p < 0.05) increased vitamin D2 content (229.7 and 67.0 µg/g, respectively) as compared to its fresh counterparts. The conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2 induced by UV-C irradiation at 0.25 J/cm(2) was significant (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dried commercial mushrooms have higher contents of ergosterol and vitamin D2 than fresh mushrooms. UV-C radiation can be used to increase vitamin D2 content in mushrooms.

  19. Effects of irradiation and semistarvation on rat thyrotropin beta subunit messenger ribonucleic acid, pituitary thyrotropin content, and thyroid hormone levels

    SciTech Connect

    Litten, R.Z. ); Carr, F.E. ); Fein, H.G.; Smallridge, R.C. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of radiation-induced anorexia on serum thyrotropin (TSH), pituitary TSH-{beta} mRNA, pituitary TSH content, serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), and serum 3,5,3{prime}-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) was investigated using feed-matched controls. Rats received 10 Gy gamma whole-body irradiation and were examined 1-3 days postirradiation. Feed-matched and untreated controls were also studied. The average food intake of the irradiated and feed-matched groups was approximately 18% of the untreated controls. Over the three day period both the irradiated and feed-matched groups lost a significant amount of body weight. The serum T{sub 4} levels of both the irradiated and feed-matched groups were not significantly different from each other, but were significantly depressed when compared to the untreated control group. The serum TSH and T{sub 3} were, however, significantly greater in the irradiated than the feed-matched groups at day 3 posttreatment. To determine if the difference in the serum TSH level between the two groups was due to a pretranslational alteration in TSH production, we measured the TSH-{beta} mRNA using an RNA blot hybridization assay. We found that the TSH-{beta} mRNA level was the same in the irradiated and feed-matched groups, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the radiation-induced increase in the serum TSH level is posttranscriptional. Pituitary TSH content in the irradiated rats was significantly less than in pair-fed controls, suggesting that irradiation may permit enhanced secretion of stored hormone.

  20. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Whole Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) With or Without Microwave Irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of extracting phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from buckwheat with water, 50% aqueous ethanol, or 100% ethanol using microwave irradiation or a water bath for 15 min at various temperatures (23 – 150 °C). The phenolic content of...

  1. Two types of T helper cells in mice: Differences in cellular immune functions and cytokine secretion - selective reduction of one type after total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, H.Z.

    1989-01-01

    As observed from a large panel of mouse T helper clones, there are at least two subsets of CD4{sup +} T cells that both differ in function and demonstrate distinct patterns of cytokine secretion after antigen or mitogen stimulation. Th1 cells synthesize IL-2, INF-{gamma} and lymphotoxin. They produce a DTH reaction in the footpads of naive mice. In addition, Th1 cells are required for the generation of CTL, and they appear to augment IgG2a antibody production. In contrast, by secreting IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6, Th2 cells play an essential role in humoral immunity. TLI consists of high dose, fractionated irradiation delivered selectively to the major lymphoid tissues. Four to six weeks after TLI, the CD4{sup +} cells of the treated mice (counted as a percentage of the total spleen lymphocytes) recover to the similar levels as those in normal BALB/c mice. These CD4{sup +} cells can help normal syngeneic B cells to produce a vigorous antibody response to TNP-KLH in adoptive cell transfer experiments, but the same cells are inactive in the MLR, and they fail to transfer DTH in TNP-KLH primed syngeneic BALB/c mice.

  2. Resistance exercise modulates lipid plasma profile and cytokine content in the adipose tissue of tumour-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Donatto, F F; Neves, R X; Rosa, F O; Camargo, R G; Ribeiro, H; Matos-Neto, E M; Seelaender, M

    2013-02-01

    Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterised by progressive weight loss, frequently accompanied by anorexia, sarcopenia, and chronic systemic inflammation. The white adipose tissue is markedly affected by cachexia and contributes to this syndrome throught the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors which reach the adjacent tissues and the circulation. A nonpharmacologic intervention that may attenuate cancer cachexia is chronic physical activity, but the effect of resistance training upon adipose tissue inflammation in cachexia has never been examined. For that purpose we designed a protocol in which animals were randomly assigned to a control group (CT, n=7), a Tumour bearing group (TB, n=7), a Resistance Trained group (RT, n=7) and a Resistance Trained tumour bearing group (RTTB, n=7). Trained rats climbed a vertical ladder with an extra load attached to the tail, representing 75-90% of total body mass, 3 times per week, for 8 weeks. In the 6 th week of resistance training, tumour cells (3 × 10(7) Walker 256 carcinosarcoma) were inoculated in the tumour groups. Body, adipose tissue, muscle and tumour mass was determined, as well a blood biochemical parameters, and the hormone and cytokine profile assessed. The glycogen content of the liver and muscle was measured. IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-α protein expression was evaluated in the mesenteric adipose tissue (MEAT) examined. Resistance training increased by 9% body weight gain in RTTB (final weight 310.8 ± 9.8 g), when compared with TB (final weight 288.3 ± 4.9 g). LDL-c levels were decreased in RTTB (0.28 ± 0.9 mmol/L) by 43% when compared with TB (0.57 ± 0.1 mmol/L). HDL-c levels were increased in RTTB (1.31 ± 0.12 mmol/L) by 15% in regard to CT (1.13 ± 0.7 mmol/L) and 22% as compared with TB (1.07 ± 0.07 mmol/L). RTTB testosterone levels (577 ± 131 ng/mL) were 55% higher when compared with CT (254 ± 41.3 ng/mL) and 63% higher when compared with TB (221 ± 23.1 ng/mL). Adiponectin levels were

  3. Effect of various laser irradiations on the mineral content of dentin

    PubMed Central

    Dilber, Erhan; Malkoc, Meral Arslan; Ozturk, A. Nilgun; Ozturk, Firat

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mineral content of dentin irradiation with Erbium: yttrium-aliminum-garnet (Er:YAG), Neodmiyum:yttrium-aliminum garnet (Nd:YAG) and potassium titanium phosphate (KTP) laser used for in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. Methods: Six extracted wisdom, unerupted molar teeth were used in this study. The enamel of the teeth was removed with a conventional bur under water cooling to expose the dentin surface. The teeth were mounted in a slow-speed, diamond-saw, sectioning machine. Two dentin slabs were obtained from each tooth and each slab was sectioned so that 4 slabs were made from each teeth. Then dentin slabs were randomly divided into four groups. Group A: Control Group, Group B: Er:YAG laser, Group C: Nd:YAG laser, Group D: KTP laser. The levels of Ca, K, Mg, Na,P and Ca/P mineral ratio in each dentin slab were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Data were analysed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD tests. One sample from each group was prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: There were no significant differences between the groups for Ca, K, Mg, Na,P and Ca/P mineral ratio (P>.05). SEM photographs indicated that there were melted areas around the exposed dentin tubules in groups treated with Er:YAG and KTP lasers. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that laser etching with the Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, KTP laser systems did not affect the compositional structure of the dentin surfaces. PMID:23407579

  4. Effect of supplemental UV-A irradiation in solid-state lighting on the growth and phytochemical content of microgreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazaitytė, A.; Viršilė, A.; Jankauskienė, J.; Sakalauskienė, S.; Samuolienė, G.; Sirtautas, R.; Novičkovas, A.; Dabašinskas, L.; Miliauskienė, J.; Vaštakaitė, V.; Bagdonavičienė, A.; Duchovskis, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we sought to find and employ positive effects of UV-A irradiation on cultivation and quality of microgreens. Therefore, the goal of our study was to investigate the influence of 366, 390, and 402 nm UV-A LED wavelengths, supplemental for the basal solid-state lighting system at two UV-A irradiation levels on the growth and phytochemical contents of different microgreen plants. Depending on the species, supplemental UV-A irradiation can improve antioxidant properties of microgreens. In many cases, a significant increase in the investigated phytochemicals was found under 366 and 390 nm UV-A wavelengths at the photon flux density (12.4 μmol m-2 s-1). The most pronounced effect of supplemental UV-A irradiation was detected in pak choi microgreens. Almost all supplemental UV-A irradiation treatments resulted in increased leaf area and fresh weight, in higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging activity, total phenols, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol.

  5. Effect of initial oxygen content on the void swelling behavior of fast neutron irradiated copper

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Garner, F.A.

    1998-03-01

    Density measurements were performed on high purity copper specimens containing {le}10 wt.ppm and {approximately}120 wt.ppm oxygen following irradiation in FFTF MOTA 2B. Significant amounts of swelling were observed in both the oxygen-free and oxygen-doped specimens following irradiation to {approximately}17 dpa at 375 C and {approximately}47 dpa at 430 C. Oxygen doping up to 360 appm (90 wt.ppm) did not significantly affect the void swelling of copper for these irradiation conditions.

  6. Radiological risks from irradiation of cargo contents with EURITRACK neutron inspection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giroletti, E.; Bonomi, G.; Donzella, A.; Viesti, G.; Zenoni, A.

    2012-07-01

    The radiological risk for the population related to the neutron irradiation of cargo containers with a tagged neutron inspection system has been studied. Two possible effects on the public health have been assessed: the modification of the nutritional and organoleptic properties of the irradiated materials, in particular foodstuff, and the neutron activation of consumer products (i.e. food and pharmaceuticals). The result of this study is that irradiation of food and foodstuff, pharmaceutical and medical devices in container cargoes would neither modify the properties of the irradiated material nor produce effective doses of concern for public health. Furthermore, the dose received by possible stowaways present inside the container during the inspection is less than the annual effective dose limit defined by European Legislation for the public.

  7. A Hyperlipidic Diet Combined with Short-Term Ovariectomy Increases Adiposity and Hyperleptinemia and Decreases Cytokine Content in Mesenteric Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Nelson Inacio Pinto; Rodrigues, Maria Elizabeth Sousa; Hachul, Ana Claudia Losinskas; Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; Boldarine, Valter Tadeu; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oyama, Lila Missae; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Four-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into two groups and fed a control diet (C) or a hyperlipidic diet (H) for 4 weeks. Rats from each group underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery (SHAM). They received C or H for the next four weeks. The body weight gain (BW), food efficiency (FE), and carcass lipid content were higher in the OVX H than in the SHAM H. The OVX H exhibited a higher serum leptin level than other groups. IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 content of mesenteric (MES) adipose tissue was lower in the OVX H than in the OVX C. IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 content of retroperitoneal (RET) adipose tissue was lower in the SHAM H than in the SHAM C. The SHAM H showed decreased TG relative to the SHAM C. Similar results were obtained in relation to IL-6Rα, TNFR1, TLR-4, and MyD88 contents in the MES and RET white adipose tissue among the groups. A hyperlipidic diet for 8 weeks combined with short-term ovariectomy decreases the cytokine content of MES adipose tissues but increases BW, enhancing FE and elevating serum leptin levels. These suggest that the absence of estrogens promotes metabolic changes that may contribute to installation of a proinflammatory process induced by a hyperlipidic diet. PMID:26170534

  8. Evaluation of photon irradiation treatment upon calcium content of ribs of Wistar rats using micro-XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Liebert Parreiras; Barroso, Regina Cély; de Almeida, André Pereira; Braz, Delson; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Salata, Camila; Andrade, Cherley Borba; da Silva, Claudia Marcello

    2012-05-01

    Therapeutic doses of radiation have been shown to have deleterious consequences on bone health. Among the treatment strategies used for breast cancer treatment, the most used are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy may be given to destroy the cancer cells using high-dose x-rays. Protocols vary considerably, but generally whole body irradiation totals from 10 to 15 Gy, whereas local therapy totals from 40 to 70 Gy. In clinical practice, the quantitative evaluation of bone tissue relies on measurements of bone mineral density values, which are closely associated with the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Improved survivorship rates of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy increase the importance of understanding the mechanisms and long-term effects of radiation-induced bone loss. In this work, we investigated the variation on calcium distribution in ribs of female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to photon irradiation with a single dose of 20 Gy. The determination of the calcium distribution was performed using synchrotron radiation microfluorescence (SR-μXRF) at the X-ray Fluorescence beamline at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Animals were irradiated using the linear accelerator Varian® (CLINAC 2100) at the University Centre for Cancer Control of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (CUCC/UERJ). The total dose delivered was 20 Gy. The animals were about three months old and weighting about 200g. They were distributed into two groups (seven per group): control (did not receive any treatment) and irradiated (submitted to irradiation procedure) groups. Results showed that calcium content decreased within the dorsal ribs of rats submitted to radiotherapy in comparison to the control group.

  9. Evaluation of photon irradiation treatment upon calcium content of ribs of Wistar rats using micro-XRF

    SciTech Connect

    Parreiras Nogueira, Liebert; Barroso, Regina Cely; Pereira de Almeida, Andre; Braz, Delson; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de; Salata, Camila; Andrade, Cherley Borba; Silva, Claudia Marcello da

    2012-05-17

    Therapeutic doses of radiation have been shown to have deleterious consequences on bone health. Among the treatment strategies used for breast cancer treatment, the most used are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy may be given to destroy the cancer cells using high-dose x-rays. Protocols vary considerably, but generally whole body irradiation totals from 10 to 15 Gy, whereas local therapy totals from 40 to 70 Gy. In clinical practice, the quantitative evaluation of bone tissue relies on measurements of bone mineral density values, which are closely associated with the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Improved survivorship rates of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy increase the importance of understanding the mechanisms and long-term effects of radiation-induced bone loss. In this work, we investigated the variation on calcium distribution in ribs of female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to photon irradiation with a single dose of 20 Gy. The determination of the calcium distribution was performed using synchrotron radiation microfluorescence (SR-{mu}XRF) at the X-ray Fluorescence beamline at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Animals were irradiated using the linear accelerator Varian registered (CLINAC 2100) at the University Centre for Cancer Control of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (CUCC/UERJ). The total dose delivered was 20 Gy. The animals were about three months old and weighting about 200g. They were distributed into two groups (seven per group): control (did not receive any treatment) and irradiated (submitted to irradiation procedure) groups. Results showed that calcium content decreased within the dorsal ribs of rats submitted to radiotherapy in comparison to the control group.

  10. Enhancing the Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidants of Lemon Pomace Aqueous Extracts by Applying UV-C Irradiation to the Dried Powder.

    PubMed

    Papoutsis, Konstantinos; Vuong, Quan V; Pristijono, Penta; Golding, John B; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J; Stathopoulos, Costas E

    2016-08-23

    Several studies have shown that UV-C (ultraviolet C) irradiation promotes the bioactive compounds and antioxidants of fresh fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to apply UV irradiation in dried lemon pomace powder for enhancing its phenolic content and antioxidant properties, thus more bioactive compounds should be available for extraction and utilization. Lemon pomace dried powder was placed under a UV lamp and treated with dosages of 4, 19, 80 and 185 kJ·m(-2), while untreated powder was used as a control. UV-C irradiation significantly affected the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, proanthocyanidins, and antioxidant capacity measured by cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the lemon pomace dried powder, while it did not affect the vitamin C content. UV-C irradiation of 19 kJ·m(-2) resulted in 19% higher total phenolic content than the control, while UV-C irradiation of 180 kJ·m(-2) resulted in 28% higher total flavonoid content than the control. The antioxidant capacity was reduced when UV-C irradiation more than 4 kJ·m(-2) was applied. The results of this study indicate that UV-C treatment has the potential to increase the extraction of bioactive compounds of dried lemon pomace at relatively high dosages.

  11. Enhancing the Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidants of Lemon Pomace Aqueous Extracts by Applying UV-C Irradiation to the Dried Powder

    PubMed Central

    Papoutsis, Konstantinos; Vuong, Quan V.; Pristijono, Penta; Golding, John B.; Bowyer, Michael C.; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Stathopoulos, Costas E.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that UV-C (ultraviolet C) irradiation promotes the bioactive compounds and antioxidants of fresh fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to apply UV irradiation in dried lemon pomace powder for enhancing its phenolic content and antioxidant properties, thus more bioactive compounds should be available for extraction and utilization. Lemon pomace dried powder was placed under a UV lamp and treated with dosages of 4, 19, 80 and 185 kJ·m−2, while untreated powder was used as a control. UV-C irradiation significantly affected the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, proanthocyanidins, and antioxidant capacity measured by cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the lemon pomace dried powder, while it did not affect the vitamin C content. UV-C irradiation of 19 kJ·m−2 resulted in 19% higher total phenolic content than the control, while UV-C irradiation of 180 kJ·m−2 resulted in 28% higher total flavonoid content than the control. The antioxidant capacity was reduced when UV-C irradiation more than 4 kJ·m−2 was applied. The results of this study indicate that UV-C treatment has the potential to increase the extraction of bioactive compounds of dried lemon pomace at relatively high dosages. PMID:28231150

  12. Oxygen-Content-Controllable Graphene Oxide from Electron-Beam-Irradiated Graphite: Synthesis, Characterization, and Removal of Aqueous Lead [Pb(II)].

    PubMed

    Bai, Jing; Sun, Huimin; Yin, Xiaojie; Yin, Xianqiang; Wang, Shengsen; Creamer, Anne Elise; Xu, Lijun; Qin, Zhi; He, Feng; Gao, Bin

    2016-09-28

    A high-energy electron beam was applied to irradiate graphite for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) with a controllable oxygen content. The obtained GO sheets were analyzed with various characterization tools. The results revealed that the oxygen-containing groups of GO increased with increasing irradiation dosages. Hence, oxygen-content-controllable synthesis of GO can be realized by changing the irradiation dosages. The GO sheets with different irradiation dosages were then used to adsorb aqueous Pb(II). The effects of contact time, pH, initial lead ion concentration, and ionic strength on Pb(II) sorption onto different GO sheets were examined. The sorption process was found to be very fast (completed within 20 min) at pH 5.0. Except ionic strength, which showed no/little effect on lead sorption, the other factors affected the sorption of aqueous Pb(II) onto GO. The maximum Pb(II) sorption capacities of GO increased with irradiation dosages, confirming that electron-beam irradiation was an effective way to increase the oxygen content of GO. These results suggested that irradiated GO with a controllable oxygen content is a promising nanomaterial for environmental cleanup, particularly for the treatment of cationic metal ions, such as Pb(II).

  13. Charging process of polyurethane based composites under electronic irradiation: Effects of cellulose fiber content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjadj, Aomar; Jbara, Omar; Tara, Ahmed; Gilliot, Mickael; Dellis, Jean-Luc

    2013-09-01

    The study deals with the charging effect of polyurethanes-based composites reinforced with cellulose fibers, under electronic beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the leakage current and the trapped charge as well as the kinetics of charging process significantly change beyond a critical concentration of 10% cellulose fibers. These features are correlated with the cellulose concentration-dependence of the electrical properties, specifically resistivity and capacitance, of the composite.

  14. Charging process of polyurethane based composites under electronic irradiation: Effects of cellulose fiber content

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjadj, Aomar; Jbara, Omar; Tara, Ahmed; Gilliot, Mickael; Dellis, Jean-Luc

    2013-09-23

    The study deals with the charging effect of polyurethanes-based composites reinforced with cellulose fibers, under electronic beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the leakage current and the trapped charge as well as the kinetics of charging process significantly change beyond a critical concentration of 10% cellulose fibers. These features are correlated with the cellulose concentration-dependence of the electrical properties, specifically resistivity and capacitance, of the composite.

  15. Comparative effects of irradiation, fumigation, and storage on the free amino acids and sugar contents of green, black and oolong teas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausar, Tusneem; Akram, Kashif; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2013-05-01

    Food irradiation or chemical fumigation can be used to ensure the hygienic quality of teas. The comparative effects of gamma irradiation (5 and 10 kGy) and fumigation (MeBr and PH3) were investigated on the amino acids and sugar contents of Camellia sinensis (green, black and oolong teas) during storage (15±12 °C). The major amino acids found in teas were theanine and glutamic acid. Irradiation increased amino acids such as, leucine, alanine, and glutamic acid, and decreased the histidine. PH3 fumigation resulted in a decrease of tyrosine content; however, the effect of MeBr fumigation was negligible. Storage showed no significant effect on the amino acid content of the irradiated and fumigated teas. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents significantly increased upon gamma irradiation (p≤0.05). However, fumigation and subsequent storage did not affect the sugar contents. Irradiation could be a preferred alternative choice to address food safety problems as fumigation is restricted in many countries.

  16. [Change in glutathione content in rat thymocytes under apoptosis induced by H2O2 or irradiation].

    PubMed

    Koval', T V; Nazarova, O O; Matyshevs'ka, O P

    2008-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) content as well as GSH-peroxidase and GSH-reductase activity in isolated rat thymocytes X-irradiated in a dose of 4.5 Gy or treated with 0.1 mM H2O2 were studied in a period preceding the appearance of apoptosis morphological symptoms. The early adaptive response of thymocytes to radiation - increase of both GSH content and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity was revealed. On the contrary the rapid fall of GSH level in H2O2-treated thymocytes was observed simultaneousely with glutathione reductase inhibition and enhanced GSH consumption by glutathione peroxidase, this disbalance of GSH-dependent antioxidant system probably facilitates mitochondrial way of apoptosis.

  17. Influence of CuO content on the structure of lithium fluoroborate glasses: Spectral and gamma irradiation studies.

    PubMed

    Abdelghany, A M; ElBatal, H A; EzzElDin, F M

    2015-10-05

    Glasses of lithium fluoroborate of the composition LiF 15%-B2O3 85% with increasing CuO as added dopant were prepared and characterized by combined optical and FTIR spectroscopy before and after gamma irradiation. The optical spectrum of the undoped glass reveals strong UV absorption with two distinct peaks at about 235 and 310 nm and with no visible bands. This strong UV absorption is related to the presence of unavoidable trace iron impurity (Fe(3+)) within the materials used for the preparation of this glass. After irradiation, the spectrum of the undoped glass shows a decrease of the intensity of the UV bands together with the resolution of an induced visible broad band centered at about 520 nm. The CuO doped glasses reveal the same UV absorption beside a very broad visible band centered at 780 nm and this band shows extension and splitting to several component peaks with higher CuO contents. Upon gamma irradiation, the spectra of all CuO-doped glasses reveal pronounced decrease of their intensities. The response of irradiation on the studied glasses is correlated with suggested photochemical reactions together with some shielding effect of the copper ions. The observed visible band is related to the presence of copper as distorted octahedral Cu(2+) ions. Infrared absorption spectra of the prepared glasses show repetitive characteristic triangular and tetrahedral borate units similar to that published from alkali or alkaline earth oxides B2O3 glasses. A suggested formation of (BO3/2F) tetrahedral units is advanced through action of LiF on B2O3 and these suggested units showing the same position and number as BO4 tetrahedra.

  18. Annealing of paramagnetic centres in electron- and ion-irradiated yttria-stabilized zirconia: effect of yttria content

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Beuneu, Francois; Weber, William J

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the effect of the yttria content on the recovery of paramagnetic centres in electron-irradiated yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2: Y3+). Single crystals with 9.5 mol% or 18 mol% Y2O3 were irradiated with electrons of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 MeV. Paramagnetic centre thermal annealing was studied by X-band EPR spectroscopy. Hole-centres are found to be annealed more quickly, or at a lower temperature, for 18 mol% than for 9.5 mol% Y2O3. At long annealing times, a non-zero asymptotic behaviour is observed in the isothermal annealing curves of hole-centres and F+-type centres between 300 and 500 K. The normalized asymptotic concentration of both defects has a maximum value of about 0.5 for annealing temperatures near 375 K, below the onset of the (isochronal) recovery stage, regardless of the yttria content. Such an uncommon behaviour is analyzed on the basis of either kinetic rate equations of charge transfer or equilibria between point defects with different charge states.

  19. Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents Enhancement with Acute Gamma Irradiation in Curcuma alismatifolia (Zingiberaceae) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Sima; Abdullah, Thohirah Lee; Karimi, Ehsan; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to assess the effect of various doses of acute gamma irradiation (0, 10, 15, and 20 Gy) on the improvement of bioactive compounds and their antioxidant properties of Curcuma alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) analysis uncovered that various types of phenolic, flavonoid compounds, and fatty acids gradually altered in response to radiation doses. On the other hand, antioxidant activities determined by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reduction, antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay showed a higher irradiation level significantly increased the antioxidant properties. This study revealed an efficient effect of varying levels of gamma radiation, based on the pharmaceutical demand to enhance the accumulation and distribution of bioactive compounds such as phenolic and flavonoid compounds, fatty acids, as well as their antioxidant activities in the leaves of C. alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. PMID:25056545

  20. Wollastonite based-Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics with lead oxide contents under gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colorado, H. A.; Pleitt, J.; Hiel, C.; Yang, J. M.; Hahn, H. T.; Castano, C. H.

    2012-06-01

    The shielding properties to gamma rays as well as the effect of lead concentration incorporated into Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics (CBPCs) composites are presented. The Wollastonite-based CBPC was fabricated by mixing a patented aqueous phosphoric acid formulation with Wollastonite powder. CBPC has been proved to be good structural material, with excellent thermal resistant properties, and research already showed their potential for radiation shielding applications. Wollastonite-based CBPC is a composite material itself with several crystalline and amorphous phases. Irradiation experiments were conducted on different Wollastonite-based CBPCs with lead oxide. Radiation shielding potential, attenuation coefficients in a broad range of energies pertinent to engineering applications and density experiments showing the effect of the PbO additions (to improve gamma shielding capabilities) are also presented. Microstructure was identified by using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  1. Hematopoietic cytokines.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Donald

    2008-01-15

    The production of hematopoietic cells is under the tight control of a group of hematopoietic cytokines. Each cytokine has multiple actions mediated by receptors whose cytoplasmic domains contain specialized regions initiating the various responses-survival, proliferation, differentiation commitment, maturation, and functional activation. Individual cytokines can be lineage specific or can regulate cells in multiple lineages, and for some cell types, such as stem cells or megakaryocyte progenitors, the simultaneous action of multiple cytokines is required for proliferative responses. The same cytokines control basal and emergency hematopoietic cell proliferation. Three cytokines, erythropoietin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, have now been in routine clinical use to stimulate cell production and in total have been used in the management of many millions of patients. In this little review, discussion will be restricted to those cytokines well established as influencing the production of hematopoietic cells and will exclude newer candidate regulators and those active on lymphoid cells. As requested, this account will describe the cytokines in a historical manner, using a sequential format of discovery, understanding, validation, and puzzlement, a sequence that reflects the evolving views on these cytokines over the past 50 years.

  2. Irradiation with a low-level diode laser induces the developmental endothelial locus-1 gene and reduces proinflammatory cytokines in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Takeki; Mitani, Akio; Fukuda, Mitsuo; Mogi, Makio; Osawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Shinko; Aino, Makoto; Iwamura, Yuki; Miyajima, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu; Noguchi, Toshihide

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrated previously that low-level diode laser irradiation with an indocyanine green-loaded nanosphere coated with chitosan (ICG-Nano/c) had an antimicrobial effect, and thus could be used for periodontal antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). Since little is known about the effects of aPDT on periodontal tissue, we here investigated the effect of low-level laser irradiation, with and without ICG-Nano/c, on cultured epithelial cells. Human oral epithelial cells were irradiated in a repeated pulse mode (duty cycle, 10 %; pulse width, 100 ms; peak power output, 5 W). The expression of the developmental endothelial locus 1 (Del-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were evaluated in Ca9-22 cells stimulated by laser irradiation and Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A wound healing assay was carried out on SCC-25 cells irradiated by diode laser with or without ICG-Nano/c. The mRNA expression of Del-1, which is known to have anti-inflammatory activity, was significantly upregulated by laser irradiation (p < 0.01). Concurrently, LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression was significantly suppressed in the LPS + laser group (p < 0.01). ICAM-1 expression was significantly higher in the LPS + laser group than in the LPS only or control groups. Finally, compared with the control, the migration of epithelial cells was significantly increased by diode laser irradiation with or without ICG-Nano/c. These results suggest that, in addition to its antimicrobial effect, low-level diode laser irradiation, with or without ICG-Nano/c, can suppress excessive inflammatory responses via a mechanism involving Del-1, and assists in wound healing.

  3. The co-induced effects of molybdenum and cadmium on the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and trace element contents in duck kidneys.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huabin; Gao, Feiyan; Xia, Bing; Xiao, Qingyang; Guo, Xiaoquan; Hu, Guoliang; Zhang, Caiying

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were determining the co-induced effects of dietary Cadmium (Cd) and high intake of Molybdenum (Mo) on renal toxicity in ducks. 240 healthy 11-day-old ducks were randomly divided into 6 groups, which were treated with Mo or/and Cd at different doses added to the basal diet for 120 days. Ducks of control group were fed with basal diet, LMo and HMo groups were fed with 15mg/kg Mo and 100mg/kg Mo respectively; ducks of Cd group were provided with 4mg/kg Cd which was added into basal diet. Two combination groups were treated with 15mg/kg Mo+4mg/kg Cd and 100mg/kg Mo+4mg/kg Cd respectively. On days 30, 60, 90 and 120, the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and contents of trace elements were detected. In addition, transmission electron microscopic examination was used for ultrastructural studies. The results indicated that the mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) showed an upward tendency in treatment groups in comparison with control group, and in the later period of the experiment it showed a significant rise in joint groups compared with the Mo and Cd group (P<0.01); the contents of copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) decreased in joint groups in the later period (P<0.05) while the contents of Mo and Cd significantly increased (P<0.01); zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) concentration had a slight downtrend in treated groups, but showed no significant difference (P>0.05). The ultrastructural analysis showed that kidney tissues were severely injured in joint groups on day 120. These results suggested that the combination of Mo and Cd could aggravate damages to the kidney. In addition, dietary of Mo or/and Cd caused the decrease of Cu, Fe, Zn, and Se contents, inflammatory response and pathological lesions whose mechanism is somehow linked with Mo and Cd deposition in kidney.

  4. Modeling of secondary treated wastewater disinfection by UV irradiation: effects of suspended solids content.

    PubMed

    Brahmi, Mounaouer; Belhadi, Noureddine Hamed; Hamdi, Helmi; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to study UV-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to propose a formulation of the kinetics of secondary treated wastewater disinfection and to underline the influence of suspended solids on the inactivation kinetics of these strains. Some investigations were carried out for the validation of some simulation models, from the simplest, the kinetics model of Chick-Watson reduced to first order, to rather complex models such as multi-kinetic and Collins-Selleck models. Results revealed that the involved processes of UV irradiation were too complex to be approached by a simplified formulation, even in the case of specific strains of microorganisms and the use of nearly constant UV radiation intensity. In fact, the application of Chick-Watson model in its original form is not representative of the kinetics of UV disinfection. Modification, taking into account the speed change during the disinfection process, has not significantly improved results. On the other hand, the application of Collins-Selleck model demonstrates that it was necessary to exceed a least dose of critical radiation to start the process of inactivation. To better explain the process of inactivation, we have assumed that the action of disinfectant on the survival of lonely microorganisms is faster than its action on suspended solids protected or agglomerated to each others. We can assume in this case the existence of two inactivation kinetics during the processes (parallel and independent) of the first-order. For this reason, the application of a new kinetic model by introducing a third factor reflecting the influence of suspended solids in water on disinfection kinetics appeared to be determinant for modeling UV inactivation of P. aeruginosa in secondary treated wastewater.

  5. Effects of total body irradiation on fatty acid and total lipid content of rats.

    PubMed

    Chukwuemeka, Nwokocha; Philippe, Mounmbegna; Magdalene, Nwokocha; Onyezuligbo, Onyekachi

    2012-01-01

    We examined time-dependent changes in plasma lipids of rats given total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays at 3 Gy. for consecutive periods. Animals were exposed to x ray radiations consecutively for 20 days at 5 day interval thereafter five animals were picked at random and sacrificed (5, 10, 15 and 20 days after beginning the exposure). The triacylglycerols and total cholesterol serum levels were significant differences between control and experimental groups after the first exposure (5 days), values for the triacylglcerols were significantly higher with the second (day 10) and third (day 15) radiation exposures but not with the fourth radiation exposures (day 20) (p<0.05). However, the serum cholesterol values were not found to be significant with the second and third exposures but with the fourth exposure (day 20) (p<0.05). The serum HDL-C concentrations were not significantly different between control and experimental groups at any time analyzed. But the LDL cholesterol was found to decrease on days 5 and 20 of the experimental period. Our results indicate that the applied long term exposure to x rays ionization radiations exposure may induce slight but statistically significant alterations in some serum lipids profile of rats, within the physiological range. The mechanisms for the effects of these ionizing radiations on serum lipid profile are not well understand yet, we suggest that the changes could be due to some non-specific stress reactions. The consequences of our observation are not known yet, but could point to some possible clinical intervention.

  6. Storage temperature and UV-irradiation influence on the ergosterol content in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Villares, Ana; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; García-Lafuente, Ana; Guillamón, Eva

    2014-03-15

    Ergosterol (5,7,22-ergostatrien-3β-ol) and ergosteryl derivatives from different genera of edible mushrooms were separated and quantified by an isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The technique allowed a rapid separation of free ergosterol and two ergosteryl derivatives occurring in mushrooms. The ergosterol content varied considerably depending on the fungus. Thus, the species Agaricus bisporus and Hygrophorus marzuolus presented high quantities of ergosterol (6.4-6.8 mg/g, dry matter) followed by Pleurotus ostreatus, Calocybe gambosa, Lentinus edodes, and Boletus edulis (3.3-4.0mg/g). In contrast, other species, such as Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus and Craterellus cornucopioides, contained significantly lower ergosterol amounts (0.2-0.4 mg/g). Two ergosteryl derivatives were found in mushrooms and also the content depended on the fungus. The stability of ergosterol, in terms of the formation of ergosterol peroxide, was evaluated under different storage temperatures and UV radiation. The lower the temperature (-20°C) and the radiation time (10 min), the lower ergosterol oxidation was observed.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B 6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H. A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J. J.; Delincée, H. H.; Bognár, A. A.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of 60Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macaçar beans ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macaçar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1, B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on phenol content, antioxidant activity and biological activity of black maca and red maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii walp).

    PubMed

    Zevallos-Concha, A; Nuñez, D; Gasco, M; Vasquez, C; Quispe, M; Gonzales, G F

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on UV spectrum on maca, total content of polyphenols, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities and in vivo biological activities of red and black maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii). Adult mice of the strain Swiss aged 3 months and weighing 30-35 g in average were used to determine biological activities. Daily sperm production, effect on testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia and forced swimming test were used to determine the effect of irradiation on biological activities of maca extracts. Irradiation did not show differences in UV spectrum but improves the amount of total polyphenols in red maca as well as in black maca extracts. In both cases, black maca extract has more content of polyphenols than red maca extract (p < 0.01). Gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05). No difference was observed in daily sperm production when irradiated and nonirradiated maca extract were administered to mice (p > 0.05). Black maca extract but not red maca extract has more swimming endurance capacity in the forced swimming test. Irradiation of black maca extract increased the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05). This is not observed with red maca extract (p > 0.05). Testosterone enanthate (TE) increased significantly the ventral prostate weight. Administration of red maca extract in animals treated with TE prevented the increase in prostate weight. Irradiation did not modify effect of red maca extract on prostate weight (p > 0.05). In conclusion, irradiation does not alter the biological activities of both black maca and red maca extracts. It prevents the presence of microorganisms in the extracts of black or red maca, but the biological activities were maintained.

  9. Responses of He-Ne laser irradiation on agronomical characters and chlorogenic acid content of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) var. Mattu Gulla.

    PubMed

    Swathy, Surendrababu P; Kiran, Kodsara Ramachandra; Rao, Madhura S; Mahato, Krishna K; Rao, Mattu Radhakrishna; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Muthusamy, Annamalai

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to laser irradiation on seeds brings about the changes in agronomical characteristics of the plants. Solanum melongena L. var. Mattu Gulla, a variety of brinjal is of high economic value due to its unique colour and flavour. The aim of the study was to understand the influence of Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation on agronomical characters of Solanum melongena L. var. Mattu Gulla in the field conditions. Various growth characteristics including seed germination percentage, survival rate, plant height, number of branches, and flowers and fruits were estimated during different developmental stages of the brinjal. In addition, the chlorogenic acid content of fruits obtained from the laser irradiated seeds were quantified using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP- HPLC). The plants from the seeds irradiated with different doses (20, 25 and 30J/cm(2)) of He-Ne laser showed significant enhancement on the growth characteristics when compared to the non-irradiated control groups. He-Ne laser irradiation also improved the yield characteristics of the plants significantly in in vivo conditions in comparison with control group. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed using methanolic extract of matured fruit of Mattu Gulla on HepG2 and fibroblast cell lines. The IC50 values of fruit extract from laser irradiated groups were found to be similar to non-irradiated control groups. Chlorogenic acid content was found to be higher in 20J/cm(2) and lower in 30J/cm(2) treated fruit tissue. The current study thus elucidates the role of He-Ne laser as a biostimulator on brinjal var. Mattu Gulla not only in the in vitro conditions but also in the in vivo field conditions.

  10. Gene Expression of Hematoregulatory Cytokines is Elevated Endogenously After Sublethal Gamma Irradiation and is Differentially Enhanced by Therapeutic Administration of Biologic Response Modifiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    reconstitution of medullary Days After Irradiation and extramedullary hematopoiesis after sublethal irradia- FIGURE 7. Comparative elects of BRMs on 30-day...stimulating factor on recovery from radiation-induced hcmopoi,:tic Other studies have documented the absence of myeloid aplasia . EAp. henatoL 21:33W

  11. Peripheral blood corticotropin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cytokine (Interleukin Beta, Interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha) levels after high- and low-dose total-body irradiation in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Girinsky, T.A.; Pallardy, M.; Comoy, E.; Benassi, T.; Roger, R.; Ganem, G.; Socie, G.; Cossett, J.M.; Magdelenat, H.

    1994-09-01

    Total-body irradiation (TBI) induces an increase in levels of granulocytes and cortisol in blood. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we studied 26 patients who had TBI prior to bone marrow transplantation. Our findings suggest that only a high dose of TBI (10 Gy) was capable of activating the hypothalamopituitary area since corticotropin-releasing factor and blood adrenocorticotropic hormone levels increased at the end of the TBI. There was a concomitant increase in the levels of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor in blood, suggesting that these cytokines might activate the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis. Interleukin 1 was not detected. Since vascular injury is a common after radiation treatment, it is possible that interleukin 6 was secreted by endothelial cells. The exact mechanisms of the production of cyctokines induced by ionizing radiation remain to be determined. 25 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Alteration of radioprotective effects of heat-killed Lactobacillus casei in X-irradiated C3H/He mouse related to blood level of proinflammatory cytokines by corticoids.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Izumi; Tanaka, Mika; Satoh, Akiko; Kurematsu, Ayako; Ishiwata, Akiko; Suzuki, Keiko; Ishihara, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that a pre-administration of proinflammatory cytokines alters hematopoietic progenitor cells to promote an increase resistance against radiation and increases the survival rate in mice irradiated with lethal doses of radiation. Inflammation stimulators, such as some bacterial constituents, are also reported to have similar radioprotective action. We found that pre-administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus casei (HLC) to mice increases the level of interleukin (IL)-1 beta in circulation as well as the survival rate following lethal dose of radiation. Since HLC stimulates early immune responses, effects by drugs to modify inflammation were studied. The increase of both blood IL-1 beta levels and survival rates by HLC were simultaneously accelerated by coadministration of mineralocorticoid and inhibited by glucocorticoids or corticotropin. Neither parameter was modified by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory or anti-rheumatoid drugs. This suggests that both expected radioprotective action and unexpected systemic action, realized as an increase in plasma cytokines, by inflammation-related radioprotectors can be controlled by the coadministration of drugs at least in C3H/He mice, based on consideration of their pharmacological properties.

  13. Apparatus for in situ determination of burnup, cooling time and fissile content of an irradiated nuclear fuel assembly in a fuel storage pond

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, John R.; Halbig, James K.; Menlove, Howard O.; Klosterbuer, Shirley F.

    1985-01-01

    A detector head for in situ inspection of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies submerged in a water-filled nuclear fuel storage pond. The detector head includes two parallel arms which extend from a housing and which are spaced apart so as to be positionable on opposite sides of a submerged fuel assembly. Each arm includes an ionization chamber and two fission chambers. One fission chamber in each arm is enclosed in a cadmium shield and the other fission chamber is unshielded. The ratio of the outputs of the shielded and unshielded fission chambers is used to determine the boron content of the pond water. Correcting for the boron content, the neutron flux and gamma ray intensity are then used to verify the declared exposure, cooling time and fissile material content of the irradiated fuel assembly.

  14. Apparatus for in situ determination of burnup, cooling time and fissile content of an irradiated nuclear fuel assembly in a fuel storage pond

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, J.R.; Halbig, J.K.; Menlove, H.O.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1984-01-01

    A detector head for in situ inspection of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies submerged in a water-filled nuclear fuel storage pond. The detector head includes two parallel arms which extend from a housing and which are spaced apart so as to be positionable on opposite sides of a submerged fuel assembly. Each arm includes an ionization chamber and two fission chambers. One fission chamber in each arm is enclosed in a cadmium shield and the other fission chamber is unshielded. The ratio of the outputs of the shielded and unshielded fission chambers is used to determine the boron content of the pond water. Correcting for the boron content, the neutron flux and gamma ray intensity are then used to verify the declared exposure, cooling time and fissile material content of the irradiated fuel assembly.

  15. Enhancement of antioxidant properties and increase of content of vitamin D2 and non-volatile components in fresh button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (higher Basidiomycetes) by γ-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shu-Yao; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Huang, Shih-Jeng

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is a popular culinary-medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, and γ-irradiation could extend its shelf life. Our objective was to study the content of vitamin D2 and the taste components and antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts from A. bisporus with various doses of γ-irradiation. After irradiation, the vitamin D2 content of 5-10 kGy irradiated mushrooms was in the range of 5.22-7.90 µg/g, higher than that of the unirradiated control (2.24 µg/g). For all treatments, the total content of soluble sugars and polyols ranged from 113 to 142 mg/g, and the monosodium glutamate-like components ranged from 6.57 to 13.50 mg/g, among which the 2.5 kGy irradiated sample has the highest content of flavor 5'-nucleotide. About antioxidant properties, 10 kGy irradiated samples exhibited lower EC50 values than did other samples. EC50 values were less than 5 mg/mL for ethanolic extracts. Total phenols were the major antioxidant components and the total content was 13.24-22.78 mg gallic acid equivalents/g. Based on the results obtained, γ-irradiation could be used to improve the vitamin D2 content and intensity of umami taste in fresh mushrooms. In addition, γ-irradiation not only maintained the antioxidant properties of mushrooms but also enhanced the antioxidant properties to some extent.

  16. The dependence of helium generation rate on nickel content of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys irradiated at high dpa levels in fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, F.A.; Oliver, B.M.; Greenwood, L.R.

    1997-04-01

    With a few exceptions in the literature, it is generally accepted that it is nickel in Fe-Cr-Ni alloys that produces most of the transmutant helium and that the helium generation rate should scale linearly with the nickel content. Surprisingly, this assumption is based only on irradiations of pure nickel and has never been tested in an alloy series. There have also been no extensive tests of the predictions for helium production in alloys in various fast reactors spectra.

  17. Effects of lactic acid fermentation and gamma irradiation of barley on antinutrient contents and nutrient digestibility in mink (Mustela vison) with and without dietary enzyme supplement.

    PubMed

    Skrede, Anders; Sahlstrøm, Stefan; Ahlstrøm, Oystein; Connor, Kirsti Hjelme; Skrede, Grete

    2007-06-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the effects of fermentation of barley, using two different strains of lactic acid bacteria, a Lactobacillus plantarum/pentosus strain isolated from spontaneously fermented rye sourdough (AD2) and a starch-degrading Lactobacillus plantarum (AM4), on contents of mixed-linked (1 --> 3) (1 --> 4)-beta-glucans, alpha-amylase inhibitor activity, inositol phosphates, and apparent digestibility of macronutrients in mink. Effects of fermentation were compared with effects of gamma irradiation (gamma-irradiation: 60Co gamma-rays at 25 kGy). The diets were fed to mink with and without a supplementary enzyme preparation. Both lactic acid fermentation and gamma-irradiation followed by soaking and incubation, reduced concentrations of soluble beta-glucans, phytate and alpha-amylase inhibitor activity. Dietary enzyme supplementation increased significantly digestibility of crude protein, fat, starch and crude carbohydrate (CHO). Fermentation of the barley increased digestibility of starch and CHO. Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria AD2 resulted in higher starch and CHO digestibility than strain AM4, and had greater effect than gamma-irradiation, soaking and incubation. The highest digestibility of starch and CHO was obtained after AD2 fermentation followed by enzyme supplementation. It is concluded that both lactic acid fermentation of barley and enzyme supplementation have positive nutritional implications in the mink by limiting the effects of antinutrients and improving digestibility and energy utilization.

  18. [Cytokines in bone diseases. What is cytokine?].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yousuke; Kohsaka, Hitoshi

    2010-10-01

    Cytokines have an essential role for cell-cell communication. They can regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and function. Interaction of cell surface receptor with cytokines is necessary for control of physiological responses. Activation of cytokine receptors transduces specific signal in the receptor-expressing cells, resulting that cytokines can regulate specific cell population. Thus, cytokines contribute directly or indirectly to morphogenesis, host defense and immune response, play critical roles for homeostasis and development.

  19. Hydrogen production via reforming of biogas over nanostructured Ni/Y catalyst: Effect of ultrasound irradiation and Ni-content on catalyst properties and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Sharifi, Mahdi; Haghighi, Mohammad; Abdollahifar, Mozaffar

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of nanostructured Ni/Y catalyst by sonochemical and impregnation methods. • Enhancement of size distribution and active phase dispersion by employing sonochemical method. • Evaluation of biogas reforming over Ni/Y catalyst with different Ni-loadings. • Preparation of highly active and stable catalyst with low Ni content for biogas reforming. • Getting H{sub 2}/CO very close to equilibrium ratio by employing sonochemical method. - Abstract: The effect of ultrasound irradiation and various Ni-loadings on dispersion of active phase over zeolite Y were evaluated in biogas reforming for hydrogen production. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, Fourier transform infrared analysis and TEM analysis were employed to observe the characteristics of nanostructured catalysts. The characterizations implied that utilization of ultrasound irradiation enhanced catalyst physicochemical properties including high dispersion of Ni on support, smallest particles size and high catalyst surface area. The reforming reactions were carried out at GHSV = 24 l/g.h, P = 1 atm, CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} = 1 and temperature range of 550–850 °C. Activity test displayed that ultrasound irradiated Ni(5 wt.%)/Y had the best performance and the activity remained stable during 600 min. Furthermore, the proposed reaction mechanism showed that there are three major reaction channels in biogas reforming.

  20. Cytokines in Radiobiological Responses: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Schaue, Dörthe; Kachikwu, Evelyn L.; McBride, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Cytokines function in many roles that are highly relevant to radiation research. This review focuses on how cytokines are structurally organized, how they are induced by radiation, and how they orchestrate mesenchymal, epithelial and immune cell interactions in irradiated tissues. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are the major components of immediate early gene programs and as such can be rapidly activated after tissue irradiation. They converge with the effects of ionizing radiation in that both generate free radicals including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). “Self” molecules secreted or released from cells after irradiation feed the same paradigm by signaling for ROS and cytokine production. As a result, multilayered feedback control circuits can be generated that perpetuate the radiation tissue damage response. The pro-inflammatory phase persists until such times as perceived challenges to host integrity are eliminated. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory cytokines then act to restore homeostasis. The balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory forces may shift to and fro for a long time after radiation exposure, creating waves as the host tries to deal with persisting pathogenesis. Individual cytokines function within socially interconnected groups to direct these integrated cellular responses. They hunt in packs and form complex cytokine networks that are nested within each other so as to form mutually reinforcing or antagonistic forces. This yin-yang balance appears to have redox as a fulcrum. Because of their social organization, cytokines appear to have a considerable degree of redundancy and it follows that an elevated level of a specific cytokine in a disease situation or after irradiation does not necessarily implicate it causally in pathogenesis. In spite of this, “driver” cytokines are emerging in pathogenic situations that can clearly be targeted for therapeutic benefit, including in radiation settings. Cytokines can greatly

  1. Continuous Observations of Leaf Transpiration Isotopic Composition in Two Dryland Species Highlight Sensitivity to Changes in Irradiance and Soil Water Content.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayland, H.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in optical isotope techniques have enabled near-continuous determination of leaf transpiration isotopic composition (δT), allowing researchers to trace water movement through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum at fine temporal scales. However, to date very few direct measurements of δT are available. We applied a novel flow-through chamber method developed by Wang et al. (2011) to monitor short-term variability in leaf transpired water isotopic composition of two African savanna trees, Vachiella tortillis and Senegalia mellifera, in response to variable irradiance and soil water content. Single leaves were inserted into a custom cuvette connected to an off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (IA-ICOS) water vapor isotope analyzer and allowed to reach isotopic steady-state. Measurements were taken on alternating species every 10 minutes for two hours during mid-morning when plants were most active. Above-canopy irradiance and soil moisture at rooting depth were recorded daily at 1- and 10-minute intervals, respectively. We found that shading initiated rapid depletion of δ2H and δ18O in both species, though differences were more pronounced in V. tortillis. Similarly, an increase in irradiance caused δ18O enrichment of transpired water by up to 5‰ on the order of minutes. Interestingly, soil water content was positively correlated with δ2H: in drier conditions transpired water was more depleted relative to wetter conditions. Our results suggest that the isotopic composition of leaf water within a canopy may vary considerably depending on leaf location and amount of radiation received. These findings have important implications for models of plant water isotopes and underscore the need for additional direct observations of δT .

  2. Experimental and Model Study of Changes in Spectral Solar Irradiance in the Atmosphere of Large City due to Tropospheric NO{sub 2} Content

    SciTech Connect

    Chubarova, N. Ye.; Lebedev, V. V.; Partola, V. S.; Larin, I. K.; Lezina, Ye. A.; Rublev, A. N.

    2009-03-11

    An experimental and model approach has been used to study the NO{sub 2} vertical profiles and its effect on solar irradiance. The profiles of NO{sub 2} were obtained using gas analyzers, which had been installed at different levels at the Moscow State University (MSU) located at the south-western part of Moscow and at the Ostankino tower located at the north of Moscow up to the height of 350 m. Using these data diurnal and spatial variability of the NO{sub 2} content in the most polluted part of planetary boundary layer (PBL) has been analyzed within the large megalopolis. On the base of photochemical modeling we have simulated the diurnal cycle of NO{sub 2} vertical profiles for summer and winter conditions and have compared the results with the experimental ones. Using the RT modeling with input gaseous and aerosol parameters of the atmosphere obtained from the MSU Meteorological Observatory we have estimated the attenuation of spectral solar irradiance in UV and visible region of spectrum due to the NO{sub 2} content in the polluted atmosphere for different seasons.

  3. The effects of γ-irradiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genshuan, Wei; Guanghui, Wang; Ruipu, Yang; Jilan, Wu

    1996-02-01

    A study of the effects of γ-radiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide and disulfide was carried out. The content of garlic oil in fresh garlic bulbs treated by gamma ray keeps nearly constant when stored for 10 months. The main components of garlic oil are allyl trisulfide (about 60%) and allyl disulfide (about 30%). The G values of radiolysis products of allyl disulfide and trisulfide in ethanol system were determined. The results show that allyl trisulfide is a very effective solvated electron scavenger and can oxidize CH 3CHOH radical into acetaldehyde, which means that the formation of 2,3-butanediol is extensively inhibited.

  4. Cytokines in Drosophila immunity.

    PubMed

    Vanha-Aho, Leena-Maija; Valanne, Susanna; Rämet, Mika

    2016-02-01

    Cytokines are a large and diverse group of small proteins that can affect many biological processes, but most commonly cytokines are known as mediators of the immune response. In the event of an infection, cytokines are produced in response to an immune stimulus, and they function as key regulators of the immune response. Cytokines come in many shapes and sizes, and although they vary greatly in structure, their functions have been well conserved in evolution. The immune signaling pathways that respond to cytokines are remarkably conserved from fly to man. Therefore, Drosophila melanogaster, provides an excellent platform for studying the biology and function of cytokines. In this review, we will describe the cytokines and cytokine-like molecules found in the fly and discuss their roles in host immunity.

  5. Interspecific prediction of photosynthetic light response curves using specific leaf mass and leaf nitrogen content: effects of differences in soil fertility and growth irradiance

    PubMed Central

    Lachapelle, Pierre-Philippe; Shipley, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous work has shown that the entire photosynthetic light response curve, based on both Mitscherlich and Michaelis–Menten functions, could be predicted in an interspecific context through allometric relations linking the parameters of these functions to two static leaf traits: leaf nitrogen (N) content and leaf mass per area (LMA). This paper describes to what extent these allometric relations are robust to changes in soil fertility and the growth irradiance of the plants. Methods Plants of 25 herbaceous species were grown under controlled conditions in factorial combinations of low/high soil fertility and low/high growth irradiance. Net photosynthetic rates per unit dry mass were measured at light intensities ranging from 0 to 700 µmol m−2 s−1 photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Key Results The differing growth environments induced large changes in N, LMA and in each of the parameter estimates of the Mitscherlich and Michaelis–Menten functions. However, the differing growth environments induced only small (although significant) changes in the allometric relationships linking N and LMA to the parameters of the two functions. As a result, 88 % (Mitcherlich) and 89 % (Michaelis–Menten) of the observed net photosynthetic rates over the full range of light intensities (0–700 µmol m−2 s−1 PAR) and across all four growth environments could be predicted using only N and LMA using the same allometric relations. Conclusions These results suggest the possibility of predicting net photosynthetic rates in nature across species over the full range of light intensities using readily available data. PMID:22442344

  6. Accelerated hydrolysis method to estimate the amino acid content of wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) flour using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kabaha, Khaled; Taralp, Alpay; Cakmak, Ismail; Ozturk, Levent

    2011-04-13

    The technique of microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was applied to wholegrain wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Balcali 2000) flour in order to speed the preparation of samples for analysis. The resultant hydrolysates were chromatographed and quantified in an automated amino acid analyzer. The effect of different hydrolysis temperatures, times and sample weights was examined using flour dispersed in 6 N HCl. Within the range of values tested, the highest amino acid recoveries were generally obtained by setting the hydrolysis parameters to 150 °C, 3 h and 200 mg sample weight. These conditions struck an optimal balance between liberating amino acid residues from the wheat matrix and limiting their subsequent degradation or transformation. Compared to the traditional 24 h reflux method, the hydrolysates were prepared in dramatically less time, yet afforded comparable ninhydrin color yields. Under optimal hydrolysis conditions, the total amino acid recovery corresponded to at least 85.1% of the total protein content, indicating the efficient extraction of amino acids from the flour matrix. The findings suggest that this microwave-assisted method can be used to rapidly profile the amino acids of numerous wheat grain samples, and can be extended to the grain analysis of other cereal crops.

  7. Cytokines in sleep regulation.

    PubMed

    Krueger, J M; Takahashi, S; Kapás, L; Bredow, S; Roky, R; Fang, J; Floyd, R; Renegar, K B; Guha-Thakurta, N; Novitsky, S

    1995-01-01

    The central thesis of this essay is that the cytokine network in brain is a key element in the humoral regulation of sleep responses to infection and in the physiological regulation of sleep. We hypothesize that many cytokines, their cellular receptors, soluble receptors, and endogenous antagonists are involved in physiological sleep regulation. The expressions of some cytokines are greatly amplified by microbial challenge. This excess cytokine production during infection induces sleep responses. The excessive sleep and wakefulness that occur at different times during the course of the infectious process results from dynamic changes in various cytokines that occur during the host's response to infectious challenge. Removal of any one somnogenic cytokine inhibits normal sleep, alters the cytokine network by changing the cytokine mix, but does not completely disrupt sleep due to the redundant nature of the cytokine network. The cytokine network operates in a paracrine/autocrine fashion and is responsive to neuronal use. Finally, cytokines elicit their somnogenic actions via endocrine and neurotransmitter systems as well as having direct effects neurons and glia. Evidence in support of these postulates is reviewed in this essay.

  8. Reasons for reduced activities of 17 alpha-hydroxylase and C17-C20 lyase in spite of increased contents of cytochrome P-450 in mature rat testis fetally irradiated with 60Co.

    PubMed

    Inano, H; Ishii-Ohba, H; Suzuki, K; Ikeda, K

    1990-05-01

    Pregnant rats received whole body irradiation with 2.6 Gy gamma-ray from a 60Co source at Day 20 of gestation. When pups were 4 months old, activities of electron transport system and steroid monooxygenase in tests were assayed. The content of total cytochrome P-450 in the irradiated testes had increased to 170% of that in non-irradiated rats, but NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase activity had reduced to 36% of the control. Also, amounts of cytochrome b5 in testicular microsomal fraction were decreased markedly after irradiation, but no significant change of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase activity was observed in the treated pups. Because both 17 alpha-hydroxylase and C17-C20 lyase activities tended to be decreased by fetal irradiation, testosterone production from progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone was reduced to about 30% of the control. From these results, it has been suggested that the testicular cytochrome P-450 is radioresistant but steroid monooxygenase activities are reduced after the fetal irradiation. We propose that the discrepancy arises from the marked decrement of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase activity.

  9. Cytokines in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Baliwag, Jaymie; Barnes, Drew H; Johnston, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease with an incompletely understood etiology. The disease is characterized by red, scaly and well-demarcated skin lesions formed by the hyperproliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. This hyperproliferation is driven by cytokines secreted by activated resident immune cells, an infiltrate of T cells, dendritic cells and cells of the innate immune system, as well as the keratinocytes themselves. Psoriasis has a strong hereditary character and has a complex genetic background. Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms within or near a number of genes encoding cytokines, cytokine receptors or elements of their signal transduction pathways, further implicating these cytokines in the psoriasis pathomechanism. A considerable number of inflammatory cytokines have been shown to be elevated in lesional psoriasis skin, and the serum concentrations of a subset of these also correlate with psoriasis disease severity. The combined effects of the cytokines found in psoriasis lesions likely explain most of the clinical features of psoriasis, such as the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, increased neovascularization and skin inflammation. Thus, understanding which cytokines play a pivotal role in the disease process can suggest potential therapeutic targets. A number of cytokines have been therapeutically targeted with success, revolutionizing treatment of this disease. Here we review a number of key cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  10. Modulation of radiation-induced alterations in oxidative stress and cytokine expression in lung tissue by Panax ginseng extract.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seong Soon; Kim, Hyeong Geug; Han, Jong Min; Lee, Jin Seok; Choi, Min Kyung; Huh, Gil Ja; Son, Chang Gue

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the modulating effect of Panax ginseng extract (PGE) on radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) by measuring early changes in oxidative stress levels, cytokine expression, and the histopathology of mouse lung tissue treated with high dose of X-ray radiation. The mice were pretreated with 25, 50, and 100-mg/kg doses of PGE orally for four consecutive days, and their thoraces were then exposed to 15-Gy X-ray radiation 1 h after the last administration of PGE on day 4. The pretreatments with 50 and 100 mg/kg PGE led to significant reductions in the elevation of lipid peroxidation levels at 2 and 10 days, respectively, after irradiation. The mice pretreated with PGE exhibited dose-dependent reductions in the irradiation-induced production of tumor necrosis factor α and transforming growth factor β1 cytokines 10 days after irradiation, with these reductions nearly reaching the control levels after the 100-mg/kg dose. Furthermore, together with providing significant protection against reductions in catalase activity and glutathione content, pretreatment with 100 mg/kg PGE resulted in a marked attenuation of the severity of inflammatory changes in lung tissue 10 days after irradiation. A high pretreatment dose of PGE may be a useful pharmacological approach for protection against RILI.

  11. Effect of electron beam irradiation and storage at 5 degrees C on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and carbonyl contents in chicken breast meat infused with antioxidants and selected plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Rababah, Taha; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Horax, Ronny; Eswaranandam, Satchithanandam; Mauromoustakos, Andronikos; Dickson, James; Niebuhr, Steven

    2004-12-29

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of synthetic and natural antioxidants, green tea, commercial grape seed extracts/combinations, and TBHQ, with varying concentrations of lipid oxidation of nonirradiated and irradiated chicken breast meats stored at 5 degrees C for 12 days. Fresh boneless and skinless chicken breast meats were vacuum-infused with varying concentrations of antioxidants: green tea, grape seed extracts alone/in combination, and TBHQ. The irradiation dosage was 3.0 kGy. Carbonyl values of raw chicken meat and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of raw and cooked chicken meat were determined for 0-12 days at 5 degrees C storage. TBARS values for 0-12 days of storage at 5 degrees C ranged from 1.21 to 7.3 and 1.22 to 8.51 mg malondialdehyde/100 g chicken for nonirradiated and irradiated raw chicken, respectively. TBARS values of cooked chicken ranged from 2.19 to 35.83 and 2.45 to 45.72 mg malondialdehyde/100 g chicken for nonirradiated and irradiated chicken, respectively. Irradiation increased TBARS values of both controls and plant extracts. The carbonyl content in meat lipid ranged from 1.7 to 2.9 and 1.7 to 4.41 micromol acetophenone/10 g of nonirradiated and irradiated chicken meat, respectively, and meat protein ranged from 1.4 to 2.07 and 1.41 to 2.72 micromol/10 g meat. Infusion of chicken meat with selected plant extracts is an effective method to minimize lipid oxidation and volatiles developments caused by irradiation.

  12. Insights into cytokine-receptor interactions from cytokine engineering.

    PubMed

    Spangler, Jamie B; Moraga, Ignacio; Mendoza, Juan L; Garcia, K Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines exert a vast array of immunoregulatory actions critical to human biology and disease. However, the desired immunotherapeutic effects of native cytokines are often mitigated by toxicity or lack of efficacy, either of which results from cytokine receptor pleiotropy and/or undesired activation of off-target cells. As our understanding of the structural principles of cytokine-receptor interactions has advanced, mechanism-based manipulation of cytokine signaling through protein engineering has become an increasingly feasible and powerful approach. Modified cytokines, both agonists and antagonists, have been engineered with narrowed target cell specificities, and they have also yielded important mechanistic insights into cytokine biology and signaling. Here we review the theory and practice of cytokine engineering and rationalize the mechanisms of several engineered cytokines in the context of structure. We discuss specific examples of how structure-based cytokine engineering has opened new opportunities for cytokines as drugs, with a focus on the immunotherapeutic cytokines interferon, interleukin-2, and interleukin-4.

  13. Recombinant cytokines from plants.

    PubMed

    Sirko, Agnieszka; Vaněk, Tomas; Góra-Sochacka, Anna; Redkiewicz, Patrycja

    2011-01-01

    Plant-based platforms have been successfully applied for the last two decades for the efficient production of pharmaceutical proteins. The number of commercialized products biomanufactured in plants is, however, rather discouraging. Cytokines are small glycosylated polypeptides used in the treatment of cancer, immune disorders and various other related diseases. Because the clinical use of cytokines is limited by high production costs they are good candidates for plant-made pharmaceuticals. Several research groups explored the possibilities of cost-effective production of animal cytokines in plant systems. This review summarizes recent advances in this field.

  14. Cytokines and Blastocyst Hatching.

    PubMed

    Seshagiri, Polani B; Vani, Venkatappa; Madhulika, Pathak

    2016-03-01

    Blastocyst implantation into the uterine endometrium establishes early pregnancy. This event is regulated by blastocyst- and/or endometrium-derived molecular factors which include hormones, growth factors, cell adhesion molecules, cytokines and proteases. Their coordinated expression and function are critical for a viable pregnancy. A rate-limiting event that immediately precedes implantation is the hatching of blastocyst. Ironically, blastocyst hatching is tacitly linked to peri-implantation events, although it is a distinct developmental phenomenon. The exact molecular network regulating hatching is still unclear. A number of implantation-associated molecular factors are expressed in the pre-implanting blastocyst. Among others, cytokines, expressed by peri-implantation blastocysts, are thought to be important for hatching, making blastocysts implantation competent. Pro-inflammatory (IL-6, LIF, GM-CSF) and anti-inflammatory (IL-11, CSF-1) cytokines improve hatching rates; they modulate proteases (MMPs, tPAs, cathepsins and ISP1). However, functional involvement of cytokines and their specific mediation of hatching-associated proteases are unclear. There is a need to understand mechanistic roles of cytokines and proteases in blastocyst hatching. This review will assess the available knowledge on blastocyst-derived pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and their role in potentially regulating blastocyst hatching. They have implications in our understanding of early embryonic loss and infertility in mammals, including humans.

  15. Cytokines and autoimmunity.

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, M G; Pozzilli, P; Thorpe, R

    1994-01-01

    Although the immunopathology of most autoimmune diseases has been well defined, the mechanisms responsible for the breakdown of self-tolerance and which lead to the development of systemic and organ-specific autoaggression are still unclear. Evidence has accumulated which supports a role for a disregulated production of cytokines by leucocytes and possibly other cells in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune diseases. However, due to the complexity and heterogeneity of cytokine effects in the regulation of the immune response, it is difficult to determine whether abnormalities in the patterns of cytokine production are primary or secondary to the pathological process. Confusion is also caused by the fact that the biological activities of cytokines are multiple and often overlapping, and consequently it is difficult to focus on a unique effect of any one cytokine. Characterization of the potential and actual involvement of cytokines is important not only for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune conditions, but particularly because of the implications for the development of immunotherapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of the diseases. PMID:8149655

  16. Cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Vervoordeldonk, Margriet J B M; Tak, Paul P

    2002-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease characterized by synovial inflammation that leads to the destruction of cartilage and bone. In the last decade, there was a lot of successful research in the field of cytokine expression and regulation. It has become clear that pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, derived predominantely from cells of macrophage lineage, play a major role in the initiation and perpetuation of the chronic inflammatory process in the RA synovial membrane. Monokines are abundant in rheumatoid synovial tissue, whereas low amounts of lymphokines are found. The involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in the pathogenesis of RA is well accepted. Recent data provide evidence that the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18 plays a crucial role in the development and sustenance of inflammatory joint diseases. There also appears to be a compensatory anti-inflammatory response in RA synovial membrane. It has become clear in the last few years that T cell-derived cytokines expressed preferentially by Th1 cells contribute to joint destruction and inflammation in RA. However, products from Th2 cells may be protective.

  17. [Cytokines and asthma].

    PubMed

    Gani, F; Senna, G; Piglia, P; Grosso, B; Mezzelani, P; Pozzi, E

    1998-10-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease in which eosinophils are one of the most important involved cells. These cells accumulate in the lung because of cytokines, which are able to regulate cellular responses. The role of cytokines is well known in allergic asthma: IL4, IL5, IL3, GMCSF are the principally cytokine involved. IL4 regulate IgE synthesis while IL5, (and IL3) cause the activation and accumulation of eosinophils. In non allergic asthma, whilst only IL5 seemed to be important recent data, shows that also IL4 plays an important role. Therefore nowadays no relevant difference seems to exist between allergic and non allergic asthma; instead the primer is different: the allergen in allergic asthma and often an unknown factor in the non allergic asthma. Recently other cytokines have been proved to play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. IL8 is chemotactic not only for neutrophils but also for eosinophils and might cause chronic inflammation in severe asthma. IL13 works like IL4, while RANTES seems to be a more important chemotactic agent than IL5. Finally IL10, which immunoregulates T lymphocyte responses, may reduce asthma inflammation. In conclusion cytokine made us to learn more about the pathogenesis of asthma even if we do not yet know when and how asthma inflammation develops.

  18. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Defatted Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Flour in Water or Ethanol Heated using Microwave Irradiation at Varying Temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) has potential to be a nutritionally beneficial crop due to its high phenolic content and antioxidant activity. We explored new technologies to enhance buckwheat phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Buckwheat achenes were ground and flour was extracted for 15 ...

  19. Cytokines and anti-cytokines as therapeutics--an update.

    PubMed

    Tayal, Vandana; Kalra, Bhupinder Singh

    2008-01-28

    Cytokines which comprise of a family of proteins--interleukins, lymphokines, monokines, interferons, and chemokines, are important components of the immune system. They act in concert with specific cytokine inhibitors and soluble cytokine receptors to regulate the human immune response. Their physiologic role in inflammation and pathologic role in systemic inflammatory states are now well recognized. An imbalance in cytokine production or cytokine receptor expression and/or dysregulation of a cytokine process contributes to various pathological disorders. Research is progressing rapidly in the area of cytokines and their therapeutic targets, the two major therapeutic modalities being the administration of purified recombinant cytokines and the use of their antagonists in various inflammatory disorders. However, given the large number of cytokines, it is disappointing that only relatively few can be used clinically. In the present article, we have made an attempt to review and present a glimpse of the history as well as up to date information that is pertinent to cytokines and anti-cytokine therapies in the treatment of cancer, autoimmune disorders and various other related diseases.

  20. Coordinate cytokine regulatory sequences

    DOEpatents

    Frazer, Kelly A.; Rubin, Edward M.; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2005-05-10

    The present invention provides CNS sequences that regulate the cytokine gene expression, expression cassettes and vectors comprising or lacking the CNS sequences, host cells and non-human transgenic animals comprising the CNS sequences or lacking the CNS sequences. The present invention also provides methods for identifying compounds that modulate the functions of CNS sequences as well as methods for diagnosing defects in the CNS sequences of patients.

  1. [Prognostication of acute-pancreatitis-associated pulmonary injury based on determination of cytokines levels].

    PubMed

    Fedorkiv, M B; Hudz, I M; Shevchuk, I M

    2013-07-01

    The results of examination of 68 patients, admitted to hospital for an acute pancreatitis during 48 h from its occurrence, were analyzed. In all the patients the cytokines (IL-8, IL-10, TNF-alpha) content was determined in the blood, using immunoenzymal analysis. Algorithm of prognostication of an acute pancreatitis-associated pulmonary injury, basing on determination of the cytokines contents, was elaborated.

  2. Photocatalytic performance of the SiO2 sphere/ n-type TiO2/ p-type CuBiS2 composite catalysts coated with different contents of Ag nanoparticles under ultraviolet and visible light irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Hairus; Kuo, Dong-Hau

    2016-08-01

    Photocatalytic performance of the SiO2 sphere/ n-type TiO2/ p-type CuBiS2 composite catalysts with different contents of silver nanoparticles (abbreviated as SiO2/ n-TiO2/ p-CuBiS2/Ag) toward the photodegradation of Acid Black 1 ( AB 1) dye under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light was investigated. The composite catalyst spheres were analyzed their crystal structure, microstructure, optical absorbance capabilities, and photodegradation capabilities of AB 1 dye. The best photodegradation performances of the 20 mg composite powder with only ~5 mg photoactive catalysts showed the degradation of AB 1 dye in 5 min under UV and 60 min under visible light irradiations. The concept of composite catalyst with numerous nano p- n diodes and its photodegradation mechanism were proposed.

  3. Interactive cytokine regulation of synoviocyte lubricant secretion.

    PubMed

    Blewis, Megan E; Lao, Brian J; Schumacher, Barbara L; Bugbee, William D; Sah, Robert L; Firestein, Gary S

    2010-04-01

    Cytokine regulation of synovial fluid (SF) lubricants, hyaluronan (HA), and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) is important in health, injury, and disease of synovial joints, and may also provide powerful regulation of lubricant secretion in bioreactors for articulating tissues. This study assessed lubricant secretion rates by human synoviocytes and the molecular weight (MW) of secreted lubricants in response to interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-17, IL-32, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), applied individually and in all combinations. Lubricant secretion rates were assessed using ELISA and binding assays, and lubricant MW was assessed using gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. HA secretion rates were increased approximately 40-fold by IL-1beta, and increased synergistically to approximately 80-fold by the combination of IL-1beta + TGF-beta1 or TNF-alpha + IL-17. PRG4 secretion rates were increased approximately 80-fold by TGF-beta1, and this effect was counterbalanced by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. HA MW was predominantly <1 MDa for controls and individual cytokine stimulation, but was concentrated at >3 MDa after stimulation by IL-1beta + TGF-beta1 + TNF-alpha to resemble the distribution in human SF. PRG4 MW was unaffected by cytokines and similar to that in human SF. These results contribute to an understanding of the relationship between SF cytokine and lubricant content in health, injury, and disease, and provide approaches for using cytokines to modulate lubricant secretion rates and MW to help achieve desired lubricant composition of fluid in bioreactors.

  4. [Food irradiation].

    PubMed

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  5. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  6. Cytokine therapy for craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Mark P; Moursi, Amr M; Opperman, Lynne A; Siegel, Michael I

    2004-03-01

    The birth prevalence of craniosynostosis (premature suture fusion) is 300-500 per 1,000,000 live births. Surgical management involves the release of the synostosed suture. In many cases, however, the suturectomy site rapidly reossifies, further restricts the growing brain and alters craniofacial growth. This resynostosis requires additional surgery, which increases patient morbidity and mortality. New findings in bone biology and molecular pathways involved with suture fusion, combined with novel tissue engineering techniques, may allow the design of targeted and complementary therapies to decrease complications inherent in high-risk surgical procedures. This paper selectively reviews recent advances in i) identifying genetic mutations and the aetiopathogenesis of a number of craniosynostotic conditions; ii) cranial suture biology and molecular biochemical pathways involved in suture fusion; and iii) the design, development and application of various vehicles and tissue engineered constructs to deliver cytokines and genes to cranial sutures. Such biologically based therapies may be used as surgical adjuncts to rescue fusing sutures or help manage postoperative resynostosis.

  7. Cytokine receptors and hematopoietic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Robb, L

    2007-10-15

    Colony-stimulating factors and other cytokines signal via their cognate receptors to regulate hematopoiesis. In many developmental systems, inductive signalling determines cell fate and, by analogy with this, it has been postulated that cytokines, signalling via their cognate receptors, may play an instructive role in lineage specification in hematopoiesis. An alternative to this instructive hypothesis is the stochastic or permissive hypothesis. The latter proposes that commitment to a particular hematopoietic lineage is an event that occurs independently of extrinsic signals. It predicts that the role of cytokines is to provide nonspecific survival and proliferation signals. In this review, we look at the role of cytokine receptor signalling in hematopoiesis and consider the evidence for both hypotheses. Data from experiments that genetically manipulate receptor gene expression in vitro or in vivo are reviewed. Experiments in which cytokine receptors were installed in multipotential cells showed that, in some cases, stimulation with the cognate ligand could lead to alterations in lineage output. The creation of genetically manipulated mouse strains demonstrated that cytokine receptors are required for expansion and survival of single lineages but did not reveal a role in lineage commitment. We conclude that hematopoietic differentiation involves mainly stochastic events, but that cytokine receptors also have some instructive role.

  8. Mnk Kinases in Cytokine Signaling and Regulation of Cytokine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sonali; Platanias, Leonidas C.

    2013-01-01

    The kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2 are activated downstream of the p38 MAPK and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. Extensive work over the years has shown that these kinases control phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and regulate engagement of other effector elements, including hnRNPA1 and PSF. Mnk kinases are ubiquitously expressed and play critical roles in signaling for various cytokine receptors, while there is emerging evidence that they have important functions as mediators of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. In this review the mechanisms of activation of MNK pathways by cytokine receptors are addressed and their roles in diverse cytokine-dependent biological processes are reviewed. The clinical-translational implications of such work and the relevance of future development of specific MNK inhibitors for the treatment of malignancies and auto-immune disorders are discussed. PMID:23710261

  9. The Function of Fish Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun; Secombes, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    What is known about the biological activity of fish cytokines is reviewed. Most of the functional studies performed to date have been in teleost fish, and have focused on the induced effects of cytokine recombinant proteins, or have used loss- and gain-of-function experiments in zebrafish. Such studies begin to tell us about the role of these molecules in the regulation of fish immune responses and whether they are similar or divergent to the well-characterised functions of mammalian cytokines. This knowledge will aid our ability to determine and modulate the pathways leading to protective immunity, to improve fish health in aquaculture. PMID:27231948

  10. Irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

    1973-10-23

    An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

  11. Cytokines and cytokine-specific therapy in asthma.

    PubMed

    Desai, Dhananjay; Brightling, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is increasing in prevalence worldwide. It is characterized by typical symptoms and variable airway obstruction punctuated with episodes of worsening symptoms known as exacerbations. Underlying this clinical expression of disease is airway inflammation and remodeling. Cytokines and their networks are implicated in the innate and adaptive immune responses driving airway inflammation in asthma and are modulated by host-environment interactions. Asthma is a complex heterogeneous disease, and the paradigm of Th2 cytokine-mediated eosinophilic inflammation as a consequence of allergic sensitization has been challenged and probably represents a subgroup of asthma. Indeed, as attention has switched to the importance of severe asthma, which represents the highest burden both to the patient and health care provider, there is an increasing recognition of inflammatory subphenotypes that are likely to be driven by different cytokine networks. Interestingly, these networks may be specific to aspects of clinical expression as well as inflammatory cell profiles and therefore present novel phenotype-specific therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the breadth of cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and focus upon the outcomes of early clinical trials conducted using cytokines or cytokine-blocking therapies.

  12. Contributions of toluene and alpha-pinene to SOA formed in an irradiated toluene/alpha-pinene/NO(x)/ air mixture: comparison of results using 14C content and SOA organic tracer methods.

    PubMed

    Offenberg, John H; Lewis, Charles W; Lewandowski, Michael; Jaoui, Mohammed; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Edney, Edward O

    2007-06-01

    An organic tracer method, recently proposed for estimating individual contributions of toluene and alpha-pinene to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, was evaluated by conducting a laboratory study where a binary hydrocarbon mixture, containing the anthropogenic aromatic hydrocarbon, toluene, and the biogenic monoterpene, alpha-pinene, was irradiated in air in the presence of NO(x) to form SOA. The contributions of toluene and alpha-pinene to the total SOA concentration, calculated using the organic tracer method, were compared with those obtained with a more direct 14C content method. In the study, SOA to SOC ratios of 2.07 +/- 0.08 and 1.41 +/- 0.04 were measured for toluene and (alpha-pinene SOA, respectively. The individual tracer-based SOA contributions of 156 microg m(-3) for toluene and 198 microg m(-)3 for alpha-pinene, which together accounted for 82% of the gravimetrically determined total SOA concentration, compared well with the 14C values of 182 and 230 microg m(-3) measured for the respective SOA precursors. While there are uncertainties associated with the organic tracer method, largely due to the chemical complexity of SOA forming chemical mechanisms, the results of this study suggest the organic tracer method may serve as a useful tool for determining whether a precursor hydrocarbon is a major SOA contributor.

  13. IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

    2004-10-05

    The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

  14. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  15. Circadian Rhythm in Cytokines Administration.

    PubMed

    Trufakin, Valery A; Shurlygina, Anna V

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, a number of diseases involving immune system dysfunction have appeared. This increases the importance of research aimed at finding and developing optimized methods for immune system correction. Numerous studies have found a positive effect in using cytokines to treat a variety of diseases, yet the clinical use of cytokines is limited by their toxicity. Research in the field of chronotherapy, aimed at designing schedules of medicine intake using circadian biorhythms of endogenous production of factors, and receptors' expression to the factors on the target cells, as well as chronopharmacodynamics and chronopharmacokinetics of medicines may contribute to the solution of this problem. Advantages of chronotherapy include a greater effectiveness of treatment, reduced dose of required drugs, and minimized adverse effects. This review presents data on the presence of circadian rhythms of spontaneous and induced cytokine production, as well as the expression of cytokine receptors in the healthy body and in a number of diseases. The article reviews various effects of cytokines, used at different times of the day in humans and experimental animals, as well as possible mechanisms underlying the chronodependent effects of cytokines. The article presents the results of chronotherapeutic modes of administering IL-2, interferons, G-CSF, and GM-CSF in treatment of various types of cancer as well as in experimental models of immune suppression and inflammation, which lead to a greater effectiveness of therapy, the possibility of reducing or increasing the dosage, and reduced drug toxicity. Further research in this field will contribute to the effectiveness and safety of cytokine therapy.

  16. Agents to reduce cytokine storm

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    The increasing insight into pathomechanisms of dysregulated host response in several inflammatory diseases led to the implementation of the term “cytokine storm” in the literature more than 20 years ago. Direct toxic effects as well as indirect immunomodulatory mechanisms during cytokine storm have been described and were the basis for the rationale to use several substances and devices in life-threatening infections and hyperinflammatory states. Clinical trials have been performed, most of them in the form of minor, investigator-initiated protocols; major clinical trials focused mostly on sepsis and septic shock. The following review tries to summarize the background, pathophysiology, and results of clinical investigations that had implications for the development of therapeutic strategies and international guidelines for the management of hyperinflammation during syndromes of cytokine storm in adult patients, predominantly in septic shock. PMID:28105327

  17. Agents to reduce cytokine storm.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    The increasing insight into pathomechanisms of dysregulated host response in several inflammatory diseases led to the implementation of the term "cytokine storm" in the literature more than 20 years ago. Direct toxic effects as well as indirect immunomodulatory mechanisms during cytokine storm have been described and were the basis for the rationale to use several substances and devices in life-threatening infections and hyperinflammatory states. Clinical trials have been performed, most of them in the form of minor, investigator-initiated protocols; major clinical trials focused mostly on sepsis and septic shock. The following review tries to summarize the background, pathophysiology, and results of clinical investigations that had implications for the development of therapeutic strategies and international guidelines for the management of hyperinflammation during syndromes of cytokine storm in adult patients, predominantly in septic shock.

  18. Depression, cytokines, and pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Breitbart, William; Rosenfeld, Barry; Tobias, Kristen; Pessin, Hayley; Ku, Geoffrey Y.; Yuan, Jianda; Gibson, Christopher; Wolchok, Jedd

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine the relationships between cytokines, depression, and pancreatic cancer. Method 75 individuals were recruited from two New York City hospitals (a cancer center and a psychiatric hospital) and comprised 4 subgroups: patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas who did (n=17) and did not (n=26) have a diagnosis of Major Depressive Episode (MDE), and healthy participants with (n=7) and without (n=25) MDE. All individuals completed a battery of self-report measures. Sera was assayed using Meso Scale Discovery techniques to measure the following pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta, and TNF-alpha; we also calculated the IL-2/IL-4 ratio. Results Pancreatic cancer patients had significantly higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10, and significantly lower TGF-beta levels than healthy participants. When the sample was divided into those with and without MDE, the groups only differed with regard to serum IL-6 levels. No significant cancer×depression interaction effect was observed. Severity of depressive symptoms was also significantly correlated with IL-6, rs=.28, p=.02, while hopelessness was associated with IFN-alpha, rs=.34, p=.006. Pain, fatigue and sleep disturbance were associated with several of the cytokines assayed including IL-1beta (pain intensity), IL-4 (pain intensity and overall sleep quality), IL-12p70 (pain intensity), TGF-beta (fatigue intensity), but anxiety was not associated with any of the cytokines assayed. Conclusions This study demonstrated an association between depression and IL-6, but not with other cytokines. Moreover, IL-6 was not significantly associated with other measures of psychological distress (anxiety, hopelessness) or with symptom distress (pain, fatigue, sleep quality), although some cytokines assayed were associated with specific symptoms. The implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of depression in pancreatic cancer

  19. Cytokine crowdsourcing: multicellular production of TH17-associated cytokines.

    PubMed

    Busman-Sahay, Kathleen O; Walrath, Travis; Huber, Samuel; O'Connor, William

    2015-03-01

    In the 2 decades since its discovery, IL-17A has become appreciated for mounting robust, protective responses against bacterial and fungal pathogens. When improperly regulated, however, IL-17A can play a profoundly pathogenic role in perpetuating inflammation and has been linked to a wide variety of debilitating diseases. IL-17A is often present in a composite milieu that includes cytokines produced by TH17 cells (i.e., IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, and IL-26) or associated with other T cell lineages (e.g., IFN-γ). These combinatorial effects add mechanistic complexity and more importantly, contribute differentially to disease outcome. Whereas TH17 cells are among the best-understood cell types that secrete IL-17A, they are frequently neither the earliest nor dominant producers. Indeed, non-TH17 cell sources of IL-17A can dramatically alter the course and severity of inflammatory episodes. The dissection of the temporal regulation of TH17-associated cytokines and the resulting net signaling outcomes will be critical toward understanding the increasingly intricate role of IL-17A and TH17-associated cytokines in disease, informing our therapeutic decisions. Herein, we discuss important non-TH17 cell sources of IL-17A and other TH17-associated cytokines relevant to inflammatory events in mucosal tissues.

  20. Suppression of proinflammatory cytokines in monocytes by a tetravalent guanylhydrazone

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    An overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines by activated macrophages/monocytes mediates the injurious sequelae of inflammation, septic shock, tissue injury, and cachexia. We recently synthesized a tetravalent guanylhydrazone compound (CNI-1493) that inhibits cytokine- inducible arginine transport and nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages, and protects mice against lethal endotoxemia and carrageenan-induced inflammation. During these investigations we noticed that CNI-1493 effectively prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced NO production, even when added in concentrations 10-fold less than required to competitively inhibit L-arginine uptake, suggesting that the suppressive effects of this guanylhydrazone compound might extend to other LPS-induced responses. Here, we report that CNI-1493 suppressed the LPS-stimulated production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF], interleukins 1beta and 6, macrophage inflammatory proteins 1alpha and 1beta) from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cytokine suppression was specific, in that CNI-1493 did not inhibit either the constitutive synthesis of transforming growth factor beta or the upregulation of major histocompatibility complex class II by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). In contrast to the macrophage suppressive actions of dexamethasone, which are overridden in the presence of IFN-gamma, CNI-1493 retained its suppressive effects even in the presence of IFN-gamma. The mechanism of cytokine- suppressive action by CNI-1493 was independent of extracellular L- arginine content and NO production and is not restricted to induction by LPS. As a selective inhibitor of macrophage activation that prevents TNF production, this tetravalent guanylhydrazone could be useful in the development of cytokine-suppressive agents for the treatment of diseases mediated by overproduction of cytokines. PMID:8642296

  1. The volume effect in irradiated mouse colorectum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skwarchuk, Mark William

    1997-11-01

    Damage of the colorectum is the dose-limiting normal tissue complication following radiotherapy of prostate and cervical cancers. One approach for decreasing complications is to physically reduce the treatment volume. Mathematical models have been previously developed to describe the change in associated toxicity with a change in irradiated volume, i.e. the 'volume effect', for serial-type normal tissues including the colorectum. The first goal of this thesis was to test the hypothesis that there would not be a threshold length in the development of obstruction after irradiation of mouse colorectum, as predicted by the Probability model of the volume effect. The second goal was to examine if there were differences in the threshold and in the incidence of colorectal obstruction after irradiation of two mouse strains, C57B1/6 (C57) and C3Hf/Kam (C3H), previously found to be fibrosis-prone and-resistant, respectively, after lung irradiation due, in part, to genetic differences. The hypothesis examined was that differences in incidence between strains were due to the differential expression of the fibrogenic cytokines TGF/beta and TNF/alpha. Various lengths of C57 and C3H mouse colorectum were irradiated and the incidence of colorectal obstruction was followed up to 15 months. A threshold length was observed for both mouse strains, in contradiction of model predictions. The mechanism of the threshold was epithelial regeneration after irradiation. C57 mice had significantly higher incidence of colorectal obstruction compared to C3H mice, especially at smaller irradiated lengths. Colorectal tissue was obtained at various times after irradiation and prepared for histology, immunohistochemistry and RNase protection assay for measurement of TGF/beta 1, 2, 3 and TNF/alpha mRNA. Distinct strain differences in the histological time of appearance and spatial locations of fibrosis were observed. However, there were no consistent strain difference in mRNA levels or

  2. Cytokines in human lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Martinet, Y; Menard, O; Vaillant, P; Vignaud, J M; Martinet, N

    1996-01-01

    Fibrosis is a pathological process characterized by the replacement of normal tissue by mesenchymal cells and the extracellular matrix produced by these cells. The sequence of events leading to fibrosis of an organ involves the subsequent processes of injury with inflammation and disruption of the normal tissue architecture, followed by tissue repair with accumulation of mesenchymal cells in the area of derangement. The same sequence of events occurs in wound healing with normal granulation tissue and scar formation, but, while normal scar formation is very localized and transient, in contrast, in fibrosis, the repair process is exaggerated and usually widespread and can be chronic. Inflammatory cells (mainly mononuclear phagocytes), platelets, endothelial cells, and type II pneumocytes play a direct and indirect role in tissue injury and repair. The evaluation of three human fibrotic lung diseases, two diffuse [idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)], and one focal (tumor stroma in lung cancer), has shown that several cytokines participate to the local injury and inflammatory reaction [interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)], while other cytokines are involved in tissue repair and fibrosis [platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and basic-fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF)]. A better understanding of the cytokines and cytokine networks involved in lung fibrosis leads to the possibility of new therapeutic approaches.

  3. Formulation and stability of cytokine therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lipiäinen, Tiina; Peltoniemi, Marikki; Sarkhel, Sanjay; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki; Urtti, Arto; Juppo, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Cytokines are messenger proteins that regulate the proliferation and differentiation of cells and control immune responses. Interferons, interleukins, and growth factors have applications in cancer, autoimmune, and viral disease treatment. The cytokines are susceptible to chemical and physical instability. This article reviews the structure and stability issues of clinically used cytokines, as well as formulation strategies for improved stability. Some general aspects for identifying most probable stability concerns, selecting excipients, and developing stable cytokine formulations are presented. The vast group of cytokines offers possibilities for new biopharmaceuticals. The formulation approaches of the current cytokine products could facilitate development of new biopharmaceuticals.

  4. Buffering Capacity and Size of siRNA Polyplexes Influence Cytokine Levels

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Qixin; Chou, Szu-Ting; Scaria, Puthupparampil V; Woodle, Martin C; Mixson, A James

    2012-01-01

    Induction of cytokines by small interfering RNA (siRNA) polyplexes has been a significant concern of researchers attempting to minimize the toxicity of this promising therapy. Although cationic carriers of siRNA are known to increase cytokine levels, few systematic studies have been done to determine what properties of the carrier are important to modulate cytokines. Because branched histidine-lysine (HK) peptides are effective carriers of siRNA and their sequence can be readily modified, we selected this class of carrier to determine which sequences of the peptide were important for cytokine induction. With the use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the HK peptide with a higher number of histidines (H3K(+H)4b) in complex with siRNA induced lower levels of cytokines compared with other HK (e.g., H2K4b, H3K4b, H3K(+N)4b) siRNA nanoplexes. Notably, these peptides' siRNA polyplexes showed a similar pattern of cytokine induction when injected intravenously in a mouse model, i.e., the HK with higher content of histidines induced cytokines the least. As indicated by the pH-sensitive dye within acidic endosomes, the greater pH-buffering capacity of H3K(+H)4b compared with other HK peptides may explain why cytokine levels were reduced. In addition to buffering capacity, the size of HK polyplexes markedly influenced cytokine production. PMID:23032972

  5. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Soo-Young

    2009-07-01

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-γ cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  6. Phytosanitary Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Guy J.; Blackburn, Carl M.

    2016-01-01

    Phytosanitary treatments disinfest traded commodities of potential quarantine pests. Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments use ionizing radiation to accomplish this, and, since their international commercial debut in 2004, the use of this technology has increased by ~10% annually. Generic PI treatments (one dose is used for a group of pests and/or commodities, although not all have been tested for efficacy) are used in virtually all commercial PI treatments, and new generic PI doses are proposed, such as 300 Gy, for all insects except pupae and adult Lepidoptera (moths). Fresh fruits and vegetables tolerate PI better than any other broadly used treatment. Advances that would help facilitate the use of PI include streamlining the approval process, making the technology more accessible to potential users, lowering doses and broadening their coverage, and solving potential issues related to factors that might affect efficacy. PMID:28231103

  7. Temporal Onset of Hypoxia and Oxidative Stress After Pulmonary Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fleckenstein, Katharina; Zgonjanin, Larisa; Chen Liguang; Rabbani, Zahid; Jackson, Isabel L.; Thrasher, Bradley; Kirkpatrick, John; Foster, W. Michael; Vujaskovic, Zeljko . E-mail: vujas@radonc.duke.edu

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the temporal onset of hypoxia following irradiation, and to show how it relates to pulmonary vascular damage, macrophage accumulation, and the production of reactive oxygen species and cytokines. Our previous studies showed that tissue hypoxia in the lung after irradiation contributed to radiation-induced injury. Methods and Materials: Female Fisher 344 rats were irradiated to the right hemithorax with a single dose of 28 Gy. Serial studies were performed up to 20 weeks following irradiation. Radionuclide lung-perfusion studies were performed to detect changes in pulmonary vasculature. Immunohistochemical studies were conducted to study macrophages, tissue hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase-9 marker), oxidative stress (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine), and the expression of profibrogenic (transforming growth factor-{beta} [TGF-{beta}]) and proangiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) cytokines. Results: Significant changes in lung perfusion along with tissue hypoxia were observed 3 days after irradiation. Significant oxidative stress was detected 1 week after radiation, whereas macrophages started to accumulate at 4 weeks. A significant increase in TGF-{beta} expression was seen within 1 day after radiation, and for VEGF at 2 weeks after radiation. Levels of hypoxia, oxidative stress, and both cytokines continued to rise with time after irradiation. The steepest increase correlated with vast macrophage accumulation. Conclusions: Early changes in lung perfusion, among other factors initiate, the development of hypoxia and chronic oxidative stress after irradiation. Tissue hypoxia is associated with a significant increase in the activation of macrophages and their continuous production of reactive oxygen species, stimulating the production of fibrogenic and angiogenic cytokines, and maintaining the development of chronic radiation-induced lung injury.

  8. Cytokine determinants of viral tropism.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Grant; Mohamed, Mohamed R; Rahman, Masmudur M; Bartee, Eric

    2009-09-01

    The specificity of a given virus for a cell type, tissue or species - collectively known as viral tropism - is an important factor in determining the outcome of viral infection in any particular host. Owing to the increased prevalence of zoonotic infections and the threat of emerging and re-emerging pathogens, gaining a better understanding of the factors that determine viral tropism has become particularly important. In this Review, we summarize our current understanding of the central role of antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly the interferons and tumour necrosis factor, in dictating viral tropism and how these cytokine pathways can be exploited therapeutically for cancer treatment and to better counter future threats from emerging zoonotic pathogens.

  9. Cytokine Signature in Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Izabella Rodrigues; Ferrari, Teresa Cristina Abreu; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Rodrigues, Luan Vieira; Guimarães Júnior, Milton Henriques; Barros, Thais Lins Souza; Gelape, Cláudio Léo; Sousa, Giovane Rodrigo; Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe disease with high mortality rate. Cytokines participate in its pathogenesis and may contribute to early diagnosis improving the outcome. This study aimed to evaluate the cytokine profile in IE. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured by cytometric bead array (CBA) at diagnosis in 81 IE patients, and compared with 34 healthy subjects and 30 patients with non-IE infections, matched to the IE patients by age and gender. Mean age of the IE patients was 47±17 years (range, 15–80 years), and 40 (50%) were male. The IE patients had significantly higher serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α as compared to the healthy individuals. The median levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-12 were higher in the IE than in the non-IE infections group. TNF-α and IL-12 levels were higher in staphylococcal IE than in the non-staphylococcal IE subgroup. There was a higher proportion of both low IL-10 producers and high producers of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-12 in the staphylococcal IE than in the non-staphylococcal IE subgroup. This study reinforces a relationship between the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1β, IL-12 and TNF-α, and the pathogenesis of IE. A lower production of IL-10 and impairment in cytokine network may reflect the severity of IE and may be useful for risk stratification. PMID:26225421

  10. Cytokines in the blood and semen of infertile patients

    PubMed Central

    Havrylyuk, Anna; Chopyak, Valentyna; Boyko, Yaryna; Kril, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines have been important mediators of the immunity and can be involved in numerous processes in the male genital tract including acting as immunomodulatory elements within the male gonad. The aims of this study were: 1) to detect pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in the control group and subgroups of infertile men; and 2) to set up the practical recommendations concerning determination of cytokine levels for the male infertility diagnosis. Observations were performed in a group of 82 men: healthy controls (n = 27) and infertile patients (n = 55). The male infertility group was further subdivided into patients with: varicocele (n = 22), idiopathic infertility (n = 13) and partners of couples with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA; n = 20). Semen analysis was determined following WHO criteria. The cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, IL-18; tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interferon g (IFN-g) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) contents in serum and seminal plasma were determined by quantitative ELISA. An interesting marker of male infertility appears to be TGF-β1 (blood) significantly elevated in idiopathically infertile males and in the RSA group. Besides elevated TGF-β1 in a group of idiopathic infertility significantly elevated IL-10, IL-18, IFN-g (blood) and statistically decreased IL-1β while increased IFN-g were revealed in seminal plasma compared to healthy controls. We may postulate novel cytokine micropatterns for patients with different background of infertility. Therefore, circulating cytokines: IL-1β, IL-10, IL-18, TGF-β1, IFN-g and IL-1β, IFN-g and TGF-β1 in seminal plasma should be extended in evaluation of specific types of male infertility. PMID:26648778

  11. DNA Repair and Cytokines: TGF-β, IL-6, and Thrombopoietin as Different Biomarkers of Radioresistance

    PubMed Central

    Centurione, Lucia; Aiello, Francesca B.

    2016-01-01

    Double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by radiotherapy are highly cytotoxic lesions, leading to chromosomal aberrations and cell death. Ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-dependent DNA-damage response, non-homologous end joining, and homologous recombination pathways coordinately contribute to repairing DSBs in higher eukaryotes. It is known that the expression of DSB repair genes is increased in tumors, which is one of the main reasons for radioresistance. The inhibition of DSB repair pathways may be useful to increase tumor cell radiosensitivity and may target stem cell-like cancer cells, known to be the most radioresistant tumor components. Commonly overexpressed in neoplastic cells, cytokines confer radioresistance by promoting proliferation, survival, invasion, and angiogenesis. Unfortunately, tumor irradiation increases the expression of various cytokines displaying these effects, including transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-6. Recently, the capabilities of these cytokines to support DNA repair pathways and the ATM-dependent DNA response have been demonstrated. Thrombopoietin, essential for megakaryopoiesis and very important for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis, has also been found to promote DNA repair in a highly selective manner. These findings reveal a novel mechanism underlying cytokine-related radioresistance, which may be clinically relevant. Therapies targeting specific cytokines may be used to improve radiosensitivity. Specific inhibitors may be chosen in consideration of different tumor microenvironments. Thrombopoietin may be useful in fending off irradiation-induced loss of HSCs. PMID:27500125

  12. Targeting sortilin in immune cells reduces proinflammatory cytokines and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Martin B.; Kjolby, Mads; Gunnersen, Stine; Larsen, Jakob V.; Palmfeldt, Johan; Falk, Erling; Nykjaer, Anders; Bentzon, Jacob F.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified a link between genetic variation at the human chromosomal locus 1p13.3 and coronary artery disease. The gene encoding sortilin (SORT1) has been implicated as the causative gene within the locus, as sortilin regulates hepatic lipoprotein metabolism. Here we demonstrated that sortilin also directly affects atherogenesis, independent of its regulatory role in lipoprotein metabolism. In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, deletion of Sort1 did not alter plasma cholesterol levels, but reduced the development of both early and late atherosclerotic lesions. We determined that sortilin is a high-affinity receptor for the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IFN-γ. Moreover, macrophages and Th1 cells (both of which mediate atherosclerotic plaque formation) lacking sortilin had reduced secretion of IL-6 and IFN-γ, but not of other measured cytokines. Transfer of sortilin-deficient BM into irradiated atherosclerotic mice reduced atherosclerosis and systemic markers of inflammation. Together, these data demonstrate that sortilin influences cytokine secretion and that targeting sortilin in immune cells attenuates inflammation and reduces atherosclerosis. PMID:25401472

  13. Cytokine-induced sickness behavior.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Keith W; Bluthé, Rose-Marie; Dantzer, Robert; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Shen, Wen-Hong; Johnson, Rodney W; Broussard, Suzanne R

    2003-02-01

    The behavioral repertoire of humans and animals changes dramatically following infection. Sick individuals have little motivation to eat, are listless, complain of fatigue and malaise, loose interest in social activities and have significant changes in sleep patterns. They display an inability to experience pleasure, have exaggerated responses to pain and fail to concentrate. Proinflammatory cytokines acting in the brain cause sickness behaviors. These nearly universal behavioral changes are a manifestation of a central motivational state that is designed to promote recovery. Exaggerated symptoms of sickness in cancer patients, such as cachexia, can be life-threatening. However, quality of life is often drastically impaired before the cancer becomes totally debilitating. Although basic studies in psychoneuroimmunology have defined proinflammatory cytokines as the central mediators of sickness behavior, a much better understanding of how cytokine and neurotransmitter receptors communicate with each other is needed. Advances that have been made during the past decade should now be extended to clinical studies in an attempt to alleviate sickness symptoms and improve quality of life for cancer patients.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on quality of kiwifruit ( Actinidia deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. Hayward)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kim, Kyoung-Hee; Yook, Hong-Sun

    2009-06-01

    Ionizing radiation is able to inactivate the three pathogens of Botrytis cinerea, Diaporthe actinidiae, and Botryosphaeria dothidea in kiwifruit. Irradiated kiwifruits appeared softer compared to non-irradiated kiwifruits. The color and organic acid content of kiwifruits were minimally affected by the irradiation. Irradiated fruits showed a decrease in the total soluble solids content with increasing irradiation dose. Irradiation of kiwifruit up to 3 kGy had negative effects on vitamin C content and antioxidant activity, but it contributed to improving sensory quality.

  15. Bystander Effects Induced by Medium From Irradiated Cells: Similar Transcriptome Responses in Irradiated and Bystander K562 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Herok, Robert; Konopacka, Maria; Polanska, Joanna; Swierniak, Andrzej; Rogolinski, Jacek; Jaksik, Roman; Hancock, Ronald; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Cells exposed to ionizing radiation release factors that induce deoxyribonucleic acid damage, chromosomal instability, apoptosis, and changes in the proliferation rate of neighboring unexposed cells, phenomena known as bystander effects. This work analyzes and compares changes in global transcript levels induced by direct irradiation and by bystander effects in K562 (human erythroleukemia) cells. Methods and Materials: Cells were X-irradiated with 4 Gy or transferred into culture medium collected from cells 1 h after irradiation (irradiation-conditioned medium). Global transcript profiles were assessed after 36 h of growth by use of Affymetrix microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) and the kinetics of change of selected transcripts by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The level of the majority (72%) of transcripts changed similarly (increase, decrease, or no change) in cells grown in irradiation-conditioned medium or irradiated, whereas only 0.6% showed an opposite response. Transcript level changes in bystander and irradiated cells were significantly different from those in untreated cells grown for the same amount of time and were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for selected genes. Signaling pathways in which the highest number of transcripts changed in both conditions were found in the following groups: neuroactive ligand-receptor, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Janus Kinase-Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK-STAT) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) In control cells more transcripts were downregulated than in irradiated and bystander cells with transcription factors YBX1 and STAT5B, heat shock protein HSPA1A, and ribonucleic acid helicase DDX3X as examples. Conclusions: The transcriptomes of cells grown in medium from X-irradiated cells or directly irradiated show very similar changes. Signals released by irradiated cells may cause

  16. Cytokine levels in rat blood and brain structures after administration of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Abramova, A Yu; Pertsov, S S; Kozlov, A Yu; Nikenina, E V; Kalinichenko, L S; Dudnik, E N; Alekseeva, I V

    2013-08-01

    We compared cytokine profile of rat serum and brain structures after immune status modulation by LPS (30 μg/kg intraperitoneally). The content of inflammatory (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines in biological samples of animals was measured on days 1 and 7 after antigenic stimulation. LPS administration reduced the levels of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral blood of the rats, especially on the 1st day. LPS administration was also accompanied by specific changes in cytokine content in the dorsal hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex. Antigenic stimulation increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in the examined brain tissues, the changes were most pronounced on day 1 after LPS injection. No significant changes in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the brain tissue of animals were found at the above terms after LPS injection. Thus, peripheral LPS administration to rats shifts the balance between the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the CNS structures towards the latter.

  17. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  18. RERTR-8 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-8, was designed to test monolithic mini-fuel plates fabricated via hot isostatic pressing (HIP), the effect of molybdenum (Mo) content on the monolithic fuel behavior, and the efficiency of ternary additions to dispersion fuel particles on the interaction layer behavior at higher burnup. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-8 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

  19. Disinfestation of different cereal products by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, E.; Kiss, I.; Boros, A.; Horváth, Ny.; Tóth, J.; Gyulai, P.; Szalma, Á.

    The sensitivity of overlineTribolium confusum - small flour beetle - to radiation was studied in a dose range of 0-0.8 kGy. We found that the insect egg was the most sensitive to radiation, then larvae and pupae followed it. 0.2 kGy dose of irradiation kills these forms or their further development is inhibited. Imagoes do not immediately die after 0.8 kGy dose of irradiation; the young imagoes are more sensitive to radiation than the aged ones. 0.4 kGy average dose of irradiation is a suitable protection against overlineTribolium confusum. Disinfestation experiments were performed with wheat-germ and wheat-bran and parallelly the most important ingredients of the two products were analysed. The vitamin E content and the rate of lipid-oxidation of wheat germ were determined. The vitamin E content decreased after radiation treatment, however, during storage of at least 6 months, it remained at a level specified by food quality standards (higher than 10 mg%). Carbohydrate content of wheat-bran (water soluble carbohydrate content, crude-fibre and dietary fibre content) did not change at all. Storability of radiation disinfested wheat-germ was 8 months, wheat-bran 3-4 months. On the base of the results 2-2 tons of wheat-germ and wheat-bran were irradiated and trial marked in 1985. In 1986 the irradiation of 10 tons of wheat-germ is planned.

  20. Antioxidant tolerance of kidney after irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bukan, Neslihan; Güney, Yildiz; Hiçsönmez, Ayşe; Bilgihan, Ayşe

    2003-03-01

    Different doses of irradiation were performed in which group 1 (non-irradiated), group 2 (8 Gy/single dose/whole body) and group 3 (15 Gy/single dose/whole body) were formed of guinea pigs. After 24 hr of radiation exposure the levels of lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured in the whole kidney. The MDA content increased in animals irradiated with 8 and 15 Gy. And group 3 showed an increase the level of MDA. GSH contents of kidney in group 2 and 3 increased. The activity of SOD decreased markedly in group 3 when compared with control group. The activity of GSH-Px decreased significantly in group 2 and group 3 in comparison to controls. It may be concluded that a high dose of ionizing irradiation cause excessive oxidative stress in kidney.

  1. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; K ȩdzia, B.; Hołderna-K ȩdzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator "Elektronika 10-10" at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  2. Local brain heavy ion irradiation induced Immunosuppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Runhong; Deng, Yulin; Huiyang Zhu, Bitlife.; Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Yingqi; Ma, Hong; Wang, Xiao; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Qing, Hong

    Purpose: To investigate the long term effect of acute local brain heavy ion irradiation on the peripheral immune system in rat model. Methodology: Only the brain of adult male Wistar rats were radiated by heavy ions at the dose of 15 Gy. One, two and three months after irradiation, thymus and spleen were analyzed by four ways. Tunel assay was performed to evaluate the percentage of apoptotic cells in thymus and spleen, level of Inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, SSAO, and TNF-α) was detected by ELISA assay, the differentiation of thymus T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry and the relative expression levels of genes related to thymus immune cell development were measured by using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Thymus and spleen showed significant atrophy from one month to three months after irradiation. A high level of apoptosis in thymus and spleen were obtained and the latter was more vulnerable, also, high level of inflammatory cytokines were found. Genes (c-kit, Rag1, Rag2 and Sca1) related to thymus lymphocytes’ development were down-regulated. Conclusion: Local area radiation in the rat brain would cause the immunosuppression, especially, the losing of cell-mediated immune functions. In this model, radiation caused inflammation and then induced apoptosis of cells in the immune organs, which contributed to immunosuppression.

  3. Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Yoo, Young-Choon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX ( P<0.05). In vivo study on the tumor mass inhibition, gamma-irradiated DOX showed a considerable inhibition of tumor mass and this effect was statistically non-significant as compared with non-irradiated DOX. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be regarded as a potential method for reducing the immunological toxicity of DOX. Further researches is needed to reveal the formation and activity of radiolysis products by gamma irradiation.

  4. Influence of gamma ray irradiation on metakaolin based sodium geopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambertin, D.; Boher, C.; Dannoux-Papin, A.; Galliez, K.; Rooses, A.; Frizon, F.

    2013-11-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on metakaolin based Na-geopolymer have been investigated by external irradiation. The experiments were carried out in a gamma irradiator with 60Co sources up to 1000 kGy. Various Na-geopolymer with three H2O/Na2O ratios have been studied in terms of hydrogen radiolytic yield. The results show that hydrogen production increases linearly with water content. Gamma irradiation effects on Na-geopolymer microstructure have been investigated with porosity measurements and X-ray pair distribution function analysis. A change of pore size distribution and a structural relaxation have been found after gamma ray irradiation.

  5. Bioanalytical Chemistry of Cytokines-A Review

    PubMed Central

    Stenken, Julie A.; Poschenrieder, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are bioactive proteins produced by many different cells of the immune system. Due to their role in different inflammatory disease states and maintaining homeostasis, there is enormous clinical interest in the quantitation of cytokines. The typical standard methods for quantitation of cytokines are immunoassay-based techniques including enzyme-linked immusorbent assays (ELISA) and bead-based immunoassays read by either standard or modified flow cytometers. A review of recent developments in analytical methods for measurements of cytokine proteins is provided. This review briefly covers cytokine biology and the analysis challenges associated with measurement of these biomarker proteins for understanding both health and disease. New techniques applied to immunoassay-based assays are presented along with the uses of aptamers, electrochemistry, mass spectrometry, optical resonator-based methods. Methods used for elucidating the release of cytokines from single cells as well as in vivo collection methods are described. PMID:25467452

  6. Bioanalytical chemistry of cytokines--a review.

    PubMed

    Stenken, Julie A; Poschenrieder, Andreas J

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are bioactive proteins produced by many different cells of the immune system. Due to their role in different inflammatory disease states and maintaining homeostasis, there is enormous clinical interest in the quantitation of cytokines. The typical standard methods for quantitation of cytokines are immunoassay-based techniques including enzyme-linked immusorbent assays (ELISA) and bead-based immunoassays read by either standard or modified flow cytometers. A review of recent developments in analytical methods for measurements of cytokine proteins is provided. This review briefly covers cytokine biology and the analysis challenges associated with measurement of these biomarker proteins for understanding both health and disease. New techniques applied to immunoassay-based assays are presented along with the uses of aptamers, electrochemistry, mass spectrometry, optical resonator-based methods. Methods used for elucidating the release of cytokines from single cells as well as in vivo collection methods are described.

  7. Local expression of antiinflammatory cytokines in cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamura, M; Modlin, R L; Ohmen, J D; Moy, R L

    1993-01-01

    To characterize the nature of the local cytokine response to cancer, we chose to investigate cytokine patterns in biopsy specimens of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). We hypothesized that a distinct pattern of local cytokine production may be characteristic of BCC, a neoplasia of epidermis, in comparison to the pattern of seborrheic keratosis (SK), a benign growth of epidermis. We analyzed cytokine mRNAs in BCC versus SK by performing polymerase chain reaction on mRNA derived from biopsy specimens. The mRNAs encoding cytokines for IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor were strongly expressed in BCC lesions and weakly expressed in SK lesions. Conversely, IL-2, IFN-gamma, and lymphotoxin mRNAs were strongly expressed in SK lesions and weakly expressed in BCC lesions. The response to malignancy, BCC, was typified by cytokines characteristic of murine TH2 cells. This cytokine pattern favors humoral immunity with concomitant immunosuppression of cell-mediated immune responses. In comparison, the response to the benign growth, SK, was typified by cytokines characteristic of murine TH1 cells that favor cell-mediated immune reactions. The findings of a distinct cytokine pattern in skin cancer provide a framework to develop strategies for immunologic intervention. Images PMID:8450029

  8. Cytokines and immune surveillance in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. Among the parameters shown, by us and others, to be affected is the production of interferons. Interferons are a family of cytokines that are antiviral and play a major role in regulating immune responses that control resistance to infection. Alterations in interferon and other cytokine production and activity could result in changes in immunity and a possible compromise of host defenses against both opportunistic and external infections. The purpose of the present study is to further explore the effects of space flight on cytokines and cytokine-directed immunological function.

  9. Treatment of cytokine-induced depression.

    PubMed

    Capuron, Lucile; Hauser, Peter; Hinze-Selch, Dunja; Miller, Andrew H; Neveu, Pierre J

    2002-10-01

    A high proportion of cancer and hepatitis C patients who receive cytokine immunotherapy develop symptoms of depression that are indistinguishable from those found in major depressive disorders. These symptoms are alleviated by anti-depressant treatment. Moreover, preventive treatment with anti-depressants, in particular selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) attenuates IFN-alpha-associated symptoms of depression, anxiety, and neurotoxicity. The intermediate mechanisms of these effects are still unclear. Studies suggest that the state of depression is associated with an increase in plasma levels of various cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors. Furthermore, anti-depressants have been shown to shift the cytokine network towards a decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increased production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Other studies suggest that anti-depressants can also modify immune reactivity by acting on neural structures involved in neuroimmunomodulation. It is possible that anti-depressants could help to normalize the serotoninergic neurotransmission that is likely disrupted during immunotherapy due to the potent effects of cytokines on the metabolism of the amino acid precursor tryptophan. Further work is needed to optimize strategies for preventing neuropsychiatric side effects of cytokine immunotherapy, to clarify the mechanisms involved in the alleviating effects of anti-depressants on cytokine-induced depression, as well as to assess the possible consequences of anti-depressant therapy on the efficacy of immunotherapy on the disease process.

  10. Current status and challenges of cytokine pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Zídek, Z; Anzenbacher, P; Kmoníčková, E

    2009-01-01

    The major concern of pharmacology about cytokines has originated from plentiful data showing association between gross changes in their production and pathophysiological processes. Despite the enigmatic role of cytokines in diseases, a number of them have become a subject of cytokine and anti-cytokine immunotherapies. Production of cytokines can be influenced by many endogenous and exogenous stimuli including drugs. Cells of the immune system, such as macrophages and lymphocytes, are richly endowed with receptors for the mediators of physiological functions, such as biogenic amines, adenosine, prostanoids, steroids, etc. Drugs, agonists or antagonists of these receptors can directly or indirectly up- and down-regulate secretion of cytokines and expression of cytokine receptors. Vice versa, cytokines interfere with drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics through the interactions with cytochrome P450 and multiple drug resistance proteins. The aim of the review is to encourage more intensive studies in these fields of cytokine pharmacology. It also outlines major areas of searching promising candidates for immunotherapeutic interventions. PMID:19371342

  11. Inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is an “umbrella term” used for a spectrum of entities resulting in an elevation of the pulmonary arterial pressure. Clinical symptoms include dyspnea and fatigue which in the absence of adequate therapeutic intervention may lead to progressive right heart failure and death. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension is characterized by three major processes including vasoconstriction, vascular remodeling and microthrombotic events. In addition accumulating evidence point to a cytokine driven inflammatory process as a major contributor to the development of pulmonary hypertension. This review summarizes the latest clinical and experimental developments in inflammation associated with pulmonary hypertension with special focus on Interleukin-6, and its role in vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24739042

  12. Evaluating Posttranscriptional Regulation of Cytokine Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rattenbacher, Bernd; Bohjanen, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of cytokines are necessary for cell–cell communication in multicellular organisms, and cytokine dysregulation has detrimental effects, leading to disease states. Thus, it is a necessity that the expression of cytokines is tightly controlled. Regulation of cytokine gene expression takes place at different levels, including transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Ultimately, the steady-state levels of cytokine transcripts are determined by the equilibrium of transcription and degradation of this mRNA. Degradation rates of cytokine mRNAs can be measured in cells by blocking transcription with actinomycin D, harvesting RNA after different time points, and evaluating mRNA levels over time by northern blot. Cis-acting elements that mediate the rapid decay of numerous cytokine transcripts, including AU-rich elements (AREs), are found in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of these transcripts. Putative regulatory cis-elements can be cloned into the 3′ UTR of a reporter transcript in order to assess their function in regulating mRNA decay. Cis-elements, such as AREs, regulate cytokine mRNA decay by binding to trans-acting proteins, such as tristetraprolin or HuR. These RNA-binding proteins can be visualized using electromobility shift assays or UV crosslinking assays based on their binding to radioactively labeled RNA sequences. RNA-binding proteins that regulate cytokine mRNA decay can be purified using an RNA affinity method, using their target RNA sequence as the bait. In this chapter, we review the methods for measuring cytokine mRNA decay and methods for characterizing the cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors that regulate cytokine mRNA decay. PMID:22131026

  13. 60Co irradiation of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli induces Stx phage.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Kojio, Seiichi; Taneike, Ikue; Nakagawa, Saori; Iwakura, Nobuhiro; Wakisaka-Saito, Noriko

    2003-05-16

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), an important cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome, was completely killed by (60)Co irradiation at 1 x l0(3) gray (1 kGy) or higher. However, a low dose of irradiation (0.1-0.3 kGy) markedly induced Stx phage from STEC. Stx production was observed in parallel to the phage induction. Inactivation of Stx phage required a higher irradiation dose than that for bacterial killing. Regarding Stx, cytotoxicity was susceptible to irradiation, but cytokine induction activity was more resistant than Stx phage. The findings suggest that (1). although (60)Co irradiation is an effective means to kill the bacteria, it does induce Stx phage at a lower irradiation dose, with a risk of Stx phage transfer and emergence of new Stx-producing strains, and (2). irradiation differentially inactivates some activities of Stx.

  14. Physicochemical and structural characteristics of rice starch modified by irradiation.

    PubMed

    Polesi, Luís Fernando; Sarmento, Silene Bruder Silveira; Moraes, Jaqueline de; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2016-01-15

    This work evaluated the physicochemical and structural properties of rice starch of the cultivars IAC 202 and IRGA 417 modified by irradiation. Starch samples were irradiated by (60)Co in doses 1, 2 and 5kGy, on a rate of 0.4kGy/h. A control not irradiated was used for comparison. The granule morphology and A-type X-ray diffraction pattern were not altered by irradiation. There was an increase in amylose content, carboxyl content and acidity with irradiation. Gamma radiation did not affect the thermal properties of IAC202, but increased gelatinization temperature of IRGA417, in the higher dose (5kGy). The number of long chains of amylopectin was reduced and short chains were increased for IAC202, whereas for IRGA 417, the opposite was observed, probably due to cross-linking of starch chains. Starches had their physicochemical and structural properties modified by irradiation differently.

  15. Compartmentalized Cytokine Responses in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    PubMed Central

    Savva, Athina; Kersten, Brigit; Pistiki, Aikaterini; van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Netea, Mihai G.; van der Meer, Jos W.; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Favorable treatment outcomes with TNF blockade led us to explore cytokine responses in hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Methods Blood monocytes of 120 patients and 24 healthy volunteers were subtyped by flow cytometry. Isolated blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated for cytokine production; this was repeated in 13 severe patients during treatment with etanercept. Cytokines in pus were measured. Results CD14brightCD16dim inflammatory monocytes and patrolling monocytes were increased in Hurley III patients. Cytokine production by stimulated PBMCs was low compared to controls but the cytokine gene copies did not differ, indicating post-translational inhibition. The low production of IL-17 was restored, when cells were incubated with adalimumab. In pus, high concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines were detected. Based on the patterns, six different cytokine profiles were discerned, which are potentially relevant for the choice of treatment. Clinical improvement with etanercept was predicted by increased production of IL-1β and IL-17 by PBMCs at week 8. Conclusions Findings indicate compartmentalized cytokine expression in HS; high in pus but suppressed in PBMCs. This is modulated through blockade of TNF. PMID:26091259

  16. Commercial food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Black, E.F.; Libby, L.M.

    1983-06-01

    Food irradiation is discussed. Irradiation exposes food to gamma rays from a cobalt-60 or a cesium-137 source, or to high-energy electrons emitted by an electron accelerator. A major advantage is that food can be packaged either before or after treatment. FDA regulations with regard to irradiation are discussed. Comments on an 'Advance Notice' on irradiation, published by the FDA in 1981 are summarized.

  17. Influence of irradiation upon few-layered graphene using electron-beams and gamma-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuqing; Feng, Yi; Mo, Fei; Qian, Gang; Chen, Yangming; Yu, Dongbo; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xuebin

    2014-07-01

    Few-layered graphene (FLG) is irradiated by electron beams and gamma rays. After 100 keV electron irradiation, the edges of FLG start bending, shrinking, and finally generate gaps and carbon onions due to sputtering and knock-on damage mechanism. When the electron beam energy is increased further to 200 keV, FLG suffers rapid and catastrophic destruction. Unlike electron irradiation, Compton effect is the dominant damage mechanism in gamma irradiation. The irradiation results indicate the crystallinity of FLG decreases first, then restores as increasing irradiation doses, additionally, the ratio (O/C) of FLG surface and the relative content of oxygen groups increases after irradiation.

  18. Influence of irradiation upon few-layered graphene using electron-beams and gamma-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuqing; Feng, Yi Mo, Fei; Qian, Gang; Chen, Yangming; Yu, Dongbo; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xuebin

    2014-07-14

    Few-layered graphene (FLG) is irradiated by electron beams and gamma rays. After 100 keV electron irradiation, the edges of FLG start bending, shrinking, and finally generate gaps and carbon onions due to sputtering and knock-on damage mechanism. When the electron beam energy is increased further to 200 keV, FLG suffers rapid and catastrophic destruction. Unlike electron irradiation, Compton effect is the dominant damage mechanism in gamma irradiation. The irradiation results indicate the crystallinity of FLG decreases first, then restores as increasing irradiation doses, additionally, the ratio (O/C) of FLG surface and the relative content of oxygen groups increases after irradiation.

  19. Ultraviolet irradiation induces the accumulation of chondroitin sulfate, but not other glycosaminoglycans, in human skin.

    PubMed

    Werth, Benjamin Boegel; Bashir, Muhammad; Chang, Laura; Werth, Victoria P

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light alters cutaneous structure and function. Prior work has shown loss of dermal hyaluronan after UV-irradiation of human skin, yet UV exposure increases total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in mouse models. To more fully describe UV-induced alterations to cutaneous GAG content, we subjected human volunteers to intermediate-term (5 doses/week for 4 weeks) or single-dose UV exposure. Total dermal uronyl-containing GAGs increased substantially with each of these regimens. We found that UV exposure substantially increased dermal content of chondroitin sulfate (CS), but not hyaluronan, heparan sulfate, or dermatan sulfate. UV induced the accumulation of both the 4-sulfated (C4S) and 6-sulfated (C6S) isoforms of CS, but in distinct distributions. Next, we examined several CS proteoglycan core proteins and found a significant accumulation of dermal and endothelial serglycin, but not of decorin or versican, after UV exposure. To examine regulation in vitro, we found that UVB in combination with IL-1α, a cytokine upregulated by UV radiation, induced serglycin mRNA in cultured dermal fibroblasts, but did not induce the chondroitin sulfate synthases. Overall, our data indicate that intermediate-term and single-dose UVB exposure induces specific GAGs and proteoglycan core proteins in human skin in vivo. These molecules have important biologic functions and contribute to the cutaneous response to UV.

  20. Topical Administration of Manuka Oil Prevents UV-B Irradiation-Induced Cutaneous Photoaging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh Sook; Yang, Beom Seok

    2013-01-01

    Manuka tree is indigenous to New Zealand, and its essential oil has been used as a traditional medicine to treat wounds, fever, and pain. Although there is a growing interest in the use of manuka oil for antiaging skin care products, little is known about its bioactivity. Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the primary environmental factor causing skin damage and consequently premature aging. Therefore, we evaluated manuka oil for its effects against photoaging in UV-B-irradiated hairless mice. Topical application of manuka oil suppressed the UV-B-induced increase in skin thickness and wrinkle grading in a dose-dependent manner. Application of 10% manuka oil reduced the average length, depth, and % area of wrinkles significantly, and this was correlated with inhibition of loss of collagen fiber content and epidermal hyperplasia. Furthermore, we observed that manuka oil could suppress UV-B-induced skin inflammation by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, this study provides evidence that manuka oil indeed possesses antiphotoaging activity, and this is associated with its inhibitory activity against skin inflammation induced by UV irradiation. PMID:23762170

  1. Cytokines and Immune Responses in Murine Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kusters, Pascal J H; Lutgens, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the vessel wall characterized by activation of the innate immune system, with macrophages as the main players, as well as the adaptive immune system, characterized by a Th1-dominant immune response. Cytokines play a major role in the initiation and regulation of inflammation. In recent years, many studies have investigated the role of these molecules in experimental models of atherosclerosis. While some cytokines such as TNF or IFNγ clearly had atherogenic effects, others such as IL-10 were found to be atheroprotective. However, studies investigating the different cytokines in experimental atherosclerosis revealed that the cytokine system is complex with both disease stage-dependent and site-specific effects. In this review, we strive to provide an overview of the main cytokines involved in atherosclerosis and to shed light on their individual role during atherogenesis.

  2. Interactions between Autophagy and Inhibitory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tian-tian; Li, Wei-Min; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a degradative pathway that plays an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Most early studies of autophagy focused on its involvement in age-associated degeneration and nutrient deprivation. However, the immunological functions of autophagy have become more widely studied in recent years. Autophagy has been shown to be an intrinsic cellular defense mechanism in the innate and adaptive immune responses. Cytokines belong to a broad and loose category of proteins and are crucial for innate and adaptive immunity. Inhibitory cytokines have evolved to permit tolerance to self while also contributing to the eradication of invading pathogens. Interactions between inhibitory cytokines and autophagy have recently been reported, revealing a novel mechanism by which autophagy controls the immune response. In this review, we discuss interactions between autophagy and the regulatory cytokines IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, and IL-27. We also mention possible interactions between two newly discovered cytokines, IL-35 and IL-37, and autophagy. PMID:27313501

  3. Thermally activated deformation of irradiated reactor pressure vessel steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhmert, J.; Müller, G.

    2002-03-01

    Temperature and strain rate change tensile tests were performed on two VVER 1000-type reactor pressure vessel welds with different contents of nickel in unirradiated and irradiated conditions in order to determine the activation parameters of the contribution of the thermally activated deformation. There are no differences of the activation parameters in the unirradiated and the irradiated conditions as well as for the two different materials. This shows that irradiation hardening preferentially results from a friction hardening mechanism by long-range obstacles.

  4. Welding irradiated stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.; Chandler, G.T.; Nelson, D.Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Conventional welding processes produced severe underbead cracking in irradiated stainless steel containing 1 to 33 appm helium from n,a reactions. A shallow penetration overlay technique was successfully demonstrated for welding irradiated stainless steel. The technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel that contained 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at the same and lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking was minimal compared to conventional welding methods. However, cracking in the irradiated material was greater than in tritium charged and aged material at the same helium concentrations. The overlay technique provides a potential method for repair or modification of irradiated reactor materials.

  5. Inflammatory cytokines in newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Sarandakou, A; Giannaki, G; Malamitsi-Puchner, A; Rizos, D; Hourdaki, E; Protonotariou, E; Phocas, I

    1998-01-01

    Serum levels of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were measured in 48 healthy, termed neonates on the 1st (N1), 5th (N5) and 40th (N40) day after birth, compared with those in maternal serum (MS), umbilical cord (UC) and adult controls. Cytokine values in N1 and N5 were significantly elevated, than those in UC and in controls (P<0.0001). IL-1beta and IL-6 declined significantly from N1 to N40 (P<0.0001), while TNF-alpha increased significantly from N1 to N5 and declined thereafter. MS infinity IL-1beta and IL-6, but not MS infinity TNF-alpha, were significantly higher than those of controls (P<0.0001). IL-1beta values depended on the mode of delivery. In conclusion, the increased concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha during the perinatal period might suggest their involvement in an inflammation-like process during normal parturition, and reflect also a newborn immune response to the stress of delivery and environmental changes. PMID:9883964

  6. Resistin as an Intrahepatic Cytokine

    PubMed Central

    Bertolani, Cristiana; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Failli, Paola; Bataller, Ramon; Aleffi, Sara; DeFranco, Raffaella; Mazzinghi, Benedetta; Romagnani, Paola; Milani, Stefano; Ginés, Pere; Colmenero, Jordi; Parola, Maurizio; Gelmini, Stefania; Tarquini, Roberto; Laffi, Giacomo; Pinzani, Massimo; Marra, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance accelerate the progression of fibrosis during chronic liver disease. Resistin antagonizes insulin action in rodents, but its role in humans is still controversial. The aims of this study were to investigate resistin expression in human liver and to evaluate whether resistin may affect the biology of activated human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), key modulators of hepatic fibrogenesis. Resistin gene expression was low in normal human liver but was increased in conditions of severe fibrosis. Up-regulation of resistin during chronic liver damage was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In a group of patients with alcoholic hepatitis, resistin expression correlated with inflammation and fibrosis, suggesting a possible action on HSCs. Exposure of cultured HSCs to recombinant resistin resulted in increased expression of the proinflammatory chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8, through activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Resistin induced a rapid increase in intracellular calcium concentration, mainly through calcium release from intracellular inositol triphosphate-sensitive pools. The intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM blocked resistin-induced NF-κB activation and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression. In conclusion, this study shows a role for resistin as an intrahepatic cytokine exerting proinflammatory actions in HSCs, via a Ca2+/NF-κB-dependent pathway and suggests involvement of this adipokine in the pathophysiology of liver fibrosis. PMID:17148667

  7. Cells and cytokines in pollinosis.

    PubMed

    Carlos, A G; Carlos, M L; Santos, M A; Melo, A

    1998-09-01

    Pollinosis is a spontaneous model of allergic disease self limited in time. In order to evaluate immune response during pollen exposition cellular populations CD2, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD22, CD23, CD28, CD29, CD45RA, CD45RO have been studied before, during and after pollen season by flux cytometry. Simultaneous assays of soluble CD23 and cytokines IL-2, IL-4 and IL-2 soluble receptor have been done by an ELISA method. A decrease of CD23 PBC was observed during pollen season maintained afterwards without significant changes in sol CD23. The level of CD45RO memory cells decreased during pollen season with an opposed pattern for CD45RA naive cells. PBC expressing integrin chain CD29 were also decreased during the peak of pollen season. These results show that allergen exposition triggers a turnover of CD45 PBC, a decrease of low affinity IgE receptor CD23 in PBC and a consumption or binding of cells presenting the CD29 integrin chain. Cellular mechanisms are deeply implied in the immune response to pollens and cellular changes can be used as allergic inflammation markers in pollinosis.

  8. Photonic crystal enhanced cytokine immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Patrick C; Ganesh, Nikhil; Cunningham, Brian T

    2009-01-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces are demonstrated as a means for enhancing the detection sensitivity and resolution for assays that use a fluorescent tag to quantify the concentration of an analyte protein molecule in a liquid test sample. Computer modeling of the spatial distribution of resonantly coupled electromagnetic fields on the photonic crystal surface are used to estimate the magnitude of enhancement factor compared to performing the same fluorescent assay on a plain glass surface, and the photonic crystal structure is fabricated and tested to experimentally verify the performance using a sandwich immunoassay for the protein Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The demonstrated photonic crystal fabrication method utilizes a nanoreplica molding technique that allows for large-area inexpensive fabrication of the structure in a format that is compatible with confocal microarray laser scanners. The signal-to-noise ratio for fluorescent spots on the photonic crystal is increased by at least five-fold relative to the glass slide, allowing a TNF-alpha concentration of 1.6 pg/ml to be distinguished from noise on a photonic crystal surface. In addition, the minimum quantitative limit of detection on the photonic crystal surface is one-third the limit on the glass slide - a decrease from 18 pg/ml to 6 pg/ml. The increased performance of the immunoassay allows for more accurate quantitation of physiologically relevant concentrations of TNF-alpha in a protein microarray format that can be expanded to multiple cytokines.

  9. Vaccination with cytokines in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Delavallée, Laure; Assier, Eric; Denys, Anne; Falgarone, Géraldine; Zagury, Jean-François; Muller, Sylvianne; Bessis, Natacha; Boissier, Marie-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Most autoimmune diseases have an unknown etiology, but all involve cytokines cascade in their development. At the present time, several cytokines have been identified as major targets in various autoimmune diseases, involving the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against those cytokines. Even if MAbs are indeed efficient, the passive immunotherapies also present some disadvantages and are expensive. To counter this, several strategies have been developed, including active immunotherapy, based on the vaccination principle. The aim of such a strategy is to induce a B cell response and to obtain autoantibodies able to neutralize the interaction of the self-cytokine with its receptor. To that purpose, cytokines (entire or peptide) are either coupled with a protein-carrier or virus-like particle, or modified with foreign Th cell epitopes. DNA vaccination can also be used with cytokine sequences. This review focuses on the different vaccination strategies with cytokines (including Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)alpha, Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-17) in different autoimmune diseases in preclinical studies; the benefit/risk ratio of such a strategy and the present development of clinical trials in some autoimmune diseases are also discussed.

  10. Side effects of cytokines approved for therapy.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Brian A

    2014-11-01

    Cytokines, currently known to be more than 130 in number, are small MW (<30 kDa) key signaling proteins that modulate cellular activities in immunity, infection, inflammation and malignancy. Key to understanding their function is recognition of their pleiotropism and often overlapping and functional redundancies. Classified here into 9 main families, most of the 20 approved cytokine preparations (18 different cytokines; 3 pegylated), all in recombinant human (rh) form, are grouped in the hematopoietic growth factor, interferon, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) families. In the hematopoietin family, approved cytokines are aldesleukin (rhIL-2), oprelvekin (rhIL-11), filgrastim and tbo-filgrastim (rhG-CSF), sargramostim (rhGM-CSF), metreleptin (rh-leptin) and the rh-erythropoietins, epoetin and darbepoietin alfa. Anakinra, a recombinant receptor antagonist for IL-1, is in the IL-1 family; recombinant interferons alfa-1, alfa-2, beta-1 and gamma-1 make up the interferon family; palifermin (rhKGF) and becaplermin (rhPDGF) are in the PDGF family; and rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 represent the TGFβ family. The main physicochemical features, FDA-approved indications, modes of action and side effects of these approved cytokines are presented. Underlying each adverse events profile is their pleiotropism, potency and capacity to release other cytokines producing cytokine 'cocktails'. Side effects, some serious, occur despite cytokines being endogenous proteins, and this therefore demands caution in attempts to introduce individual members into the clinic. This caution is reflected in the relatively small number of cytokines currently approved by regulatory agencies and by the fact that 14 of the FDA-approved preparations carry warnings, with 10 being black box warnings.

  11. Enhancing cytokine-induced killer cell therapy of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunsheng; Suksanpaisan, Lukkana; Chen, Yun-Wen; Russell, Stephen J; Peng, Kah-Whye

    2013-06-01

    Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are in clinical testing against various tumor types, including multiple myeloma. In this study, we show that CIK cells have activity against subcutaneous and disseminated models of human myeloma (KAS-6/1), which can be enhanced by infecting the CIK cells with an oncolytic measles virus (MV) or by pretreating the myeloma cells with ionizing radiation (XRT). KAS-6/1 cells were killed by coculture with CIK or MV-infected CIK (CIK/MV) cells, and the addition of an anti-NKG2D antibody inhibited cytolysis by 50%. However, human bone marrow stromal cells can reduce CIK and CIK/MV mediated killing of myeloma cells (RPMI 8226, JJN-3 and MM1). In vivo, CIK and CIK/MV prolonged the survival of mice with systemic myeloma, although CIK/MV showed enhanced antitumor activity compared with CIK. Irradiation of the KAS-6/1 cells induced mRNA and protein expression of NKG2D ligands, MICA, and MICB in a dose-dependent manner and enhanced delivery of CIK/MV to the irradiated tumors. In both subcutaneous and disseminated myeloma models, XRT at 2 Gy resulted in superior prolongation of the survival of mice given CIK/MV therapy compared with CIK/MV with no XRT. This study demonstrates the potential of CIK against myeloma and that the combination of virotherapy with radiation could be used to further enhance therapeutic outcome using CIK cells.

  12. Free-radical concentrations and other properties of pile-irradiated coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, R.A.; Breger, I.A.

    1959-01-01

    Five coals reacted quite differently when they were exposed to pile-irradiation. Little or no change was found in free-radical content for the three coals of lowest carbon content, whereas the two coals of highest carbon content were found to have a considerable increase in free-radical content. The infrared spectra and the apparent hardness of the irradiated coals of higher carbon content indicate that polymerization occurred. Radiation of these coals in chemical reagents may promote reactivity.

  13. Low Dose Food Irradiation at Natick

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    activity, titratable acidity, pH, ash, protein, and moisture content), dough and baking characteristics (bread scores, rheological and alpha-amylase...on the vitamin content in the irradiated flour or in the bread made from the 1 3See footnote 5 15 flour (Tables 10,11). Farinographs, dough ...sometimes sour , replaced it. The appearance of the nonirradiated chicken showed no discoloration up to about 8 days in storage, after which a dull

  14. Changes in total ascorbic acid and carotenoids in minimally processed irradiated Arugula (Eruca sativa Mill) stored under refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Tatiana Pacheco; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Faria, Adelia Ferreira; Bíscola, Vanessa; de Oliveira Souza, Kátia Leani; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; Landgraf, Mariza

    2013-09-01

    This work investigated the effects of irradiation (0, 1 and 2 kGy) on the content of bioactive compounds such as vitamin C and carotenoids with provitamin A activity in arugula during the storage at 5±1 °C for up to 13 and 16 days, respectively. The vitamin C content decreased in non-irradiated as well as irradiated (1 and 2 kGy) samples during the storage period. On the other hand, no significant change in the content of carotenoids with provitamin A activity was observed after irradiation or storage period. Thus, the irradiation had minimal detrimental effects on the contents of carotenoids in arugula.

  15. Dynamical Systems, Cytokine Storms, and Blood Filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Glenn; Hubler, Alfred

    2008-03-01

    Various infections and non-infectious diseases can trigger immune cells and the proteins (cytokines) the cells use to communicate with each other to be caught in a positive feedback loop; this ``cytokine storm'' is frequently fatal. By examining the network of cytokine-immune cell interactions we will illustrate why anti-mediator drugs have been generally ineffective in stopping this feedback. A more effective approach may be to try and reduce interactions by dampening many signals at once by filtering the cytokines out of the blood directly (think dialysis). We will argue that feedback on an out of control nonlinear dynamical system is easier to understand than its normal healthy state and apply filtration to a toy model of immune response.

  16. Control of Hepatitis B Virus by Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yuchen; Protzer, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major public health problem worldwide with more than 240 million individuals chronically infected. Current treatments can control HBV replication to a large extent, but cannot eliminate HBV infection. Cytokines have been shown to control HBV replication and contribute to HBV cure in different models. Cytokines play an important role in limiting acute HBV infection in patients and mediate a non-cytolytic clearance of the virus. In this review, we summarize the effects of cytokines and cytokine-induced cellular signaling pathways on different steps of the HBV life cycle, and discuss possible strategies that may contribute to the eradication of HBV through innate immune activation. PMID:28117695

  17. Mucosal cytokine network in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, Akira; Yagi, Yuhki; Shioya, Makoto; Nishida, Atsushi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujiyama, Yoshihide

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are characterized by ongoing mucosal inflammation in which dysfunction of the host immunologic response against dietary factors and commensal bacteria is involved. The chronic inflammatory process leads to disruption of the epithelial barrier, and the formation of epithelial ulceration. This permits easy access for the luminal microbiota and dietary antigens to cells resident in the lamina propria, and stimulates further pathological immune cell responses. Cytokines are essential mediators of the interactions between activated immune cells and non-immune cells, including epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The clinical efficacy of targeting TNF-α clearly indicates that cytokines are the therapeutic targets in IBD patients. In this manuscript, we focus on the biological activities of recently-reported cytokines [Interleukin (IL)-17 cytokine family, IL-31 and IL-32], which might play a role through interaction with TNF-α in the pathophysiology of IBD. PMID:18777592

  18. Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33 secreted from impaired vessels in the skin compared to fractionated irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Jun Won; Yoo, Hyun; Kwak, Woori; Choi, Won Hoon; Cho, Seoae; Choi, Yu Jeong; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Cho, Jaeho

    2015-08-14

    We have revealed in a porcine skin injury model that eosinophil recruitment was dose-dependently enhanced by a single high-dose irradiation. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of eosinophil-associated skin fibrosis and the effect of high-dose-per-fraction radiation. The dorsal skin of a mini-pig was divided into two sections containing 4-cm{sup 2} fields that were irradiated with 30 Gy in a single fraction or 5 fractions and biopsied regularly over 14 weeks. Eosinophil-related Th2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and C–C motif chemokine-11 (CCL11/eotaxin) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. RNA-sequencing using 30 Gy-irradiated mouse skin and functional assays in a co-culture system of THP-1 and irradiated-human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were performed to investigate the mechanism of eosinophil-mediated radiation fibrosis. Single high-dose-per-fraction irradiation caused pronounced eosinophil accumulation, increased profibrotic factors collagen and transforming growth factor-β, enhanced production of eosinophil-related cytokines including IL-4, IL-5, CCL11, IL-13, and IL-33, and reduced vessels compared with 5-fraction irradiation. IL-33 notably increased in pig and mouse skin vessels after single high-dose irradiation of 30 Gy, as well as in irradiated HUVECs following 12 Gy. Blocking IL-33 suppressed the migration ability of THP-1 cells and cytokine secretion in a co-culture system of THP-1 cells and irradiated HUVECs. Hence, high-dose-per-fraction irradiation appears to enhance eosinophil-mediated fibrotic responses, and IL-33 may be a key molecule operating in eosinophil-mediated fibrosis in high-dose-per fraction irradiated skin. - Highlights: • Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33. • Vascular endothelial cells damaged by high-dose radiation secrete IL-33. • Blocking IL-33 suppressed migration of inflammatory cells and cytokine secretion. • IL

  19. Cytokine Production in the Serum and Spleen of Mice from Day 6 to 14 of Gestation: Cytokines/Placenta/ Spleen/Serum

    PubMed Central

    Iconomidou, Bessy

    1995-01-01

    Pregnancy, like most biologic phenomena, involves the action of cytokines. These proteins have a short half-life and are believed to exert their effect close to their site of production, where diagnostic tests cannot be easily performed. Here we show that the cytokine content in the maternal serum reflects cytokine production and secretion from maternal spleen cells, which also correlates with production from decidual cells. We show that GM-CSF, IL- 3, and IL-10 are present in the serum at specific time intervals during the first half of murine pregnancy, which correlates with their production from maternal spleen cells. Purified GM-CSF and IL-3 from spleen-cell-culture supernatants are biologically active molecules, able to stimulate placental-cell proliferation. Furthermore, TNF-0, which has been identified in many cases of fetal rejection as well as in labor, is shown to be naturally produced during the second half of pregnancy. Additionally, within the limits of the sensitivity of the technique we have used, the detection of IL-4 and the absence of detectable levels of IL- 2 in the maternal serum strongly comforts the hypothesis that pregnancy is a Th2-dependent phenomenon. The results presented in this paper show that the cytokine profile during pregnancy can be monitored by simple blood tests, which may be of relevance both in the followup of a physiological human pregnancy and to the diagnosis of recurrent abortions due to cytokine imbalance. PMID:8924760

  20. Postharvest quality of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) after x-ray irradiation quarantine treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality of three dragon fruit clones (Hylocereus sp.) was determined following x-ray irradiation for disinfestation of quarantine pests. Fruit were treated with irradiation doses of 0, 200, 400, 600, or 800 Gy and stored for 12 days at 10 °C. Irradiation did not affect soluble solids content, ti...

  1. Cytokines as potential biomarkers of liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lacour, Sandrine; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Pallardy, Marc; Roberts, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    Several important drug classes show pre-clinical hepatotoxicity or, in some cases hepatotoxicity in man in Phase III/IV not predicted by pre-clinical studies. This hepatotoxicity is associated with death of the parenchyma by both necrosis and apoptosis. Recent data have implicated molecular mediators of the immune response such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 1beta(1L-1beta) and interleukin 6 (IL6) in acute and chronic liver damage. These cytokines networks have been implicated in mediating the hepatic response to xenobiotics as diverse as PPAR ligands, acetaminophen and phenobarbitone. Thus, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFalpha, IL1 beta and IL6 are released into the bloodstream both from the liver and from distal sites during hepatic toxic injury. Probably due to differences in the responses of rodent and human hepatocytes to cytokines, some clinical hepatotoxicities are not predicted by rodent models. However, the cytokine changes implicated in this human hepatic cell death could be manifest in rodent models and thus could be detected at the molecular level. Here we review the role of cytokines in different types of drug-induced liver injury and discuss whether these cytokine fingerprints are potential biomarkers of so-called idiosyncratic human liver toxicity.

  2. Temporomandibular joint cytokine profiles in the horse.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, James L; Gordon, John R; Allen, Andrew L

    2006-06-01

    It has been suggested that dental abnormalities lead to temporomandibular joint inflammation and pain that may be mitigated by regular dental care. There is considerable literature on the pathophysiology of equine joint disease including studies on cytokine profiles in diseased appendicular joints. This study examined the effects of age and dental malocclusions summarized as a dental pathology score on equine temporomandibular joint cytokine (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha and TGF-beta1, -beta2, -beta3) concentrations. TGF-beta3 was not detected in any joint sample. IL-1, IL-6 and TNF alpha were not influenced by age. Foals had significantly lower concentrations of lL-8 and TGF-beta1, and higher levels of TGF-beta2 compared with older horses. Age did not effect cytokine concentration in older horses although there was a trend towards increasing 1L-8 with age. The dental pathology score increased with age in mature horses, however there was no effect of dental pathology score on cytokine concentration. There was no effect of incisor eruption, and presence or number of periodontal lesions on temporomandibular joint cytokine concentration. Our findings indicate that age but not dental pathology affected temporomandibular joint proinflammatory cytokine concentration in this population of horses.

  3. Cytokines as predictive biomarkers of alloreactivity.

    PubMed

    Brunet, M

    2012-09-08

    Clinical use of valid biomarkers enables the prediction of alloreactive response (risk of rejection) and personal susceptibility to immunosuppressive treatment could lead to personalized immunosuppressive therapy. In clinical transplantation, it has been reported that cytokine production and secretion could be modified by immunosuppressive drugs, as well as during the rejection process. Some cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β have been identified as candidate biomarkers that correlate with graft outcome and personal response to immunosuppressive agents. This review will focus on the current state of knowledge, indicating that monitoring changes in cytokine production could be used to predict the risk of rejection and to guide immunosuppression therapy in transplant recipients. In addition, many questions regarding the characteristics and standardization of the methods used for cytokine monitoring (ELISA; ELISPOT; Flow Cytometry) that need to be addressed before these assays can be clinically applied will be discussed in light of recent studies showing an association between the expression of some cytokines and genetic variants, the impact of immunosuppression, and the incidence of rejection. The clinical implementation of cytokine monitoring should be tested in prospective multicenter clinical trials with standard operating procedures and objective interpretation of the results obtained.

  4. Multiplex cytokine analysis of Werner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Makoto; Hayata, Koichiro; Chiba, Junji; Matsuura, Masaaki; Iwaki-Egawa, Sachiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Summary We reported a minor inflammation-driven ageing (inflammageing) assessed by highly sensitive CRP (hsCRP) in normal individuals and patients with Werner syndrome (WS), followed by an ageing associated Th2-biased cytokine change in normal ageing in the previous papers. To further study the association of hsCRP and 26 cytokines/chemokines in 35 WS patients, a multiple cytokine array system was used in the same serum samples as were examined for hsCRP. The serum levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and GM-CSF), Th1 products (IL-2, TNFα, IL-12, and IFNγ) and monocyte/macrophage products (MCP-1, basic FGF and G-CSF) in WS were significantly elevated compared with normal ageing. Elevated hsCRP level in WS was significantly correlated with IL-6, IL-12 and VEGF levels, if age and sex were taken into account. A pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine circuit-stimulated immunological shift to Th2 in WS was similar to normal ageing. These cytokine/chemokine changes may induce a systemic chronic inflammation monitored by hsCRP, though these immunological changes in WS were more complicated than normal ageing, possibly due to the WS-specific chronic inflammation such as skin ulcer, diabetes mellitus and central obesity with visceral fat deposition. Further study may warrant the pathophysiology of Th2 shift and Th2-biased inflammageing in normal ageing and WS. PMID:26668779

  5. Safety evaluation of irradiated foods in China: A condensed report

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, D. )

    1989-03-01

    Eight trials, with 439 human volunteers who consumed irradiated foods including rice, potatoes, mushrooms, peanuts, and Chinese sausages, as well as diets composed of multiple irradiated foods (irradiated at dosages of 0.2 to 8 kGy) that accounted for 60-66% of the entire diet, were carried out for 2-3 months according to a unified protocol. No adverse effects on body weight, blood pressure, ECG, hematology, blood enzyme activities, serum lipids or blood or urine 17-hydroxycortisol contents and no chromosomal aberration of peripheral blood lymphocytes were found. It is especially worthwhile to note that there was no change in the polyploidy after consumption of irradiated diets. On the basis of these results and a comprehensive analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of irradiated foods, temporary hygienic standards for irradiated rice, potatoes, onions, garlic, Chinese sausages, peanuts, and mushrooms were promulgated by the Chinese Ministry of Public Health.

  6. A genetic contribution to circulating cytokines and obesity in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytokines are considered to be involved in obesity-related metabolic diseases. Study objectives are to determine the heritability of circulating cytokine levels, to investigate pleiotropy between cytokines and obesity traits, and to present genome scan results for cytokines in 1030 Hispanic children...

  7. Neutron Irradiation Resistance of RAFM Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Gaganidze, Ermile; Dafferner, Bernhard; Aktaa, Jarir

    2008-07-01

    The neutron irradiation resistance of the reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel EUROFER97 and international reference steels (F82H-mod, OPTIFER-Ia, GA3X and MANET-I) have been investigated after irradiation in the Petten High Flux Reactor up to 16.3 dpa at different irradiation temperatures (250-450 deg. C). The embrittlement behavior and hardening are investigated by instrumented Charpy-V tests with sub-size specimens. Neutron irradiation-induced embrittlement and hardening of EUROFER97 was studied under different heat treatment conditions. Embrittlement and hardening of as-delivered EUROFER97 steel are comparable to those of reference steels. Heat treatment of EUROFER97 at a higher austenitizing temperature substantially improves the embrittlement behaviour at low irradiation temperatures. Analysis of embrittlement vs. hardening behavior of RAFM steels within a proper model in terms of the parameter C={delta}DBTT/{delta}{sigma} indicates hardening-dominated embrittlement at irradiation temperatures below 350 deg. C with 0.17 {<=} C {<=} 0.53 deg. C/MPa. Scattering of C at irradiation temperatures above 400 deg. C indicates non hardening embrittlement. A role of He in a process of embrittlement is investigated in EUROFER97 based steels, that are doped with different contents of natural B and the separated {sup 10}B-isotope (0.008-0.112 wt.%). Testing on small scale fracture mechanical specimens for determination of quasi-static fracture toughness will be also presented in a view of future irradiation campaigns. (authors)

  8. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  9. Perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue.

  10. MASSIVE LEAKAGE IRRADIATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Christy, R.F.; Friedman, F.L.

    1961-05-30

    An irradiator designed to utilize the neutrons that leak out of a reactor around its periphery is described. It avoids wasting neutron energy and reduces interference with the core flux to a minimum. This is done by surrounding all or most of the core with removable segments of the material to be irradiated within a matrix of reflecting material.

  11. Skin rejuvenation using cosmetic products containing growth factors, cytokines, and matrikines: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Aldag, Caroline; Nogueira Teixeira, Diana; Leventhal, Phillip S

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging is primarily due to alterations in the dermal extracellular matrix, especially a decrease in collagen I content, fragmentation of collagen fibrils, and accumulation of amorphous elastin material, also known as elastosis. Growth factors and cytokines are included in several cosmetic products intended for skin rejuvenation because of their ability to promote collagen synthesis. Matrikines and matrikine-like peptides offer the advantage of growth factor-like activities but better skin penetration due to their much smaller molecular size. In this review, we summarize the commercially available products containing growth factors, cytokines, and matrikines for which there is evidence that they promote skin rejuvenation. PMID:27877059

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thermal and rheological properties of grain amaranth starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangli; Kasapis, Stefan; Bao, Jinsong; Corke, Harold

    2009-11-01

    Physical properties of starch from two cultivars of gamma-irradiated grain amaranth with different amylose content were investigated. Pasting viscosities decreased continuously with the increase in dosages of irradiation. Furthermore, different irradiation dosages resulted in modification of the thermal properties and crystallinity of starch. Dynamic oscillation on shear was also employed, temperature and frequency sweeps showed that changes in storage modulus and loss modulus were significant, with Tibet Yellow producing more elastic gels as compared to Hy030 at different irradiation dosages.

  13. Th1 cytokine-based immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    Cytokine-based immunotherapy is executed by harnessing cytokines to activate the immune system to suppress tumors. Th1-type cytokines including IL-1, IL-2, IL-12 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor are potent stimulators of Th1 differentiation and Th1-based antitumor response. Many preclinical studies demonstrated the antitumor effects of Th1 cytokines but their clinical efficacy is limited. Multiple factors influence the efficacy of immunotherapy for tumors. For instance immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment can produce inhibitory cytokines which suppress antitumor immune response. Most studies on cytokine immunotherapy focused on how to boost Th1 response; many studies combined cytokine-based therapy with other treatments to reverse immunosuppression in tumor microenvironment. In addition, cytokines have pleiotropic functions and some cytokines show paradoxical activities under different settings. Better understanding the physiological and pathological functions of cytokines helps clinicians to design Th1-based cancer therapy in clinical practice.

  14. Cancer Therapeutic Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Are Associated with Oxidative Stress and Cytokine Induction.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Rina; Luo, Yi; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Fujii, Kiyomu; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are considered to influence the inflammatory process; however, the precise mechanism and the significance in tumors are still not clear. In this study, when CT26 and LL2 mouse cancer cells were treated with 6-nm anatase titanium dioxide NPs (TDNPs) without ultraviolet irradiation, oxidative stress and induction of inflammatory cytokines were observed. Oxidative stress was further increased by disease-associated conditions such as high glucose concentrations and hypoxia. Inhaled or orally administered TDNPs generated granulomatous lesions in the lungs and colon of the rodent models tested, with increased oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were also found in cancer cells treated with gold or carbon black NPs. Treatment of CT26 cells with 10- to 70-nm rutile TDNPs showed that smaller NPs produced more oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines than larger ones did. To avoid diffusion of TDNPs and to minimize toxicity, 10-nm TDNPs were suspended in a collagen gel inserted into a subcutaneous tumor in a CT26 mouse. A single TDNP treatment via this method inhibited tumor growth in a size- and dose-dependent manner, and resulted in lower levels of urinary 8-OHdG when compared to systemically administered TDNPs. These findings suggest that TDNPs might be useful for the local treatment of tumors.

  15. Antibody-cytokine fusion proteins for treatment of cancer: engineering cytokines for improved efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Young, Patricia A; Morrison, Sherie L; Timmerman, John M

    2014-10-01

    The true potential of cytokine therapies in cancer treatment is limited by the inability to deliver optimal concentrations into tumor sites due to dose-limiting systemic toxicities. To maximize the efficacy of cytokine therapy, recombinant antibody-cytokine fusion proteins have been constructed by a number of groups to harness the tumor-targeting ability of monoclonal antibodies. The aim is to guide cytokines specifically to tumor sites where they might stimulate more optimal anti-tumor immune responses while avoiding the systemic toxicities of free cytokine therapy. Antibody-cytokine fusion proteins containing interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-21, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and interferons (IFNs) α, β, and γ have been constructed and have shown anti-tumor activity in preclinical and early-phase clinical studies. Future priorities for development of this technology include optimization of tumor targeting, bioactivity of the fused cytokine, and choice of appropriate agents for combination therapies. This review is intended to serve as a framework for engineering an ideal antibody-cytokine fusion protein, focusing on previously developed constructs and their clinical trial results.

  16. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  17. Induction of inflammatory cytokines by cartilage extracts.

    PubMed

    Merly, Liza; Simjee, Shabana; Smith, Sylvia L

    2007-03-01

    Shark cartilage extracts were examined for induction of cytokines and chemokines in human peripheral blood leukocytes. Primary leukocyte cultures were exposed to a variety of aqueous and organic extracts prepared from several commercial brands of shark cartilage. From all commercial sources of shark cartilage tested the acid extracts induced higher levels of TNFalpha than other extracts. Different commercial brands of shark cartilage varied significantly in cytokine-inducing activity. TNFalpha induction was seen as early as 4 h and IFNgamma at detectable levels for up to four days. Shark cartilage extracts did not induce physiologically significant levels of IL-4. Results suggest that shark cartilage, preferentially, induces Th1 type inflammatory cytokines. When compared to bovine cartilage extract, collagen, and chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage induced significantly higher levels of TNFalpha. Treatment with digestive proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin) reduced the cytokine induction response by 80%, suggesting that the active component(s) in cartilage extracts is proteinaceous. The induction of Th1 type cytokine response in leukocytes is a significant finding since shark cartilage, taken as a dietary supplement for a variety of chronic degenerative diseases, would be contraindicated in cases where the underlying pathology of the chronic condition is caused by inflammation.

  18. Cytokines in Neuropathic Pain and Associated Depression.

    PubMed

    Lees, Justin G; Fivelman, Brett; Duffy, Samuel S; Makker, Preet G S; Perera, Chamini J; Moalem-Taylor, Gila

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain occurs as a result of lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system and is present in a diverse set of peripheral and central pathologies such as nerve trauma, diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. Debilitating symptoms including allodynia, hyperalgesia and spontaneous pain have a substantial negative impact on patients' quality of life. The currently available therapeutic treatments are generally ineffective and characterised by poor response rates. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation and cytokine signalling play a critical role in neuropathic pain. Numerous experimental studies have demonstrated that certain pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated in neuropathic pain conditions, and administration of these cytokines can elicit pain hypersensitivity in the absence of injury or disease. This phenomenon is also apparent in the 'sickness response', which encompasses a broad inflammatory response to disease and injury and involves a series of physiological and behavioural changes including pain hypersensitivity. Interestingly, the 'sickness response' is also similar in nature to some of the defining characteristics of the depressed state of affective disorder. In this review, we explore links that may relate the co-existence of depression in neuropathic pain patients with the activity of cytokines and discuss the role of several key pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in neuropathic pain.

  19. Interleukin-1 Family Cytokines in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Hiroko; Cai, Xianbin; Hayashi, Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    The gene encoding IL-1 was sequenced more than 30 years ago, and many related cytokines, such as IL-18, IL-33, IL-36, IL-37, IL-38, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and IL-36Ra, have since been identified. IL-1 is a potent proinflammatory cytokine and is involved in various inflammatory diseases. Other IL-1 family ligands are critical for the development of diverse diseases, including inflammatory and allergic diseases. Only IL-1Ra possesses the leader peptide required for secretion from cells, and many ligands require posttranslational processing for activation. Some require inflammasome-mediated processing for activation and release, whereas others serve as alarmins and are released following cell membrane rupture, for example, by pyroptosis or necroptosis. Thus, each ligand has the proper molecular process to exert its own biological functions. In this review, we will give a brief introduction to the IL-1 family cytokines and discuss their pivotal roles in the development of various liver diseases in association with immune responses. For example, an excess of IL-33 causes liver fibrosis in mice via activation and expansion of group 2 innate lymphoid cells to produce type 2 cytokines, resulting in cell conversion into pro-fibrotic M2 macrophages. Finally, we will discuss the importance of IL-1 family cytokine-mediated molecular and cellular networks in the development of acute and chronic liver diseases. PMID:26549942

  20. Cytokine and lipid mediator networks in tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Barber, Katrin D.; Sher, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Summary A major approach for immunologic intervention in tuberculosis involves redirecting the outcome of the host immune response from the induction of disease to pathogen control. Cytokines and lipid mediators known as eicosanoids play key roles in regulating this balance and as such represent important targets for immunologic intervention. While the evidence for cytokine/eicosanoid function derives largely from the investigation of murine and zebra fish experimental infection models, clinical studies have confirmed the existence of many of the same pathways in tuberculosis patients. Here we summarize new data that reveal important intersections between the cytokine and eicosanoid networks in the host response to mycobacteria and discuss how targeting this crosstalk can promote resistance to lethal Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. This approach could lead to new host-directed therapies to be used either as an adjunct for improving the efficacy of standard antibiotic treatment or for the management of drug-resistant infections. PMID:25703565

  1. Treatment of Cancer Pain by Targeting Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Vendrell, I; Macedo, D; Alho, I; Dionísio, M R; Costa, L

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is one of the most important causes of the majority of cancer symptoms, including pain, fatigue, cachexia, and anorexia. Cancer pain affects 17 million people worldwide and can be caused by different mediators which act in primary efferent neurons directly or indirectly. Cytokines can be aberrantly produced by cancer and immune system cells and are of particular relevance in pain. Currently, there are very few strategies to control the release of cytokines that seems to be related to cancer pain. Nevertheless, in some cases, targeted drugs are available and in use for other diseases. In this paper, we aim to review the importance of cytokines in cancer pain and targeted strategies that can have an impact on controlling this symptom.

  2. The role of cytokines in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Brincat, S D; Borg, M; Camilleri, G; Calleja-Agius, J

    2014-08-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a silent systemic progressive disease characterised by a decrease in bone mass per unit volume. This condition compromises the physical strength of the skeleton and increases the susceptibility to fractures on minor trauma. The imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption is known to be responsible for postmenopausal bone loss. Estrogen deficiency contributes to bone loss by increasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by bone marrow and bone cells. Clinical and molecular evidence indicates that estrogen-regulated cytokines exert regulatory effects on bone turnover implicating their role as being the primary mediators of the accelerated bone loss at menopause. The current perspective on the role and interaction of cytokines such as IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, TNF, IFN-γ and TGF-β in bone loss linked with estrogen deficiency is reviewed. Current treatment options and emerging drug therapies in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis are also evaluated.

  3. [Cytokines in the pathogeny of celiac disease].

    PubMed

    León, Alberto J; Garrote, José A; Arranz, Eduardo

    2005-10-15

    Celiac disease is manifested by an enteropathy caused by intolerance to gluten, a family of proteins found in wheat and other cereals. Following intestinal T-cell activation in predisposed individuals, different inflammatory mechanisms are triggered under the control of the cytokine balance including those with a pro-inflammatory Th1 pattern such as IFNgamma, TNFalpha, IL-15 and IL-18; and regulatory cytokines such as TGFbeta and IL-10. These cytokines, besides increasing the intensity of the activation and the number of immune cells within the intestinal mucosa, regulate the activity of epithelial growth factors and metalloproteinases, a group of molecules involved in the maintenance and turnover of the intestinal mucosa structure; in inflammatory conditions, they also induce the intestinal lesion responsible for malabsorption syndrome.

  4. Treatment of Cancer Pain by Targeting Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Vendrell, I.; Macedo, D.; Alho, I.; Dionísio, M. R.; Costa, L.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is one of the most important causes of the majority of cancer symptoms, including pain, fatigue, cachexia, and anorexia. Cancer pain affects 17 million people worldwide and can be caused by different mediators which act in primary efferent neurons directly or indirectly. Cytokines can be aberrantly produced by cancer and immune system cells and are of particular relevance in pain. Currently, there are very few strategies to control the release of cytokines that seems to be related to cancer pain. Nevertheless, in some cases, targeted drugs are available and in use for other diseases. In this paper, we aim to review the importance of cytokines in cancer pain and targeted strategies that can have an impact on controlling this symptom. PMID:26538839

  5. Content Wizard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers-Zavala, Fabiola P.

    2001-01-01

    This classroom tip focuses on sustained-content language teaching. The game described--content wizard-- illustrates a practical technique for incorporating a range of language and academic skills into subject matter lessons for English-as-a-Second-Language learners. (Author/VWL)

  6. Cytokine profile of conditioned medium from human tumor cell lines after acute and fractionated doses of gamma radiation and its effect on survival of bystander tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sejal; Kumar, Amit; Laskar, S; Pandey, B N

    2013-01-01

    Cytokines are known to play pivotal roles in cancer initiation, progression and pathogenesis. Accumulating evidences suggest differences in basal and stress-induced cytokine profiles of cancers with diverse origin. However, a comprehensive investigation characterising the cytokine profile of various tumor types after acute and fractionated doses of gamma-irradiation, and its effect on survival of bystander cells is not well known in literature. In the present study, we have evaluated the cytokine secretion profile of human tumor cell lines (HT1080, U373MG, HT29, A549 and MCF-7) either before (basal) or after acute (2, 6 Gy) and fractionated doses (3×2 Gy) of gamma-irradiation in culture medium obtained from these cells by multiplex bead array/ELISA. Moreover, clonogenic assays were performed to evaluate the effect of conditioned medium (CM) on the survival and growth of respective cells. Based on the screening of 28 analytes, our results showed that the basal profiles of these cell lines varied considerably in terms of the number and magnitude of secreted factors, which was minimum in MCF-7. Interestingly, TNF-α, IL-1β, PDGF-AA, TGF-β1, fractalkine, IL-8, VEGF and GCSF were found in CM of all the cell lines. However, secretion of certain cytokines was cell line-specific. Moreover, CM caused increase in clonogenic survival of respective tumor cells (in the order HT1080>U373MG>HT29>A549>MCF-7), which was correlated with the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, GMCSF and VEGF in their CM. After irradiation, the levels of most of the cytokines increased markedly in a dose dependent manner. The fold change in cytokine levels was lower in irradiated conditioned medium (ICM) of tumor cells collected after fractionated than respective acute dose, except in MCF-7. Interestingly, amongst these cell lines, the radiation-induced fold increase in cytokine levels was maximum in ICM of A549 cells. Moreover, bystander A549 cells treated with respective ICM showed dose dependent

  7. Neutrophil myeloperoxidase destruction by ultraviolet irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanker, J.; Giammara, B.; Strauss, G.

    1988-01-01

    The peroxidase activity of enriched leukocyte preparations on coverslips was determined cytochemically with a newly developed method. The techniques utilizes diaminobenzidine medium and cupric nitrate intensification and is suitable for analysis with light microscopy, SEM, and TEM. Blood specimens from control individuals were studied with and without in vitro UV irradiation and compared with those from psoriasis patients exposed therapeutically to various types of UV in phototherapy. All UV irradiated samples showed diminished neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MP) activity although that of the principal eosinophil peroxidase was unaffected. The SEMs supported the contention that decreased neutrophil MP activity might be related to UV induced degranulation. It is believed to be possible, eventually, to equate the observed MP degranulation effect after UV irradiation with diminished ability to fight bacterial infections.

  8. Commercial sunscreen formulations: UVB irradiation stability and effect on UVB irradiation-induced skin oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Fernanda M P; Oliveira, Franciane M; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A; Cunha, Thiago M; Fonseca, Maria J V

    2016-10-01

    Evidence shows that sunscreens undergo degradation processes induced by UV irradiation forming free radicals, which reduces skin protection. In this regard, the biological effects of three commercial sunscreen formulations upon UVB irradiation in the skin were investigated. The three formulations had in common the presence of benzophenone-3 added with octyl methoxycinnamate or octyl salycilate or both, which are regular UV filters in sunscreens. The results show that formulations F1 and F2 presented partial degradation upon UVB irradiation. Formulations F1 and F2 presented higher skin penetration profiles than F3. None of the formulations avoided UVB irradiation-induced GSH depletion, but inhibited reduction of SOD activity, suggesting the tested formulations did not present as a major mechanism inhibiting all UVB irradiation-triggered oxidative stress pathways. The formulations avoided the increase of myeloperoxidase activity and cytokine production (IL-1β and TNF-α), but with different levels of protection in relation to the IL-1β release. Concluding, UVB irradiation can reduce the stability of sunscreens, which in turn, present the undesirable properties of reaching viable skin. Additionally, the same SPF does not mean that different sunscreens will present the same biological effects as SPF is solely based on a skin erythema response. This found opens up perspectives to consider additional studies to reach highly safe sunscreens.

  9. Proinflammatory Cytokines as Regulators of Vaginal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kremleva, E A; Sgibnev, A V

    2016-11-01

    It was shown that IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-6 in concentrations similar to those in the vagina of healthy women stimulated the growth of normal microflora (Lactobacillus spp.) and suppressed the growth and biofilm production by S. aureus and E. coli. On the contrary, these cytokines in higher concentrations typical of vaginal dysbiosis suppressed normal microflora and stimulated the growth of opportunistic microorganisms. TGF-β1 in both doses produced a stimulating effects on study vaginal microsymbionts. It is hypothesized that pro-inflammatory cytokines serve as the molecules of interspecies communication coordinating the interactions of all components of the vaginal symbiotic system.

  10. Future prospects for anti-cytokine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, M.; Miotla, J.; Paleolog, E.; Williams, R.; Malfait, A.; Taylor, P.; Brennan, F.; Maini, R.

    2000-01-01

    The era of anti-cytokine treatment in rheumatology has just begun. The first generation therapeutic agents, biological agents that block tumour necrosis factor α such as monoclonal antibodies or receptor Ig fusion proteins are safe and effective, and so this has generated much interest in how to increase the benefit or deliver it more cost effectively. This article provides a personal view of the coming trends in anti-cytokine treatment. Which of these will be realised in the future will be of interest.

 PMID:11053102

  11. Modulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases production in co-cultivated human keratinocytes and melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Decean, H; Perde-Schrepler, M; Tatomir, C; Fischer-Fodor, E; Brie, I; Virag, P

    2013-10-01

    The human epidermis exerts immunoregulatory functions through the variety of cytokines and other molecules elaborated by keratinocytes and melanocytes. Their constitutive production is very low; however, considerably increased upon stimulation. In vivo, keratinocytes and melanocytes have a typical exposure in the skin, referred as melanocyte epidermal unit. In the present study we co-cultivated these cells in vitro proposing to elucidate some communication links in close cell-to-cell association. We assessed the amounts of IL-6, IL-8, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in individually and co-cultured cells, exposed or not to UVB radiation. Normal human epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes were grown in specific media and supplements. Cells were exposed to UVB radiation (100 mJ/cm(2)) to create comparable stress to the environmental one. Cytokines were determined with ELISA and confirmed with Western blot and metalloproteinases with gel zimography. Pure cultures of keratinocytes and melanocytes released low amounts of cytokines and metalloproteinases, these secretions being enhanced by UVB irradiation. In co-cultures, the cell-to-cell proximity triggered signals which markedly augmented the cytokines' secretions, whereas metalloproteinases were down-regulated. UVB irradiation did not influence either of these secretions in co-cultures. Concurrently with the highest levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, MMP-9 was up-regulated creating pro-inflammatory conditions and premises for changes in cellular survival, differentiation and phenotype. A complex network of interactions occurred between keratinocytes and melanocytes in co-cultures, resulting in modulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases productions. Therefore, any disturbances in the microenvironmental signaling system and its molecular constituents may result in inflammation or even tumorigenesis in the epidermis.

  12. Effect of electron irradiation on the gel properties of Collichthys lucidus surimi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Siyao; Lv, Liangyu; Yang, Wenge; Xu, Dalun; Lou, Qiaoming; Zhang, Jinjie

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of electron irradiation on the gel properties of Collichthys lucidus surimi. The results showed that irradiation decreased the trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptide content of the surimi gel. At 5 kGy, a more compact and ordered gel network structure was achieved, resulting in a higher gel strength, whiteness, and water-holding capacity than non-irradiated surimi gel. During heat-induced formation of the gel, the α-helix content decreased, whilst the β-sheet and β-turn content increased. Irradiation treatments also decreased the α-helix content and increased β-sheet content, and this transformation is beneficial for the protein denaturation and gel formation. Collectively, the results suggest that electron irradiation, at an optimal dose of 5 kGy, could be an effective method for application in the surimi manufacturing industry

  13. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

    1988-12-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

  14. Cytokine-release kinetics of platelet-rich plasma according to various activation protocols

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Y. H.; Kim, W.; Park, K. U.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to evaluate the cytokine-release kinetics of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) according to different activation protocols. Methods Two manual preparation procedures (single-spin (SS) at 900 g for five minutes; double-spin (DS) at 900 g for five minutes and then 1500 g for 15 minutes) were performed for each of 14 healthy subjects. Both preparations were tested for platelet activation by one of three activation protocols: no activation, activation with calcium (Ca) only, or calcium with a low dose (50 IU per 1 ml PRP) of thrombin. Each preparation was divided into four aliquots and incubated for one hour, 24 hours, 72 hours, and seven days. The cytokine-release kinetics were evaluated by assessing PDGF, TGF, VEGF, FGF, IL-1, and MMP-9 concentrations with bead-based sandwich immunoassay. Results The concentration of cytokine released from PRP varied over time and was influenced by various activation protocols. Ca-only activation had a significant effect on the DS PRPs (where the VEGF, FGF, and IL-1 concentrations were sustained) while Ca/thrombin activation had effects on both SS and DS PRPs (where the PDGF and VEGF concentrations were sustained and the TGF and FGF concentrations were short). The IL-1 content showed a significant increase with Ca-only or Ca/thrombin activation while these activations did not increase the MMP-9 concentration. Conclusion The SS and DS methods differed in their effect on cytokine release, and this effect varied among the cytokines analysed. In addition, low dose of thrombin/calcium activation increased the overall cytokine release of the PRP preparations over seven days, relative to that with a calcium-only supplement or non-activation. Cite this article: Professor J. H. Oh. Cytokine-release kinetics of platelet-rich plasma according to various activation protocols. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:37–45. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.52.2000540 PMID:26862077

  15. Low-level laser therapy on skeletal muscle inflammation: evaluation of irradiation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantineo, Matías; Pinheiro, João P.; Morgado, António M.

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of different irradiation parameters in low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for treating inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats through cytokines concentration in systemic blood and analysis of muscle tissue. We used continuous (830 and 980 nm) and pulsed illuminations (830 nm). Animals were divided into five groups per wavelength (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mW), and a control group. LLLT was applied during 5 days with a constant irradiation time and area. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6 cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Inflammatory cells were counted using microscopy. Identical methodology was used with pulsed illumination. Average power (40 mW) and duty cycle were kept constant (80%) at five frequencies (5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 Hz). For continuous irradiation, treatment effects occurred for all doses, with a reduction of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 cytokines and inflammatory cells. Continuous irradiation at 830 nm was more effective, a result explained by the action spectrum of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO). Best results were obtained for 40 mW, with data suggesting a biphasic dose response. Pulsed wave irradiation was only effective for higher frequencies, a result that might be related to the rate constants of the CCO internal electron transfer process.

  16. Cytokine profile of murine malaria: stage-related production of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Bakir, Hanaa Y; Tomiyama, Chikako; Abo, Toru

    2011-06-01

    Balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines may be important in malaria presentation and outcome. To clarify cytokine interactions that produce pathology of malaria and control infection, C57BL/6 mice were infected with 10(4) parasitized RBCs from a non-lethal strain of Plasmodium yoelii. Kinetics was monitored showing the course of parasitemia, and cytokines were determined by RT-PCR from liver and spleen tissues. Inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFNγ), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-10, were investigated as key molecules that interact with immune cells in the activation of the immune responses. The production of IFNγ mRNA was found to be higher on day 7 than on day 21 after infection, and IL-12 and IL-6 showed higher expression in the liver than in the spleen. Though TNFα was highly expressed on day 14 after infection and on day 21 in the liver, such expression was decreased on day 21 in the spleen. Anti-inflammatory cytokines showed high expression in both the liver and spleen. The results suggest that a relative balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is crucial and that the increase of inflammatory cytokine levels during the acute phase of malaria may reflect an early and effective immune response.The counteraction effect of anti-inflammatory cytokines is thought to play a role in limiting progression from uncomplicated malaria to severe life-threatening complications.

  17. Using chemo-drugs or irradiation to break immune tolerance and facilitate immunotherapy in solid cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yawen; Dou, Yan; Duan, Lili; Cong, Changsheng; Gao, Aiqin; Lai, Qinghua; Sun, Yuping

    2015-03-01

    The immunity is dual host-protective and tumor-promoting in cancer development and progression. Many immune suppressive cells and cytokines in microenvironment can prevent cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer cells (NK) from killing tumor cells. Chemotherapy drugs and irradiation have been reported helpful in breaking immune tolerance and creating microenvironment for adoptive cell therapy. Low-dose cyclophosphamide or gemcitabine therapy can selectively deplete T regulatory cells (Treg). Paclitaxel can alter cytokine network at the tumor site, and 5-fluorouracil shows a pronounced effect on myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) depletion. Local tumor irradiation and total body irradiation (TBI) can also affect tumor microenvironment and facilitate immunotherapy. In this review, we summarize the particular effects of these agents and methods on immunomodulation, as well as their potential values in immunotherapy. The combination with immunotherapy represents a novel therapeutic strategy.

  18. Food irradiation in perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henon, Y. M.

    1995-02-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the "prerequisite" became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance.

  19. [The irradiation process].

    PubMed

    Barillot, I; Chauvet, B; Hannoun Lévi, J M; Lisbona, A; Leroy, T; Mahé, M A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the regulatory framework of the radiotherapy practice in France, the external irradiation and brachytherapy process and the guidelines for patient follow-up.

  20. Cytokines and immune surveillance in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. Among the parameters shown, by us and others, to be affected is the production of interferons. Interferons are a family of cytokines that are antiviral and play a major role in regulating immune responses that control resistance to infection. Alterations in interferon and other cytokine production and activity could result in changes in immunity and a possible compromise of host defenses against both opportunistic and external infections. The purpose of the present study is to explore further the effects of space flight on cyotokines and cytokine-directed immunological function. Among the tests carried out are interferon-alpha production, interferon-gamma production, interleukin-1 and -2 production, signal transduction in neutrophils, signal transduction in monocytes, and monocyte phagocytic activity. The experiments will be performed using peripheral blood obtained from human subjects. It is our intent to eventually carry out these experiments using astronauts as subjects to determine the effects of space flight on cytokine production and activity. However, these subjects are not currently available. Until they become available, we will carry out these experiments using subjects maintained in the bed-rest model for microgravity.

  1. Cytokines as biochemical markers for knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mabey, Thomas; Honsawek, Sittisak

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating degenerative joint disease particularly affecting weightbearing joints within the body, principally the hips and knees. Current radiographic techniques are insufficient to show biochemical changes within joint tissue which can occur many years before symptoms become apparent. The need for better diagnostic and prognostic tools is heightened with the prevalence of OA set to increase in aging and obese populations. As inflammation is increasingly being considered an important part of OAs pathophysiology, cytokines are being assessed as possible candidates for biochemical markers. Cytokines, both pro- and anti-inflammatory, as well as angiogenic and chemotactic, have in recent years been studied for relevant characteristics. Biochemical markers show promise in determination of the severity of disease in addition to monitoring of the efficacy and safety of disease-modifying OA drugs, with the potential to act as diagnostic and prognostic tools. Currently, the diagnostic power of interleukin (IL)-6 and the relationship to disease burden of IL-1β, IL-15, tumor necrosis factor-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor make these the best candidates for assessment. Grouping appropriate cytokine markers together and assessing them collectively alongside other bone and cartilage degradation products will yield a more statistically powerful tool in research and clinical applications, and additionally aid in distinguishing between OA and a number of other diseases in which cytokines are known to have an involvement. Further large scale studies are needed to assess the validity and efficacy of current biomarkers, and to discover other potential biomarker candidates. PMID:25621214

  2. Cytokine therapeutics: lessons from interferon alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Gutterman, J U

    1994-01-01

    Cytokines are soluble proteins that allow for communication between cells and the external environment. Interferon (IFN) alpha, the first cytokine to be produced by recombinant DNA technology, has emerged as an important regulator of growth and differentiation, affecting cellular communication and signal transduction pathways as well as immunological control. This review focuses on the biological and clinical activities of the cytokine. Originally discovered as an antiviral substance, the efficacy of IFN-alpha in malignant, viral, immunological, angiogenic, inflammatory, and fibrotic diseases suggests a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologies. The principles learned from in vivo studies will be discussed, particularly hairy cell leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, certain angiogenic diseases, and hepatitis. After the surprising discovery of activity in a rare B-cell neoplasm, IFN-alpha emerged as a prototypic tumor suppressor protein that represses the clinical tumorigenic phenotype in some malignancies capable of differentiation. Regulatory agencies throughout the world have approved IFN-alpha for treatment of 13 malignant and viral disorders. The principles established with this cytokine serve as a paradigm for future development of natural proteins for human disease. PMID:8108387

  3. Immunoregulatory properties of the cytokine IL-34.

    PubMed

    Guillonneau, Carole; Bézie, Séverine; Anegon, Ignacio

    2017-03-03

    Interleukin-34 is a cytokine with only partially understood functions, described for the first time in 2008. Although IL-34 shares very little homology with CSF-1 (CSF1, M-CSF), they share a common receptor CSF-1R (CSF-1R) and IL-34 has also two distinct receptors (PTP-ζ) and CD138 (syndecan-1). To make the situation more complex, IL-34 has also been shown as pairing with CSF-1 to form a heterodimer. Until now, studies have demonstrated that this cytokine is released by some tissues that differ to those where CSF-1 is expressed and is involved in the differentiation and survival of macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells in response to inflammation. The involvement of IL-34 has been shown in areas as diverse as neuronal protection, autoimmune diseases, infection, cancer, and transplantation. Our recent work has demonstrated a new and possible therapeutic role for IL-34 as a Foxp3(+) Treg-secreted cytokine mediator of transplant tolerance. In this review, we recapitulate most recent findings on IL-34 and its controversial effects on immune responses and address its immunoregulatory properties and the potential of targeting this cytokine in human.

  4. Early cytokine responses during intestinal parasitic infections.

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, N; Goyal, P K; Mahida, Y R; Li, K F; Wakelin, D

    1998-01-01

    Infections with gastro-intestinal nematodes elicit immune and inflammatory responses mediated by cytokines released from T-helper type-2 (Th2) cells. In vitro assays of cells from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of experimentally infected rodents confirm that, after about 1 week, the dominant cytokine responses to mitogens and antigens are those associated with this Th-cell subset. Polarization of the Th response in this way implies an initial local cytokine environment that favours Th2 development. However, experimental infections with Trichinella spiralis and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis show that, within 2 days of worms reaching the intestine, MLN cells (MLNC) respond with a Th1 rather than a Th2 response [i.e. there is an increase in mRNA for the type 1 cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and mitogen-stimulated MLNC release IFN-gamma rather than interleukin-5 (IL-5)]. Antigen stimulation at this time does not elicit IFN-gamma release and the MLNC cannot adoptively transfer immunity. Within a few days the MLNC phenotype changes. There is a Th2 response (IL-5 release) to both mitogen and antigen stimulation and MLNC can adoptively transfer immunity. Early release of IFN-gamma is T-cell dependent, with CD4+ T cells playing the major role. The data are discussed in relation to factors regulating the mucosal response to invasion by parasites. PMID:9616376

  5. Plant responses to UV-B irradiation are modified by UV-A irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, E.M.; Teramura, A.H. Univ. of Maryland, College Park )

    1993-06-01

    The increasing UV-B radiation (0.28-0.32 [mu]m) reaching the earth's surface is an important concern. Plant response in artificial UV-B irradiation studies has been difficult to assess, especially regarding photosynthetic pigments, because the fluorescent lamps also produce UV-A (0.32-0.40[mu]m) radiation which is involved with blue light in pigment synthesis. Both UV-A and UV-B irradiances were controlled in two glasshouse experiments conducted under relatively high PPFD (> 1300[mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1]) at two biologically effective daily UV-B irradiances (10.7 and 14.1 kJ m[sup [minus]2]); UV-A irradiances were matched in Controls ([approximately]5, 9 kJ m[sup [minus]2]). Normal, chlorophyll-deficient, and flavonoid-deficient isolines of soybean cultivar, Clark, were utilized. Many growth/ pigment variables exhibited a statistically significant interaction between light quality and quantity: in general, UV-A radiation moderated the damaging effects of UV-B radiation. Regression analyses demonstrated that a single negative function related photosynthetic efficiency to carotenoid Content (r[sup 2] =0.73, P[le]0.001), implying a [open quotes]cost[close quotes] in maintaining carotenoids for photoprotection. A stomatal limitation to photosynthesis was verified and carotenoid content was correlated with UV-B absorbing compound levels, in UV-B irradiated plants.

  6. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  7. Cold weather exercise and airway cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael S; Malayer, Jerry R; Vandeventer, Lori; Royer, Christopher M; McKenzie, Erica C; Williamson, Katherine K

    2005-06-01

    Athletes who perform repeated exercise while breathing cold air have a high prevalence of asthmalike chronic airway disease, but the mechanism linking such activity to airway inflammation is unknown. We used a novel animal model (exercising horses) to test the hypothesis that exercise-induced chronic airway disease is caused by exposure of intrapulmonary airways to unconditioned air, resulting in the upregulation of cytokine expression. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was obtained from eight horses 5 h after submaximal exercise while they breathed room temperature or subfreezing air in a random crossover design. BALF total and differential nucleated cell counts were determined, and relative cytokine mRNA expression in BALF nucleated cells was quantified by real-time RT-PCR using primer and probe sequences specific for equine targets. There were no significant changes in total or differential cell concentrations between BALF recovered after warm and cold air exercise, although there was a strong trend toward increased concentrations of airway epithelial cells after cold air exercise (P = 0.0625). T(H)2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 were preferentially upregulated after cold air exercise 12-, 9-, and 10-fold, respectively, compared with warm air exercise. Other cytokines (IL-2 and IL-6) were upregulated to a lesser extent (6- and 3-fold, respectively) or not at all (IL-1, IL-8, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha). These results suggest that cold weather exercise can lead to asthmalike airway disease through the local induction of cytokines typical of the T(H)2 phenotype.

  8. Workers’ cytokines profiling upon exposure to MWCNT aerosol in occupational settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatkhutdinova, L. M.; Khaliullin, T. O.; Zalyalov, R. R.; Vasilyeva, O. L.; Valeeva, I. Kh; Mustafin, I. G.

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have found that upon pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) animals develop primarily fibrosis and granulomas in lungs. In vitro and in vivo studies also give reason to assume that local exposure could be related to remote effects, including immune system and the endothelium. To investigate the remote effect hypothesis, we have analyzed blood, nasal lavage and induced sputum samples taken from workers in the frame of the Russian epidemiological study on Carbon Nanotubes Exposure and Risk Assessment (CNT-ERA). In serum and nasal lavage no significant differences between exposure and control groups were observed with a high variability to the cytokines content. In the samples of induced sputum from exposed workers the content of IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a, IL-4, IL-5, IFN-g exceeded the control group values, but after the regression models construction and bootstrap analysis, significant differences were found only for IL-1b. This study could not provide evidences of blood cytokines changes following local cytokine production in airways in workers exposed to MWCNTs. Cytokines variability in serum and nasal lavage may indicate the absence of severe systemic inflammatory response upon the existing occupational exposure to MWCNTs. Other systemic responses (including allergy-like or autoimmune reactions) should be regarded as well.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on the conversion of ginsenoside Rb1 to Rg3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Sung, Nak-Yun; Jung, Pil-Mun; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Sharma, Arun K.; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Ginsenosides, the most important secondary metabolites in ginseng, have various biological activities. Many studies have focused on the conversion of one of the major ginsenosides, Rb1, to the more active minor ginsenoside, Rg3. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the conversion of Rb1 to Rg3. Rb1 solutions were gamma-irradiated at doses of 10 and 30 kGy and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC chromatograms showed a decreased content of Rb1 with increasing irradiation dose, but the content of Rg3 was increased. The highest content of Rg3 was present in the 30 kGy-irradiated Rb1 sample. The cytotoxic effects tested in cancer cell lines were increased in the gamma-irradiated group. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation can be an effective method for the conversion of the ginsenoside Rb1 to Rg3.

  10. Ionoluminescence of fused silica under swift ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, R.; Jiménez-Rey, D.; Martin, P.; Vila, R.

    2016-09-01

    Ion beam induced luminescence spectra have been in-situ recorded during He+ (2.5 MeV), O4+ (13.5 MeV) and Si4+ (24.4 MeV) irradiations for three vitreous silica grades with different OH content (KU1, KS-4V and Infrasil 301). Remarkable changes in the ionoluminescence spectra of the three silica grades were observed for low ion fluences. He+ irradiated samples exhibited higher luminescence than equivalent ones irradiated with heavier O4+ and Si4+ ions. KU1 samples with the highest OH content showed the lowest blue luminescence. Blue luminescence maximum during ion irradiations with O4+ and Si4+ ions is correlated with structural changes.

  11. Blood irradiation: Rationale and technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Upon request by the local American Red Cross, the Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care irradiates whole blood or blood components to prevent post-transfusion graft-versus-host reaction in patients who have severely depressed immune systems. The rationale for blood irradiation, the total absorbed dose, the type of patients who require irradiated blood, and the regulations that apply to irradiated blood are presented. A method of irradiating blood using a linear accelerator is described.

  12. A Comparitive Assessement of Cytokine Expression in Human-Derived Cell Lines Exposed to Alpha Particles and X-Rays

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew; Wilkins, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Alpha- (α-) particle radiation exposure has been linked to the development of lung cancer and has been identified as a radiation type likely to be employed in radiological dispersal devices. Currently, there exists a knowledge gap concerning cytokine modulations associated with exposure to α-particles. Bio-plex technology was employed to investigate changes in proinflammatory cytokines in two human-derived cell lines. Cells were irradiated at a dose of 1.5 Gy to either α-particles or X-rays at equivalent dose rates. The two cell lines exhibited a unique pattern of cytokine expression and the response varied with radiation type. Of the 27 cytokines assessed, only vascular endothelin growth factor (VEGF) was observed to be modulated in both cell lines solely after α-particle exposure, and the expression of VEGF was shown to be dose responsive. These results suggest that certain proinflammatory cytokines may be involved in the biological effects related to α- particle exposure and the responses are cell type and radiation type specific. PMID:22619631

  13. A comparitive assessement of cytokine expression in human-derived cell lines exposed to alpha particles and X-rays.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew; Wilkins, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Alpha- (α-) particle radiation exposure has been linked to the development of lung cancer and has been identified as a radiation type likely to be employed in radiological dispersal devices. Currently, there exists a knowledge gap concerning cytokine modulations associated with exposure to α-particles. Bio-plex technology was employed to investigate changes in proinflammatory cytokines in two human-derived cell lines. Cells were irradiated at a dose of 1.5 Gy to either α-particles or X-rays at equivalent dose rates. The two cell lines exhibited a unique pattern of cytokine expression and the response varied with radiation type. Of the 27 cytokines assessed, only vascular endothelin growth factor (VEGF) was observed to be modulated in both cell lines solely after α-particle exposure, and the expression of VEGF was shown to be dose responsive. These results suggest that certain proinflammatory cytokines may be involved in the biological effects related to α- particle exposure and the responses are cell type and radiation type specific.

  14. The results and analysis of irradiation experiments conducted on reactor vessel plate and weld materials

    SciTech Connect

    Biemiller, E.C.; Carter, R.G.; Rosinski, S.T.

    1996-09-01

    This paper documents the extensive amount of experimental work on radiation damage to reactor vessel materials carried out by Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) and others in support of a licensing effort to restart the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant. The effect of plate nickel content and microstructure on irradiation damage sensitivity was assessed. Typical reactor pressure vessel plate materials each containing 0.24% (by weight) copper, but different nickel contents at 0.19% and 0.63% were heat treated to produce different microstructures. A Linde 80 weld containing 0.30% copper and 1.00% nickel was produced and heat treated to test microstructure effects on the irradiation response of weld metal. Materials taken from plate surface locations (vs 1/4%) were included to test whether or not the improved toughness properties of the plate surface layer, resulting from a rapid quench, is maintained after irradiation. Irradiations were conducted at two irradiation temperatures, 500 F (260 C) and 550 F (288 C), to determine the effect of irradiation temperature on embrittlement. The results of this irradiation testing and additional data from a DOE/Sandia National Laboratories irradiation study show an irradiation temperature effect that is not consistent, but varies with the materials tested. The test results demonstrate that for nickel bearing steels, the superior toughness of plate surface material is maintained even after irradiation to high fluences, and for the copper content tested, nickel has little effect on irradiation response. A mixed effect of microstructure/heat treatment on the materials` irradiation response was noted. Phosphorus potentially played a role in the irradiation response of the low nickel material irradiated at 500 F (288 C) but did not show prominence in the irradiations for the same material conducted at 500 F (260 C).

  15. Increased cytokine/chemokines in serum from asthmatic and non-asthmatic patients with viral respiratory infection

    PubMed Central

    Giuffrida, María J; Valero, Nereida; Mosquera, Jesús; Alvarez de Mon, Melchor; Chacín, Betulio; Espina, Luz Marina; Gotera, Jennifer; Bermudez, John; Mavarez, Alibeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory viral infections can induce different cytokine/chemokine profiles in lung tissues and have a significant influence on patients with asthma. There is little information about the systemic cytokine status in viral respiratory-infected asthmatic patients compared with non-asthmatic patients. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine changes in circulating cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-5) and chemokines (MCP1: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and RANTES: regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) in patients with an asthmatic versus a non-asthmatic background with respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus or adenovirus respiratory infection. In addition, human monocyte cultures were incubated with respiratory viruses to determine the cytokine/chemokine profiles. Patients/Methods Patients with asthmatic (n = 34) and non-asthmatic (n = 18) history and respiratory infections with respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, and adenovirus were studied. Healthy individuals with similar age and sex (n = 10) were used as controls. Cytokine/chemokine content in blood and culture supernatants was determined by ELISA. Monocytes were isolated by Hystopaque gradient and cocultured with each of the above-mentioned viruses. Results Similar increased cytokine concentrations were observed in asthmatic and non-asthmatic patients. However, higher concentrations of chemokines were observed in asthmatic patients. Virus-infected monocyte cultures showed similar cytokine/chemokine profiles to those observed in the patients. Conclusions Circulating cytokine profiles induced by acute viral lung infection were not related to asthmatic status, except for chemokines that were already increased in the asthmatic status. Monocytes could play an important role in the increased circulating concentration of cytokines found during respiratory viral infections. PMID:23962134

  16. Therapeutic antibodies that target inflammatory cytokines in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yuping; Dong, Chen

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are key regulators of immune responses. Persistent and excessive production of inflammatory cytokines underscores the development of autoimmune diseases. Therefore, neutralizing inflammatory cytokines or antagonizing their receptor function is considered as a useful therapeutic strategy to treat autoimmune diseases. To achieve the success of such a strategy, understanding of the complex actions of these cytokines and cytokine networks is required. In this review we focus on four inflammatory cytokines--tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-23 and IL-17--and dissect how the dysregulation of these cytokines regulates autoimmune diseases. On the basis of pre-clinical and clinical data, we specifically discuss the therapeutic rationale for targeting these cytokines and describe the potential adverse effects.

  17. Drug targets in the cytokine universe for autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuebin; Fang, Lei; Guo, Taylor B; Mei, Hongkang; Zhang, Jingwu Z

    2013-03-01

    In autoimmune disease, a network of diverse cytokines is produced in association with disease susceptibility to constitute the 'cytokine milieu' that drives chronic inflammation. It remains elusive how cytokines interact in such a complex network to sustain inflammation in autoimmune disease. This has presented huge challenges for successful drug discovery because it has been difficult to predict how individual cytokine-targeted therapy would work. Here, we combine the principles of Chinese Taoism philosophy and modern bioinformatics tools to dissect multiple layers of arbitrary cytokine interactions into discernible interfaces and connectivity maps to predict movements in the cytokine network. The key principles presented here have important implications in our understanding of cytokine interactions and development of effective cytokine-targeted therapies for autoimmune disorders.

  18. Post-irradiation crosslinking of partially cured unsaturated polyester resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkin, Tanja; Pucić, Irina

    2006-09-01

    The post-irradiation crosslinking of unsaturated polyester (UP) resin samples irradiated to different doses was monitored during the 15-days period. The post-reaction sensitivity of three experimental techniques was evaluated. Significant changes were detected by extraction analysis that also included determination of the free styrene content. The most substantial changes were detected by differential scanning calorimetry, even up to 5 days after the irradiation. The sensitivity and reproducibility of FTIR was the lowest. The first two techniques detected the influence of particular reaction periods, at which the radiation crosslinking was terminated, on the post-reaction.

  19. Cytokines in therapy of radiation injury

    SciTech Connect

    Neta, R.; Oppenheim, J.J.

    1988-09-01

    Repeated injections or infusion of hematopoietic growth factors, such as interleukin-3 (IL-3), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), accelerate restoration of hematopoiesis in animals compromised by sublethal doses of cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Previous work by the investigators has shown that IL-1 induced circulating CSF in normal mice and, when used after sublethal irradiation, accelerated the recovery of endogenous splenic colonies. Therefore, IL-1, as well as IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), G-CSF, and GM-CSF, were evaluated as potential therapeutic agents in irradiated C3H-HeN mice. A single intraperitoneal injection, administered within three hours after a lethal dose (LD)95/30 of irradiation that would kill 95% of mice within 30 days, protected in a dose-dependent manner up to 100% of mice from radiation-induced death due to hematopoietic syndrome. Significant therapeutic effects were also achieved with a single dose of IFN-gamma or of TNF. In contrast, GM-CSF and G-CSF, administered shortly after irradiation, had no effect in the doses used on mice survival.

  20. ORNL irradiation creep facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.

    1980-09-01

    A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

  1. Superoxide Dismutase Protects Osteoprogenitors from Irradiation with Low-LET but Not High-LET Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreurs, A.-S.; Tran, L.; Alwood, J. S.; Tahimic, C. G.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation-induced bone loss appears to be a two-stage process: first an early increase in pro-resorption cytokines and increased bone resorption by osteoclasts, followed by a decrease in bone formation by osteoblasts. This results in a net loss of mass in mineralized bone tissue. The molecular mechanisms underlying the imbalance in bone remodeling caused by exposure to radiation are not fully understood. We hypothesized that the radiation-induced rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages osteoblast progenitors, leading to a decrease in number and activity of differentiated progeny. We have shown that a diet high in antioxidant capacity prevents radiation-induced bone loss in adult mice (Schreurs et al. 2016) by reducing the early increase in pro-resotption cytokines. Here, we investigated the damaging effects of radiation exposure on cells in the osteoblast lineage, testing if addition of the exogenous antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) can mitigate radiation damage. Osteoprogenitors were grown in vitro from the marrow of 16wk old, male C57Bl/6 mice. Cells were irradiated 3 days after plating (day 0) with either gamma (Cs-137, 0.1-5Gy) or iron (Fe-56, 600 MeV/n, 0.5-2Gy), and then grown until day 10. SOD or vehicle was added 2 hours before irradiation (SOD at 200U/ml), twice a day and up to day 5, for a total of 2 days treatment. Cell behavior was assessed by: (a) colony number (counted on day 7), (b) DNA content (surrogate for cell number) to assess cell growth (percent change between day 3 and day 10) and (c) alkaline phosphatase activity (osteoblast differentiation marker). Results show that SOD protected cells from the adverse effects of low-LET ionizing radiation, but not high-LET radiation. These novel results provide an interesting platform to explore further diverse effects and damages caused by low-LET and high-LET, pointing toward different mechanisms and possible intervention strategies for radiation-induced bone loss.

  2. Crustacean hematopoiesis and the astakine cytokines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xionghui; Söderhäll, Irene

    2011-06-16

    Major contributions to research in hematopoiesis in invertebrate animals have come from studies in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. These animals lack oxygen-carrying erythrocytes and blood cells of the lymphoid lineage, which participate in adaptive immune defense, thus making them suitable model animals to study the regulation of blood cells of the innate immune system. This review presents an overview of crustacean blood cell formation, the role of these cells in innate immunity, and how their synthesis is regulated by the astakine cytokines. Astakines are among the first invertebrate cytokines shown to be involved in hematopoiesis, and they can stimulate the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic tissue cells. The astakines and their vertebrate homologues, prokineticins, share similar functions in hematopoiesis; thus, studies of astakine-induced hematopoiesis in crustaceans may not only advance our understanding of the regulation of invertebrate hematopoiesis but may also provide new evolutionary perspectives about this process.

  3. Cytokines: The Future of Intranasal Vaccine Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Afton L.; Staats, Herman F.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its potential as an effective, needle-free route of immunization for use with subunit vaccines, nasal immunization continues to be evaluated as a route of immunization in both research and clinical studies. However, as with other vaccination routes, subunit vaccines often require the addition of adjuvants to induce potent immune responses. Unfortunately, many commonly used experimental vaccine adjuvants, such as cholera toxin and E. coli heat-labile toxin, are too toxic for use in humans. Because new adjuvants are needed, cytokines have been evaluated for their ability to provide effective adjuvant activity when delivered by the nasal route in both animal models and in limited human studies. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the potential of cytokines as nasal vaccine adjuvants. PMID:21826181

  4. Inflammatory cytokines in atherosclerosis: current therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Tousoulis, Dimitris; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Economou, Evangelos K; Crea, Filippo; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-07

    The notion of atherosclerosis as a chronic inflammatory disease has intensified research on the role of cytokines and the way these molecules act and interact to initiate and sustain inflammation in the microenvironment of an atherosclerotic plaque. Cytokines are expressed by all types of cells involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, act on a variety of targets exerting multiple effects, and are largely responsible for the crosstalk among endothelial, smooth muscle cells, leucocytes, and other vascular residing cells. It is now understood that widely used drugs such as statins, aspirin, methotrexate, and colchicine act in an immunomodulatory way that may beneficially affect atherogenesis and/or cardiovascular disease progression. Moreover, advancement in pharmaceutical design has enabled the production of highly specific antibodies against key molecules involved in the perpetuation of the inflammatory cascade, raising hope for advances in the treatment of atherosclerosis. This review describes the actions and effects of these agents, their potential clinical significance, and future prospects.

  5. Cytokine signalling in mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christine J; Oliver, Carrie H; Khaled, Walid T

    2011-03-01

    Mammary gland development occurs in three distinct stages during the lifetime of the female mammal: in embryonic, pubertal and reproductive life. At each of these developmental stages, different signalling molecules induce changes in both the epithelium and the surrounding stroma. However, it is during pregnancy that the most dramatic changes occur, resulting in a massive increase in the number of epithelial cells and in their function. Pregnancy initiates the development of a new epithelial lineage, the alveolar cells, which form the milk-producing lobuloalveolar structures. These cells become redundant at the end of lactation and are removed in an exquisitely controlled process of tissue remodelling coupled with extensive cell death. All of these events require not only steroid hormones but also sequential signalling by cytokines. A recent surprising discovery was that the signalling pathways and cytokines that regulate lineage determination in T helper cells are also involved in mammary gland development during pregnancy.

  6. Suppression of Cytokine Signaling: the SOCS perspective

    PubMed Central

    Linossi, Edmond M.; Babon, Jeffrey J.; Hilton, Douglas J.; Nicholson, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) family of proteins has resulted in a significant body of research dedicated to dissecting their biological functions and the molecular mechanisms by which they achieve potent and specific inhibition of cytokine and growth factor signaling. The Australian contribution to this field has been substantial, with the initial discovery of SOCS1 by Hilton, Starr and colleagues (discovered concurrently by two other groups) and the following work, providing a new perspective on the regulation of JAK/STAT signaling. In this review, we reflect on the critical discoveries that have lead to our current understanding of how SOCS proteins function and discuss what we see as important questions for future research. PMID:23545160

  7. Borrelia burgdorferi Induces the Production and Release of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Canine Synovial Explant Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Straubinger, Reinhard K.; Straubinger, Alix F.; Summers, Brian A.; Erb, Hollis N.; Härter, Luc; Appel, Max J. G.

    1998-01-01

    Canine synovial membrane explants were exposed to high- or low-passage Borrelia burgdorferi for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Spirochetes received no treatment, were UV light irradiated for 16 h, or were sonicated prior to addition to synovial explant cultures. In explant tissues, mRNA levels for the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, and IL-8 were surveyed semiquantitatively by reverse transcription-PCR. Culture supernatants were examined for numbers of total and motile (i.e., viable) spirochetes, TNF-like and IL-1-like activities, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) chemotaxis-inducing activities, and IL-8. During exposure to synovial explant tissues, the total number of spirochetes in the supernatants decreased gradually by ∼30%, and the viability also declined. mRNAs for TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8 were up-regulated in synovial explant tissues within 3 h after infection with untreated or UV light-irradiated B. burgdorferi, and mRNA levels corresponded to the results obtained with bioassays. During 24 h of coincubation, cultures challenged with untreated or UV light-irradiated spirochetes produced similar levels of TNF-like and IL-1-like activities. In contrast, explant tissues exposed to untreated B. burgdorferi generated significantly higher levels of chemotactic factors after 24 h of incubation than did explant tissues exposed to UV light-treated spirochetes. In identical samples, a specific signal for IL-8 was identified by Western blot analysis. High- and low-passage borreliae did not differ in their abilities to induce proinflammatory cytokines. No difference in cytokine induction between untreated and sonicated high-passage spirochetes was observed, suggesting that fractions of the organism can trigger the production and release of inflammatory mediators. The titration of spirochetes revealed a dose-independent cytokine response, where 103 to 107 B. burgdorferi organisms induced similar TNF

  8. Tumor Vaccination With Cytokine-Loaded Microspheres

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    indirect effects of IFN-gamma. J Immunol. 2003;170:400–412. 23. Yan J, Vetvicka V, Xia Y, et al. Beta - glucan , a ‘‘specific’’ biologic response...12, GM-CSF, Breast Cancer , Spontaneous tumors 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF... cancer vaccines, cytokines, adjuvants, immunotherapy, tumor models (J Immunother 2006;29:10–20) I t is now well established that numerous immune

  9. Effects of hemorrhage on cytokine gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Shenkar, R; Abraham, E

    1993-08-01

    Injury and blood loss are often followed by infection and the rapid development of organ system dysfunction, frequently involving mucosal sites, such as the lung and intestine. To examine possible mechanisms contributing to these conditions, we used semiquantitative polymerase chain reactions to determine cytokine mRNA expression among cellular populations isolated from mucosal and systemic anatomic sites of mice at predetermined time points following 30% blood volume hemorrhage with resuscitation 1 hr later. Within 1 hr after hemorrhage, significant increases were observed in mRNA levels for IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-5, and TGF-beta in intraparenchymal pulmonary mononuclear cells. The levels of TGF-beta transcripts among alveolar macrophages were increased 1 hr following blood loss, and increase in IL-1 alpha transcripts was found starting 2 hr posthemorrhage. Cells from Peyer's patches showed significant increases in mRNA levels for IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IFN-gamma, and TGF-beta during the 4 hr following hemorrhage. Significant increases in mRNA levels for IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta were present within 4 hr of blood loss among cells isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes. The expression of mRNA for most cytokines was not significantly altered in splenocytes or peripheral blood mononuclear cells at any time point following hemorrhage. These experiments demonstrate that blood loss, even if resuscitated, produces significant increases in proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokine gene transcription as early as 1 hr following hemorrhage. These posthemorrhage alterations in cytokine mRNA expression were particularly prominent at mucosal sites, suggesting a mechanism for the increased incidence of pulmonary and intestinal involvement in organ system failure following severe blood loss and injury.

  10. Cytokine-Induced Modulation of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mager, Lukas F.; Wasmer, Marie-Hélène; Rau, Tilman T.; Krebs, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of novel immunomodulatory cancer therapies over the last decade, above all immune checkpoint blockade, has significantly advanced tumor treatment. For colorectal cancer (CRC), a novel scoring system based on the immune cell infiltration in tumors has greatly improved disease prognostic evaluation and guidance to more specific therapy. These findings underline the relevance of tumor immunology in the future handling and therapeutic approach of malignant disease. Inflammation can either promote or suppress CRC pathogenesis and inflammatory mediators, mainly cytokines, critically determine the pro- or anti-tumorigenic signals within the tumor environment. Here, we review the current knowledge on the cytokines known to be critically involved in CRC development and illustrate their mechanisms of action. We also highlight similarities and differences between CRC patients and murine models of CRC and point out cytokines with an ambivalent role for intestinal cancer. We also identify some of the future challenges in the field that should be addressed for the development of more effective immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:27148488

  11. Cytokines as biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Burska, Agata; Boissinot, Marjorie; Ponchel, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    RA is a complex disease that develops as a series of events often referred to as disease continuum. RA would benefit from novel biomarker development for diagnosis where new biomarkers are still needed (even if progresses have been made with the inclusion of ACPA into the ACR/EULAR 2010 diagnostic criteria) and for prognostic notably in at risk of evolution patients with autoantibody-positive arthralgia. Risk biomarkers for rapid evolution or cardiovascular complications are also highly desirable. Monitoring biomarkers would be useful in predicting relapse. Finally, predictive biomarkers for therapy outcome would allow tailoring therapy to the individual. Increasing numbers of cytokines have been involved in RA pathology. Many have the potential as biomarkers in RA especially as their clinical utility is already established in other diseases and could be easily transferable to rheumatology. We will review the current knowledge's relation to cytokine used as biomarker in RA. However, given the complexity and heterogeneous nature of RA, it is unlikely that a single cytokine may provide sufficient discrimination; therefore multiple biomarker signatures may represent more realistic approach for the future of personalised medicine in RA.

  12. Postnatal irradiation-induced hippocampal neuropathology, cognitive impairment and aging.

    PubMed

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2017-04-01

    Irradiation of the brain in early human life may set abnormal developmental events into motion that last a lifetime, leading to a poor quality of life for affected individuals. While the effect of irradiation at different early developmental stages on the late human life has not been investigated systematically, animal experimental studies suggest that acute postnatal irradiation with ⩾0.1Gy may significantly reduce neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and endotheliogenesis in cerebral vessels and induce cognitive impairment and aging. Fractionated irradiation also reduces neurogenesis. Furthermore, irradiation induces hippocampal neuronal loss in CA1 and CA3 areas, neuroinflammation and reduces gliogenesis. The hippocampal neurovascular niche and the total number of microvessels are also changed after radiation exposures. Each or combination of these pathological changes may cause cognitive impairment and aging. Interestingly, acute irradiation of aged brain with a certain amount of radiation has also been reported to induce brain hormesis or neurogenesis. At molecular levels, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, neural growth factors, neurotransmitters, their receptors and signal transduction systems, reactive oxygen species are involved in radiation-induced adverse effect on brain development and functions. Further study at different omics levels after low dose/dose rate irradiation may not only unravel the mechanisms of radiation-induced adverse brain effect or hormesis, but also provide clues for detection or diagnosis of radiation exposure and for therapeutic approaches to effectively prevent radiation-induced cognitive impairment and aging. Investigation focusing on radiation-induced changes of critical brain development events may reveal many previously unknown adverse effects.

  13. FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

    1961-05-01

    An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

  14. Fuel or irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

    1975-12-23

    A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on physical characteristics of Jordanian durum wheat and quality of semolina and lasagna products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzeh, F. S.; Amr, A. S.

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of using varying gamma irradiation doses on the physiochemical and rheological properties of semolina and its products. Ash, protein and water content were not influenced with gamma irradiation, while falling number and fungi counts decreased with increasing irradiation dose. Irradiation adversely affected wet gluten at 5 kGy dose. Dough stability was deteriorated vigorously with increasing irradiation dose. Sensory evaluation showed that lasagna produced from 0.25- and 1 kGy-irradiated semolina did not show any significant differences as compared with the control sample.

  16. Biomodulation of Inflammatory Cytokines Related to Oral Mucositis by Low-Level Laser Therapy.

    PubMed

    Basso, Fernanda G; Pansani, Taisa N; Soares, Diana G; Scheffel, Débora L; Bagnato, Vanderlei S; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto; Hebling, Josimeri

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of LLLT on the expression of inflammatory cytokines related to the development of oral mucositis by gingival fibroblasts. Primary gingival fibroblasts were seeded on 24-well plates (10(5) cells/well) for 24 h. Fresh serum-free culture medium (DMEM) was then added, and cells were placed in contact with LPS (Escherichia coli, 1 μg mL(-1)), followed by LLLT irradiation (LaserTABLE-InGaAsP diode prototype-780 nm, 25 mW) delivering 0, 0.5, 1.5 or 3 J cm(-2)². Cells without contact with LPS were also irradiated with the same energy densities. Gene expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 was evaluated by Real-Time PCR, and protein synthesis of these cytokines was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay. Data were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test, complemented by the Mann-Whitney test (P < 0.05). LPS treatment increased the gene expression and protein synthesis of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8, while the expression of IL-1β was not affected. For LPS-treated groups, LLLT promoted significant decreases in the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 at 1.5 J cm(-2) and 3 J cm(-2). These results demonstrate that LLLT promoted a beneficial biomodulatory effect on the expression of inflammatory cytokines related to oral mucositis by human gingival fibroblasts.

  17. Rheumatoid arthritis pathophysiology: update on emerging cytokine and cytokine-associated cell targets.

    PubMed

    Furst, Daniel E; Emery, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Biologic therapies that target pathogenic cytokines such as TNF, IL-1β or IL-6 have greatly improved the treatment of RA. Unfortunately, not all RA patients respond to current biologic therapies and responses are not always maintained, suggesting that there are alternative drivers of RA pathogenesis that might serve as promising therapeutic targets. Discovery of the new Th17 subset of Th cells, and their role in autoimmune disease development, has implicated the proinflammatory IL-12 and IL-17 families of cytokines in RA disease pathogenesis. Members of these cytokine families are elevated in the blood and joints of RA patients and have been shown to remain elevated in patients who do not respond to current biologics. In addition, these cytokines have been shown to play roles in joint destruction and erosion. A new subclass of biologics that target the IL-12 and/or IL-17 signalling pathways are under development. Here we review evidence for a role of Th17 cells as well as IL-12 and IL-17 cytokines in RA pathogenesis as the rationale for a subsequent discussion of the ongoing and completed clinical trials of newly emerging biologic therapies directed at IL-12 or IL-17 pathway inhibition.

  18. Molecular transduction mechanisms of cytokine-hormone interactions: role of gp130 cytokines.

    PubMed

    Gerez, Juan; Bonfiglio, José; Sosa, Sebastian; Giacomini, Damiana; Acuña, Matias; Nagashima, Alberto Carbia; Perone, Marcelo J; Silberstein, Susana; Renner, Ulrich; Stalla, Günter K; Arzt, Eduardo

    2007-09-01

    Highly sophisticated mechanisms confer on the immune system the capacity to respond with a certain degree of autonomy. However, the final outcome of an immune response depends on the interaction of the immune system with other systems. The immune and neuroendocrine systems have an intimate cross-communication that makes possible a satisfactory response to environmental changes. Part of this interaction occurs through cytokines and steroid hormones. The last step of this cross-talk is the molecular level. As a model of interaction, this review focuses on the gp130 cytokine family. These cytokines, as well as their receptors, are expressed in pituitary cells. They regulate hormone production as well as growth of pituitary cells. During acute or chronic inflammation or infection, systemic, hypothalamic and hypophyseal gp130 cytokines act on anterior pituitary cells, integrating the neuroendocrine-immune response. Disruptions of these pathways may lead not only to abnormal growth of pituitary cells but also to immune disorders, for which, based on recent findings, targeting these cytokines might be a novel therapeutic approach.

  19. Microwave Irradiation on Halloysite-Polypropylene Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espino, Omar; Yust, Brian; Chipara, Dorina; Ajayan, Pullickel; Chipara, Alin; Chipara, Mircea; Utrgv Collaboration; Rice Collaboration

    Halloysite is an unique cyllindrical nanoclay characterized by poor electrical and thermal conductivity, which may become the filler of choice for the reinforcement of polymeric matrix, where electrical or thermal insulation are required. The main limits in the use of halloysite as replacement for carbon nanotube (CNT) are: 1. Smaller aspect ratio as halloysites are typically shorter than CNTs. 2. Smaller Young modulus of halloysites compared with CNTs. 3. Reduced thermal stability due to the loss of water upon heating. A research on halloysite dispersed within isotactic polypropylene is reported. To improve the interface between the halloysite and the polymeric matrix a microwave irradiation step has been considered. The local heating of the halloysite nanotubes is mediated by the absorbed/structural water content of the nanoclay. Nanocomposites loaded by various amounts of halloysite ranging from 0 % to 20 % wt. have been prepared by melt mixing by using a Haake RheoMixer. The as obtained nanocomposites have been subjected to microwave irradiation at 75 W in an Anton Paar Monowave 300 system and various irradiation times ranging from 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. The effect of microwave irradiation has been studied by Raman and FTIR spectroscopy

  20. Cytokines: The Good, the Bad, and the Deadly.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Thulasi; Auletta, Carol S; Weinstock, Daniel; Mounho-Zamora, Barbara; Ryan, Patricia C; Salcedo, Theodora W; Bannish, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the world of pharmaceutical toxicology has seen an explosion in the area of cytokines. An overview of the many aspects of cytokine safety evaluation currently in progress and evolving strategies for evaluating these important entities was presented at this symposium. Cytokines play a broad role to help the immune system respond to diseases, and drugs which modulate their effect have led to some amazing therapies. Cytokines may be "good" when stimulating the immune system to fight a foreign pathogen or attack tumors. Other "good" cytokine effects include reduction of an immune response, for example interferon β reduction of neuron inflammation in patients with multiple sclerosis. They may be "bad" when their expression causes inflammatory diseases, such as the role of tumor necrosis factor α in rheumatoid arthritis or asthma and Crohn's disease. Therapeutic modulation of cytokine expression can help the "good" cytokines to generate or quench the immune system and block the "bad" cytokines to prevent damaging inflammatory events. However, care must be exercised, as some antibody therapeutics can cause "ugly" cytokine release which can be deadly. Well-designed toxicology studies should incorporate careful assessment of cytokine modulation that will allow effective therapies to treat unmet needs. This symposium discussed lessons learned in cytokine toxicology using case studies and suggested future directions.

  1. Insights into Cytokine–Receptor Interactions from Cytokine Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, Jamie B.; Moraga, Ignacio; Mendoza, Juan L.; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines exert a vast array of immunoregulatory actions critical to human biology and disease. However, the desired immunotherapeutic effects of native cytokines are often mitigated by toxicity or lack of efficacy, either of which results from cytokine receptor pleiotropy and/or undesired activation of off-target cells. As our understanding of the structural principles of cytokine–receptor interactions has advanced, mechanism-based manipulation of cytokine signaling through protein engineering has become an increasingly feasible and powerful approach. Modified cytokines, both agonists and antagonists, have been engineered with narrowed target cell specificities, and they have also yielded important mechanistic insights into cytokine biology and signaling. Here we review the theory and practice of cytokine engineering and rationalize the mechanisms of several engineered cytokines in the context of structure. We discuss specific examples of how structure-based cytokine engineering has opened new opportunities for cytokines as drugs, with a focus on the immunotherapeutic cytokines interferon, interleukin-2, and interleukin-4. PMID:25493332

  2. Effect of ozone on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and related inflammatory cytokines in rats with diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Xie, T Y; Yan, W; Lou, J; Chen, X Y

    2016-05-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ozone on inflammatory cytokines in diabetic retinopathy (DR) rats. Male rats (40) weighing 300-360 g were included in this study. Thirty rats were randomly divided into the model and ozone groups after DR was induced by streptozotocin. Ten rats served as the blank group. After the diabetic models were established for one month, the rats in the ozone group were treated with 50 mg/kg ozone coloclysis for one month (three times a week). After the rats were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection, blood samples from the abdominal aorta were collected, and the supernatant was obtained by centrifugation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inflammatory cytokine content in the serum was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The values of VEGF, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-a, and IL-6 were significantly different among the three groups (P < 0.05). The cytokine levels in the model group were higher than those in the blank group (P < 0.05). The level of each cytokine in the ozone group was higher than that in the blank group. Compared with the model group, the cytokine levels in the ozone group were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Ozone had no effect on the blood glucose of diabetic rats. Treatment with ozone coloclysis may effectively reduce the secretion of VEGF and inflammatory cytokines in diabetic retinopathy rats.

  3. Historical review: Cytokines as therapeutics and targets of therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Vilcek, Jan; Feldmann, Marc

    2004-04-01

    Cytokine research has spawned the introduction of new therapies that have revolutionized the treatment of many important diseases. These therapeutic advances have resulted from two very different strategies. The first therapeutic strategy embodies the administration of purified, recombinant cytokines. The second relies on the administration of therapeutics that inhibit the harmful effects of upregulated, endogenous cytokines. Examples of successful cytokine therapeutics include hematopoietic growth factors (colony stimulating factors) and interferons. Prime examples of cytokine antagonists that have profoundly altered the treatment of some inflammatory disorders are agents that inhibit the effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In this article, we highlight some of the studies that have been responsible for the introduction of cytokine and anti-cytokine therapies, with emphasis on the development of interferons and anti-TNF agents.

  4. Multiple Circulating Cytokines Are Coelevated in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Ian; John, Michelle; Bolton, Charlotte E.; Harrison, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory biomarkers, including cytokines, are associated with COPD, but the association of particular circulating cytokines with systemic pathology remains equivocal. To investigate this, we developed a protein microarray system to detect multiple cytokines in small volumes of serum. Fourteen cytokines were measured in serum from never-smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and COPD patients (GOLD stages 1–3). Certain individual circulating cytokines (particularly TNFα and IL-1β) were significantly elevated in concentration in the serum of particular COPD patients (and some current/ex-smokers without COPD) and may serve as markers of particularly significant systemic inflammation. However, numerous circulating cytokines were raised such that their combined, but not individual, elevation was significantly associated with severity of disease, and these may be further indicators of, and contributors to, the systemic inflammatory manifestations of COPD. The coelevation of numerous circulating cytokines in COPD is consistent with the insidious development, chronic nature, and systemic comorbidities of the disease. PMID:27524865

  5. Multiple Circulating Cytokines Are Coelevated in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, Senthooran; Todd, Ian; Tighe, Patrick J; John, Michelle; Bolton, Charlotte E; Harrison, Timothy; Fairclough, Lucy C

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory biomarkers, including cytokines, are associated with COPD, but the association of particular circulating cytokines with systemic pathology remains equivocal. To investigate this, we developed a protein microarray system to detect multiple cytokines in small volumes of serum. Fourteen cytokines were measured in serum from never-smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and COPD patients (GOLD stages 1-3). Certain individual circulating cytokines (particularly TNFα and IL-1β) were significantly elevated in concentration in the serum of particular COPD patients (and some current/ex-smokers without COPD) and may serve as markers of particularly significant systemic inflammation. However, numerous circulating cytokines were raised such that their combined, but not individual, elevation was significantly associated with severity of disease, and these may be further indicators of, and contributors to, the systemic inflammatory manifestations of COPD. The coelevation of numerous circulating cytokines in COPD is consistent with the insidious development, chronic nature, and systemic comorbidities of the disease.

  6. Cytokines: Names and Numbers You Should Care About.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, Stephen R; Gan, Poh-Yi

    2015-12-07

    Cytokines play an important role in host defense against microorganisms. They orchestrate innate immunity by inducing protective local inflammation and systemic acute phase responses. Cytokines are important in initiating, amplifying, directing, mediating, and regulating adaptive immunity. Unfortunately, they may also direct tissue damage if excessive responses occur or if they are involved in directing and mediating autoimmunity. Under these circumstances, cytokines are potential therapeutic targets. Over the last 20 years, we have seen the successful development and clinical implementation of biologic strategies that target key cytokines in specific inflammatory diseases with efficacy, specificity, and toxicity profiles challenging conventional drug therapies. These therapies are finding new applications and many new agents show promise. Unfortunately, these new cytokine-based therapies have had little effect on renal disease. This review provides evidence that common renal diseases, including those causing AKI and the autoimmune proliferative and crescentic forms of GN, have cytokine mediation profiles that suggest they would be susceptible to cytokine-targeting therapeutic strategies.

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on deteriorated paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicchieri, Marina; Monti, Michela; Piantanida, Giovanna; Sodo, Armida

    2016-08-01

    Even though gamma radiation application, also at the minimum dosage required for disinfection, causes depolymerization and degradation of the paper substrate, recently published papers seemed, instead, to suggest that γ-rays application could be envisaged in some conditions for Cultural Heritage original documents and books. In some of the published papers, the possible application of γ-rays was evaluated mainly by using mechanical tests that scarcely reflect the chemical modifications induced in the cellulosic support. In the present article the effect of low dosage γ-irradiation on cellulosic substrates was studied and monitored applying different techniques: colorimetry, spectroscopic measurements, carbonyl content and average viscometric degree of polymerization. Two different papers were investigated, a non-sized, non-filled cotton paper, and a commercial permanent paper. To simulate a real deteriorated document, which could need γ-rays irradiation, some samples were submitted to a hydrolysis treatment. We developed a treatment based on the exposition of paper to hydrochloric acid vapors, avoiding any contact of the samples with water. This method induces a degradation similar to that observed on original documents. The samples were then irradiated with 3 kGy γ-rays at a 5258 Gy/h rate. The aforementioned analyses were performed on the samples just irradiated and after artificial ageing. All tests showed negative effects of gamma irradiation on paper. Non-irradiated paper preserves better its appearance and chemical properties both in the short term and after ageing, while the irradiated samples show appreciable color change and higher oxidation extent. Since the Istituto centrale restauro e conservazione patrimonio archivistico e librario is responsible for the choice of all restoration treatments that could be applied on library and archival materials under the protection of the Italian State (http://www.icpal.beniculturali.it/allegati/DM-7

  8. Irradiating insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a non-technical article focusing on phytosanitary uses of irradiation. In a series of interview questions, I present information on the scope of the invasive species problem and the contribution of international trade in agricultural products to the movement of invasive insects. This is foll...

  9. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  10. Phytosanitary applications of irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytosanitary treatments are used to disinfest agricultural commodities of quarantine pests so the commodities can be shipped across quarantine barriers to trade. Ionizing irradiation is a promising treatment that is increasing in use. Almost 19,000 tons of sweet potatoes and several fruits, plus ...

  11. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

  12. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, James Irvin

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  13. Low and moderate doses of ionizing radiation up to 2 Gy modulate transmigration and chemotaxis of activated macrophages, provoke an anti-inflammatory cytokine milieu, but do not impact upon viability and phagocytic function.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, R; Ernst, A; Rödel, F; Fietkau, R; Ott, O; Lauber, K; Frey, B; Gaipl, U S

    2015-01-01

    Benign painful and inflammatory diseases have been treated for decades with low/moderate doses of ionizing radiation (LD-X-irradiation). Tissue macrophages regulate initiation and resolution of inflammation by the secretion of cytokines and by acting as professional phagocytes. Having these pivotal functions, we were interested in how activated macrophages are modulated by LD-X-irradiation, also with regard to radiation protection issues and carcinogenesis. We set up an ex-vivo model in which lipopolysaccharide pre-activated peritoneal macrophages (pMΦ) of radiosensitive BALB/c mice, mimicking activated macrophages under inflammatory conditions, were exposed to X-irradiation from 0·01 Gy up to 2 Gy. Afterwards, the viability of the pMΦ, their transmigration and chemotaxis, the phagocytic behaviour, the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and underlying signalling pathways were determined. Exposure of pMΦ up to a single dose of 2 Gy did not influence their viability and phagocytic function, an important fact regarding radiation protection. However, significantly reduced migration, but increased chemotaxis of pMΦ after exposure to 0·1 or 0·5 Gy, was detected. Both might relate to the resolution of inflammation. Cytokine analyses revealed that, in particular, the moderate dose of 0·5 Gy applied in low-dose radiotherapy for inflammatory diseases results in an anti-inflammatory cytokine microenvironment of pMΦ, as the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β was reduced and that of the anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β increased. Further, the reduced secretion of IL-1β correlated with reduced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65, starting at exposure of pMΦ to 0·5 Gy of X-irradiation. We conclude that inflammation is modulated by LD-X-irradiation via changing the inflammatory phenotype of macrophages.

  14. Cytokines, cytokine gene polymorphisms and Helicobacter pylori infection: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Camila A; Marques, Cintia Rodrigues; Costa, Ryan dos Santos; da Silva, Hugo Bernardino F; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a flagellated, spiral-shaped, microaerophilic Gram-negative bacillus that colonises the gastric mucosa of more than 50% of the human population. Infection is a risk factor for gastritis, ulcer disease and stomach cancer. Immunity against H. pylori is mainly related to Th1/Th17 skewing, and the activation of regulatory T cells is the main strategy used to limit inflammatory responses, which can result in the pathogen persistence and can lead to chronic gastrointestinal diseases, including cancer. Furthermore, host genetic factors that affect cytokines may determine differences in the susceptibility to many diseases. In this review, we present the cytokine profiles and the main cytokine gene polymorphisms associated with resistance/susceptibility to H. pylori and discuss how such polymorphisms may influence infection/disease outcomes.

  15. Ultraviolet irradiation in transplantation biology. Manipulation of immunity and immunogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.

    1988-05-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation, particularly in the UVB range, has profound effects on immunological mechanisms. Optimum and tolerable doses of exposure vary from species to species, and from organ to organ. As a result of limited depth penetration and possibly significant energy absorption in nontargeted cells, every model requires diligent determination of an effective nontoxic approach. Nevertheless, it is clear that UVB and UVC irradiation can abolish proliferative and stimulatory ability as well as accessory/antigen-presenting ability of leukocytes in vitro. UV treatment alters cell-surface properties, calcium mobilization, cytokine production and release, and other subcellular processes. Preliminary data suggest that these manipulations also suppress immunity and reduce immunogenicity in vivo. Exposure of solid organs and of large volumes of blood is difficult due to technical problems--in particular poor depth penetration and absorption of UV energy in generally available transfusion bags. 111 references.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity reduction of cereal porridges for improving energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Hong; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Mee-Ree; Kim, Kwan-Soo; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2008-03-01

    Cereal porridges have low energy and nutrient density because of its viscosity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the reduction of viscosity and on the increasing solid content of cereal porridge. Four cereals, wheat, rice, maize (the normal starchy type) and waxy rice, were used in this study. The porridge with 3000 cP was individually prepared from cereal flour, gamma-irradiated at 20 kGy and tested. Gamma irradiation of 20 kGy was allowed that the high viscous and rigid cereal porridges turned into semi-liquid consistencies. The solid contents of all porridges could increase by irradiation, compared with non-irradiated ones. No significant differences of starch digestibility were observed in all cereal porridge samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation might be helpful for improving energy density of cereal porridge with acceptable consistency.

  17. Fluorescence properties and electron paramagnetic resonance studies of γ-irradiated Sm3+-doped oxyfluoroborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, B. Hari; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.

    2012-11-01

    The permanent photoinduced valence manipulation of samarium doped oxyfluoroborate glasses as a function of γ-ray irradiation has been investigated using a steady-state fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance techniques. An increase in SrF2 content in the glass led to the red shift of the peaks in as prepared glass, while in irradiated glasses this led to the decrease in defect formation as well as increase in photoreduction of Sm3+ to Sm2+ ion. The energy transfer mechanism of induced permanent photoreduction of Sm3+ to Sm2+ ions in oxyfluoroborate glasses has been discussed. The decay analysis shows exponential behavior before irradiation and non-exponential behavior after irradiation. The energy transfer in irradiated glasses increases with the increase in SrF2 content in the glass and also with the irradiation dose.

  18. Cytokine Changes following Acute Ethanol Intoxication in Healthy Men: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Skulberg, Andreas; Skulberg, Knut Ragnvald; Aass, Hans Christian D.; Bramness, Jørgen G.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a known modulator of the innate immune system. Owing to the absence of human studies, alcohol's effect on circulating cytokine profile remains unclear. We investigated the effect of acute high dose alcohol consumption on systemic cytokine release. After an overnight fasting, alcohol-experienced healthy male volunteers (N = 20) aged 25–45 years were given oral ethanol in the form of vodka (4.28 mL/kg) which they drank over a period of 30 minutes reaching peak blood alcohol concentration of 0.12% (SD 0.028). Blood samples were obtained prior to alcohol intake as well as 2, 7, and 12 hours thereafter. Serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and TNF-α were determined by the multibead-based assay. Baseline cytokine levels were not related to BMI, hepatic parameters, electrolytes, glucose, or morning cortisol levels. Within 2 hours of alcohol intake, levels of IL-1Ra were elevated and remained so throughout the assessment period (p for trend = 0.015). In contrast, the levels of the chemokine MCP-1 dropped acutely followed by steadily increasing levels during the observation period (p < 0.001). The impact of sustained elevated levels of MCP-1 even after the clearance of blood alcohol content deserves attention. PMID:28090151

  19. Anti-inflammatory action of γ-irradiated genistein in murine peritoneal macrophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Song, Du-Sup; Jin, Yeung-Bae; Park, Jae-Nam; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun

    2014-12-01

    This present study was to examine the cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of gamma (γ)-irradiated genistein in murine peritoneal macrophage. Inflammation to macrophage was induced by adding the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). γ-Irradiated genistein significantly decreased the cytotoxicity to murine peritoneal macrophage in dose ranges from 5 to 10 μM than that of non-irradiated genistein. Anti-inflammatory activity within the doses less than 2 μM showed that γ-irradiated genistein treatment remarkably reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by decreasing the nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) production. In a structural analysis through the high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), γ-irradiated genistein showed a new peak production distinguished from main peak of genistein (non-irradiated). Therefore, increase of anti-inflammatory activity may closely mediate with structural changes induced by γ irradiation exposure. Based on the above result, γ-irradiation could be an effective tool for reduction of toxicity and increase of physiological activity of biomolecules.

  20. [Peculiarities of cytokine status in patients with vitiligo and stress in anamnesis].

    PubMed

    Tsiskarishvili, N V; Katsitadze, A; Tsiskarishvili, N I; Chitanava, L

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the content of some proinflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6) in the serum of patients with vitiligo and stress in anamnesis. Cytokine levels in serum were measured in 50 patients with vitiligo (20 men and 30 women aged from 18 to 65 years old.) All the patients were divided according to anamnesis (27 patients with stress in anamnesis and 23 patients, where the onset of the disease was not preceded by stress). Patients of both groups were similar in terms of shape (according to T. Fitzpatrick classification) and in terms of the dermatosis stages. Concomitant autoimmune or inflammatory diseases of the skin in our vitiligo patients were not observed. The cytokines in the blood serum of vitiligo patients were determined by ELISA using the corresponding monoclonal antibodies. Student's t-test was used for evaluation of statistical significance of received results (p < 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant). Content of IL-2 in the serum of patients with vitiligo, in which stress was not preceded dermatosis, was significantly higher than that in healthy individuals (25,5 ± 7,6 vs 10,5 ± 3,6 pg/ml, p < 0,05). But the same parameter in patients with stress in anamnesis was significantly lower than those in healthy individuals (3,5 ± 1,5 vs 10,5 ± 3,6 pg/l, p < 0.05). Changes in the content of IL-6 in the serum of vitiligo patients was a similar to changes in IL-2 content, and the most significant this indicator was in patients with generalized and progressive stage of the disease. Data on increased concentrations of IL-6 agree with the majority of studies conducted earlier. For a complete analysis of our results on the reduction of the cytokines (IL-2, IL-6) content in patients with a stress in anamnesis, that will allow to identify the most effective ways to treat patients with this pathology (including their cytokine status), further research is necessary.

  1. Infarction-induced cytokines cause local depletion of tyrosine hydroxylase in cardiac sympathetic nerves

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Diana C.; Alston, Eric N.; Rohrer, Hermann; Nkadi, Paul; Woodward, William R.; Schütz, Günther; Habecker, Beth A.

    2010-01-01

    Myocardial infarction causes heterogeneity of noradrenergic transmission that contributes to the development of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Ischemia-induced alterations in sympathetic transmission include regional variations in cardiac norepinephrine (NE) and in tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in NE synthesis. Inflammatory cytokines that act through gp130 are elevated in the heart after myocardial infarction. These cytokines decrease expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in sympathetic neurons, and indirect evidence suggests they contribute to the local depletion of tyrosine hydroxylase in the damaged left ventricle. However, gp130 cytokines are also important for the survival of cardiac myocytes following damage to the heart. To examine the effect of cytokines on tyrosine hydroxylase and NE content in cardiac nerves we used gp130DBH-Cre/lox mice, which have a deletion of the gp130 receptor in neurons expressing dopamine beta hydroxylase. The absence of neuronal gp130 prevented the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase in cardiac sympathetic nerves innervating the left ventricle one week after ischemia-reperfusion. Surprisingly, restoring tyrosine hydroxylase in the damaged ventricle did not return neuronal NE content to normal levels. NE uptake into cardiac nerves was significantly lower in gp130 KO mice, contributing to the lack of neuronal NE stores. There were no significant differences in left ventricular peak systolic pressure, dP/dtMAX, or dP/dtMIN between the two genotypes after myocardial infarction, but ganglionic blockade revealed differences in autonomic tone between the genotypes. Stimulating the heart with dobutamine or releasing endogenous NE with tyramine generated similar responses in both genotypes. Thus, the removal of gp130 from sympathetic neurons prevents the post-infarct depletion of TH in the left ventricle, but does not alter NE content or cardiac function. PMID:19880537

  2. Food irradiation: Activities and potentialities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doellstaedt, R.; Huebner, G.

    After the acceptance of food irradiation up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy recommended by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food in October 1980, the G.D.R. started a programme for the development of techniques for food irradiation. A special onion irradiator was designed and built as a pilot plant for studying technological and economic parameters of the irradiation of onions. The new principle of bulk-cargo irradiation allows the integration of this technology into the usual harvest technology for onions on the way from field to storage. Scientific and applied research work has been carried out in the past 3 yr on the irradiation of spices, potatoes, eviscerated chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. In connection with the irradiation of eviscerated chicken, fodder yeast and animal feeds the basis of an antisalmonella programme has been discussed. Germ-count-reduced spices were employed for the production of test charges of preserves and tinned products. The results have led to the decision to design and build a new multipurpose irradiator for food irradiation. In order to cover the legal aspects of food irradiation the Ministry of Health issued regulations concerning the recommendation of irradiated food in the G.D.R.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on molecular structure and physicochemical properties of corn starch.

    PubMed

    Chung, H-J; Liu, Q

    2009-06-01

    Carboxyl content and amylose leaching of gamma-irradiated corn starch increased and swelling factor decreased with increasing radiation dose. The apparent amylose content decreased gradually from 28.7% for native starch to 20.9% for 50 kGy irradiated starch. The proportion of short amylopectin branch chains (DP 6 to 12) increased, while the proportion of longer branch chains (DP > or = 37) decreased with increasing radiation dose. The relative crystallinity and the degree of granule surface order decreased from 28.5% and 0.631 in native starch to 26.9% and 0.605 in 50 kGy irradiated starch, respectively. Pasting viscosity and gelatinization temperatures decreased with an increase in radiation dose. At a high dose (50 kGy), melting of amylose-lipid complex in DSC thermogram was not observed. The rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content slightly decreased up to 10 kGy but increased at 50 kGy. The resistant starch (RS) content slightly decreased at 2 kGy and then increased up to 50 kGy. The slowly digestible starch (SDS) content showed the opposite trend to RS content. Slower irradiation dose rate reduced carboxyl content, swelling factor, and amylose leaching. The apparent amylose content and amylopectin chain length distribution were not significantly affected by dose rate of gamma irradiation. However, the relative crystallinity and gelatinization enthalpy increased with slower dose rate. Slower dose rate decreased RDS and SDS contents, and increased RS content.

  4. Solution assembly of cytokine receptor ectodomain complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zining; Ciardelli, T.L.; Johnson, K.W.

    1995-09-01

    For the majority of single transmembrane-spanning cell surface receptors, signal transmission across the lipid bilayer barrier involves several discrete components of molecular recognition. The interaction between ligand and the extracellular segment of its cognate receptor (ectodomain) initiates either homomeric or heteromeric association of receptor subunits. Specific recognition among these subunits may then occur between ectodomain regions, within the membrane by interhelical contact or inside the cell between cytoplasmic domains. Any or all of these interactions may contribute to the stability of the signaling complex. It is the characteristics of ligand binding by the ectodomains of these receptors that controls the heteromeric or homomeric nature and the stoichiometry of the complex. Cytokines and their receptors belong to a growing family of macromolecular systems that exhibit these functional features and share many structural similarities as well. Interleukin-2 is a multifunctional cytokine that represents, perhaps, the most complex example to date of ligand recognition among the hematopoietin receptor family. It is the cooperative binding of IL-2 by all three proteins on the surface of activated T-lymphocytes, however, that ultimately results in crosslinking of the {beta}- and {gamma}-subunits and signaling via association of their cytoplasmic domains. Although the high-affinity IL-2R functions as a heterotrimer, heterodimers of the receptor subunits are also physiologically important. The {alpha}/{beta} heterodimer or {open_quotes}pseudo-high affinity{close_quotes} receptor captures IL-2 as a preformed cell surface complex while the {beta}/{gamma} intermediate affinity site exists, in the absence of the {alpha} subunit, on the majority of natural killer cells. We have begun to study stable complexes of cytokine receptor ectodomains of defined composition and that mimic the ligand binding characteristics of the equivalent cell surface receptor sites.

  5. Cytokines and Pancreatic β-Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Berchtold, L A; Prause, M; Størling, J; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    The discovery 30 years ago that inflammatory cytokines cause a concentration, activity, and time-dependent bimodal response in pancreatic β-cell function and viability has been a game-changer in the fields of research directed at understanding inflammatory regulation of β-cell function and survival and the causes of β-cell failure and destruction in diabetes. Having until then been confined to the use of pathophysiologically irrelevant β-cell toxic chemicals as a model of β-cell death, researchers could now mimic endocrine and paracrine effects of the cytokine response in vitro by titrating concentrations in the low to the high picomolar-femtomolar range and vary exposure time for up to 14-16h to reproduce the acute regulatory effects of systemic inflammation on β-cell secretory responses, with a shift to inhibition at high picomolar concentrations or more than 16h of exposure to illustrate adverse effects of local, chronic islet inflammation. Since then, numerous studies have clarified how these bimodal responses depend on discrete signaling pathways. Most interest has been devoted to the proapoptotic response dependent upon mainly nuclear factor κ B and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, leading to gene expressional changes, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and triggering of mitochondrial dysfunction. Preclinical studies have shown preventive effects of cytokine antagonism in animal models of diabetes, and clinical trials demonstrating proof of concept are emerging. The full clinical potential of anticytokine therapies has yet to be shown by testing the incremental effects of appropriate dosing, timing, and combinations of treatments. Due to the considerable translational importance of enhancing the precision, specificity, and safety of antiinflammatory treatments of diabetes, we review here the cellular, preclinical, and clinical evidence of which of the death pathways recently proposed in the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2012

  6. Cytokine production capacity in depression and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Vogelzangs, N; de Jonge, P; Smit, J H; Bahn, S; Penninx, B W

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that immune function may be dysregulated in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders. Few studies examined the expression of cytokines in response to ex vivo stimulation of blood by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to study the innate production capacity of cytokines in depression and anxiety. To investigate this, baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used, including persons (18–65 years; 66% women) with current (that is, past month; N=591) or remitted (N=354) DSM-IV depressive or anxiety disorders and healthy controls (N=297). Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by means of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Using Multi-Analyte Profiling technology, plasma levels of 13 cytokines were assayed after whole blood stimulation by addition of LPS. Basal plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were also available. A basal and a LPS summary index were created. Results show that LPS-stimulated inflammation was associated with increased odds of current depressive/anxiety disorders (odds ratio (OR)=1.28, P=0.009), as was the case for basal inflammation (OR=1.28, P=0.001). These associations were no longer significant after adjustment for lifestyle and health (OR=1.13, P=0.21; OR=1.07, P=0.45, respectively). After adjustment for lifestyle and health, interleukin-8 was associated with both remitted (OR=1.25, P=0.02) and current (OR=1.28, P=0.005) disorders. In addition, LPS-stimulated inflammation was associated with more severe depressive (β=0.129, P<0.001) and anxiety (β=0.165, P<0.001) symptoms, as was basal inflammation. Unlike basal inflammation, LPS-stimulated inflammation was still associated with (anxiety) symptom severity after adjustment for lifestyle and health (IDS: IL-8, MCP-1, MMP2; BAI: LPS index, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, MCP-1, MMP2, TNF-β). To conclude, lifestyle and health factors may

  7. Role of gamma irradiation on the natural antioxidants in cumin seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae Hun; Shin, Mee-Hye; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Kim, Jae Kyung; Park, Hyun Jin; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon

    2009-02-01

    Antioxidants quench oxidation by transferring hydrogen atoms to free radicals. In the present investigation, the effect of gamma irradiation on the natural antioxidants of irradiated cumin was studied. Cumin samples were purchased from retailers and then irradiated in a cobalt-60 irradiator to 0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy at ambient temperature. The effect of irradiation on the antioxidant properties of the cumin seed were investigated by evaluating the radical-scavenging effect on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, determination of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total polyphenol content (TPC) and the antioxidant index by β-carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) was performed to assess ionization of cumin seeds by gamma irradiation. Irradiation was found to nonsignificantly increase and/or maintain all antioxidant parameters, TPC and the ESR signal intensity was found to be increased in cumin seeds.

  8. Curcumin protects against radiation-induced acute and chronic cutaneous toxicity in mice and decreases mRNA expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

    SciTech Connect

    Okunieff, Paul . E-mail: paul_okunieff@urmc.rochester.edu; Xu Jianhua; Hu Dongping; Liu Weimin; Zhang Lurong; Morrow, Gary; Pentland, Alice; Ryan, Julie L.; Ding, Ivan M.D.

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To determine whether curcumin ameliorates acute and chronic radiation skin toxicity and to examine the expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, IL-18, IL-1Ra, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-{alpha}, and lymphotoxin-{beta}) or fibrogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor [TGF]-{beta}) during the same acute and chronic phases. Methods and Materials: Curcumin was given intragastrically or intraperitoneally to C3H/HeN mice either: 5 days before radiation; 5 days after radiation; or both 5 days before and 5 days after radiation. The cutaneous damage was assessed at 15-21 days (acute) and 90 days (chronic) after a single 50 Gy radiation dose was given to the hind leg. Skin and muscle tissues were collected for measurement of cytokine mRNA. Results: Curcumin, administered before or after radiation, markedly reduced acute and chronic skin toxicity in mice (p < 0.05). Additionally, curcumin significantly decreased mRNA expression of early responding cytokines (IL-1 IL-6, IL-18, TNF-{alpha}, and lymphotoxin-{beta}) and the fibrogenic cytokine, TGF-{beta}, in cutaneous tissues at 21 days postradiation. Conclusion: Curcumin has a protective effect on radiation-induced cutaneous damage in mice, which is characterized by a downregulation of both inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines in irradiated skin and muscle, particularly in the early phase after radiation. These results may provide the molecular basis for the application of curcumin in clinical radiation therapy.

  9. Multiparameter flow cytometric approach for simultaneous evaluation of proliferation and cytokine-secreting activity in T cells responding to allo-stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuka; Ohdan, Hideki; Onoe, Takashi; Asahara, Toshimasa

    2004-08-01

    We report a method combining mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) using a carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labeling technique, intracellular cytokine immunofluorescence staining (ICIS), and multiparameter flow cytometry for simultaneous determination of proliferation and cytokine-secreting activity in T cells responding to allo-stimulation. C57BL/6 (B6) mice and Balb/c mice were used in the experiments. CFSE-labeled responder splenocytes were cultured with irradiated stimulator splenocytes, followed by ICIS. In both the Balb/c stimulator-versus-B6 responder (Balb/c-vs.-B6) and the B6-vs.-Balb/c allogeneic combinations, interleukin (IL)-2 secreting cells and interferon (IFN)-gamma secreting cells were identified predominantly in proliferating CD4+ and CD8+ T cell fractions, respectively. The suitability of this method was proven by demonstrating a close relationship between the values of cytokines in culture supernatants (that were determined by Cytometric Bead Array assay) and indexes for cytokine-production (that were obtained by multiplying the percentage of cytokine-producing cells in T cells and mean fluorescence intensity of cytokine-staining determined by the combined MLR and ICIS).

  10. Inflammatory Cytokines in Depression: Neurobiological Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Felger, Jennifer C.; Lotrich, Francis E.

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that inflammatory cytokines contribute to the development of depression in both medically ill and medically healthy individuals. Cytokines are important for development and normal brain function, and have the ability to influence neurocircuitry and neurotransmitter systems to produce behavioral alterations. Acutely, inflammatory cytokine administration or activation of the innate immune system produces adaptive behavioral responses that promote conservation of energy to combat infection or recovery from injury. However, chronic exposure to elevated inflammatory cytokines and persistent alterations in neurotransmitter systems can lead to neuropsychiatric disorders and depression. Mechanisms of cytokine behavioral effects involve activation of inflammatory signaling pathways in the brain that results in changes in monoamine, glutamate, and neuropeptide systems, and decreases in growth factors, e.g. brain derived neurotrophic factor. Furthermore, inflammatory cytokines may serve as mediators of both environmental (e.g. childhood trauma, obesity, stress, and poor sleep) and genetic (functional gene polymorphisms) factors that contribute to depression’s development. This review explores the idea that specific gene polymorphisms and neurotransmitter systems can confer protection from or vulnerability to specific symptom dimensions of cytokine-related depression. Additionally, potential therapeutic strategies that target inflammatory cytokine signaling or the consequences of cytokines on neurotransmitter systems in the brain to prevent or reverse cytokine effects on behavior are discussed. PMID:23644052

  11. Temporal trends in the inflammatory cytokine profile of human breastmilk.

    PubMed

    Chollet-Hinton, Lynn S; Stuebe, Alison M; Casbas-Hernandez, Patricia; Chetwynd, Ellen; Troester, Melissa A

    2014-12-01

    A longer lifetime duration of breastfeeding may decrease the risk of breast cancer by reducing breast inflammation and mitigating inflammatory cytokine expression during postlactational involution. However, little is known about how the inflammatory cytokine profile in human breastmilk changes over time. To study temporal trends in breastmilk cytokine expression, we measured 80 human cytokines in the whey fraction of breastmilk samples from 15 mothers at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postpartum. We used mixed models to identify temporal changes in cytokine expression and investigated parity status (multiparous vs. primiparous) as a potential confounder. Nine cytokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating protein-78, hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1, interleukin-16, interleukin-8, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, osteoprotegerin, and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase-2) had significantly decreased expression with increasing breastfeeding duration; all nine have known roles in breast involution, inflammation, and cancer and may serve as biomarkers of changing breast microenvironment. No cytokine significantly increased in level over the study period. Total protein concentration significantly decreased over time (p<0.0001), which may mediate the association between length of breastfeeding and inflammatory cytokine expression. Parity status did not confound temporal trends, but levels of several cytokines were significantly higher among multiparous versus primiparous women. Our results suggest that inflammatory cytokine expression during lactation is dynamic, and expressed milk may provide a noninvasive window into the extensive biological changes that occur in the postpartum breast.

  12. A genetic contribution to circulating cytokines and obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guowen; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Smith, C Wayne; Mehta, Nitesh R; Voruganti, V Saroja; Proffitt, J Michael; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2008-11-01

    Cytokines are considered to be involved in obesity-related metabolic diseases. Study objectives are to determine the heritability of circulating cytokine levels, to investigate pleiotropy between cytokines and obesity traits, and to present genome scan results for cytokines in 1030 Hispanic children enrolled in VIVA LA FAMILIA Study. Cytokine phenotypes included monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), leptin, adiponectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1), C-reactive protein (CRP), regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and eotaxin. Obesity-related phenotypes included body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), truncal FM and fasting serum insulin. Heritabilities ranged from 0.33 to 0.97. Pleiotropy was observed between cytokines and obesity traits. Positive genetic correlations were seen between CRP, leptin, MCP-1 and obesity traits, and negative genetic correlations with adiponectin, ICAM-1 and TGF-beta1. Genome-wide scan of sICAM-1 mapped to chromosome 3 (LOD=3.74) between markers D3S1580 and D3S1601, which flanks the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ). Suggestive linkage signals were found in other chromosomal regions for other cytokines. In summary, significant heritabilities for circulating cytokines, pleiotropy between cytokines and obesity traits, and linkage for sICAM-1 on chromosome 3q substantiate a genetic contribution to circulating cytokine levels in Hispanic children.

  13. TH1/TH2 cytokines in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sredni-Kenigsbuch, Dvora

    2002-06-01

    For the past 20 years it has become increasingly evident that cytokines play an important role in both the normal development of the brain, acting as neurotrophic factors, and in brain injuries. Although cytokines and their receptors are synthesized and expressed in the brain (normally at low levels), increased cytokine production levels are now associated with various neurological disorders. T lymphocytes are the cells responsible for coordinating the immune response and a major source of cytokines. Different cytokines induce different subsets of T cells or have different effects on proliferation within a particular subset. Recent studies suggest that the immune response is in fact regulated by the balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines. These two pathways are often mutually exclusive, the one resulting in protection and the other in progression of disease. Various studies describe the function and production of proinflammatory cytokines in the central nervous system (CNS) and their role in health and disease. Inflammation is upregulated following activation of Th1 cells, whereas Th2 cells may play a significant role in downregulating Th1 proinflammatory responses in those instances in which there is overproduction of Th2 cytokines. Although both Th1 and Th2 cytokines may influence CNS functioning, most studies have so far dealt with proinflammatory cytokines, probably because they directly affect CNS cells and are thought to be implicated in CNS pathology. It is of interest that endogenous glucocorticoids also control Th1-Th2 balance, favoring Th2 cell development. This review presents the evidence that cytokines have important functions in the CNS, both during development and as a part of brain pathology. In particular, the author highlighted recent work that supports a major role for the so-called inflammatory cytokines, Th1, and the anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines.

  14. ACL reconstruction with BPTB autograft and irradiated fresh frozen allograft*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kang; Tian, Shao-qi; Zhang, Ji-hua; Xia, Chang-suo; Zhang, Cai-long; Yu, Teng-bo

    2009-01-01

    laboratory examinations of all patients were almost normal. Blood routine was normal, the values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were 5~16 mm/h and the contents of C reactive protein (CRP) were 3~10 mg/L. Conclusion: We conclude that the short term clinical outcomes of the ACL reconstruction with irradiated BPTB allograft were adversely affected. The less than satisfactory results led the senior authors to discontinue the use of irradiated BPTB allograft in ACL surgery and not to advocate using the gamma irradiation as a secondary sterilizing method. PMID:19353750

  15. Vanillin protects human keratinocyte stem cells against ultraviolet B irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jienny; Cho, Jae Youl; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lee, Jongsung; Song, Jae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation is one of major factors which induce cellular damages in the epidermis. We investigated protective effects and mechanisms of vanillin, a main constituent of vanilla beans, against UVB-induced cellular damages in keratinocyte stem cells (KSC). Here, vanillin significantly attenuated UVB irradiation-induced cytotoxicity. The vanillin effects were also demonstrated by the results of the senescence-associated β-galactosidase and alkaline comet assays. In addition, vanillin induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Attempts to elucidate a possible mechanism underlying the vanillin-mediated effects revealed that vanillin significantly reduced UVB-induced phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), serine threonine kinase checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53), p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK), S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP), and histone 2A family member X (H2A.X). UVB-induced activation of p53 luciferase reporter was also significantly inhibited by vanillin. In addition, while ATM inhibitor had no effect on the vanillin effects, mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) inhibitor significantly attenuated suppressive effects of vanillin on UVB-induced activation of p53 reporter in KSC. Taken together, these findings suggest that vanillin protects KSC from UVB irradiation and its effects may occur through the suppression of downstream step of MDM2 in UVB irradiation-induced p53 activation.

  16. Superoxide dismutase activity in radioresistant tissues of irradiated rabbits.

    PubMed

    Stoklasová, A; Kovárová, H; Ledvina, M

    1992-01-01

    The activities of Cu, Zn-containing superoxide dismutase were studied in radioresistant tissues (liver, brain, erythrocytes) of whole-body irradiated rabbits with 6.0 Gy and 24.0 Gy with local shielding. No significant changes were observed after irradiation with 6.0 Gy. Both the changes in Cu, Zn-SOD activity and the protein concentrations were more pronounced after exposure to 24.0 Gy with local shielding of the head and abdominal region. The dose on the shielded regions was about 6.0 Gy. Local shielding of rabbits irradiated with a lethal dose 24.0 Gy influenced positively the survival of animals. However, the decrease in SOD activity on 60th day after irradiation seems to be unfavourable for further survival of rabbits, if we accept that SOD content in tissue is maintained at a rather constant level.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on the structure of fucoidan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Gu Lee, Sung; Jong Han, Se; Cho, Minho; Cheon Lee, Pyung

    2014-07-01

    The change of molecular structure of fucoidan by gamma irradiation was analyzed by spectral and chemical methods. Fucoidan samples with different molecular weights of 85, 30, 15, and 7 kDa were prepared by radiation degradation of 217 kDa fucoidan. In the molecular weight analysis, the polydispersity decreased by gamma radiation because of further degradation of higher weight molecules. Ultraviolet absorption and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses were carried out to define the changes of the functional groups in fucoidan by gamma irradiation. Carboxyl groups and carbon double bonds increased by gamma irradiation; however, sulfate content remained unchanged. The granular fissures were observed from scanning electron microscopy in gamma-irradiated fucoidan.

  18. Improvement in properties of plastic teeth by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Yuko; Ishikawa, Shun-ichi; Seguchi, Tadao

    2011-11-01

    Improvement of the comfort and esthetics of artificial plastic teeth is desirable for the recently increasing numbers of elderly in society. Plastic teeth made of polycarbonate (PC) were modified by electron beam (EB) irradiation under specific conditions, and the change in the chemical properties of the PC was investigated. The water absorption, glucose attachment, level of bis-phenol-A (BPA) extraction, maltose adhesion, and mucin adhesion on the PC teeth were measured before and after EB irradiation. EB irradiation to a dose of 3.5 kGy at 150 °C in a nitrogen gas atmosphere reduced the water absorption by 20%, glucose absorption by 40%, maltose adhesion by 20%, and the amount of various amino acids, formed as the hydrolysis products of mucin, adhering on the PC teeth were reduced by 60-99%. The BPA content was lower than the detection limit for analysis of both the original and the EB irradiated PC teeth.

  19. Cytokine and anti-cytokine therapies in prevention or treatment of fibrosis in IBD

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Noam; Targan, Stephan R

    2016-01-01

    The frequency of fibrosing Crohn’s disease (CD) is significant, with approximately 40% of CD patients with ileal disease developing clinically apparent strictures throughout their lifetime. Although strictures may be subdivided into fibrotic, inflammatory, or mixed forms, despite immunosuppressive therapy in CD patients in the form of steroids or immunomodulators, the frequency of fibrostenosing complications has still remained significant. A vast number of genetic and epigenetic variables are thought to contribute to fibrostenosing disease, including those that affect cytokine biology, and therefore highlight the complexity of disease, but also shed light on targetable pathways. Exclusively targeting fibrosis may be difficult, however, because of the relatively slow evolution of fibrosis in CD, and the potential adverse effects of inhibiting pathways involved in tissue repair and mucosal healing. Acknowledging these caveats, cytokine-targeted therapy has become the mainstay of treatment for many inflammatory conditions and is being evaluated for fibrotic disorders. The question of whether anti-cytokine therapy will prove useful for intestinal fibrosis is, therefore, acutely relevant. This review will highlight some of the current therapeutics targeting cytokines involved in fibrosis. PMID:27536363

  20. Electroacupuncture Prevents Cognitive Impairments by Regulating the Early Changes after Brain Irradiation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xing-Wen; Chen, Fu; Chen, Yan; Chen, Guan-Hao; Liu, Huan-Huan; Guan, Shi-Kuo; Deng, Yun; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Sheng-Jian; Peng, Wei-Jun; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Wu, Kai-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments severely affect the quality of life of patients who undergo brain irradiation, and there are no effective preventive strategies. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of electroacupuncture (EA) administered immediately after brain irradiation in rats. We detected changes in cognitive function, neurogenesis, and synaptic density at different time points after irradiation, but found that EA could protect the blood-brain barrier (BBB), inhibit neuroinflammatory cytokine expression, upregulate angiogenic cytokine expression, and modulate the levels of neurotransmitter receptors and neuropeptides in the early phase. Moreover, EA protected spatial memory and recognition in the delayed phase. At the cellular/molecular level, the preventative effect of EA on cognitive dysfunction was not dependent on hippocampal neurogenesis; rather, it was related to synaptophysin expression. Our results suggest that EA applied immediately after brain irradiation can prevent cognitive impairments by protecting against the early changes induced by irradiation and may be a novel approach for preventing or ameliorating cognitive impairments in patients with brain tumors who require radiotherapy. PMID:25830357

  1. Naringenin Inhibits UVB Irradiation-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in the Skin of Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Renata M; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Steffen, Vinicius S; Caviglione, Carla V; Vignoli, Josiane A; Barbosa, Décio S; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rubia

    2015-07-24

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation may cause inflammation- and oxidative-stress-dependent skin cancer and premature aging. Naringenin (1) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, but its effects and mechanisms on UVB irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative stress are still not known. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the potential of naringenin to mitigate UVB irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative damage in the skin of hairless mice. Skin edema, myeloperoxidase (neutrophil marker) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity, and cytokine production were measured after UVB irradiation. Oxidative stress was evaluated by 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS) scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), reduced glutathione levels, catalase activity, lipid peroxidation products, superoxide anion production, and gp91phox (NADPH oxidase subunit) mRNA expression by quantitative PCR. The intraperitoneal treatment with naringenin reduced skin inflammation by inhibiting skin edema, neutrophil recruitment, MMP-9 activity, and pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23) and anti-inflammatory (TGF-β and IL-10) cytokines. Naringenin also inhibited oxidative stress by reducing superoxide anion production and the mRNA expression of gp91phox. Therefore, naringenin inhibits UVB irradiation-induced skin damage and may be a promising therapeutic approach to control skin disease.

  2. Gamma irradiation of peanut kernel to control mold growth and to diminish aflatoxin contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y.-Y. Chiou, R.

    1996-09-01

    Peanut kernel inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus conidia were gamma irradiated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy using Co60. Levels higher than 2.5 kGy were effective in retarding the outgrowth of A. parasiticus and reducing the population of natural mold contaminants. However, complete elimination of these molds was not achieved even at the dose of 10 kGy. After 4 wk incubation of the inoculated kernels in a humidified condition, aflatoxins produced by the surviving A. parasiticus were 69.12, 2.42, 57.36 and 22.28 μ/g, corresponding to the original irradiation levels. Peroxide content of peanut oils prepared from the irradiated peanuts increased with increased irradiation dosage. After storage, at each irradiation level, peroxide content in peanuts stored at -14°C was lower than that in peanuts stored at an ambient temperature. TBA values and CDHP contents of the oil increased with increased irradiation dosage and changed slightly after storage. However, fatty acid contents of the peanut oil varied in a limited range as affected by the irradiation dosage and storage temperature. The SDS-PAGE protein pattern of peanuts revealed no noticeable variation of protein subunits resulting from irradiation and storage.

  3. Some microbial, chemical and sensorial properties of gamma irradiated sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    2016-04-15

    The effect on microbial, chemical and sensorial properties of sesame seeds was determined after irradiation and storage. The sesame seeds were analyzed before and after irradiation with 3, 6 and 9 kGy of gamma irradiation, and after 6 and 12 months of storage. The results showed that gamma irradiation had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the moisture, ash and fat content on sesame seeds. While, small differences, but sometimes significant (p<0.05), on protein and sugar contents were recorded between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Total acidity percentage decreased significantly (p<0.05), while total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) increased significantly (p<0.05) due to irradiation. During storage, total acidity increased (p<0.05) and TVBN decreased (p<0.05). Gamma irradiation reduced the microorganisms of sesame seeds. Samples treated with 3 kGy or more remained completely free of fungi throughout the storage. While, only the samples treated with 9 kGy remained completely free of bacteria at the end of storage period (after 12 months). The scores for taste, flavor, color and texture of irradiated samples were higher, but not significantly (p>0.05) than those of non-irradiated samples.

  4. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS

    DOEpatents

    Damask, A.C.

    1959-11-01

    A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

  5. Anti-cytokine autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cappellano, Giuseppe; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Woldetsadik, Abiy D; Boggio, Elena; Soluri, Maria F; Comi, Cristoforo; Sblattero, Daniele; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Dianzani, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current literature is showing that autoantibodies (AutoAbs) against cytokines are produced in several pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases, but can also be detected in healthy individuals. In autoimmune diseases, these AutoAbs may also be prognostic markers, either negative (such as AutoAbs to IL-8 and IL-1α in rheumatoid arthritis) or positive (such as AutoAbs to IL-6 in systemic sclerosis and those to osteopontin in rheumatoid arthritis). They may have neutralizing activity and influence the course of the physiological and pathological immune responses. High levels of AutoAbs against cytokines may even lead to immunodeficiency, such as those to IL-17 in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I or those to IFN-γ in mycobacterial infections. Their role in human therapy may be exploited not only through passive immunization but also through vaccination, which may improve the costs for long lasting treatments of autoimmune diseases. Detection and quantification of these AutoAbs can be profoundly influenced by the technique used and standardization of these methods is needed to increase the value of their analysis. PMID:23885320

  6. Growth factors and cytokines in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Stephan; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Golinko, Michael S; Brem, Harold; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2008-01-01

    Wound healing is an evolutionarily conserved, complex, multicellular process that, in skin, aims at barrier restoration. This process involves the coordinated efforts of several cell types including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, macrophages, and platelets. The migration, infiltration, proliferation, and differentiation of these cells will culminate in an inflammatory response, the formation of new tissue and ultimately wound closure. This complex process is executed and regulated by an equally complex signaling network involving numerous growth factors, cytokines and chemokines. Of particular importance is the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), interleukin (IL) family, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha family. Currently, patients are treated by three growth factors: PDGF-BB, bFGF, and GM-CSF. Only PDGF-BB has successfully completed randomized clinical trials in the Unites States. With gene therapy now in clinical trial and the discovery of biodegradable polymers, fibrin mesh, and human collagen serving as potential delivery systems other growth factors may soon be available to patients. This review will focus on the specific roles of these growth factors and cytokines during the wound healing process.

  7. Stimulation of Hepatoma Cell Invasiveness and Metastatic Potential by Proteins Secreted From Irradiated Nonparenchymal Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Leyuan; Wang Zhiming; Gao Yabo; Wang Lingyan; Zeng Zhaochong

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To determine whether factors secreted by irradiated liver nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) may influence invasiveness and/or metastatic potential of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and to elucidate a possible mechanism for such effect. Methods and Materials: Primary rat NPCs were cultured and divided into irradiated (10-Gy X-ray) and nonirradiated groups. Forty-eight hours after irradiation, conditioned medium from irradiated (SR) or nonirradiated (SnonR) cultures were collected and added to sublethally irradiated cultures of the hepatoma McA-RH7777 cell line. Then, hepatoma cells were continuously passaged for eight generations (RH10Gy-SR and RH10Gy-SnonR). The invasiveness and metastatic potential of McA-RH7777, RH10Gy-SnonR, and RH10Gy-SR cells were evaluated using an in vitro gelatinous protein (Matrigel) invasion and an in vivo metastasis assay. In addition, SR and SnonR were tested using rat cytokine antibody arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In vitro gelatinous protein invasion assay indicated that the numbers of invading cells was significantly higher in RH10Gy-SR (40 {+-} 4.74) than in RH10Gy-SnonR (30.6 {+-} 3.85) cells, and lowest in McA-RH7777 (11.4 {+-} 3.56) cells. The same pattern was observed in vivo in a lung metastasis assay, as evaluated by number of metastatic lung nodules seen with RH10Gy-SR (28.83 {+-} 5.38), RH10Gy-SnonR (22.17 {+-} 4.26), and McA-RH7777 (8.3 {+-} 3.8) cells. Rat cytokine antibody arrays and ELISA demonstrated that metastasis-promoting cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6), circulating growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor), and metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were upregulated in SR compared with SnonR. Conclusions: Radiation can increase invasiveness and metastatic potential of sublethally irradiated hepatoma cells, and soluble mediators released from irradiated NPCs promote this potential. Increased secretion of

  8. BIOLOGICAL IRRADIATION FACILITY

    DOEpatents

    McCorkle, W.H.; Cern, H.S.

    1962-04-24

    A facility for irradiating biological specimens with neutrons is described. It includes a reactor wherein the core is off center in a reflector. A high-exposure room is located outside the reactor on the side nearest the core while a low-exposure room is located on the opposite side. Means for converting thermal neutrons to fast neutrons are movably disposed between the reactor core and the high and low-exposure rooms. (AEC)

  9. Surface segregation during irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rehn, L.E.; Lam, N.Q.

    1985-10-01

    Gibbsian adsorption is known to alter the surface composition of many alloys. During irradiation, four additional processes that affect the near-surface alloy composition become operative: preferential sputtering, displacement mixing, radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation. Because of the mutual competition of these five processes, near-surface compositional changes in an irradiation environment can be extremely complex. Although ion-beam induced surface compositional changes were noted as long as fifty years ago, it is only during the past several years that individual mechanisms have been clearly identified. In this paper, a simple physical description of each of the processes is given, and selected examples of recent important progress are discussed. With the notable exception of preferential sputtering, it is shown that a reasonable qualitative understanding of the relative contributions from the individual processes under various irradiation conditions has been attained. However, considerably more effort will be required before a quantitative, predictive capability can be achieved. 29 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma: Insights into cytokine gene polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Dondeti, Mahmoud Fathy; El-Maadawy, Eman Anwar; Talaat, Roba Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver cancer, which is one of the most prevalent cancers among humans. Many factors are involved in the liver carcinogenesis as lifestyle and environmental factors. Hepatitis virus infections are now recognized as the chief etiology of HCC; however, the precise mechanism is still enigmatic till now. The inflammation triggered by the cytokine-mediated immune response, was reported to be the closest factor of HCC development. Cytokines are immunoregulatory proteins produced by immune cells, functioning as orchestrators of the immune response. Genes of cytokines and their receptors are known to be polymorphic, which give rise to variations in their genes. These variations have a great impact on the expression levels of the secreted cytokines. Therefore, cytokine gene polymorphisms are involved in the molecular mechanisms of several diseases. This piece of work aims to shed much light on the role of cytokine gene polymorphisms as genetic host factor in hepatitis related HCC. PMID:27570418

  11. A primer on cytokines: sources, receptors, effects, and inducers.

    PubMed Central

    Curfs, J H; Meis, J F; Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J A

    1997-01-01

    Protection against pathogens is a prerequisite for survival of most organisms. To cope with this continuous challenge, complex defense mechanisms have evolved. The construction, adaptation, and maintenance of these mechanisms are under control of an extensive network of regulatory proteins called cytokines. A great number of cytokines have been described over the last 2 decades. This review consists of an overview of cytokines that are involved in immune responses and describes some historical and general aspects as well as prospective clinical applications. Major biological effects together with information on cytokine receptors, producers, inducers, and biochemical and molecular characteristics are listed in tables. In addition, some basic information is given on cytokine receptor signal transduction. Finally, the recent discoveries of cytokine receptors functioning as coreceptors in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus are summarized. PMID:9336671

  12. Crosslinking of polyamide-6 initiated by proton beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porubská, Mária; Szöllös, Ondrej; Janigová, Ivica; Jomová, Klaudia; Chodák, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Initiation of crosslinking of polyamide-6 (PA6) by proton beam irradiation was investigated for a virgin material as well as for PA6 containing up to 5 wt% of triallyl cyanurate (TAC) as a crosslinking coagent. The gel point was found to be 144 and 40 kGy for virgin PA6 and for PA6 with 1 wt% of TAC, while for higher TAC content gel content was determined to be around zero absorbed dose. The ratio between crosslinking and scission of macroradicals formed by irradiation was found to be around 0.65 regardless on presence or absence of TAC and its concentration. The more detailed discussion on chemical processes as well as on final structure formation after irradiation is based on data from differential scanning calorimetry, detecting a decrease of both lamellar thickness and crystalline portion, but an increase of glass transition temperature.

  13. Low level laser therapy on injured rat muscle: assessment of irradiation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Although studies show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in facilitating the muscle healing process, scientific evidence is still required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT and to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation. Here we evaluate the effect of different LLLT wavelengths, using continuous coherent Laser illumination (830 nm and 980 nm) and non-coherent LED illumination (850 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through the quantification of cytokines in systemic blood. We verified that all applied doses of coherent radiation produce an effect on reducing the concentration of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines, while no treatment effect was observed after irradiation with non-coherent radiation. The best results were obtained for 40 mW at 830 nm. The results may suggest an important role of coherence properties of laser in LLLT.

  14. Extractable proteins from irradiated field natural rubber latex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogero, Sizue O.; Lugão, Ademar B.; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo

    2003-06-01

    In this study field natural rubber latex was irradiated with different doses near a 60Co gamma source to reduce the water-soluble protein content in the final product. The protein content of the films obtained by casting method was extracted with phosphate buffer solution, pH 7 and was measured using Micro BCA Protein Assay kit. Also was measured protein in the serum samples of field NRL. The concentration of extractable proteins increased with increasing radiation dose.

  15. A novel multispecific competitor fragment for quantitative PCR analysis of cytokine gene expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Siegling, A; Lehmann, M; Platzer, C; Emmrich, F; Volk, H D

    1994-12-28

    Competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a sensitive method for quantification of cytokine mRNA expression. Co-amplification of an internal standard serves as control for comparing the efficiency of PCR in different samples. We have developed a novel control fragment for multiple analyses of rat cytokine gene expression containing primers for IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta 1, IFN-gamma and MIP-2. Additional primers were incorporated to analyse the content of T cells (CD3), activated T cells (CD25) and housekeeping genes (beta-actin and HPRT). As an example we demonstrate analysis of IL-2 mRNA expression in small pieces of kidney tissue obtained from rats after kidney allotransplantation. The IL-2 expression decreased tenfold during treatment with an anti-rat CD4 monoclonal antibody as compared to untreated animals.

  16. The 10Be contents of SNC meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, D. K.; Tuniz, C.; Moniot, R. K.; Savin, W.; Vajda, S.; Kruse, T.; Herzog, G. F.

    1986-01-01

    Several authors have explored the possibility that the Shergottites, Nakhlites, and Chassigny (SNC) came from Mars. The spallogenic gas contents of the SNC meteorites have been used to: constrain the sizes of the SNC's during the last few million years; to establish groupings independent of the geochemical ones; and to estimate the likelihood of certain entries in the catalog of all conceivable passages from Mars to Earth. The particular shielding dependence of Be-10 makes the isotope a good probe of the irradiation conditions experienced by the SNC meteorites. The Be-10 contents of nine members of the group were measured using the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry. The Be-10 contents of Nakhla, Governador Valadares, Chassigny, and probably Lafayette, about 20 dpm/kg, exceed the values expected from irradiation of the surface of a large body. The Be-10 data therfore do not support scenario III of Bogard et al., one in which most of the Be-10 in the SNC meteorites would have formed on the Martian surface; they resemble rather the Be-10 contents found in many ordinary chondrites subjected to 4 Pi exposures. The uncertainties of the Be-10 contents lead to appreciable errors in the Be-10 ages, t(1) = -1/lambda ln(1 Be-10/Be-10). Nonetheless, the Be-10 ages are consistent with the Ne-21 ages calculated assuming conventional, small-body production rates and short terrestrial ages for the finds. It is believed that this concordance strengthens the case for at least 3 different irradiation ages for the SNC meteorites. Given the similar half-thicknesses of the Be-10 and Ne-21 production rates, the ratios of the Be-10 and Ne-21 contents do not appear consistent with common ages for any of the groups. In view of the general agreement between the Be-10 and Ne-21 ages it does not seem useful at this time to construct multiple-stage irradiation histories for the SNC meteorites.

  17. Rapid Phytochrome-mediated Changes in Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate Content of Etiolated Bean Buds.

    PubMed

    White, J M; Pike, C S

    1974-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of red and far red irradiation on ATP metabolism in etiolated bean buds (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Red Kidney). Compared to dark controls, red irradiated buds show an initial decline in ATP content at 15 seconds following a 5-minute irradiation. ATP content then rapidly rises to a peak at 1 minute, and then slowly returns to the baseline. The 1-minute promotion of ATP content is red/far red reversible. Acetylcholine does not appear to mimic red light in this system; it causes a marked decrease in ATP content.

  18. Inflammatory cytokines in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Shu; Guilleminault, Christian; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Cheng, Chuan; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Lee, Li-Ang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with chronic systemic inflammation and with cognitive impairments. This study aimed to investigate the status of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interleukin 23 (IL-23) and cognition in pediatric OSA. Controls and OSA children participated in the study. Exclusion criteria were adenotonsillectomy, heart, neurological and severe psychiatric diseases, craniofacial syndromes, and obesity. Polysomnogram was followed by serum testing for inflammatory markers and neurocognitive tests such as continuous performance task (CPT) and Wisconsin card sorting test, questionnaires, analyses of plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-17, and IL-23. Seventy-nine, 4 to 12-year-old subjects in 2 groups ended the study: 47 nonobese OSA children (mean age = 7.84 ± 0.56 years, body mass index [BMI] = 16.95 ± 0.47 kg/m2, BMI z-score = 0.15 ± 0.21, and mean apnea–hypopnea index [AHI] = 9.13 ± 1.67 events/h) and 32 healthy control children (mean age = 7.02 ± 0.65 years, with BMI = 16.55 ± 0.58 kg/m2, BMI z-score = −0.12 ± 0.27, and mean AHI = 0.41 ± 0.07 event/h) were enrolled. Serum cytokine analyses showed significantly higher levels of HS-CRP, IL-17, and IL-23 in OSA children (P = 0.002, P = 0.024, and P = 0.047). Regression test showed significant influence of HS-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, and specifically IL-23, with the continuous performance test and Wisconsin card sorting test. OSA children have abnormal levels of IL-17, an interleukin related to T helper 17 cells, a T helper cell involved in development of autoimmunity and inflammation. This high expression level may contribute to the complications of pediatric OSA; we also found a significant influence of inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-23, on abnormal neurocognitive testing. PMID

  19. FDA perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pauli, G.H.

    1994-12-31

    The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) monitors the safety of food irradiation. A few limited uses are regulated, and occasionally CFSAN receives a petition for a new use. Despite extensive studies (more than 400) showing the safety of food irradiation, a cloud of suspicion continues to hang over this issue in the mind of the public. People perceive food irradiation and direct body irradiation as having similar implications. Food irradiation is banned in two states in the United States. Food is irradiated for the following purposes: delay of ripening, prevention of sprouting, eradication of pests and sterilization, and allowing commodities to be stored unrefrigerated for long periods of time. The dosage depends on the purpose of the irradiation. Radiolytic products are formed during irradiation and during storage afterward. Most of these products are also formed during conventional preservation. In 1980, CFSAN, then the Bureau of Foods, introduced the term unique radiolytic products for compounds not identified in foods after conventional processing. Although the existence of URPs was never proven chemically, the term has caused anxiety. Irradiation of foods in the commercially useful range does not generate radioactivity above natural background. Because radiolytic products formed from beef, chicken, and pork are primarily the same, irradiated foods of similar food groups may be evaluated generically.

  20. Replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Brian; Vetter, Richard J

    2009-02-01

    Self-shielded 137Cs irradiators have been used for many years to irradiate blood products to prevent graft vs. host disease and to irradiate cells and small animals in research. A report by the National Academy of Sciences recommends that careful consideration be given to replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators. Several manufacturers and users of x-ray irradiators were contacted to determine costs of replacing and maintaining 137Cs irradiators with x-ray units and to assess users' experience with x-ray irradiators. Purchase costs of x-ray units are similar to 137Cs irradiators, but maintenance costs are significantly higher if annual service contracts are used. Performance of the two irradiator types appears to be equivalent, but in some cases x-ray irradiations may need to be performed in multiple configurations to achieve adequate uniformity in dose. No literature reports were found that evaluated the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays; therefore, a careful study should be conducted to determine the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays for biological responses relevant to transfusion medicine and immunological research. Throughput may be problematic for large transfusion medicine programs, and back-up plans may be necessary in case the x-ray unit needs to be taken out of service for extended maintenance. Disposition of a 137Cs irradiator will add to the cost of replacement with an x-ray unit, but disposal may be possible through the U.S. Department of Energy's Off-Site Source Recovery Program.

  1. Lung irradiation increases mortality following influenza A virus challenge occurring late after exposure

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Casey M.; Johnston, Carl J.; Reed, Christina K.; Lawrence, B. Paige; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Finkelstein, Jacob N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Whole-body irradiated individuals are at increased risk of infection in the acute phase, whereas pulmonary complications are associated with late events. This study addressed whether irradiation-induced changes in the lung environment alter responses to a viral challenge delivered late after exposure, but prior to the appearance of late lung radiation injury. Methods and Materials C57BL/6 mice received either lung alone or combined lung + whole-body irradiation (0–15 Gy). At 10 weeks post-irradiation, animals were infected with 120 HAU influenza virus strain A/HKx31. Innate and adaptive immune cell recruitment was determined using flow cytometry. Cytokine and chemokine production and protein leakage into the lung following infection were assessed. Results Prior irradiation led to a dose-dependent failure to regain body weight post-infection, exacerbated mortality, but it did not affect virus-specific immune responses or virus clearance. Surviving irradiated animals displayed a persistent increase in total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and edema. Conclusions Lung irradiation increased susceptibility to death following infection with influenza virus and impaired the ability to complete recovery. This altered response does not appear due to a radiation effect on the immune response, but it may possibly be an effect on epithelial repair. PMID:23195776

  2. Induction of Lipocalin2 in a Rat Model of Lung Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Sadaf; Ahmad, Shakil; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed; Hess, Clemens F.; Christiansen, Hans; Cameron, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we showed that lipocalin2 (LCN2) serum levels increased after liver irradiation and during acute-phase conditions. Here, we evaluate LCN2 expression and serum levels after single-dose lung irradiation with 25 Gy, percutaneously administered to the lung of randomly-paired male Wistar rats. Due to the concave anatomy of the lung recesses, the irradiation field included the upper part of the liver. No rat died due to irradiation. In control tissue, lung immunohistochemistry showed a high constitutive expression of LCN2+ granulocytes. LCN2 mRNA levels in lung tissue increased up to 24 h (9 ± 2.3-fold) after irradiation. However, serum LCN2 levels remained undetectable after lung irradiation. LCN2 expression in the upper part of the liver increased up to 4.2-fold after lung irradiation, but the lower liver showed an early decrease. Acute-phase cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) showed a significant increase on transcript level in both lung and upper liver, whilst the lower liver did not show any considerable increase. In conclusion, constitutive expression of LCN2 in local immune cells demonstrates its local role during stress conditions in the lung. The absence of LCN2 in the serum strengthens our previous findings that the liver is the key player in secreting LCN2 during stress conditions with liver involvement. PMID:27136530

  3. Results and analyses for irradiation/anneal experiments conducted on Yankee Rowe reactor pressure vessel surrogate materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Biemiller, E.C.

    1995-12-01

    The Yankee Atomic Electric Company test irradiation program was implemented to characterize the irradiation response of representative Yankee Rowe reactor vessel beltline plate and weld materials and to remove uncertainties in the analysis of existing irradiation data on the Yankee Rowe reactor vessel steel. The effect of plate nickel content and microstructure on irradiation damage sensitivity was assessed. Typical reactor vessel plate materials each containing 0.24% (by weight) copper, but different nickel contents at 0.63% and 0.19%, were heat treated to produce different microstructures in the test materials. A Linde 80 weld containing 0.30% copper and 1.00% nickel was produced and heat treated to test microstructure effects on the irradiation response of weld metal. Materials taken from plate surface locations (vs 1/4 thickness) were included to test whether or not the improved toughness properties of the plate surface layer, resulting from a rapid quench, is maintained after irradiation. Irradiations were conducted at two irradiation temperatures (500{degrees}F and 550{degrees}F) to determine the effect of irradiation temperature on embrittlement. An annealing test matrix was also initiated to study the potential for a 650{degrees}F anneal. A major irradiation/annealing/reirradiation study was conducted by the DOE`s LWR Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), using an irradiation temperature of 550{degrees}F and a 850{degrees}F anneal. The results of the irradiation testing and the DOE/SNL annealing study show an irradiation temperature effect that is not consistent but, varies with the materials tested. The test results demonstrate that for nickel bearing steels, the superior toughness of plate surface material is maintained even after irradiation to high fluences and for the copper content tested, nickel has little effect on irradiation response.

  4. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in environmental exposure in time and from person to person. Previously, environmentally controlled human exposure chambers have been used to study DE and O3 dose-response patterns separately, but investigation of co-exposures has not been performed under controlled conditions. Because a mixture is a more realistic exposure scenario for the general public, in this study we investigate the relationships of urban levels of urban-level DE exposure (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.3 ppm), DE + O3 co-exposure, and innate immune system responses. Fifteen healthy human volunteers were studied for changes in ten inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and counts of three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) following controlled exposures to DE, O3, and DE+O3. The results show subtle cytokines responses to the diesel-only and ozone-only exposures, and that a more complex (possibly synergistic) relationship exists in the combination of these two exposures with suppression of IL-5, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α that persists up to 22-hours for IFN-γ and TNF-α. The white blood cell differential counts showed significant monocyte and lympho

  5. Increased Blood Levels of Growth Factors, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Th17 Cytokines in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Alnek, Kristi; Kisand, Kalle; Heilman, Kaire; Peet, Aleksandr; Varik, Karin; Uibo, Raivo

    2015-01-01

    The production of several cytokines could be dysregulated in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In particular, the activation of T helper (Th) type 1 (Th1) cells has been proposed to underlie the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease, although roles for inflammatory processes and the Th17 pathway have also been shown. Nevertheless, despite evidence for the role of cytokines before and at the onset of T1D, the corresponding findings are inconsistent across studies. Moreover, conflicting data exist regarding the blood cytokine levels in T1D patients. The current study was performed to investigate genetic and autoantibody markers in association with the peripheral blood cytokine profiles by xMap multiplex technology in newly diagnosed young T1D patients and age-matched healthy controls. The onset of young-age T1D was characterized by the upregulation of growth factors, including granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-7, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β (but not IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), Th17 cytokines, and the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-27. Ketoacidosis and autoantibodies (anti-IA-2 and -ZnT8), but not human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype, influenced the blood cytokine levels. These findings broaden the current understanding of the dysregulation of systemic levels of several key cytokines at the young-age onset of T1D and provide a further basis for the development of novel immunoregulatory treatments in this disease.

  6. Cytokine profiles of seventeen cytokines, growth factors and chemokines in cord blood and its relation to perinatal clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Naoto; Uehara, Ritei; Kobayashi, Mami; Yada, Yukari; Koike, Yasunori; Kawamata, Ryou; Odaka, Jun; Honma, Yoko; Momoi, Mariko Y

    2010-03-01

    Few papers have investigated the cytokine profiles of multiple cytokines in cord blood. We obtained cord blood samples from 224 infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. Cytokine profiles of 17 cytokines were investigated using cytometric bead array technology. We found a wide variety of cytokines of various levels which ranged from 0.59pg/ml (in Interleukin (IL)-4) to 222.0pg/ml (in macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were highly correlated with each other and with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and IL-8. On the contrary, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-17 did not show any significant correlation with other cytokines. Several maternal factors were strongly related to several cytokines in cord blood. IL-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were closely related to certain neonatal diseases in preterm neonates. Some cytokines may be regulated independently of each other, while others appear to work as a network affecting physiological and pathological conditions in the fetus.

  7. Modulation of Cytokine and Cytokine Receptor/Antagonist by Treatment with Doxycycline and Tetracycline in Patients with Dengue Fever

    PubMed Central

    Castro, J. E. Z.; Vado-Solis, I.; Perez-Osorio, C.; Fredeking, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus infection can lead to dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Disease severity has been linked to an increase in various cytokine levels. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of doxycycline and tetracycline to modulate serum levels of IL-6, IL-1B, and TNF and cytokine receptor/receptor antagonist TNF-R1 and IL-1RA in patients with DF or DHF. Hospitalized patients were randomized to receive standard supportive care or supportive care combined with doxycycline or tetracycline therapy. Serum cytokine and cytokine receptor/antagonist levels were determined at the onset of therapy and after 3 and 7 days. Cytokine and cytokine receptor/antagonist levels were substantially elevated at day 0. IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF remained at or above day 0 levels throughout the study period in untreated patients. Treatment with tetracycline or doxycycline resulted in a significant decline in cytokine levels. Similarly, IL-1RA and TNF-R1 serum concentrations were elevated at baseline and showed a moderate increase among untreated patients. Both drugs resulted in a significant rise in IL-1Ra levels by day 3 in patients. In contrast, treatment did not affect a similar result for TNF-R1. When compared to the control group, however, a significant rise post-treatment was seen upon intragroup analysis. Further analysis demonstrated that doxycycline was significantly more effective at modulating cytokine and cytokine receptor/antagonist levels than tetracycline. PMID:21461372

  8. IL-1β is a key cytokine that induces trypsin upregulation in the influenza virus-cytokine-trypsin cycle.

    PubMed

    Indalao, I L; Sawabuchi, T; Takahashi, E; Kido, H

    2017-01-01

    Severe influenza is characterized by a cytokine storm, and the influenza virus-cytokine-trypsin cycle is one of the important mechanisms of viral multiplication and multiple organ failure. The aim of this study was to define the key cytokine(s) responsible for trypsin upregulation. Mice were infected with influenza virus strain A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) or treated individually or with a combination of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor α. The levels of these cytokines and trypsin in the lungs were monitored. The neutralizing effects of anti-IL-1β antibodies on cytokine and trypsin expression in human A549 cells and lung inflammation in the infected mice were examined. Infection induced interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α, and ectopic trypsin in mouse lungs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Intraperitoneal administration of interleukin-1β combined with other cytokines tended to upregulate trypsin and cytokine expression in the lungs, but the combination without interleukin-1β did not induce trypsin. In contrast, incubation of A549 cells with interleukin-1β alone induced both cytokines and trypsin, and anti-interleukin-1β antibody treatment abrogated these effects. Administration of the antibody in the infected mice reduced lung inflammation area. These findings suggest that IL-1β plays a key role in trypsin upregulation and has a pathological role in multiple organ failure.

  9. Elevated specific peripheral cytokines found in major depressive disorder patients with childhood trauma exposure: a cytokine antibody array analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaojia; Peng, Hongjun; Wang, Lifeng; Vasish, Seewoobudul; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Weijia; Wu, Weiwei; Liao, Mei; Wang, Mi; Tang, Hao; Li, Wenping; Li, Weihui; Li, Zexuan; Zhou, Jiansong; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Lingjiang

    2013-10-01

    Taking into consideration the previous evidence of revealing the relationship of early life adversity, major depressive disorder (MDD), and stress-linked immunological changes, we recruited 22 MDD patients with childhood trauma exposures (CTE), 21 MDD patients without CTE, and 22 healthy controls without CTE, and then utilized a novel cytokine antibody array methodology to detect potential biomarkers underlying MDD in 120 peripheral cytokines and to evaluate the effect of CTE on cytokine changes in MDD patients. Although 13 cytokines were identified with highly significant differences in expressions between MDD patients and normal controls, this relationship was significantly attenuated and no longer significant after consideration of the effect of CTE in MDD patients. Depressed individuals with CTE (TD patients) were more likely to have higher peripheral levels of those cytokines. Severity of depression was associated with plasma levels of certain increased cytokines; meanwhile, the increased cytokines led to a proper separation of TD patients from normal controls during clustering analyses. Our research outcomes add great strength to the relationship between depression and cytokine changes and suggest that childhood trauma may play a vital role in the co-appearance of cytokine changes and depression.

  10. Cross-talk among gp130 cytokines in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zvonic, Sanjin; Baugh, James E; Arbour-Reily, Patricia; Mynatt, Randall L; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2005-10-07

    The interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines is a family of structurally and functionally related proteins, including IL-6, IL-11, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), oncostatin M (OSM), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1). These proteins are also known as gp130 cytokines because they all share gp130 as a common transducer protein within their functional receptor complexes. Several of these cytokines (LIF, OSM, CNTF, and CT-1) also utilize the LIF receptor (LIFR) as a component of their receptor complex. We have shown that all of these cytokines are capable of activating both the JAK/STAT and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. By performing a variety of preincubation studies and examining the ability of these cytokines to activate STATs, ERKs, and induce transcription of SOCS-3 mRNA, we have also examined the ability of gp130 cytokines to modulate the action of their family members. Our results indicate that a subset of gp130 cytokines, in particular CT-1, LIF, and OSM, has the ability to impair subsequent signaling activity initiated by gp130 cytokines. However, IL-6 and CNTF do not exhibit this cross-talk ability. Moreover, our results indicate that the cross-talk among gp130 cytokines is mediated by the ability of these cytokines to induce ligand-dependent degradation of the LIFR, in a proteasome-independent manner, which coincides with decreased levels of LIFR at the plasma membrane. In summary, our results demonstrate that an inhibitory cross-talk among specific gp130 cytokines in 3T3-L1 adipocytes occurs as a result of specific degradation of LIFR via a lysosome-mediated pathway.

  11. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  12. Multivariate Analysis of Solar Spectral Irradiance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilewskie, P.; Rabbette, M.

    2001-01-01

    Principal component analysis is used to characterize approximately 7000 downwelling solar irradiance spectra retrieved at the Southern Great Plains site during an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) shortwave intensive operating period. This analysis technique has proven to be very effective in reducing a large set of variables into a much smaller set of independent variables while retaining the information content. It is used to determine the minimum number of parameters necessary to characterize atmospheric spectral irradiance or the dimensionality of atmospheric variability. It was found that well over 99% of the spectral information was contained in the first six mutually orthogonal linear combinations of the observed variables (flux at various wavelengths). Rotation of the principal components was effective in separating various components by their independent physical influences. The majority of the variability in the downwelling solar irradiance (380-1000 nm) was explained by the following fundamental atmospheric parameters (in order of their importance): cloud scattering, water vapor absorption, molecular scattering, and ozone absorption. In contrast to what has been proposed as a resolution to a clear-sky absorption anomaly, no unexpected gaseous absorption signature was found in any of the significant components.

  13. Platelet-rich plasma preparation for regenerative medicine: optimization and quantification of cytokines and growth factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is nowadays widely applied in different clinical scenarios, such as orthopedics, ophthalmology and healing therapies, as a growth factor pool for improving tissue regeneration. Studies into its clinical efficiency are not conclusive and one of the main reasons for this is that different PRP preparations are used, eliciting different responses that cannot be compared. Platelet quantification and the growth factor content definition must be defined in order to understand molecular mechanisms behind PRP regenerative strength. Standardization of PRP preparations is thus urgently needed. Methods PRP was prepared by centrifugation varying the relative centrifugal force, temperature, and time. Having quantified platelet recovery and yield, the two-step procedure that rendered the highest output was chosen and further analyzed. Cytokine content was determined in different fractions obtained throughout the whole centrifugation procedure. Results Our method showed reproducibility when applied to different blood donors. We recovered 46.9 to 69.5% of total initial platelets and the procedure resulted in a 5.4-fold to 7.3-fold increase in platelet concentration (1.4 × 106 to 1.9 × 106 platelets/μl). Platelets were highly purified, because only <0.3% from the initial red blood cells and leukocytes was present in the final PRP preparation. We also quantified growth factors, cytokines and chemokines secreted by the concentrated platelets after activation with calcium and calcium/thrombin. High concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor, endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor (TGF) were secreted, together with the anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-8, IL-13, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-α. No cytokines were secreted before platelet activation. TGF-β3 and IFNγ were not detected in any studied fraction. Clots obtained after platelet coagulation

  14. Hippocampal dysfunction during the chronic phase following a single exposure to cranial irradiation.

    PubMed

    Son, Yeonghoon; Yang, Miyoung; Kim, Joong-Sun; Kim, Juhwan; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, Taekyun; Wang, Hongbing; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Moon, Changjong

    2014-04-01

    Ionizing radiation can significantly affect brain functioning in adults. The present study assessed depression-like behaviors in adult C57BL/6 mice using the tail suspension test (TST) at 30 and 90days following a single cranial exposure to γ-rays (0, 1, or 10Gy) to evaluate hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction during the chronic phase following cranial irradiation. Additionally, hippocampal neurogenesis, inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were analyzed. At 30 and 90days following irradiation with 10Gy, mice displayed significant depression-like behaviors. We observed a persistent decrease in the number of cells positive for doublecortin, an immunohistochemical marker for neurogenesis, in the hippocampus from 1 to 90days after irradiation with 10Gy. Changes in the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and interferon-γ, were not correlated with the decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis or the appearance of depression-like behavior during the chronic phase following irradiation. However, at 30 and 90days after irradiation with 10Gy, the number of microglia was significantly decreased compared with age-matched sham-irradiated controls. The reduction in the chronic phase was consistent with the significant down-regulation in the mRNA expression of iNOS, COX-2, BDNF, and GDNF in the hippocampus. Therefore, hippocampal dysfunction during the chronic phase following cranial irradiation may be associated with decreases in the neurogenesis- and synaptic plasticity-related signals, concomitant with microglial reduction in the hippocampus.

  15. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Scarlatescu, Ioana Avram, Calin N.; Virag, Vasile

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  16. Reactivation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in the Mouse Trigeminal Ganglion: an In Vivo Study of Virus Antigen and Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Shimeld, Carolyn; Easty, David L.; Hill, Terry J.

    1999-01-01

    Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) was induced by UV irradiation of the corneas of latently infected mice. Immunocytochemistry was used to monitor the dynamics of cytokine (interleukin-2 [IL-2], IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, gamma interferon [IFN-γ], and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) and viral antigen production in the TG and the adjacent central nervous system on days 1 to 4, 6, 7, and 10 after irradiation. UV irradiation induced increased expression of IL-6 and TNF-α from satellite cells in uninfected TG. In latently infected TG, prior to reactivation, all satellite cells were TNF-α+ and most were also IL-6+. Reactivation, evidenced by HSV-1 antigens and/or infiltrating immune cells, occurred in 28 of 45 (62%) TG samples. Viral antigens were present in the TG in neurons, often disintegrating on days 2 to 6 after irradiation. Infected neurons were usually surrounded by satellite cells and the foci of immune cells producing TNF-α and/or IL-6. IL-4+ cells were detected as early as day 3 and were more numerous by day 10 (a very few IL-2+ and/or IFN-γ+ cells were seen at this time). No IL-10 was detected at any time. Our observations indicate that UV irradiation of the cornea may modulate cytokine production by satellite cells. We confirm that neurons are the site of reactivation and that they probably do not survive this event. The predominance of TNF-α and IL-6 following reactivation parallels primary infection in the TG and suggests a role in viral clearance. The presence of Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-6) indicates a role for antibody. Thus, several clearance mechanisms may be at work. PMID:9971753

  17. Phototherapy-treated apoptotic tumor cells induce pro-inflammatory cytokines production in macrophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuixia; Wei, Yanchun; Xing, Da

    2014-09-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that as a mitochondria-targeting cancer phototherapy, high fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) induces mitochondrial superoxide anion burst, resulting in oxidative damage to tumor cells. In this study, we further explored the immunological effects of HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells. When macrophages were co-incubated with apoptotic cells induced by HF-LPLI, we observed the increased levels of TNF-α secretion and NO production in macrophages. Further experiments showed that NF-κB was activated in macrophages after co-incubation with HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic cells, and inhibition of NF-κB activity by pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid (PDTC) reduced the elevated levels of TNF-α secretion and NO production. These data indicate that HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells induce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, which may be helpful for better understanding the biological effects of cancer phototherapy.

  18. SNP/haplotype associations in cytokine and cytokine receptor genes and immunity to rubella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Neelam; Haralambieva, Iana H; Kennedy, Richard B; Vierkant, Robert A; O'Byrne, Megan M; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2010-04-01

    An effective immune response to vaccination is, in part, a complex interaction of alleles of multiple genes regulating cytokine networks. We conducted a genotyping study of Th1/Th2/inflammatory cytokines/cytokine receptors in healthy children (n = 738, 11-19 years) to determine associations between individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/haplotypes and immune outcomes after two doses of rubella vaccine. SNPs (n = 501) were selected using the ldSelect-approach and genotyped using Illumina GoldenGate and TaqMan assays. Rubella-IgG levels were measured by immunoassay and secreted cytokines by ELISA. Linear regression and post hoc haplotype analyses were used to determine associations between single SNPs/haplotypes and immune outcomes. Increased carriage of minor alleles for the promoter SNPs (rs2844482 and rs2857708) of the TNFA gene were associated with dose-related increases in rubella antibodies. IL-6 secretion was co-directionally associated (p < or = 0.01) with five intronic SNPs in the TNFRSF1B gene in an allele dose-related manner, while five promoter/intronic SNPs in the IL12B gene were associated with variations in IL-6 secretion. TNFA haplotype AAACGGGGC (t-statistic = 3.32) and IL12B promoter haplotype TAG (t-statistic = 2.66) were associated with higher levels of (p < or = 0.01) rubella-IgG and IL-6 secretion, respectively. We identified individual SNPs/haplotypes in TNFA/TNFRSF1B and IL12B genes that appear to modulate immunity to rubella vaccination. Identification of such "genetic fingerprints" may predict the outcome of vaccine response and inform new vaccine strategies.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima Khattak, Khanzadi; James Simpson, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    The efficacy of gamma irradiation as a method of decontamination for food and herbal materials is well established. In the present study, Glycyrrhiza glabra roots were irradiated at doses 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. The irradiated and un-irradiated control samples were evaluated for phenolic contents, antimicrobial activities and DPPH scavenging properties. The result of the present study showed that radiation treatment up to 20 kGy does not affect the antifungal and antibacterial activity of the plant. While sample irradiated at 25 kGy does showed changes in the antibacterial activity against some selected pathogens. No significant differences in the phenolic contents were observed for control and samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 15 kGy radiation doses. However, phenolic contents increased in samples treated with 20 and 25 kGy doses. The DPPH scavenging activity significantly ( p<0.05) increased in all irradiated samples of the plant.

  20. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  1. Food irradiation and the consumer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Thomas, P.

    The poster presents a review of research work undertaken on the perception and understanding that consumers have of food irradiation. Food irradiation is not a revolutionary new food processing technique, in fact it is probably one of the most investigated methods presently available. Many countries such as Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United States of America permit food irradiation. In Britain it is presently banned although this is currently under review. Awareness of food irradiation by the general public in Britain, although not extensively researched would appear to be increasing, especially in the light of recent media coverage. New quantitative and qualitative work indicates that the general public are concerned about the safety and effectiveness of food irradiation. Research has shown that a large proportion of consumers in Britain, if given the opportunity to purchase irradiated food, would not do so. Further exploration into this response revealed the fact that consumers are confused over what food irradiation is. In addition, there is concern over the detection of irradiated food. The views presented in this paper, of the consumer reaction to irradiated food are of great importance to those involved in the food industry and industries allied to it, which are ultimately dependent on the consumer for their commercial survival.

  2. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2014-10-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical "sugar-like" spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

  3. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE2, and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods.

  4. Identification of the active components in Bone Marrow Soup: a mitigator against irradiation-injury to salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Dongdong; Hu, Shen; Liu, Younan; Quan, Vu-Hung; Seuntjens, Jan; Tran, Simon D.

    2015-01-01

    In separate studies, an extract of soluble intracellular contents from whole bone marrow cells, named “Bone Marrow (BM) Soup”, was reported to either improve cardiac or salivary functions post-myocardial infarction or irradiation (IR), respectively. However, the active components in BM Soup are unknown. To demonstrate that proteins were the active ingredients, we devised a method using proteinase K followed by heating to deactivate proteins and for safe injections into mice. BM Soup and “deactivated BM Soup” were injected into mice that had their salivary glands injured with 15Gy IR. Control mice received either injections of saline or were not IR. Results at week 8 post-IR showed the ‘deactivated BM Soup’ was no better than injections of saline, while injections of native BM Soup restored saliva flow, protected salivary cells and blood vessels from IR-damage. Protein arrays detected several angiogenesis-related factors (CD26, FGF, HGF, MMP-8, MMP-9, OPN, PF4, SDF-1) and cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-16) in BM Soup. In conclusion, the native proteins (but not the nucleic acids, lipids or carbohydrates) were the therapeutic ingredients in BM Soup for functional salivary restoration following IR. This molecular therapy approach has clinical potential because it is theoretically less tumorigenic and immunogenic than cell therapies. PMID:26526154

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.

    2011-11-01

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  6. Effects of laser irradiation on a bloom forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiancui; Bi, Yonghong; Liu, Jiantong; Wu, Chenxi

    2016-10-01

    Effects of laser irradiation on photosystem II (PS II) photochemical efficiencies, growth, and other physiological responses of Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated in this study. Results indicate that laser irradiation (wavelengths 405, 450, 532, and 650 nm) could effectively inhibit maximal PS II quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and maximal electron transport rates (ETRmax) of M. aeruginosa, while saturating light levels (Ek) of M. aeruginosa did not change significantly. Among the four tested wavelengths, 650 nm laser (red light) showed the highest inhibitory efficiency. Following 650 nm laser irradiation, the growth of M. aeruginosa was significantly suppressed, and contents of cellular photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, carotenoid, phycocyanin, and allophycocyanin) decreased as irradiation dose increased. Meanwhile, laser irradiation enhanced the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in M. aeruginosa cells. Lower irradiation doses did not change the intracellular microcystin contents, but higher dose irradiation (>1284 J cm(-2)) caused the release of microcystin into the culture medium. Transmission electron microscope examination showed that the ultrastructure of M. aeruginosa cells was destructed progressively following laser irradiation. Effects of laser irradiation on M. aeruginosa may be a combination of photochemical, electromagnetic, and thermal effects.

  7. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the molecular properties of myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongwoo; Song, Kyung Bin

    2002-11-30

    To elucidate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the molecular properties of myoglobin, the secondary and tertiary structures, as well as the molecular weight size of the protein, were examined after irradiation at various irradiation doses. Gamma-irradiation of myoglobin solutions caused the disruption of the ordered structure of the protein molecules, as well as degradation, crosslinking, and aggregation of the polypeptide chains. A SDSPAGE study indicated that irradiation caused initial fragmentation of the proteins and subsequent aggregation, due to cross-linking of the protein molecules. The effect of irradiation on the protein was more significant at lower protein concentrations. Ascorbic acid protected against the degradation and aggregation of proteins by scavenging oxygen radicals that are produced by irradiation. A circular dichroism study showed that an increase of the irradiation decreased the alpha-helical content of myoglobin with a concurrent increase of the aperiodic structure content. Fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that irradiation increased the emission intensity that was excited at 280 nm.

  8. Effect of γ-irradiation on structure and physico-chemical properties of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius starch.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Suriya, M; Vidya, P V; Vijina, K; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2015-08-01

    Gamma irradiation is one of the effective techniques able to alter structure and its properties of starch. In this research, the effect of modification in terms of molecular structure and physico-chemical properties of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius starch by γ-irradiation using (60)Co as γ-source at doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy with dose rate 2 kGy/h was studied. Morphology of native and irradiated starches under scanning electron microscope revealed that granules are round, elliptical and polygonal in shape with smooth surfaces; no cracking or roughness was noted on irradiated starches. Amylose content, pH, swelling power of the starches and syneresis of the gelatinized starch were significantly decreased by irradiation; while carboxyl content, solubility, light transmittance and water absorption capacity of the starch granules were raised with increased dose of irradiation. Reduced pasting parameters and changes in FTIR spectrum significantly differed from each other. XRD pattern of irradiated starches showed C-type pattern with intermediate peaks of 2θ at 16.92° and 18.12°, strong peaks of 2θ at 23.05° and weak peaks of 2θ at 14.7°, displaying slight decreased in the intensity of peaks in irradiated starches. Irradiation of starches increased gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy value was measured using DSC.

  9. Biologics for Targeting Inflammatory Cytokines, Clinical Uses, and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Peleg; Carmi, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines are potent mediators of numerous biological processes and are tightly regulated in the body. Chronic uncontrolled levels of such cytokines can initiate and derive many pathologies, including incidences of autoimmunity and cancer. Therefore, therapies that regulate the activity of inflammatory cytokines, either by supplementation of anti-inflammatory recombinant cytokines or by neutralizing them by using blocking antibodies, have been extensively used over the past decades. Over the past few years, new innovative biological agents for blocking and regulating cytokine activities have emerged. Here, we review some of the most recent approaches of cytokine targeting, focusing on anti-TNF antibodies or recombinant TNF decoy receptor, recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and anti-IL-1 antibodies, anti-IL-6 receptor antibodies, and TH17 targeting antibodies. We discuss their effects as biologic drugs, as evaluated in numerous clinical trials, and highlight their therapeutic potential as well as emphasize their inherent limitations and clinical risks. We suggest that while systemic blocking of proinflammatory cytokines using biological agents can ameliorate disease pathogenesis and progression, it may also abrogate the hosts defense against infections. Moreover, we outline the rational need to develop new therapies, which block inflammatory cytokines only at sites of inflammation, while enabling their function systemically. PMID:28083070

  10. Vitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy and Preeclamptic Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Barrera, David; Díaz, Lorenza; Noyola-Martínez, Nancy; Halhali, Ali

    2015-08-04

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Among several disorders, the imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and the alteration of vitamin D metabolism have been reported in preeclampsia. The effects of calcitriol upon inflammatory cytokines has been demonstrated. In healthy pregnant women there is a shift toward a Th2 cytokine profile, which is necessary for an adequate pregnancy outcome. As compared with normal pregnancy, high pro-inflammatory and low anti-inflammatory cytokine levels have been observed in preeclamptic women. Preeclampsia has been associated with low calcitriol levels and vitamin D deficiency is correlated with a higher risk of the development of this disease. It has been demonstrated that placenta is a source as well as the target of calcitriol and cytokines and placental dysfunction has been associated with preeclampsia. Therefore, the present manuscript includes a review about serum calcitriol levels in non-pregnant, pregnant, and preeclamptic women as well as a review on the fetoplacental vitamin D metabolism in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies. In addition, circulating and fetoplacental inflammatory cytokines in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies are reviewed. Finally, the effects of calcitriol upon placental pro-inflammatory cytokines are also explored. In conclusion, maternal and placental calcitriol levels are low in preeclampsia which may explain, at least in part, high pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in this disease.

  11. Local and Systemic Cytokine Expression in Patients with Postherpetic Neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Üçeyler, Nurcan; Valet, Michael; Kafke, Waldemar; Tölle, Thomas R.; Sommer, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Background Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the painful complication of a varicella zoster virus reactivation. We investigated the systemic and local gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in patients with PHN. Methods Thirteen patients with PHN at the torso (Th4-S1) were recruited. Skin punch biopsies were obtained from the painful and the contralateral painless body area for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) and cytokine profiling. Additionally, blood was withdrawn for systemic cytokine expression and compared to blood values of healthy controls. We analyzed the gene expression of selected pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF] and interleukins [IL]-1β, IL-2, and IL-8). Results IENFD was lower in affected skin compared to unaffected skin (p<0.05), while local gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines did not differ except for two patients who had 7fold higher IL-6 and 10fold higher IL-10 gene expression in the affected skin compared to the contralateral unaffected skin sample. Also, the systemic expression of cytokines in patients with PHN and in healthy controls was similar. Conclusion While the systemic and local expression of the investigated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was not different from controls, this may have been influenced by study limitations like the low number of patients and different disease durations. Furthermore, other cytokines or pain mediators need to be considered. PMID:25127283

  12. Tet2: breaking down barriers to T cell cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chao; Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-04-21

    It has been unclear whether alteration in DNA methylation at cytokine genes during T helper (Th) cell differentiation is a cause or consequence of gene expression. In this issue of Immunity, Ichiyama et al. (2015) show that oxidation of 5-methylcytosine by the methylcytosine dioxygenase Tet2 regulates cytokine production in Th cells.

  13. Vitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy and Preeclamptic Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, David; Díaz, Lorenza; Noyola-Martínez, Nancy; Halhali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Among several disorders, the imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and the alteration of vitamin D metabolism have been reported in preeclampsia. The effects of calcitriol upon inflammatory cytokines has been demonstrated. In healthy pregnant women there is a shift toward a Th2 cytokine profile, which is necessary for an adequate pregnancy outcome. As compared with normal pregnancy, high pro-inflammatory and low anti-inflammatory cytokine levels have been observed in preeclamptic women. Preeclampsia has been associated with low calcitriol levels and vitamin D deficiency is correlated with a higher risk of the development of this disease. It has been demonstrated that placenta is a source as well as the target of calcitriol and cytokines and placental dysfunction has been associated with preeclampsia. Therefore, the present manuscript includes a review about serum calcitriol levels in non-pregnant, pregnant, and preeclamptic women as well as a review on the fetoplacental vitamin D metabolism in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies. In addition, circulating and fetoplacental inflammatory cytokines in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies are reviewed. Finally, the effects of calcitriol upon placental pro-inflammatory cytokines are also explored. In conclusion, maternal and placental calcitriol levels are low in preeclampsia which may explain, at least in part, high pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in this disease. PMID:26247971

  14. Cytokine Levels in the Serum of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, Giulio; Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Zanin, Valentina; Monasta, Lorenzo; Zauli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Growing knowledge about the cytokine network response has led to a better comprehension of mechanisms of pathologies and to the development of new treatments with biological drugs, able to block specific molecules of the immune response. Indeed, when the cytokine production is deregulated, diseases often occur. The understanding of the physiological mechanism of the cytokine network would be useful to better comprehend pathological conditions. Moreover, since the immune system and response change their properties with development, differences in patients' age should be taken into account, both in physiological and in pathological conditions. In this study, we analyzed the profile of 48 cytokines and chemokines in the serum of healthy subjects, comparing adults (≥18 years) with young children and children (1–6 and 7–17 years). We found that a certain number of cytokines were not being produced in healthy subjects; others showed a constant serum level amongst the groups. Certain cytokines exhibited a downward or an upward trend with increasing age. The remaining cytokines were up- or downregulated in the group of the children with respect to the other groups. In conclusion, we drew some kinds of guidelines about the physiological production of cytokines and chemokines, underling the difference caused by aging. PMID:23533306

  15. Cytokine levels in the serum of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, Giulio; Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Zanin, Valentina; Monasta, Lorenzo; Zauli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Growing knowledge about the cytokine network response has led to a better comprehension of mechanisms of pathologies and to the development of new treatments with biological drugs, able to block specific molecules of the immune response. Indeed, when the cytokine production is deregulated, diseases often occur. The understanding of the physiological mechanism of the cytokine network would be useful to better comprehend pathological conditions. Moreover, since the immune system and response change their properties with development, differences in patients' age should be taken into account, both in physiological and in pathological conditions. In this study, we analyzed the profile of 48 cytokines and chemokines in the serum of healthy subjects, comparing adults (≥18 years) with young children and children (1-6 and 7-17 years). We found that a certain number of cytokines were not being produced in healthy subjects; others showed a constant serum level amongst the groups. Certain cytokines exhibited a downward or an upward trend with increasing age. The remaining cytokines were up- or downregulated in the group of the children with respect to the other groups. In conclusion, we drew some kinds of guidelines about the physiological production of cytokines and chemokines, underling the difference caused by aging.

  16. Food irradiation and sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  17. Wholesomeness of irradiated food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlermann, Dieter A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Just with the emergence of the idea to treat food by ionizing radiation, the concerns were voiced whether it would be safe to consume such food. Now, we look back on more than hundred years of research into the 'wholesomeness', a terminology developed during those efforts. This review will cover the many questions which had been raised, explaining the most relevant ones in some detail; it will also give place to the concerns and elucidate their scientific relevance and background. There has never been any other method of food processing studied in such depth and in such detail as food irradiation. The conclusion based on science is: Consumption of any food treated at any high dose is safe, as long as the food remains palatable. This conclusion has been adopted by WHO, also by international and national bodies. Finally, this finding has also been adopted by Codex Alimentarius in 2003, the international standard for food. However, this conclusion has not been adopted and included at its full extent in most national regulations. As the literature about wholesomeness of irradiated food is abundant, this review will use only a few, most relevant references, which will guide the reader to further reading.

  18. The cytokines cardiotrophin-like cytokine/cytokine-like factor-1 (CLC/CLF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) differ in their receptor specificities.

    PubMed

    Tormo, Aurélie Jeanne; Letellier, Marie-Claude; Lissilaa, Rami; Batraville, Laurie-Anne; Sharma, Mukut; Ferlin, Walter; Elson, Greg; Crabé, Sandrine; Gauchat, Jean-François

    2012-12-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC) are two cytokines with neurotrophic and immunomodulatory activities. CNTF is a cytoplasmic factor believed to be released upon cellular damage, while CLC requires interaction with a soluble cytokine receptor, cytokine-like factor 1 (CLF), to be efficiently secreted. Both cytokines activate a receptor complex comprising the cytokine binding CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα) and two signaling chains namely, leukemia inhibitory factor receptor β (LIFRβ) and gp130. Human CNTF can recruit and activate an alternative receptor in which CNTFRα is substituted by IL-6Rα. As both CNTF and CLC have immune-regulatory activities in mice, we compared their ability to recruit mouse receptors comprising both gp130 and LIFRβ signaling chains and either IL-6Rα or IL-11Rα which, unlike CNTFRα, are expressed by immune cells. Our results indicate that 1) mouse CNTF, like its human homologue, can activate cells expressing gp130/LIFRβ with either CNTFRα or IL-6Rα and, 2) CLC/CLF is more restricted in its specificity in that it activates only the tripartite CNTFR. Several gp130 signaling cytokines influence T helper cell differentiation. We therefore investigated the effect of CNTF on CD4 T cell cytokine production. We observed that CNTF increased the number of IFN-γ producing CD4 T cells. As IFN-γ is considered a mediator of the therapeutic effect of IFN-β in multiple sclerosis, induction of IFN-γ by CNTF may contribute to the beneficial immunomodulatory effect of CNTF in mouse multiple sclerosis models. Together, our results indicate that CNTF activates the same tripartite receptors in mouse and human cells and further validate rodent models for pre-clinical investigation of CNTF and CNTF derivatives. Furthermore, CNTF and CLC/CLF differ in their receptor specificities. The receptor α chain involved in the immunomodulatory effects of CLC/CLF remains to be identified.

  19. Guide to solar reference spectra and irradiance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent

    The international standard for determining solar irradiances was published by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in May 2007. The document, ISO 21348 Space Environment (natural and artificial) - Process for determining solar irradiances, describes the process for representing solar irradiances. We report on the next progression of standards work, i.e., the development of a guide that identifies solar reference spectra and irradiance models for use in engineering design or scientific research. This document will be produced as an AIAA Guideline and ISO Technical Report. It will describe the content of the reference spectra and models, uncertainties and limitations, technical basis, data bases from which the reference spectra and models are formed, publication references, and sources of computer code for reference spectra and solar irradiance models, including those which provide spectrally-resolved lines as well as solar indices and proxies and which are generally recognized in the solar sciences. The document is intended to assist aircraft and space vehicle designers and developers, heliophysicists, geophysicists, aeronomers, meteorologists, and climatologists in understanding available models, comparing sources of data, and interpreting engineering and scientific results based on different solar reference spectra and irradiance models.

  20. Cytokines in Bipolar Disorder: Paving the Way for Neuroprogression

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Izabela Guimarães; Bauer, Moisés Evandro; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe, chronic, and recurrent psychiatric illness. It has been associated with high prevalence of medical comorbidities and cognitive impairment. Its neurobiology is not completely understood, but recent evidence has shown a wide range of immune changes. Cytokines are proteins involved in the regulation and the orchestration of the immune response. We performed a review on the involvement of cytokines in BD. We also discuss the cytokines involvement in the neuroprogression of BD. It has been demonstrated that increased expression of cytokines in the central nervous system in postmortem studies is in line with the elevated circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines in BD patients. The proinflammatory profile and the immune imbalance in BD might be regarded as potential targets to the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:25313338

  1. [Cytokine imbalance in critically ill patients: SIRS and CARS].

    PubMed

    Murata, A; Kikuchi, M; Mishima, S; Sakaki, S; Goto, H; Matsuoka, T; Tanaka, H; Yukioka, T; Shimazaki, S

    1999-07-01

    It remains difficult to treat severely ill patients, especially those who have sepsis and subsequent multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. We propose the hypothesis that the pathophysiology in the sequential sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome may be strongly related to the imbalance between inflammatory cytokines and antiinflammatory cytokines induced for the host defense to active neutrophils and endothelial cells. Thus we attempted to develop cytokine modulation therapy to normalize the cytokine balance in the host defense system. In this review, we elucidate the relationship between cytokine imbalance and SIRS/CARS in patients with severe burn injury. Furthermore, we examine the possible usage of G-CSF to amplify neutrophil function, and clarify the reasons why various innovative therapies against sepsis have failed.

  2. The role of cytokines in immune changes induced by spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Miller, E. S.

    1993-01-01

    It has become apparent that spaceflight alters many immune responses. Among the regulatory components of the immune response that have been shown to be affected by spaceflight is the cytokine network. Spaceflight, as well as model systems of spaceflight, have been shown to affect the production and action of various cytokines including interferons, interleukins, colony stimulating factors, and tumor necrosis factors. These changes have been shown not to involve a general shutdown of the cytokine network but, rather, to involve selective alterations of specific cytokine functions by spaceflight. The full breadth of changes in cytokines induced by spaceflight, as well as mechanisms, duration, adaptation, reversibility, and significance to resistance to infection and neoplastic diseases, remains to be established.

  3. The inflammatory cytokines: molecular biomarkers for major depressive disorder?

    PubMed

    Martin, Charlotte; Tansey, Katherine E; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Powell, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are pleotropic cell signaling proteins that, in addition to their role as inflammatory mediators, also affect neurotransmitter systems, brain functionality and mood. Here we explore the potential utility of cytokine biomarkers for major depressive disorder. Specifically, we explore how genetic, transcriptomic and proteomic information relating to the cytokines might act as biomarkers, aiding clinical diagnosis and treatment selection processes. We advise future studies to investigate whether cytokine biomarkers might differentiate major depressive disorder patients from other patient groups with overlapping clinical characteristics. Furthermore, we invite future pharmacogenetic studies to investigate whether early antidepressant-induced changes to cytokine mRNA or protein levels precede behavioral changes and act as longer-term predictors of clinical antidepressant response.

  4. Kitasato Symposium 2009: New Prospects for Cytokine Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The Kitasato Symposium 2009: New Prospects for Cytokine Inhibition was held in Berlin, Germany from 7 to 9 May 2009. The key aims of this meeting were to bring together a group of front-line researchers and rheumatologists to evaluate the use of cytokine blockade and to examine the role of certain cytokines in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. A keynote lecture delivered by Professor Jean-Michel Dayer provided an up-to-date overview of the interactions occurring between the immune system and acute phase proteins. Other speakers discussed the role of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis, including their role in joint destruction, as well as their regulatory role upon T cells and B cells. The involvement of cytokines in other autoimmune diseases was also addressed. PMID:20067593

  5. Photodynamic therapy induced production of cytokines by latent Epstein Barr virus infected epithelial tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, H. K.; Lo, K. W.; Lung, M. L.; Chang, C. K. C.; Wong, R. N. S.; Mak, N. K.

    2007-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a method to treat cancer or non-cancer diseases by activation of the light-sensitive photosensitizers. Epstein Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the development of certain cancers such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and B cell lymphoma. This study aims to examine the effects of EBV infection on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in cells after the photosensitizer Zn-BC-AM PDT treatment. Epithelial tumor cell lines HONE-1 and latent EBV-infected HONE-1 (EBV-HONE-1) cells were used in this study. Cells were treated with the photosensitizer Zn-BC-AM for 24 hours before light irradiation. RT-PCR and quantitative ELISA methods were used for the evaluation of mRNA expression and production of cytokines, respectively. Results show that Zn-BC-AM PDT increases the production of IL-1a and IL-1b in EBV-HONE-1. Over a 10-fold increase in the production of IL-6 was observed in the culture supernatant of Zn-BC-AM PDT-treated HONE-1 cells. PDT-induced IL-6 production was observed in HONE-1 cells. EBV-HONE-1 has a higher background level of IL-8 production than the HONE-1. The production of IL-8 was suppressed in EBV-HONE-1cells after Zn-BC-AM PDT. Our results indicate that the response of HONE-1 cells to Zn-BC-AM PDT depends on the presence of latent EBV infection. Since IL-8 is a cytokine with angiogenic activity, Zn-BC-AM PDT may exert an anti-angiogenic effect through the suppression of IL-8 production by the EBV-infected cells.

  6. Statistical analysis using the Bayesian nonparametric method for irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamizawa, Hisashi; Itoh, Hiroto; Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2016-10-01

    In order to understand neutron irradiation embrittlement in high fluence regions, statistical analysis using the Bayesian nonparametric (BNP) method was performed for the Japanese surveillance and material test reactor irradiation database. The BNP method is essentially expressed as an infinite summation of normal distributions, with input data being subdivided into clusters with identical statistical parameters, such as mean and standard deviation, for each cluster to estimate shifts in ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). The clusters typically depend on chemical compositions, irradiation conditions, and the irradiation embrittlement. Specific variables contributing to the irradiation embrittlement include the content of Cu, Ni, P, Si, and Mn in the pressure vessel steels, neutron flux, neutron fluence, and irradiation temperatures. It was found that the measured shifts of DBTT correlated well with the calculated ones. Data associated with the same materials were subdivided into the same clusters even if neutron fluences were increased.

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of Korean red ginseng powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kwon, Oh-Jin; Kang, Il-Jun

    1997-04-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to Korean red ginseng powder to improve its quality. Major physicochemical properties (approximate composition, pH, acidity, browning pigment, hydrogen donating activity, fatty acids, minerals and saponin) were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation up to 10 kGy. The TBA value was increased depending on the increment of irradiation dose level. In free amino acids, threonine was increased while, serine and glutamic acid were decreased by gamma irradiation. In total amino acids, total contents were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation though tyrosine was slightly decreased P ⩽ 0.05. In free sugar, glucose, sucrose and maltose were significantly increased by 7.5 and 10 kGy gamma irradiation P ⩽ 0.05

  8. Effect of ion irradiation on nanoscale TiS2 systems with suppressed Titania phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazarika, Saurabh J.; Mohanta, Dambarudhar; Tripathi, A.; Kanjilal, D.

    2016-10-01

    Titanium disulfide (TiS2), being an important of the transition metal dichalcogenide, (TMDC) family, has drawn numerous interest owing to exhibition of tunable band gap as well as high carrier mobility. In this work, we highlight preparation of TiS2 nanopowder with minimal TiO2 content and also demonstrate modified properties upon swift heavy ion irradiation on TiS2 nanoparticles dispersed PVA films. Different properties of the irradiated samples have been characterized through diffraction, microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. As a result of irradiation, due to agglomeration of particles, the grain size is found to increase. We could also observe a red shift after irradiation with increasing fluence, leading to easy flow of electron from valence to conduction band, which shows that conduction of electrons is more in case of irradiated films compared to the pristine one and thus there may be a possibility of using the irradiated samples in various optoelectronic devices.

  9. [Comparative estimation of cytokine profile among patients with exogenous allergic and idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Makhmudova, S Iu

    2009-05-01

    To study some indicators of cytokine status among the patients with pneumonia alveolitis 89 patients have been examined. 60 of those patients suffer from exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA) and - 60 from idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis (IFA). The average age is 36.4+/-3.0. The patients were devided into three groups: I group - 21 (23.6%) patients with acute disease, II group - 25 (28.1%) patients with subacute disease, III group - 43 (48.3%) patients with chronic disease. The level of IL-1beta and IL-8 in blood serum and bronchoalveolar wash-out (BWO) measured by IFA test system. It is identified that the contents of IL-1beta in blood serum of EAA patients exceeded on 7.2%, the contents of IL-8 exceeded on 14.6% among IFA patients - reliable rise IL-1beta on 35.4% (<0.05) and IL-8 on 31.6% (<0.05). The level of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and IL-8) in peripheric blood corresponded with the level of disease. Along with progressing of disease the contents of cytokine in respiratory space, too high, increased among 21 patients with acute disease, in 13 cases (61.9%) BWO was high in IL-1beta and in 80.8% cases of IL-8. in II group among 25 patients with subacute disease high level of IL-1beta marked in 56.0%, Il-8 in 84% cases; patients in III group high concentration of IL-1beta registered in 51.2%; Il-8 in 81.4% of patients.

  10. How does tomato quality (sugar, acid, and nutritional quality) vary with ripening stage, temperature, and irradiance?

    PubMed

    Gautier, Hélène; Diakou-Verdin, Vicky; Bénard, Camille; Reich, Maryse; Buret, Michel; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Poëssel, Jean Luc; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Génard, Michel

    2008-02-27

    The objective of this study was to understand the respective impact of ripening stage, temperature, and irradiance on seasonal variations of tomato fruit quality. During ripening, concentrations in reducing sugars, carotenes, ascorbate, rutin, and caffeic acid derivates increased, whereas those in titratable acidity, chlorophylls, and chlorogenic acid content decreased. Fruit temperature and irradiance affected final fruit composition. Sugars and acids (linked to fruit gustative quality) were not considerably modified, but secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties were very sensitive to fruit environment. Increased fruit irradiance enhanced ascorbate, lycopene, beta-carotene, rutin, and caffeic acid derivate concentrations and the disappearance of oxidized ascorbate and chlorophylls. Increasing the temperature from 21 to 26 degrees C reduced total carotene content without affecting lycopene content. A further temperature increase from 27 to 32 degrees C reduced ascorbate, lycopene, and its precursor's content, but enhanced rutin, caffeic acid derivates, and glucoside contents. The regulation by light and temperature of the biosynthesis pathways of secondary metabolites is discussed.

  11. Seed viability and functional properties of broccoli sprouts during germination and postharvest storage as affected by irradiation of seeds.

    PubMed

    Waje, Catherine K; Jun, So-Yun; Lee, Yeon-Kyung; Moon, Kwang-Deog; Choi, Yong Hee; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2009-06-01

    The viability of broccoli seeds and functional properties, such as ascorbic acid, carotenoid, chlorophyll, and total phenol contents, of broccoli sprouts grown from irradiated seeds were evaluated. The seeds were irradiated using electron beam and gamma ray at doses up to 8 kGy. High germination percentages (>90%) were observed in seeds irradiated at < or =4 kGy, but the yield ratio and sprout length decreased with increased irradiation dose. Irradiation at > or =6 kGy resulted in curling of the sprout roots. Germinated seeds contained higher amounts of nutrients than raw seeds but the nutritional quality of sprouts decreased during postharvest storage. Radiation treatment hampered the growth of irradiated seeds resulting in underdeveloped sprouts with decreased ascorbic acid, carotenoid, and chlorophyll contents. In addition, the decrease in functional content of sprouts was more substantial in samples grown from high-dose (5 kGy) irradiated seeds than that of the low-dose (1 kGy) treated ones. Seed irradiation did not negatively affect the total phenol content of sprouts. In general, electron beam and gamma irradiation of broccoli seeds showed similar effects on the viability and functional properties of sprouts.

  12. Inhibition of Ultraviolet B-Induced Expression of the Proinflammatory Cytokines TNF-α and VEGF in the Cornea by Fucoxanthin Treatment in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shiu-Jau; Lee, Ching-Ju; Lin, Tzer-Bin; Liu, Hsiang-Jui; Huang, Shuan-Yu; Chen, Jia-Zeng; Tseng, Kuang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation is the most common cause of radiation damage to the eyeball and is a risk factor for human corneal damage. We determined the protective effect of fucoxanthin, which is a carotenoid found in common edible seaweed, on ocular tissues against oxidative UVB-induced corneal injury. The experimental rats were intravenously injected with fucoxanthin at doses of 0.5, 5 mg/kg body weight/day or with a vehicle before UVB irradiation. Lissamine green for corneal surface staining showed that UVB irradiation caused serious damage on the corneal surface, including severe epithelial exfoliation and deteriorated epithelial smoothness. Histopathological lesion examination revealed that levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), significantly increased. However, pretreatment with fucoxanthin inhibited UVB radiation-induced corneal disorders including evident preservation of corneal surface smoothness, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine expression, and decrease of infiltrated polymorphonuclear leukocytes from UVB-induced damage. Moreover, significant preservation of the epithelial integrity and inhibition of stromal swelling were also observed after UVB irradiation in fucoxanthin-treated groups. Pretreatment with fucoxanthin may protect against UVB radiation-induced corneal disorders by inhibiting expression of proinflammatory factors, TNF-α, and VEGF and by blocking polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration. PMID:26751458

  13. Increased Cytokine and Nitric Oxide Levels in Serum of Dogs Experimentally Infected with Rangelia vitalii

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S.; Paim, Carlos Breno V.; França, Raqueli T.; Costa, Márcio M.; Duarte, Marta M. M. F.; Sangoi, Manuela B.; Moresco, Rafael N.; Monteiro, Silvia G.; Lopes, Sonia Terezinha A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to measure the levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) in serum of dogs experimentally infected with Rangelia vitalii. Twelve female mongrel dogs were divided into 2 groups; group A (uninfected controls) composed by healthy dogs (n=5) and group B consisting of dogs inoculated with R. vitalii (n=7). Animals were monitored by blood smear examinations, which showed intraerythrocytic forms of the parasite on day 5 post-infection (PI). Blood samples were collected through the jugular vein on days 0, 10, and 20 PI to determine the serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and NOx. Cytokines were assessed by ELISA quantitative sandwich technique, and NOx was measured by the modified Griess method. Cytokine levels (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6) were increased (P<0.01) in serum of infected animals. Serum levels of NOx were also increased on days 10 PI (P<0.01) and 20 PI (P<0.05) in infected animals. Therefore, the infection with R. vitalii causes an increase in proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide content. These alterations may be associated with host immune protection against the parasite. PMID:23467990

  14. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welt, M. A.

    In July 1981, the first specifically designed multi-purpose irradiation facility for food irradiation was put into service by the Radiation Technology, Inc. subsidiary Process Technology, Inc. in West Memphis, Arkansas. The operational experience gained, resulted in an enhanced design which was put into commercial service in Haw River, North Carolina, by another subsidiary, Process Technology (N.C.), Inc. in October 1983. These facilities have enabled the food industry to assess the commercial viability of food irradiation. Further impetus towards commercialization of food irradiation was gained in March 1981 with the filing in the Federal Register, by the FDA, of an Advanced Proposed Notice of Rulemaking for Food Irradiation. Two years later in July 1983, the FDA approved the first food additive regulation involving food irradiation in nineteen years, when they approved the Radiation Technology, Inc. petition calling for the sanitization of spices, onion powder and garlic powder at a maximum dosage of 10 kGy. Since obtaining the spice irradiation approval, the FDA has accepted four additional petitions for filing in the Federal Register. One of the petitions which extended spice irradiation to include insect disinfestation has issued into a regulation while the remaining petitions covering the sanitization of herbs, spice blends, vegetable seasonings and dry powdery enzymes as well as the petition to irradiate hog carcasses and pork products for trichinae control at 1 kGy, are expected to issue either before the end of 1984 or early in 1985. More recently, food irradiation advocates in the United States received another vote of confidence by the announcement that a joint venture food irradiation facility to be constructed in Hawaii by Radiation Technology, is backed by a contractual committment for the processing of 40 million pounds of produce per year. Another step was taken when the Port of Salem, New Jersey announced that the Radiation Technology Model RT-4104

  15. Interleukin-6: a cytokine to forget.

    PubMed

    Balschun, D; Wetzel, W; Del Rey, A; Pitossi, F; Schneider, H; Zuschratter, W; Besedovsky, H O

    2004-11-01

    It is known that proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) during disease conditions and affect several brain functions including memory and learning. In contrast to these effects observed during pathological conditions, here we describe a physiological function of IL-6 in the "healthy" brain in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. During long-term potentiation (LTP) in vitro and in freely moving rats, IL-6 gene expression in the hippocampus was substantially increased. This increase was long lasting, specific to potentiation, and was prevented by inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors with (+/-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5). Blockade of endogenous IL-6 by application of a neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibody 90 min after tetanus caused a remarkable prolongation of LTP. Consistently, blockade of endogenous IL-6, 90 min after hippocampus-dependent spatial alternation learning resulted in a significant improvement of long-term memory. In view of the suggested role of LTP in memory formation, these data implicate IL-6 in the mechanisms controlling the kinetics and amount of information storage.

  16. The cytokine TWEAK modulates renal tubulointerstitial inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Ana Belen; Justo, Pilar; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel; Winkles, Jeffrey A; Kreztler, Matthias; Jakubowski, Aniela; Blanco, Julia; Egido, Jesús; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Ortiz, Alberto

    2008-04-01

    TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a member of the TNF superfamily of cytokines. In addition to binding and activating the fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 receptor, TWEAK may regulate apoptosis, proliferation, and inflammation; however, the role of this system in kidney injury is unknown. In vitro, it was found that TWEAK induced the sustained activation of NF-kappaB in a murine tubular epithelial cell line (MCT). NF-kappaB activation was associated with degradation of IkappaB-alpha; translocation of RelA to the nucleus; and increased mRNA and protein expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, RANTES, and IL-6. Similarly, in vivo, the systemic administration of TWEAK induced renal NF-kappaB activation, chemokine and IL-6 expression, and interstitial inflammation in mice. Parthenolide, which prevents IkappaB-alpha degradation, inhibited TWEAK-induced NF-kappaB activation and prevented the aforementioned changes in vitro and in vivo. After folic acid-induced acute kidney injury, fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 expression increased in mouse tubular epithelium. Neutralization of TWEAK decreased the expression of chemokines in tubular cells and reduced interstitial inflammation. In conclusion, TWEAK has NF-kappaB-dependent proinflammatory effects on tubular epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, blockade of TWEAK reduces tubular chemokine expression and macrophage infiltration, suggesting that TWEAK modulates acute kidney injury by regulating the inflammatory response.

  17. Pallet irradiators for food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, R. G.; Chu, R. D. H.

    This paper looks at the various design concepts for the irradiation processing of food products, with particular emphasis on handling the products on pallets. Pallets appear to offer the most attractive method for handling foods from many considerations. Products are transported on pallets. Warehouse space is commonly designed for pallet storage and, if products are already palletized before and after irradiation, then labour could be saved by irradiating on pallets. This is also an advantage for equipment operation since a larger carrier volume means lower operation speeds. Different pallet irradiator design concepts are examined and their suitability for several applications are discussed. For example, low product holdup for fast turn around will be a consideration for those operating an irradiation "service" business; others may require a very large source where efficiency is the primary requirement and this will not be consistent with low holdup. The radiation performance characteristics and processing costs of these machines are discussed.

  18. Chronic fatigue syndrome and circulating cytokines: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Blundell, S; Ray, K K; Buckland, M; White, P D

    2015-11-01

    There has been much interest in the role of the immune system in the pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), as CFS may develop following an infection and cytokines are known to induce acute sickness behaviour, with similar symptoms to CFS. Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines, a search was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and PsycINFO, for CFS related-terms in combination with cytokine-related terms. Cases had to meet established criteria for CFS and be compared with healthy controls. Papers retrieved were assessed for both inclusionary criteria and quality. 38 papers met the inclusionary criteria. The quality of the studies varied. 77 serum or plasma cytokines were measured without immune stimulation. Cases of CFS had significantly elevated concentrations of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) in five out of eight (63%) studies. No other cytokines were present in abnormal concentrations in the majority of studies, although insufficient data were available for some cytokines. Following physical exercise there were no differences in circulating cytokine levels between cases and controls and exercise made no difference to already elevated TGF-β concentrations. The finding of elevated TGF-β concentration, at biologically relevant levels, needs further exploration, but circulating cytokines do not seem to explain the core characteristic of post-exertional fatigue.

  19. Divergent T-Cell Cytokine Patterns in Inflammatory Arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A. K.; Seipelt, E.; Sieper, J.

    1994-08-01

    A major immunoregulatory mechanism in inflammatory infections and allergic diseases is the control of the balance of cytokines secreted by Th1/Th2 subsets of T helper (Th) cells. This might also be true in autoimmune diseases; a Th2 pattern that prevents an effective immune response in infections with intracellular bacteria may favor immunosuppression in autoimmune diseases. The pattern of cytokine expression was compared in the synovial tissue from patients with a typical autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and with a disorder with similar synovial pathology but driven by persisting exogenous antigen, reactive arthritis. We screened 12 rheumatoid and 9 reactive arthritis synovial tissues by PCR and in situ hybridization for their expression of T-cell cytokines. The cytokine pattern differs significantly between the two diseases; rheumatoid arthritis samples express a Th1-like pattern whereas in reactive arthritis interferon γ expression is accompanied by that of interleukin 4. Studying the expression of cytokines by in situ hybridization confirmed the results found by PCR; they also show an extremely low frequency of cytokine-transcribing cells. In a double-staining experiment, it was demonstrated that interleukin 4 is made by CD4 cells. These experiments favor the possibility of therapeutic intervention in inflammatory rheumatic diseases by means of inhibitory cytokines.

  20. Fluorescence properties and electron paramagnetic resonance studies of {gamma}-irradiated Sm{sup 3+}-doped oxyfluoroborate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, B. Hari; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.

    2012-11-01

    The permanent photoinduced valence manipulation of samarium doped oxyfluoroborate glasses as a function of {gamma}-ray irradiation has been investigated using a steady-state fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance techniques. An increase in SrF{sub 2} content in the glass led to the red shift of the peaks in as prepared glass, while in irradiated glasses this led to the decrease in defect formation as well as increase in photoreduction of Sm{sup 3+} to Sm{sup 2+} ion. The energy transfer mechanism of induced permanent photoreduction of Sm{sup 3+} to Sm{sup 2+} ions in oxyfluoroborate glasses has been discussed. The decay analysis shows exponential behavior before irradiation and non-exponential behavior after irradiation. The energy transfer in irradiated glasses increases with the increase in SrF{sub 2} content in the glass and also with the irradiation dose.

  1. The IL-2 cytokine family in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sim, Geok Choo; Radvanyi, Laszlo

    2014-08-01

    The use of cytokines from the IL-2 family (also called the common γ chain cytokine family) such as interleukin (IL)-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 to activate the immune system of cancer patients is one of the most important areas of current cancer immunotherapy research. The infusion of IL-2 at low or high doses for multiple cycles in patients with metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma was the first successful immunotherapy for cancer proving that the immune system could completely eradicate tumor cells under certain conditions. The initial clinical success observed in some IL-2-treated patients encouraged further efforts focused on developing and improving the application of other IL-2 family cytokines (IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21) that have unique biological effects playing important roles in the development, proliferation, and function of specific subsets of lymphocytes at different stages of differentiation with some overlapping effects with IL-2. IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21, as well as mutant forms or variants of IL-2, are now also being actively pursued in the clinic with some measured early successes. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the biology of the IL-2 cytokine family focusing on IL-2, IL-15 and IL-21. We discuss the similarities and differences between the signaling pathways mediated by these cytokines and their immunomodulatory effects on different subsets of immune cells. Current clinical application of IL-2, IL-15 and IL-21 either as single agents or in combination with other biological agents and the limitation and potential drawbacks of these cytokines for cancer immunotherapy are also described. Lastly, we discuss the future direction of research on these cytokines, such as the development of new cytokine mutants and variants for improving cytokine-based immunotherapy through differential binding to specific receptor subunits.

  2. TREK-1 Regulates Cytokine Secretion from Cultured Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells Independently of Cytoskeletal Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Schwingshackl, Andreas; Roan, Esra; Teng, Bin; Waters, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Background TREK-1 deficient alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) secrete less IL-6, more MCP-1, and contain less F-actin. Whether these alterations in cytokine secretion and F-actin content are related remains unknown. We now hypothesized that cytokine secretion from TREK-1-deficient AECs was regulated by cytoskeletal rearrangements. Methods We determined F-actin and α-tubulin contents of control, TREK-1-deficient and TREK-1-overexpressing human A549 cells by confocal microscopy and western blotting, and measured IL-6 and MCP-1 levels using real-time PCR and ELISA. Results Cytochalasin D decreased the F-actin content of control cells. Jasplakinolide increased the F-actin content of TREK-1 deficient cells, similar to the effect of TREK-1 overexpression in control cells. Treatment of control and TREK-1 deficient cells with TNF-α, a strong stimulus for IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion, had no effect on F-actin structures. The combination of TNF-α+cytochalasin D or TNF-α+jasplakinolide had no additional effect on the F-actin content or architecture when compared to cytochalasin D or jasplakinolide alone. Although TREK-1 deficient AECs contained less F-actin at baseline, quantified biochemically, they contained more α-tubulin. Exposure to nocodazole disrupted α-tubulin filaments in control and TREK-1 deficient cells, but left the overall amount of α-tubulin unchanged. Although TNF-α had no effect on the F-actin or α-tubulin contents, it increased IL-6 and MCP-1 production and secretion from control and TREK-1 deficient cells. IL-6 and MCP-1 secretions from control and TREK-1 deficient cells after TNF-α+jasplakinolide or TNF-α+nocodazole treatment was similar to the effect of TNF-α alone. Interestingly, cytochalasin D decreased TNF-α-induced IL-6 but not MCP-1 secretion from control but not TREK-1 deficient cells. Conclusion Although cytochalasin D, jasplakinolide and nocodazole altered the F-actin and α-tubulin structures of control and TREK-1 deficient AEC, the

  3. Whole-body irradiation transiently diminishes the adrenocorticotropin response to recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Perlstein, R.S.; Mehta, N.R.; Neta, R.; Whitnall, M.H.; Mougey, E.H.

    1995-03-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha} (rhIL-1{alpha}) has significant potential as a radioprotector and/or treatment for radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Both IL-1 and whole-body ionizing irradiation acutely stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We therefore assessed the interaction of whole-body irradiation and rhIL-1{alpha} in altering the functioning of the axis in mice. Specifically, we determined the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to rhIL-1{alpha} administered just before and hours to days after whole-body or sham irradiation. Our results indicate that whole-body irradiation does not potentiate the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in ACTH levels at the doses used. In fact, the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in plasma ACTH is transiently impaired when the cytokine is administered 5 h after, but not 1 h before, exposure to whole-body irradiation. The ACTH response may be inhibited by elevated corticosterone levels after whole-body irradiation, or by other radiation-induced effects on the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Lung Irradiation Increases Mortality After Influenza A Virus Challenge Occurring Late After Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, Casey M.; Johnston, Carl J.; Reed, Christina K.; Lawrence, B. Paige; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Finkelstein, Jacob N.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To address whether irradiation-induced changes in the lung environment alter responses to a viral challenge delivered late after exposure but before the appearance of late lung radiation injury. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6J mice received either lung alone or combined lung and whole-body irradiation (0-15 Gy). At 10 weeks after irradiation, animals were infected with 120 HAU influenza virus strain A/HKx31. Innate and adaptive immune cell recruitment was determined using flow cytometry. Cytokine and chemokine production and protein leakage into the lung after infection were assessed. Results: Prior irradiation led to a dose-dependent failure to regain body weight after infection and exacerbated mortality, but it did not affect virus-specific immune responses or virus clearance. Surviving irradiated animals displayed a persistent increase in total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and edema. Conclusions: Lung irradiation increased susceptibility to death after infection with influenza virus and impaired the ability to complete recovery. This altered response does not seem to be due to a radiation effect on the immune response, but it may possibly be an effect on epithelial repair.

  5. Jeju ground water containing vanadium induced immune activation on splenocytes of low dose γ-rays-irradiated mice.

    PubMed

    Ha, Danbee; Joo, Haejin; Ahn, Ginnae; Kim, Min Ju; Bing, So Jin; An, Subin; Kim, Hyunki; Kang, Kyung-goo; Lim, Yoon-Kyu; Jee, Youngheun

    2012-06-01

    Vanadium, an essential micronutrient, has been implicated in controlling diabetes and carcinogenesis and in impeding reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. γ-ray irradiation triggers DNA damage by inducing ROS production and causes diminution in radiosensitive immunocytes. In this study, we elucidate the immune activation capacities of Jeju water containing vanadium on immunosuppression caused by γ-ray irradiation, and identify its mechanism using various low doses of NaVO(3). We examined the intracellular ROS generation, DNA damage, cell proliferation, population of splenocytes, and cytokine/antibody profiles in irradiated mice drinking Jeju water for 180 days and in non-irradiated and in irradiated splenocytes both of which were treated with NaVO(3). Both Jeju water and 0.245 μM NaVO(3) attenuated the intracellular ROS generation and DNA damage in splenocytes against γ-ray irradiation. Splenocytes were significantly proliferated by the long-term intake of Jeju water and by 0.245 μM NaVO(3) treatment, and the expansion of B cells accounted for the increased number of splenocytes. Also, 0.245 μM NaVO(3) treatment showed the potency to amplify the production of IFN-γ and total IgG in irradiated splenocytes, which correlated with the expansion of B cells. Collectively, Jeju water containing vanadium possesses the immune activation property against damages caused by γ-irradiation.

  6. Fc-based cytokines : prospects for engineering superior therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Jazayeri, Jalal A; Carroll, Graeme J

    2008-01-01

    The application of Fc (fragment crystallizable)-based cytokines (the fusion of the constant region of IgG to a cytokine of interest) as biotherapeutic agents to modulate inflammatory and immune responses has become increasingly popular in recent years. This is because in their monomeric form, cytokines are relatively small molecules with short serum half-lives, which necessitates frequent administration and thus limits their clinical utility. To rectify the problem, attempts have been made to improve the stability of these agents in vivo. This has been achieved through diverse strategies such as modification with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) or by ligating the cytokine to protein moieties such as the constant heavy chain of IgG, known as the Fc fragment. The construction of Fc chimeric proteins has been shown to improve pharmacokinetics. However, since there is an inverse relationship between the size of molecules and the rate at which they diffuse through mucus, Fc fusion constructs potentially have a lower rate of diffusion. Consequently, a compromise is reached whereby Fc constructs are engineered to incorporate ligated cytokines in a monomeric form (one molecule of cytokine fused to a single Fc dimer) rather than in a dimeric form (two molecules of cytokine fused to a single Fc dimer). A recent and novel approach to improve stability in serum is a procedure that involves sheathing cytokines in protective protein covers called latency peptides. The enclosed cytokine is protected from degradation and allowed to act where needed when the outer peptide cover is removed. For some applications, a reduced serum half-life is desirable; for example, where there is a need to reduce IgG levels in antibody-mediated diseases. To achieve this goal, a strategy called AbDeg, which involves enhanced Ig degradation, has been devised. This article provides an overview of the design and construction of Fc-based cytokines, in both dimeric and monomeric forms. Several examples

  7. Effects of exchange transfusion on cytokine profiles in necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Tokio; Kouwaki, Masanori; Goto, Kenji; Endo, Takeshi; Ito, Koichi; Koyama, Norihisa; Togari, Hajime

    2012-12-01

    To study the effect of exchange transfusion on cytokine profiles in a patient with necrotizing enterocolitis, the levels of 12 cytokines and serum calprotectin were measured among exchange transfusion. A male extremely low birth weight infant was in non-compensated shock and diagnosed stage 3 necrotizing enterocolitis. Exchange transfusion was performed for critical condition, refractory hypotension and disseminated intravascular coagulation. After exchange transfusion, the patient's blood pressure increased and stabilized. Then an enterostomy was performed and revealed necrosis of the ascending colon. Of the cytokines examined, interleukin-8 and serum calprotectin were high before exchange transfusion and decreased after exchange transfusion.

  8. Common Gamma Chain Cytokines in Combinatorial Immune Strategies against Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pulliam, Stephanie R.; Uzhachenko, Roman V.; Adunyah, Samuel E.; Shanker, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Common γ chain (γC) cytokines, namely IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21 are important for the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of lymphocytes that display antitumor activity, thus stimulating considerable interest for the use of cytokines in cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we will focus on the γC cytokines that demonstrate the greatest potential for immunotherapy, IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21. We will briefly cover their biological function, potential applications in cancer therapy, and update on their use in combinatorial immune strategies for eradicating tumors and hematopoietic malignancies. PMID:26597610

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on the change of solubility and anti-inflammation activity of chrysin in macrophage cells and LPS-injected endotoxemic mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Jang, Beom-Su; Byun, Eui-Hong; Sung, Nak-Yun

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the changes of solubility and anti-inflammatory properties of structurally modified gamma-irradiated chrysin. Chrysin was irradiated at various doses for a physical analysis and determining any structural changes and solubility. As shown through the physical analysis, the main peak of the chrysin was decreased as the irradiation dose increased, and it was concomitant with the appearance of several new peaks, which were highly increased in 50 kGy gamma-irradiated chrysin. The solubility was markedly increased in the gamma-irradiated groups. As shown through a physiological analysis, both gamma-irradiated- (15-50 kGy) and intact-chrysin (0 kGy) did not exert cytotoxicity to bone-marrow derived macrophages. The treatment of LPS-stimulated macrophages with 50 kGy gamma-irradiated chrysin resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in pro-inflammatory mediators, such as iNOS-mediated NO, PGE2, COX-2, and cell surface marker (CD80 and CD86), as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), when compared to the intact-chrysin treated group. Mechanically, we found that the inhibition of these pro-inflammatory mediators induced by gamma-irradiated chrysin occurred through an inhibition of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and p38) and the NF-κB signaling pathways. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity remained in the LPS-injected animal model. In this model, gamma-irradiated chrysin treatment highly increased the mouse survival, and significantly decreased the serum cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) levels. From these findings, the anti-inflammatory action by gamma-irradiated chrysin may be closely mediated with structural modification. It seems likely that gamma irradiation can be an effective tool for improvement of the physical and physiological properties of polyphenols.

  10. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Jong-Uck; Yoon, Hyung-Sik

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1 kGy on the quality of garlic bulbs ( Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1°C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction ( P<0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin ( S-allyl- L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data.

  11. Effect of laser irradiation on neutrophils metabolism in stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Gregory E.; Grigoriev, Sergei N.; Romanova, Tatyana P.; Petrisheva, Svetlana G.

    1994-02-01

    In experiments on male mice of CBA line the alteration of neutrophils cytochemical profile in peripheral blood He-Ne laser irradiation in vitro (4 mW/cm2, 15 min) and modification of metabolic disturbances in polymorphonuclear leucocytes in stress by laser radiation were studied. It was found that direct laser irradiation of blood results in the decrease of glycogen and lipids content, the increase of ATP-ase, succinate dehydrogenase and myeloperoxidase activity, rise of lysosomal cationic proteins level, and membrane oxidase systems of neutrophils stimulation. In short-term immobilization stress conditions transcutaneous laser irradiation in vivo (19 mW/cm2, 15 min) prevents the development of stress induced changes of metabolism and function of neutrophils.

  12. Gastroprotective effect of kefir on ulcer induced in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Hanan A; Ismail, Amel F M

    2015-03-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the protective effect of kefir milk on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in γ-irradiated rats. The results of the present study revealed that treatment with γ-irradiation and/or ethanol showed a significant increase in ulcers number, total acidity, peptic, H(+)K(+)ATPase, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and MDA level, which were accompanied by a significant decrease in the mucus content, the stomach GSH level, the GSH-Px activity and DNA damage. Pre-treatment with kefir milk exert significant improvement in all the tested parameters. Kefir milk exerts comparable effect to that of the antiulcer drug ranitidine. In conclusion, the present study revealed that oral administration of kefir milk prevents ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in γ-irradiated rats that could attribute to its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and radio-protective activities.

  13. Quality of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce and spinach irradiated at doses up to 4 kGy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuetong; Guan, Wenqiang; Sokorai, Kimberly J. B.

    2012-08-01

    Fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce packaged in modified atmosphere packages and spinach in perforated film bags were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 kGy. After irradiation, the samples were stored for 14 days at 4 °C. O2 levels in the packages of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce decreased and CO2 levels increased with increasing radiation dose, suggesting that irradiation increased respiration rates of lettuce. Tissue browning of irradiated cut lettuce was less severe than that of non-irradiated, probably due to the lower O2 levels in the packages. However, samples irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy had lower maximum force and more severe sogginess than the non-irradiated control. In addition, ascorbic acid content of irradiated lettuce was 22-40% lower than the non-irradiated samples after 14 days of storage. The visual appearance of spinach was not affected by irradiation even at a dose of 4 kGy. Consumer acceptance suggested that more people would dislike and would not buy spinach that was treated at 3 and 4 kGy as compared to the non-irradiated sample. Overall, irradiation at doses of 1 and 2 kGy may be employed to enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce and spinach while maintaining quality.

  14. Atopic dermatitis and cytokines: the immunoregulatory and therapeutic implications of cytokines in atopic dermatitis--part II: negative regulation and cytokine therapy in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Noh, Geunwoong; Lee, Jaeho

    2012-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis is an immunologic disease that results in allergic inflammations of the skin. Cytokines are involved in the negative regulation of immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Negative immune regulation is also achieved by immune cells in addition to cytokines which are subsequently regulated by a counter-regulatory mechanism. Allergen tolerance is an important aspect of the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Recently, the IL-27, IL-21, and IL-10 cytokines were found to be important components of the counter regulatory mechanism that terminates immune response, and protects the host from excessive immune responses. IL-10 and TGF-β are well-known to be involved in the immune tolerance. IL-10 and IFN-γ are promising cytokines with respect to the prevention of allergen sensitization and the induction of allergen-specific tolerance. In particular, IFN-γ has unique tolerogenic effects with respect to pre-sensitized allergens, especially in atopic dermatitis. In this review, the role of cytokines in the immune tolerance and relevant patents are reviewed, and therapeutic strategies are presented based on the immunologic architecture of AD.

  15. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the structural properties of PVA/V 2O 5 xerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Z. I.; Ali, F. A.; Hosam, A. M.

    2009-05-01

    Poly(vinylalcohol) (PVA)/vanadium pentoxide xerogel (VXG) composites were prepared and exposed to different electron beam irradiation doses. Changes in the structural properties, crystallinity degree of composites with increasing irradiation doses and VXG content were subsequently investigated using the Fourier transformer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. The crystallinity degree of the PVA matrix was found to decrease markedly due to VXG addition and/or irradiation process.

  16. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the structural properties of PVA/V(2)O(5) xerogel.

    PubMed

    Ali, Z I; Ali, F A; Hosam, A M

    2009-05-01

    Poly(vinylalcohol) (PVA)/vanadium pentoxide xerogel (VXG) composites were prepared and exposed to different electron beam irradiation doses. Changes in the structural properties, crystallinity degree of composites with increasing irradiation doses and VXG content were subsequently investigated using the Fourier transformer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. The crystallinity degree of the PVA matrix was found to decrease markedly due to VXG addition and/or irradiation process.

  17. Phytosanitary irradiation - Development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Loaharanu, Paisan

    2016-12-01

    Phytosanitary irradiation, the use of ionizing radiation to disinfest traded agricultural commodities of regulated pests, is a growing use of food irradiation that has great continued potential for increase in commercial application. In 2015 approximately 25,000 t of fresh fruits and vegetables were irradiated globally for phytosanitary purposes. Phytosanitary irradiation has resulted in a paradigm shift in phytosanitation in that the final burden of proof of efficacy of the treatment has shifted from no live pests upon inspection at a port of entry (as for all previous phytosanitary treatments) to total dependence on certification that the treatment for target pests is based on adequate science and is commercially conducted and protected from post-treatment infestation. In this regard phytosanitary irradiation is managed more like a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) approach more consistent with food safety than phytosanitation. Thus, phytosanitary irradiation offers a more complete and rigorous methodology for safeguarding than other phytosanitary measures. The role of different organizations in achieving commercial application of phytosanitary irradiation is discussed as well as future issues and applications, including new generic doses.

  18. Irradiation with low-dose gamma ray enhances tolerance to heat stress in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Zheng, Fengxia; Qi, Wencai; Wang, Tianqi; Ma, Lingyu; Qiu, Zongbo; Li, Jingyuan

    2016-06-01

    Gamma irradiation at low doses can stimulate the tolerance to environmental stress in plants. However, the knowledge regarding the mechanisms underlying the enhanced tolerance induced by low-dose gamma irradiation is far from fully understood. In this study, to investigate the physiological and molecular mechanisms of heat stress alleviated by low-dose gamma irradiation, the Arabidopsis seeds were exposed to a range of doses before subjected to heat treatment. Our results showed that 50-Gy gamma irradiation maximally promoted seedling growth in response to heat stress. The production rate of superoxide radical and contents of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde in the seedlings irradiated with 50-Gy dose under heat stress were significantly lower than those of controls. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione (GSH) content and proline level in the gamma-irradiated seedlings were significantly increased compared with the controls. Furthermore, transcriptional expression analysis of selected genes revealed that some components related to heat tolerance were stimulated by low-dose gamma irradiation under heat shock. Our results suggest that low-dose gamma irradiation can modulate the physiological responses as well as gene expression related to heat tolerance, thus alleviating the stress damage in Arabidopsis seedlings.

  19. Physicochemical and structural evaluation of alkali extracted chickpea starch as affected by γ-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Mudasir; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2016-08-01

    In this study, starch isolated from chickpea was exposed to gamma-irradiation at 0, 4, 8 and 12kGy doses. The irradiated starches were evaluated for their physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties. The results revealed significant (p≤0.05) reduction in apparent amylose content, swelling power, turbidity, syneresis, L (lightness) value, and pasting parameters whereas solubility and b (yellowness) value increased with increase in irradiation dose. X-ray diffraction showed C-type of crystallographic pattern. Relative crystallinity (RC) of irradiated starches was different at different irradiation doses. Prominent changes were recorded in the FT-IR spectra of irradiated starch samples with respect to intensity and shifting of major bands in specific regions. Analysis of O - H and C - H stretches, bending mode of water and glycoside bonds of irradiated starches revealed marked decrease in their absorbance intensities. Scanning electron microscopy revealed cracking and clumping of starch granules at elevated doses of gamma-irradiation. Radiation doses were negatively correlated to swelling power, pasting parameters (peak viscosity, hold viscosity, final viscosity, setback viscosity and pasting temperature), turbidity, syneresis and apparent amylose content except solubility.

  20. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800{degrees}C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and {sup 60}Co;7.4 MBq/day.

  1. Proton irradiation of simple gas mixtures: Influence of irradiation parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, Norbert J.; Schuster, R.; Hofmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    In order to get information about the influence of irradiation parameters on radiolysis processes of astrophysical interest, methane gas targets were irradiated with 6.5 MeV protons at a pressure of 1 bar and room temperature. Yields of higher hydrocarbons like ethane or propane were found by analysis of irradiated gas samples using gas chromatography. The handling of the proton beam was of great experimental importance for determining the irradiation parameters. In a series of experiments current density of the proton beam and total absorbed energy were shown to have a large influence on the yields of produced hydrocarbons. Mechanistic interpretations of the results are given and conclusions are drawn with regard to the chemistry and the simulation of various astrophysical systems.

  2. Preoperative irradiation for the prevention of heterotopic ossification induces local inflammation in humans.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Paula; Rakow, Anastasia; Gaber, Timo; Hahne, Martin; Sentürk, Ufuk; Strehl, Cindy; Fangradt, Monique; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina; Huscher, Dörte; Winkler, Tobias; Matziolis, Dörte; Matziolis, Georg; Badakhshi, Harun; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Duda, Georg N; Perka, Carsten; Buttgereit, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Radiation of the hip is an established method to prevent heterotopic ossification (HO) following total hip arthroplasty (THA) but the precise mechanism is unclear. As inflammatory processes are suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of HO, we hypothesized that the preoperative irradiation impacts local immune components. Therefore, we quantified immune cell populations and cytokines in hematomas resulting from the transection of the femur in two groups of patients receiving THA: patients irradiated preoperatively (THA-X-hematoma: THA-X-H group) in the hip region (7 Gy) in order to prevent HO and patients who were not irradiated (THA-H group) but were postoperatively treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Radiation resulted in significantly increased frequencies of T cells, cytotoxic T cells, NKT cells and CD25+CD127- Treg cells, whereas the number of naive CD45RA-expressing cytotoxic T cells was reduced. These results indicate differential immune cell activation, corroborated by our findings of significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6, IFNγ) and chemokines (e.g., MCP-1, RANTES) in the THA-X-H group as compared to THA-H group. In contrast, the concentration of the angiogenic VEGF was significantly suppressed in the THA-X-H group. We conclude that preoperative irradiation results in significant changes in immune cell composition and cytokine secretion in THA-hematomas, establishing a specific - rather proinflammatory - milieu. This increase of inflammatory activity together with the observed suppression in VEGF secretion may contribute to the prevention of HO.

  3. Irradiation at 660 nm modulates different genes central to wound healing in wounded and diabetic wounded cell models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houreld, Nicolette N.

    2014-02-01

    Wound healing is a highly orchestrated process and involves a wide variety of cellular components, chemokines and growth factors. Laser irradiation has influenced gene expression and release of various growth factors, cytokines and extracellular matrix proteins involved in wound healing. This study aimed to determine the expression profile of genes involved in wound healing in wounded and diabetic wounded fibroblast cells in response to irradiation at a wavelength of 660 nm. Human skin fibroblast cells (WS1) were irradiated with a diode laser (wavelength 660 nm; fluence 5 J/cm2; power output 100 mW; power density 11 mW/cm2; spot size 9.1 cm2; exposure duration 7 min 35 s). Total RNA was isolated and 1 μg reverse transcribed into cDNA which was used as a template in real-time qualitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Eighty four genes involved in wound healing (extracellular matrix and cell adhesion; inflammatory cytokines and chemokines; growth factors; and signal transduction) were evaluated in wounded and diabetic wounded cell models. Forty eight hours post-irradiation, 6 genes were significantly upregulated and 8 genes were down-regulated in irradiated wounded cells, whereas 1 gene was up-regulated and 33 genes down-regulated in irradiated diabetic wounded cells. Irradiation of stressed fibroblast cells to a wavelength of 660 nm and a fluence of 5 J/cm2 modulated the expression of different genes involved in wound healing in different cell models. Modulation of these genes leads to the effects of laser irradiation seen both in vivo and in vitro, and facilitates the wound healing process.

  4. Pro-angiogenic cytokines as cardiovascular therapeutics: assessing the potential.

    PubMed

    Atluri, Pavan; Woo, Y Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Coronary artery and peripheral vascular disease are global health concerns with limited therapies. Currently available medical and surgical therapies for these disease processes are highly effective for only a fraction of patients. Extensive effort has been devoted to finding molecular therapies to enhance perfusion and function of ischemic myocardial and peripheral skeletal muscle. Angiogenic cytokines (fibroblast growth factor [FGF], vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], hepatocyte growth factor [HGF], placental growth factor, stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha) have shown theoretical and experimental promise in upregulating endogenous endothelial progenitor cell-mediated angiogenesis. Preliminary clinical trials have suggested improvements in myocardial and peripheral perfusion following therapy with FGF, VEGF, and HGF. Further studies on the efficacy of cytokine-mediated angiogenesis are required before widespread clinical application is possible. Investigation into adjunctive cytokine therapies for myocardial and peripheral muscle ischemia is warranted. Based on experimental evidence, appropriate angiogenic cytokine therapy should provide benefits in both perfusion and hemodynamic function.

  5. High efficiency cell-specific targeting of cytokine activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, Geneviève; Paul, Franciane; Staufenbiel, Markus; Bordat, Yann; van der Heyden, José; Wilmes, Stephan; Cartron, Guillaume; Apparailly, Florence; de Koker, Stefaan; Piehler, Jacob; Tavernier, Jan; Uzé, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Systemic toxicity currently prevents exploiting the huge potential of many cytokines for medical applications. Here we present a novel strategy to engineer immunocytokines with very high targeting efficacies. The method lies in the use of mutants of toxic cytokines that markedly reduce their receptor-binding affinities, and that are thus rendered essentially inactive. Upon fusion to nanobodies specifically binding to marker proteins, activity of these cytokines is selectively restored for cell populations expressing this marker. This ‘activity-by-targeting’ concept was validated for type I interferons and leptin. In the case of interferon, activity can be directed to target cells in vitro and to selected cell populations in mice, with up to 1,000-fold increased specific activity. This targeting strategy holds promise to revitalize the clinical potential of many cytokines.

  6. In Vivo Cytokine-Associated Responses to Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Schutte, RJ; Xie, L; Klitzman, B; Reichert, WM

    2008-01-01

    Cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were analyzed periodically over eight weeks from the wound exudate fluid surrounding biomaterials implanted subcutaneously within stainless steel mesh cages. TNF-α, MCP-1, MIP-1α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-1β, VEGF, IL-4, and IL-10 were measured from exudate samples collected from cages containing specimens of polyethylene (PE), polyurethane (PU), or organo-tin polyvinyl chloride (ot-PVC). Empty cages served as negative controls, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) served as a positive control. Cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor concentrations decreased from the time of implantation to eight weeks post-implantation, and there was an overall increase in cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor production for material-containing cages compared to empty cages. However, cytokine production was only modestly affected by the different surface chemistries of the three implanted polymeric materials. PMID:18849070

  7. In vivo cytokine-associated responses to biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Schutte, Robert J; Xie, Lola; Klitzman, Bruce; Reichert, William M

    2009-01-01

    Cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were analyzed periodically over eight weeks from the wound exudate fluid surrounding biomaterials implanted subcutaneously within stainless steel mesh cages. TNF-alpha, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, IL-2, IL-6, IL-1beta, VEGF, IL-4, and IL-10 were measured from exudate samples collected from cages containing specimens of polyethylene (PE), polyurethane (PU), or organotin polyvinyl chloride (ot-PVC). Empty cages served as negative controls, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) served as a positive control. Cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor concentrations decreased from the time of implantation to eight weeks post-implantation, and there was an overall increase in cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor production for material-containing cages compared to empty cages. However, cytokine production was only modestly affected by the different surface chemistries of the three implanted polymeric materials.

  8. The Enigmatic Cytokine Oncostatin M and Roles in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Carl D.

    2013-01-01

    Oncostatin M is a secreted cytokine involved in homeostasis and in diseases involving chronic inflammation. It is a member of the gp130 family of cytokines that have pleiotropic functions in differentiation, cell proliferation, and hematopoetic, immunologic, and inflammatory networks. However, Oncostatin M also has activities novel to mediators of this cytokine family and others and may have fundamental roles in mechanisms of inflammation in pathology. Studies have explored Oncostatin M functions in cancer, bone metabolism, liver regeneration, and conditions with chronic inflammation including rheumatoid arthritis, lung and skin inflammatory disease, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. This paper will review Oncostatin M biology in a historical fashion and focus on its unique activities, in vitro and in vivo, that differentiate it from other cytokines and inspire further study or consideration in therapeutic approaches. PMID:24381786

  9. The Immune System, Cytokines, and Biomarkers in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Masi, Anne; Glozier, Nicholas; Dale, Russell; Guastella, Adam J

    2017-04-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental condition characterized by variable impairments in communication and social interaction as well as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Heterogeneity of presentation is a hallmark. Investigations of immune system problems in ASD, including aberrations in cytokine profiles and signaling, have been increasing in recent times and are the subject of ongoing interest. With the aim of establishing whether cytokines have utility as potential biomarkers that may define a subgroup of ASD, or function as an objective measure of response to treatment, this review summarizes the role of the immune system, discusses the relationship between the immune system, the brain, and behavior, and presents previously-identified immune system abnormalities in ASD, specifically addressing the role of cytokines in these aberrations. The roles and identification of biomarkers are also addressed, particularly with respect to cytokine profiles in ASD.

  10. Trial Watch—Immunostimulation with cytokines in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Aranda, Fernando; Bloy, Norma; Buqué, Aitziber; Cremer, Isabelle; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Fucikova, Jitka; Galon, Jérôme; Spisek, Radek; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the past decade, great efforts have been dedicated to the development of clinically relevant interventions that would trigger potent (and hence potentially curative) anticancer immune responses. Indeed, developing neoplasms normally establish local and systemic immunosuppressive networks that inhibit tumor-targeting immune effector cells, be them natural or elicited by (immuno)therapy. One possible approach to boost anticancer immunity consists in the (generally systemic) administration of recombinant immunostimulatory cytokines. In a limited number of oncological indications, immunostimulatory cytokines mediate clinical activity as standalone immunotherapeutic interventions. Most often, however, immunostimulatory cytokines are employed as immunological adjuvants, i.e., to unleash the immunogenic potential of other immunotherapeutic agents, like tumor-targeting vaccines and checkpoint blockers. Here, we discuss recent preclinical and clinical advances in the use of some cytokines as immunostimulatory agents in oncological indications. PMID:27057468

  11. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

  12. [Interleukins network in rheumatoid arthritis pathophysiology: beyond proinflammatory cytokines].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; López-Longo, Francisco Javier; Carreño, Luis

    2011-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by synovitis and progressive destruction of the joint cartilage and underlying bone, together with diverse extra-articular manifestations. Cytokines act as soluble effector mediators of the inflammatory process. Therapeutic neutralization with monoclonal antibodies against the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and interleukin 1 (IL-1) has shown a clear efficacy on inflammation and clinical manifestations of RA, although a percentage of patients do not respond. This review covers new relevant cytokines in the RA physiopathology and potential biomarkers of inflammation. The current challenge is to develop biomarkers that enable an earlier diagnosis, as well as prognostic markers and new therapeutic candidates. Combined administration of several of these cytokines could eventually address a personalized treatment approach for each patient.

  13. The role of Th17 cytokines in primary mucosal immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kolls, Jay K.; Khader, Shabaana A.

    2010-01-01

    The T helper type 17 (Th17) lineage of CD4+ T-cells produce several effector molecules including IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22. In addition to CD4+, αβ T-cells, these cytokines can be produced by natural killer and γδ T-cells. These effector cytokines can be produced rapidly upon infection at mucosal sites and evidence to date strongly implicates that this arm of the immune system plays a critical role in mucosal immunity to many extracellular pathogens. Moreover these cytokines can also coordinate adaptive immunity to some intracellular pathogens. In this review, we will highlight recent progress in our understanding of these cytokines, and mechanisms of their effector function in the mucosa. PMID:21095154

  14. Intestinal Irradiation and Fibrosis in a Th1-Deficient Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Linard, Christine; Billiard, Fabienne; Benderitter, Marc

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Changes in the Th1/Th2 immune balance may play a role in increasing the incidence of radiation-induced toxicity. This study evaluates the consequences of Th1 deficiency on intestinal response (fibrosis and T cell trafficking) to abdominal irradiation and examines in mucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) the differential involvement of the two Th1 pathways, T-bet/STAT1 and IL-12/STAT4, in controlling this balance in mice. Methods and Materials: Using T-bet-deficient mice (T-bet{sup -/-}), we evaluated the mRNA and protein expression of the Th1 pathways (IFN-{gamma}, T-bet/STAT1, and IL-12/STAT4) and the CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} populations in ileal mucosa and MLN during the first 3 months after 10 Gy abdominal irradiation. Results: The T-bet-deficient mice showed an increased fibrotic response to radiation, characterized by higher TGF-{beta}1, col3a1 expression, and collagen deposition in mucosa compared with wild-type mice. This response was associated with drastically lower expression of IFN-{gamma}, the hallmark Th1 cytokine. Analysis of the Th1 expression pathways, T-bet/STAT1 and IL-12/STAT4, showed their equal involvement in the failure of Th1 polarization. A minimal IFN-{gamma} level depended on the IL-23-p19/STAT4 level. In addition, the radiation-induced deficiency in the priming of Th1 by IFN-{gamma} was related to the defective homing capacity of CD8{sup +} cells in the mucosa. Conclusion: Irradiation induces Th2 polarization, and the Th2 immune response may play a role in potentiating irradiation-induced intestinal collagen deposition.

  15. Peripheral blood neutrophil cytokine hyper-reactivity in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Ling, Martin R; Chapple, Iain L C; Matthews, John B

    2015-10-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokine release (IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β) by peripheral blood neutrophils, isolated from periodontitis patients (before/after therapy) and matched controls, was determined after 18 h culture in the presence/absence of Escherichia coli LPS, opsonised Staphylococcus aureus, heat-killed Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis. All cultures demonstrated differences in the amounts of each cytokine detected (P < 0.0001), with a clear release pattern (IL-8 > IL-6 > TNF-α = IL-1β). Median cytokine release from unstimulated patient neutrophils was consistently, but non-significantly, higher than from control cells. Stimulated cytokine release from untreated patient neutrophils was also consistently higher than from control cells. This hyper-reactivity was significant for all tested cytokines when data for all stimuli were combined (P < 0.016). In terms of individual stimuli, significant hyper-reactivity was detected with LPS (IL-8), F. nucleatum (IL-8, TNF-α), opsonised S. aureus (IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1β) and P. gingivalis (IL-8, IL-1β). Cytokine production by patient neutrophils did not reduce following successful non-surgical periodontal therapy and, except for responses to F. nucleatum, the cytokine hyper-reactivity detected pre-therapy was retained. These data demonstrate that chronic periodontitis is characterised by neutrophils that constitutively exhibit cytokine hyper-reactivity, the effects of which could modulate local and systemic inflammatory-immune responses and influence the risk and severity of periodontitis-associated systemic inflammatory diseases.

  16. Dysregulation of in vitro cytokine production by monocytes during sepsis.

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, C; Carlet, J; Fitting, C; Misset, B; Blériot, J P; Cavaillon, J M

    1991-01-01

    The production by monocytes of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with sepsis syndrome (n = 23) or noninfectious shock (n = 6) is reported. Plasma cytokines, cell-associated cytokines within freshly isolated monocytes and LPS-induced in vitro cytokine production were assessed at admission and at regular intervals during ICU stay. TNF alpha and IL-6 were the most frequently detected circulating cytokines. Despite the fact that IL-1 alpha is the main cytokine found within monocytes upon in vitro activation of cells from healthy individuals, it was very rarely detected within freshly isolated monocytes from septic patients, and levels of cell-associated IL-1 beta were lower than those of TNF alpha. Cell-associated IL-1 beta and TNF alpha were not correlated with corresponding levels in plasma. Upon LPS stimulation, we observed a profound decrease of in vitro IL-1 alpha production by monocytes in all patients, and of IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF alpha in septic patients. This reduced LPS-induced production of cytokines was most pronounced in patients with gram-negative infections. Finally, monocytes from survival patients, but not from nonsurvival ones recovered their capacity to produce normal amounts of cytokines upon LPS stimulation. In conclusion, our data indicate an in vivo activation of circulating monocytes during sepsis as well as in noninfectious shock and suggest that complex regulatory mechanisms can downregulate the production of cytokines by monocytes during severe infections. Images PMID:1939659

  17. Multisite comparison of high-sensitivity multiplex cytokine assays.

    PubMed

    Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Reynolds, Sandra M; Cox, Christopher; Jacobson, Lisa P; Magpantay, Larry; Mulder, Candice B; Dibben, Oliver; Margolick, Joseph B; Bream, Jay H; Sambrano, Elise; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Borrow, Persephone; Landay, Alan L; Rinaldo, Charles R; Norris, Philip J

    2011-08-01

    The concentrations of cytokines in human serum and plasma can provide valuable information about in vivo immune status, but low concentrations often require high-sensitivity assays to permit detection. The recent development of multiplex assays, which can measure multiple cytokines in one small sample, holds great promise, especially for studies in which limited volumes of stored serum or plasma are available. Four high-sensitivity cytokine multiplex assays on a Luminex (Bio-Rad, BioSource, Linco) or electrochemiluminescence (Meso Scale Discovery) platform were evaluated for their ability to detect circulating concentrations of 13 cytokines, as well as for laboratory and lot variability. Assays were performed in six different laboratories utilizing archived serum from HIV-uninfected and -infected subjects from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) and commercial plasma samples spanning initial HIV viremia. In a majority of serum samples, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were detectable with at least three kits, while IL-1β was clearly detected with only one kit. No single multiplex panel detected all cytokines, and there were highly significant differences (P < 0.001) between laboratories and/or lots with all kits. Nevertheless, the kits generally detected similar patterns of cytokine perturbation during primary HIV viremia. This multisite comparison suggests that current multiplex assays vary in their ability to measure serum and/or plasma concentrations of cytokines and may not be sufficiently reproducible for repeated determinations over a long-term study or in multiple laboratories but may be useful for longitudinal studies in which relative, rather than absolute, changes in cytokines are important.

  18. (Irradiation creep of graphite)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.R.

    1990-12-21

    The traveler attended the Conference, International Symposium on Carbon, to present an invited paper, Irradiation Creep of Graphite,'' and chair one of the technical sessions. There were many papers of particular interest to ORNL and HTGR technology presented by the Japanese since they do not have a particular technology embargo and are quite open in describing their work and results. In particular, a paper describing the failure of Minor's law to predict the fatigue life of graphite was presented. Although the conference had an international flavor, it was dominated by the Japanese. This was primarily a result of geography; however, the work presented by the Japanese illustrated an internal program that is very comprehensive. This conference, a result of this program, was better than all other carbon conferences attended by the traveler. This conference emphasizes the need for US participation in international conferences in order to stay abreast of the rapidly expanding HTGR and graphite technology throughout the world. The United States is no longer a leader in some emerging technologies. The traveler was surprised by the Japanese position in their HTGR development. Their reactor is licensed and the major problem in their graphite program is how to eliminate it with the least perturbation now that most of the work has been done.

  19. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Tang, Yao; Xiao, Yao; Wan, Sen

    2012-08-01

    Gamma irradiation is highly effective in inactivating microorganisms in various foods and offers a safe alternative method of food decontamination. In the present study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) were treated with 0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 KGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial populations on soybeans, isoflavone, tocopherol contents, raffinose family oligosaccharides, color and sensory properties were evaluated as a function of irradiation dose. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced aerobic bacterial and fungal load. Irradiation at the doses applied did not cause any significant change (p>0.05) in the contents of isoflavone of soybeans, but decreased tocopherol contents. The content of key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides in irradiated soybeans (10.0 kGy) decreased by 82.1% compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that the odor of the soybeans was organoleptically acceptable at doses up to 5.0 kGy and no significant differences were observed between irradiated and nonirradiated samples in flavor, texture and color after irradiation.

  1. Irradiation and post-irradiation examination of uranium-free nitride fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hania, P. R.; Klaassen, F. C.; Wernli, B.; Streit, M.; Restani, R.; Ingold, F.; Fedorov, A. V.; Wallenius, J.

    2015-11-01

    Two identical Phénix-type 15-15Ti steel pinlets each containing a 70 mm Pu0.3Zr0.7N fuel stack in a 1-bar helium atmosphere have been irradiated in the HFR Petten at medium high linear power (46-47 kW/m at BOL) and an average cladding temperature of 505 °C. The pins were irradiated to a plutonium burn-up of 9.7% (88 MWd/kgHM) in 170 full power days. Both pins remained fully intact. Post-irradiation examination performed at NRG and PSI showed that the overall swelling rate of the fuel was 0.92 vol-%/%FIHMA. Fission gas release was 5-6%, while helium release was larger than 50%. No fuel restructuring was observed, and only mild cracking. EPMA measurements show a burn-up increase toward the pellet edge of up to 4 times. All investigated fission products except to some extent the noble metals were found to be evenly distributed over the matrix, indicating good solubility. Local formation of a secondary phase with high Pu content and hardly any Zr was observed. A general conclusion of this investigation is that ZrN is a suitable inert matrix for burning plutonium at high destruction rates.

  2. [Sorption characteristics of surfactant onto bentonite using microwave irradiation].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Wu; Zhu, Li-Zhong; Cai, Wei-Jian

    2007-11-01

    The sorption curve of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) onto bentonite by microwave irradiation was studied. The effects of microwave reaction time and CPC concentration on interlayer spacing and organic carbon content of organobentonite were tested, respectively. Thermodynamics and kinetics of sorption of CPC onto bentonite by microwave irradiation were studied. The saturated adsorption amount of CPC to bentonite with microwave irradiation time from 90 s to 120 s was equal to that of conventional sorption, up to 0.001 63 mol x g(-1). On the condition of microwave irradiation time with 2 min and concentration of CPC with 1.20 mmol x L(-1), the interlayer spacing was attained to 2.44 nm at the best, and organic carbon content was 23.45%. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the typical layer morphological structure of bentonite was not devastated by microwave. Contrast to conventional sorption, sorption of CPC onto bentonite was greatly influenced by microwave, velocity constant of sorption reaction was increased 107.6 times, and free energy of sorption reaction system was decreased.

  3. Submicro foaming in biopolymers by UV pulsed laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oujja, Mohamed; Rebollar, Esther; Gaspard, Solenne; Abrusci, Concepción; Catalina, Fernando; Lazare, Sylvain; Castillejo, Marta

    2006-05-01

    Microstructuring of polymers and biopolymers is of application in medical technology and biotechnology. Using different fabrication techniques three-dimensionally shaped and micro structured constructs can be developed for drug release and tissue engineering. As an alternative method, laser microstructuring offers a series of advantages including high resolution capability, low heat deposition in the substrate and high level of flexibility. In this work we present evidence of laser microfoam formation in collagen and gelatine by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation in the UV at 248 and 266 nm. Irradiation at 355 nm produces melting followed by resolidification of the substrate, whereas irradiation at 532 and 1064 nm induces the formation of craters of irregular contours. Single pulse irradiation of a collagen film with an homogenized KrF microbeam yields a 20 μm thick expanded layer, which displays the interesting features of a nanofibrous 3-dimensional network with open cells. In gelatine, irradiation at 248 and 266 nm produces similar morphological modifications. The effect of the structural properties of the substrate on the laser induced microfoam is studied by comparing gelatines differing in gel strength (Bloom values 225 and 75) and in crosslinking degree. While results are discussed on the basis of thermal and photomechanical mechanisms and of the role played by the water content of the substrates, it is thought that such structures could have a biomimic function in future 3D cell culture devices for research.

  4. Cytokine and nitric oxide production following severe envenomation.

    PubMed

    Petricevich, Vera L

    2004-09-01

    Venom is a complex mixture of many substances such as toxins, enzymes, growth factor activators, and inhibitors are particularly responsible for the deleterious effects of cells. These constituents interact in the body with a large number of proteins and receptors, and this interaction determines the eventual inflammatory effect of the compounds. Envenomation by bees, scorpions, snakes, spiders and wasps involves the activation of the inflammatory response with the release and activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators, such as nitric oxide. Recently, a battery of cytokines produced by activated T cells or macrophages have been added to in envenomations. Cytokines are important for the interactions between cells in the immune and inflammatory responses. Although the pathophysiology of envenomation is not fully understood, venom and immune responses are known to trigger the release of cytokines and nitric oxide. The cytokines initiate a cascade of events that lead to illness behaviors such as fever, anorexia, and, as well as a host of physiologic events such as activation of vasodilation, hypotension and increased nitric oxide production. Accumulating evidence indicates that these cytokines play important roles in mediating cell recruitment and activation necessary for inflammation and the repair of tissue damage. A better understanding of the involvement of the inflammatory system in different envenoming syndromes may have future therapeutic benefits.

  5. Increased production of inflammatory cytokines in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Magaki, Shino; Mueller, Claudius; Dickson, Cindy; Kirsch, Wolff

    2007-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that chronic inflammation plays a pathogenic role in both the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have screened for cytokines differentially produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild AD subjects who had progressed from MCI using a commercially available cytokine array. Following determination of expressed cytokines, we quantified levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 using flow cytometry. We have found a significant increase in the levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 produced by PBMCs stimulated for 24 h with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in MCI subjects compared to healthy elderly controls. However, in PBMCs stimulated for 48 h with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lower TNF-alpha/IL-10, IL-6/IL-10, and IL-8/IL-10 ratios were seen in MCI subjects. There were no differences in plasma levels of IL-8 between aged controls, MCI, and mild AD, and the levels of circulating IL-6 and IL-10 were below detection limits. Our data indicate that changes in cytokine production by PBMCs may be detected early in MCI, and an alteration of the immune response may precede clinical AD.

  6. Cytokines as biomarkers in depressive disorder: current standing and prospects.

    PubMed

    Lichtblau, Nicole; Schmidt, Frank M; Schumann, Robert; Kirkby, Kenneth C; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2013-10-01

    The frequently observed co-occurrence of depressive disorders and inflammatory diseases suggests a close connection between the nervous and the immune systems. Increased pro-inflammatory and type 1 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ, appear to be an important link. Cytokines are synthesized by immune cells in the blood and peripheral tissues and by glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence suggests that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is permeable to cytokines and immune cells, and that afferent nerves, e.g. the vagus nerve, mediate the communication between peripheral inflammatory processes and CNS. Cytokines such as IL-1ß, TNF-α and IFN-γ seem to contribute to the pathophysiology of depression by activating monoamine reuptake, stimulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and decreasing production of serotonin due to increased activity of indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). However, critical appraisal of these hypotheses is required, because cytokine elevation is not specific to depression. Moreover, several effective antidepressants such as amitriptyline and mirtazapine have been shown to increase cytokine production. When applying immunomodulatory therapies, these drugs may increase the risk of specific side effects such as infections or interact with antidepressant drugs on important functions of the body such as the coagulation system.

  7. Treatment by gamma or electron radiation decreases cell wall and gossypol content of cottonseed meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayefi, M.; Salari, S.; Sari, M.; Behgar, M.

    2014-06-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of gamma and beam treatment (up to 40 kGy) on chemical composition and gossypol content of cottonseed meal. Irradiation decreased the crude fiber content. Gamma and electron treatment decreased total and free gossypol content.

  8. Morphological and photosynthetic response to high and low irradiance of Aeschynanthus longicaulis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiansheng; Deng, Min; Xiong, Yanshi; Coombes, Allen; Zhao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Aeschynanthus longicaulis plants are understory plants in the forest, adapting to low light conditions in their native habitats. To observe the effects of the high irradiance on growth and physiology, plants were grown under two different light levels, PPFD 650 μmol·m(-2) ·s(-1) and 150 μmol·m(-2) ·s(-1) for 6 months. Plants under high irradiance had significantly thicker leaves with smaller leaf area, length, width, and perimeter compared to the plants grown under low irradiance. Under high irradiance, the leaf color turned yellowish and the total chlorophyll decreased from 5.081 mg·dm(-2) to 3.367 mg·dm(-2). The anthocyanin content of high irradiance leaves was double that of those under low irradiance. The plants under high irradiance had significantly lower Amax (5.69 μmol·m(-2) ·s(-1)) and LSP (367 μmol·m(-2) ·s(-1)) and higher LCP (21.9 μmol·m(-2) ·s(-1)). The chlorophyll fluorescence parameter F v /F m was significantly lower and NPQ was significantly higher in high irradiance plants. RLCs showed significantly lower ETRmax and E k in plants under high irradiance. It can be concluded that the maximum PPFD of 650 μmol·m(-2) ·s(-1) led to significant light stress and photoinhibition of A. longicaulis.

  9. Enhanced survival from radiation pneumonitis by combined irradiation to the skin

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Fish, Brian L.; Szabo, Aniko; Schock, Ashley; Narayanan, Jayashree; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Moulder, John E.; Lazarova, Zelmira; Medhora, Meetha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop mitigators for combined irradiation to the lung and skin. Methods Rats were treated with X-rays as follows: (1) 12.5 or 13 Gy whole thorax irradiation (WTI) (2) 30 Gy soft X-rays to 10% area of the skin only (3) 12.5 or 13 Gy WTI+30 Gy skin irradiation after 3 hours (4) 12.5 Gy WTI+skin irradiation and treated with captopril (160 mg/m2/day) started after 7 days. Our end points were survival (primary) based on IACUC euthanization criteria and secondary measurements of breathing intervals and skin injury. Lung collagen at 210 days was measured in rats surviving 13 Gy WTI. Results After 12.5 Gy WTI with or without skin irradiation, one rat (12.5 Gy WTI) was euthanized. Survival was less than 10% in rats receiving 13 Gy WTI, but was enhanced when combined with skin irradiation (p<0.0001). Collagen content increased at 210 days after 13 Gy WTI vs 13 Gy WTI+30 Gy skin irradiation (p<0.05). Captopril improved radiation-dermatitis after 12.5 Gy WTI+30 Gy skin irradiation (p=0.008). Conclusions Radiation to the skin given 3 hours after WTI mitigated morbidity during pneumonitis in rats. Captopril enhanced the rate of healing of radiation-dermatitis after combined irradiations to the thorax and skin. PMID:24827855

  10. Dynamic powder compaction of rapidly solidified Path A alloy with increased carbon and titanium content

    SciTech Connect

    Megusar, J.; Imeson, D.; Vander Sande, J.B.; Grant, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this study is to show the potential of the dynamic powder compaction technique to consolidate rapidly solidified Path A alloys and to develop microstructures with improved irradiation performance in the fusion environment. Samples of rapidly solidified and dynamically compacted Path A alloy with increased carbon and titanium content have been included in alloy development irradiation experiments.

  11. Defining an appropriate leucoreduction strategy by serial assessment of cytokine levels in platelet concentrates prepared by different methods

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Daljit; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Marwaha, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Different methods of platelet concentrate preparations leave behind certain number of residual leukocytes, accounting for most of the febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions, especially in multitransfused patients. Various inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 are generated during storage and have been implicated for these adverse effects. We have studied the levels of these cytokines and their correlation with leucocyte contents in platelet concentrates prepared by three different methods. Study Design and Methods: Five pools of platelet rich plasma platelet concentrates (PRP-PC) and buffy-coat platelet concentrates (BC-PC) each were prepared and divided into two halves. One half of the pool was leucofiltered (LF), whereas the other half was stored as such. Ten apheresis units were also included in the study. All the platelet concentrates were assessed for leucocyte load and cytokine content (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) on different days of storage (0, 3, and 5) using Nageotte chamber and commercially available immunoassays respectively. Results: There was a statistically significant rise in cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) in nonleucofiltered (NLF) random donor platelet concentrates (RDPs) (PRP-PC and BC-PC) during storage (day 3 and 5) whereas LF RDP concentrates (PRP-PC and BC-PC) and apheresis platelet concentrates (AP-PC) did not show any significant rise in cytokine levels (on day 3 and 5) over the baseline values at day 0. Conclusion: This data suggests that although AP-PCs are superior to PRP-PC (NLF) and BC-PC (NLF) in terms of in vitro quality control parameters and cytokine generation during storage, BC-PC mode of platelet preparation followed by leucofiltration is the best method to store platelets and minimise the cytokine accumulation. This strategy is best suited for transfusion in multitransfused hematooncologic patients, who cannot afford single

  12. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  13. Irradiation pretreatment for coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Process using highly-penetrating nuclear radiation (Beta and Gamma radiation) from nuclear power plant radioactive waste to irradiate coal prior to conventional desulfurization procedures increases total extraction of sulfur.

  14. Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Patrick K.

    1995-04-05

    An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

  15. Consumer attitudes toward irradiated food

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, S.

    1994-12-31

    Throughout history, new methods of food preservation have been met with skepticism and fear. Such processes as pasteurization and canning were denounced as being dangerous, detrimental to nutrients, or an excuse for dirty products. Now comes irradiation, and activists argue against this new process for the same reasons. Publicly, the perception is that consumers, distrustful of nuclear power, will never buy or accept irradiated food.

  16. Systematization of the Mechanism by Which Plasma Irradiation Causes Cell Growth and Tumor Cell Death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    New methods and technologies have improved minimally invasive surgical treatment and saved numerous patients. Recently, plasma irradiation has been demonstrated that might be useful in medical field and the plasma irradiation device is expected to become practically applicable. Mild plasma coagulator showed some advantages such as hemostasis and adhesion reduction in experimental animal model, but the mechanism of plasma irradiation remains unclear. Our study group aim to clarify the mechanism of plasma irradiation effects, mainly focusing on oxidative stress using cultured cell lines and small animal model. First, a study using cultured cell lines showed that the culture medium that was activated by plasma irradiation (we called this kind of medium as ``PAM'' -plasma activated medium-) induced tumor cell death. Although this effect was mainly found to be due to hydrogen peroxide, the remaining portion was considered as the specific effect of the plasma irradiation and we are now studying focusing on this effect. Second, we established a mouse intra-peritoneal adhesion model and checked biological reaction that occurred in the adhesion part. Histopathological study showed inflammatory cells infiltration into adhesion part and the expression of PTX3 that might involve tissue repair around adhesion part. We also confirmed that cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 might be useful as a marker of adhesion formation in this model. Applying ``PAM'' or mild plasma irradiation in this model, we examine the effects of plasma on inflamed cells. The samples in these experiments would be applied to targeted proteomics analysis, and we aim to demonstrate the systematization of the cell's reaction by plasma irradiation.

  17. Cytokine induction of sol–gel-derived TiO2 and SiO2 coatings on metallic substrates after implantation to rat femur

    PubMed Central

    Urbanski, Wiktor; Marycz, Krzysztof; Krzak, Justyna; Pezowicz, Celina; Dragan, Szymon Feliks

    2017-01-01

    Material surface is a key determinant of host response on implanted biomaterial. Therefore, modification of the implant surface may optimize implant–tissue reactions. Inflammatory reaction is inevitable after biomaterial implantation, but prolonged inflammation may lead to adverse reactions and subsequent implant failure. Proinflammatory activities of cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are attractive indicators of these processes and ultimately characterize biocompatibility. The objective of the study was to evaluate local cytokine production after implantation of stainless steel 316L (SS) and titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) biomaterials coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silica (SiO2) coatings prepared by sol–gel method. Biomaterials were implanted into rat femur and after 12 weeks, bones were harvested. Bone–implant tissue interface was evaluated; immunohistochemical staining was performed to identify IL-6, TNF-α, and Caspase-1. Histomorphometry (AxioVision Rel. 4.6.3 software) of tissue samples was performed in order to quantify the cytokine levels. Both the oxide coatings on SS and Ti6Al4V significantly reduced cytokine production. However, the lowest cytokine levels were observed in TiO2 groups. Cytokine content in uncoated groups was lower in Ti6Al4V than in SS, although coating of either metal reduced cytokine production to similar levels. Sol–gel TiO2 or SiO2 coatings reduced significantly the production of proinflammatory cytokines by local tissues, irrespective of the material used as a substrate, that is, either Ti6Al4V or SS. This suggests lower inflammatory response, which directly points out improvement of materials’ biocompatibility. PMID:28280331

  18. Effect of resistance exercise training on expression of Hsp70 and inflammatory cytokines in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Molanouri Shamsi, M; Mahdavi, M; Quinn, L S; Gharakhanlou, R; Isanegad, A

    2016-09-01

    Impairment of adipose tissue and skeletal muscles accrued following type 1 diabetes is associated with protein misfolding and loss of adipose mass and skeletal muscle atrophy. Resistance training can maintain muscle mass by changing both inflammatory cytokines and stress factors in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 5-week ladder climbing resistance training program on the expression of Hsp70 and inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue and fast-twitch flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles in healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Induction of diabetes reduced body mass, while resistance training preserved FHL muscle weight in diabetic rats without any changes in body mass. Diabetes increased Hsp70 protein content in skeletal muscles, adipose tissue, and serum. Hsp70 protein levels were decreased in normal and diabetic rats by resistance training in the FHL, but not soleus muscle. Furthermore, resistance training decreased inflammatory cytokines in FHL skeletal muscle. On the other hand, Hsp70 and inflammatory cytokine protein levels were increased by training in adipose tissue. Also, significant positive correlations between inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue and skeletal muscles with Hsp70 protein levels were observed. In conclusion, we found that in diabetic rats, resistance training decreased inflammatory cytokines and Hsp70 protein levels in fast skeletal muscle, increased adipose tissue inflammatory cytokines and Hsp70, and preserved FHL muscle mass. These results suggest that resistance training can maintain skeletal muscle mass in diabetes by changing inflammatory cytokines and stress factors such as Hsp70 in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.

  19. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S. R.; Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.

    2011-12-01

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely ( P<0.001) phytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly ( P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly ( P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly ( P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS.

  20. Calculating Irradiance For Photosynthesis In The Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Donald J.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Booth, C. Rockwell; Kiefer, Dale A.; Stallings, Casson

    1990-01-01

    Mathematical model predicts available and usable irradiances. Yields estimates of irradiance available for photosynthesis (Epar) and irradiance usable for photosynthesis (Epur) as functions of depth in ocean. Describes Epur and Epar in terms of spectral parameters measured remotely (from satellites or airplanes). These irradiances useful in studies of photosynthetic productivity of phytoplankton in euphotic layer.

  1. Irradiance-dependent UVB Photocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Cheng-Che E.; Wu, Ching-Shuang; Huang, Shu-Mei; Wu, Chin-Han; Lai, Hsiao-Chi; Peng, Yu-Ting; Hou, Pao-Sheng; Yang, Hui-Jun; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from the sun may lead to photocarcinogenesis of the skin. Sunscreens were used to protect the skin by reducing UVB irradiance, but sunscreen use did not reduce sunburn episodes. It was shown that UVB-induced erythema depends on surface exposure but not irradiance of UVB. We previously showed that irradiance plays a critical role in UVB-induced cell differentiation. This study investigated the impact of irradiance on UVB-induced photocarcinogenesis. For hairless mice receiving equivalent exposure of UVB radiation, the low irradiance (LI) UVB treated mice showed more rapid tumor development, larger tumor burden, and more keratinocytes harboring mutant p53 in the epidermis as compared to their high irradiance (HI) UVB treated counterpart. Mechanistically, using cell models, we demonstrated that LI UVB radiation allowed more keratinocytes harboring DNA damages to enter cell cycle via ERK-related signaling as compared to its HI UVB counterpart. These results indicated that at equivalent exposure, UVB radiation at LI has higher photocarcinogenic potential as compared to its HI counterpart. Since erythema is the observed sunburn at moderate doses and use of sunscreen was not found to associate with reduced sunburn episodes, the biological significance of sunburn with or without sunscreen use warrants further investigation. PMID:27869214

  2. Computing Solar EUV Irradiance Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, H. P.

    2014-12-01

    The solar EUV irradiance plays a central role in determining the state of the Earth's upper atmosphere. The EUV irradiance at the shortest wavelengths, which is highly variable over time scales from seconds to decades, is particularly important for many aspects of space weather. Systematic spectrally resolved observations at the shortest EUV wavelengths, however, have been rare and there is a need to develop a methodology for estimating and forecasting the solar irradiance at all EUV wavelengths from sparse data sets. In this presentation we report on our efforts to use AIA DEM calculations to estimate the solar EUV irradiance at wavelength below 450 Å, where the emission is predominately optically thin. To validate our AIA DEM calculations we have performed extensive comparisons with simultaneous observations from the EVE instrument on SDO and the EIS instrument on Hinode and find that with the proper constraints we can generally reproduce the results obtained with detailed spectroscopic observations. Using a proxy for solar activity derived from photospheric magnetic field measurements we extend our model calculations to previous solar cycles and discuss how the model can be used to forecast EUV irradiance variability over short time scales. Finally, we speculate on what is needed to further develop semi-empirical and physical models for use in understanding the solar spectral irradiance at these wavelengths.

  3. Targeted cytoplasmic irradiation and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinhua; Zhang, Bo; Wuu, Yen-Ruh; Davidson, Mercy M; Hei, Tom K

    2017-03-01

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on cytoplasmic organelles is often underestimated because the general dogma considers direct DNA damage in the nuclei to be the primary cause of radiation induced toxicity. Using a precision microbeam irradiator, we examined the changes in mitochondrial dynamics and functions triggered by targeted cytoplasmic irradiation with α-particles. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by targeted cytoplasmic irradiation led to activation of autophagy, which degraded dysfunctional mitochondria in order to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. The activation of autophagy was cytoplasmic irradiation-specific and was not detected in nuclear irradiated cells. This autophagic process was oxyradical-dependent and required the activity of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin related protein 1 (DRP1). The resultant mitochondrial fission induced phosphorylation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) which leads to further activation of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) 1/2 with concomitant inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to initiate autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy resulted in delayed DNA damage repair and decreased cell viability, which supports the cytoprotective function of autophagy. Our results reveal a novel mechanism in which dysfunctional mitochondria are degraded by autophagy in an attempt to protect cells from toxic effects of targeted cytoplasmic radiation.

  4. Murine Th17 cells utilize IL-2 receptor gamma chain cytokines but are resistant to cytokine withdrawal-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Neitzke, Daniel J; Bowers, Jacob S; Andrijauskaite, Kristina; O'Connell, Nathaniel S; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Wrangle, John; Li, Zihai; Paulos, Chrystal M; Cole, David J; Rubinstein, Mark P

    2017-03-09

    Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) with the Th17 subset of CD4(+) T cells can cure established melanoma in preclinical models and holds promise for treating human cancer. However, little is known about the growth factors necessary for optimal engraftment and anti-tumor activity of Th17 cells. Due to the central role of IL-2 receptor gamma chain (IL2Rγ-chain) cytokines (IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15) in the activity and persistence of many T cell subsets after adoptive transfer, we hypothesized that these cytokines are important for Th17 cells. We found that Th17 cells proliferated in response to IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 in vitro. However, in contrast to many other T cell subsets, including conventionally activated CD8(+) T cells, we found that Th17 cells were resistant to apoptosis in the absence of IL2Rγ-chain cytokines. To determine whether Th17 cells utilize IL2Rγ-chain cytokines in vivo, we tracked Th17 cell engraftment after adoptive transfer with or without cytokine depletion. Depletion of IL-7 and/or IL-2 decreased initial engraftment, while depletion of IL-15 did not. Supplementation of IL-2 increased initial Th17 engraftment. To assess the clinical relevance of these findings, we treated melanoma-bearing mice with Th17 cell adoptive transfer and concurrent cytokine depletion or supplementation. We found that simultaneous depletion of IL-2 and IL-7 decreased therapeutic efficacy, depletion of IL-15 had no effect, and IL-2 supplementation increased therapeutic efficacy. Our results show that Th17 cells are responsive to IL2Rγ-chain cytokines, and provide insight into the application of these cytokines for Th17-based therapeutic strategies.

  5. Cellular immunological effects of laser irradiation and immunoadjuvant application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei R.; Mohamed, Abdiwahab; Naylor, Mark F.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2007-02-01

    Immune system is critical in the fight against cancer. Particular important is the responses through immune cells that regulate immunological functions. Certain cytokines enhance cancer immunity (such as IL12 and interferon gamma) and others interfere or impede cancer immunity (such as IL10). The clinical outcome can be linked to the balance of these cytokines, such as IL10 to IL12 ratio. Effective treatments often reduce the IL10:IL12 ratio, indicating higher levels of the cancer fighting IL12. To enhance immune responses, a combination of laser irradiation and concurrent use of immunostimulants has been applied for the treatment of tumors. In a recent study, an 805-nm laser in conjunction with indocyanine green (ICG) has been used to treat EMT6 mammary tumors in mice. An immunoadjuvant, glycated chitosan (GC), was intratumoral injected after the laser irradiation. Our preliminary results showed that tumor-bearing mice treated either with the immunoadjuvant alone or with the combination of laser and immunoadjuvant had lower IL10:IL12 ratios than animals that received no treatment. This may play an important in the treatment to decrease tumor size and to increase survival times of mice. Cellular activities after laser-ICG-GC treatment of DBMA-4 mammary tumors in rats also showed infiltration of immune cells to the treatment sites, indicating a possible induced immunity. The combination of laser treatment and immunotherapy has been used to treat late-stage melanoma patients; the responses, both treated primary tumors and the metastases, to the treatment have been promising. The histology of two patients, before and after treatment, is presented to show the effects of this novel treatment method.

  6. Plasma cytokine expression in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wyller, Vegard Bruun; Sørensen, Øystein; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Ueland, Thor; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2015-05-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a prevalent and disabling condition among adolescents. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, but low-grade systemic inflammation has been suggested as an important component. This study compared circulating levels of individual cytokines and parameters of cytokine networks in a large set of adolescent CFS patients and healthy controls, and explored associations between cytokines and symptoms in the CFS group. CFS patients (12-18years old) were recruited nation-wide to a single referral center as part of the NorCAPITAL project (ClinicalTrials ID: NCT01040429). A broad case definition of CFS was applied, requiring three months of unexplained, disabling chronic/relapsing fatigue of new onset, whereas no accompanying symptoms were necessary. Thus, the case definition was broader than the Fukuda-criteria of CFS. Healthy controls having comparable distribution of gender and age were recruited from local schools. Twenty-seven plasma cytokines, including interleukins, chemokines and growth factors were assayed using multiplex technology. The results were subjected to network analyses using the ARACNE algorithm. Symptoms were charted by a questionnaire, and patients were subgrouped according to the Fukuda-criteria. A total of 120 CFS patients and 68 healthy controls were included. CFS patients had higher scores for fatigue (p<0.001) and inflammatory symptoms (p<0.001) than healthy controls. All cytokine levels and cytokine network parameters were similar, and none of the differences were statistically different across the two groups, also when adjusting for adherence to the Fukuda criteria of CFS. Within the CFS group, there were no associations between aggregate cytokine network parameters and symptom scores. Adolescent CFS patients are burdened by symptoms that might suggest low-grade systemic inflammation, but plasma levels of individual cytokines as well as cytokine network measures were not different from healthy controls, and

  7. Docosahexaenoic diet supplementation, exercise and temperature affect cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Capó, Xavier; Martorell, Miquel; Sureda, Antoni; Batle, Juan Miguel; Tur, Josep Antoni; Pons, Antoni

    2016-09-01

    Acute exercise induces changes in peripheral mononuclear cells' (PBMCs) capabilities to produce cytokines. The aim was to investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet supplementation on cytokine production, by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PBMCs after exercise, and the in vitro influence of temperature. Fifteen male soccer players were randomly assigned to a placebo or an experimental group. The experimental group consumed an almond-based beverage enriched with DHA (1.16 g DHA/day) for 8 weeks, whereas the placebo group consumed a similar non-enriched beverage. Blood samples were taken before and after the nutritional intervention in basal conditions and 2 h after acute exercise. Nutritional intervention significantly increased the DHA content in erythrocytes only in experimental group (from 34 ± 3.6 to 43 ± 3.6 nmols DHA/10(9) erythrocytes). Exercise significantly increased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in PBMCs but only in the placebo group (203 %). Exercise also significantly increased IL6, IL8, VEGF, INFγ, TNFα, IL1α, IL1β, MCP1, and EGG production rates by LPS-stimulated PBMCs, and this response was attenuated by DHA supplementation. Temperature but not DHA also affected the pattern of cytokine production increasing IL6, IL8, IL1β, and MCP1 synthesis. The higher change was evidenced in IL1β increasing the production rate at 39.5 °C from 3.19 ± 0.77 to 22.4 ± 6.1 pg/h 10(6) PBMC in placebo and from 2.36 ± 0.11 to 10.6 ± 0.38 pg/h 10(6) PBMC in the supplemented group. The profile of affected cytokines differs between temperature and exercise, suggesting a different PBMC activation pathway. DHA diet supplementation only attenuated cytokine production after exercise and not that induced by temperature.

  8. Continuous infusion of proinflammatory cytokines into the brain to study brain cytokine induced local and systemic immune effects.

    PubMed

    Schöning, B; Elepfandt, P; Lanksch, W R; Volk, H D; Woiciechowsky, C

    1999-07-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines are produced in the brain after various kinds of insult (ischemia, trauma, infection). In this process interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are most important. These cytokines are key mediators of inflammation. Furthermore, these cytokines can act as neurotransmitters and develop direct effects on the central nervous system (CNS) including fever, sleep and stimulation of the neuroendocrine as well as sympathetic nervous system. Moreover, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha may also be involved in brain repair and regenerating processes. However, most of the data about the role of cytokines in the brain have been obtained from either in vitro studies or bolus injections into the brain parenchyma or cerebroventricular system. On the other hand, it is known that cytokines are released continuously into the brain after a cerebral insult over a period of 24 to 48 h. In order to further complete the knowledge about the interactions between neural and immune cells to overcome the primary insult and initiate repair and regeneration in the CNS, a new animal model of local inflammation reaction was established using chronic intracerebral infusion of rat recombinant cytokines.

  9. [Cytokines in bone diseases. Anti-cytokine therapies for bone and joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2010-10-01

    The efficacy of biologics targeting inflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IL-6 for bone and joint diseases has been emerging. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic synovitis and bone damage. By the use of TNF-inhibitors, clinical remission, structural remission and functional remission have become possible during the treatment of RA. Especially, the progress of joint and bone destruction is completely suppressed by TNF-inhibitors in the vast majority of RA patients. On the other hand, anti-RANKL antibody inhibits joint destruction as well as systemic osteoporosis, though no effects on synovitis of RA. Thus, differential efficacy of different therapies in bone destruction and osteoporosis would warrant further study to clarify the mechanisms of bone and joints diseases.

  10. He and H irradiation effects on the nanoindentation hardness of CLAM steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Siben; Peng, Lei; Ge, Hongen; Huang, Qunying; Xin, Jingping; Zhao, Ziqiang

    2014-12-01

    In this study, He and H ion irradiation induced hardening behavior of China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel was investigated, and the influence of Si on irradiation hardening was also examined. CLAM steel with different Si contents, Heat 0912 and Heat 0408D, were irradiated with single He (He concentration range from 0 to 2150 appm) ion beam and He/H dual ion beams. Then nanoindentation tests were applied to evaluate the ion irradiation induced hardening effect. The result of Heat 0912 showed hardening effect would be more serious with higher He concentration, and the trend saturated when He concentration reach 1000 appm. Comparing the result of Heat 0912 and Heat 0408D, higher Si content might improve the resistance to hardening.

  11. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-04-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  12. Nanofoaming in the surface of biopolymers by femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspard, S.; Oujja, M.; de Nalda, R.; Abrusci, C.; Catalina, F.; Bañares, L.; Lazare, S.; Castillejo, M.

    2007-12-01

    In this work, the nanostructuring induced in femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation of biopolymers is examined in self-standing films of collagen and gelatine. Irradiation by single 90 fs pulses at 800, 400 and 266 nm is shown to result in the formation of a modified layer with submicrometric size structures. The size and uniformity of the observed features are strongly dependent on irradiation wavelength and on the characteristics of the biopolymer (water content and mechanical strength). Examination of the films by laser induced fluorescence serves to assess the chemical modifications induced by laser irradiation, revealing changes in the emission bands assigned to the aromatic amino acid tyrosine and its degradation products. The results are discussed in the framework of a mechanism involving the generation of large free-electron densities, through multiphoton and avalanche ionization, which determine the temperature and stress distribution in the irradiated volume.

  13. Mechanical properties and TEM examination of RAFM steels irradiated up to 70 dpa in BOR-60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaganidze, E.; Petersen, C.; Materna-Morris, E.; Dethloff, C.; Weiß, O. J.; Aktaa, J.; Povstyanko, A.; Fedoseev, A.; Makarov, O.; Prokhorov, V.

    2011-10-01

    Mechanical properties of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steels were studied after irradiation in BOR-60 reactor to a neutron displacement damage of 70 dpa at 330-340 °C. Yield stress and Ductile-to-Brittle-Transition-Temperature of EUROFER97 indicate saturation of hardening and embrittlement. The phenomenological models for description of microstructure evolution and resulting irradiation hardening and embrittlement are discussed. The evolution of yield stress with dose is qualitatively understood within a Whapham and Makin model. Dislocation loops examined in TEM are considered a main source for low-temperature irradiation hardening. The analysis of the fatigue data in terms of the inelastic strain reveals comparable fatigue behaviour both for unirradiated and irradiated conditions, which can be described by a common Manson-Coffin relation. The study of helium effects in B-doped model steels indicated progressive material embrittlement with helium content. Post-irradiation annealing of RAFM steels yielded substantial recovery of mechanical properties.

  14. The use of simulation in the EPR spin probe technique for detection of irradiated seeds.

    PubMed

    Sünnetçioğlu, M M; Dadaylı, D

    2000-10-02

    An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin probe study of irradiated wheat seeds was performed depending on irradiation dose. The structural changes in the membrane integrity were followed using aqueous solutions of 4-hydroxy-TEMPO (TANOL) spin probe and a line broadening material. In the studies dry seed embryos were kept in these solutions for 150 min. The spectra were recorded at various times of air drying process. The simulation of these spectra indicated a decrease in the water content of the embryos depending on the increasing irradiation dose. This indicates the increase in the permeability of the membranes as a result of the radiation damage. From the decay curves it is possible to determine about irradiation dose, however, this approach is not very successful at close irradiation doses.

  15. Neutron irradiation effects in Fe and Fe-Cr at 300 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Ying; Miao, Yinbin; Gan, Jian; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Maloy, Stuart A.; Stubbins, James F.

    2016-06-01

    Fe and Fe-Cr (Cr = 10–16 at.%) specimens were neutron-irradiated at 300 °C to 0.01, 0.1 and 1 dpa. The TEM observations indicated that the Cr significantly reduced the mobility of dislocation loops and suppressed vacancy clustering, leading to distinct damage microstructures between Fe and Fe-Cr. Irradiation-induced dislocation loops in Fe were heterogeneously observed in the vicinity of grown-in dislocations, whereas the loop distribution observed in Fe-Cr is much more uniform. Voids were observed in the irradiated Fe samples, but not in irradiated Fe-Cr samples. Increasing Cr content in Fe-Cr results in a higher density, and a smaller size of irradiation-induced dislocation loops. Orowan mechanism was used to correlate the observed microstructure and hardening, which showed that the hardening in Fe-Cr can be attributed to the formation of dislocation loops and α' precipitates.

  16. Cytokines and Cytokine Receptors Involved in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Nagae, Tomone; Araki, Kiho; Shimoda, Yuki; Sue, Lucia I; Beach, Thomas G; Konishi, Yoshihiro

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory mechanisms are implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is unclear whether inflammatory alterations are a cause or consequence of neurodegeneration leading to dementia. Clarifying this issue would provide valuable insight into the early diagnosis and therapeutic management of AD. To address this, we compared the mRNA expression profiles of cytokines in the brains of AD patients with "non-demented individuals with AD pathology" and non-demented healthy control (ND) individuals. "Non-demented individuals with AD pathology" are referred to as high pathology control (HPC) individuals that are considered an intermediate subset between AD and ND. HPC represents a transition between normal aging and early stage of AD, and therefore, is useful for determining whether neuroinflammation is a cause or consequence of AD pathology. We observed that immunological conditions that produce cytokines in the HPC brain were more representative of ND than AD. To validate these result, we investigated the expression of inflammatory mediators at the protein level in postmortem brain tissues. We examined the protein expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and its receptors (TNFRs) in the brains of AD, HPC, and ND individuals. We found differences in soluble TNFα and TNFRs expression between AD and ND groups and between AD and HPC groups. Expression in the temporal cortex was lower in the AD brains than HPC and ND. Our findings indicate that alterations in immunological conditions involving TNFR-mediated signaling are not the primary events initiating AD pathology, such as amyloid plaques and tangle formation. These may be early events occurring along with synaptic and neuronal changes or later events caused by these changes. In this review, we emphasize that elucidating the temporal expression of TNFα signaling molecules during AD is important to understand the selective tuning of these pathways required to develop effective therapeutic

  17. Plasma Cytokine Levels in Astronauts Before and after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Aggarwal, Barat B.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Hammond, Dinne K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Stowe, Raymond; Pierson Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight is a unique experience and results in adverse effects on human physiology. Changes have been reported in various physiological systems, including musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, cardiovascular, endocrine, immunity and increased latent viral reactivation as well as others. The potential mechanisms behind these changes are not fully understood. Various cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF and chemokines have been linked to several of these changes, like muscle loss, bone loss, fatigue, sleep deprivation and viral reactivation. Eighteen astronauts (15 M and 3 F) from 8 spaceflights and 10 healthy age-matched adults (6 M, 4 F) were included in the present study. A panel of 21 plasma cytokines was analyzed with the Luminex 100 to measure the cytokines in these subjects 10 days before the flight (L-10), 2-3 hour after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+3), and at their annual medical exam (AME). IL-10, IL-1, IFN-alpha, MCP-1 and IP-10 increased significantly at L-10 as compared with AME levels. IL-6 and IFN-alpha showed significant increases at R + 0 (P less than .05) over their baseline levels (AME). Cytokine levels at R+3 were not significantly different from R+0. IL-10 and IL-6 have been reported to increase in during viral reactivation. These data show that there was a shift from TH1 to TH2 cytokines L-10 and R+0. We also studied viral reactivation in 10 of the 18 subjects included in the present study before, during, and after space flight. Increased salivary varicella zoster virus (VZV) shedding in these subjects was found either during or after the mission. VZV shedding correlated with the increased levels of cytokines especially IL-10 and IL-6. Overall, our data suggests that cytokines may play an important role in regulating adverse changes in astronauts, and further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanism.

  18. Delayed cytokine expression in rat brain following experimental contusion.

    PubMed

    Holmin, S; Schalling, M; Höjeberg, B; Nordqvist, A C; Skeftruna, A K; Mathiesen, T

    1997-03-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines mediate brain injury in experimental studies. This study was undertaken to analyze the production of proinflammatory cytokines in experimental contusion. A brain contusion causing delayed edema was mimicked experimentally in rats using a weight-drop model. Intracerebral expression of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), IL-6, and interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) was studied by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. The animals were killed at 6 hours or 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 16 days postinjury. In the injured area, no messenger (m)RNA expression was seen during the first 2 days after the trauma. On Days 4 to 6 posttrauma, however, strong IL-1 beta, TNF alpha, and IL-6 mRNA expression was detected in mononuclear cells surrounding the contusion. Expression of IFN gamma was not detected. Immunohistochemical double labeling confirmed the in situ hybridization results and demonstrated that mononuclear phagocytes and astrocytes produced IL-1 beta and that mainly astrocytes produced TNF alpha. The findings showed, somewhat unexpectedly, a late peak of intracerebral cytokine production in the injured area and in the contralateral corpus callosum, allowing for both local and global effects on the brain. An unexpected difference in the cellular sources of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta was detected. The cytokine pattern differs from that seen in other central nervous system inflammatory diseases and trauma models, suggesting that the intracerebral immune response is not a uniform event. The dominance of late cytokine production indicates that many cytokine effects are late events in an experimental contusion: Different pathogenic mechanisms may thus be operative at different times after brain injury.

  19. The influence of traditional herbal formulas on cytokine activity.

    PubMed

    Burns, J J; Zhao, Lijun; Taylor, Ethan Will; Spelman, Kevin

    2010-11-28

    Many of the botanical "immunomodulators", a class of herbal medicines widely recognized in traditional medical systems such as Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic Medicine, alter immune function and may offer clinically relevant therapeutics or leads to therapeutics. Many of these traditional remedies are prepared from combinations of medicinal plants which may influence numerous molecular pathways. These effects may differ from the sum of effects from the individual plants and therefore, research demonstrating the effects of the formula is crucial for insights into the effects of traditional remedies. In this review we surveyed the primary literature for research that focused on combinations of medicinal plants and effects on cytokine activity. The results demonstrate that many extracts of herb mixtures have effects on at least one cytokine. The most commonly studies cytokines were IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and IFN-γ. The majority of the formulas researched derived from TCM. The following formulas had activity on at least three cytokines; Chizukit N, CKBM, Daeganghwal-tang, Food Allergy Formula, Gamcho-Sasim-Tang, Hachimi-jio-gan, Herbkines, Hochuekki, Immune System Formula, Jeo-Dang-Tang, Juzen-taiho-to, Kakkon-to, Kan jang, Mao-Bushi-Saishin-to, MSSM-002, Ninjin-youei-to, PG201, Protec, Qing-huo-bai-du-yin, Qingfu Guanjieshu, Sambucol Active Defense, Seng-fu-tang, Shin-Xiao-Xiang, Tien Hsien, Thuja formula, Unkei-to, Vigconic, Wheeze-relief-formula, Xia-Bai-San, Yangyuk-Sanhwa-Tang, Yi-fey Ruenn-hou, and Yuldahansotang. Of the western based combinations, formulas with Echinacea spp. were common and showed multiple activities. Numerous formulas demonstrated activity on both gene and protein expression. The research demonstrates that the reviewed botanical formulas modulate cytokine activity, although the bulk of the research is in vitro. Therapeutic success using these formulas may be partially due to their effects on cytokines. Further study of phytotherapy on

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjeh, Edris; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ali Sahari, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (p<0.05). Furthermore, irradiation treatment and storage time led to a significant increase in L* and b* values and a decrease in a* values. Total monomeric anthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0-6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended.

  1. Partial reconstitution of virus-specific memory CD8{sup +} T cells following whole body {gamma}-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Grayson, Jason M. . E-mail: jgrayson@wfubmc.edu; Laniewski, Nathan G.; Holbrook, Beth C.

    2006-04-25

    CD8{sup +} memory T cells are critical in providing immunity to viral infection. Previous studies documented that antigen-specific CD8{sup +} memory T cells are more resistant to radiation-induced apoptosis than naive T cells. Here, we determined the number and in vivo function of memory CD8{sup +} T cells as immune reconstitution progressed following irradiation. Immediately following irradiation, the number of memory CD8{sup +} T cells declined 80%. As reconstitution progressed, the number of memory cells reached a zenith at 33% of pre-irradiation levels, and was maintained for 120 days post-irradiation. In vitro, memory CD8{sup +} T cells were able to produce cytokines at all times post-irradiation, but when adoptively transferred, they were not able to expand upon rechallenge immediately following irradiation, but regained this ability as reconstitution progressed. When proliferation was examined in vitro, irradiated memory CD8{sup +} T cells were able to respond to mitogenic growth but were unable to divide.

  2. Hesperidin methyl chalcone inhibits oxidative stress and inflammation in a mouse model of ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin damage.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Renata M; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Steffen, Vinicius S; Caviglione, Carla V; Vignoli, Josiane A; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rubia

    2015-07-01

    Hesperidin methyl chalcone (HMC) is a safe flavonoid used to treat chronic venous diseases, but its effects and mechanisms on UVB irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative stress have never been described in vivo. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemic administration of HMC in skin oxidative stress and inflammation induced by UVB irradiation. To induce skin damage, hairless mice were exposed to an acute UVB irradiation dose of 4.14 J/cm(2), and the dorsal skin samples were collected to evaluate oxidative stress and inflammatory response. The intraperitoneal treatment with HMC at the dose of 300 mg/kg inhibited UVB irradiation-induced skin edema, neutrophil recruitment, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity. HMC also protected the skin from UVB irradiation-induced oxidative stress by maintaining ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS) scavenging ability and antioxidant levels (reduced glutathione and catalase). Corroborating, HMC inhibited UVB irradiation-induced superoxide anion generation and gp91phox (NADPH oxidase subunit) mRNA expression. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of HMC resulted in lower production of inflammatory mediators, including lipid hydroperoxides and a wide range of cytokines. Taken together, these results unveil a novel applicability of HMC in the treatment of UVB irradiation-induced skin inflammation and oxidative stress.

  3. Irradiation hardening of pure tungsten exposed to neutron irradiation

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Xunxiang; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Fukuda, Makoto; ...

    2016-08-26

    In this paper, pure tungsten samples have been neutron irradiated in HFIR at 90–850 °C to 0.03–2.2 dpa. A dispersed barrier hardening model informed by the available microstructure data has been used to predict the hardness. Comparison of the model predictions and the measured Vickers hardness reveals the dominant hardening contribution at various irradiation conditions. For tungsten samples irradiated in HFIR, the results indicate that voids and dislocation loops contributed to the hardness increase in the low dose region (<0.3 dpa), while the formation of intermetallic second phase precipitation, resulting from transmutation, dominates the radiation-induced strengthening beginning with a relativelymore » modest dose (>0.6 dpa). Finally, the precipitate contribution is most pronounced for the HFIR irradiations, whereas the radiation-induced defect cluster microstructure can rationalize the entirety of the hardness increase observed in tungsten irradiated in the fast neutron spectrum of Joyo and the mixed neutron spectrum of JMTR.« less

  4. Irradiation hardening of pure tungsten exposed to neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xunxiang; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Fukuda, Makoto; Kumar, N. A. P. Kiran; Snead, Lance L.; Wirth, Brian D.; Katoh, Yutai

    2016-08-26

    In this paper, pure tungsten samples have been neutron irradiated in HFIR at 90–850 °C to 0.03–2.2 dpa. A dispersed barrier hardening model informed by the available microstructure data has been used to predict the hardness. Comparison of the model predictions and the measured Vickers hardness reveals the dominant hardening contribution at various irradiation conditions. For tungsten samples irradiated in HFIR, the results indicate that voids and dislocation loops contributed to the hardness increase in the low dose region (<0.3 dpa), while the formation of intermetallic second phase precipitation, resulting from transmutation, dominates the radiation-induced strengthening beginning with a relatively modest dose (>0.6 dpa). Finally, the precipitate contribution is most pronounced for the HFIR irradiations, whereas the radiation-induced defect cluster microstructure can rationalize the entirety of the hardness increase observed in tungsten irradiated in the fast neutron spectrum of Joyo and the mixed neutron spectrum of JMTR.

  5. Loss of structural water and carbonate of Nd:YAG laser-irradiated human enamel.

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Afonso, Alessandra Marques; Bachmann, Luciano; de Almeida, Cíntia Guimarães; Dibb, Regina Guenka Palma; Borsatto, Maria Cristina

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to use Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to assess whether Nd:YAG laser irradiation associated with a dye or not alters the chemical constitution of the enamel. Fourteen enamel sections were randomly divided into two groups: (1) Nd:YAG and (2) dye + Nd:YAG. First, the untreated enamel surfaces were analyzed by FTIR to acquire the control absorption spectrum. Next, Group 2 received a layer of inactivated coal diluted in deionized water before laser treatment. Enamel samples belonging to groups 1 and 2 were then irradiated with a 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser (80 mJ, 10 Hz) in the contact mode; the carbonate absorption band and the water absorption band were measured in each sample after irradiation. The water band was measured again 24 h, 48 h, and 7 days after irradiation. Group 1 had statistically similar water and carbonate contents before and after irradiation. Group 2 displayed significantly lower (p < 0.05) water content after irradiation, which remained constant along time at 24 and 48 h. After 7 days, the water content increased slightly, being statistically higher than in the other experimental periods, except for the control. The carbonate/phosphate ratio was measured only at the beginning, and after irradiation, it decreased only in Group 2 indicating carbonate loss (p < 0.05). Irradiation with 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser associated with a dye reduces the carbonate and structural water content in the enamel.

  6. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M. A.

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae "inside the eggs" were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  7. The anti-inflammatory effect of alloferon on UVB-induced skin inflammation through the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yejin; Lee, Seung Koo; Bae, Seyeon; Kim, Hyemin; Park, Yunseong; Chu, Nag Kyun; Kim, Stephanie G; Kim, Hang-Rae; Hwang, Young-Il; Kang, Jae Seung; Lee, Wang Jae

    2013-01-01

    UVB irradiation can induce biological changes in the skin, modulate immune responses and activate inflammatory reactions leading to skin damage. Alloferon, which is isolated from the blood of an experimentally infected insect, the blow fly Calliphora vicina, is known for its anti-viral and anti-tumor activities in mice model. However, the effect of alloferon against UVB irradiation and its specific mechanism are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of alloferon on UVB-induced cutaneous inflammation in a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. RPA and ELISA data showed that alloferon decreased the production of UVB-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-18, both on the mRNA and protein level. Western blot analysis was done to determine if alloferon regulates the MAPK signaling pathway since the MAPK signaling pathway is activated by numerous inflammatory mediators and environmental stresses including UVB irradiation. Alloferon inhibited the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) induced by UVB irradiation. Furthermore, the topical application of alloferon on the UVB exposed skin of hairless mice showed that alloferon treatment significantly inhibited an increase in epithelial thickness in chronic UVB-irradiated mouse skin. These findings suggest that alloferon has significant anti-inflammatory effects not only on UVB-induced inflammation in the human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, but also on mouse skin.

  8. Effect of prenatal X irradiation on chemical components of DNA and DNA-protein crosslinks in rat cerebrum in the perinatal periods

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, S.; Tanaka, H.; Arima, M.

    1987-04-01

    Wistar rats were X-irradiated in utero with 100 or 200 R on Day 13 of gestation. X Irradiation resulted in decreases not only in cerebral weight up to 15 days old but also in DNA content from Day 19 of gestation to 5 days old, and in a tendency to increase the ratio of protein to DNA in the perinatal period. The DNA contents of the homogenate, isolated nuclei, and chromatin of the cerebrum in the irradiated group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The ratio of protein to DNA at the nuclei, chromatin, and isolated DNA steps increased on irradiation. The total nucleoside content of isolated DNA determined by high-performance liquid chromatography was higher in the irradiated group than that in the control group on Day 21 of gestation but not on Day 19 of gestation. No new peaks were observed and no change in the guanine-cytosine content was seen on irradiation. X Irradiation resulted in decreases in the cytosine and deoxycytidine contents and an increase in the deoxyadenosine content. The formation of DNA-protein crosslinks in the cerebral chromatin as determined by a filter binding assay tended to increase in the irradiated groups.

  9. The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owczarczyk, H. B.; Migdał, W.; K ȩdzia, B.

    2000-03-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.

  10. Crosslinking of metallocenic α-olefin propylene copolymers by vacuum gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satti, A. J.; Andreucetti, N. A.; Quijada, R.; Vallés, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    Metallocenic polypropylene and copolymers with 3.7, and 9.2 mol% of hexene and 3.0 mol% of octadecene comonomer content were synthesized without the presence of additives and irradiated with 60Co gamma radiation under vacuum at room temperature. Size Exclusion Cromatography and gel extraction data showed that scission reactions predominate over crosslinking in the homopolymer and that there is a dose from where crosslinking started to increase considerably, in the irradiated copolymers. Rheology also showed evidence of chain-enlargements on the copolymers by means of an increase in the viscoelastic properties of the irradiated material.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties of fresh ashitaba and kale juices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Kyung Haeng

    2012-08-01

    Due to the popularity of health effects upon intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, the demand for fresh vegetables and fruit juices has rapidly increased. However, currently, washing is the only procedure for reducing contaminated microorganisms, which obviously limits the shelf-life of fresh vegetable juice (less than 3 days). In this study, we examined the effects of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of ashitaba and kale juices for industrial application and possible shelf-life extension. Freshly made ashitaba and kale juices already had 2.3×105 and 9.5×104 CFU/mL, respectively. Irradiation of 5 kGy induced higher than 2 decimal reductions in the microbial level, which was consistently maintained during storage for 7 days under refrigerated conditions. Total content of ascorbic acid in vegetable juice decreased upon irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. However, the content of flavonoids did not change, whereas that of polyphenols increased upon irradiation. In sensory evaluation, the ashitaba and kale juices without irradiation (control) scored lower than the irradiated samples after 1 and 3 days, respectively. This study confirms that irradiation is an effective method for sterilizing fresh vegetable juice without compromising sensory property, which cannot be subjected to heat pasteurization due to changes in the bioactivities of the products.

  12. Detection of chemical changes in bone after irradiation with Er,Cr:YSGG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, Carolina; Santos, Moises O.; Rabelo, Jose S.; Ana, Patrícia A.; Correa, Paulo R.; Zezell, Denise M.

    2011-03-01

    The use of laser for bone cutting can be more advantageous than the use of drill. However, for a safe clinical application, it is necessary to know the effects of laser irradiation on bone tissues. In this study, the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to verify the molecular and compositional changes promoted by laser irradiation on bone tissue. Bone slabs were obtained from rabbit's tibia and analyzed using ATR-FTIR. After the initial analysis, the samples were irradiated using a pulsed Er,Cr:YSGG laser (2780nm), and analyzed one more time. In order to verify changes due to laser irradiation, the area under phosphate (1300-900cm-1), amides (1680-1200cm-1), water (3600-2400cm-1), and carbonate (around 870cm-1 and between 1600-1300cm-1) bands were calculated, and normalized by phosphate band area (1300-900cm-1). It was observed that Er,Cr:YSGG irradiation promoted a significant decrease in the content of water and amides I and III at irradiated bone, evidencing that laser procedure caused an evaporation of the organic content and changed the collagen structure, suggesting that these changes may interfere with the healing process. In this way, these changes should be considered in a clinical application of laser irradiation in surgeries.

  13. Effect of γ-irradiation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mexis, S. F.; Kontominas, M. G.

    2009-06-01

    The present study evaluated the quality of hazelnuts as a function of irradiation dose to determine dose levels causing minimal undesirable changes to hazelnuts. Physicochemical (color, peroxide value (PV), hexanal content, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds) and sensory (color, texture, odor and taste) properties were determined. Results showed a twenty fold increase in peroxide value and twenty-eight fold increase in hexanal content after irradiation at a dose of 7 kGy. An increase was also observed in saturated fatty acids (10%-23%) with a parallel decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (90-77%). Volatile compounds such as ketones, alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, furans, aromatic hydrocarbons, bicyclic monoterpenes and acids were produced mostly comprising secondary oxidation products of hazelnut lipids after irradiation. Color parameter b* increased ( p<0.05) after irradiation at a dose of ⩾5 kGy, while color parameters L* and a* remained unchanged by irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed that texture and color were not affected by irradiation. Taste, the most sensitive sensory attribute showed that hazelnuts retain acceptable sensory quality when irradiated up to a dose of 1.5 kGy.

  14. Serum Cytokine Profiles in Children with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vasilyeva, Ekaterina; Abdulkhakov, Sayar; Cherepnev, Georgi; Mayanskaya, Irina; Valeeva, Alina; Abdulkhakov, Rustam; Safina, Dilyara

    2016-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that can be diagnosed at any age. There are two major patient groups based on diagnosis of this disease, before or after the age of 20 (juvenile/adolescent or adult), with disease progression in adults usually milder than in juvenile CD patients. Immune mechanisms have been suggested to play an important role in CD pathogenesis, with cytokines governing the development of the immune response. Upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in serum of juvenile and adult CD patients has been documented; still little is known about age-dependent differences in serum cytokine profiles of CD patients. We applied multiplex technology to analyze serum levels of 12 cytokines in juveniles and adults. We show that during the acute stage of the disease all CD patients have high serum levels of CXCL10, which remains upregulated during remission. Increased serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 during the acute stage was characteristic of juvenile CD patients, whereas adult CD patients had upregulated levels of GM-CSF and IFN-γ. Taken together, these results demonstrate age-dependent differences in cytokine profiles, which may affect the pathogenesis of CD in patients at different ages of disease onset. PMID:28070144

  15. Integration of Cytokine Biology and Lipid Metabolism in Stroke**

    PubMed Central

    Adibhatla, Rao Muralikrishna; Dempsey, R.; Hatcher, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    Cytokines regulate the innate and adaptive immune responses and are pleiotropic, redundant and multifunctional. Expression of most cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-1α/ß, is very low in normal brain. Metabolism of lipids is of particular interest due to their high concentration in the brain. Inflammatory response after stroke suggests that cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1 α/ß, IL-6), affect the phospholipid metabolism and subsequent production of eicosanoids, ceramide, and ROS that may potentiate brain injury. Phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin are source for lipid messengers. Sphingomyelin synthase serves as a bridge between metabolism of glycerolipids and sphingolipids. TNF-α and IL-1 α/ß can induce phospholipases (A2, C, and D) and sphingomyelinases, and concomitantly proteolyse phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin synthesizing enzymes. Together, these alterations contribute to loss of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin after stroke that can be attenuated by inhibiting TNF-α or IL-1 α/ß signaling. Inflammatory responses are instrumental in the formation and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Secretory PLA2 IIA is found in human atherosclerotic lesions and is implicated in initiation, progression and maturation of atherosclerosis, a risk factor for stroke. Lipoprotein-PLA2, part of apolipoprotein B-100 of LDL, plays a role in vascular inflammation and coronary endothelial dysfunction. Cytokine antagonism attenuated secretory PLA2 IIA actions, suggesting cytokine-lipid integration studies will lead to new concepts contributing to bench-to-bedside transition for stroke therapy. PMID:17981627

  16. Plasma inflammatory cytokines correlate to the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Y; Schenker, J G; Lewin, A; Friedler, S; Nisman, B; Barak, V

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this study was to follow the kinetics of four inflammatory cytokines in the plasma and ascitic fluid of seven patients who developed severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) after induction of ovulation for in-vitro fertilization. Blood samples were obtained from these patients at three different times: upon hospitalization; when significant clinical improvement was evident; and after complete resolution. Samples were analysed for interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Ascitic fluid was obtained by therapeutic paracentesis from all study patients during the active phase and analysed for these cytokines. Two control groups were available: the first included 15 women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for in-vitro fertilization without developing OHSS, while the second consisted of 25 healthy women not undergoing ovulation induction or any other medical treatment. High concentrations of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were detected in all individuals upon admission for severe OHSS. Concentrations dropped significantly along with clinical improvement, reaching normal values after complete resolution. A statistically significant correlation was found between plasma cytokine concentrations and certain biological characteristics of the syndrome such as leukocytosis, increased haematocrit, and elevated plasma 17-beta-oestradiol concentrations. Ascitic fluid obtained from the study patients contained high IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations, while other cytokines were unaltered. These results suggest close association between inflammatory cytokines and the pathophysiology of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

  17. Proinflammatory cytokines in the prefrontal cortex of teenage suicide victims.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N; Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Ren, Xinguo; Fareed, Jawed; Hoppensteadt, Debra A; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Conley, Robert R; Dwivedi, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Teenage suicide is a major public health concern, but its neurobiology is not well understood. Proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in stress and in the pathophysiology of depression-two major risk factors for suicide. Cytokines are increased in the serum of patients with depression and suicidal behavior; however, it is not clear if similar abnormality in cytokines occurs in brains of suicide victims. We therefore measured the gene and protein expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tissue necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of 24 teenage suicide victims and 24 matched normal control subjects. Our results show that the mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were significantly increased in Brodmann area 10 (BA-10) of suicide victims compared with normal control subjects. These results suggest an important role for IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior and that proinflammatory cytokines may be an appropriate target for developing therapeutic agents.

  18. Integrative biology approach identifies cytokine targeting strategies for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Perera, Gayathri K; Ainali, Chrysanthi; Semenova, Ekaterina; Hundhausen, Christian; Barinaga, Guillermo; Kassen, Deepika; Williams, Andrew E; Mirza, Muddassar M; Balazs, Mercedesz; Wang, Xiaoting; Rodriguez, Robert Sanchez; Alendar, Andrej; Barker, Jonathan; Tsoka, Sophia; Ouyang, Wenjun; Nestle, Frank O

    2014-02-12

    Cytokines are critical checkpoints of inflammation. The treatment of human autoimmune disease has been revolutionized by targeting inflammatory cytokines as key drivers of disease pathogenesis. Despite this, there exist numerous pitfalls when translating preclinical data into the clinic. We developed an integrative biology approach combining human disease transcriptome data sets with clinically relevant in vivo models in an attempt to bridge this translational gap. We chose interleukin-22 (IL-22) as a model cytokine because of its potentially important proinflammatory role in epithelial tissues. Injection of IL-22 into normal human skin grafts produced marked inflammatory skin changes resembling human psoriasis. Injection of anti-IL-22 monoclonal antibody in a human xenotransplant model of psoriasis, developed specifically to test potential therapeutic candidates, efficiently blocked skin inflammation. Bioinformatic analysis integrating both the IL-22 and anti-IL-22 cytokine transcriptomes and mapping them onto a psoriasis disease gene coexpression network identified key cytokine-dependent hub genes. Using knockout mice and small-molecule blockade, we show that one of these hub genes, the so far unexplored serine/threonine kinase PIM1, is a critical checkpoint for human skin inflammation and potential future therapeutic target in psoriasis. Using in silico integration of human data sets and biological models, we were able to identify a new target in the treatment of psoriasis.

  19. Discrimination, Racial Identity, and Cytokine Levels Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Low-grade inflammation, measured by circulating levels of cytokines, is a pathogenic mechanism for several chronic diseases of aging. Identifying factors related to inflammation among African American youths may yield insights into mechanisms underlying racial disparities in health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether (a) reported racial discrimination from ages 17 to 19 forecast heightened cytokine levels at age 22, and (b) this association is lower for youths with positive racial identities. Methods A longitudinal research design was used with a community sample of 160 African Americans who were 17 at the beginning of the study. Discrimination and racial identity were measured with questionnaires, and blood was drawn to measure basal cytokine levels. Ordinary least squares regression analyses were used to examine the hypotheses. Results After controlling for socioeconomic risk, life stress, depressive symptoms, and body mass index, racial discrimination (β = .307, p < .01), racial identity (β = −.179, p < .05), and their interaction (β = −.180, p < .05) forecast cytokine levels. Youths exposed to high levels of racial discrimination evinced elevated cytokine levels 3 years later. This association was not significant for young adults with positive racial identities. Conclusions High levels of interpersonal racial discrimination and the development of a positive racial identity operate jointly to determine low-grade inflammation levels that have been found to forecast chronic diseases of aging, such as coronary disease and stroke. PMID:25907649

  20. Relationships among prenatal depression, plasma cortisol, and inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Melissa M; Schminkey, Donna L; Groer, Maureen W

    2015-05-01

    A secondary pilot study was carried out as part of a larger parent study of thyroid function in pregnancy and postpartum. All women in the parent study (N = 631) had blood samples, demographic data, and measures of perceived stress and dysphoric moods collected between 16 and 26 weeks' gestation. The current study was completed with a subset of 105 pregnant women to examine the relationships among perceived stress, depression, plasma cortisol, and cytokines during the second trimester of pregnancy. Stress was measured using Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and dysphoric moods using the Profile of Mood States Depression/Dejection Scale. Cytokines were measured by a 12-plex analysis on a Luminex-200, and cortisol was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on stored plasma samples. Stress and depression scores were highly correlated, and depressive symptoms were inversely correlated with 3 of the 12 cytokines: interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-7. Cortisol was inversely correlated with proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13). These data support the new conceptualizations of normal pregnancy as an inflammatory state that is carefully regulated, as both excessive and inadequate inflammation are potentially hazardous to the health of the pregnancy and fetus.

  1. Genomic identification of chemokines and cytokines in opossum.

    PubMed

    Wong, Emily S W; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Belov, Katherine

    2011-03-01

    The cytokine repertoire of marsupials is largely unknown. The sequencing of the opossum genome has expedited the identification of many immune genes. However, many genes have not been identified using automated annotation pipelines because of high levels of sequence divergence. To fill gaps in our knowledge of the cytokine gene complement in marsupials, we searched the genome assembly of the gray short-tailed opossum for chemokine, interleukin, colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor, and transforming growth factor genes. In particular, we focused on genes that were not previously identified through Ensembl's automatic annotations. We report that the vast majority of cytokines are conserved, with direct orthologs between therian species. The major exceptions are chemokine genes, which show lineage-specific duplication/loss. Thirty-six chemokines were identified in opossum, including a lineage-specific expansion of macrophage inflammatory protein family genes. Divergent cytokines IL7, IL9, IL31, IL33, and CSF2 were identified. This is the first time IL31 and IL33 have been described outside of eutherian species. The high levels of similarities between the cytokine gene repertoires of therians suggest that the marsupial immune response is highly similar to eutherians.

  2. Cancer Cells Hijack PRC2 to Modify Multiple Cytokine Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Michael; Song, Lan; Yu, Tao; Liu, Yu; Liu, Jeffrey C.; McCurdy, Sean; Ma, Anqi; Wither, Joan; Jin, Jian; Zacksenhaus, Eldad; Wrana, Jeffrey L.; Bremner, Rod

    2015-01-01

    Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is an epigenetic regulator induced in many cancers. It is thought to drive tumorigenesis by repressing division, stemness, and/or developmental regulators. Cancers evade immune detection, and diverse immune regulators are perturbed in different tumors. It is unclear how such cell-specific effects are coordinated. Here, we show a profound and cancer-selective role for PRC2 in repressing multiple cytokine pathways. We find that PRC2 represses hundreds of IFNγ stimulated genes (ISGs), cytokines and cytokine receptors. This target repertoire is significantly broadened in cancer vs non-cancer cells, and is distinct in different cancer types. PRC2 is therefore a higher order regulator of the immune program in cancer cells. Inhibiting PRC2 with either RNAi or EZH2 inhibitors activates cytokine/cytokine receptor promoters marked with bivalent H3K27me3/H3K4me3 chromatin, and augments responsiveness to diverse immune signals. PRC2 inhibition rescues immune gene induction even in the absence of SWI/SNF, a tumor suppressor defective in ~20% of human cancers. This novel PRC2 function in tumor cells could profoundly impact the mechanism of action and efficacy of EZH2 inhibitors in cancer treatment. PMID:26030458

  3. The Association of Cytokines with Severe Dengue in Children

    PubMed Central

    Mangione, Julia N.A.; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Lan, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Mbanefo, Evaristus Chibunna; Ha, Tran Thi Ngoc; Bao, Lam Quoc; Nga, Cao Thi Phi; Tuong, Vo Van; Dat, Tran Van; Thuy, Tran Thi; Tuan, Ha Manh; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Hirayama, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dengue virus infection is a major public health problem. A hypothesis put forward for severe dengue is the cytokine storm, a sudden increase in cytokines that induces vascular permeability. Previous studies and our recent meta-analysis showed that IL-6, IL-8, IFNγ, TNFα, VEGF-A and VCAM-1 are associated with dengue shock syndrome. Therefore, in this study we aim to validate the association of these cytokines with severe dengue. Methods & Findings: In a hospital based-case control study in Vietnam, children with dengue fever, other febrile illness and healthy controls were recruited. Dengue virus infection was confirmed by several diagnostic tests. Multiplex immunoassay using Luminex technology was used to measure cytokines simultaneously. A positive association with dengue shock syndrome was found for VCAM-1, whereas a negative association was found for IFNγ. Furthermore, multivariate logistic analysis also showed that VCAM-1 and IFNγ were independently correlated with dengue shock syndrome. Conclusion: IFNγ and VCAM-1 were associated with dengue shock syndrome, although their role in the severe dengue pathogenesis remains unclear. Additional studies are required to shed further light on the function of these cytokines in severe dengue. PMID:25589878

  4. Regulation of cytokine gene transcription in the immune system.

    PubMed

    Holloway, A F; Rao, S; Shannon, M F

    2002-01-01

    The controlled expression of cytokine genes is an essential component of an immune response. The specific types of cytokines as well as the time and place of their production is important in generating an appropriate immune response to an infectious agent. Aberrant expression is associated with pathological conditions of the immune system such as autoimmunity, atopy and chronic inflammation. Cytokine gene transcription is generally induced in a cell-specific manner. Over the last 15 years, a large amount of information has been generated describing the transcriptional controls that are exerted on cytokine genes. Recently, efforts have been directed at understanding how these genes are transcribed in a chromatin context. This review will discuss the mechanisms by which cytokine genes become available for transcription in a cell-restricted manner as well as the mechanisms by which these genes sense their environment and activate high level transcription in a transient manner. Particular attention will be paid to the role of chromatin in allowing transcription factor access to appropriate genes.

  5. Angiogenesis meets immunology: cytokine gene therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Minuzzo, Sonia; Moserle, Lidia; Indraccolo, Stefano; Amadori, Alberto

    2007-02-01

    Delivery of cytokine genes at the tumor site in pre-clinical models has been shown to recruit host inflammatory cells followed by inhibition of tumor growth. This local effect is often accompanied by systemic protection mediated by the immune system, mainly by CD8(+) T and NK cells. On this basis, cytokine gene-transduced tumor cells have widely been used as vaccines in clinical trials, which have shown good safety profiles and some local responses but substantial lack of systemic efficacy. Are these findings the end of the story? Possibly not, if major improvements will be attained in the coming years. These should be directed at the level of gene selection and delivery, in order to identify the optimal cytokine and achieve efficient and durable cytokine expression, and at the level of improving immune stimulation, i.e. by co-administration of co-stimulatory molecules including B7 and CD40, or boosting the expression of tumor antigens or MHC class I molecules. Interestingly, some of the cytokines which have shown encouraging anti-tumor activity, including IFNs, IL-4, IL-12 and TNF-alpha, are endowed with anti-angiogenic or vasculotoxic effects, which may significantly contribute to local tumor control. Therapeutic exploitation of this property may result in the design of novel approaches which, by maximizing immune-stimulating and anti-angiogenic effects, could possibly lead to starvation of established tumors in patients.

  6. The Effect of Inflammatory Cytokines in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kawaratani, Hideto; Tsujimoto, Tatsuhiro; Douhara, Akitoshi; Takaya, Hiroaki; Moriya, Kei; Namisaki, Tadashi; Noguchi, Ryuichi; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Fujimoto, Masao; Fukui, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the world. Chronic alcohol consumption leads to hepatocellular injury and liver inflammation. Inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ, induce liver injury in the rat model of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Hepatoprotective cytokines, such as IL-6, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, are also associated with ALD. IL-6 improves ALD via activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and the subsequent induction of a variety of hepatoprotective genes in hepatocytes. IL-10 inhibits alcoholic liver inflammation via activation of STAT3 in Kupffer cells and the subsequent inhibition of liver inflammation. Alcohol consumption promotes liver inflammation by increasing translocation of gut-derived endotoxins to the portal circulation and activating Kupffer cells through the LPS/Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathways. Oxidative stress and microflora products are also associated with ALD. Interactions between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and other cytokines and chemokines are likely to play important roles in the development of ALD. The present study aims to conduct a systemic review of ALD from the aspect of inflammation. PMID:24385684

  7. Relationships Among Prenatal Depression, Plasma Cortisol, and Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Melissa M.; Schminkey, Donna L.; Groer, Maureen W.

    2014-01-01

    A secondary pilot study was carried out as part of a larger parent study of thyroid function in pregnancy and postpartum. All women in the parent study (N = 631) had blood samples, demographic data, and measures of perceived stress and dysphoric moods collected between 16 and 26 weeks’ gestation. The current study was completed with a subset of 105 pregnant women to examine the relationships among perceived stress, depression, plasma cortisol and cytokines during the second trimester of pregnancy. Stress was measured using Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale and dysphoric moods using the Profile of Mood States depression/dejection scale. Cytokines were measured by a 12-plex analysis on a Luminex-200 and cortisol was measured by ELISA on stored plasma samples. Stress and depression scores were highly correlated, and depressive symptoms were inversely correlated with 3 of the 12 cytokines: interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-7. Cortisol was inversely correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13). These data support the new conceptualizations of normal pregnancy as an inflammatory state that is carefully regulated, as both excessive and inadequate inflammation are potentially hazardous to the health of the pregnancy and fetus. PMID:25230746

  8. Instruction of hematopoietic lineage choice by cytokine signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Endele, Max; Etzrodt, Martin; Schroeder, Timm

    2014-12-10

    Hematopoiesis is the cumulative consequence of finely tuned signaling pathways activated through extrinsic factors, such as local niche signals and systemic hematopoietic cytokines. Whether extrinsic factors actively instruct the lineage choice of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells or are only selectively allowing survival and proliferation of already intrinsically lineage-committed cells has been debated over decades. Recent results demonstrated that cytokines can instruct lineage choice. However, the precise function of individual cytokine-triggered signaling molecules in inducing cellular events like proliferation, lineage choice, and differentiation remains largely elusive. Signal transduction pathways activated by different cytokine receptors are highly overlapping, but support the production of distinct hematopoietic lineages. Cellular context, signaling dynamics, and the crosstalk of different signaling pathways determine the cellular response of a given extrinsic signal. New tools to manipulate and continuously quantify signaling events at the single cell level are therefore required to thoroughly interrogate how dynamic signaling networks yield a specific cellular response. - Highlights: • Recent studies provided definite proof for lineage-instructive action of cytokines. • Signaling pathways involved in hematopoietic lineage instruction remain elusive. • New tools are emerging to quantitatively study dynamic signaling networks over time.

  9. Effects of electron beam irradiation on the structural properties of polylactic acid/polyethylene blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bee, Soo-Tueen; Ratnam, C. T.; Sin, Lee Tin; Tee, Tiam-Ting; Wong, Wai-Kien; Lee, Jiuun-Xiang; Rahmat, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of electron beam irradiation on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) blends. The PLA were compounded with 20-80% LDPE and were exposed to electron beam irradiation dosages of 20-120 kGy. The results from gel content and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the addition of LDPE to PLA effectively increased the gel content and crystallinity. However, an increasing percentage of LDPE reduced the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the PLA/LDPE samples due to the lower intermolecular bonding of LDPE than of PLA. Moreover, an increase in irradiation dosages gradually decreased the mechanical properties of low-LDPE PLA/LDPE. In contrast, the increasing irradiation dosage enhanced the mechanical properties of higher-LDPE PLA/LDPE. These results indicate that higher amounts of LDPE effectively react with the release of free radicals within the amorphous phase if the blends are subjected to irradiation. The higher amounts of free radicals induce the formation of three-dimensional cross-linked networks in the polymer matrix and thus increase the gel content. The irradiation-induced cross-linking in PLA/LDPE samples improves the mechanical properties and crystallinity by promoting a structural rearrangement of the polymer matrix into a highly ordered structure.

  10. Cardiolipin-Specific Peroxidase Reactions of Cytochrome c in Mitochondria During Irradiation-Induced Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Belikova, Natalia A.; Jiang Jianfei; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Zhao Qing; Epperly, Michael W.; Greenberger, Joel; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To determine whether cytochrome c (cyt c) content and associated cardiolipin oxidation can be determinants of cell sensitivity to irradiation-induced apoptosis. Methods and Materials: The small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach was used to engineer HeLa cells with lowered contents of cyt c (14%, HeLa 1.2 cells). Cells were treated by {gamma}-irradiation (in doses of 5-40 Gy). Lipid oxidation was characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis and fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography-based Amplex Red assay. Release of a proapoptotic factor (cyt c, Smac/DIABLO) was detected by Western blotting. Apoptosis was revealed by caspase-3/7 activation and phosphatidylserine externalization. Results: Irradiation caused selective accumulation of hydroperoxides in cardiolipin (CL) but not in other phospholipids. HeLa 1.2 cells responded by a lower irradiation-induced accumulation of CL oxidation products than parental HeLa cells. Proportionally decreased release of a proapoptotic factor, Smac/DIABLO, was detected in cyt c-deficient cells after irradiation. Caspase-3/7 activation and phosphatidylserine externalization were proportional to the cyt c content in cells. Conclusions: Cytochrome c is an important catalyst of CL peroxidation, critical to the execution of the apoptotic program. This new role of cyt c in irradiation-induced apoptosis is essential for the development of new radioprotectors and radiosensitizers.

  11. Search for the effect of E-beam irradiation on some steroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciniec, B.; Ogrodowczyk, M.; Dettlaff, K.

    2005-03-01

    Seven steroid derivatives (hydrocortisone, hydrocortisone acetate, prednisolone, prednisolone acetate, methylprednisolone acetate, dexamethasone and fludrocortisone acetate) irradiated in the solid phase 10 MeV electrons, were studied by chromatographic methods (TLC and HPLC). Before the irradiation the derivatives contained different amounts of the following impurities: cortisone, cortisone acetate, prednisolone, prednisolone acetate and prednisone. After irradiation with a dose of upto 200 kGy radiolytic products were identified: cortisone, cortisone acetate, prednisone, prednisolone and methylprednisone acetate. All the identified radiolytic products were formed as a result of oxidation of the substituent at C 11, and in some cases the oxidation was accompanied by cleavage of the ester bond. The content of impurities before irradiation did not exceed 0.8%, while after the irradiation the content of the products of radiolysis depended on the kind of the derivative and the dose, and varied from 0.6% for a dose of 25 kGy to 4.03% for a dose of 200 kGy. For some derivatives, a linear relationship was found between the loss of a given steroid content and the dose. The studied steroid derivatives are characterised by high radiochemical stability and their sterilisation by irradiation does not lead to loss of the active substance below 97%, i.e. the lower limit admissible by the pharmacopoeias.

  12. Biochemical composition and antioxidant activities of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis in response to gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Shabana, Effat Fahmy; Gabr, Mahmoud Ali; Moussa, Helal Ragab; El-Shaer, Enas Ali; Ismaiel, Mostafa M S

    2017-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a blue-green alga, rich with bioactive components and nutrients. To evaluate effect of gamma irradiation, A. platensis was exposed to different doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5kGy. The data showed that the phenolic and proline contents significantly increased with the increase of gamma irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy, above which a reduction was observed. The soluble proteins and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were stimulated by all tested irradiation doses. Furthermore, the vitamins (A, K and B group) and mineral contents (N, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) were stimulated by the irradiation doses compared with the control. The activities of some N-assimilating and antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased with the irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy. This study suggests the possible use of gamma irradiation as a stimulatory agent to raise the nutritive value and antioxidant activity of A. platensis.

  13. Evaluating the Effects of Gamma-Irradiation for Decontamination of Medicinal Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2016-01-01

    In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiation treatment by performing quantitative UPLC analysis of major cannabinoids, as well as qualitative GC analysis of full cannabinoid and terpene profiles. In addition, water content and microscopic appearance of the cannabis flowers was evaluated. This study found that treatment did not cause changes in the content of THC and CBD, generally considered as the most important therapeutically active components of medicinal cannabis. Likewise, the water content and the microscopic structure of the dried cannabis flowers were not altered by standard irradiation protocol in the cannabis varieties studied. The effect of gamma-irradiation was limited to a reduction of some terpenes present in the cannabis, but keeping the terpene profile qualitatively the same. Based on the results presented in this report, gamma irradiation of herbal cannabis remains the recommended method of decontamination, at least until other more generally accepted methods have been developed and validated. PMID:27199751

  14. Alteration of cytokine profiles in mice exposed to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Suk Chul; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kang, Yu Mi; Kim, Kwanghee; Kim, Cha Soon; Yang, Kwang Hee; Jin, Young-Woo; Kim, Chong Soon; Kim, Hee Sun

    2010-07-09

    While a high-dose of ionizing radiation is gen