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Sample records for cytokines

  1. Cytokines in psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Baliwag, Jaymie; Barnes, Drew H.; Johnston, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease with an incompletely understood etiology. The disease is characterized by red, scaly and well-demarcated skin lesions formed by the hyperproliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. This hyperproliferation is driven by cytokines secreted by activated resident immune cells, an infiltrate of T cells, dendritic cells and cells of the innate immune system, as well as the keratinocytes themselves. Psoriasis has a strong hereditary character and has a complex genetic background. Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms within or near a number of genes encoding cytokines, cytokine receptors or elements of their signal transduction pathways, further implicating these cytokines in the psoriasis pathomechanism. A considerable number of inflammatory cytokines have been shown to be elevated in lesional psoriasis skin, and the serum concentrations of a subset of these also correlate with psoriasis disease severity. The combined effects of the cytokines found in psoriasis lesions likely explain most of the clinical features of psoriasis, such as the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, increased neovascularization and skin inflammation. Thus, understanding which cytokines play a pivotal role in the disease process can suggest potential therapeutic targets. A number of cytokines have been therapeutically targeted with success, revolutionizing treatment of this disease. Here we review a number of key cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:25585875

  2. [Cytokines and allergic response].

    PubMed

    Guenounou, M

    1998-01-01

    Allergic reactions are under the control of several events that occur sequentially following allergen exposure, recognition by the immune system, IgE production and their interaction with effector cells bearing Fc epsilon receptors. The lymphocyte activation in response to allergens determines the intensity and the nature of the immune response. Cytokines produced by T (and non-T) cells are involved in the polarized development of the specific immune response. In particular, type 1 and type 2 cytokines are responsible for the control of the different steps during allergic reactions. Th2 cytokines and particularly IL4 are responsible for switching the immunoglobulin synthesis by B cells to IgE production. They also play a key role in the activation of effector cells that occurs following allergen interaction with fixed specific IgE and participate to the local inflammatory reaction. Cytokine profile determination appears to represent a helpful laboratory parameter in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying allergic diseases. The development of new technological tools may allow the use of cell activation parameters, and cytokine profiles determination in clinical biology. This review aims to analyze the involvement of the cytokine network in the mechanisms leading to IgE production and the involvement of cytokines in effector mechanisms of allergic reactions. It also analyses the potential use of cytokine profile determination for diagnosis purpose and survey of immune desensitization of allergic diseases.

  3. [Rheumatoid arthritis and cytokines].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Shunta; Kondo, Yuya; Yokosawa, Masahiro; Sumida, Takayuki

    2016-06-01

    The cytokines are an important substance involved in the immune reaction and maintenance of homeostasis. An imbalance in the cytokine network may lead to inflammation and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is an autoimmune and systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by synovial inflammation, destruction of cartilage and bone and systemic manifestations. The pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6 and IL-17 induce the inflammation of the joints and destruction of bone and cartilage via activation of macrophages, fibroblast like synoviocytes (FLS), helper T (Th) cells and osteoclasts. Recently, the available therapeutic agents that target these cytokines have excellent clinical effects in RA patients.

  4. [Immunostimulating drugs and cytokines].

    PubMed

    Lehners, Nicola; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Raab, Marc S

    2011-11-01

    Cytokines are essential regulators of hematopoesis and the immune system. Genetic engineering of recombinant cytokines has facilitated their implementation in many clinical areas. In the field of oncology the granulopoetic human growth factors G-CSF and GM-CSF are of particular importance. They can be applied to prevent chemotherapy induced neutropenia. Furthermore, they allow for mobilization of hematopoetic stem cells in order to obtain peripheral blood stem cell transplants. Another class of cytokines, the interferons, possess immunomodulating, antiproliferative, and antiviral properties. While the significance of interferon alfa as an antitumor agent is dwindling, it still plays a very important role in the therapy of chronic hepatitis b and c. Interferon beta is successfully used to treat multiple sclerosis. Among the heterogenous group of interleukines in particular interleukin 2 has reached clinical practice as an immunostimulating agent in the therapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Many other cytokines have yet to undergo clinical trials.

  5. Cytokines and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Brady, M; Christmas, S; Sutton, R; Neoptolemos, J; Slavin, J

    1999-07-01

    Cytokines have been shown to play a pivotal role in multiple organ dysfunction, a major cause of death in severe acute pancreatitis. Moreover, the two-hit hypothesis of the cytokine-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome explains the variable individual response to severe acute pancreatitis and the impact of secondary events such as sepsis or therapeutic intervention. Many experimental anti-cytokine therapies have been administered following induction of experimental pancreatitis, and have proved to be therapeutic. Patients with severe pancreatitis present early because of pain. Clearly then a window for therapeutic intervention is available between onset of symptoms and peak pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. It is this fundamental observation that convinces many in the field that the treatment of AP will be one of the first clinical successes for novel drugs or therapy that seek to modulate the inflammatory response.

  6. Jerusalem of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Levi, B Z; Sica, A; Müller-Newen, G; Takahashi, N; Vandenbeele, P; Fish, E

    1999-06-01

    The Second Joint Meeting of the International Cytokine Society and the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research was held on October 25-30, 1998 in Jerusalem, Israel. The nature of this Joint Meeting dictated that it was intensive and covered topics that included receptor-ligand interactions, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, antiviral action and apoptotic pathways induced by cytokines such as interferons, interleukines and chemokines. Their roles in infectious diseases and cancers were considered. This overview is by no mean comprehensive and covers only part of the many topics and subjects that were presented in the many plenary talks, symposia and poster sessions. The meeting was held in an excellent scientific atmosphere, that was probably affected by the "divine presence" in Jerusalem, and special thanks for the excellent organization are owed to Drs. Kaempfer, Revel, Wallach and Witz.

  7. Autophagy and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Harris, James

    2011-11-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved homoeostatic mechanism for the lysosomal degradation of cytosolic constituents, including long-lived macromolecules, organelles and intracellular pathogens. Autophagosomes are formed in response to a number of environmental stimuli, including amino acid deprivation, but also by both host- and pathogen-derived molecules, including toll-like receptor ligands and cytokines. In particular, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and TGF-β have been shown to induce autophagy, while IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 are inhibitory. Moreover, autophagy can itself regulate the production and secretion of cytokines, including IL-1, IL-18, TNF-α, and Type I IFN. This review discusses the potentially pivotal roles of autophagy in the regulation of inflammation and the coordination of innate and adaptive immune responses.

  8. Coordinate cytokine regulatory sequences

    DOEpatents

    Frazer, Kelly A.; Rubin, Edward M.; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2005-05-10

    The present invention provides CNS sequences that regulate the cytokine gene expression, expression cassettes and vectors comprising or lacking the CNS sequences, host cells and non-human transgenic animals comprising the CNS sequences or lacking the CNS sequences. The present invention also provides methods for identifying compounds that modulate the functions of CNS sequences as well as methods for diagnosing defects in the CNS sequences of patients.

  9. [Cytokines and the liver].

    PubMed

    Kershenobich, D; Borovoy, J; Guevara, L; Male, R; Alcocer, J

    1990-07-01

    The cytokines are proteins synthetized by lymphoid and monocyte/macrophage system cells in response to a wide variety of infectious stimulus, featuring bacterial endotoxins. These proteins have immunoregulatory effects and have been implicated in inflammation and fibrosis. In this review we refer to the interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor because of their elevated basal levels in acute and chronic hepatopaties and in response to lipopolisacharide mainly in alcoholic liver disease. PMID:19256129

  10. Cytokine Therapies in Neurological Disease.

    PubMed

    Azodi, Shila; Jacobson, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Cytokines are a heterogeneous group of glycoproteins that coordinate physiological functions. Cytokine deregulation is observed in many neurological diseases. This article reviews current research focused on human clinical trials of cytokine and anticytokine therapies in the treatment of several neurological disease including stroke, neuromuscular diseases, neuroinfectious diseases, demyelinating diseases, and neurobehavioral diseases. This research suggests that cytokine therapy applications may play an important role in offering new strategies for disease modulation and treatment. Further, this research provides insights into the causal link between cytokine deregulation and neurological diseases. PMID:27388288

  11. [Cytokines in bone diseases. Cytokine and postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2010-10-01

    Bone resorption is regulated by various cytokines. In postmenopausal osteoporosis, bone loss due to estrogen deficiency is closely related to the production of bone-resorbing cytokine. Especially, the increased production of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α could induce the expression of RANKL in bone tissues to enhance osteoclastogenesis. Relationship between estrogen deficiency and various cytokines is important to clarify the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  12. Cytokines and therapeutic oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, G; Bidlingmaier, M; Eigler, A; Hacker, U; Endres, S

    1997-12-01

    Therapeutic oligonucleotides - short strands of synthetic nucleic acids - encompass antisense and aptamer oligonucleotides. Antisense oligonucleotides are designed to bind to target RNA by complementary base pairing and to inhibit translation of the target protein. Antisense oligonucleotides enable specific inhibition of cytokine synthesis. In contrast, aptamer oligonucleotides are able to bind directly to specific proteins. This binding depends on the sequence of the oligonucleotide. Aptamer oligonucleotides with CpG motifs can exert strong immunostimulatory effects. Both kinds of therapeutic oligonucleotides - antisense and aptamer oligonucleotides - provide promising tools to modulate immunological functions. Recently, therapeutic oligonucleotides have moved towards clinical application. An antisense oligonucleotide directed against the proinflammatory intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is currently being tested in clinical trials for therapy of inflammatory disease. Immunostimulatory aptamer oligonucleotides are in preclinical development for immunotherapy. In the present review we summarize the application of therapeutic oligonucleotides to modulate immunological functions. We include technological aspects as well as current therapeutic concepts and clinical studies.

  13. The Function of Fish Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun; Secombes, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    What is known about the biological activity of fish cytokines is reviewed. Most of the functional studies performed to date have been in teleost fish, and have focused on the induced effects of cytokine recombinant proteins, or have used loss- and gain-of-function experiments in zebrafish. Such studies begin to tell us about the role of these molecules in the regulation of fish immune responses and whether they are similar or divergent to the well-characterised functions of mammalian cytokines. This knowledge will aid our ability to determine and modulate the pathways leading to protective immunity, to improve fish health in aquaculture. PMID:27231948

  14. Cytokines in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Elaine V; La Cava, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies that can form immune complexes and deposit in tissues, causing inflammation and organ damage. There is evidence that interferons and some interleukins can have an active role in the pathogenesis of SLE and can contribute significantly to the immune imbalance in the disease, whereas the role of some cytokines (such as TNF) is still debated. This review discusses the activity of several cytokines in SLE, their effects on the immune cells in relation to the disease pathogenesis, and the promise and limitations of cytokine-based therapies in clinical trials for lupus patients.

  15. Use of cytokines in infection.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Naoko; Xing, Zhou

    2004-11-01

    Infectious disease remains an ever-growing health concern worldwide due to increasing antibiotic-resistant microbial strains, immune-compromised populations, international traffic and globalisation, and bioterrorism. There exists an urgent need to develop novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies. In addition to classic antibiotic therapeutics, immune-modulatory molecules such as cytokines or their inhibitors represent a promising form of antimicrobial therapeutics or immune adjuvant used for the purpose of vaccination. These molecules, in the form of either recombinant protein or transgene, exert their antimicrobial effect by enhancing infectious agent-specific immune activation or memory development, or by dampening undesired inflammatory and immune responses resulting from infection and host defence mechanisms. In the last two decades, a number of cytokine therapy-based experimental and clinical trials have been conducted, and some of these efforts have led to the routine clinical use of cytokines. For instance, although IFNs have been used to treat hepatitis C with great success, many other cytokines are yet to be fully evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. This review discusses the biology and therapeutic potential of selected immune modulatory cytokines and their inhibitors, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IFN-gamma, IL-12 and TNF.

  16. Targeted cytokines for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lode, H N; Reisfeld, R A

    2000-01-01

    Targeting of cytokines into the tumor microenvironment using antibody-cytokine fusion proteins, called immunocytokines, represents a novel approach in cancer immunotherapy. This article summarizes therapeutic efficacy and immune mechanisms involved in targeting interleukin-2 (IL-2) to neuroectodermal tumors using ganglioside GD2-specific antibody-IL-2 fusion protein (ch14.18-IL-2). Treatment of established melanoma metastases with ch14.18-IL-2 resulted in eradication of disease followed by a vaccination effect protecting mice from lethal challenges with wild-type tumor calls. In a syngeneic neuroblastoma model, targeted IL-2 was effective in the amplification of a weak memory immune response previously induced by IL-12 gene therapy using an engineered linear version of this heterodimeric cytokine. These findings show that targeted IL-2 may provide an effective tool in cancer immunotherapy and establish the missing link between T cell-mediated vaccination and objective clinical responses.

  17. IL-12 Family Cytokines: Immunological Playmakers

    PubMed Central

    Vignali, Dario A.A.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.

    2014-01-01

    The interleukin-12 (IL-12) family is unique in comprising the only heterodimeric cytokines, which includes IL-12, IL-23, IL-27 and IL-35. This endows these cytokines with a unique set of connections and functional interactions not shared within other cytokine families. Despite sharing many structural features and molecular partners, they mediate surprisingly diverse functional effects. Here we discuss the unique and unusual structural and functional characteristics of this cytokine family. We outline how cells might interpret seemingly similar cytokine signals to give rise to the diverse functional outcomes which characterize this cytokine family. We will also discuss the therapeutic implications of this complexity. PMID:22814351

  18. [Cytokines. Transmittor substances of the immune system].

    PubMed

    Pisa, P; Söder, O

    1995-07-12

    Cytokines are hormone-like proteins and peptides whose principal function is that of signalling substances within the immunoinflammatory and haematopoietic systems. Since the first cytokines were characterised 15 years ago, over 50 cytokines have been strictly defined and characterised. Cytokines are classified mainly on the basis of functional criteria into families--e.g, interleukins, interferons, colony stimulating factors, and chemokines. The article provides a broad review of cytokine physiology and pathophysiology with an emphasis on recent findings of their involvement in various diseases such as infections, autoimmune and haematological disorders, and cancer. Different treatment modalities that affect cytokine activity are discussed.

  19. Cytokine Signature in Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Izabella Rodrigues; Ferrari, Teresa Cristina Abreu; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Rodrigues, Luan Vieira; Guimarães Júnior, Milton Henriques; Barros, Thais Lins Souza; Gelape, Cláudio Léo; Sousa, Giovane Rodrigo; Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe disease with high mortality rate. Cytokines participate in its pathogenesis and may contribute to early diagnosis improving the outcome. This study aimed to evaluate the cytokine profile in IE. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured by cytometric bead array (CBA) at diagnosis in 81 IE patients, and compared with 34 healthy subjects and 30 patients with non-IE infections, matched to the IE patients by age and gender. Mean age of the IE patients was 47±17 years (range, 15–80 years), and 40 (50%) were male. The IE patients had significantly higher serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α as compared to the healthy individuals. The median levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-12 were higher in the IE than in the non-IE infections group. TNF-α and IL-12 levels were higher in staphylococcal IE than in the non-staphylococcal IE subgroup. There was a higher proportion of both low IL-10 producers and high producers of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-12 in the staphylococcal IE than in the non-staphylococcal IE subgroup. This study reinforces a relationship between the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1β, IL-12 and TNF-α, and the pathogenesis of IE. A lower production of IL-10 and impairment in cytokine network may reflect the severity of IE and may be useful for risk stratification. PMID:26225421

  20. Cytokine disturbances in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Noam; Stohl, William

    2011-07-06

    The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is complex, and the resulting disease manifestations are heterogeneous. Cytokine dysregulation is pervasive, and their protein and gene expression profiles may serve as markers of disease activity and severity. Importantly, biologic agents that target specific cytokines may represent novel therapies for SLE. Four cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, IFNα, and BLyS) are being evaluated as therapeutic targets in SLE. The present review will examine the roles of each of these cytokines in murine and human SLE, and will summarize results from clinical trials of agents that target these cytokines.

  1. Granzymes regulate proinflammatory cytokine responses.

    PubMed

    Wensink, Annette C; Hack, C Erik; Bovenschen, Niels

    2015-01-15

    Granzymes (Grs) are serine proteases mainly produced by cytotoxic lymphocytes and are traditionally considered to cause apoptosis in tumor cells and virally infected cells. However, the cytotoxicity of several Grs is currently being debated, and additional, predominantly extracellular, functions of Grs in inflammation are emerging. Extracellular soluble Grs are elevated in the circulation of patients with autoimmune diseases and infections. Additionally, Grs are expressed by several types of immune cells other than cytotoxic lymphocytes. Recent research has revealed novel immunomodulatory functions of Grs. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on the role of Grs in inflammation, highlighting their role in cytokine induction and processing.

  2. Cytokine profiles in axial spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Madej, Marta; Nowak, Beata; Sokolik, Renata; Chlebicki, Arkadiusz; Korman, Lucyna; Woytala, Patryk; Lubiński, Łukasz; Wiland, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Current studies concentrate on the cytokine network and its role in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis (SpA). In this study, we analyzed whether the serum cytokine profile (interleukins: IL-10, IL-11, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, IL-23 and IL-33) correlates with demographic data, clinical manifestations, disease activity and treatment outcome in a group of patients with axial spondyloarthritis. Material and methods Forty-nine patients with an established diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (aSpA) and 19 healthy volunteers as controls were enrolled in the study. Clinical evaluation included patient's medical history, 44 joint count, back pain intensity and global disease activity in the preceding week (VAS), the duration of morning stiffness and blood tests. Disease activity was assessed using BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP. Serum concentration of IL-10, IL-11, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, IL-23 and IL-33 was determined. Results In patients with aSpA, elevated serum concentration of IL-10, IL-15, IL-17 and IL-23 was detected. In the aSpA group we detected higher values of serum concentration of IL-23 and IL-33 in the subgroup with anterior uveitis (83.1 ±184.0 pg/ml vs. 14.0 ±17.1 pg/ml, p < 0.0001 and 45.5 ±71.9 pg/ml vs. 18.4 ±14.3 pg/ml, p < 0.0001, respectively). Additionally, in the subgroup with peripheral arthritis, elevation of serum concentration of IL-12 (249.3 ±246.9 pg/ml vs. 99.9 ±105.9 pg/ml, p = 0.0001) was detected. Patients with preradiological SpA had higher serum concentration of IL-17 than patients with established diagnosis of AS (6.37 ±8.50 pg/ml vs. 2.04 ±2.98 pg/ml, p = 0.0295). No differences in serum concentration of analyzed cytokines were found between the subgroup with low to moderate disease activity and the subgroup with high to very high disease activity. Conclusions We report that in aSpA patients, compared to controls, elevated serum concentrations of IL-10, IL-15, IL-17 and IL-23 were observed. Some cytokines may predispose to a more

  3. Analysis of intracellular cytokines using flowcytometry.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sunil K

    2002-01-01

    Characterization of T-cell clones and identification of functional subsets of the helper T-cells with polarized cytokine production is based on testing of cytokine expression. Several methods have been developed that allow cytokine expression to be measured like ELISA, RT-PCR, ELISPOT, ISH and flowcytometry. Among all these methods, monitoring of cytokine production using flowcytometric analysis has its own advantages and disadvantages. Multi-parametric characterization of cytokine production on single cell basis, without long-term culture and cloning along with high throughput of samples is main feature attached to flowcytometric analysis. The interpretation may be difficult at times due to change in the phenotype of the cells. Cells with similar surface phenotype but synthesizing different cytokines and having different functional characteristics can be analyzed with this technique. PMID:12815288

  4. Bioanalytical Chemistry of Cytokines-A Review

    PubMed Central

    Stenken, Julie A.; Poschenrieder, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are bioactive proteins produced by many different cells of the immune system. Due to their role in different inflammatory disease states and maintaining homeostasis, there is enormous clinical interest in the quantitation of cytokines. The typical standard methods for quantitation of cytokines are immunoassay-based techniques including enzyme-linked immusorbent assays (ELISA) and bead-based immunoassays read by either standard or modified flow cytometers. A review of recent developments in analytical methods for measurements of cytokine proteins is provided. This review briefly covers cytokine biology and the analysis challenges associated with measurement of these biomarker proteins for understanding both health and disease. New techniques applied to immunoassay-based assays are presented along with the uses of aptamers, electrochemistry, mass spectrometry, optical resonator-based methods. Methods used for elucidating the release of cytokines from single cells as well as in vivo collection methods are described. PMID:25467452

  5. Cytokine-Modulating Strategies and Newer Cytokine Targets for Arthritis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Dudics, Steven; Acharya, Bodhraj; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are the key mediators of inflammation in the course of autoimmune arthritis and other immune-mediated diseases. Uncontrolled production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-17 can promote autoimmune pathology, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4, IL-10, and IL-27 can help control inflammation and tissue damage. The pro-inflammatory cytokines are the prime targets of the strategies to control rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For example, the neutralization of TNFα, either by engineered anti-cytokine antibodies or by soluble cytokine receptors as decoys, has proven successful in the treatment of RA. The activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines can also be downregulated either by using specific siRNA to inhibit the expression of a particular cytokine or by using small molecule inhibitors of cytokine signaling. Furthermore, the use of anti-inflammatory cytokines or cytokine antagonists delivered via gene therapy has proven to be an effective approach to regulate autoimmunity. Unexpectedly, under certain conditions, TNFα, IFN-γ, and few other cytokines can display anti-inflammatory activities. Increasing awareness of this phenomenon might help develop appropriate regimens to harness or avoid this effect. Furthermore, the relatively newer cytokines such as IL-32, IL-34 and IL-35 are being investigated for their potential role in the pathogenesis and treatment of arthritis. PMID:25561237

  6. Current status and challenges of cytokine pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Zídek, Z; Anzenbacher, P; Kmoníčková, E

    2009-01-01

    The major concern of pharmacology about cytokines has originated from plentiful data showing association between gross changes in their production and pathophysiological processes. Despite the enigmatic role of cytokines in diseases, a number of them have become a subject of cytokine and anti-cytokine immunotherapies. Production of cytokines can be influenced by many endogenous and exogenous stimuli including drugs. Cells of the immune system, such as macrophages and lymphocytes, are richly endowed with receptors for the mediators of physiological functions, such as biogenic amines, adenosine, prostanoids, steroids, etc. Drugs, agonists or antagonists of these receptors can directly or indirectly up- and down-regulate secretion of cytokines and expression of cytokine receptors. Vice versa, cytokines interfere with drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics through the interactions with cytochrome P450 and multiple drug resistance proteins. The aim of the review is to encourage more intensive studies in these fields of cytokine pharmacology. It also outlines major areas of searching promising candidates for immunotherapeutic interventions. PMID:19371342

  7. Cytokines and immune surveillance in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. Among the parameters shown, by us and others, to be affected is the production of interferons. Interferons are a family of cytokines that are antiviral and play a major role in regulating immune responses that control resistance to infection. Alterations in interferon and other cytokine production and activity could result in changes in immunity and a possible compromise of host defenses against both opportunistic and external infections. The purpose of the present study is to further explore the effects of space flight on cytokines and cytokine-directed immunological function.

  8. Cytokine response to vitamin E supplementation is dependent on pre-supplementation cytokine levels.

    PubMed

    Belisle, Sarah E; Leka, Lynette S; Dallal, Gerard E; Jacques, Paul F; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Ordovas, Jose M; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin E supplementation has been suggested to improve immune response in the aged in part by altering cytokine production. However, there is not a consensus regarding the effect of supplemental vitamin E on cytokine production in humans. There is evidence that baseline immune health can affect immune response to supplemental vitamin E in the elderly. Thus, the effect of vitamin E on cytokines may depend on their pre-supplementation cytokine response. Using data from a vitamin E intervention in elderly nursing home residents, we examined if the effect of vitamin E on ex vivo cytokine production of IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma depended on baseline cytokine production. We observed that the effect of vitamin E supplementation on cytokine production depended on pre-supplementation production of the respective cytokines. The interactions between vitamin E and baseline cytokine production were not explained by covariates known to impact cytokine production. Our results offer evidence that baseline cytokine production should be considered in studies that examine the effect of supplemental vitamin E on immune and inflammatory responses. Our results could have implications in designing clinical trials to determine the impact of vitamin E on conditions in which cytokines are implicated such as infections and atherosclerotic disease.

  9. Cytokine response to vitamin E supplementation is dependent on pre-supplementation cytokine levels

    PubMed Central

    Belisle, Sarah E.; Leka, Lynette S.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Jacques, Paul F.; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Ordovas, Jose M.; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E supplementation has been suggested to improve immune response in the aged in part by altering cytokine production. However, there is not a consensus regarding the effect of supplemental vitamin E on cytokine production in humans. There is evidence that baseline immune health can affect immune response to supplemental vitamin E in the elderly. Thus, the effect of vitamin E on cytokines may depend on their pre-supplementation cytokine response. Using data from a vitamin E intervention in elderly nursing home residents, we examined if the effect of vitamin E on ex vivo cytokine production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ depended on baseline cytokine production. . We observed that the effect of vitamin E supplementation on cytokine production depended on pre-supplementation production of the respective cytokines. The interactions between vitamin E and baseline cytokine production were not explained covariates known to impact cytokine production. Our results offer evidence that baseline cytokine production should be considered in studies that examine the effect of supplemental vitamin E on immune and inflammatory responses. Our results could have implications in designing clinical trials to determine the impact of vitamin E on conditions in which cytokines are implicated such as infections and atherosclerotic disease. PMID:19478423

  10. Cytokine Regulation of Metastasis and Tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Yao, M; Brummer, G; Acevedo, D; Cheng, N

    2016-01-01

    The human body combats infection and promotes wound healing through the remarkable process of inflammation. Inflammation is characterized by the recruitment of stromal cell activity including recruitment of immune cells and induction of angiogenesis. These cellular processes are regulated by a class of soluble molecules called cytokines. Based on function, cell target, and structure, cytokines are subdivided into several classes including: interleukins, chemokines, and lymphokines. While cytokines regulate normal physiological processes, chronic deregulation of cytokine expression and activity contributes to cancer in many ways. Gene polymorphisms of all types of cytokines are associated with risk of disease development. Deregulation RNA and protein expression of interleukins, chemokines, and lymphokines have been detected in many solid tumors and hematopoetic malignancies, correlating with poor patient prognosis. The current body of literature suggests that in some tumor types, interleukins and chemokines work against the human body by signaling to cancer cells and remodeling the local microenvironment to support the growth, survival, and invasion of primary tumors and enhance metastatic colonization. Some lymphokines are downregulated to suppress tumor progression by enhancing cytotoxic T cell activity and inhibiting tumor cell survival. In this review, we will describe the structure/function of several cytokine families and review our current understanding on the roles and mechanisms of cytokines in tumor progression. In addition, we will also discuss strategies for exploiting the expression and activity of cytokines in therapeutic intervention. PMID:27613135

  11. Compartmentalized Cytokine Responses in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    PubMed Central

    Savva, Athina; Kersten, Brigit; Pistiki, Aikaterini; van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Netea, Mihai G.; van der Meer, Jos W.; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Favorable treatment outcomes with TNF blockade led us to explore cytokine responses in hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Methods Blood monocytes of 120 patients and 24 healthy volunteers were subtyped by flow cytometry. Isolated blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated for cytokine production; this was repeated in 13 severe patients during treatment with etanercept. Cytokines in pus were measured. Results CD14brightCD16dim inflammatory monocytes and patrolling monocytes were increased in Hurley III patients. Cytokine production by stimulated PBMCs was low compared to controls but the cytokine gene copies did not differ, indicating post-translational inhibition. The low production of IL-17 was restored, when cells were incubated with adalimumab. In pus, high concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines were detected. Based on the patterns, six different cytokine profiles were discerned, which are potentially relevant for the choice of treatment. Clinical improvement with etanercept was predicted by increased production of IL-1β and IL-17 by PBMCs at week 8. Conclusions Findings indicate compartmentalized cytokine expression in HS; high in pus but suppressed in PBMCs. This is modulated through blockade of TNF. PMID:26091259

  12. Time course of cytokine levels in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Thijs, L G; Hack, C E

    1995-11-01

    In severe sepsis, a network of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8) is activated and blood levels of these cytokines are elevated, albeit inconsistently and with large individual variations. In addition, elevated blood levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10), as well as of soluble cytokine receptors (sTNF-RI and II, IL-1ra), have been found. They seem to have a regulatory function in the host response. Levels of TNF and IL-6 are usually highest at the time of admission, whereas the time course of IL-1 beta levels (when detectable) can vary considerably. Limited data on IL-8 levels suggest that they may remain elevated for longer periods. Elevated levels of sTNFR and IL-1ra may also persist for a prolonged period of time. The pathogenetic significance of these observations is still unclear, but persistingly high levels of proinflammatory cytokines may be associated with organ failure and mortality.

  13. Cytokines in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA).

    PubMed

    Mangge, H; Schauenstein, K

    1998-06-01

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), unlike rheumatoid arthritis of adulthood (RA), is a heterogenous disease comprising at least five subtypes that differ in clinical course and prognosis, and require different therapeutical approaches. As compared to RA, the production of local and systemic cytokines in JRA have not yet been as extensively investigated. In this article we review the available literature on cytokine expression in serum and synovial fluid in all five different subtypes of JRA. Even though the data are still fragmentary, the evidence so far suggests that the determination of serum cytokines yields relevant information as to clinical subtype and inflammatory activity of the disease. Furthermore, the cytokine data suggest that the pathogenesis of JRA may even by more heterogenous than defined by the clinical subtypes. Finally, future directions of research in this area are proposed, and-based on the latest results-arguments for (anti)cytokine therapies in JRA are critically discussed.

  14. Interactions between Autophagy and Inhibitory Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tian-Tian; Li, Wei-Min; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a degradative pathway that plays an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Most early studies of autophagy focused on its involvement in age-associated degeneration and nutrient deprivation. However, the immunological functions of autophagy have become more widely studied in recent years. Autophagy has been shown to be an intrinsic cellular defense mechanism in the innate and adaptive immune responses. Cytokines belong to a broad and loose category of proteins and are crucial for innate and adaptive immunity. Inhibitory cytokines have evolved to permit tolerance to self while also contributing to the eradication of invading pathogens. Interactions between inhibitory cytokines and autophagy have recently been reported, revealing a novel mechanism by which autophagy controls the immune response. In this review, we discuss interactions between autophagy and the regulatory cytokines IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, and IL-27. We also mention possible interactions between two newly discovered cytokines, IL-35 and IL-37, and autophagy.

  15. Interactions between Autophagy and Inhibitory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tian-tian; Li, Wei-Min; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a degradative pathway that plays an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Most early studies of autophagy focused on its involvement in age-associated degeneration and nutrient deprivation. However, the immunological functions of autophagy have become more widely studied in recent years. Autophagy has been shown to be an intrinsic cellular defense mechanism in the innate and adaptive immune responses. Cytokines belong to a broad and loose category of proteins and are crucial for innate and adaptive immunity. Inhibitory cytokines have evolved to permit tolerance to self while also contributing to the eradication of invading pathogens. Interactions between inhibitory cytokines and autophagy have recently been reported, revealing a novel mechanism by which autophagy controls the immune response. In this review, we discuss interactions between autophagy and the regulatory cytokines IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, and IL-27. We also mention possible interactions between two newly discovered cytokines, IL-35 and IL-37, and autophagy. PMID:27313501

  16. Targeted cytokine delivery to neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Dehal, P K; Embleton, M J; Kemshead, J T; Hawkins, R E

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a fusion protein from the cytokine granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and a single-chain Fv fragment (scFv D29) and to investigate its potential to activate cells of the immune system against neuroblastoma cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). Mammalian cell expression of the scFv D29-GM-CSF fusion protein was compared using a number of vectors, including retroviral and adenoviral vectors. The resultant fusion protein, expressed by HeLa cells, was found by ELISA to bind immobilized recombinant NCAM. Moreover, FACS analysis confirmed binding to the human neuroblastoma cell line SKNBE and a murine neuroblastoma cell line engineered to express the glycosylphosphatidylinositol form of human NCAM (N2A-rKNIE). The fusion protein was also found to stimulate the proliferation of the FDC-P1 haemopoietic cell line, which is dependent on GM-CSF (or interleukin 3) for continued growth. In vitro clonogenic assays indicated that scFv-GM-CSF could selectively induce growth inhibition of SKNBE cells by murine lymphoid cells.

  17. Inflammatory cytokines in newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Sarandakou, A; Giannaki, G; Malamitsi-Puchner, A; Rizos, D; Hourdaki, E; Protonotariou, E; Phocas, I

    1998-01-01

    Serum levels of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were measured in 48 healthy, termed neonates on the 1st (N1), 5th (N5) and 40th (N40) day after birth, compared with those in maternal serum (MS), umbilical cord (UC) and adult controls. Cytokine values in N1 and N5 were significantly elevated, than those in UC and in controls (P<0.0001). IL-1beta and IL-6 declined significantly from N1 to N40 (P<0.0001), while TNF-alpha increased significantly from N1 to N5 and declined thereafter. MS infinity IL-1beta and IL-6, but not MS infinity TNF-alpha, were significantly higher than those of controls (P<0.0001). IL-1beta values depended on the mode of delivery. In conclusion, the increased concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha during the perinatal period might suggest their involvement in an inflammation-like process during normal parturition, and reflect also a newborn immune response to the stress of delivery and environmental changes. PMID:9883964

  18. Inflammatory cytokines in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Sarandakou, A; Giannaki, G; Malamitsi-Puchner, A; Rizos, D; Hourdaki, E; Protonotariou, E; Phocas, I

    1998-01-01

    Serum levels of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were measured in 48 healthy, termed neonates on the 1st (N1), 5th (N5) and 40th (N40) day after birth, compared with those in maternal serum (MS), umbilical cord (UC) and adult controls. Cytokine values in N1 and N5 were significantly elevated, than those in UC and in controls (P<0.0001). IL-1beta and IL-6 declined significantly from N1 to N40 (P<0.0001), while TNF-alpha increased significantly from N1 to N5 and declined thereafter. MS infinity IL-1beta and IL-6, but not MS infinity TNF-alpha, were significantly higher than those of controls (P<0.0001). IL-1beta values depended on the mode of delivery. In conclusion, the increased concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha during the perinatal period might suggest their involvement in an inflammation-like process during normal parturition, and reflect also a newborn immune response to the stress of delivery and environmental changes.

  19. Modulation of cytokine production by carnitine

    PubMed Central

    De Simone, Claudio

    1993-01-01

    The ability of carnitine congeners to modulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was investigated. Modulation of cytokine production by PBMC of young (30 years of age or younger) and old (70 years of age or older) normal donors was first compared. The PBMC were collected over Ficoll–Hypaque and incubated in the presence of various concentrations of acetyl L-carnitine for 24 h. Subsequently the supernatants were collected and examined for cytokine production. The presence of cytokines in tissue culture supernatants was examined by ELISA. The cytokines measured included IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, TNFα, GM–CSF, and IFNγ. The results showed that at 50 μg/ml of acetyl L-carnitine the most significant response was obtained for TNFα. In this regard four of five young donors responded, but only one of five old donors responded. More recently these studies were expanded to examine the ability of L-carnitine to modulate cytokine production at higher doses, 200 and 400 μg/ml, in young donors. The results of these studies showed that in addition to TNFα, significant production of IL-1β and IL-6 was observed. These preliminary studies provide evidence that carnitine may modulate immune functions through the production of selected cytokines. PMID:18475565

  20. Cytokine medicines in clinical practice: current issues.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Theresa; Moots, Robert J; Goodacre, John

    2005-10-21

    Cytokine medicines have been licensed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis since 2000. The rheumatology community has accrued a large amount of experience in the use of these medications. This experience has led to the development of guidelines for their use that include ongoing vigilance for long term adverse events and efficacy using the Biologics Register. Delivery of these expensive therapies has prompted extensive system developments within rheumatology. The cytokine medicines have provided important tools to probe the pathogenesis of rheumatoid and other inflammatory diseases. Further cytokine medicines, in various stages of development, are on the horizon and continue to stimulate excitement within this fast expanding field.

  1. Cytokines in Radiobiological Responses: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Schaue, Dörthe; Kachikwu, Evelyn L.; McBride, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Cytokines function in many roles that are highly relevant to radiation research. This review focuses on how cytokines are structurally organized, how they are induced by radiation, and how they orchestrate mesenchymal, epithelial and immune cell interactions in irradiated tissues. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are the major components of immediate early gene programs and as such can be rapidly activated after tissue irradiation. They converge with the effects of ionizing radiation in that both generate free radicals including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). “Self” molecules secreted or released from cells after irradiation feed the same paradigm by signaling for ROS and cytokine production. As a result, multilayered feedback control circuits can be generated that perpetuate the radiation tissue damage response. The pro-inflammatory phase persists until such times as perceived challenges to host integrity are eliminated. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory cytokines then act to restore homeostasis. The balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory forces may shift to and fro for a long time after radiation exposure, creating waves as the host tries to deal with persisting pathogenesis. Individual cytokines function within socially interconnected groups to direct these integrated cellular responses. They hunt in packs and form complex cytokine networks that are nested within each other so as to form mutually reinforcing or antagonistic forces. This yin-yang balance appears to have redox as a fulcrum. Because of their social organization, cytokines appear to have a considerable degree of redundancy and it follows that an elevated level of a specific cytokine in a disease situation or after irradiation does not necessarily implicate it causally in pathogenesis. In spite of this, “driver” cytokines are emerging in pathogenic situations that can clearly be targeted for therapeutic benefit, including in radiation settings. Cytokines can greatly

  2. [Targeted therapy in inflammatory disease: cytokines].

    PubMed

    von Frenckell, C; Malaise, M G

    2012-01-01

    Summarizing 15 years of therapeutic development of a discipline into a few lines is not an easy thing to do. There are many potential targets involved in the inflammatory of auto-immune diseases. Due to the development of biotherapies the choice has become larger, and it is now possible to target practically any molecule (cytokine, chemokine or surface receptor for example). Cytokines represent the first example of therapeutic target that played a major role in the revolution of our discipline. The first part of presentation will focus on the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha, and interleukines 1 and 6). We shall then, detail the development of a new cytokinic target: BLyS (B lymphocyte stimulator) whose role in the autoimmune diseases appeared recently.

  3. Dynamical Systems, Cytokine Storms, and Blood Filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Glenn; Hubler, Alfred

    2008-03-01

    Various infections and non-infectious diseases can trigger immune cells and the proteins (cytokines) the cells use to communicate with each other to be caught in a positive feedback loop; this ``cytokine storm'' is frequently fatal. By examining the network of cytokine-immune cell interactions we will illustrate why anti-mediator drugs have been generally ineffective in stopping this feedback. A more effective approach may be to try and reduce interactions by dampening many signals at once by filtering the cytokines out of the blood directly (think dialysis). We will argue that feedback on an out of control nonlinear dynamical system is easier to understand than its normal healthy state and apply filtration to a toy model of immune response.

  4. Cytokines in neuroblastoma: from pathogenesis to treatment.

    PubMed

    Pistoia, Vito; Bianchi, Giovanna; Borgonovo, Giacomo; Raffaghello, Lizzia

    2011-07-01

    Cytokines released by cancer cells or by cells of the tumor microenvironment stimulate angiogenesis, act as autocrine or paracrine growth factors for malignant cells, promote tumor cell migration and metastasis or create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. These tumor-promoting effects of cytokines also apply to neuroblastoma (NB), a pediatric neuroectodermal malignancy with frequent metastatic presentation at diagnosis and poor prognosis. IL-6 and VEGF are the best characterized cytokines that stimulated tumor growth and metastasis, while others such as IFN-γ can exert anti-NB activity by inducing tumor cell apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis. On the other hand, cytokines are part of the anti-NB therapeutic armamentarium, as exemplified by IL-2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor that potentiate the activity of anti-NB antibodies. These recent results raise hope for more efficacious treatment of this ominous pediatric malignancy.

  5. Anti cytokine therapy in chronic inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Charlotte; Davies, Ruth; Choy, Ernest

    2016-10-01

    This is a review looking at anti cytokine therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Psoriatic Arthritis (PSA) and Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS). The review explores the similarities and differences in the clinical features, as well as treatments and cytokines involved in the development and propagation of the disease. Particular attention is paid to TNFα inhibitors IL-1ra, IL-6 and JAK kinase Inhibitors, anti IL23 and IL-12 and the new developments with anti-IL-17. PMID:27497159

  6. The role of cytokines in cancer.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, J; Fujiwara, H

    1996-10-01

    The role of cytokines was intensively discussed over the course of a two and a half day meeting sponsored by the US-JAPAN Cancer Cooperative Research Program of the Office of International Affairs, National Cancer Institute and held at The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland on 15-17 January 1996. Most of the first day was devoted to a discussion of the role of cytokines in modulating angiogenesis and the consequent effect of this on tumor growth and metastases. This was followed by sessions on the effect of various cytokines in enhancing or suppressing immunological responses to tumors. Several presentations focused on the direct inhibitory or growth promoting effects of cytokines on tumor growth. The final session consisted of a comparison of the efficacy of different approaches to tumor vaccination including gene therapy, enhanced antigen presentation, use of polymeric carriers or of DNA vectors. For background information the reader is referred to appropriate chapters on the role of cytokines in neoplastic diseases (Oppenheim JJ, Rossio JL, Gearing AJH, eds. In Clinical Application of Cytokines: Role of Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Therapy. Oxford University Press, New York, 1993 [1]).

  7. Cytokine expression in muscle following traumatic injury

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Wesley M.; Aragon, Amber B.; Onodera, Jun; Koehler, Steven M.; Ji, Youngmi; Bulken-Hoover, Jamie D.; Vogler, Jared A.; Tuan, Rocky S.; Nesti, Leon J.

    2011-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) occurs at a high frequency in severe orthopaedic extremity injuries; however, the etiology of traumatic HO is virtually unknown. Osteogenic progenitor cells have previously been identified within traumatized muscle. Although the signaling mechanisms that lead to this dysregulated differentiation pathway have not been identified, it is assumed that inflammation and fibrosis, which contribute to an osteoinductive environment, are necessary for the development of HO. The hypothesis of this study was that cytokines related to chronic inflammation, fibrogenesis and osteogenesis become up-regulated following severe muscle trauma where HO forms. Classification of these cytokines by their differential expression relative to control muscle will provide guidance for further study of the mechanisms leading to HO. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed no significant up-regulation of cytokines typically associated with HO (e.g., BMP-4, as observed in the genetic form of heterotopic ossification, Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva). Instead, the cytokine gene expression profile associated with the traumatized muscle included up-regulation of cytokines associated with osteogenesis and fibrosis (i.e., BMP-1 and TGF-beta1). Using immunohistochemistry, these cytokines were localized to fibroproliferative lesions, which have previously been implicated in HO. This study identifies other cell and tissue-level interactions in traumatized muscle that should be investigated further to better define the etiology of HO. PMID:21452302

  8. Serum cytokine changes in systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed Central

    Grau, G E; Roux-Lombard, P; Gysler, C; Lambert, C; Lambert, P H; Dayer, J M; Guillevin, L

    1989-01-01

    Cytokines are known to alter a number of vascular tissue cell functions. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine serum cytokine levels in patients with vasculitis and to analyse the possible relation to the severity of the disease. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1)beta, IL-2, interferon (IFN)- and IFN-gamma were assayed in 33 patients with polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) or Churg and Strauss angiitis (CSA), and three with Wegener granulomatosis (WG). Serum cytokine changes were observed in most patients with active disease, i.e. before treatment was started. In the majority of patients with PAN or CSA, there was a marked increase in serum IFN-alpha and IL-2 levels, while TNF-alpha and IL-beta levels were moderately elevated. Serum IFN-gamma remained undetectable in all but one of these patients. In patients with WG, serum IFN-alpha and IL-2 levels were also elevated, whereas IL-1 beta, IFN-gamma and TNF alpha levels remained within normal limits. In paired samples of patients with PAN, IFN-alpha and IL-2 levels were significantly higher before than after treatment. These preliminary data suggest that a particular pattern of cytokine changes is associated with vasculitis and that cytokines might be involved in the pathogenesis of PAN/CSA and WG. Prospective studies are warranted to determine whether cytokines could be considered for the monitoring of disease activity and therapy. PMID:2478451

  9. A genetic contribution to circulating cytokines and obesity in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytokines are considered to be involved in obesity-related metabolic diseases. Study objectives are to determine the heritability of circulating cytokine levels, to investigate pleiotropy between cytokines and obesity traits, and to present genome scan results for cytokines in 1030 Hispanic children...

  10. Avian cytokines - the natural approach to therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, J W; Lambrecht, B; van den Berg, T P; Andrew, M E; Strom, A D; Bean, A G

    2000-01-01

    While the effective use of antibiotics for the control of human disease has saved countless lives and has increased life expectancy over the past few decades, there are concerns arising from their usage in livestock. The use of antibiotic feed additives in food production animals has been linked to the emergence in the food chain of multiple drug-resistant bacteria that appear impervious to even the most powerful antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, the use of chemical antimicrobials has led to concerns involving environmental contamination and unwanted residues in food products. The imminent banning of antibiotic usage in livestock feed has intensified the search for environmentally-friendly alternative methods to control disease. Cytokines, as natural mediators and regulators of the immune response, offer exciting new alternatives to conventional chemical-based therapeutics. The utilisation of cytokines is becoming more feasible, particularly in poultry, with the recent cloning of a number of avian cytokine genes. Chickens offer an attractive small animal model system with which to study the effectiveness of cytokine therapy in the control of disease in intensive livestock. In this report we will review the status of avian cytokines and focus on our recent studies involving the therapeutic potential of chicken interferon gamma (ChIFN-gamma) as a vaccine adjuvant and a growth promoter. PMID:10717298

  11. Cytokines and hypothalamic-pituitary function.

    PubMed

    Jones, T H; Kennedy, R L

    1993-11-01

    Several cytokines are now known to affect the release of anterior pituitary hormones by an action on the hypothalamus and/or the pituitary gland. The major cytokines involved are IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-alpha and interferon-tau. Their predominant effects are to stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and to suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and gonadal axes, and growth hormone release. The relative importance of systemically and locally produced cytokines in achieving these responses and their precise sites of action have not been fully established. There are indeed conflicting reports on the individual effects of each cytokine which need to be clarified. There is now cumulating evidence that there are important interactions between the immune and neuroendocrine systems which may explain in part, some of the effects on growth, thyroid, adrenal and reproductive functions which occur in acute and chronic disease. This article reviews the current knowledge of the effects of some cytokines on hypothalamic-pituitary function.

  12. Interleukin-1 Family Cytokines in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Hiroko; Cai, Xianbin; Hayashi, Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    The gene encoding IL-1 was sequenced more than 30 years ago, and many related cytokines, such as IL-18, IL-33, IL-36, IL-37, IL-38, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and IL-36Ra, have since been identified. IL-1 is a potent proinflammatory cytokine and is involved in various inflammatory diseases. Other IL-1 family ligands are critical for the development of diverse diseases, including inflammatory and allergic diseases. Only IL-1Ra possesses the leader peptide required for secretion from cells, and many ligands require posttranslational processing for activation. Some require inflammasome-mediated processing for activation and release, whereas others serve as alarmins and are released following cell membrane rupture, for example, by pyroptosis or necroptosis. Thus, each ligand has the proper molecular process to exert its own biological functions. In this review, we will give a brief introduction to the IL-1 family cytokines and discuss their pivotal roles in the development of various liver diseases in association with immune responses. For example, an excess of IL-33 causes liver fibrosis in mice via activation and expansion of group 2 innate lymphoid cells to produce type 2 cytokines, resulting in cell conversion into pro-fibrotic M2 macrophages. Finally, we will discuss the importance of IL-1 family cytokine-mediated molecular and cellular networks in the development of acute and chronic liver diseases. PMID:26549942

  13. Induction of inflammatory cytokines by cartilage extracts.

    PubMed

    Merly, Liza; Simjee, Shabana; Smith, Sylvia L

    2007-03-01

    Shark cartilage extracts were examined for induction of cytokines and chemokines in human peripheral blood leukocytes. Primary leukocyte cultures were exposed to a variety of aqueous and organic extracts prepared from several commercial brands of shark cartilage. From all commercial sources of shark cartilage tested the acid extracts induced higher levels of TNFalpha than other extracts. Different commercial brands of shark cartilage varied significantly in cytokine-inducing activity. TNFalpha induction was seen as early as 4 h and IFNgamma at detectable levels for up to four days. Shark cartilage extracts did not induce physiologically significant levels of IL-4. Results suggest that shark cartilage, preferentially, induces Th1 type inflammatory cytokines. When compared to bovine cartilage extract, collagen, and chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage induced significantly higher levels of TNFalpha. Treatment with digestive proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin) reduced the cytokine induction response by 80%, suggesting that the active component(s) in cartilage extracts is proteinaceous. The induction of Th1 type cytokine response in leukocytes is a significant finding since shark cartilage, taken as a dietary supplement for a variety of chronic degenerative diseases, would be contraindicated in cases where the underlying pathology of the chronic condition is caused by inflammation. PMID:17276897

  14. Cytokines in Neuropathic Pain and Associated Depression.

    PubMed

    Lees, Justin G; Fivelman, Brett; Duffy, Samuel S; Makker, Preet G S; Perera, Chamini J; Moalem-Taylor, Gila

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain occurs as a result of lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system and is present in a diverse set of peripheral and central pathologies such as nerve trauma, diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. Debilitating symptoms including allodynia, hyperalgesia and spontaneous pain have a substantial negative impact on patients' quality of life. The currently available therapeutic treatments are generally ineffective and characterised by poor response rates. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation and cytokine signalling play a critical role in neuropathic pain. Numerous experimental studies have demonstrated that certain pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated in neuropathic pain conditions, and administration of these cytokines can elicit pain hypersensitivity in the absence of injury or disease. This phenomenon is also apparent in the 'sickness response', which encompasses a broad inflammatory response to disease and injury and involves a series of physiological and behavioural changes including pain hypersensitivity. Interestingly, the 'sickness response' is also similar in nature to some of the defining characteristics of the depressed state of affective disorder. In this review, we explore links that may relate the co-existence of depression in neuropathic pain patients with the activity of cytokines and discuss the role of several key pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in neuropathic pain. PMID:26437375

  15. Treatment of Cancer Pain by Targeting Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Vendrell, I.; Macedo, D.; Alho, I.; Dionísio, M. R.; Costa, L.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is one of the most important causes of the majority of cancer symptoms, including pain, fatigue, cachexia, and anorexia. Cancer pain affects 17 million people worldwide and can be caused by different mediators which act in primary efferent neurons directly or indirectly. Cytokines can be aberrantly produced by cancer and immune system cells and are of particular relevance in pain. Currently, there are very few strategies to control the release of cytokines that seems to be related to cancer pain. Nevertheless, in some cases, targeted drugs are available and in use for other diseases. In this paper, we aim to review the importance of cytokines in cancer pain and targeted strategies that can have an impact on controlling this symptom. PMID:26538839

  16. [Plant-Producers Of Recombinant Cytokines (Review)].

    PubMed

    Burlakovskii, M S; Yemel'yanov, V V; Lutova, L A

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines are a family of signaling polypeptides involved in cell-cell interactions in the process of the immune response, as well as in the regulation of a number of normal physiological functions. Cytokines are used in medicine for the treatment of cancer, immune disorders, viral infections, and other socially significant diseases, but the extent of their use is limited by the high production cost of the active agent. The development of this area of pharmacology is associated with the success of genetic engineering, which allows the production of significant amounts of protein by transgenic organisms. The review discusses the latest advances in the production of various cytokines with the use of genetically modified plants. PMID:27266244

  17. The role of cytokines in pulp inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kokkas, A; Goulas, A; Stavrianos, C; Anogianakis, G

    2011-01-01

    Pulpitis is a typical inflammatory disease of dental pulp, characterized by the local accumulation of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and chemokines. In addition to serving as intercellular messengers mediating the inflammatory response, cytokines and chemokines induce the expression and stimulate the activity of molecular and cellular agents which participate actively in destructive and reparative processes in the pulp. It is the balance between these processes which eventually determines the extent of pulp inflammation and the viability of the affected tooth. Over the last decade, a number of studies have attempted to correlate cytokine gene expression in the pulp with various stages of inflammation, with possible diagnostic applications in mind. A small survey of relevant information is presented in this paper.

  18. Kitasato symposium 2010: new prospects for cytokines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Second Kitasato Symposium: New Prospects for Cytokines brought together researchers and rheumatologists to consider the essential role of cytokines in health and their contributions to autoimmunity. Topics addressed during the Symposium - which was held in Berlin, Germany from 27 to 29 May 2010 - included established and new cytokine targets in arthritis and autoimmunity and innovative aspects of osteoimmunology as well as current perspectives from translational and clinical studies. The keynote lecture, delivered by George Kollias, focused on insights gained from animal models into the mechanisms of TNF function in chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. The presentations at the Symposium resulted in productive discussions regarding potential new targets for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:21235827

  19. Cytokine production associated with smallpox vaccine responses.

    PubMed

    Simon, Whitney L; Salk, Hannah M; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Smallpox was eradicated 34 years ago due to the success of the smallpox vaccine; yet, the vaccine continues to be studied because of its importance in responding to potential biological warfare and the adverse events associated with current smallpox vaccines. Interindividual variations in vaccine response are observed and are, in part, due to genetic variation. In some cases, these varying responses lead to adverse events, which occur at a relatively high rate for the smallpox vaccine compared with other vaccines. Here, we aim to summarize the cytokine responses associated with smallpox vaccine response to date. Along with a description of each of these cytokines, we describe the genetic and adverse event data associated with cytokine responses to smallpox vaccination.

  20. Cytokine Reduction in the Treatment of Joint Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Martel-Pelletier, J.; Otterness, I. G.; Pelletier, J.-P.

    1994-01-01

    The destruction of joints caused by rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis is characterized by an imbalance of enzyme catalysed cartilage breakdown and regeneration. A complex cytokine network perpetuates joint conditions by direct regulation of metalloproteases, by indirect recruitment of cells that secrete degradative enzymes, and by inhibition of reparative processes. The destructive action of cytokines such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α can be modulated at multiple points associated either with cytokine production or with cytokine action. Potential agents for cytokine reduction include selective anti-cytokine antibodies, anticytokine receptor antibodies, cytokine receptor antagonist proteins, and soluble and chimeric cytokine receptor molecules. Pharmacologic regulation of IL-1 and TNFα remain primary targets for treatment of arthritis, and results of early clinical trials are promising. However, the results of long-term clinical trials will be required to support the value of anti-cytokine therapy in treatment of arthritis. PMID:18472950

  1. Cytokines and immune surveillance in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. Among the parameters shown, by us and others, to be affected is the production of interferons. Interferons are a family of cytokines that are antiviral and play a major role in regulating immune responses that control resistance to infection. Alterations in interferon and other cytokine production and activity could result in changes in immunity and a possible compromise of host defenses against both opportunistic and external infections. The purpose of the present study is to explore further the effects of space flight on cyotokines and cytokine-directed immunological function. Among the tests carried out are interferon-alpha production, interferon-gamma production, interleukin-1 and -2 production, signal transduction in neutrophils, signal transduction in monocytes, and monocyte phagocytic activity. The experiments will be performed using peripheral blood obtained from human subjects. It is our intent to eventually carry out these experiments using astronauts as subjects to determine the effects of space flight on cytokine production and activity. However, these subjects are not currently available. Until they become available, we will carry out these experiments using subjects maintained in the bed-rest model for microgravity.

  2. Cytokine therapeutics: lessons from interferon alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Gutterman, J U

    1994-01-01

    Cytokines are soluble proteins that allow for communication between cells and the external environment. Interferon (IFN) alpha, the first cytokine to be produced by recombinant DNA technology, has emerged as an important regulator of growth and differentiation, affecting cellular communication and signal transduction pathways as well as immunological control. This review focuses on the biological and clinical activities of the cytokine. Originally discovered as an antiviral substance, the efficacy of IFN-alpha in malignant, viral, immunological, angiogenic, inflammatory, and fibrotic diseases suggests a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologies. The principles learned from in vivo studies will be discussed, particularly hairy cell leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, certain angiogenic diseases, and hepatitis. After the surprising discovery of activity in a rare B-cell neoplasm, IFN-alpha emerged as a prototypic tumor suppressor protein that represses the clinical tumorigenic phenotype in some malignancies capable of differentiation. Regulatory agencies throughout the world have approved IFN-alpha for treatment of 13 malignant and viral disorders. The principles established with this cytokine serve as a paradigm for future development of natural proteins for human disease. PMID:8108387

  3. Cytokine levels as biomarkers for leptospirosis patients.

    PubMed

    Chirathaworn, C; Supputtamongkol, Y; Lertmaharit, S; Poovorawan, Y

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory mediators were suggested to be biomarkers for prediction of disease severity. In this study, we investigated the levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α in leptospirosis patients with mild or severe illnesses. Sera samples were divided into two groups. The OI group and NOI groups included sera from patients with and without organ involvement, respectively. Each group consisted of 20 pairs of sera. Twenty-five sera from healthy individuals were included as controls. Cytokine levels were compared. Although IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels in acute sera from the OI group were significantly higher than NOI group, only IL-8 level was significantly higher in the OI group when cytokine levels in convalescent sera were compared. TNF-α, an inflammatory cytokine widely studied in leptospirosis was not significantly different between two groups of patients. Our data suggested that IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were involved in disease severity. However, time of specimen collection could affect the significant levels of cytokines especially as biomarkers for monitoring disease severity. PMID:27295614

  4. Interleukin-12 family cytokines and sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Ringkowski, Sabine; Thomas, Paul S; Herbert, Cristan

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease predominantly affecting the lungs. It is believed to be caused by exposure to pathogenic antigens in genetically susceptible individuals but the causative antigen has not been identified. The formation of non-caseating granulomas at sites of ongoing inflammation is the key feature of the disease. Other aspects of the pathogenesis are peripheral T-cell anergy and disease progression to fibrosis. Many T-cell-associated cytokines have been implicated in the immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis, but it is becoming apparent that IL-12 cytokine family members including IL-12, IL-23, IL-27, and IL-35 are also involved. Although the members of this unique cytokine family are heterodimers of similar subunits, their biological functions are very diverse. Whilst IL-23 and IL-12 are pro-inflammatory regulators of Th1 and Th17 responses, IL-27 is bidirectional for inflammation and the most recent family member IL-35 is inhibitory. This review will discuss the current understanding of etiology and immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis with a specific focus on the bidirectional impact of IL-12 family cytokines on the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis.

  5. Cytokines as biomarkers of nanoparticle immunotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Wooley, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale objects, whether of biologic origin or synthetically created, are being developed into devices for a variety of bionanotechnology diagnostic and pharmaceutical applications. However, the potential immunotoxicity of these nanomaterials and mechanisms by which they may induce adverse reactions have not received sufficient attention. Nanomaterials, depending on their characteristics and compositions, can interact with the immune system in several ways and either enhance or suppress immune system function. Cytokines perform pleiotropic functions to mediate and regulate the immune response and are generally recognized as biomarkers of immunotoxicity. While the specificity and validity of certain cytokines as markers of adverse immune response has been established for chemicals, small and macromolecular drugs, research on their applicability for predicting and monitoring the immunotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials is still ongoing. The goal of this review is to provide guidelines as to important cytokines that can be utilized for evaluating the immunotoxicity of nanomaterials and to highlight the role of those cytokines in mediating adverse reactions, which is of particular importance for the clinical development of nanopharmaceuticals and other nanotechnology-based products. Importantly, the rational design of nanomaterials of low immunotoxicity will be discussed, focusing on synthetic nanodevices, with emphasis on both the nanoparticle-forming materials and the embedded cargoes. PMID:23549679

  6. Cytokine balance and cytokine-driven natural killer cell dysfunction in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Avau, Anneleen; Put, Karen; Wouters, Carine H; Matthys, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is a severe inflammatory childhood disorder, characterized by a specific pattern of systemic features and a typical cytokine profile. Patients are at risk to develop macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), an acute life-threatening condition defined by excessive proliferation and activation of macrophages and T cells. Defects of unknown cause in the natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic capacity are presumed to underlie the pathogenesis of MAS and have been detected in sJIA patients. Here, we provide an overview of the cytokine profiles in sJIA and related mouse models. We discuss the influence of cytokines on NK cell function, and hypothesize that NK cell dysfunction in sJIA is caused by altered cytokine profiles.

  7. Cytokine Correlations in Youth with Tic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Parker-Athill, E. Carla; Ehrhart, Jared; Tan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Studies have noted immunological disruptions in patients with tic disorders, including increased serum cytokine levels. This study aimed to determine whether or not cytokine levels could be correlated with tic symptom severity in patients with a diagnosed tic disorder. Methods: Twenty-one patients, ages 4–17 years (average 10.63±2.34 years, 13 males), with a clinical diagnosis of Tourette's syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder (CTD), were selected based on having clinic visits that coincided with a tic symptom exacerbation and a remission. Ratings of tic severity were assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) and serum cytokine levels (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) were measured using Luminex xMAP technology. Results: During tic symptom exacerbation, patients had higher median serum TNF-α levels (z=−1.962, p=0.05), particularly those on antipsychotics (U=9.00, p=0.033). Increased IL-13 was also associated with antipsychotic use during exacerbation (U=4.00, p=0.043) despite being negatively correlated to tic severity scores (ρ=−0.599, p=018), whereas increased IL-5 was associated with antibiotic use (U=6.5, p=0.035). During tic symptom remission, increased serum IL-4 levels were associated with antipsychotic (U=6.00, p=0.047) and antibiotic (U=1.00, p=0.016) use, whereas increased IL-12p70 (U=4.00, p=0.037) was associated with antibiotic use. Conclusions: These findings suggest a role for cytokine dysregulation in the pathogenesis of tic disorders. It also points toward the mechanistic involvement and potential diagnostic utility of cytokine monitoring, particularly TNF-α levels. Larger, systematic studies are necessary to further delineate the role of cytokines and medication influences on immunological profiling in tic disorders. PMID:25658821

  8. Alcoholic Liver Disease: Role of Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; Maor, Yaakov; Nanau, Radu M; Melzer, Ehud; Mell, Haim; Opris, Mihai; Cohen, Lawrence; Malnick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The present review spans a broad spectrum of topics dealing with alcoholic liver disease (ALD), including clinical and translational research. It focuses on the role of the immune system and the signaling pathways of cytokines in the pathogenesis of ALD. An additional factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of ALD is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which plays a central role in the induction of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. LPS derived from the intestinal microbiota enters the portal circulation, and is recognized by macrophages (Kupffer cells) and hepatocytes. In individuals with ALD, excessive levels of LPS in the liver affect immune, parenchymal, and non-immune cells, which in turn release various inflammatory cytokines and recruit neutrophils and other inflammatory cells. In this review, we elucidate the mechanisms by which alcohol contributes to the activation of Kupffer cells and the inflammatory cascade. The role of the stellate cells in fibrogenesis is also discussed. PMID:26343741

  9. Cytokines and Other Mediators in Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Gregoriou, Stamatis; Papafragkaki, Dafni; Kontochristopoulos, George; Rallis, Eustathios; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Rigopoulos, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    Alopecia areata, a disease of the hair follicles with multifactorial etiology and a strong component of autoimmune origin, has been extensively studied as far as the role of several cytokines is concerned. So far, IFN-γ, interleukins, TNF-α, are cytokines that are well known to play a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease, while several studies have shown that many more pathways exist. Among them, MIG, IP-10, BAFF, HLA antigens, MIG, as well as stress hormones are implicated in disease onset and activity. Within the scope of this paper, the authors attempt to shed light upon the complexity of alopecia areata underlying mechanisms and indicate pathways that may suggest future treatments. PMID:20300578

  10. Crustacean hematopoiesis and the astakine cytokines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xionghui; Söderhäll, Irene

    2011-06-16

    Major contributions to research in hematopoiesis in invertebrate animals have come from studies in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. These animals lack oxygen-carrying erythrocytes and blood cells of the lymphoid lineage, which participate in adaptive immune defense, thus making them suitable model animals to study the regulation of blood cells of the innate immune system. This review presents an overview of crustacean blood cell formation, the role of these cells in innate immunity, and how their synthesis is regulated by the astakine cytokines. Astakines are among the first invertebrate cytokines shown to be involved in hematopoiesis, and they can stimulate the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic tissue cells. The astakines and their vertebrate homologues, prokineticins, share similar functions in hematopoiesis; thus, studies of astakine-induced hematopoiesis in crustaceans may not only advance our understanding of the regulation of invertebrate hematopoiesis but may also provide new evolutionary perspectives about this process.

  11. Novel cytokine-directed therapies for asthma.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Garry M

    2011-04-01

    For the majority of asthmatic patients, inhaled corticosteroid anti-inflammatory therapy is effective at controlling disease symptoms. However, this requires life-time therapy while a subset of patients remains symptomatic despite optimal treatment creating a clear unmet medical need. Biopharmaceutical approaches have been used to target key elements in the complex pro-inflammatory processes controlling pro-inflammatory cell accumulation and the secretory function of these and structural cells within the asthmatic lung. Asthma-relevant cytokines or chemokines have been targeted in a number of ways. These include the use of humanized blocking mAb to their receptors, removal of cytokines or chemokines via their binding to soluble receptors or small molecule receptor antagonists. Other approaches include the development of biologics that block specific bioactive agents such as IgE. This review will discuss the current status, therapeutic potential and potential problems of these novel drug biologics in asthma therapy.

  12. Interferons lambda, new cytokines with antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Lopušná, K; Režuchová, I; Betáková, T; Skovranová, L; Tomašková, J; Lukáčiková, L; Kabát, P

    2013-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines in the establishment of a multifaceted antiviral response. Three distinct types of IFNs are now recognized (type I, type II, and type III) based on their receptor usage, structural features and biological activities. Although all IFNs are important mediators of antiviral protection, their roles in antiviral defence vary. Interferon lambda (IFN-λ) is a recently discovered group of small helical cytokines capable of inducing an antiviral response both in vitro as well as in vivo. They were discovered independently in 2003 by the groups of Sheppard and Kotenko. This family consists of three structurally related IFN-λ subtypes called IFN-λ1 (IL-29), IFN-λ2 (IL-28A), and IFN-λ3 (IL-28B). In this study we investigate the antiviral activities of IFN-λ1, λ2, and λ3 on some medically important viruses, influenza viruses, herpes viruses and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. PMID:23600875

  13. Cytokine signalling in mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christine J; Oliver, Carrie H; Khaled, Walid T

    2011-03-01

    Mammary gland development occurs in three distinct stages during the lifetime of the female mammal: in embryonic, pubertal and reproductive life. At each of these developmental stages, different signalling molecules induce changes in both the epithelium and the surrounding stroma. However, it is during pregnancy that the most dramatic changes occur, resulting in a massive increase in the number of epithelial cells and in their function. Pregnancy initiates the development of a new epithelial lineage, the alveolar cells, which form the milk-producing lobuloalveolar structures. These cells become redundant at the end of lactation and are removed in an exquisitely controlled process of tissue remodelling coupled with extensive cell death. All of these events require not only steroid hormones but also sequential signalling by cytokines. A recent surprising discovery was that the signalling pathways and cytokines that regulate lineage determination in T helper cells are also involved in mammary gland development during pregnancy.

  14. Inflammatory cytokines in atherosclerosis: current therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Tousoulis, Dimitris; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Economou, Evangelos K; Crea, Filippo; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    The notion of atherosclerosis as a chronic inflammatory disease has intensified research on the role of cytokines and the way these molecules act and interact to initiate and sustain inflammation in the microenvironment of an atherosclerotic plaque. Cytokines are expressed by all types of cells involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, act on a variety of targets exerting multiple effects, and are largely responsible for the crosstalk among endothelial, smooth muscle cells, leucocytes, and other vascular residing cells. It is now understood that widely used drugs such as statins, aspirin, methotrexate, and colchicine act in an immunomodulatory way that may beneficially affect atherogenesis and/or cardiovascular disease progression. Moreover, advancement in pharmaceutical design has enabled the production of highly specific antibodies against key molecules involved in the perpetuation of the inflammatory cascade, raising hope for advances in the treatment of atherosclerosis. This review describes the actions and effects of these agents, their potential clinical significance, and future prospects. PMID:26843277

  15. Cytokine disbalance in common human cancers.

    PubMed

    Culig, Zoran

    2011-02-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6, -4, and -8 levels have been elevated in most patients suffering from prostate, breast, or colon cancer. There is a large body of evidence suggesting that chronic inflammation is one of the etiologic factors in these tumors. IL-6 is a multifunctional cytokine which is known to influence proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in cancer. Its transcription factor STAT3 is known as an oncogene that is constitutively phosphorylated in these malignancies. However, IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation may result in growth arrest. IL-6 activation of androgen receptor in prostate cancer may yield either tumor cell proliferation or differentiation. Prolonged treatment with IL-6 results in generation of sublines which express a more malignant phenotype. Therapy options against IL-6 have been established and the antibody siltuximab has been applied in preclinical and clinical studies. Recently, investigations of the role of suppressors of cytokine signaling have been carried out. IL-4 and -8 are implicated in regulation of apoptosis, migration, and angiogenesis in cancers associated with chronic inflammation. All cytokines mentioned above regulate cellular events in stem cells. These cells could not be targeted by most conventional cancer therapies. PMID:21167870

  16. Effects of exercise on lymphocytes and cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, B. K.; Toft, A. D.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To review results on exercise induced changes in the immune system following strenuous and moderate exercise. Methods—A literature search over the past 15 years was conducted using Medline and selected papers. Results—After intense long term exercise, the immune system is characterised by concomitant impairment of the cellular immune system and increased inflammation. Thus low concentrations of lymphocytes, suppressed natural immunity, suppressed lymphocyte proliferation, and suppressed levels of secretory IgA in saliva are found simultaneously with high levels of circulating proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The underlying mechanisms are multifactorial and include neuroendocrinological and metabolic factors. The clinical consequences of the exercise induced immune changes have not formally been identified, but the exercise effect on lymphocyte dynamics and immune function may be linked to the exercise effects on resistance to infections and malignancy and the cytokine response may be linked to muscle damage or muscle cell growth. Conclusions—Moderate exercise across the life span seems to increase resistance to upper respiratory tract infections, whereas repeated strenuous exercise suppresses immune function. It is premature to offer advice on nutrition to athletes in order to alter the exercise induced immunosuppression found after exercise. Key Words: exercise; cytokine; lymphocytes; immunosuppression; nutrition PMID:10953894

  17. Cytokine-Induced Modulation of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mager, Lukas F.; Wasmer, Marie-Hélène; Rau, Tilman T.; Krebs, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of novel immunomodulatory cancer therapies over the last decade, above all immune checkpoint blockade, has significantly advanced tumor treatment. For colorectal cancer (CRC), a novel scoring system based on the immune cell infiltration in tumors has greatly improved disease prognostic evaluation and guidance to more specific therapy. These findings underline the relevance of tumor immunology in the future handling and therapeutic approach of malignant disease. Inflammation can either promote or suppress CRC pathogenesis and inflammatory mediators, mainly cytokines, critically determine the pro- or anti-tumorigenic signals within the tumor environment. Here, we review the current knowledge on the cytokines known to be critically involved in CRC development and illustrate their mechanisms of action. We also highlight similarities and differences between CRC patients and murine models of CRC and point out cytokines with an ambivalent role for intestinal cancer. We also identify some of the future challenges in the field that should be addressed for the development of more effective immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:27148488

  18. [Cytokines, endothelial dysfunction, and insulin resistance].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Colaço, André Luiz; Fortes, Zuleica Bruno

    2006-04-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is associated with several vascular conditions as atherosclerosis, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus. In all these conditions insulin resistance (IR) is present. Cytokines are low molecular weight proteins with several endocrine and metabolic functions that participate of inflammation and immune response. Several of these cytokines are independent risk factors for cerebrovascular and coronary artery disease. The major sources of cytokines (adipokines) are the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues. Thus, increased adipose tissue mass is associated with alteration in adipokine production as over expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and under expression of adiponectin in adipocite tissue. The pro-inflammatory status associated with these changes provides a potential link between IR and endothelial dysfunction, the early stage in the atherosclerotic process, in obese individuals, and type 2 diabetic patients. Reduction of adipose tissue mass through weight reduction in association with exercise reduces TNF-alpha, IL-6, and PAI-1, increases adiponectin, and is associated with improved insulin sensitivity and endothelial function. This review will focus on the evidence for regulation of endothelial function by insulin and the adypokines such as adyponectin, leptin, resistin, IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Interaction between insulin signaling and adypokines will be discussed, as well as the concept that aberrant adypokine secretion in IR and/or obesity impairs endothelial function and contributes further to reduce insulin sensitivity.

  19. Cytokine-Induced Modulation of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mager, Lukas F; Wasmer, Marie-Hélène; Rau, Tilman T; Krebs, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of novel immunomodulatory cancer therapies over the last decade, above all immune checkpoint blockade, has significantly advanced tumor treatment. For colorectal cancer (CRC), a novel scoring system based on the immune cell infiltration in tumors has greatly improved disease prognostic evaluation and guidance to more specific therapy. These findings underline the relevance of tumor immunology in the future handling and therapeutic approach of malignant disease. Inflammation can either promote or suppress CRC pathogenesis and inflammatory mediators, mainly cytokines, critically determine the pro- or anti-tumorigenic signals within the tumor environment. Here, we review the current knowledge on the cytokines known to be critically involved in CRC development and illustrate their mechanisms of action. We also highlight similarities and differences between CRC patients and murine models of CRC and point out cytokines with an ambivalent role for intestinal cancer. We also identify some of the future challenges in the field that should be addressed for the development of more effective immunomodulatory therapies.

  20. The role of cytokines in skin aging.

    PubMed

    Borg, M; Brincat, S; Camilleri, G; Schembri-Wismayer, P; Brincat, M; Calleja-Agius, J

    2013-10-01

    Cutaneous aging is one of the major noticeable menopausal complications that most women want to fight in their quest for an eternally youthful skin appearance. It may contribute to some maladies that occur in aging which, despite not being life-threatening, affect the well-being, psychological state and quality of life of aged women. Skin aging is mainly affected by three factors: chronological aging, decreased levels of estrogen after menopause, and environmental factors. Aged skin is characterized by a decrease in collagen content and skin thickness which result in dry, wrinkled skin that is easily bruised and takes a longer time to heal. Cytokines play a crucial role in the manifestation of these features of old skin. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits collagen synthesis and enhances collagen degradation by increasing the production of MMP-9. It also lowers the skin immunity and thus increases the risk of cutaneous infections in old age. Deranged levels of several interleukins and interferons also affect the aging process. The high level of CCN1 protein in aged skin gives dermal fibroblasts an 'age-associated secretory phenotype' that causes abnormal homeostasis of skin collagen and leads to the loss of the function and integrity of skin. Further research is required especially to establish the role of cytokines in the treatment of cutaneous aging.

  1. Differential Cytokine Responses in Human and Mouse Lymphatic Endothelial Cells to Cytokines in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chaitanya, G.V.; Franks, S.E.; Cromer, W.; Wells, S.R.; Bienkowska, M.; Jennings, M.H.; Ruddell, A.; Ando, T.; Wang, Y.; Gu, Y.; Sapp, M.; Mathis, J.M.; Jordan, P.A.; Minagar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Inflammatory cytokines dysregulate microvascular function, yet how cytokines affect lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) are unclear. Methods and Results We examined effects of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ on LEC proliferation, endothelial cell adhesion molecule (ECAM) expression, capillary formation, and barrier changes in murine (SV-LEC) and human LECs (HMEC-1a). Results All cytokines induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MAdCAM-1, and E-selectin in SV-LECs; TNF-α, IL-1β and IFN-γ induced ECAMs (but not MAdCAM-1) in HMEC-1a. IL-1β increased, while IFN-γ and TNF-α reduced SV-LEC proliferation. While TNF-α induced, IFN-γ decreased, and IL-1β did not show any effect on HMEC-1a proliferation. TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ each reduced capillary formation in SV-LEC and in HMEC-1a. TNF-α and IL-1β reduced barrier in SV-LEC and HMEC-1a; IFN-γ did not affect SV-LEC barrier, but enhanced HMEC-1a barrier. Inflammatory cytokines alter LEC growth, activation and barrier function in vitro and may disturb lymphatic clearance increasing tissue edema in vivo. Conclusion Therapies that maintain or restore lymphatic function (including cytokines blockade), may represent important strategies for limiting inflammation. PMID:20863268

  2. Regulation of cytokines by small RNAs during skin inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Intercellular signaling by cytokines is a vital feature of the innate immune system. In skin, an inflammatory response is mediated by cytokines and an entwined network of cellular communication between T-cells and epidermal keratinocytes. Dysregulated cytokine production, orchestrated by activated T-cells homing to the skin, is believed to be the main cause of psoriasis, a common inflammatory skin disorder. Cytokines are heavily regulated at the transcriptional level, but emerging evidence suggests that regulatory mechanisms that operate after transcription play a key role in balancing the production of cytokines. Herein, we review the nature of cytokine signaling in psoriasis with particular emphasis on regulation by mRNA destabilizing elements and the potential targeting of cytokine-encoding mRNAs by miRNAs. The proposed linkage between mRNA decay mediated by AU-rich elements and miRNA association is described and discussed as a possible general feature of cytokine regulation in skin. Moreover, we describe the latest attempts to therapeutically target cytokines at the RNA level in psoriasis by exploiting the cellular RNA interference machinery. The applicability of cytokine-encoding mRNAs as future clinical drug targets is evaluated, and advances and obstacles related to topical administration of RNA-based drugs targeting the cytokine circuit in psoriasis are described. PMID:20594301

  3. How does Chinese medicine target cytokine imbalance in rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Sun, Yue

    2013-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) manifests as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokine imbalance is suggested to play critical roles in the development of RA. Currently, various treatments for RA, including biological agents such as antibodies against inflammation mediators, or Chinese herbal medicines, intervene the disease by restoring the balance of cytokines. Chinese medicine (CM) can not only suppress the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but also induce the expression of cytokines with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Thus, Chinese medicine can effectively reduce inflammatory cell infiltration into synovial tissue, pannus formation, and degradation of the extracellular matrix surrounding cartilage cells, thereby reducing subchondral bone damage. This paper reviews the changes of cytokine profiling during development of RA and discuss the mechanisms by which Chinese medicine restores the cytokine balance.

  4. Multiple Circulating Cytokines Are Coelevated in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, Senthooran; Todd, Ian; Tighe, Patrick J; John, Michelle; Bolton, Charlotte E; Harrison, Timothy; Fairclough, Lucy C

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory biomarkers, including cytokines, are associated with COPD, but the association of particular circulating cytokines with systemic pathology remains equivocal. To investigate this, we developed a protein microarray system to detect multiple cytokines in small volumes of serum. Fourteen cytokines were measured in serum from never-smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and COPD patients (GOLD stages 1-3). Certain individual circulating cytokines (particularly TNFα and IL-1β) were significantly elevated in concentration in the serum of particular COPD patients (and some current/ex-smokers without COPD) and may serve as markers of particularly significant systemic inflammation. However, numerous circulating cytokines were raised such that their combined, but not individual, elevation was significantly associated with severity of disease, and these may be further indicators of, and contributors to, the systemic inflammatory manifestations of COPD. The coelevation of numerous circulating cytokines in COPD is consistent with the insidious development, chronic nature, and systemic comorbidities of the disease. PMID:27524865

  5. Multiple Circulating Cytokines Are Coelevated in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, Senthooran; Todd, Ian; Tighe, Patrick J; John, Michelle; Bolton, Charlotte E; Harrison, Timothy; Fairclough, Lucy C

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory biomarkers, including cytokines, are associated with COPD, but the association of particular circulating cytokines with systemic pathology remains equivocal. To investigate this, we developed a protein microarray system to detect multiple cytokines in small volumes of serum. Fourteen cytokines were measured in serum from never-smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and COPD patients (GOLD stages 1-3). Certain individual circulating cytokines (particularly TNFα and IL-1β) were significantly elevated in concentration in the serum of particular COPD patients (and some current/ex-smokers without COPD) and may serve as markers of particularly significant systemic inflammation. However, numerous circulating cytokines were raised such that their combined, but not individual, elevation was significantly associated with severity of disease, and these may be further indicators of, and contributors to, the systemic inflammatory manifestations of COPD. The coelevation of numerous circulating cytokines in COPD is consistent with the insidious development, chronic nature, and systemic comorbidities of the disease.

  6. Multiple Circulating Cytokines Are Coelevated in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Ian; John, Michelle; Bolton, Charlotte E.; Harrison, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory biomarkers, including cytokines, are associated with COPD, but the association of particular circulating cytokines with systemic pathology remains equivocal. To investigate this, we developed a protein microarray system to detect multiple cytokines in small volumes of serum. Fourteen cytokines were measured in serum from never-smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and COPD patients (GOLD stages 1–3). Certain individual circulating cytokines (particularly TNFα and IL-1β) were significantly elevated in concentration in the serum of particular COPD patients (and some current/ex-smokers without COPD) and may serve as markers of particularly significant systemic inflammation. However, numerous circulating cytokines were raised such that their combined, but not individual, elevation was significantly associated with severity of disease, and these may be further indicators of, and contributors to, the systemic inflammatory manifestations of COPD. The coelevation of numerous circulating cytokines in COPD is consistent with the insidious development, chronic nature, and systemic comorbidities of the disease. PMID:27524865

  7. Solution assembly of cytokine receptor ectodomain complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zining; Ciardelli, T.L.; Johnson, K.W.

    1995-09-01

    For the majority of single transmembrane-spanning cell surface receptors, signal transmission across the lipid bilayer barrier involves several discrete components of molecular recognition. The interaction between ligand and the extracellular segment of its cognate receptor (ectodomain) initiates either homomeric or heteromeric association of receptor subunits. Specific recognition among these subunits may then occur between ectodomain regions, within the membrane by interhelical contact or inside the cell between cytoplasmic domains. Any or all of these interactions may contribute to the stability of the signaling complex. It is the characteristics of ligand binding by the ectodomains of these receptors that controls the heteromeric or homomeric nature and the stoichiometry of the complex. Cytokines and their receptors belong to a growing family of macromolecular systems that exhibit these functional features and share many structural similarities as well. Interleukin-2 is a multifunctional cytokine that represents, perhaps, the most complex example to date of ligand recognition among the hematopoietin receptor family. It is the cooperative binding of IL-2 by all three proteins on the surface of activated T-lymphocytes, however, that ultimately results in crosslinking of the {beta}- and {gamma}-subunits and signaling via association of their cytoplasmic domains. Although the high-affinity IL-2R functions as a heterotrimer, heterodimers of the receptor subunits are also physiologically important. The {alpha}/{beta} heterodimer or {open_quotes}pseudo-high affinity{close_quotes} receptor captures IL-2 as a preformed cell surface complex while the {beta}/{gamma} intermediate affinity site exists, in the absence of the {alpha} subunit, on the majority of natural killer cells. We have begun to study stable complexes of cytokine receptor ectodomains of defined composition and that mimic the ligand binding characteristics of the equivalent cell surface receptor sites.

  8. Forecasting Cytokine Storms with New Predictive Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Rouce, Rayne H; Heslop, Helen E

    2016-06-01

    T cells genetically modified with CD19 chimeric antigen receptors have produced impressive clinical responses in patients with refractory B-cell malignancies, but therapeutic responses are often accompanied by cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Teachey and colleagues have identified predictive biomarkers for this complication that may allow testing of earlier intervention with agents such as the IL6 receptor blocker tocilizumab to evaluate whether CRS can be ameliorated without jeopardizing clinical responses. Cancer Discov; 6(6); 579-80. ©2016 AACR.See related article by Teachey et al., p. 664. PMID:27261481

  9. Cytokine production capacity in depression and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Vogelzangs, N; de Jonge, P; Smit, J H; Bahn, S; Penninx, B W

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that immune function may be dysregulated in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders. Few studies examined the expression of cytokines in response to ex vivo stimulation of blood by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to study the innate production capacity of cytokines in depression and anxiety. To investigate this, baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used, including persons (18–65 years; 66% women) with current (that is, past month; N=591) or remitted (N=354) DSM-IV depressive or anxiety disorders and healthy controls (N=297). Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by means of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Using Multi-Analyte Profiling technology, plasma levels of 13 cytokines were assayed after whole blood stimulation by addition of LPS. Basal plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were also available. A basal and a LPS summary index were created. Results show that LPS-stimulated inflammation was associated with increased odds of current depressive/anxiety disorders (odds ratio (OR)=1.28, P=0.009), as was the case for basal inflammation (OR=1.28, P=0.001). These associations were no longer significant after adjustment for lifestyle and health (OR=1.13, P=0.21; OR=1.07, P=0.45, respectively). After adjustment for lifestyle and health, interleukin-8 was associated with both remitted (OR=1.25, P=0.02) and current (OR=1.28, P=0.005) disorders. In addition, LPS-stimulated inflammation was associated with more severe depressive (β=0.129, P<0.001) and anxiety (β=0.165, P<0.001) symptoms, as was basal inflammation. Unlike basal inflammation, LPS-stimulated inflammation was still associated with (anxiety) symptom severity after adjustment for lifestyle and health (IDS: IL-8, MCP-1, MMP2; BAI: LPS index, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, MCP-1, MMP2, TNF-β). To conclude, lifestyle and health factors may

  10. Inflammatory Cytokines in Depression: Neurobiological Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Felger, Jennifer C.; Lotrich, Francis E.

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that inflammatory cytokines contribute to the development of depression in both medically ill and medically healthy individuals. Cytokines are important for development and normal brain function, and have the ability to influence neurocircuitry and neurotransmitter systems to produce behavioral alterations. Acutely, inflammatory cytokine administration or activation of the innate immune system produces adaptive behavioral responses that promote conservation of energy to combat infection or recovery from injury. However, chronic exposure to elevated inflammatory cytokines and persistent alterations in neurotransmitter systems can lead to neuropsychiatric disorders and depression. Mechanisms of cytokine behavioral effects involve activation of inflammatory signaling pathways in the brain that results in changes in monoamine, glutamate, and neuropeptide systems, and decreases in growth factors, e.g. brain derived neurotrophic factor. Furthermore, inflammatory cytokines may serve as mediators of both environmental (e.g. childhood trauma, obesity, stress, and poor sleep) and genetic (functional gene polymorphisms) factors that contribute to depression’s development. This review explores the idea that specific gene polymorphisms and neurotransmitter systems can confer protection from or vulnerability to specific symptom dimensions of cytokine-related depression. Additionally, potential therapeutic strategies that target inflammatory cytokine signaling or the consequences of cytokines on neurotransmitter systems in the brain to prevent or reverse cytokine effects on behavior are discussed. PMID:23644052

  11. Cytokine and anti-cytokine therapies in prevention or treatment of fibrosis in IBD.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Noam; Targan, Stephan R; Shih, David Q

    2016-08-01

    The frequency of fibrosing Crohn's disease (CD) is significant, with approximately 40% of CD patients with ileal disease developing clinically apparent strictures throughout their lifetime. Although strictures may be subdivided into fibrotic, inflammatory, or mixed forms, despite immunosuppressive therapy in CD patients in the form of steroids or immunomodulators, the frequency of fibrostenosing complications has still remained significant. A vast number of genetic and epigenetic variables are thought to contribute to fibrostenosing disease, including those that affect cytokine biology, and therefore highlight the complexity of disease, but also shed light on targetable pathways. Exclusively targeting fibrosis may be difficult, however, because of the relatively slow evolution of fibrosis in CD, and the potential adverse effects of inhibiting pathways involved in tissue repair and mucosal healing. Acknowledging these caveats, cytokine-targeted therapy has become the mainstay of treatment for many inflammatory conditions and is being evaluated for fibrotic disorders. The question of whether anti-cytokine therapy will prove useful for intestinal fibrosis is, therefore, acutely relevant. This review will highlight some of the current therapeutics targeting cytokines involved in fibrosis. PMID:27536363

  12. Anti-cytokine autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cappellano, Giuseppe; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Woldetsadik, Abiy D; Boggio, Elena; Soluri, Maria F; Comi, Cristoforo; Sblattero, Daniele; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Dianzani, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current literature is showing that autoantibodies (AutoAbs) against cytokines are produced in several pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases, but can also be detected in healthy individuals. In autoimmune diseases, these AutoAbs may also be prognostic markers, either negative (such as AutoAbs to IL-8 and IL-1α in rheumatoid arthritis) or positive (such as AutoAbs to IL-6 in systemic sclerosis and those to osteopontin in rheumatoid arthritis). They may have neutralizing activity and influence the course of the physiological and pathological immune responses. High levels of AutoAbs against cytokines may even lead to immunodeficiency, such as those to IL-17 in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I or those to IFN-γ in mycobacterial infections. Their role in human therapy may be exploited not only through passive immunization but also through vaccination, which may improve the costs for long lasting treatments of autoimmune diseases. Detection and quantification of these AutoAbs can be profoundly influenced by the technique used and standardization of these methods is needed to increase the value of their analysis. PMID:23885320

  13. Education of hyporesponsive NK cells by cytokines.

    PubMed

    Juelke, Kerstin; Killig, Monica; Thiel, Andreas; Dong, Jun; Romagnani, Chiara

    2009-09-01

    NK-cell tolerance to self is mediated via engagement of inhibitory receptors by cognate MHC molecules. This event is critical for NK-cell education to achieve functional competence. Thus, NK cells expressing self-MHC-specific inhibitory receptors are responsive to activating stimuli while those lacking such receptors are hyporesponsive. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying NK-cell education are still poorly understood. Here, we show that after stimulation with cytokines, hyporesponsive NK cells acquire stable expression of killer Ig-like receptors (KIR) as reflected by DNA hypomethylation of their KIR locus. Remarkably, only hyporesponsive NK cells that acquire KIR in the presence of their cognate MHC molecule gain functional competence and this process can occur in the absence of any accessory cells. Acquisition of competence does not result in autoreactivity, since acquired KIR are functional and therefore able to inhibit NK-cell cytotoxicity. Our data demonstrate that competent NK cells can be generated by cytokine stimulation, suggesting that NK-cell education might not only be an early event which takes place during NK-cell development but might also occur in the periphery during an immune response.

  14. Cytokines as therapeutic targets in SLE.

    PubMed

    Rönnblom, Lars; Elkon, Keith B

    2010-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease involving most immune cells. Studies in both experimental animal models of lupus and patients with SLE have revealed a number of cytokine pathways that are important in the disease process. Among these are B-cell activating factor, which promotes B-cell survival and autoantibody production, interferon-alpha, which acts as an immune adjuvant, and tumor necrosis factor, which contributes to organ inflammation. This knowledge, in combination with the successful use of anti-TNF treatment in rheumatoid arthritis, has spurred the development of several biologic agents targeting different cytokines or their receptors in SLE. Consequently, many trials of anticytokine therapies for SLE are underway. Although most of these trials are small or in early phases, the results of some large studies have also been reported. In this Review, we discuss the rationale for anticytokine therapies in SLE and review agents currently in use, and those being developed and tested experimentally. We present the results from published trials and discuss the tentative conclusions that can be drawn regarding the efficacy of the new agents. Finally, we provide suggestions for the future of treatment for SLE, including new therapeutic strategies.

  15. Localization of cytokines in cholesteatoma tissue.

    PubMed

    Marenda, S A; Aufdemorte, T B

    1995-03-01

    Acquired cholesteatoma is associated with an intense inflammatory reaction with resultant tissue and bone destruction. Cytokines are molecules released by inflammatory cells at the site of infection and are potent mediators of inflammation and the immune response. Five cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta 1 and 2, and interleukin-1 and 6, were immunolocalized in human cholesteatoma epithelium and subepithelial stroma, with greater intensity of staining compared with noninflamed external auditory canal skin. Increased interleukin-6 activity in cholesteatoma epithelium and stroma correlated significantly with the presence of ossicular and bony erosion and granulation tissue noted intraoperatively. Transforming growth factor-beta 2 activity in cholesteatoma epithelium correlated significantly with bony erosion at surgery. Additionally, transforming growth factor-beta 1 activity in cholesteatoma epithelium correlated significantly with increased length of disease. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 appear to be involved in the inflammation and resultant remodeling associated with cholesteatoma. We hypothesized a protective function of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and 2 in the presence of cholesteatoma. The antiinflammatory and osteoclast and keratinocyte inhibitory actions of the transforming growth factor-beta s could potentially slow the proliferation and resultant tissue destructiveness associated with cholesteatoma.

  16. Hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma: Insights into cytokine gene polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Dondeti, Mahmoud Fathy; El-Maadawy, Eman Anwar; Talaat, Roba Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver cancer, which is one of the most prevalent cancers among humans. Many factors are involved in the liver carcinogenesis as lifestyle and environmental factors. Hepatitis virus infections are now recognized as the chief etiology of HCC; however, the precise mechanism is still enigmatic till now. The inflammation triggered by the cytokine-mediated immune response, was reported to be the closest factor of HCC development. Cytokines are immunoregulatory proteins produced by immune cells, functioning as orchestrators of the immune response. Genes of cytokines and their receptors are known to be polymorphic, which give rise to variations in their genes. These variations have a great impact on the expression levels of the secreted cytokines. Therefore, cytokine gene polymorphisms are involved in the molecular mechanisms of several diseases. This piece of work aims to shed much light on the role of cytokine gene polymorphisms as genetic host factor in hepatitis related HCC. PMID:27570418

  17. Hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma: Insights into cytokine gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Dondeti, Mahmoud Fathy; El-Maadawy, Eman Anwar; Talaat, Roba Mohamed

    2016-08-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver cancer, which is one of the most prevalent cancers among humans. Many factors are involved in the liver carcinogenesis as lifestyle and environmental factors. Hepatitis virus infections are now recognized as the chief etiology of HCC; however, the precise mechanism is still enigmatic till now. The inflammation triggered by the cytokine-mediated immune response, was reported to be the closest factor of HCC development. Cytokines are immunoregulatory proteins produced by immune cells, functioning as orchestrators of the immune response. Genes of cytokines and their receptors are known to be polymorphic, which give rise to variations in their genes. These variations have a great impact on the expression levels of the secreted cytokines. Therefore, cytokine gene polymorphisms are involved in the molecular mechanisms of several diseases. This piece of work aims to shed much light on the role of cytokine gene polymorphisms as genetic host factor in hepatitis related HCC. PMID:27570418

  18. Cytokine Patterns and Endotypes in Acute and Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Scheckenbach, Kathrin; Wagenmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Since rhinosinusitis is an inflammatory disease, cytokines as key regulators of inflammation play a central role in its pathophysiology. In acute rhinosinusitis, several proinflammatory cytokines of different types have been identified. Initial information about the involvement of the inflammasome in rhinosinusitis has been gained, but this area remains open for more detailed research. Although it has been accepted now that chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) needs to be differentiated into CRS with and without nasal polyps, it has become clear that this distinction is insufficient to clearly define subgroups with uniform pathophysiology and cytokine patterns. While Th1-cytokines are mostly found in CRSsNP and Th2 cytokines in CRSwNP, there is a substantial overlap, and several other cytokines have also been detected. Attempts to identify CRS endotypes based on cytokines are ongoing but not yet generally accepted. Despite the central role of cytokines in rhinosinusitis, no specific cytokine-targeted therapies are currently available, and only very few studies have specifically addressed the effects of such biologicals in rhinosinusitis.

  19. Inflammatory cytokines in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Shu; Guilleminault, Christian; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Cheng, Chuan; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Lee, Li-Ang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with chronic systemic inflammation and with cognitive impairments. This study aimed to investigate the status of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interleukin 23 (IL-23) and cognition in pediatric OSA. Controls and OSA children participated in the study. Exclusion criteria were adenotonsillectomy, heart, neurological and severe psychiatric diseases, craniofacial syndromes, and obesity. Polysomnogram was followed by serum testing for inflammatory markers and neurocognitive tests such as continuous performance task (CPT) and Wisconsin card sorting test, questionnaires, analyses of plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-17, and IL-23. Seventy-nine, 4 to 12-year-old subjects in 2 groups ended the study: 47 nonobese OSA children (mean age = 7.84 ± 0.56 years, body mass index [BMI] = 16.95 ± 0.47 kg/m2, BMI z-score = 0.15 ± 0.21, and mean apnea–hypopnea index [AHI] = 9.13 ± 1.67 events/h) and 32 healthy control children (mean age = 7.02 ± 0.65 years, with BMI = 16.55 ± 0.58 kg/m2, BMI z-score = −0.12 ± 0.27, and mean AHI = 0.41 ± 0.07 event/h) were enrolled. Serum cytokine analyses showed significantly higher levels of HS-CRP, IL-17, and IL-23 in OSA children (P = 0.002, P = 0.024, and P = 0.047). Regression test showed significant influence of HS-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, and specifically IL-23, with the continuous performance test and Wisconsin card sorting test. OSA children have abnormal levels of IL-17, an interleukin related to T helper 17 cells, a T helper cell involved in development of autoimmunity and inflammation. This high expression level may contribute to the complications of pediatric OSA; we also found a significant influence of inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-23, on abnormal neurocognitive testing. PMID

  20. Elevated specific peripheral cytokines found in major depressive disorder patients with childhood trauma exposure: a cytokine antibody array analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaojia; Peng, Hongjun; Wang, Lifeng; Vasish, Seewoobudul; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Weijia; Wu, Weiwei; Liao, Mei; Wang, Mi; Tang, Hao; Li, Wenping; Li, Weihui; Li, Zexuan; Zhou, Jiansong; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Lingjiang

    2013-10-01

    Taking into consideration the previous evidence of revealing the relationship of early life adversity, major depressive disorder (MDD), and stress-linked immunological changes, we recruited 22 MDD patients with childhood trauma exposures (CTE), 21 MDD patients without CTE, and 22 healthy controls without CTE, and then utilized a novel cytokine antibody array methodology to detect potential biomarkers underlying MDD in 120 peripheral cytokines and to evaluate the effect of CTE on cytokine changes in MDD patients. Although 13 cytokines were identified with highly significant differences in expressions between MDD patients and normal controls, this relationship was significantly attenuated and no longer significant after consideration of the effect of CTE in MDD patients. Depressed individuals with CTE (TD patients) were more likely to have higher peripheral levels of those cytokines. Severity of depression was associated with plasma levels of certain increased cytokines; meanwhile, the increased cytokines led to a proper separation of TD patients from normal controls during clustering analyses. Our research outcomes add great strength to the relationship between depression and cytokine changes and suggest that childhood trauma may play a vital role in the co-appearance of cytokine changes and depression.

  1. Modulation of Cytokine and Cytokine Receptor/Antagonist by Treatment with Doxycycline and Tetracycline in Patients with Dengue Fever

    PubMed Central

    Castro, J. E. Z.; Vado-Solis, I.; Perez-Osorio, C.; Fredeking, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus infection can lead to dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Disease severity has been linked to an increase in various cytokine levels. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of doxycycline and tetracycline to modulate serum levels of IL-6, IL-1B, and TNF and cytokine receptor/receptor antagonist TNF-R1 and IL-1RA in patients with DF or DHF. Hospitalized patients were randomized to receive standard supportive care or supportive care combined with doxycycline or tetracycline therapy. Serum cytokine and cytokine receptor/antagonist levels were determined at the onset of therapy and after 3 and 7 days. Cytokine and cytokine receptor/antagonist levels were substantially elevated at day 0. IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF remained at or above day 0 levels throughout the study period in untreated patients. Treatment with tetracycline or doxycycline resulted in a significant decline in cytokine levels. Similarly, IL-1RA and TNF-R1 serum concentrations were elevated at baseline and showed a moderate increase among untreated patients. Both drugs resulted in a significant rise in IL-1Ra levels by day 3 in patients. In contrast, treatment did not affect a similar result for TNF-R1. When compared to the control group, however, a significant rise post-treatment was seen upon intragroup analysis. Further analysis demonstrated that doxycycline was significantly more effective at modulating cytokine and cytokine receptor/antagonist levels than tetracycline. PMID:21461372

  2. Elevated specific peripheral cytokines found in major depressive disorder patients with childhood trauma exposure: a cytokine antibody array analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaojia; Peng, Hongjun; Wang, Lifeng; Vasish, Seewoobudul; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Weijia; Wu, Weiwei; Liao, Mei; Wang, Mi; Tang, Hao; Li, Wenping; Li, Weihui; Li, Zexuan; Zhou, Jiansong; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Lingjiang

    2013-10-01

    Taking into consideration the previous evidence of revealing the relationship of early life adversity, major depressive disorder (MDD), and stress-linked immunological changes, we recruited 22 MDD patients with childhood trauma exposures (CTE), 21 MDD patients without CTE, and 22 healthy controls without CTE, and then utilized a novel cytokine antibody array methodology to detect potential biomarkers underlying MDD in 120 peripheral cytokines and to evaluate the effect of CTE on cytokine changes in MDD patients. Although 13 cytokines were identified with highly significant differences in expressions between MDD patients and normal controls, this relationship was significantly attenuated and no longer significant after consideration of the effect of CTE in MDD patients. Depressed individuals with CTE (TD patients) were more likely to have higher peripheral levels of those cytokines. Severity of depression was associated with plasma levels of certain increased cytokines; meanwhile, the increased cytokines led to a proper separation of TD patients from normal controls during clustering analyses. Our research outcomes add great strength to the relationship between depression and cytokine changes and suggest that childhood trauma may play a vital role in the co-appearance of cytokine changes and depression. PMID:23639406

  3. Cortisol modulates the expression of cytokines and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in rainbow trout hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Philip, Anju M; Daniel Kim, S; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2012-10-01

    Although liver is a key target for corticosteroid action, its role in immune function is largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that stress levels of cortisol down regulate immune-relevant genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver. Hepatocytes were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24h either in the presence or absence of cortisol. LPS stimulated heat shock protein 70 expression, enhanced glycolytic capacity, and reduced glucose output. LPS stimulated mRNA abundance of cytokines and serum amyloid protein A (SAA), while suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 was reduced. Cortisol increased mRNA abundances of IL-1β, SOCS-1 and SOCS-2, while inhibiting either basal or LPS-stimulated IL-8, TNF α2 and SAA. These cortisol-mediated effects were rescued by Mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. Altogether, cortisol modulates the molecular immune response in trout hepatocytes. The upregulation of SOCS-1 and SOCS-2 by cortisol may be playing a key role in suppressing cytokine signaling and the associated inflammatory response.

  4. Vitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy and Preeclamptic Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Barrera, David; Díaz, Lorenza; Noyola-Martínez, Nancy; Halhali, Ali

    2015-08-04

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Among several disorders, the imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and the alteration of vitamin D metabolism have been reported in preeclampsia. The effects of calcitriol upon inflammatory cytokines has been demonstrated. In healthy pregnant women there is a shift toward a Th2 cytokine profile, which is necessary for an adequate pregnancy outcome. As compared with normal pregnancy, high pro-inflammatory and low anti-inflammatory cytokine levels have been observed in preeclamptic women. Preeclampsia has been associated with low calcitriol levels and vitamin D deficiency is correlated with a higher risk of the development of this disease. It has been demonstrated that placenta is a source as well as the target of calcitriol and cytokines and placental dysfunction has been associated with preeclampsia. Therefore, the present manuscript includes a review about serum calcitriol levels in non-pregnant, pregnant, and preeclamptic women as well as a review on the fetoplacental vitamin D metabolism in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies. In addition, circulating and fetoplacental inflammatory cytokines in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies are reviewed. Finally, the effects of calcitriol upon placental pro-inflammatory cytokines are also explored. In conclusion, maternal and placental calcitriol levels are low in preeclampsia which may explain, at least in part, high pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in this disease.

  5. Vitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy and Preeclamptic Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, David; Díaz, Lorenza; Noyola-Martínez, Nancy; Halhali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Among several disorders, the imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and the alteration of vitamin D metabolism have been reported in preeclampsia. The effects of calcitriol upon inflammatory cytokines has been demonstrated. In healthy pregnant women there is a shift toward a Th2 cytokine profile, which is necessary for an adequate pregnancy outcome. As compared with normal pregnancy, high pro-inflammatory and low anti-inflammatory cytokine levels have been observed in preeclamptic women. Preeclampsia has been associated with low calcitriol levels and vitamin D deficiency is correlated with a higher risk of the development of this disease. It has been demonstrated that placenta is a source as well as the target of calcitriol and cytokines and placental dysfunction has been associated with preeclampsia. Therefore, the present manuscript includes a review about serum calcitriol levels in non-pregnant, pregnant, and preeclamptic women as well as a review on the fetoplacental vitamin D metabolism in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies. In addition, circulating and fetoplacental inflammatory cytokines in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies are reviewed. Finally, the effects of calcitriol upon placental pro-inflammatory cytokines are also explored. In conclusion, maternal and placental calcitriol levels are low in preeclampsia which may explain, at least in part, high pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in this disease. PMID:26247971

  6. Effects of selected herbicides on cytokine production in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hooghe, R J; Devos, S; Hooghe-Peters, E L

    2000-05-19

    To evaluate possible deleterious effects of commonly used herbicides on leukocytes, cytokine production was selected as a sensitive indicator. After in vitro exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal donors, the production of all 3 cytokines tested--interferon-gamma (a type 1 cytokine), interleukin-5 (a type 2 cytokine) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (an inflammatory cytokine)--was impaired by up to 70, 50 and 70% respectively in a concentration-dependent manner in cultures exposed to atrazine (0.03-3 microM in 1% dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO). The effect paralleled that seen with dexamethasone, a known immunosuppressive agent. Other pesticides also dissolved in DMSO--mecoprop, simazine or MCPA (each up to 1 microM)--or dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline--diuron (up to 1 microM), isoproturon (up to 3 microM), metoxuron (up to 8 microM) or metamitron (up to 80 microM)--showed no concentration-related effects on cytokine production. There was, however, an inhibition of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production by simazine, metoxuron and mecoprop and of all three cytokines tested by diuron. MCPA (0.01 and 0.1 microM) stimulated the production of TNF-alpha. Thus, exposure to herbicides leading to plasma levels in the micromolar range induces imbalance in cytokine production.

  7. Cytokine Signaling Modulates Blood-Brain Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Weihong; Stone, Kirsten P.; Hsuchou, Hung; Manda, Vamshi K.; Zhang, Yan; Kastin, Abba J.

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) provides a vast interface for cytokines to affect CNS function. The BBB is a target for therapeutic intervention. It is essential, therefore, to understand how cytokines interact with each other at the level of the BBB and how secondary signals modulate CNS functions beyond the BBB. The interactions between cytokines and lipids, however, have not been fully addressed at the level of the BBB. Here, we summarize current understanding of the localization of cytokine receptors and transporters in specific membrane microdomains, particularly lipid rafts, on the luminal (apical) surface of the microvascular endothelial cells composing the BBB. We then illustrate the clinical context of cytokine effects on the BBB by neuroendocrine regulation and amplification of inflammatory signals. Two unusual aspects discussed are signaling crosstalk by different classes of cytokines and genetic regulation of drug efflux transporters. We also introduce a novel area of focus on how cytokines may act through nuclear hormone receptors to modulate efflux transporters and other targets. A specific example discussed is the ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 (ABCA-1) that regulates lipid metabolism. Overall, cytokine signaling at the level of the BBB is a crucial feature of the dynamic regulation that can rapidly change BBB function and affect brain health and disease. PMID:21834767

  8. Cytokines, Graves' Disease, and Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khadavi, Nicole; Smith, Terry J.

    2008-01-01

    Graves' disease, an autoimmune process associated with thyroid dysfunction, can also manifest as remodeling of orbital connective tissue. Affected tissues exhibit immune responses that appear to be orchestrated by resident cells and those recruited from the bone marrow through their expression and release of cytokines and surface display of cytokine receptors. Cytokines are small molecules produced by many types of cells, including those of the “professional” immune system. Aberrant cytokine expression appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including thyroid autoimmunity. The skewed pattern of cytokine expression in the thyroid, including the T helper cell bias, may condition the response to apoptotic signals and determine the characteristics of an autoimmune reaction. Furthermore, chemoattractant cytokines, including IL16, RANTES, and CXCL10, elaborated by resident cells in the thyroid and orbit may provoke mononuclear cell infiltration. Other cytokines may drive cell activation and tissue remodeling. Thus cytokines and the signaling pathways they activate represent attractive therapeutic targets. Interruption of these might alter the natural course of Graves' disease and its orbital manifestations. PMID:18713026

  9. Cytokines, Graves' disease, and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Gianoukakis, Andrew G; Khadavi, Nicole; Smith, Terry J

    2008-09-01

    Graves' disease, an autoimmune process associated with thyroid dysfunction, can also manifest as remodeling of orbital connective tissue. Affected tissues exhibit immune responses that appear to be orchestrated by resident cells and those recruited from the bone marrow through their expression and release of cytokines and surface display of cytokine receptors. Cytokines are small molecules produced by many types of cells, including those of the "professional" immune system. Aberrant cytokine expression appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including thyroid autoimmunity. The skewed pattern of cytokine expression in the thyroid, including the T helper cell bias, may condition the response to apoptotic signals and determine the characteristics of an autoimmune reaction. Furthermore, chemoattractant cytokines, including IL16, RANTES, and CXCL10, elaborated by resident cells in the thyroid and orbit may provoke mononuclear cell infiltration. Other cytokines may drive cell activation and tissue remodeling. Thus cytokines and the signaling pathways they activate represent attractive therapeutic targets. Interruption of these might alter the natural course of Graves' disease and its orbital manifestations. PMID:18713026

  10. Vitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy and Preeclamptic Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Barrera, David; Díaz, Lorenza; Noyola-Martínez, Nancy; Halhali, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Among several disorders, the imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and the alteration of vitamin D metabolism have been reported in preeclampsia. The effects of calcitriol upon inflammatory cytokines has been demonstrated. In healthy pregnant women there is a shift toward a Th2 cytokine profile, which is necessary for an adequate pregnancy outcome. As compared with normal pregnancy, high pro-inflammatory and low anti-inflammatory cytokine levels have been observed in preeclamptic women. Preeclampsia has been associated with low calcitriol levels and vitamin D deficiency is correlated with a higher risk of the development of this disease. It has been demonstrated that placenta is a source as well as the target of calcitriol and cytokines and placental dysfunction has been associated with preeclampsia. Therefore, the present manuscript includes a review about serum calcitriol levels in non-pregnant, pregnant, and preeclamptic women as well as a review on the fetoplacental vitamin D metabolism in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies. In addition, circulating and fetoplacental inflammatory cytokines in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies are reviewed. Finally, the effects of calcitriol upon placental pro-inflammatory cytokines are also explored. In conclusion, maternal and placental calcitriol levels are low in preeclampsia which may explain, at least in part, high pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in this disease. PMID:26247971

  11. Transgenic models for cytokine-induced neurological disease

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Iain L.; Hofer, Markus J.; Pagenstecher, Axel

    2009-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports the idea that cytokines are important mediators of pathophysiologic processes within the central nervous system (CNS). Numerous studies have documented the increased production of various cytokines in the human CNS in a variety of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Deciphering cytokine actions in the intact CNS has important implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of these disorders. One approach to address this problem that has been used widely employs transgenic mice with CNS-targeted production of different cytokines. Transgenic production of cytokines in the CNS of mice allows not only for the investigation of complex cellular responses at a localized level in the intact brain, but also more closely recapitulates the expression of these mediators as found in disease states. As discussed in this review, the findings show that these transgenic animals exhibit wide-ranging structural and functional deficits that are linked to the development of distinct neuroinflammatory responses which are relatively specific for each cytokine. These cytokine-induced alterations often recapitulate those found in various human neurological disorders not only underscoring the relevance of these models but also reinforcing the clinicopathogenetic significance of cytokines in diseases of the CNS. PMID:19835956

  12. The role of cytokines in immune changes induced by spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Miller, E. S.

    1993-01-01

    It has become apparent that spaceflight alters many immune responses. Among the regulatory components of the immune response that have been shown to be affected by spaceflight is the cytokine network. Spaceflight, as well as model systems of spaceflight, have been shown to affect the production and action of various cytokines including interferons, interleukins, colony stimulating factors, and tumor necrosis factors. These changes have been shown not to involve a general shutdown of the cytokine network but, rather, to involve selective alterations of specific cytokine functions by spaceflight. The full breadth of changes in cytokines induced by spaceflight, as well as mechanisms, duration, adaptation, reversibility, and significance to resistance to infection and neoplastic diseases, remains to be established.

  13. Kitasato Symposium 2009: New Prospects for Cytokine Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The Kitasato Symposium 2009: New Prospects for Cytokine Inhibition was held in Berlin, Germany from 7 to 9 May 2009. The key aims of this meeting were to bring together a group of front-line researchers and rheumatologists to evaluate the use of cytokine blockade and to examine the role of certain cytokines in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. A keynote lecture delivered by Professor Jean-Michel Dayer provided an up-to-date overview of the interactions occurring between the immune system and acute phase proteins. Other speakers discussed the role of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis, including their role in joint destruction, as well as their regulatory role upon T cells and B cells. The involvement of cytokines in other autoimmune diseases was also addressed. PMID:20067593

  14. The role of cytokines in immunological tolerance: potential for therapy.

    PubMed

    Harber, M; Sundstedt, A; Wraith, D

    2000-11-27

    Current immunosuppression protocols, although often effective, are nonspecific and therefore hazardous. Consequently, immunological tolerance that is antigen specific and does not globally depress the patient's immune system has become one of the Holy Grails of immunology. Since the discovery that cytokines have immunomodulatory effects, extensive research has investigated the potential of these molecules to induce and maintain specific immunological tolerance in the context of transplantation, allergy and autoimmunity. In this article, we review the possible mechanisms by which cytokines can modulate the immune response and the animal models that frequently confound the theory that a single cytokine, or group of cytokines, can induce tolerance in a predictable manner. Finally, we discuss the role of cytokines at a paracrine level, particularly in the context of inducing and maintaining antigen-specific, regulatory T cells with the clinical potential to suppress specific immune responses.

  15. Cytokines as potential biomarkers for Parkinson's disease: a multiplex approach.

    PubMed

    Litteljohn, Darcy; Hayley, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    Cytokines, which are immunological messengers facilitating both intra- and inter-system communication, are considered central players in the neuroinflammatory cascades associated with the neurodegenerative process in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurological disorders. They have also been implicated in depression and other cognitive (e.g., memory impairment, dementia) and affective disturbances (e.g., anxiety) that show high co-morbidity with neurodegenerative diseases. As such, cytokines may hold great promise as serological biomarkers in PD, with potential applications ranging from early diagnosis and disease staging, to prognosis, drug discovery, and tracking the response to treatment. Subclassification or risk stratification in PD could be based (among other things) on reliably determined cytokine panel profiles or "signatures" of particular co-morbid disease states or at-risk groups (e.g., PD alone, PD with depression and/or dementia). Researchers and clinicians seeking to describe cytokine variations in health vs. disease will benefit greatly from technologies that allow a high degree of multiplexing and thus permit the simultaneous determination of a large roster of cytokines in single small-volume samples. The need for such highly paralleled assays is underscored by the fact that cytokines do not act in isolation but rather against a backdrop of complementary and antagonistic cytokine effects; ascribing valence to the actions of any one cytokine thus requires specific knowledge about the larger cytokine milieu. This chapter provides a technological overview of the major cytokine multiplex assay platforms before discussing the implications of such tools for biomarker discovery and related applications in PD and its depressive and cognitive co-morbidities.

  16. Neuroprotective properties of tianeptine: interactions with cytokines.

    PubMed

    Plaisant, F; Dommergues, M-A; Spedding, M; Cecchelli, R; Brillault, J; Kato, G; Muñoz, C; Gressens, P

    2003-05-01

    Tianeptine is an antidepressant with proven clinical efficacy and effects on hippocampal plasticity. Hypoxia increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from cortical neuronal cultures, and tianeptine (1, 10 and 100 microM) inhibited LDH release as efficiently as the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, MK-801. However, tianeptine did not block apoptosis in cultured cortical neurones caused by NMDA, but reduced apoptosis when interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) was included with NMDA. In 5-day old mice, intracerebral injection of ibotenate induced reproducible lesions in cortex and white matter. Lesion size was markedly reduced by co-administration of MK-801 (1 mg/kg i.p.) but neither by tianeptine or its enantiomers administered acutely (1, 3 or 10 mg/kg i.p.) nor by tianeptine administered chronically (10 mg/kg i.p. for 5 days). Chronic administration of IL-1beta (10 ng/kg i.p. for 5 days) prior to ibotenate injection exacerbated lesion size in cortex and white matter, and this exacerbation was prevented by chronic pre-treatment with tianeptine (10 mg/kg i.p.) or by acute administration of tianeptine (10 mg/kg i.p.) concomitantly with ibotenate. Thus tianeptine has neuroprotective effects against hypoxia in tissue culture and against the deleterious effects of cytokines in cortex and white matter, but not against NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity.

  17. Obligate Ordered Binding of Human Lactogenic Cytokines*

    PubMed Central

    Voorhees, Jeffery L.; Brooks, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Class 1 cytokines bind two receptors to create an active heterotrimeric complex. It has been argued that ligand binding to their receptors is an ordered process, but a structural mechanism describing this process has not been determined. We have previously described an obligate ordered binding mechanism for the human prolactin/prolactin receptor heterotrimeric complex. In this work we expand this conceptual understanding of ordered binding to include three human lactogenic hormones: prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen. We independently blocked either of the two receptor binding sites of each hormone and used surface plasmon resonance to measure human prolactin receptor binding kinetics and stoichiometries to the remaining binding surface. When site 1 of any of the three hormones was blocked, site 2 could not bind the receptor. But blocking site 2 did not affect receptor binding at site 1, indicating a requirement for receptor binding to site 1 before site 2 binding. In addition we noted variable responses to the presence of zinc in hormone-receptor interaction. Finally, we performed Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) analyses where receptor binding at subsaturating stoichiometries induced changes in FRET signaling, indicative of binding-induced changes in hormone conformation, whereas at receptor:hormone ratios in excess of 2:1 no additional changes in FRET signaling were observed. These results strongly support a conformationally mediated obligate-ordered receptor binding for each of the three lactogenic hormones. PMID:20427283

  18. Divergent T-Cell Cytokine Patterns in Inflammatory Arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A. K.; Seipelt, E.; Sieper, J.

    1994-08-01

    A major immunoregulatory mechanism in inflammatory infections and allergic diseases is the control of the balance of cytokines secreted by Th1/Th2 subsets of T helper (Th) cells. This might also be true in autoimmune diseases; a Th2 pattern that prevents an effective immune response in infections with intracellular bacteria may favor immunosuppression in autoimmune diseases. The pattern of cytokine expression was compared in the synovial tissue from patients with a typical autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and with a disorder with similar synovial pathology but driven by persisting exogenous antigen, reactive arthritis. We screened 12 rheumatoid and 9 reactive arthritis synovial tissues by PCR and in situ hybridization for their expression of T-cell cytokines. The cytokine pattern differs significantly between the two diseases; rheumatoid arthritis samples express a Th1-like pattern whereas in reactive arthritis interferon γ expression is accompanied by that of interleukin 4. Studying the expression of cytokines by in situ hybridization confirmed the results found by PCR; they also show an extremely low frequency of cytokine-transcribing cells. In a double-staining experiment, it was demonstrated that interleukin 4 is made by CD4 cells. These experiments favor the possibility of therapeutic intervention in inflammatory rheumatic diseases by means of inhibitory cytokines.

  19. Cytokines: Names and Numbers You Should Care About

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Poh-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines play an important role in host defense against microorganisms. They orchestrate innate immunity by inducing protective local inflammation and systemic acute phase responses. Cytokines are important in initiating, amplifying, directing, mediating, and regulating adaptive immunity. Unfortunately, they may also direct tissue damage if excessive responses occur or if they are involved in directing and mediating autoimmunity. Under these circumstances, cytokines are potential therapeutic targets. Over the last 20 years, we have seen the successful development and clinical implementation of biologic strategies that target key cytokines in specific inflammatory diseases with efficacy, specificity, and toxicity profiles challenging conventional drug therapies. These therapies are finding new applications and many new agents show promise. Unfortunately, these new cytokine-based therapies have had little effect on renal disease. This review provides evidence that common renal diseases, including those causing AKI and the autoimmune proliferative and crescentic forms of GN, have cytokine mediation profiles that suggest they would be susceptible to cytokine-targeting therapeutic strategies. PMID:25941193

  20. Cytokines: Names and Numbers You Should Care About.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, Stephen R; Gan, Poh-Yi

    2015-12-01

    Cytokines play an important role in host defense against microorganisms. They orchestrate innate immunity by inducing protective local inflammation and systemic acute phase responses. Cytokines are important in initiating, amplifying, directing, mediating, and regulating adaptive immunity. Unfortunately, they may also direct tissue damage if excessive responses occur or if they are involved in directing and mediating autoimmunity. Under these circumstances, cytokines are potential therapeutic targets. Over the last 20 years, we have seen the successful development and clinical implementation of biologic strategies that target key cytokines in specific inflammatory diseases with efficacy, specificity, and toxicity profiles challenging conventional drug therapies. These therapies are finding new applications and many new agents show promise. Unfortunately, these new cytokine-based therapies have had little effect on renal disease. This review provides evidence that common renal diseases, including those causing AKI and the autoimmune proliferative and crescentic forms of GN, have cytokine mediation profiles that suggest they would be susceptible to cytokine-targeting therapeutic strategies. PMID:25941193

  1. Modulation of Cytokines in Cancer Patients by Intravenous Ascorbate Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mikirova, Nina; Riordan, Neil; Casciari, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background Cytokines play an important role in tumor angiogenesis and inflammation. There is evidence in the literature that high doses of ascorbate can reduce inflammatory cytokine levels in cancer patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment by intravenous vitamin C (IVC) on cytokines and tumor markers. Material/Methods With the availability of protein array kits allowing assessment of many cytokines in a single sample, we measured 174 cytokines and additional 54 proteins and tumor markers in 12 cancer patients before and after a series of IVC treatments. Results Presented results show for our 12 patients the effect of treatment resulted in normalization of many cytokine levels. Cytokines that were most consistently elevated prior to treatments included M-CSF-R, Leptin, EGF, FGF-6, TNF-α, β, TARC, MCP-1,4, MIP, IL-4, 10, IL-4, and TGF-β. Cytokine levels tended to decrease during the course of treatment. These include mitogens (EGF, Fit-3 ligand, HGF, IGF-1, IL-21R) and chemo-attractants (CTAC, Eotaxin, E-selectin, Lymphotactin, MIP-1, MCP-1, TARC, SDF-1), as well as inflammation and angiogenesis factors (FGF-6, IL-1β, TGF-1). Conclusions We are able to show that average z-scores for several inflammatory and angiogenesis promoting cytokines are positive, indicating that they are higher than averages for healthy controls, and that their levels decreased over the course of treatment. In addition, serum concentrations of tumor markers decreased during the time period of IVC treatment and there were reductions in cMyc and Ras, 2 proteins implicated in being upregulated in cancer. PMID:26724916

  2. Cytokine changes in tears and relationship to contact lens discomfort

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhenjun; Naduvilath, Thomas; Lazon de la Jara, Percy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the reproducibility of a multiplex bead assay for measuring cytokines in tears and correlations between ocular discomfort with or without contact lens wear and the concentration of cytokines in tears. Methods Ninety participants (divided into two groups) were enrolled in this prospective study. They were asked to rate their ocular comfort and collect their tears in the morning and just before sleep for 10 days with or without contact lenses. The participants collected their tears using a glass microcapillary tube for both stages. Galyfilcon A lenses were worn on a daily disposable basis during the contact lens stage, and comfort scores and tears were collected before lens insertion and prior to lens removal at the end of the day. Tears were analyzed for cytokine concentrations using a 27-plex multibead assay. Correlations were sought between cytokine concentrations and comfort. Results There was a significant (p<0.022) decrease in ocular comfort over the day with or without lens wear. The magnitude of ocular discomfort was significantly greater (p<0.009) with lens wear. The concentrations of 12 cytokines differed significantly between the groups; thus, these cytokines were not analyzed further. For the remaining 15 cytokines, interleukin-8 (IL-8) was the only cytokine that changed in both groups during the day without (reduced by >-0.5 Log pg/ml, p<0.001) or with lens wear (reduced by >-0.2 Log pg/ml, p<0.001). The change in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration only in tears was correlated to ocular comfort, but this was not changed by contact lens wear. Conclusions Ocular comfort during the day is magnified by contact lens wear. However, the increase in the change in comfort during lens wear was not associated with changes in 15 cytokines in the tear film. PMID:25814827

  3. Nature versus nurture in T cell cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, D R; Kelso, A

    1999-12-01

    Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors influence the development of cytokine expression patterns in T lymphocytes. The models proposed to accommodate these factors are often separated into two types: deterministic (or instructional) and probabilistic (or stochastic). In this review we compare these two types of models and examine how they account for different stages of T cell cytokine responses to antigen stimulation. We conclude by showing how a reconciliation of the two types of models may be possible, perhaps through the regulatory potential of heritable epigenetic mechanisms. This type of reconciliation may open up new avenues for manipulating T cell cytokine expression and redirecting immune responses. PMID:10614767

  4. The Role of Suppressors of Cytokine Signalling in Human Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anup K.; Mokbel, Kefah

    2014-01-01

    Suppressors of cytokine signalling 1–7 (SOCS1–7) and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) are a group of intracellular proteins that are well known as JAK-STAT and several other signalling pathways negative feedback regulators. More recently several members have been identified as tumour suppressors and dysregulation of their biological roles in controlling cytokine and growth factor signalling may contribute to the development of many solid organ and haematological malignancies. This review explores their biological functions and their possible tumour suppressing role in human neoplasms. PMID:24757565

  5. IL-35 is a novel responsive anti-inflammatory cytokine--a new system of categorizing anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyuan; Mai, Jietang; Virtue, Anthony; Yin, Ying; Gong, Ren; Sha, Xiaojin; Gutchigian, Stefanie; Frisch, Andrew; Hodge, Imani; Jiang, Xiaohua; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    It remains unknown whether newly identified anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-35 (IL-35) is different from other anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in terms of inhibition of inflammation initiation and suppression of full-blown inflammation. Using experimental database mining and statistical analysis methods we developed, we examined the tissue expression profiles and regulatory mechanisms of IL-35 in comparison to other anti-inflammatory cytokines. Our results suggest that in contrast to TGF-β, IL-35 is not constitutively expressed in human tissues but it is inducible in response to inflammatory stimuli. We also provide structural evidence that AU-rich element (ARE) binding proteins and microRNAs target IL-35 subunit transcripts, by which IL-35 may achieve non-constitutive expression status. Furthermore, we propose a new system to categorize anti-inflammatory cytokines into two groups: (1) the house-keeping cytokines, such as TGF-β, inhibit the initiation of inflammation whereas (2) the responsive cytokines including IL-35 suppress inflammation in full-blown stage. Our in-depth analyses of molecular events that regulate the production of IL-35 as well as the new categorization system of anti-inflammatory cytokines are important for the design of new strategies of immune therapies.

  6. High efficiency cell-specific targeting of cytokine activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, Geneviève; Paul, Franciane; Staufenbiel, Markus; Bordat, Yann; van der Heyden, José; Wilmes, Stephan; Cartron, Guillaume; Apparailly, Florence; de Koker, Stefaan; Piehler, Jacob; Tavernier, Jan; Uzé, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Systemic toxicity currently prevents exploiting the huge potential of many cytokines for medical applications. Here we present a novel strategy to engineer immunocytokines with very high targeting efficacies. The method lies in the use of mutants of toxic cytokines that markedly reduce their receptor-binding affinities, and that are thus rendered essentially inactive. Upon fusion to nanobodies specifically binding to marker proteins, activity of these cytokines is selectively restored for cell populations expressing this marker. This ‘activity-by-targeting’ concept was validated for type I interferons and leptin. In the case of interferon, activity can be directed to target cells in vitro and to selected cell populations in mice, with up to 1,000-fold increased specific activity. This targeting strategy holds promise to revitalize the clinical potential of many cytokines.

  7. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

  8. Dendritic cells and cytokines in immune rejection of cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferrantini, Maria; Capone, Imerio; Belardelli, Filippo

    2008-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in linking innate and adaptive immunity and, thus, in the generation of a protective immune response against both infectious diseases and tumors. The ability of DCs to prime and expand an immune response is regulated by signals acting through soluble mediators, mainly cytokines and chemokines. Understanding how cytokines influence DC functions and orchestrate the interactions of DCs with other immune cells is strictly instrumental to the progress in cancer immunotherapy. Herein, we will illustrate how certain cytokines and immune stimulating molecules can induce and sustain the antitumor immune response by acting on DCs. We will also discuss these cytokine-DC interactions in the light of clinical results in cancer patients. PMID:18054517

  9. Helper T cells and atherosclerosis: the cytokine web

    PubMed Central

    Baidya, S; Zeng, Q

    2005-01-01

    There is growing evidence regarding the importance of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its ultimate progression to the clinical syndromes. Recently there has been an increasing interest in the role of helper T (Th) cells in atherosclerosis. The Th cells act with the macrophages and the dendritic cells via the various cytokines in bringing about a variety of changes thus leading to the progression of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerotic lesions have been seen to have increased expression of type 1 helper T (TH1) cells together with increased levels of the Th1 related cytokines. It is mainly the cytokines involved with Th1 functioning that seem to show a prominent effect, with the whole process centred around interferon gamma, making it seem like every pathway and the cytokines involved lead to a final common pathway of interferon gamma secretion; the increase or decrease of which dictates the progression of atherosclerosis and its final manifestation as the clinical syndromes. PMID:16344296

  10. A genetically encoded bioluminescent indicator for illuminating proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Bae; Ozawa, Takeaki; Umezawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a method to evaluate the activities of cytokines based on the nuclear transport of NF-κB. A pair of bioluminescent indicators was made for conferring cytokine sensitivity to cervical carcinoma-derived HeLa cells. The principle is based on reconstitution of split fragments of Renilla reniformis luciferase (RLuc) by protein splicing with a DnaE intein from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. The bioluminescence intensity of thus reconstituted RLuc in the HeLa cells was used as a measure of the activities for cytokines. With the present method, we evaluated the activities of various cytokines based on the nuclear transport of NF-κB in human cervical carcinoma-derived HeLa cells carrying the indicators. The present approach to evaluating the activities of cytokines may provide a potential clinical value in monitoring drug activity and directing treatment for various diseases related with NF-κB. The method highlights the experimental procedure from our original publications, Anal. Biochem. 2006, 359, 147-149 and Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2004, 101, 11542. The summary of the method is: •Cytokine activities are determined within 2 h after stimulation.•Temporarily inactivated split-luciferase fragments are reconstituted by protein splicing.•Nucleartrafficking of NF-κB was illuminated for gauging the ligand-driven activity. PMID:27489781

  11. Multidimensional scaling of multiplex data: human milk cytokines.

    PubMed

    Groer, Maureen W; Beckstead, Jason W

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to use multidimensional scaling (MDS) and cluster-analytic techniques to examine how cytokine levels from a large multiplex assay of human milk samples covary. Milk samples were collected at 4-6 weeks postpartum from 57 women and were assayed by Luminex multiplex technology for 20 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. The MDS was applied to a proximity-score matrix based on these values. A three-dimensional (3D) space was sufficient to accommodate the configuration of relationships. Cytokines that covaried in their concentrations were assigned similar coordinates and plotted close together in 3D space. Several clusters of cytokines were identified. Since very little is known about the origins and functions of cytokines in milk, this approach may provide new clues that will guide future explorations of origins and functional relationships of the separate clusters. This analytical tool may provide a new approach to understanding the physiology of milk cytokines and may be generalizable to multiplex data in general.

  12. Cerebrospinal Fluid Inflammatory Cytokines and Aggression in Personality Disordered Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Royce; Coussons-Read, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neurochemical studies have pointed to a modulatory role in human aggression for a variety of central neurotransmitters and neuromodulators such as cytokines. While animal studies of cytokines suggest an aggression-facilitating role for central cytokines, especially for interleukin-1β and other cytokines, no cerebrospinal fluid studies of cytokines have yet been reported in regard to human aggression. Methods: Basal lumbar cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained from 38 physically healthy subjects with DSM-5 Personality Disorder and assayed for cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 (log IL-6) and cerebrospinal fluid soluble IL-1 Receptor II protein in the context of their relationship with measures of aggression. Results: Cerebrospinal fluid soluble interleukin-1 Receptor II (r=.35, r2 = .12, P= .03), but not log interleukin-6 (r = -.05, r2 = .00, P= .76), levels were positively correlated with a composite measure of aggression. Adding relevant covariates, including cerebrospinal fluid levels of serotonin and dopamine metabolites, to the statistical model doubled the strength of this relationship (partial r = .54, r2 = .29, P= .002). No relationship was seen with history of suicidal behavior or with any measure of impulsivity, negative affectivity, or of general dimensions of personality. Conclusion: These data suggest a positive relationship between at least one inflammatory cytokine in the central nervous system and aggression in human subjects. This finding adds to the complex picture of the central neurochemistry of impulsive aggression in human subjects. PMID:25650410

  13. Effects of antidepressants on cytokine production and actions.

    PubMed

    Castanon, Nathalie; Leonard, Brian E; Neveu, Pierre J; Yirmiya, Raz

    2002-10-01

    There are intriguing analogies between many features of depression and physiological and behavioral responses to infection, which are mediated by the brain effects of cytokines. These observations suggest that depression can be considered as a psychoneuroimmunological disorder where a central increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines, may have adverse consequences on the functional activity of the neurochemical and neuroendocrine systems implicated in the symptoms of the disorder. According to this hypothesis, the therapeutic effects of antidepressants should be at least partly exerted by attenuating the brain expression and/or actions of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Despite their inherent limitations, animal models of depression that are based on behavioral and pharmacological analogies with the symptoms observed in humans, represent the best available tool to test this hypothesis and to investigate the action mechanisms of the immune effects of antidepressants. Treatment with different classes of antidepressants indeed conferred protection against cytokine-induced depressive-like biological and behavioral changes. This 'anti-inflammatory' profile may be due to alterations of the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. The mechanisms underlying these effects of antidepressants are presently unknown, but the available literature suggests several possibilities, including actions on different molecules representing potential mediators of mood disorders induced by cytokines. The studies summarized in this review have opened up new vistas in both the pathophysiology of depression and the pharmacology of antidepressants. Whether their demonstrated immune effects are a side effect or a significant part of their clinical activity still remains to be elucidated.

  14. Modulation with cytokines of radiation injury: suggested mechanisms of action.

    PubMed Central

    Neta, R

    1997-01-01

    Cytokines, hormonelike proteins, produced by stimulated cells and tissues, were found to protect mice against lethal hematopoietic failure caused by ionizing radiation. Radioprotection was achieved by pretreatment with interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-12, or stem cell factor (SCF) at 18 to 24 hr before irradiation. Pretreatment with antibodies to these cytokines rendered the mice more susceptible to radiation lethality, indicating that these cytokines play a role in innate resistance to radiation. In contrast, treatment with tumor growth factor beta (TGF-beta), a cytokine that inhibits cycling of primitive hematopoietic progenitors, sensitized mice to radiation lethality. The schedule of IL-1 administration was critical to its radioprotective effect. Evidence was obtained that this may be based on the induction of additional cytokines by IL-1. The radioprotective effects of cytokines can be based on induction of cycling of primitive progenitor cells (IL-1, SCF), prevention of apoptosis (SCF), and induction of scavenging proteins and enzymes (IL-1, TNF) that reduce oxidative damage. In contrast, radiosensitizing effects may be due to inhibition of progenitor cycling (TGF-beta) or enhanced progenitor cell apoptosis (TGF-beta). Thus, the insights gained from such studies at the whole-animal level promise a better understanding of the membrane and intracellular events associated with radiation damage and repair of such damage. PMID:9467064

  15. Cardiac oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines response after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Neri, Margherita; Fineschi, Vittorio; Di Paolo, Marco; Pomara, Cristoforo; Riezzo, Irene; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Cerretani, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress in heart failure or during ischemia/reperfusion occurs as a result of the excessive generation or accumulation of free radicals or their oxidation products. Free radicals formed during oxidative stress can initiate lipid peroxidation, oxidize proteins to inactive states and cause DNA strand breaks. Oxidative stress is a condition in which oxidant metabolites exert toxic effects because of their increased production or an altered cellular mechanism of protection. In the early phase of acute heart ischemia cytokines have the feature to be functional pleiotropy and redundancy, moreover, several cytokines exert similar and overlapping actions on the same cell type and one cytokine shows a wide range of biological effects on various cell types. Activation of cytokine cascades in the infarcted myocardium was established in numerous studies. In experimental models of myocardial infarction, induction and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α (Tumor Necrosis Factor α), IL-1β (Interleukin- 1β) and IL-6 (Interleukin-6) and chemokines are steadily described. The current review examines the role of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines response following acute myocardial infarction and explores the inflammatory mechanisms of cardiac injury.

  16. Cytokine polymorphisms in sickle cell disease and the relationship with cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Olenscki Gilli, Simone Cristina; Pericole, Fernando Vieira; Benites, Bruno Deltreggia; Sippert, Emilia Ângela; Castilho, Lilian Maria; Addas-Carvalho, Marcelo; Olalla Saad, Sara Teresinha

    2016-07-01

    Sickle cell disease is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, which may be regulated by genetic polymorphisms and could be associated with diverse disease presentations and alloimmunization. The aim of this study was to evaluate Treg and Th17 cell frequencies, cytokine gene polymorphisms, and their association with cytokine expression profile in patients with sickle cell disease. For that purpose, we evaluated the IL intron 3 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR, genotypes 1.1, 1.2, 2.2, and 2.3), IL4-T590C>T, IL6-174G>C, TNFα-308G>A, IL10-819T>C, IL10-592A>C, and IL10-1082A>G polymorphisms and their correlation with TGFβ, IL4, IL6, and IL10 gene expression in sickle cell patients. We observed a significant decrease in Treg frequency together with a substantial increase in Th17 response in patients with sickle cell disease compared with healthy controls (p < 0.001 and p = 0.014, respectively). There was also a higher prevalence of the IL4-590T/T genotype in patients with sickle cell disease than in Afro-Brazilian descendent controls (p < 0.001) and higher expression of IL4 in patients with the 1.1 genotype of IL4 intron 3 VNTR (p = 0.06). Significantly greater gene expression of TGFβ, IL6, and IL10 was observed in sickle cell patients when compared with controls (p = 0.01, 0.03, and <0.001, respectively). Moreover, higher levels of interleukin-6 and -10 were observed in the group of alloimmunized patients. These new data bring insights into the deregulation in the immune system affecting sickle cell patients and must be further investigated in larger cohorts to better characterize individual variations in immune responses and new markers for disease morbidity.

  17. Plasma cytokine expression in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wyller, Vegard Bruun; Sørensen, Øystein; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Ueland, Thor; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2015-05-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a prevalent and disabling condition among adolescents. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, but low-grade systemic inflammation has been suggested as an important component. This study compared circulating levels of individual cytokines and parameters of cytokine networks in a large set of adolescent CFS patients and healthy controls, and explored associations between cytokines and symptoms in the CFS group. CFS patients (12-18years old) were recruited nation-wide to a single referral center as part of the NorCAPITAL project (ClinicalTrials ID: NCT01040429). A broad case definition of CFS was applied, requiring three months of unexplained, disabling chronic/relapsing fatigue of new onset, whereas no accompanying symptoms were necessary. Thus, the case definition was broader than the Fukuda-criteria of CFS. Healthy controls having comparable distribution of gender and age were recruited from local schools. Twenty-seven plasma cytokines, including interleukins, chemokines and growth factors were assayed using multiplex technology. The results were subjected to network analyses using the ARACNE algorithm. Symptoms were charted by a questionnaire, and patients were subgrouped according to the Fukuda-criteria. A total of 120 CFS patients and 68 healthy controls were included. CFS patients had higher scores for fatigue (p<0.001) and inflammatory symptoms (p<0.001) than healthy controls. All cytokine levels and cytokine network parameters were similar, and none of the differences were statistically different across the two groups, also when adjusting for adherence to the Fukuda criteria of CFS. Within the CFS group, there were no associations between aggregate cytokine network parameters and symptom scores. Adolescent CFS patients are burdened by symptoms that might suggest low-grade systemic inflammation, but plasma levels of individual cytokines as well as cytokine network measures were not different from healthy controls, and

  18. Hepatotoxicants induce cytokine imbalance in response to innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shima; Deguchi, Jiro; Nishio, Naoki; Nomura, Naruaki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, attention has been paid to innate immune systems as mechanisms to initiate or promote drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Kupffer cells are hepatic resident macrophages and might be involved in the pathogenesis of DILI by release of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species, and/or nitric oxides. The purpose of this study was to investigate alterations in mediator levels induced by hepatotoxic compounds in isolated Kupffer cells and discuss the relation between balance of each cytokine or chemokine and potential of innate immune-mediated DILI. Primary cultured rat Kupffer cells were treated with hepatotoxic (acetaminophen, troglitazone, trovafloxacin) or non-hepatotoxic (pioglitazone, levofloxacin) compounds with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After 24 hr treatment, cell supernatants were collected and various levels of mediators released by Kupffer cells were examined. Although hepatotoxicants had no effect on the LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) secretion, they enhanced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and suppressed the anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) induced by LPS. These cytokine shifts were not associated with switching the phenotypes of M1 and M2 macrophages in Kupffer cells. In conclusion, the present study suggested that the levels of some specific cytokines are affected by DILI-related drugs with LPS stimulation, and imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, induced by the up-regulation of IL-1β and the down-regulation of IL-6 or IL-10, plays a key role in innate immune-mediated DILI. PMID:25972199

  19. Therapeutic modulation of growth factors and cytokines in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Effie

    2006-01-01

    Regeneration that takes place in the human body is limited throughout life. Therefore, when organs are irreparably damaged, they are usually replaced with an artificial device or donor organ. The term "regenerative medicine" covers the restoration or replacement of cells, tissues, and organs. Stem cells play a major role in regenerative medicine by providing the way to repopulate organs damaged by disease. Stem cells have the ability to self renew and to regenerate cells of diverse lineages within the tissue in which they reside. Stem cells could originate from embryos or adult tissues. Growth factors are proteins that may act locally or systemically to affect the growth of cells in several ways. Various cell activities, including division, are influenced by growth factors. Cytokines are a family of low-molecular-weight proteins that are produced by numerous cell types and are responsible for regulating the immune response, inflammation, tissue remodeling and cellular differentiation. Target cells of growth factors and cytokines are mesenchymal, epithelial and endothelial cells. These molecules frequently have overlapping activities and can act in an autocrine or paracrine fashion. A complex network of growth factors and cytokines guides cellular differentiation and regeneration in all organs and tissues. The aim of this paper is to review the role of growth factors and cytokines in different organs or systems and explore their therapeutic application in regenerative medicine. The role of stem cells combined with growth factors and cytokines in the regeneration of vascular and hematopoietic, neural, skeletal, pancreatic, periodontal, and mucosal tissue is reviewed. There is evidence that supports the use of growth factors and cytokines in the treatment of neurological diseases, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, periodontal disease, cancer and its complication, oral mucositis. After solving the ethical issues and establishing clear and reasonable regulations

  20. Collection of Aerosolized Human Cytokines Using Teflon® Filters

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jennifer H.; McDevitt, James J.; Fabian, M. Patricia; Hwang, Grace M.; Milton, Donald K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Collection of exhaled breath samples for the analysis of inflammatory biomarkers is an important area of research aimed at improving our ability to diagnose, treat and understand the mechanisms of chronic pulmonary disease. Current collection methods based on condensation of water vapor from exhaled breath yield biomarker levels at or near the detection limits of immunoassays contributing to problems with reproducibility and validity of biomarker measurements. In this study, we compare the collection efficiency of two aerosol-to-liquid sampling devices to a filter-based collection method for recovery of dilute laboratory generated aerosols of human cytokines so as to identify potential alternatives to exhaled breath condensate collection. Methodology/Principal Findings Two aerosol-to-liquid sampling devices, the SKC® Biosampler and Omni 3000™, as well as Teflon® filters were used to collect aerosols of human cytokines generated using a HEART nebulizer and single-pass aerosol chamber setup in order to compare the collection efficiencies of these sampling methods. Additionally, methods for the use of Teflon® filters to collect and measure cytokines recovered from aerosols were developed and evaluated through use of a high-sensitivity multiplex immunoassay. Our results show successful collection of cytokines from pg/m3 aerosol concentrations using Teflon® filters and measurement of cytokine levels in the sub-picogram/mL concentration range using a multiplex immunoassay with sampling times less than 30 minutes. Significant degradation of cytokines was observed due to storage of cytokines in concentrated filter extract solutions as compared to storage of dry filters. Conclusions Use of filter collection methods resulted in significantly higher efficiency of collection than the two aerosol-to-liquid samplers evaluated in our study. The results of this study provide the foundation for a potential new technique to evaluate biomarkers of inflammation in

  1. Plasma Cytokine Levels in Astronauts Before and after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Aggarwal, Barat B.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Hammond, Dinne K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Stowe, Raymond; Pierson Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight is a unique experience and results in adverse effects on human physiology. Changes have been reported in various physiological systems, including musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, cardiovascular, endocrine, immunity and increased latent viral reactivation as well as others. The potential mechanisms behind these changes are not fully understood. Various cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF and chemokines have been linked to several of these changes, like muscle loss, bone loss, fatigue, sleep deprivation and viral reactivation. Eighteen astronauts (15 M and 3 F) from 8 spaceflights and 10 healthy age-matched adults (6 M, 4 F) were included in the present study. A panel of 21 plasma cytokines was analyzed with the Luminex 100 to measure the cytokines in these subjects 10 days before the flight (L-10), 2-3 hour after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+3), and at their annual medical exam (AME). IL-10, IL-1, IFN-alpha, MCP-1 and IP-10 increased significantly at L-10 as compared with AME levels. IL-6 and IFN-alpha showed significant increases at R + 0 (P less than .05) over their baseline levels (AME). Cytokine levels at R+3 were not significantly different from R+0. IL-10 and IL-6 have been reported to increase in during viral reactivation. These data show that there was a shift from TH1 to TH2 cytokines L-10 and R+0. We also studied viral reactivation in 10 of the 18 subjects included in the present study before, during, and after space flight. Increased salivary varicella zoster virus (VZV) shedding in these subjects was found either during or after the mission. VZV shedding correlated with the increased levels of cytokines especially IL-10 and IL-6. Overall, our data suggests that cytokines may play an important role in regulating adverse changes in astronauts, and further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanism.

  2. Predictive value of cytokines for developing complications after polytrauma

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Anne-Britt E; Krijnen, Pieta; Schipper, Inger B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate posttraumatic cytokine alterations and their value for predicting complications and mortality in polytraumatized patients. METHODS: Studies on the use of specific cytokines to predict the development of complications and mortality were identified in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. Of included studies, relevant data were extracted and study quality was scored. RESULTS: Forty-two studies published between 1988 and 2015 were identified, including 28 cohort studies and 14 “nested” case-control studies. Most studies investigated the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). IL-6 seems related to muliorgan dysfunction syndrome, multiorgan failure (MOF) and mortality; IL-8 appears altered in acute respiratory distress syndrome, MOF and mortality; IL-10 alterations seem to precede sepsis and MOF; and TNF-α seems related to MOF. CONCLUSION: Cytokine secretion patterns appear to be different for patients developing complications when compared to patients with uneventful posttraumatic course. More research is needed to strengthen the evidence for clinical relevance of these cytokines.

  3. The effect of inflammatory cytokines in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kawaratani, Hideto; Tsujimoto, Tatsuhiro; Douhara, Akitoshi; Takaya, Hiroaki; Moriya, Kei; Namisaki, Tadashi; Noguchi, Ryuichi; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Fujimoto, Masao; Fukui, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the world. Chronic alcohol consumption leads to hepatocellular injury and liver inflammation. Inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ, induce liver injury in the rat model of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Hepatoprotective cytokines, such as IL-6, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, are also associated with ALD. IL-6 improves ALD via activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and the subsequent induction of a variety of hepatoprotective genes in hepatocytes. IL-10 inhibits alcoholic liver inflammation via activation of STAT3 in Kupffer cells and the subsequent inhibition of liver inflammation. Alcohol consumption promotes liver inflammation by increasing translocation of gut-derived endotoxins to the portal circulation and activating Kupffer cells through the LPS/Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathways. Oxidative stress and microflora products are also associated with ALD. Interactions between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and other cytokines and chemokines are likely to play important roles in the development of ALD. The present study aims to conduct a systemic review of ALD from the aspect of inflammation. PMID:24385684

  4. Discrimination, Racial Identity, and Cytokine Levels Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Low-grade inflammation, measured by circulating levels of cytokines, is a pathogenic mechanism for several chronic diseases of aging. Identifying factors related to inflammation among African American youths may yield insights into mechanisms underlying racial disparities in health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether (a) reported racial discrimination from ages 17 to 19 forecast heightened cytokine levels at age 22, and (b) this association is lower for youths with positive racial identities. Methods A longitudinal research design was used with a community sample of 160 African Americans who were 17 at the beginning of the study. Discrimination and racial identity were measured with questionnaires, and blood was drawn to measure basal cytokine levels. Ordinary least squares regression analyses were used to examine the hypotheses. Results After controlling for socioeconomic risk, life stress, depressive symptoms, and body mass index, racial discrimination (β = .307, p < .01), racial identity (β = −.179, p < .05), and their interaction (β = −.180, p < .05) forecast cytokine levels. Youths exposed to high levels of racial discrimination evinced elevated cytokine levels 3 years later. This association was not significant for young adults with positive racial identities. Conclusions High levels of interpersonal racial discrimination and the development of a positive racial identity operate jointly to determine low-grade inflammation levels that have been found to forecast chronic diseases of aging, such as coronary disease and stroke. PMID:25907649

  5. Proinflammatory Cytokines and Potassium Channels in the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Hayashi, Hikaru; Kubokawa, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines affect several cell functions via receptor-mediated processes. In the kidney, functions of transporters and ion channels along the nephron are also affected by some cytokines. Among these, alteration of activity of potassium ion (K+) channels induces changes in transepithelial transport of solutes and water in the kidney, since K+ channels in tubule cells are indispensable for formation of membrane potential which serves as a driving force for the transepithelial transport. Altered K+ channel activity may be involved in renal cell dysfunction during inflammation. Although little information was available regarding the effects of proinflammatory cytokines on renal K+ channels, reports have emerged during the last decade. In human proximal tubule cells, interferon-γ showed a time-dependent biphasic effect on a 40 pS K+ channel, that is, delayed suppression and acute stimulation, and interleukin-1β acutely suppressed the channel activity. Transforming growth factor-β1 activated KCa3.1 K+ channel in immortalized human proximal tubule cells, which would be involved in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. This review discusses the effects of proinflammatory cytokines on renal K+ channels and the causal relationship between the cytokine-induced changes in K+ channel activity and renal dysfunction. PMID:26508816

  6. Instruction of hematopoietic lineage choice by cytokine signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Endele, Max; Etzrodt, Martin; Schroeder, Timm

    2014-12-10

    Hematopoiesis is the cumulative consequence of finely tuned signaling pathways activated through extrinsic factors, such as local niche signals and systemic hematopoietic cytokines. Whether extrinsic factors actively instruct the lineage choice of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells or are only selectively allowing survival and proliferation of already intrinsically lineage-committed cells has been debated over decades. Recent results demonstrated that cytokines can instruct lineage choice. However, the precise function of individual cytokine-triggered signaling molecules in inducing cellular events like proliferation, lineage choice, and differentiation remains largely elusive. Signal transduction pathways activated by different cytokine receptors are highly overlapping, but support the production of distinct hematopoietic lineages. Cellular context, signaling dynamics, and the crosstalk of different signaling pathways determine the cellular response of a given extrinsic signal. New tools to manipulate and continuously quantify signaling events at the single cell level are therefore required to thoroughly interrogate how dynamic signaling networks yield a specific cellular response. - Highlights: • Recent studies provided definite proof for lineage-instructive action of cytokines. • Signaling pathways involved in hematopoietic lineage instruction remain elusive. • New tools are emerging to quantitatively study dynamic signaling networks over time.

  7. Effects of cytokines on potassium channels in renal tubular epithelia.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Komagiri, You; Kubokawa, Manabu

    2012-02-01

    Renal tubular potassium (K(+)) channels play important roles in the formation of cell-negative potential, K(+) recycling, K(+) secretion, and cell volume regulation. In addition to these physiological roles, it was reported that changes in the activity of renal tubular K(+) channels were involved in exacerbation of renal cell injury during ischemia and endotoxemia. Because ischemia and endotoxemia stimulate production of cytokines in immune cells and renal tubular cells, it is possible that cytokines would affect K(+) channel activity. Although the regulatory mechanisms of renal tubular K(+) channels have extensively been studied, little information is available about the effects of cytokines on these K(+) channels. The first report was that tumor necrosis factor acutely stimulated the single channel activity of the 70 pS K(+) channel in the rat thick ascending limb through activation of tyrosine phosphatase. Recently, it was also reported that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) modulated the activity of the 40 pS K(+) channel in cultured human proximal tubule cells. IFN-γ exhibited a delayed suppression and an acute stimulation of K(+) channel activity, whereas IL-1β acutely suppressed the channel activity. Furthermore, these cytokines suppressed gene expression of the renal outer medullary potassium channel. The renal tubular K(+) channels are functionally coupled to the coexisting transporters. Therefore, the effects of cytokines on renal tubular transporter activity should also be taken into account, when interpreting their effects on K(+) channel activity. PMID:22042037

  8. Genomic identification of chemokines and cytokines in opossum.

    PubMed

    Wong, Emily S W; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Belov, Katherine

    2011-03-01

    The cytokine repertoire of marsupials is largely unknown. The sequencing of the opossum genome has expedited the identification of many immune genes. However, many genes have not been identified using automated annotation pipelines because of high levels of sequence divergence. To fill gaps in our knowledge of the cytokine gene complement in marsupials, we searched the genome assembly of the gray short-tailed opossum for chemokine, interleukin, colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor, and transforming growth factor genes. In particular, we focused on genes that were not previously identified through Ensembl's automatic annotations. We report that the vast majority of cytokines are conserved, with direct orthologs between therian species. The major exceptions are chemokine genes, which show lineage-specific duplication/loss. Thirty-six chemokines were identified in opossum, including a lineage-specific expansion of macrophage inflammatory protein family genes. Divergent cytokines IL7, IL9, IL31, IL33, and CSF2 were identified. This is the first time IL31 and IL33 have been described outside of eutherian species. The high levels of similarities between the cytokine gene repertoires of therians suggest that the marsupial immune response is highly similar to eutherians.

  9. Integrative biology approach identifies cytokine targeting strategies for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Perera, Gayathri K; Ainali, Chrysanthi; Semenova, Ekaterina; Hundhausen, Christian; Barinaga, Guillermo; Kassen, Deepika; Williams, Andrew E; Mirza, Muddassar M; Balazs, Mercedesz; Wang, Xiaoting; Rodriguez, Robert Sanchez; Alendar, Andrej; Barker, Jonathan; Tsoka, Sophia; Ouyang, Wenjun; Nestle, Frank O

    2014-02-12

    Cytokines are critical checkpoints of inflammation. The treatment of human autoimmune disease has been revolutionized by targeting inflammatory cytokines as key drivers of disease pathogenesis. Despite this, there exist numerous pitfalls when translating preclinical data into the clinic. We developed an integrative biology approach combining human disease transcriptome data sets with clinically relevant in vivo models in an attempt to bridge this translational gap. We chose interleukin-22 (IL-22) as a model cytokine because of its potentially important proinflammatory role in epithelial tissues. Injection of IL-22 into normal human skin grafts produced marked inflammatory skin changes resembling human psoriasis. Injection of anti-IL-22 monoclonal antibody in a human xenotransplant model of psoriasis, developed specifically to test potential therapeutic candidates, efficiently blocked skin inflammation. Bioinformatic analysis integrating both the IL-22 and anti-IL-22 cytokine transcriptomes and mapping them onto a psoriasis disease gene coexpression network identified key cytokine-dependent hub genes. Using knockout mice and small-molecule blockade, we show that one of these hub genes, the so far unexplored serine/threonine kinase PIM1, is a critical checkpoint for human skin inflammation and potential future therapeutic target in psoriasis. Using in silico integration of human data sets and biological models, we were able to identify a new target in the treatment of psoriasis.

  10. Integration of Cytokine Biology and Lipid Metabolism in Stroke**

    PubMed Central

    Adibhatla, Rao Muralikrishna; Dempsey, R.; Hatcher, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    Cytokines regulate the innate and adaptive immune responses and are pleiotropic, redundant and multifunctional. Expression of most cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-1α/ß, is very low in normal brain. Metabolism of lipids is of particular interest due to their high concentration in the brain. Inflammatory response after stroke suggests that cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1 α/ß, IL-6), affect the phospholipid metabolism and subsequent production of eicosanoids, ceramide, and ROS that may potentiate brain injury. Phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin are source for lipid messengers. Sphingomyelin synthase serves as a bridge between metabolism of glycerolipids and sphingolipids. TNF-α and IL-1 α/ß can induce phospholipases (A2, C, and D) and sphingomyelinases, and concomitantly proteolyse phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin synthesizing enzymes. Together, these alterations contribute to loss of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin after stroke that can be attenuated by inhibiting TNF-α or IL-1 α/ß signaling. Inflammatory responses are instrumental in the formation and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Secretory PLA2 IIA is found in human atherosclerotic lesions and is implicated in initiation, progression and maturation of atherosclerosis, a risk factor for stroke. Lipoprotein-PLA2, part of apolipoprotein B-100 of LDL, plays a role in vascular inflammation and coronary endothelial dysfunction. Cytokine antagonism attenuated secretory PLA2 IIA actions, suggesting cytokine-lipid integration studies will lead to new concepts contributing to bench-to-bedside transition for stroke therapy. PMID:17981627

  11. Predictive value of cytokines for developing complications after polytrauma

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Anne-Britt E; Krijnen, Pieta; Schipper, Inger B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate posttraumatic cytokine alterations and their value for predicting complications and mortality in polytraumatized patients. METHODS: Studies on the use of specific cytokines to predict the development of complications and mortality were identified in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. Of included studies, relevant data were extracted and study quality was scored. RESULTS: Forty-two studies published between 1988 and 2015 were identified, including 28 cohort studies and 14 “nested” case-control studies. Most studies investigated the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). IL-6 seems related to muliorgan dysfunction syndrome, multiorgan failure (MOF) and mortality; IL-8 appears altered in acute respiratory distress syndrome, MOF and mortality; IL-10 alterations seem to precede sepsis and MOF; and TNF-α seems related to MOF. CONCLUSION: Cytokine secretion patterns appear to be different for patients developing complications when compared to patients with uneventful posttraumatic course. More research is needed to strengthen the evidence for clinical relevance of these cytokines. PMID:27652210

  12. Cytokine imbalance in pregnancy complications and its modulation.

    PubMed

    Raghupathy, Raj; Kalinka, Jaroslaw

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon of pregnancy can be compromised by a number of complications, such as threatened abortion, recurrent spontaneous miscarriage, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. Research conducted during the last decade has opened up the possibility that cellular immune effectors may underlie such pregnancy complications. Particularly interesting are the effects of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines on the conceptus and thus on the success or failure of pregnancy. This review focuses on the association between cytokines and the different complications of pregnancy as well as on the possible pathways of the effector function of cytokines in pregnancy loss. This review also goes on to discuss the redirection of the cytokine profile towards one that is more conducive to pregnancy. Among the most promising agents for the modulation of the Th1/Th2 balance are progestogens such as progesterone and dydrogesterone. Recently published studies lead us to propose that a therapeutic approach worth pursuing would be to assess the individual cytokine profiles of women with pregnancy complications and then to adjust individual therapy using the most effective progestogen. PMID:17981605

  13. Cytokines and chemokines in neuromyelitis optica: pathogenetic and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Uzawa, Akiyuki; Mori, Masahiro; Masahiro, Mori; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is characterized by severe optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. The discovery of an NMO-specific autoantibody to the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel has improved knowledge of NMO pathogenesis. Many studies have focused on inflammatory and pathological biomarkers of NMO, including cytokines and chemokines. Increased concentrations of T helper (Th)17- and Th2-related cytokines and chemokines may be essential factors for developing NMO inflammatory lesions. For example, interleukin-6 could play important roles in NMO pathogenesis, as it is involved in the survival of plasmablasts that produce anti-AQP4 antibody in peripheral circulation and in the enhancement of inflammation in the central nervous system. Therefore, assessment of these useful biomarkers may become a supportive criterion for diagnosing NMO. Significant advances in the understanding of NMO pathogenesis will lead to the development of novel treatment strategies. This review focuses on the current advances in NMO immunological research, particularly that of cytokines and chemokines.

  14. Immunotherapeutic implications of IL-6 blockade for cytokine storm.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshio; Narazaki, Masashi; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2016-07-01

    IL-6 contributes to host defense against infections and tissue injuries. However, exaggerated, excessive synthesis of IL-6 while fighting environmental stress leads to an acute severe systemic inflammatory response known as 'cytokine storm', since high levels of IL-6 can activate the coagulation pathway and vascular endothelial cells but inhibit myocardial function. Remarkable beneficial effects of IL-6 blockade therapy using a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab were recently observed in patients with cytokine release syndrome complicated by T-cell engaged therapy. In this review we propose the possibility that IL-6 blockade may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy for other types of cytokine storm, such as the systemic inflammatory response syndrome including sepsis, macrophage activation syndrome and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. PMID:27381687

  15. Recent advances in cytokines in cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mikita, Naoya; Ikeda, Takaharu; Ishiguro, Mariko; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2011-09-01

    Lupus erythematosus (LE) includes a broad spectrum of diseases from a cutaneous-limited type to a systemic type. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease which affects multiple organs. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) includes skin symptoms seen in SLE and cutaneous-limited LE. Although immune abnormalities, as well as heritable, hormonal and environmental factors, are involved in the pathology of LE, the actual pathogenesis is still unclear. Recently, the involvement of various cytokines has been shown in the pathogenesis of LE. Moreover, some trials with biological agents targeted specific cytokines are also ongoing for SLE. In this article, we review the contributions of major cytokines such as interferon, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-18 to LE, especially SLE and CLE.

  16. MicroRNA-Regulated Proinflammatory Cytokines in Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jingjing; Kou, Xianjuan; Yang, Yi; Chen, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia has been defined as the aging-related disease with the declined mass, strength, and function of skeletal muscle, which is the major cause of frailty and falls in elders. The activation of inflammatory signal pathways due to diseases and aging is suggested to reveal the critical impact on sarcopenia. Several proinflammatory cytokines, especially interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), play crucial roles in modulation of inflammatory signaling pathway during the aging-related loss of skeletal muscle. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as the important regulators for the mass and functional maintenance of skeletal muscle through regulating gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper, we have systematically discussed regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs for the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines during sarcopenia, which will provide some novel targets and therapeutic strategies for controlling aging-related atrophy of skeletal muscle and corresponding chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:27382188

  17. Abnormal Growth Factor/Cytokine Network in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Gastric cancer cells express a broad spectrum of the growth factor/cytokine receptor systems that organize the complex interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells in tumor microenvironment, which confers cell growth, apoptosis, morphogenesis, angiogenesis, progression and metastasis. However, these abnormal growth factor/cytokine networks differ in the two histological types of gastric cancer. Importantly, activation of nuclear factor-kB pathway by Helicobacter pylori infection may act as a key player for induction of growth factor/cytokine networks in gastritis and pathogenesis of gastric cancer. Better understanding of these events will no doubt provide new approaches for biomarkers of diagnosis and effective therapeutic targeting of gastric cancer. PMID:19308687

  18. Immunotherapeutic implications of IL-6 blockade for cytokine storm.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshio; Narazaki, Masashi; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2016-07-01

    IL-6 contributes to host defense against infections and tissue injuries. However, exaggerated, excessive synthesis of IL-6 while fighting environmental stress leads to an acute severe systemic inflammatory response known as 'cytokine storm', since high levels of IL-6 can activate the coagulation pathway and vascular endothelial cells but inhibit myocardial function. Remarkable beneficial effects of IL-6 blockade therapy using a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab were recently observed in patients with cytokine release syndrome complicated by T-cell engaged therapy. In this review we propose the possibility that IL-6 blockade may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy for other types of cytokine storm, such as the systemic inflammatory response syndrome including sepsis, macrophage activation syndrome and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

  19. Immunoregulatory biological response modifiers: effect of cytokines on septic shock

    PubMed Central

    De Simone, Claudio

    1993-01-01

    Whole bacteria or bacterial components or their extracts were employed to restore or augment the immune system. Beneficial effects were attained with these agents in treating various diseases. These agents were named biological response modifiers (BRMs) because they regulated certain cellular components of the immune system. The cellular regulation induced by these BRMs was found to be due to cytokines. The cytokines were shown to act directly on the various cellular components and to provide therapeutic benefit in various autoimmune and immune deficiency diseases. Overproduction of specific cytokines however leads to a deleterious effect on the host. Overproduction of tumour necrosis factor (endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide) leads to septic shock. Bacteraemia is the leading cause of overproduction of tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Septic shock in many cases leads to death. Several monoclonal antibodies to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anticytokines have demonstrated protection against septic shock. PMID:18475571

  20. The Role of Cytokines in Breast Cancer Development and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Palacios-Arreola, Margarita Isabel; Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Castro, Julieta Ivonne

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are highly inducible, secretory proteins that mediate intercellular communication in the immune system. They are grouped into several protein families that are referred to as tumor necrosis factors, interleukins, interferons, and colony-stimulating factors. In recent years, it has become clear that some of these proteins as well as their receptors are produced in the organisms under physiological and pathological conditions. The exact initiation process of breast cancer is unknown, although several hypotheses have emerged. Inflammation has been proposed as an important player in tumor initiation, promotion, angiogenesis, and metastasis, all phenomena in which cytokines are prominent players. The data here suggest that cytokines play an important role in the regulation of both induction and protection in breast cancer. This knowledge could be fundamental for the proposal of new therapeutic approaches to particularly breast cancer and other cancer-related disorders. PMID:25068787

  1. Cytokine knockouts in reproduction: the use of gene ablation to dissect roles of cytokines in reproductive biology.

    PubMed

    Ingman, Wendy V; Jones, Rebecca L

    2008-01-01

    Cytokines play many diverse and important roles in reproductive biology, and dissecting the complex interactions between these proteins and the different reproductive organs is a difficult task. One approach is to use gene ablation, or 'knockout', to analyse the effect of deletion of a single cytokine on mouse reproductive function. This review summarizes the essential roles of cytokines in reproductive biology that have been revealed by gene knockout studies, including development and regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gondal axis, ovarian folliculogenesis, implantation and immune system modulation during pregnancy. However, successful utilization of this approach must consider the caveats associated with gene ablation studies, e.g. embryonic lethality, systemic effects of cytokine ablation on local reproductive processes and the limited exposure to pathogens in mice housed in laboratory conditions. New sophisticated technology that temporally or spatially regulates gene ablation can overcome some of these limitations. Discoveries on the roles of cytokines in reproductive function uncovered by gene ablation studies can now be applied to improve in vitro fertilization for infertile couples and in the development of contraceptive therapies.

  2. Nicotinamide is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    UNGERSTEDT, J S; BLOMBÄCK, M; SöDERSTRÖM, T

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigates the modulating effects of nicotinamide on the cytokine response to endotoxin. In an in vitro model of endotoxaemia, human whole blood was stimulated for two hours with endotoxin at 1 ng/ml, achieving high levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα. When coincubating whole blood, endotoxin and the vitamin B3 derivative nicotinamide, all four cytokines measured were inhibited in a dose dependent manner. Inhibition was observed already at a nicotinamide concentration of 2 mmol/l. At a concentration of 40 mmol/l, the IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα responses were reduced by more than 95% and the IL-8 levels reduced by 85%. Endotoxin stimulation activates poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP), a nuclear DNA repair enzyme. It has been hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory properties of nicotinamide are due to PARP inhibition. In the present study, the endotoxin induced PARP activation was dose dependently decreased with 4–40 mmol/l nicotinamide or 4–100 µmol/l 6(5H) phenanthridinone, a specific PARP inhibitor. 6(5H)phenanthridinone however, failed to inhibit the proinflammatory cytokines. Thus, the mechanism behind the cytokine inhibition in our model seems not to be due to PARP inhibition. In conclusion, the present study could not only confirm previous reports of a down-regulatory effect on TNFα, but demonstrates that nicotinamide is a potent modulator of several proinflammatory cytokines. These findings demonstrate that nicotinamide has a potent immunomodulatory effect in vitro, and may have great potential for treatment of human inflammatory disease. PMID:12519385

  3. [Behavior-immunity relationship: the role of cytokines].

    PubMed

    Espinosa, E; Bermúdez-Rattoni, F

    2001-01-01

    There are several phenomena in which the immune and the central nervous systems regulate each other. However, their mechanisms are poorly understood. Since cytokines have a central role in the regulation of the immune response, this review describes their participation in two forms of neuro-immune communication, immunomodulation by psychological stress and behavioral conditioning of immune response. The role of cytokines in the endocrine and behavioral effects of acute phase, where cytokines have an effect in functions of the central nervous system, is also reviewed. The effects of psychological stress are described as both immunosuppressing and immunoenhancing. Among them, a relevant immunosuppressing one is the reduction of IL-1, IL-2, and IFN-gamma levels. In contrast, some of the pro-inflammatory effects of stress are mediated by an increase in the levels of IL-6, IL-1, and TNF mediated by the neurotransmitter Substance P. A possible role for IL-1 and IFN-beta as possible messengers in immune regulation by behavioral conditioning is proposed. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in turn can activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and induce sickness behavior during the acute phase response, during which the parasympathetic nervous system serves as pathway for their detection by the central nervous system. An account is given about recent findings on the regulation of cytokine expression by neurotransmitters from the sympathetic nervous system (epinephrine and norepinephrine), a key piece in all these mechanisms of brain-immune communication. Possible mechanisms and pathways of communication between the brain and the immune system, as well as the possible participation of other cytokines are discussed.

  4. Cytokines as Biomarkers of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yako, Yandiswa Yolanda; Kruger, Deirdré; Smith, Martin; Brand, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A systematic review of the role of cytokines in clinical medicine as diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive biomarkers in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma was undertaken. Materials and Methods A systematic review was conducted according to the 2009 PRISMA guidelines. PubMed database was searched for all original articles on the topic of interest published until June 2015, and this was supplemented with references cited in relevant articles. Studies were evaluated for risk of bias using the Quality in Prognosis Studies tools. Results Forty one cytokines were investigated with relation to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in 65 studies, ten of which were analyzed by more than three studies. Six cytokines (interleukin[IL]-1β, -6, -8, -10, vascular endothelial growth factor, and transforming growth factor) were consistently reported to be increased in PDAC by more than four studies; irrespective of sample type; method of measurement; or statistical analysis model used. When evaluated as part of distinct panels that included CA19-9, IL-1β, -6 and -8 improved the performance of CA19-9 alone in differentiating PDAC from healthy controls. For example, a panel comprising IL-1β, IL-8, and CA 19–9 had a sensitivity of 94.1% vs 85.9%, specificity of 100% vs 96.3%, and area under the curve of 0.984 vs 0.925. The above-mentioned cytokines were associated with the severity of PDAC. IL-2, -6, -10, VEGF, and TGF levels were reported to be altered after patients received therapy or surgery. However, studies did not show any evidence of their ability to predict treatment response. Conclusion Our review demonstrates that there is insufficient evidence to support the role of individual cytokines as diagnostic, predictive or prognostic biomarkers for PDAC. However, emerging evidence indicates that a panel of cytokines may be a better tool for discriminating PDAC from other non-malignant pancreatic diseases or healthy individuals. PMID:27170998

  5. EFFECT OF CYTOKINE AND PHARMACOGENOMIC GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS IN TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Girnita, Diana M; Burckart, Gilbert; Zeevi, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent investigations related to the polymorphism of genes that affect drug therapy and the polymorphisms of cytokines and growth factors that control immune responses have been associated with outcomes following solid organ transplantation (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This review will provide a current update on the most recent findings and discuss the challenges for developing individualized therapeutic strategies based on clinical and genetic profiles. Recent Findings Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytokine genes have been shown to have an impact in vitro or in vivo protein secretion, dividing the individuals into High, Low or Intermediate producers for a given molecule. Many studies have been performed to determine the contribution of single cytokine gene SNPs on SOT or HSCT outcomes and the reported results are still controversial. However, analysis of a combination of several cytokines and/or cytokine receptor polymorphisms adjusted for known clinical risk factors and ethnicity have resulted in significant clinical correlations. Furthermore, associations with gene polymorphisms that affect immunosuppressive drug therapy in solid organ transplantation have also been extensively studied. There is a continuous flow of new information regarding functional SNPs that may affect the immune response to the allograft or to drug therapy and their impact on clinical outcomes have yet to be validated in large cohorts SOT or HSCT Summary Consolidating the information that we have on pharmacogenetics and on cytokine genetics to produce patient-oriented individualized drug regimens is an important challenge in transplantation medicine. Using a multi-variant approach based on genetic profile and other relevant clinical factors a score system may be developed to predict the severity of rejection, infection or other complications associated with transplantation. The ultimate goal of these studies is to improve patient

  6. [Behavior-immunity relationship: the role of cytokines].

    PubMed

    Espinosa, E; Bermúdez-Rattoni, F

    2001-01-01

    There are several phenomena in which the immune and the central nervous systems regulate each other. However, their mechanisms are poorly understood. Since cytokines have a central role in the regulation of the immune response, this review describes their participation in two forms of neuro-immune communication, immunomodulation by psychological stress and behavioral conditioning of immune response. The role of cytokines in the endocrine and behavioral effects of acute phase, where cytokines have an effect in functions of the central nervous system, is also reviewed. The effects of psychological stress are described as both immunosuppressing and immunoenhancing. Among them, a relevant immunosuppressing one is the reduction of IL-1, IL-2, and IFN-gamma levels. In contrast, some of the pro-inflammatory effects of stress are mediated by an increase in the levels of IL-6, IL-1, and TNF mediated by the neurotransmitter Substance P. A possible role for IL-1 and IFN-beta as possible messengers in immune regulation by behavioral conditioning is proposed. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in turn can activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and induce sickness behavior during the acute phase response, during which the parasympathetic nervous system serves as pathway for their detection by the central nervous system. An account is given about recent findings on the regulation of cytokine expression by neurotransmitters from the sympathetic nervous system (epinephrine and norepinephrine), a key piece in all these mechanisms of brain-immune communication. Possible mechanisms and pathways of communication between the brain and the immune system, as well as the possible participation of other cytokines are discussed. PMID:11496712

  7. The Role of Cytokines and Chemokines in Filovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bixler, Sandra L.; Goff, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    Ebola- and marburgviruses are highly pathogenic filoviruses and causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fever. Filovirus disease is characterized by a dysregulated immune response, severe organ damage, and coagulation abnormalities. This includes modulation of cytokines, signaling mediators that regulate various components of the immune system as well as other biological processes. Here we examine the role of cytokines in filovirus infection, with an emphasis on understanding how these molecules affect development of the antiviral immune response and influence pathology. These proteins may present targets for immune modulation by therapeutic agents and vaccines in an effort to boost the natural immune response to infection and/or reduce immunopathology. PMID:26512687

  8. Tear cytokine response to multipurpose solutions for contact lenses

    PubMed Central

    Kalsow, Carolyn M; Reindel, William T; Merchea, Mohinder M; Bateman, Kirk M; Barr, Joseph T

    2013-01-01

    Purpose An increased risk of corneal infiltrative events has been noted with the use of certain contact lenses and multipurpose solutions (MPS). This study was designed to evaluate tear cytokine assay as a sensitive, objective, and quantitative measure of the ocular surface response to contact lens/MPS and to consider the assay’s clinical relevance in the context of other measures of ocular surface response. Methods Two MPS, ReNu® Fresh™ (RNF) and Opti-Free® RepleniSH (OFR), were used with daily wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses in a randomized, prospective crossover study involving 26 subjects. Clinical data collection (conjunctival hyperemia, ocular surface sensitivity, solution induced corneal staining (SICS) test score, and subjective responses) and tear cytokine assays were conducted masked. Responses were tracked as change from baseline throughout the experimental schedule. Results Similar response patterns for several inflammatory cytokines were seen throughout both phases: subjects who received OFR in Phase I had mean tear concentrations that were generally higher than those of the RNF Phase I group. OFR Phase I subjects had significant (P < 0.01) increases over baseline at day 1 and/or following washout for 13 cytokines (cc chemokine ligands [CCL] 3, CCL5, CCL11, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], interferon [INF]-γ, interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α). These changes were not observed in RNF Phase I subjects, even though SICS test scores increased. Phase I OFR subjects also had increased dryness, while RNF Phase I subjects had decreased bulbar hyperemia. No changes were detected with respect to limbal hyperemia or surface sensitivity thresholds. Conclusion The tear cytokine assay can detect and differentiate contact lens/MPS induced increases in inflammatory cytokines. Changes in cytokine levels were consistent with measurement of hyperemia and dryness but not with

  9. Insights into pathogenesis and treatment of cytokines in cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Vadlamani, L; Abraham, W T

    2000-03-01

    Our understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic heart failure is rapidly expanding. recent investigations suggest a role for various proinflammatory and vasoconstrictive cytokines in the development and progression of the disease. In particular, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interlukin-6, and endothelin have all been implicated in heart failure desease progression. These cytokines appear to be activated in response to a remodeling, induction of programmed cell death, neurohormonal activation, and hemodynamics, these agents cause a variety of deleterious effects in the setting of ventricular dysfunction. Investigational inhibitors and antagonists of these substances show promise for the future treatment of heart failure. PMID:10980882

  10. Plasma cytokine concentration and the cytokine producing ability of whole blood cell cultures from healthy females with pharmacologically induced hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Rovenský, J; Lackovic, V; Veselková, Z; Horváthová, M; Koska, J; Blazícková, S; Vigas, M

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro effect of domperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia on plasma cytokine concentration and blood leukocyte cytokine production in healthy female volunteers. No changes were found in the plasma concentration of interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-6 and IL-13 during hyperprolactinemia when compared with control values. Using unseparated blood leukocytes, we found that the spontaneous production of IL-6 (4-8 h) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 (2-4 h) was significantly decreased and that the in vitro stimulated production of IFN-gamma (2-8 h) and TNF (4 h) was significantly increased compared with control. Our data concerning the increased IFN-gamma and TNF producing capacity of unseparated leukocytes during pharmacologically induced hyperprolactinemia strongly support the possibility that the lymphocyte production of these cytokines can be rapidly amplified by prolactin via a priming mechanism. PMID:10568223

  11. PCTAIRE1-knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to TNF family cytokines.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Teruki; Shi, Ranxin; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Reed, John C; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While PCTAIRE1/PCTK1/Cdk16 is overexpressed in malignant cells and is crucial in tumorigenesis, its function in apoptosis remains unclear. Here we investigated the role of PCTAIRE1 in apoptosis, especially in the extrinsic cell death pathway. Gene-knockdown of PCTAIRE1 sensitized prostate cancer PPC1 and Du145 cells, and breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells to TNF-family cytokines, including TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Meanwhile, PCTAIRE1-knockdown did not sensitize non-malignant cells, including diploid fibroblasts IMR-90 and the immortalized prostate epithelial cell line 267B1. PCTAIRE1-knockdown did not up-regulate death receptor expression on the cell surface or affect caspase-8, FADD and FLIP expression levels. PCTAIRE1-knockdown did promote caspase-8 cleavage and RIPK1 degradation, while RIPK1 mRNA knockdown sensitized PPC1 cells to TNF-family cytokines. Furthermore, the kinase inhibitor SNS-032, which inhibits PCTAIRE1 kinase activity, sensitized PPC1 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Together these results suggest that PCTAIRE1 contributes to the resistance of cancer cell lines to apoptosis induced by TNF-family cytokines, which implies that PCTAIRE1 inhibitors could have synergistic effects with TNF-family cytokines for cytodestruction of cancer cells. PMID:25790448

  12. [Cytokine release after administration of endotoxin containing vaccines

    PubMed

    Ecker, Martina; Müller, Günter

    1998-01-01

    Endotoxins from gram negative bacteria are known to be potent inducers for the synthesis and the release of cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). The amount of these proinflammatory mediators in plasma from animals and human patients suffering of an acute infection or sepsis, however, is well correlated with the outcome and the prognosis of such diseases (Hack et al., 1989; Ostermann et al., 1997; Rigato, 1996). In connection with regular testing of vaccine lots we determine the release and the kinetic of TNF and IL-6 in piglets after immunisation with different vaccines containing endotoxin. The current results suggest that the amounts of both cytokines increased with elevated endotoxin concentration given with the doses. TNF peaked in plasma after one hour, IL-6 peaked between two and four hours p.appl. We did not find any influence of the gender of the animals. In contrast, the body weight seems to affect the cytokine release in different ways. Determination of cytokine changes in plasma is a sensitive tool for the evaluation of systemic reactions and supports data about the clinical and haematological signs.

  13. Cytokine therapy: a natural alternative for disease control.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, J W; O'Neil, T E; David, A; Strom, G; Andrew, M E

    1999-12-15

    Disease control in food production animals is normally mediated through the use of vaccines, chemicals and antibiotics. However, the extensive use of antibiotics and chemicals in livestock has resulted in environmental and human health concerns, particularly with regard to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria in the food chain. In fact, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has now urged meat producers to use environmentally-friendly alternative methods to control disease. Cytokines, as natural mediators of the immune response, offer exciting alternatives to conventional therapeutics. The utilisation of cytokines is becoming more feasible with the recent cloning of a number of cytokine genes. Since the chicken's immune system is similar to that of mammals, they offer an attractive model system with which to study the effectiveness of cytokine therapy in the control of disease in intensive livestock. In this report we will review our recent studies on the therapeutic potential of chicken interferon gamma (ChIFN-gamma) as a vaccine adjuvant and a growth promoter. PMID:10614508

  14. TLR signals posttranscriptionally regulate the cytokine trafficking mediator sortilin

    PubMed Central

    Yabe-Wada, Toshiki; Matsuba, Shintaro; Takeda, Kazuya; Sato, Tetsuya; Suyama, Mikita; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Takai, Toshiyuki; Shi, Haifeng; Philpott, Caroline C.; Nakamura, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Regulating the transcription, translation and secretion of cytokines is crucial for controlling the appropriate balance of inflammation. Here we report that the sorting receptor sortilin plays a key role in cytokine production. We observed interactions of sortilin with multiple cytokines including IFN-α, and sortilin depletion in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) led to a reduction of IFN-α secretion, suggesting a pivotal role of sortilin in the exocytic trafficking of IFN-α in pDCs. Moreover, sortilin mRNA was degraded posttranscriptionally upon stimulation with various TLR ligands. Poly-rC-binding protein 1 (PCBP1) recognized the C-rich element (CRE) in the 3′ UTR of sortilin mRNA, and depletion of PCBP1 enhanced the degradation of sortilin transcripts, suggesting that PCBP1 can act as a trans-acting factor to stabilize sortilin transcripts. The nucleotide-binding ability of PCBP1 was impaired by zinc ions and alterations of intracellular zinc affect sortilin expression. PCBP1 may therefore control the stability of sortilin transcripts by sensing intracellular zinc levels. Collectively, our findings provide insights into the posttranslational regulation of cytokine production through the posttranscriptional control of sortilin expression by TLR signals. PMID:27220277

  15. Selective suppression of endothelial cytokine production by progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Lauren M; Ton, Amy N; Org, Tõnis; Mikkola, Hanna K A; Iruela-Arispe, M Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Steroid hormones are well-recognized suppressors of the inflammatory response, however, their cell- and tissue-specific effects in the regulation of inflammation are far less understood, particularly for the sex-related steroids. To determine the contribution of progesterone in the endothelium, we have characterized and validated an in vitro culture system in which human umbilical vein endothelial cells constitutively express human progesterone receptor (PR). Using next generation RNA-sequencing, we identified a selective group of cytokines that are suppressed by progesterone both under physiological conditions and during pathological activation by lipopolysaccharide. In particular, IL-6, IL-8, CXCL2/3, and CXCL1 were found to be direct targets of PR, as determined by ChIP-sequencing. Regulation of these cytokines by progesterone was also confirmed by bead-based multiplex cytokine assays and quantitative PCR. These findings provide a novel role for PR in the direct regulation of cytokine levels secreted by the endothelium. They also suggest that progesterone-PR signaling in the endothelium directly impacts leukocyte trafficking in PR-expressing tissues. PMID:23747964

  16. Cytokines in thyroid eye disease: potential for anticytokine therapy.

    PubMed

    Bahn, R S

    1998-05-01

    Interactions between between orbital fibroblasts and immunocompetent cells that infiltrate or reside within the orbit are thought to be important in the pathogenesis of thyroid eye disease (TED). These interactions are mediated primarily by cytokines; interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1alpha and leukoregulin are of particular interest in this regard. These mediators induce or enhance the in vitro expression of immunomodulatory proteins in orbital fibroblasts, and stimulate proliferative and metabolic activities of these cells. The stimulation by particular cytokines of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in orbital fibroblasts is an important factor in the development of the clinical disease. A similarly important pathophysiological role for cytokines has been defined in rheumatoid arthritis. In this disease, the chronic erosive changes in the cartilage and bone of the joints result from cytokine-stimulated production of collegenases and other neutral proteases by synovial cells and articular chondrocytes. Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of rheumatologic joint disease has led to treatment trials aimed at immune-modulation, including trials of anticytokine therapy. Lessons learned in early clinical trials using these biological therapies in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis can be applied to studies of similar agents in the treatment of TED. PMID:9623733

  17. Cytokine responses in the common cold and otitis media.

    PubMed

    Wine, Todd M; Alper, Cuneyt M

    2012-12-01

    Cytokines are a group of diverse molecules that influence the function of every organ system. They are most well studied in their effects on the immune system and their integral role in mediating inflammation. The common cold and otitis media are two such disease states, and much has been learned about the various effects of cytokines in each disease. Most often the viruses isolated include rhinovirus (RV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus, coronavirus, and picornavirus. Otitis media, sinusitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and asthma exacerbation are commonly accepted as complications of viral upper respiratory tract infections. Furthermore, otitis media and upper respiratory infections are inextricably linked in that the majority (>70 %) of cases of acute otitis media occur as complications of the common cold. Cytokine polymorphisms have been associated with the severity of colds as well as the frequency of otitis media. This article attempts to update the reader on various studies that have recently been published regarding the role of cytokines in these two disease entities.

  18. Human malarial disease: a consequence of inflammatory cytokine release

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ian A; Budd, Alison C; Alleva, Lisa M; Cowden, William B

    2006-01-01

    Malaria causes an acute systemic human disease that bears many similarities, both clinically and mechanistically, to those caused by bacteria, rickettsia, and viruses. Over the past few decades, a literature has emerged that argues for most of the pathology seen in all of these infectious diseases being explained by activation of the inflammatory system, with the balance between the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines being tipped towards the onset of systemic inflammation. Although not often expressed in energy terms, there is, when reduced to biochemical essentials, wide agreement that infection with falciparum malaria is often fatal because mitochondria are unable to generate enough ATP to maintain normal cellular function. Most, however, would contend that this largely occurs because sequestered parasitized red cells prevent sufficient oxygen getting to where it is needed. This review considers the evidence that an equally or more important way ATP deficency arises in malaria, as well as these other infectious diseases, is an inability of mitochondria, through the effects of inflammatory cytokines on their function, to utilise available oxygen. This activity of these cytokines, plus their capacity to control the pathways through which oxygen supply to mitochondria are restricted (particularly through directing sequestration and driving anaemia), combine to make falciparum malaria primarily an inflammatory cytokine-driven disease. PMID:17029647

  19. Transcriptional regulation of cytokine function in airway smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Deborah; Damera, Gautam; Sukkar, Maria B.; Tliba, Omar

    2009-01-01

    The immuno-modulatory properties of airway smooth muscle have become of increasing importance in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chronic inflammation and structural remodeling of the airway wall in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). ASM cells respond to many cytokines, growth factors and lipid mediators to produce a wide array of immuno-modulatory molecules which may in turn orchestrate and perpetuate the disease process in asthma and COPD. Despite numerous studies of the cellular effects of cytokines on cultured ASM, few have identified intracellular signaling pathways by which cytokines modulate or induce these cellular responses. In this review we provide an overview of the transcriptional mechanisms as well as intracellular signaling pathways regulating cytokine functions in ASM cells. The recent discovery of toll-like receptors in ASM cells represents a significant development in our understanding of the immuno-modulatory capabilities of ASM cells. Thus, we also review emerging evidence of the inflammatory response to toll-like receptor activation in ASM cells. PMID:19393330

  20. Micropatterning of Aptamer Beacons to Create Cytokine-Sensing Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tuleuova, Nazgul; Revzin, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    Aptamer beacons are DNA or RNA probes that bind proteins or small molecules of interest and emit signal directly upon interaction with the target analyte. This paper describes micropatterning of aptamer beacons for detection of IFN-γ-an important inflammatory cytokine. The beacon consisted of a fluorophore-labeled aptamer strand hybridized with a shorter, quencher-carrying complementary strand. Cytokine molecules were expected to displace quenching strands of the beacon, disrupting FRET effect and resulting in fluorescence signal. The glass substrate was first micropatterned with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel microwells (35 μm diameter individual wells) so as to define sites for attachment of beacon molecules. PEG microwell arrays were then incubated with avidin followed by biotin-aptamer-fluorophore constructs. Subsequent incubation with quencher-carrying complementary strands resulted in formation of DNA duplex and caused quenching of fluorescence due to FRET effect. When exposed to IFN-γ, microwells changed fluorescence from low (quencher hybridized with fluorophore-carrying strand) to high (quenching strand displaced by cytokine molecules). The fluorescence signal was confined to microwells, was changing in real-time and was dependent on the concentration of IFN-γ. In the future, we plan to co-localize aptamer beacons and cells on micropatterned surfaces in order to monitor in real-time cytokine secretion from immune cells in microwells.

  1. Genetic modification of cytotoxic T lymphocytes to express cytokine receptors.

    PubMed

    Perna, Serena K; Savoldo, Barbara; Dotti, Gianpietro

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) or antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) is safe and can be effective in cancer patients. Achievement of clinical responses in these patients is associated with the in vivo expansion and persistence of the transferred T lymphocytes. For this reason, recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) is frequently used to support the in vivo survival of T lymphocytes infused into patients. However, IL-2 also causes important side effects. Thus, alternative strategies are highly demanded to limit cytokine-related off-target effects and to redirect the responsiveness of specific T-cell subsets to selected cytokines. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a promising alternative cytokine as it possesses the above mentioned properties. However, because its receptor is downregulated in ex vivo-expanded T cells, methods are required to restore their responsiveness to this homeostatic cytokine. In this chapter, we describe the methodology to obtain the ectopic expression of IL-7 receptor alpha (IL-7Rα) in antigen-specific CTL, using Epstein-Barr virus-specific CTL (EBV-CTL), as a model.

  2. Clinical application of growth factors and cytokines in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Stephan; Brem, Harold; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2014-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic biological process that involves the coordinated efforts of multiple cell types and is executed and regulated by numerous growth factors and cytokines. There has been a drive in the past two decades to study the therapeutic effects of various growth factors in the clinical management of nonhealing wounds (e.g., pressure ulcers, chronic venous ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers). For this review, we conducted an online search of Medline/PubMed and critically analyzed the literature regarding the role of growth factors and cytokines in the management of these wounds. We focused on currently approved therapies, emerging therapies, and future research possibilities. In this review, we discuss four growth factors and cytokines currently being used on and off label for the healing of wounds. These include granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. While the clinical results of using growth factors and cytokines are encouraging, many studies involved a small sample size and are disparate in measured endpoints. Therefore, further research is required to provide definitive evidence of efficacy.

  3. Induction of Cytokines by Glucosyltransferases of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Jean-San; Lien, Huei-Ting; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Chen, Pei-Min; Sun, Andy; Chen, Jen-Yang

    2002-01-01

    Production of proinflammatory cytokines is implicated in the pathogenesis of viridans streptococcus-induced α-streptococcal shock syndrome and infective endocarditis. Streptococcus mutans, one of the opportunistic pathogens causing infective endocarditis, was reported previously to stimulate monocytes and epithelial and endothelial cells in vitro to produce various cytokines. We found that glucosyltransferases (GTFs) GtfC and GtfD of S. mutans stimulated predominantly the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) from T cells cultured in vitro. The level of IL-6 but not of tumor necrosis factor alpha in blood was significantly elevated when rats were injected intravenously with S. mutans GS-5, whereas IL-6 was detected at a much lower level when rats were challenged with NHS1DD, an isogenic mutant defective in the expression of GTFs. The serum IL-6 level was elevated in patients with endocarditis caused by different species of viridans streptococci which express GTF homologues. Affinity column-purified GTFs reduced the levels of detectable IL-2 of T cells stimulated by another bacterial antigen, tetanus toxoid. These results suggested that GTFs might modulate the production of Th1-type cytokines and that GTFs of S. mutans play a significant role in stimulating the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 in vivo. PMID:12093691

  4. Circulating Cytokines as Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Achur, Rajeshwara N.; Freeman, Willard M.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules. Long term alcohol consumption leads to altered inflammatory cell and adaptive immune responses with associated pathologies and increased incidence of infections. This has led researchers to focus attention on identifying cytokine biomarkers in models of alcohol abuse. Alcohol is known to alter cytokine levels in plasma and a variety of tissues including lung, liver, and very importantly brain. A number of cytokine biomarker candidates have been identified, including: TNF alpha, IL1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL6, IL8, IL12 and MCP-1. This is an emerging and potentially exciting avenue of research in that circulating cytokines may contribute to diagnostic biomarker panels and a combination of multiple biomarkers may significantly increase the sensitivity and specificity of the biochemical tests aiding reliable and accurate detection of excessive alcohol intake. PMID:20020329

  5. Analysis of the cell surface expression of cytokine receptors using the surface protein biotinylation method.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Mahmud Arif; Lam, Clarissa; Kashyap, Parul; Salehi-Najafabadi, Zahra; Singh, Gurpreet; Yu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are pleiotropic, low-molecular-weight proteins that regulate the immune responses to infection and inflammation. They stimulate the immune responses by binding to cytokine receptors on the cell plasma membrane. Thus, knowledge of the expression level of particular cytokine receptors on cell surface is crucial for understanding the cytokine function and regulation. One of the techniques to explore the membrane embedded cytokine receptors is cell surface biotinylation. Biotinylated surface proteins can be rapidly purified through the strong interaction between biotin and streptavidin. Here, we describe the procedure for surface biotinylation and purification of biotinylated cytokine receptors for further downstream analysis. PMID:24908305

  6. Analysis of the cell surface expression of cytokine receptors using the surface protein biotinylation method.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Mahmud Arif; Lam, Clarissa; Kashyap, Parul; Salehi-Najafabadi, Zahra; Singh, Gurpreet; Yu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are pleiotropic, low-molecular-weight proteins that regulate the immune responses to infection and inflammation. They stimulate the immune responses by binding to cytokine receptors on the cell plasma membrane. Thus, knowledge of the expression level of particular cytokine receptors on cell surface is crucial for understanding the cytokine function and regulation. One of the techniques to explore the membrane embedded cytokine receptors is cell surface biotinylation. Biotinylated surface proteins can be rapidly purified through the strong interaction between biotin and streptavidin. Here, we describe the procedure for surface biotinylation and purification of biotinylated cytokine receptors for further downstream analysis.

  7. In situ expression of cytokines in human heart allografts.

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoffen, E.; Van Wichen, D.; Stuij, I.; De Jonge, N.; Klöpping, C.; Lahpor, J.; Van Den Tweel, J.; Gmelig-Meyling, F.; De Weger, R.

    1996-01-01

    Although allograft rejection, the major complication of human organ transplantation, has been extensively studied, little is known about the exact cellular localization of the cytokine expression inside the graft during rejection. Therefore, we used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to study local cytokine mRNA and protein expression in human heart allografts, in relation to the phenotypical characteristics of the cellular infiltrate. Clear expression of mRNA for interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-9, and IL-10 and weak expression for IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was detected in biopsies exhibiting high rejection grades (grade 3A/B). Also at lower grades of rejection, mRNA for IL-6 and IL-9 was present. Some mRNA for IL-1 beta, TNF-beta, and interferon (IFN)-gamma was detected in only a few biopsies. Using immunohistochemistry, IL-2, IL-3, and IL-10 protein was detected in biopsies with high rejection grades, whereas few cells expressed IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-gamma. In biopsies with lower grades of rejection, a weaker expression of these cytokines was observed. IL-4 was hardly detected in any of the biopsies. The level of IL-12 expression was equal in all biopsies. Although mRNA expression of several cytokines was expressed at a low level compared with the protein level of those cytokines, there was a good correlation between localization of cytokine mRNA and protein. Expression of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma was mainly detected in lymphocytes. IL-3, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 were not detected or not only detected in lymphocytes but also in other stromal elements (eg, macrophages). Macrophage production of IL-3 and IL-12 was confirmed by immunofluorescent double labeling with CD68. We conclude that cardiac allograft rejection is not simply regulated by T helper cell cytokine production, but other intragraft elements contribute considerably to this process. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8952534

  8. Cytokine-induced alterations of gastrointestinal motility in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Akiho, Hirotada; Ihara, Eikichi; Motomura, Yasuaki; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation and immune activation in the gut are usually accompanied by alteration of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. In infection, changes in motor function have been linked to host defense by enhancing the expulsion of the infectious agents. In this review, we describe the evidence for inflammation and immune activation in GI infection, inflammatory bowel disease, ileus, achalasia, eosinophilic esophagitis, microscopic colitis, celiac disease, pseudo-obstruction and functional GI disorders. We also describe the possible mechanisms by which inflammation and immune activation in the gut affect GI motility. GI motility disorder is a broad spectrum disturbance of GI physiology. Although several systems including central nerves, enteric nerves, interstitial cells of Cajal and smooth muscles contribute to a coordinated regulation of GI motility, smooth muscle probably plays the most important role. Thus, we focus on the relationship between activation of cytokines induced by adaptive immune response and alteration of GI smooth muscle contractility. Accumulated evidence has shown that Th1 and Th2 cytokines cause hypocontractility and hypercontractility of inflamed intestinal smooth muscle. Th1 cytokines downregulate CPI-17 and L-type Ca2+ channels and upregulate regulators of G protein signaling 4, which contributes to hypocontractility of inflamed intestinal smooth muscle. Conversely, Th2 cytokines cause hypercontractilty via signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 or mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Th1 and Th2 cytokines have opposing effects on intestinal smooth muscle contraction via 5-hydroxytryptamine signaling. Understanding the immunological basis of altered GI motor function could lead to new therapeutic strategies for GI functional and inflammatory disorders. PMID:22013552

  9. Dissecting innate immune signaling in viral evasion of cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Zhu, Lining; Feng, Pinghui

    2014-03-02

    In response to a viral infection, the host innate immune response is activated to up-regulate gene expression and production of antiviral cytokines. Conversely, viruses have evolved intricate strategies to evade and exploit host immune signaling for survival and propagation. Viral immune evasion, entailing host defense and viral evasion, provides one of the most fascinating and dynamic interfaces to discern the host-virus interaction. These studies advance our understanding in innate immune regulation and pave our way to develop novel antiviral therapies. Murine γHV68 is a natural pathogen of murine rodents. γHV68 infection of mice provides a tractable small animal model to examine the antiviral response to human KSHV and EBV of which perturbation of in vivo virus-host interactions is not applicable. Here we describe a protocol to determine the antiviral cytokine production. This protocol can be adapted to other viruses and signaling pathways. Recently, we have discovered that γHV68 hijacks MAVS and IKKβ, key innate immune signaling components downstream of the cytosolic RIG-I and MDA5, to abrogate NFΚB activation and antiviral cytokine production. Specifically, γHV68 infection activates IKKβ and that activated IKKβ phosphorylates RelA to accelerate RelA degradation. As such, γHV68 efficiently uncouples NFΚB activation from its upstream activated IKKβ, negating antiviral cytokine gene expression. This study elucidates an intricate strategy whereby the upstream innate immune activation is intercepted by a viral pathogen to nullify the immediate downstream transcriptional activation and evade antiviral cytokine production.

  10. Biochemical and immunological properties of cytokines conjugated to dendritic polymers.

    PubMed

    Lee, S C; Parthasarathy, R; Botwin, K; Kunneman, D; Rowold, E; Lange, G; Klover, J; Abegg, A; Zobel, J; Beck, T; Miller, T; Hood, W; Monahan, J; McKearn, J P; Jansson, R; Voliva, C F

    2004-09-01

    Here we describe a post-translational modification of SC-63032, a variant of the species restricted, multi-lineage hematopoeitic factor human interleukin-3 (hIL-3). We have made two new dendritic polymer (polyamidoamine or PAMAM dendrimers, generation 5)-SC-63032 bioconjugates. Using two distinct chemistries (one of which is novel to this work), we achieved site-specific conjugation with respect to the amino acid in the proteins ligated to the dendrimers. In both bioconjugates, conjugated cytokine maintains its ability to bind the hIL-3 alpha receptor subunit, but is significantly (about 10-fold) less potent in inducing hIL-3 dependent in vitro cell proliferation than is the free cytokine. In vivo data indicates that conjugation decreases the immunogenicity of the conjugated cytokine modestly. In the absence of pharmacokinetic or biodistribution effects associated with the bioconjugates that increase their potency in vivo (which can only be tested in a higher primate, due to the species restriction of hIL-3 and its derivatives), these immune mitigation effects may be too small to be therapeutically significant. Though unmodified PAMAM dendrimers fail to elicit an antibody response in mice, protein conjugation to dendrimers haptenizes them, and a dendrimer-specific antibody response is produced. In toto, the principal limitation of the dendrimer-cytokine bioconjugates herein is in their reduced receptor affinity and potency in vitro. Were the in vivo potency of the bioconjugates to parallel the in vitro potency of the conjugates reported here, it is likely that particular dendrimer bioconjugates could not justify their higher costs of goods relative to the parent SC-63032 molecule, though retention of SC-63032 biological activities in conjugates suggests that other cytokine-dendrimer bioconjugates may be bioactive. This is good news to the nanotechnology community, in as much as PAMAM dendrimers are among the monodisperse polymeric nanomaterials available, and these

  11. T-Helper Cytokine Profiles in Patients with Kawasaki Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Bum; Kim, Young Hyun; Hyun, Myung Chul; Kim, Yeo Hyang; Kim, Hee Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Kawasaki disease is an acute systemic vasculitis of which pathogenesis suspected is caused by immune dysregulation. The goal of this study is to evaluate the activation pattern of T helper cell type 1 (Th1) and T helper cell type 2 (Th2) in patients with Kawasaki disease. Subjects and Methods Prospective study of 60 patients (male 36, female 24) with diagnosis of Kawasaki disease were enrolled. One hundred and eighty blood samples from these patients were collected according to the different clinical stages {before initial intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), 5 days after initial IVIG, 2 months after initial IVIG}. The plasma level of Th1 cytokines; interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) & interleukin (IL)-2 and Th2 cytokines; IL-4 & IL-10 were measured by enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay. Results In all patients, the plasma level of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2) and Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) were markedly elevated during the acute stage of Kawasaki disease. Since then, the plasma level of all these cytokines decreased significantly along with the process of clinical stages. Regardless of the existence of coronary artery lesion or no response to initial IVIG treatment, there were no significant differences between them. Conclusion These data suggest that both Th1 and Th2 cells may be activated simultaneously during the acute stage of Kawasaki disease. Further studies are therefore required to establish the difference of activation pattern of T helper cells between Kawasaki disease and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:26617655

  12. Cytokine Profiles during Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease Predict Outcome in African Children.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, James J; Heath, Jennifer N; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gondwe, Esther N; Naranbhai, Vivek; Mandala, Wilson; MacLennan, Jenny M; Molyneux, Elizabeth M; Graham, Stephen M; Drayson, Mark T; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Calman A

    2016-07-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of sepsis in African children. Cytokine responses are central to the pathophysiology of sepsis and predict sepsis outcome in other settings. In this study, we investigated cytokine responses to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Malawian children. We determined serum concentrations of 48 cytokines with multiplexed immunoassays in Malawian children during acute iNTS disease (n = 111) and in convalescence (n = 77). Principal component analysis and logistic regression were used to identify cytokine signatures of acute iNTS disease. We further investigated whether these responses are altered by HIV coinfection or severe malnutrition and whether cytokine responses predict inpatient mortality. Cytokine changes in acute iNTS disease were associated with two distinct cytokine signatures. The first is characterized by increased concentrations of mediators known to be associated with macrophage function, and the second is characterized by raised pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines typical of responses reported in sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens. These cytokine responses were largely unaltered by either severe malnutrition or HIV coinfection. Children with fatal disease had a distinctive cytokine profile, characterized by raised mediators known to be associated with neutrophil function. In conclusion, cytokine responses to acute iNTS infection in Malawian children are reflective of both the cytokine storm typical of sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens and the intramacrophage replicative niche of NTS. The cytokine profile predictive of fatal disease supports a key role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of NTS sepsis. PMID:27170644

  13. Cytokine Profiles during Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease Predict Outcome in African Children

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, James J.; Heath, Jennifer N.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Naranbhai, Vivek; Mandala, Wilson; MacLennan, Jenny M.; Molyneux, Elizabeth M.; Graham, Stephen M.; Drayson, Mark T.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.

    2016-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of sepsis in African children. Cytokine responses are central to the pathophysiology of sepsis and predict sepsis outcome in other settings. In this study, we investigated cytokine responses to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Malawian children. We determined serum concentrations of 48 cytokines with multiplexed immunoassays in Malawian children during acute iNTS disease (n = 111) and in convalescence (n = 77). Principal component analysis and logistic regression were used to identify cytokine signatures of acute iNTS disease. We further investigated whether these responses are altered by HIV coinfection or severe malnutrition and whether cytokine responses predict inpatient mortality. Cytokine changes in acute iNTS disease were associated with two distinct cytokine signatures. The first is characterized by increased concentrations of mediators known to be associated with macrophage function, and the second is characterized by raised pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines typical of responses reported in sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens. These cytokine responses were largely unaltered by either severe malnutrition or HIV coinfection. Children with fatal disease had a distinctive cytokine profile, characterized by raised mediators known to be associated with neutrophil function. In conclusion, cytokine responses to acute iNTS infection in Malawian children are reflective of both the cytokine storm typical of sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens and the intramacrophage replicative niche of NTS. The cytokine profile predictive of fatal disease supports a key role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of NTS sepsis. PMID:27170644

  14. Cytokine Profiles during Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease Predict Outcome in African Children.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, James J; Heath, Jennifer N; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gondwe, Esther N; Naranbhai, Vivek; Mandala, Wilson; MacLennan, Jenny M; Molyneux, Elizabeth M; Graham, Stephen M; Drayson, Mark T; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Calman A

    2016-07-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of sepsis in African children. Cytokine responses are central to the pathophysiology of sepsis and predict sepsis outcome in other settings. In this study, we investigated cytokine responses to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Malawian children. We determined serum concentrations of 48 cytokines with multiplexed immunoassays in Malawian children during acute iNTS disease (n = 111) and in convalescence (n = 77). Principal component analysis and logistic regression were used to identify cytokine signatures of acute iNTS disease. We further investigated whether these responses are altered by HIV coinfection or severe malnutrition and whether cytokine responses predict inpatient mortality. Cytokine changes in acute iNTS disease were associated with two distinct cytokine signatures. The first is characterized by increased concentrations of mediators known to be associated with macrophage function, and the second is characterized by raised pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines typical of responses reported in sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens. These cytokine responses were largely unaltered by either severe malnutrition or HIV coinfection. Children with fatal disease had a distinctive cytokine profile, characterized by raised mediators known to be associated with neutrophil function. In conclusion, cytokine responses to acute iNTS infection in Malawian children are reflective of both the cytokine storm typical of sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens and the intramacrophage replicative niche of NTS. The cytokine profile predictive of fatal disease supports a key role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of NTS sepsis.

  15. Polymorphisms at Cytokine Genes May Determine the Effect of Vitamin E on Cytokine Production in the Elderly1–3

    PubMed Central

    Belisle, Sarah E.; Leka, Lynette S.; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Jacques, Paul F.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E has been shown to affect cytokine production. However, individual response to vitamin E supplementation varies. Previous studies indicate that cytokine production is heritable and common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) may explain differences in cytokine production between individuals. We hypothesize that the differential response to the immunomodulatory actions of vitamin E reflects genetic differences among individuals, including SNP at cytokine genes that modulate cytokine production. We used data from a double-blind, placebo-controlled 1-y vitamin E (182 mg d,l-α-tocopherol) intervention study in elderly men and women (mean age 83 y) to test this hypothesis (vitamin E, n = 47; placebo, n = 63). We found that the effect of vitamin E on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production in whole blood stimulated for 24 h with lipopolysaccharide (1.0 mg/L) is dependent on TNFα -308G > A. Participants with the A/A and A/G genotypes at TNFα -308G > A who were treated with vitamin E had lower TNFα production than those with the A allele treated with placebo. These observations suggest that individual immune responses to vitamin E supplementation are in part mediated by genetic factors. Because the A allele at TNFα has been previously associated with higher TNFα levels in whole blood and isolated immune cells, our observations suggest that the antiinflammatory effect of vitamin E is specific to those genetically predisposed to higher inflammation. Further studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism driving the interaction between vitamin E treatment and TNFα -308G > A and its implications for disease resistance. PMID:19710156

  16. Polymorphisms at cytokine genes may determine the effect of vitamin E on cytokine production in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Belisle, Sarah E; Leka, Lynette S; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Jacques, Paul F; Ordovas, Jose M; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2009-10-01

    Vitamin E has been shown to affect cytokine production. However, individual response to vitamin E supplementation varies. Previous studies indicate that cytokine production is heritable and common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) may explain differences in cytokine production between individuals. We hypothesize that the differential response to the immunomodulatory actions of vitamin E reflects genetic differences among individuals, including SNP at cytokine genes that modulate cytokine production. We used data from a double-blind, placebo-controlled 1-y vitamin E (182 mg d,l-alpha-tocopherol) intervention study in elderly men and women (mean age 83 y) to test this hypothesis (vitamin E, n = 47; placebo, n = 63). We found that the effect of vitamin E on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production in whole blood stimulated for 24 h with lipopolysaccharide (1.0 mg/L) is dependent on TNFalpha -308G > A. Participants with the A/A and A/G genotypes at TNFalpha -308G > A who were treated with vitamin E had lower TNFalpha production than those with the A allele treated with placebo. These observations suggest that individual immune responses to vitamin E supplementation are in part mediated by genetic factors. Because the A allele at TNFalpha has been previously associated with higher TNFalpha levels in whole blood and isolated immune cells, our observations suggest that the antiinflammatory effect of vitamin E is specific to those genetically predisposed to higher inflammation. Further studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism driving the interaction between vitamin E treatment and TNFalpha -308G > A and its implications for disease resistance.

  17. Taxonomic applicability of inflammatory cytokines in adverse outcome pathway (AOP) development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytokines, low-molecular-weight messenger proteins that act as intercellular immunomodulatory signals, have become a mainstream preclinical marker for assessing the systemic inflammatory response to external stressors. The challenge is to quantitate from healthy subjects cytokine...

  18. Cytokines in Machado Joseph Disease/Spinocerebellar Ataxia 3.

    PubMed

    da Silva Carvalho, Gerson; Saute, Jonas Alex Morales; Haas, Clarissa Branco; Torrez, Vitor Rocco; Brochier, Andressa Wigner; Souza, Gabriele Nunes; Furtado, Gabriel Vasata; Gheno, Tailise; Russo, Aline; Monte, Thais Lampert; Schumacher-Schuh, Artur; D'Avila, Rui; Donis, Karina Carvalho; Castilhos, Raphael Machado; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Saraiva-Pereira, Maria Luiza; Torman, Vanessa Leotti; Camey, Suzi; Portela, Luis Valmor; Jardim, Laura Bannach

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to describe the serum concentrations of a broad spectrum of cytokines in symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers of Machado Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD) CAG expansions. Molecularly confirmed carriers and controls were studied. Age at onset, disease duration, and clinical scales Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), Neurological Examination Score for Spinocerebellar Ataxias (NESSCA), SCA Functional Index (SCAFI), and Composite Cerebellar Functional Score (CCFS) were obtained from the symptomatic carriers. Serum was obtained from all individuals and a cytokine panel "consisted of" eotaxin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-a, MIP-b, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was analyzed. In a subgroup of symptomatic carriers, the cytokine panel was repeated after 360 days. Cytokine distribution among groups was studied by discriminant analysis; changes in serum levels after 360 days were studied by generalized estimation equation. Sixty-six symptomatic carriers, 13 asymptomatic carriers, and 43 controls were studied. No differences in cytokine patterns were found between controls and carriers of the CAG expansions or between controls and symptomatic carriers only. In contrast, eotaxin concentrations were significantly higher in asymptomatic than in symptomatic carriers or in controls (p = 0.001, ANCOVA). Eotaxin did not correlate with age, disease duration, CAG expansion, NESSCA score, and SARA score. Among symptomatic carriers, eotaxin dropped after 360 days (p = 0.039, GEE). SCA3/MJD patients presented a benign pattern of

  19. Single-Cell Cytokine Profiling to Investigate Cellular Functional Diversity in Hematopoietic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jonathan J; Kwak, Minsuk; Fan, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Single-cell analysis of cytokine production is increasingly recognized as an important method to understand the inflammatory microenvironment and hematopoietic disease state. Certain cytokines are critical to the regulation of lineage specification, and the aberrant production of these cytokines can contribute to lineage reprogramming. Here, we describe of a platform combining subnanoliter microchambers and a high-density antibody barcode array for the study of single-cell cytokine secretions in hematopoietic cancer cell populations. PMID:27581152

  20. Cross-talk between apoptosis and cytokines in the regulation of parasitic infection.

    PubMed

    DosReis, George A; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flavia L; Guillermo, Landi V C; Lopes, Marcela F

    2007-01-01

    Parasitic diseases have worldwide medical and economical impact. Host T lymphocytes and the cytokines they produce determine the outcome of parasitic infections. Programmed cell death by apoptosis is induced in the course of parasitic infections, and affects cytokine production by removing activated effector T and B cells. In addition, engulfment of apoptotic cells promotes the secretion of cytokines that regulate intracellular replication of protozoan parasites. In this review, we discuss how the cross-talk between apoptosis and cytokines regulates parasitic infection.

  1. Research Review: The Role of Cytokines in Depression in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Natalie T.; Scott, James G.; Wray, Naomi R.; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Baune, Bernhard T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: While cytokines have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression in adults, the potential role in younger age groups such as adolescents is less clear. This article therefore reviews the literature (a) to explore the relationship between cytokines and depression in adolescents, and (b) to examine how cytokines may be related…

  2. Inter-individual variability and genetic influences on cytokine responses to bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Oosting, Marije; Deelen, Patrick; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; Smeekens, Sanne; Jaeger, Martin; Matzaraki, Vasiliki; Swertz, Morris A; Xavier, Ramnik J; Franke, Lude; Wijmenga, Cisca; Joosten, Leo A B; Kumar, Vinod; Netea, Mihai G

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the inter-individual variation of cytokine responses to different pathogens in healthy individuals. To systematically describe cytokine responses elicited by distinct pathogens and to determine the effect of genetic variation on cytokine production, we profiled cytokines produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 197 individuals of European origin from the 200 Functional Genomics (200FG) cohort in the Human Functional Genomics Project (http://www.humanfunctionalgenomics.org), obtained over three different years. We compared bacteria- and fungi-induced cytokine profiles and found that most cytokine responses were organized around a physiological response to specific pathogens, rather than around a particular immune pathway or cytokine. We then correlated genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes with cytokine abundance and identified six cytokine quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Among them, a cytokine QTL at the NAA35-GOLM1 locus markedly modulated interleukin (IL)-6 production in response to multiple pathogens and was associated with susceptibility to candidemia. Furthermore, the cytokine QTLs that we identified were enriched among SNPs previously associated with infectious diseases and heart diseases. These data reveal and begin to explain the variability in cytokine production by human immune cells in response to pathogens. PMID:27376574

  3. Cytokines and the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian-endometrial axis.

    PubMed

    Tabibzadeh, S

    1994-05-01

    Recently, the demarcating boundaries that allowed separation of the fields of reproductive biology, endocrinology, immunology and neurobiology have faded. The missing link that now ties these disciplines together is the understanding that the language by which cells communicate within these diverse systems is unanimous. This language is the network of products collectively called cytokines. The effect of these factors spans from the hypothalamus to the endometrium and is undoubtedly involved in the maintenance of the delicate balance within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-endometrial axis. Orchestrated networks of these cytokines also seem to be linked to the steroid hormone signals, an essential feature for maintenance of normal menstrual cycles. Evidence in favour of these emerging concepts is discussed. Major emphasis is placed on interferons, interleukins, tumour necrosis factor, transforming growth factors and colony-stimulating factors.

  4. Cytokines and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Hermus, A R; Sweep, C G

    1990-12-20

    After administration of the cytokines interleukin 1 (IL1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin 2 and interleukin 6 to laboratory animals or humans, plasma levels of glucocorticoids are elevated. This effect is mediated by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit. IL1 and TNF inhibit aldosterone production by rat adrenocortical cells in vitro and stimulate renin release by rat renal cortical cells. Administration of IL1 or TNF in rats suppresses hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid function, whereas IL1 acts at the level of the brain and the gonads to interfere with gonadotropin and sex steroid secretion. During stimulation of the immune system (e.g. during infectious diseases), peculiar alterations in hormone secretion occur (hypercortisolism, hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism, euthyroid sick syndrome, hypogonadism). The role of cytokines in these alterations remains to be established.

  5. Foetal immune programming: hormones, cytokines, microbes and regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Peter; Nanan, Ralph

    2014-10-01

    In addition to genetic factors, environmental cues play important roles in shaping the immune system. The first environment that the developing foetal immune system encounters is the uterus. Although physically the mother and the foetus are separated by the placental membranes, various factors such as hormones and cytokines may provide "environmental cues" to the foetal immune system. Additionally, increasing evidence suggests that prenatal maternal environmental factors, particularly microbial exposure, might significantly influence the foetal immune system, affecting long-term outcomes, a concept termed foetal immune programming. Here we discuss the potential mediators of foetal immune programming, focusing on the role of pregnancy-related hormones, cytokines and regulatory T cells, which play a critical role in immune tolerance.

  6. [Cytokine production in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Müzes, G; González-Cabello, R; Van Vien, C; Fehér, J; Gergely, P

    1991-09-01

    The production of different cytokines, namely interleukin-2, interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha produced by peripheral immunocompetent cells was evaluated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in active and inactive stage of the disease. The results obtained were compared to healthy controls. It has been found that lymphocytes from both groups of SLE patients produced similarly less interleukin-2 activity. Interleukin-1 activity of monocytes was significantly reduced only in patients with active stage of the disease, whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha production was diminished even in cases of inactive SLE. The simultaneous detection of the above mentioned cytokines may indicate further details concerning immunoregulatory disturbances of systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:1923468

  7. Systems biology of IL-6, IL-12 family cytokines.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Anna; Hessenkemper, Wiebke; Schaper, Fred

    2015-10-01

    Interleukin-6-type cytokines play important roles in the communication between cells of multicellular organisms. They are involved in the regulation of complex cellular processes such as proliferation and differentiation and act as key player during inflammation and immune response. A major challenge is to understand how these complex non-linear processes are connected and regulated. Systems biology approaches are used to tackle this challenge in an iterative process of quantitative experimental and mathematical analyses. Here we review quantitative experimental studies and systems biology approaches dealing with the function of Interleukin-6-type cytokines in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. These approaches cover the analyses of signal transduction on a cellular level up to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies on a whole organism level.

  8. Subversion of cytokine networks by virally encoded decoy receptors

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, Megan L.; Lee, Chung A.; Fremont, Daved H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary During the course of evolution, viruses have captured or created a diverse array of open reading frames that encode for proteins that serve to evade and sabotage the host innate and adaptive immune responses, which would otherwise lead to their elimination. These viral genomes are some of the best textbooks of immunology ever written. The established arsenal of immunomodulatory proteins encoded by viruses is large and growing and includes specificities for virtually all known inflammatory pathways and targets. The focus of this review is on herpes and poxvirus-encoded cytokine and chemokine binding proteins that serve to undermine the coordination of host immune surveillance. Structural and mechanistic studies of these decoy receptors have provided a wealth of information, not only about viral pathogenesis but also about the inner workings of cytokine signaling networks. PMID:23046131

  9. Chronic Inflammation and Cytokines in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Landskron, Glauben; De la Fuente, Marjorie; Thuwajit, Peti; Thuwajit, Chanitra; Hermoso, Marcela A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute inflammation is a response to an alteration induced by a pathogen or a physical or chemical insult, which functions to eliminate the source of the damage and restore homeostasis to the affected tissue. However, chronic inflammation triggers cellular events that can promote malignant transformation of cells and carcinogenesis. Several inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, IL-6, TGF-β, and IL-10, have been shown to participate in both the initiation and progression of cancer. In this review, we explore the role of these cytokines in important events of carcinogenesis, such as their capacity to generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their potential mutagenic effect, and their involvement in mechanisms for epithelial mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Finally, we will provide an in-depth analysis of the participation of these cytokines in two types of cancer attributable to chronic inflammatory disease: colitis-associated colorectal cancer and cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:24901008

  10. INDUCTION OF CYTOKINE PRODUCTION IN CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS AND VALIDATION OF FELINE-SPECIFIC CYTOKINE ASSAYS FOR ANALYSIS OF CHEETAH SERUM.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Ashley D; Crosier, Adrienne E; Vansandt, Lindsey M; Mattson, Elliot; Xiao, Zhengguo

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the whole blood of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus ; n=3) and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 for establishment of cross-reactivity between these cheetah cytokines and feline-specific cytokine antibodies provided in commercially available Feline DuoSet® ELISA kits (R&D Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55413, USA). This study found that feline-specific cytokine antibodies bind specifically to cheetah proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 from cell culture supernatants. The assays also revealed that cheetah PBMCs produce a measurable, cell concentration-dependent increase in proinflammatory cytokine production after LPS stimulation. To enable the use of these kits, which are designed for cell culture supernatants for analyzing cytokine concentrations in cheetah serum, percent recovery and parallelism of feline cytokine standards in cheetah serum were also evaluated. Cytokine concentrations in cheetah serum were approximated based on the use of domestic cat standards in the absence of cheetah standard material. In all cases (for cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), percent recovery increased as the serum sample dilution increased, though percent recovery varied between cytokines at a given dilution factor. A 1:2 dilution of serum resulted in approximately 45, 82, and 7% recovery of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 standards, respectively. Adequate parallelism was observed across a large range of cytokine concentrations for TNF-α and IL-1β; however, a significant departure from parallelism was observed between the IL-6 standard and the serum samples (P=0.004). Therefore, based on our results, the Feline DuoSet ELISA (R&D Systems, Inc.) kits are valid assays for the measurement of TNF-α and IL-1β in cheetah serum but should not be used for accurate measurement of IL-6. PMID:26056884

  11. INDUCTION OF CYTOKINE PRODUCTION IN CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS AND VALIDATION OF FELINE-SPECIFIC CYTOKINE ASSAYS FOR ANALYSIS OF CHEETAH SERUM.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Ashley D; Crosier, Adrienne E; Vansandt, Lindsey M; Mattson, Elliot; Xiao, Zhengguo

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the whole blood of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus ; n=3) and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 for establishment of cross-reactivity between these cheetah cytokines and feline-specific cytokine antibodies provided in commercially available Feline DuoSet® ELISA kits (R&D Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55413, USA). This study found that feline-specific cytokine antibodies bind specifically to cheetah proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 from cell culture supernatants. The assays also revealed that cheetah PBMCs produce a measurable, cell concentration-dependent increase in proinflammatory cytokine production after LPS stimulation. To enable the use of these kits, which are designed for cell culture supernatants for analyzing cytokine concentrations in cheetah serum, percent recovery and parallelism of feline cytokine standards in cheetah serum were also evaluated. Cytokine concentrations in cheetah serum were approximated based on the use of domestic cat standards in the absence of cheetah standard material. In all cases (for cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), percent recovery increased as the serum sample dilution increased, though percent recovery varied between cytokines at a given dilution factor. A 1:2 dilution of serum resulted in approximately 45, 82, and 7% recovery of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 standards, respectively. Adequate parallelism was observed across a large range of cytokine concentrations for TNF-α and IL-1β; however, a significant departure from parallelism was observed between the IL-6 standard and the serum samples (P=0.004). Therefore, based on our results, the Feline DuoSet ELISA (R&D Systems, Inc.) kits are valid assays for the measurement of TNF-α and IL-1β in cheetah serum but should not be used for accurate measurement of IL-6.

  12. Molecular detection of rabies encephalitis and correlation with cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Nuovo, Gerard J; Defaria, Dulcelena L; Chanona-Vilchi, Juan G; Zhang, Yilan

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to elucidate the role of cytokine upregulation in the pathogenesis of rabies encephalitis and to compare the detection of Negri bodies with that of rabies protein by immunohistochemistry and rabies RNA by reverse transcriptase (RT) in situ PCR for its diagnosis. Negri bodies were evident in 4/7 of the documented rabies cases; viral protein and viral RNA were detected in each case. The average number of rabies-infected cells, determined by counting 150 neurons in serial sections in areas where viral protein was evident, with the three different detection methods was: Negri bodies (<1/150), immunohistochemistry (4/150), and RT in situ PCR (49/150). No rabies protein or RNA was detected in four control brain tissues that were read with the rabies cases in a blinded fashion. The ratio of cells expressing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) or inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) to 1 SSI-1/SOCS-1 (suppressors of cytokine signaling) expression, which is a novel class of negative feedback regulators of cytokine receptor signaling, was markedly increased only in the areas where many viral infected cells were present. Colabeling experiments showed that most of the cells expressing iNOS or TNFalpha were not virally infected, but rather adjacent to rabies-infected neurons. We conclude that RT in situ PCR for rabies virus is the most accurate test for the determination of viral load in rabies encephalitis. Further, the disease is characterized by massive viral infection of neurons in a markedly focal distribution in conjunction with a concomitant upregulation of cytokine expression in adjacent, noninfected cells that may be due, in part, to SOCS downregulation.

  13. Plasma Cytokine Levels During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Zwart, Sara R.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2011-01-01

    Reduced T cell, granulocyte, NK and monocyte function have all been reported following both long and short duration spaceflight, however these data indicate crews are generally not experiencing inflammatory or adaptive immune activation during spaceflight. There appear to be varied individual crew responses, and specific relationships between cytokines and markers of iron status and muscle turnover that warrant further evaluation. Increases in growth factors and chemokines may indicate other types of adaptation occurring during spaceflight, such as attempts to overcome diminished immunocyte function.

  14. Cytokine modulation of human blood viscosity from vivax malaria patients.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Edson Fredulin; Cantarini, Déborah Giovanna; Siqueira, Renan; Ribeiro, Elton Brito; Braga, Érika Martins; Honório-França, Adenilda Cristina; França, Eduardo Luzía

    2016-06-01

    Malaria is a major infectious disease in several countries and is caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. In vivax malaria patients, inflammatory processes occur, as well as changes in cytokines and blood flow. The present study analyzed the cytokine modulation of blood viscosity from patients infected with Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax). Blood samples were collected from 42 non-infected individuals (control group) and 37 individuals infected with P. vivax. The IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα, TGF-β and IL-17 cytokine concentrations in the serum were assessed, and the blood rheological properties were determined. The analysis of blood viscosity for shear rates revealed that the blood viscosity of the infected patients was significantly greater than that of the non-infected individuals. The viscosity of the blood was greater in the infected individuals than in the non-infected subjects. The serum from individuals with P. vivax infections exhibited higher IFN-γ and IL-17 concentrations and lower TGF-β levels. Incubation of the blood from infected individuals with IL-17 or IL-17 associated with IFN-γ reduced the viscosity to rates equivalent to the blood from non-infected individuals. Independently of cytokine modulation, no correlation was found between the parasitemia and blood viscosity of the infected patients. These data suggest that the alterations of blood viscosity are relevant as an auxiliary tool for the clinical diagnosis of disease. In malaria, erythrocytes are more sensitive to osmotic shock, and the reduction of viscosity by IL-17 may be related to a possible immunomodulator agent during infection.

  15. Cytokine and Chemokine Profile in Amicrobial Pustulosis of the Folds

    PubMed Central

    Marzano, Angelo V.; Tavecchio, Simona; Berti, Emilio; Gelmetti, Carlo; Cugno, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Autoinflammation has recently been suggested in the pathogenesis of neutrophilic dermatoses but systematic studies on their cytokine profile are lacking. Notably, amicrobial pustulosis of the folds (APF), classified among neutrophilic dermatoses, has been studied only in small case series. In our University Hospital, we conducted an observational study on 15 APF patients, analyzing their clinical and laboratory features with a follow-up of 9 months to 20 years. Skin cytokine pattern of 9 of them was compared to that of 6 normal controls. In all patients, primary lesions were pustules symmetrically involving the skin folds and anogenital region with a chronic-relapsing course and responding to corticosteroids. Dapsone, cyclosporine, and tumor necrosis factor blockers were effective in refractory cases. In skin samples, the expressions of interleukin (IL)-1β, pivotal cytokine in autoinflammation, and its receptors I and II were significantly higher in APF (P = 0.005, 0.018, and 0.034, respectively) than in controls. Chemokines responsible for neutrophil recruitment such as IL-8 (P = 0.003), CXCL 1/2/3 (C-X-C motif ligand 1/2/3) (P = 0.010), CXCL 16 (P = 0.045), and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) (P = 0.034) were overexpressed. Molecules involved in tissue damage like matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) (P = 0.010) and MMP-9 (P = 0.003) were increased. APF is a pustular neutrophilic dermatosis with a typical distribution in all patients. The disorder may coexist with an underlying autoimmune/dysimmune disease but is often associated only with a few autoantibodies without a clear autoimmunity. The overexpression of cytokines/chemokines and molecules amplifying the inflammatory network supports the view that APF has an important autoinflammatory component. PMID:26683967

  16. Cytokine profile and lymphocyte subsets in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, C.O.; Catai, A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G.; Arruda, L.C.M.; Lopes, S.L.B.; Benze, B.G.; Del Vale, A.M.; Malmegrim, K.C.R.; Leal, A.M.O.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a metabolic disease with inflammation as an important pathogenic background. However, the pattern of immune cell subsets and the cytokine profile associated with development of T2D are unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate different components of the immune system in T2D patients' peripheral blood by quantifying the frequency of lymphocyte subsets and intracellular pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production by T cells. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 22 men (51.6±6.3 years old) with T2D and 20 nonsmoking men (49.4±7.6 years old) who were matched for age and sex as control subjects. Glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and the lipid profile were measured by a commercially available automated system. Frequencies of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and intracellular production of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ cytokines by CD3+ T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. No differences were observed in the frequency of CD19+ B cells, CD3+CD8+ and CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD16+56+ NK cells, and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells in patients with T2D compared with controls. The numbers of IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells were significantly higher in patients with T2D than in controls (P<0.05). The frequency of interferon-γ-producing CD3+ T cells was positively correlated with body mass index (r=0.59; P=0.01). In conclusion, this study shows increased numbers of circulating IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells in patients with T2D, suggesting that these cytokines are involved in the immune pathology of this disease. PMID:27007651

  17. Immunomodulation of Skin Cytokine Secretion by House Dust Mite Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Arlian, Larry G.; Morgan, Marjorie S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Skin contact with house dust mites may contribute to atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases. We sought to determine if molecules from house dust mites could influence the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines from epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts grown in a human skin equivalent (HSE) model. Methods HSEs consisting of an epidermis of keratinocytes with stratum corneum over a dermis of fibroblasts in a collagen matrix were challenged with Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus and Euroglyphus maynei mite extracts. Results HSEs secreted interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-8, cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine, transforming growth factor-α, granulocyte/macrophage and macrophage colony-stimulating factors and vascular endothelial cell growth factor in response to at least 1 mite extract. Extracts of different mite species stimulated HSEs to release different cytokines. Therefore, extracts of different species contained different molecules or different concentrations of similar molecules. The cytokine release profiles of cells in the HSEs were not the same as for monocultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Conclusions Molecules from house dust mites are capable of inducing the release of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines from epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Avoiding skin contact with house dust mites would reduce the possibility of mite-induced inflammation in the skin. Therefore, measures to reduce contact with mite molecules such as frequent vacuuming of upholstered furniture and carpets and laundering of clothing and bedding to remove mite molecules and allergens could reduce skin contact with mite molecules and diminish exacerbations of skin inflammation in patients with atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases. PMID:21576987

  18. The cytokine network in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are very common inflammatory diseases of the airways. They both cause airway narrowing and are increasing in incidence throughout the world, imposing enormous burdens on health care. Cytokines play a key role in orchestrating the chronic inflammation and structural changes of the respiratory tract in both asthma and COPD and have become important targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies in these diseases. PMID:18982161

  19. Titanium surface hydrophilicity modulates the human macrophage inflammatory cytokine response.

    PubMed

    Alfarsi, Mohammed A; Hamlet, Stephen M; Ivanovski, Saso

    2014-01-01

    Increased titanium surface hydrophilicity has been shown to accelerate dental implant osseointegration. Macrophages are important in the early inflammatory response to surgical implant placement and influence the subsequent healing response. This study investigated the modulatory effect of a hydrophilic titanium surface on the inflammatory cytokine expression profile in a human macrophage cell line (THP-1). Genes for 84 cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors were analyzed following exposure to (1) polished (SMO), (2) micro-rough sand blasted, acid etched (SLA), and (3) hydrophilic-modified SLA (modSLA) titanium surfaces for 1 and 3 days. By day 3, the SLA surface elicited a pro-inflammatory response compared to the SMO surface with statistically significant up-regulation of 16 genes [Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) Interleukin (IL)-1β, Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-1, 2, 3, 4, 18, 19, and 20, Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)-1, 5, 8 and 12, Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor (CCR)-7, Lymphotoxin-beta (LTB), and Leukotriene B4 receptor (LTB4R)]. This effect was countered by the modSLA surface, which down-regulated the expression of 10 genes (TNF, IL-1α and β, CCL-1, 3, 19 and 20, CXCL-1 and 8, and IL-1 receptor type 1), while two were up-regulated (osteopontin and CCR5) compared to the SLA surface. These cytokine gene expression changes were confirmed by decreased levels of corresponding protein secretion in response to modSLA compared to SLA. These results show that a hydrophilic titanium surface can modulate human macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and protein secretion. An attenuated pro-inflammatory response may be an important molecular mechanism for faster and/or improved wound healing.

  20. Circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines and risk of colorectal adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangmi; Keku, Temitope O.; Martin, Christopher; Galanko, Joseph; Woosley, John T.; Schroeder, Jane C.; Satia, Jessie A.; Halabi, Susan; Sandler, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The association between obesity and colorectal neoplasia may be mediated by inflammation. Circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are elevated in the obese. Adipose tissue can produce and release the inflammatory cytokines that are potentially procarcinogenic. We examined circulating levels of CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in relation to risk factors and the prevalence of colorectal adenomas. Plasma levels of CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α were quantified in 873 participants (242 colorectal adenoma cases and 631 controls) in a colonoscopy-based cross-sectional study conducted between 1998 and 2002. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate associations between levels of inflammatory cytokines, colorectal adenomas, and known risk factors. Several known risk factors for colorectal neoplasia were associated with higher levels of inflammatory cytokines such as older age, current smoking, and increasing adiposity. The prevalence of colorectal adenomas was associated with higher concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α, and to a lesser degree, with CRP. For IL-6, adjusted odds ratios for colorectal adenomas were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18–2.68) for the second highest plasma level, and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.24– 2.74) for the highest level compared with the reference level. A similar association was found with TNF-α, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.54 (95% CI: 1.02–2.33) and 1.65 (95% CI: 1.09–2.50), respectively. Our findings indicate that inflammation might be involved in the early development of colorectal neoplasia, and suggest that systemic inflammatory cytokines might be an indicator of obesity and other risk factors for colorectal neoplasia. PMID:18172326

  1. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Serum Cytokine Levels in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Karen M.; Pier, Jennifer; Wesgate, Sarah C.; Weis, Emily; Love, Tanzy; Evans, Katie; Chhibber, Ashwani

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is associated morbidity in children. Alterations in immune responses may explain this relationship, but have not been well-studied in children. Our objective was to determine the association between SHS exposure and serum cytokine levels in healthy children. Methods We recruited 1–6 year old patients undergoing routine procedures. A parent interview assessed medical history and SHS exposure. Children with asthma were excluded. Blood was collected under anesthesia. We used Luminex to test for a panel of cytokines; cotinine was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children were categorized as no, intermediate, or high exposure. A mixed-effects model was fit to determine differences in cytokines by exposure level. Results Of the 40 children recruited, 65% (N=26) had SHS exposure; 16 intermediate, and 10 high. There were no differences by demographics. In bivariate analyses, children exposed to SHS had lower concentrations of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, and IFN- γ than those with no exposure. In the mixed-effects model, children with any SHS exposure had significantly lower concentrations of IL-1β (0.554 pg/mL vs. 0.249 pg/mL) and IFN- γ (4.193 pg/mL vs. 0.816 pg/mL), and children with high exposure had significantly lower mean concentrations of IL-4 (8.141 pg/mL vs. 0.135 pg/mL) than children with no exposure. Conclusions This study suggests that SHS exposure decreases expression of some pro-inflammatory cytokines in SHS exposed children, including IFN-γ. Further research to describe the acute and chronic effects of SHS on the immune systems of children is needed. PMID:22805115

  2. Cytokine profile and lymphocyte subsets in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Francisco, C O; Catai, A M; Moura-Tonello, S C G; Arruda, L C M; Lopes, S L B; Benze, B G; Del Vale, A M; Malmegrim, K C R; Leal, A M O

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a metabolic disease with inflammation as an important pathogenic background. However, the pattern of immune cell subsets and the cytokine profile associated with development of T2D are unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate different components of the immune system in T2D patients' peripheral blood by quantifying the frequency of lymphocyte subsets and intracellular pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production by T cells. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 22 men (51.6±6.3 years old) with T2D and 20 nonsmoking men (49.4±7.6 years old) who were matched for age and sex as control subjects. Glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and the lipid profile were measured by a commercially available automated system. Frequencies of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and intracellular production of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ cytokines by CD3+ T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. No differences were observed in the frequency of CD19+ B cells, CD3+CD8+ and CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD16+56+ NK cells, and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells in patients with T2D compared with controls. The numbers of IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells were significantly higher in patients with T2D than in controls (P<0.05). The frequency of interferon-γ-producing CD3+ T cells was positively correlated with body mass index (r=0.59; P=0.01). In conclusion, this study shows increased numbers of circulating IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells in patients with T2D, suggesting that these cytokines are involved in the immune pathology of this disease.

  3. Search for potent modulators of cytokine production by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, A A; Abidov, M T; Kovalevskaya, E O; Kalyuzhin, O V

    2004-09-01

    We compared the effects of Tamerit, Polyoxidony, and Licopid on spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The test preparations were equally potent in stimulating nonactivated cells. Licopid produced a costimulatory effect on macrophages primed with endotoxin. Tamerit in different doses suppressed cytokine production by cells. Polyoxidony in low doses activated, but in high doses suppressed this process. PMID:15665918

  4. Regulation of NF-κB by TNF Family Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Matthew S; Ghosh, Sankar

    2014-01-01

    The NF-κB family of inducible transcription factors is activated in response to a variety of stimuli. Amongst the best-characterized inducers of NF-κB are members of the TNF family of cytokines. Research on NF-κB and TNF have been tightly intertwined for more than 25 years. Perhaps the most compelling examples of the interconnectedness of NF-κB and the TNF have come from analysis of knock-out mice that are unable to activate NF-kB. Such mice die embryonically, however, deletion of TNF or TNFR1 can rescue the lethality thereby illustrating the important role of NF-κB as the key regulator of transcriptional responses to TNF. The physiological connections between NF-κB and TNF cytokines are numerous and best explored in articles focusing on a single TNF family member. Instead, in this review, we explore general mechanisms of TNF cytokine signaling, with a focus on the upstream signaling events leading to activation of the socalled canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways by TNFR1 and CD40 respectively. PMID:24958609

  5. [Immunity and cytokine status after surgeries on the large intestine].

    PubMed

    Voloshin, A G; Nikoda, V V; Buniatian, K A; Inviiaeva, E V; Vinnitskiĭ, L I; Bondarenko, A V; Tsar'kov, P V

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the effect of individual schemes of multimodal analgesia on indicators of immunity and inflammation markers after operations on the colon. Patients of group 1 (n=15) received paracetamol, lornoxicam and epidural ropivacaine, 2nd group of patients (n=15)-paracetamol, epidural ropivacaine and tramadol. Comparison group (n=10) patients underwent patient controlled analgesia by promedol. Before surgery, 1st and 3rd days after surgery we examined the contents of cytokines in plasma: interleukin 12p70, interleukin 10, interleukin 6, and TNF. Before surgery and at 5-7 days after surgery indicators of cellular, fagocytal and humoral immunity were monitored. Before surgery patients with colorectal cancer revealed changes in the indices of different components of immunity, as well as an increase in pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines compared with healthy donors. Multimodal analgesia in patients after operations on the colon is not accompanied by changes in plasma concentrations of cytokines and parameters of immune status in comparison with monoanalgesia by promedol.

  6. [Methotrexate as inducer of proinflammatory cytokines by epithelial cells].

    PubMed

    Morón-Medina, Alejandra; Viera, Ninoska; de Morales, Thaís Rojas; Alcocer, Sirley; Bohorquez, Dinorath

    2014-03-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), a drug commonly used in childhood cancer, has also been indicated as a cytotoxic agent of the oral mucosa, which can trigger the inflammatory process and increase the vascularity of epithelial tissues during the early stages of oral mucositis. The aim of this study was to determine the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6 y TNF-alpha in epithelial cell cultures treated with MTX. Epithelial cells of human larynx, obtained from the cell line Hep-2, were cultured with different doses of MTX during different incubation times. The drug cytotoxicity was analyzed by means of the colorimetric test, which is based on the metabolic reduction of the bromide of 3-(4, 5-dimetiltiazol-2-ilo)-2,5-difeniltetrazol (MTT); and the proinflammatory cytokines production by the test enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cultures of HEp-2 cells showed increased production of proinflammatory cytokines at 72 hours with 0.32 microM of MTX. These results suggest that depending on the dose and exposure time, MTX alters the physiology of human epithelial cells, which may play an important role during the phases of initiation and development of oral mucositis. PMID:24758098

  7. Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms and Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Ryan J.; Murray, Gordon D.; Teasdale, Graham M.; Stewart, Janice; Day, Ian; Lee, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Clinical outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is variable and cannot easily be predicted. There is increasing evidence to suggest that there may be genetic influences on outcome. Cytokines play an important role in mediating the inflammatory response provoked within the central nervous system after TBI. This study was designed to identify associations between cytokine gene polymorphisms and clinical outcome 6 months after head injury. A prospectively identified cohort of patients (n=1096, age range 0–93 years, mean age 37) was used. Clinical outcome at 6 months was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. In an initial screen of 11 cytokine gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with disease susceptibility or outcome (TNFA −238 and −308, IL6 −174, −572 and −597, IL1A −889, IL1B −31, −511 and +3953, and TGFB −509 and −800), TNFA −308 was identified as having a likely association. The TNFA −308 SNP was further evaluated, and a significant association was identified, with 39% of allele 2 carriers having an unfavorable outcome compared with 31% of non-carriers (adjusted odds ratio 1.67, confidence interval 1.19–2.35, p=0.003). These findings are consistent with experimental and clinical data suggesting that neuroinflammation has an impact on clinical outcome after TBI and that tumor necrosis factor alpha plays an important role in this process. PMID:23768161

  8. Cytokine gene polymorphisms and outcome after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Waters, Ryan J; Murray, Gordon D; Teasdale, Graham M; Stewart, Janice; Day, Ian; Lee, Robert J; Nicoll, James A R

    2013-10-15

    Clinical outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is variable and cannot easily be predicted. There is increasing evidence to suggest that there may be genetic influences on outcome. Cytokines play an important role in mediating the inflammatory response provoked within the central nervous system after TBI. This study was designed to identify associations between cytokine gene polymorphisms and clinical outcome 6 months after head injury. A prospectively identified cohort of patients (n=1096, age range 0-93 years, mean age 37) was used. Clinical outcome at 6 months was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. In an initial screen of 11 cytokine gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with disease susceptibility or outcome (TNFA -238 and -308, IL6 -174, -572 and -597, IL1A -889, IL1B -31, -511 and +3953, and TGFB -509 and -800), TNFA -308 was identified as having a likely association. The TNFA -308 SNP was further evaluated, and a significant association was identified, with 39% of allele 2 carriers having an unfavorable outcome compared with 31% of non-carriers (adjusted odds ratio 1.67, confidence interval 1.19-2.35, p=0.003). These findings are consistent with experimental and clinical data suggesting that neuroinflammation has an impact on clinical outcome after TBI and that tumor necrosis factor alpha plays an important role in this process.

  9. Human placental trophoblasts express the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-35.

    PubMed

    Mao, Haiting; Gao, Wenjuan; Ma, Chao; Sun, Jintang; Liu, Jia; Shao, Qianqian; Song, Bingfeng; Qu, Xun

    2013-07-01

    Studies of maternal-fetal tolerance focus on defining mechanisms for establishment of immunological privilege within the uterus during pregnancy. Fetal trophoblasts play a key role in maternal tolerance, in part through cytokines production. As a novel inhibitory cytokine, IL-35 is produced by Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and mediates maximal suppression of Tregs. The purpose of the study is to analyze the expression of IL-35 in first-trimester human placental trophoblasts. IL-35 expression was detected at both protein and mRNA levels by immunohistochemical staining and quantitative real-time PCR method, respectively and secretion of IL-35 was measured by ELISA assay. Our results demonstrated that human trophoblasts constitutively expressed IL-35. Ebi3 and p35 (two subunits of IL-35) mRNA was shown to be co-expressed in trophoblast cells. Moreover, large amounts of secreted IL-35 were detected in the supernatants of trophoblast cells. But we did not detect the constitutive expression of IL-35 in decidual stromal cells. Our findings confirmed for the first time that first-trimester human trophoblast cells expressed and secreted IL-35, which might contribute to their suppressive capacity to maternal immune cells. Therefore, IL-35 may be an important factor of the cytokine network regulating local immune responses during human pregnancy.

  10. Changes in inflammatory cytokine networks in myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Uzawa, Akiyuki; Kanai, Tetsuya; Kawaguchi, Naoki; Oda, Fumiko; Himuro, Keiichi; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmunological inflammatory disorder of the neuromuscular junction. Inflammation could be a key player for understanding the pathogenesis of MG. We measured the serum levels of 24 inflammatory cytokines in 43 patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive MG and 25 healthy controls. In patients with MG, serum levels of a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), IL-19, IL-20, IL-28A and IL-35 were significantly increased as compared with controls (p < 0.05). Among them, IL-20, IL-28A and IL-35 were significantly decreased after treatment (p < 0.05). In clinical subtype analyses, APRIL and IL-20 were increased in patients with late-onset MG and IL-28A levels were increased in patients with thymoma-associated MG compared with healthy controls (p < 0.01). The results of the present study demonstrate both anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines are upregulated in MG, reflecting the importance of cytokine-mediated inflammation and its regulation in MG pathophysiology. PMID:27172995

  11. Alterations in peripheral blood lymphocyte cytokine expression in obesity

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, R W; Kay, T; Lyle, E A; Traxler, S A; Deveney, C W; Jobe, B A; Roberts, C T; Marks, D; Rosenbaum, J T

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by alterations in immune and inflammatory function. In order to evaluate the potential role of cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in obesity-associated inflammation, we studied serum protein levels and mRNA levels in PBMC of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1Ra in nine lean and 10 obese subjects. Serum IL-1β was undetectable, IL-1Ra serum levels were elevated, serum levels of TNF-α were decreased and serum levels of IL-6 were similar in obese subjects compared to lean subjects, while transcript levels of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α, but not IL-1Ra, were decreased in PBMC from obese subjects. PBMC from obese subjects did, however, up-regulate cytokine expression in response to leptin. Thus, obesity-associated changes in IL-1Ra serum levels and IL-6 mRNA levels were not correlated with changes in cognate mRNA and serum levels, respectively, while TNF-α serum levels and PBMC mRNA levels were both decreased in obese patients. While immune alterations in obesity are manifest in peripheral blood lymphocytes, the general lack of correlation between altered serum levels and altered PBMC gene expression suggests that PBMC may not be the source of aberrant serum cytokine levels in obesity. PMID:16968396

  12. Cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Hossein, Hadinedoushan; Mahroo, Mirahmadian; Abbas, Aflatounian; Firouzeh, Akbari; Nadia, Hatmi

    2004-10-21

    It has been postulated that a proportion of recurrent miscarriage (RM) might be due to immune causes. The objective was to determine whether cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell is altered in patients with a history of RM. We compared the levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, TGFbeta1 and IFNgamma in the supernatant of Phytohemagglutinin stimulated mononuclear cells in 21 women with RM at the time of 3rd or higher abortion (group I), 32 women who were at least 3 months past their 3rd or higher abortion (group II) and 32 pregnant women with no history of abortion (group III). Gestational age was matched between groups I and III. Group I had higher level of IL-2 than group III (P=0.001). Group II showed higher level of IL-2 (P=0.001) and IFNgamma (P=0.015) than group III. The production of IL-10 by mononuclear cells of group III was higher than both group I (P=0.002) and group II (P=0.001). There was no difference in the levels of IL-2, IL-10 and IFNgamma between groups I and II. Also, the levels of IL-4, IL-13, and TGFbeta1 were similar among the groups. The data indicate an elevation of Th1 cytokines in women with RM as compared to normal pregnant women, and IL-10 is an important cytokine in the maintenance of pregnancy.

  13. Cytokines as biomarkers of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Tsergouli, Katerina; Çağlayık, Dilek Yağcı; Bino, Silvia; Como, Najada; Uyar, Yavuz; Korukluoglu, Gulay

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially severe disease caused by CCHF virus. As in other viral hemorrhagic fevers, it is considered that the course and outcome of the disease depend on the viral load and the balance among the immune response mediators, and that a fatal outcome is the result of a "cytokine storm." The level of 27 cytokines was measured in serum samples taken from 29 patients during the acute phase of the disease. Two cases were fatal. Among survivors, significant differences between severe and non-severe cases were observed in the levels of IP-10, and MCP-1, while the levels of IL-1b, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-15, IP-10, MCP-1, TNF-α, and RANTES differed significantly between fatal and non-fatal cases (P < 0.05). RANTES was negatively correlated with the outcome of the disease. A striking similarity with the cytokine patterns seen in Ebola virus disease was observed. A weak Th1 immune response was seen. The viral load was positively correlated with IL-10, IP-10, and MCP-1 levels, and negatively correlated with the ratio IL-12/IL-10. Especially IP-10 and MCP-1 were significantly associated with the viral load, the severity and outcome of the disease, and they could act as biomarkers and, probably, as potential targets for treatment strategies design. PMID:26118413

  14. Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokine Levels and Cognitive Impairment in Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    John, Chandy C.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Opoka, Robert O.; Park, Gregory S.; Orchard, Paul J.; Jurek, Anne M.; Idro, Richard; Byarugaba, Justus; Boivin, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum levels of 12 cytokines or chemokines important in central nervous system (CNS) infections were measured in 76 Ugandan children with cerebral malaria (CM) and 8 control children. As compared with control children, children with cerebral malaria had higher cerebrospinal fluid levels of interleukin (IL)-6, CXCL-8/IL-8, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-1 receptor antagonist. There was no correlation between cerebrospinal and serum cytokine levels for any cytokine except G-CSF. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid but not serum TNF-α levels on admission were associated with an increased risk of neurologic deficits 3 months later (odds ratio 1.55, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.18, P = 0.01) and correlated negatively with age-adjusted scores for attention (Spearman rho, -0.34, P = 0.04) and working memory (Spearman rho, -0.32, P = 0.06) 6 months later. In children with cerebral malaria, central nervous system TNF-α production is associated with subsequent neurologic and cognitive morbidity. PMID:18256412

  15. Angiopoietin-2 is critical for cytokine-induced vascular leakage.

    PubMed

    Benest, Andrew V; Kruse, Karoline; Savant, Soniya; Thomas, Markus; Laib, Anna M; Loos, Elias K; Fiedler, Ulrike; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2013-01-01

    Genetic experiments (loss-of-function and gain-of-function) have established the role of Angiopoietin/Tie ligand/receptor tyrosine kinase system as a regulator of vessel maturation and quiescence. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) acts on Tie2-expressing resting endothelial cells as an antagonistic ligand to negatively interfere with the vessel stabilizing effects of constitutive Ang-1/Tie-2 signaling. Ang-2 thereby controls the vascular response to inflammation-inducing as well as angiogenesis-inducing cytokines. This study was aimed at assessing the role of Ang-2 as an autocrine (i.e. endothelial-derived) regulator of rapid vascular responses (within minutes) caused by permeability-inducing agents. Employing two independent in vivo assays to quantitatively assess vascular leakage (tracheal microsphere assay, 1-5 min and Miles assay, 20 min), the immediate vascular response to histamine, bradykinin and VEGF was analyzed in Ang-2-deficient (Ang-2(-/-)) mice. In comparison to the wild type control mice, the Ang2(-/-) mice demonstrated a significantly attenuated response. The Ang-2(-/-) phenotype was rescued by systemic administration (paracrine) of an adenovirus encoding Ang-2. Furthermore, cytokine-induced intracellular calcium influx was impaired in Ang-2(-/-) endothelioma cells, consistent with reduced phospholipase activation in vivo. Additionally, recombinant human Ang-2 (rhAng-2) alone was unable to induce vascular leakage. In summary, we report here in a definite genetic setting that Ang-2 is critical for multiple vascular permeability-inducing cytokines. PMID:23940579

  16. Plasma Cytokine Profiles in Long-Term Strenuous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Hilde G.; Øktedalen, Olav; Opstad, Per-Kristian; Lyberg, Torstein

    2016-01-01

    The open window theory indicates altered immunity 3 to 72 hours after exercise. The J-curve describes the risk of illness in response to exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the secretion of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines before and after long-term strenuous exercise. Fourteen marathon and 16 half-marathon runners and 10 military cadets participating in a military ranger-training course were recruited to this study. Within-subject design was used measuring levels of plasma cytokines before, during, and after exercise. Plasma cytokines were measured using Luminex multiplex technology and ELISA. Comparing pre/post plasma levels both the marathon- and the half-marathon runners showed heavily increased levels of IL-6, IL-10, and IL-8 (P < 0.001). LPS stimulation among the half-marathon runners decreased the postrace levels of IL-6, IL-1b, and TNFα by 45%, 24%, and 43%, respectively (P < 0.01). During the ranger training course the spontaneous and LPS-stimulated levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1b, and TNFα changed in a similar fashion as in the half-marathon runners although the fluctuations were smaller. Our study supports the open window and the J-curve theory; the immune system is more activated and the subjects are more threatened to infectious pathogens after intensive physical activity and in the period after exercise. PMID:27239554

  17. [The role of cytokines for the pathogenesis of psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Kapp, A

    1993-04-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disorder characterized by marked hyperproliferation of keratinocytes in association with vascular expansion, fibroblast activation, leucocyte infiltration, and alterations of eicosanoid metabolism and of cytokine production. However, it is unclear at present whether these changes are the cause or the effect of the significantly increased keratinocyte turnover. More than one mechanism is involved in triggering active psoriasis; genetic predisposition and environmental factors affecting the immune system have a particularly important role. Most of the therapeutic regimens used for the treatment of psoriasis are immunosuppressive. Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that a specific defect of the immune system is the major pathogenic principle in psoriasis. There are several lines of evidence suggesting that changes in cytokine production by keratinocytes and immunocompetent cells in the skin of the patients, particularly of interleukin-6 and TGF alpha, may play an important part in propagation of the inflammatory response in psoriasis. Further studies are required to find how far local T-cell activation is involved as a basic mechanism of initiation and maintenance of the psoriatic inflammatory response. Accordingly, parameters such as the evaluation of cytokine production in vitro and in vivo and the measurement of cellular activation products may be useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of psoriasis.

  18. Interleukin-6, a Major Cytokine in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Erta, María; Quintana, Albert; Hidalgo, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine originally identified almost 30 years ago as a B-cell differentiation factor, capable of inducing the maturation of B cells into antibody-producing cells. As with many other cytokines, it was soon realized that IL-6 was not a factor only involved in the immune response, but with many critical roles in major physiological systems including the nervous system. IL-6 is now known to participate in neurogenesis (influencing both neurons and glial cells), and in the response of mature neurons and glial cells in normal conditions and following a wide arrange of injury models. In many respects, IL-6 behaves in a neurotrophin-like fashion, and seemingly makes understandable why the cytokine family that it belongs to is known as neuropoietins. Its expression is affected in several of the main brain diseases, and animal models strongly suggest that IL-6 could have a role in the observed neuropathology and that therefore it is a clear target of strategic therapies. PMID:23136554

  19. Structural design and molecular evolution of a cytokine receptor superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, J F

    1990-01-01

    A family of cytokine receptors comprising molecules specific for a diverse group of hematopoietic factors and growth hormones has been principally defined by a striking homology of binding domains. This work proposes that the approximately 200-residue binding segment of the canonical cytokine receptor is composed of two discrete folding domains that share a significant sequence and structural resemblance. Analogous motifs are found in tandem approximately 100-amino acid domains in the extracellular segments of a receptor family formed by the interferon-alpha/beta and -gamma receptors and tissue factor, a membrane tether for a coagulation protease. Domains from the receptor supergroup reveal clear evolutionary links to fibronectin type III structures, approximately 90-amino acid modules that are typically found in cell surface molecules with adhesive functions. Predictive structural analysis of the shared receptor and fibronectin domains locates seven beta-strands in conserved regions of the chain; these strands are modeled to fold into antiparallel beta-sandwiches with a topology that is similar to immunoglobulin constant domains. These findings have strong implications for understanding the evolutionary emergence of an important class of regulatory molecules from primitive adhesive modules. In addition, the resulting double-barrel design of the receptors and the spatial clustering of conserved residues suggest a likely binding site for cytokine ligands. Images PMID:2169613

  20. Bone mineral density and circulating cytokines in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Longobardi, S; Di Somma, C; Di Rella, F; Angelillo, N; Ferone, D; Colao, A; Merola, B; Lombardi, G

    1998-11-01

    Acromegalic patients present an increase of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, showing a different effect on the axial and appendicular skeletal structures. At this regard controversial data about bone mineral density (BMD) have been published in literature. In fact an increase of BMD levels in femoral neck and Ward's triangle without any difference in lumbar spine has been described. On the other hand normal BMD levels at forearm and reduced BMD levels at lumbar spine were found. These patients seem to have a reduction of trabecular BMD similar to postmenopausal osteoporotic patients despite normal or slightly elevated cortical BMD. Recently, it has been described that cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), are implicated in the pathogenetic mechanism of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Taking into account that growth hormone (GH) can increase TNF-alpha and IL-1 secretion by mononuclear blood cells, the evaluation of possible relationship between the reduced BMD at lumbar spine and circulating cytokines levels was carried out in acromegalic patients. In addition we evaluated the effect of acute octreotide administration on serum TNF-alpha and IL-I concentrations. Eleven patients with active acromegaly and eleven healthy age-, sex-, weight- and heightmatched subjects were enrolled in this study. BMD was significantly reduced at lumbar spine (0.80 +/- 0.29 g/cm2 vs 1.02 +/- 0.11 g/cm2; p < 0.01), but not at femoral neck level or at Ward's triangle level (0.92 + 0.15 g/cm2 vs 0.97 + 0.11 g/cm2, p = NS; and 0.74 +/- 0.16 g/cm2 vs 0.85 +/- 0.1 g/cm2, p = NS) when compared to controls. Baseline serum levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1 were in the normal range both in patients and controls. After acute octreotide administration, no differences in circulating TNF-alpha and IL-1 levels were found. In conclusion, acromegalic patients present a reduced BMD at lumbar spine but not at femoral neck level and Ward's triangle

  1. Forecasting the cytokine storm following systemic interleukin (IL)-2 administration

    PubMed Central

    Panelli, Monica C; White, Richard; Foster, Mareva; Martin, Brian; Wang, Ena; Smith, Kina; Marincola, Francesco M

    2004-01-01

    Extensive clinical experience has shown that systemic interleukin (IL)-2 administration can induce complete or partial regression of renal cell cancer (RCC) metastases in 15 to 20 % of patients. Since IL-2 has no direct anti-cancer effects, it is believed that cancer regression is mediated either by a direct modulation of immune cell effector functions or through the mediation of soluble factors released as a result of IL-2 administration. We previously observed that transcriptional and protein changes induced by systemic IL-2 administration affect predominantly mononuclear phagocytes with little effect, particularly within the tumor microenvironment, on T cell activation, localization and proliferation. It further appeared that mononuclear phagocyte activation could be best explained by the indirect mediation of a secondary release of cytokines by IL-2 responsive cells either in the circulation or in peripheral tissues. To better characterize the cytokine outburst that follows systemic IL-2 administration we followed the serum levels of 68 soluble factors in ten patients with RCC undergoing high dose (720,000 IU/kg intravenously every 8 hours) IL-2 therapy. Serum was collected before therapy, 3 hours after the 1st and 4th dose and assayed on a multiplexed protein array platform. This study demonstrated that 1) the serum concentration of more than half the soluble factors studied changed significantly during therapy; 2) changes became more dramatic with increasing doses; 3) subclasses of soluble factors displayed different kinetics and 4) cytokine patterns varied quantitatively among patients. This study shows that the cytokine storm that follows systemic IL-2 administration is complex and far-reaching inclusive of soluble factors with disparate, partly redundant and partly contrasting effects on immune function. Therefore comparing in parallel large number of soluble factors, it sets a comprehensive foundation for further elucidation of "cytokine storm" in larger

  2. Differential cytokine expression in EBV positive peripheral T cell lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, J W; Liang, R H; Srivastava, G

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether specific cytokines are secreted locally at the tumour site in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL). METHODS: An RNase protection assay system was used to study the differential expression of 21 cytokines in parallel in eight cases of EBV positive non-nasal PTCL, and compared with 11 EBV negative non-nasal PTCLs and three EBV positive nasal natural killer (NK) cell lymphomas. RESULTS: Among the eight EBV positive cases, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), lymphotoxin beta (LT beta), interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), and IL-1 receptor a (IL-Ra) were frequently detectable. IL-15, IL-6, IL-4, IL-1 beta, TNF-beta, and IL-9 were sporadically detectable. Of the frequently detectable cytokines, IFN-gamma and LT beta were commonly detected in the EBV negative cases. For cases with > 50% EBV encoded small non-polyadenylated RNA (EBER) positive cells, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta 1 were detected in three of three cases, and IL-1Ra in two of three cases. For cases with < 20% EBER positive cells, IL-10 was detected in three of five cases, TNF-alpha in two of four cases, but TGF-beta 1 and IL-1Ra were not detected. Interestingly, IL-6 was detected in two of three cases with > 50% EBER positive cells, but only in one of five cases with < 20% EBER positive cells. For comparison, in NK cell lymphomas, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IL-1Ra, and IL-6 were all detectable, but TGF-beta 1 was not detected at all. Immunohistochemical staining revealed IL-10 in many cells; in contrast, EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) was only found to be positive in isolated cells. CONCLUSIONS: Certain cytokines, such as IL-10 and TNF-alpha, might be expressed preferentially in EBV positive peripheral T cell lymphomas. It is likely that such a cytokine environment enhances EBV infection and contributes towards tumorigenesis. PMID:10748876

  3. Tissue cytokine patterns distinguish variants of rheumatoid synovitis.

    PubMed Central

    Klimiuk, P. A.; Goronzy, J. J.; Björ nsson, J.; Beckenbaugh, R. D.; Weyand, C. M.

    1997-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease with primary manifestations in the synovial membrane. Tissue infiltrates are composed of T cells, B cells, and macrophages, but histopathological appearances vary widely and are rarely pathognomonic. Mechanisms underlying the phenotypic heterogeneity of rheumatoid synovitis are not known. To explore whether a correlation exists between the microscopic patterns of rheumatoid synovitis and in situ production of cytokines, tissue samples from 21 consecutive patients with clinically active RA were examined. Based upon the organization of the lymphocyte infiltrate, the synovial biopsies were categorized into three distinct subsets. Ten samples were characterized by diffuse lymphoid infiltrates without further microarrangement. In seven samples, lymphoid follicles with germinal center formation were detected, and in four specimens, granuloma formation was identified. In all specimens, cytokine transcription of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 was semiquantified with polymerase chain reaction and liquid phase hybridization. Each of the morphologically defined variants of synovitis displayed a unique cytokine profile. Low-level transcription of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha was typical of diffuse synovitis. In follicular synovitis, IFN-gamma was the dominant cytokine, IL-4 was virtually undetectable, and IL-10 was abundant. Granulomatous synovitis demonstrated high transcription of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha and could be clearly distinguished from the other phenotypes. To investigate whether differences in the synovial lesions were related to host factors, patients were compared for clinical parameters. Diffuse synovitis was seen in most of the patients with seronegative RA, the mildest form of the disease. In contrast, extra-articular spreading of RA with nodule formation was typically

  4. Perilla frutescens extract ameliorates DSS-induced colitis by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and inducing anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Urushima, Hayato; Nishimura, Junichi; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Ito, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects have been reported in Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PE), which is a plant of the genus belonging to the Lamiaceae family. We examined the effect of PE on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Preliminarily, PE was safely administered for 7 wk without any adverse effects. In the preventive protocol, mice were fed 1.5% DSS solution dissolved in distilled water (control group) or 0.54% PE solution (PE group) ad libitum for 7 days. In the therapeutic protocol, distilled water or 0.54% PE solution was given for 10 days just after administration of 1.5% DSS for 5 days. PE intake significantly improved body weight loss. The serum cytokine profile demonstrated that TNF-α, IL-17A, and IL-10 were significantly lower in the PE group than in the control group. In the therapeutic protocol, mice in the PE group showed significantly higher body weight and lower histological colitis scores compared with mice in the control group on day 15. The serum cytokine profile demonstrated that TGF-β was significantly higher in the PE group than in the control group. In distal colon mRNA expression, TNF-α, and IL-17A were significantly downregulated. In vitro analyses of biologically active ingredients, such as luteolin, apigenin, and rosmarinic acid, in PE were performed. Luteolin suppressed production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17A. Apigenin also suppressed secretion of IL-17A and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Rosmarinic acid increased the regulatory T cell population. We conclude that PE might be useful in treatment and prevention of DSS-induced colitis.

  5. Sequential cytokine dynamics in chronic rejection of rat renal allografts: roles for cytokines RANTES and MCP-1.

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, K C; Azuma, H; Tilney, N L

    1995-01-01

    Chronic rejection, the most important cause of long-term graft failure, is thought to result from both alloantigen-dependent and -independent factors. To examine these influences, cytokine dynamics were assessed by semiquantitative competitive reverse transcriptase-PCR and by immunohistology in an established rat model of chronic rejection lf renal allografts. Isograft controls develop morphologic and immunohistologic changes that are similar to renal allograft changes, although quantitatively less intense and at a delayed speed; these are thought to occur secondary to antigen-independent events. Sequential cytokine expression was determined throughout the process. During an early reversible allograft rejection episode, both T-cell associated [interleukin (IL) 2, IL-2 receptor, IL-4, and interferon gamma] and macrophage (IL-1 alpha, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-6) products were up-regulated despite transient immunosuppression. RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) peaked at 2 weeks; intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) was maximally expressed at 6 weeks. Macrophage products such as monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) increased dramatically (to 10 times), presaging intense peak macrophage infiltration at 16 weeks. In contrast, in isografts, ICAM-1 peaked at 24 weeks. MCP-1 was maximally expressed at 52 weeks, commensurate with a progressive increase in infiltrating macrophages. Cytokine expression in the spleen of allograft and isograft recipients was insignificant. We conclude that chronic rejection of kidney allografts in rats is predominantly a local macrophage-dependent event with intense up-regulation of macrophage products such as MCP-1, IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. The cytokine expression in isografts emphasizes the contribution of antigen-independent events. The dynamics of RANTES expression between early and late phases of chronic rejection suggest a key role in mediating the events of the

  6. The Role of Cytokine PF4 in the Antiviral Immune Response of Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulei; Cao, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    During viral infection in vertebrates, cytokines play important roles in the host defense against the virus. However, the function of cytokines in invertebrates has not been well characterized. In this study, shrimp cytokines involved in viral infection were screened using a cytokine antibody microarray. The results showed that three cytokines, the Fas receptor (Fas), platelet factor 4 (PF4) and interleukin-22 (IL-22), were significantly upregulated in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-challenged shrimp, suggesting that these cytokines played positive regulatory roles in the immune response of shrimp against the virus. Further experiments revealed that PF4 had positive effects on the antiviral immunity of shrimp by enhancing the shrimp phagocytic activity and inhibiting the apoptotic activity of virus-infected hemocytes. Therefore, our study presented a novel mechanism of cytokines in the innate immunity of invertebrates. PMID:27631372

  7. The Role of Cytokine PF4 in the Antiviral Immune Response of Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulei; Cao, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    During viral infection in vertebrates, cytokines play important roles in the host defense against the virus. However, the function of cytokines in invertebrates has not been well characterized. In this study, shrimp cytokines involved in viral infection were screened using a cytokine antibody microarray. The results showed that three cytokines, the Fas receptor (Fas), platelet factor 4 (PF4) and interleukin-22 (IL-22), were significantly upregulated in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-challenged shrimp, suggesting that these cytokines played positive regulatory roles in the immune response of shrimp against the virus. Further experiments revealed that PF4 had positive effects on the antiviral immunity of shrimp by enhancing the shrimp phagocytic activity and inhibiting the apoptotic activity of virus-infected hemocytes. Therefore, our study presented a novel mechanism of cytokines in the innate immunity of invertebrates. PMID:27631372

  8. Altered cytokine network in gestational diabetes mellitus affects maternal insulin and placental-fetal development.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, Lauren; Belkacemi, Louiza

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by an altered inflammatory profile, compared to the non-pregnant state with an adequate balance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines needed for normal development. Cytokines are small secreted proteins expressed mainly in immunocompetent cells in the reproductive system. From early developmental stages onward, the secretory activity of placenta cells clearly contributes to increase local as well as systemic levels of cytokines. The placental production of cytokines may affect mother and fetus independently. In turn because of this unique position at the maternal fetal interface, the placenta is also exposed to the regulatory influence of cytokines from maternal and fetal circulations, and hence, may be affected by changes in any of these. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an overall alteration of the cytokine network. This review discusses the changes that occur in cytokines post GDM and their negative effects on maternal insulin and placental-fetal development. PMID:27230834

  9. Signaling of Cytokines is Important in Regulation of GnRH Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines encompass a broad class of peptides that mediate signals in a broad range of physiological situations including inflammation, infection, and obesity. The cytokine receptor-associated tyrosine kinase, Jak2, is one of the most important proteins mediating cytokine signaling pathway activation. Recently, our group has demonstrated that Jak2 signaling in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron plays a critical role in fertility in males and females, implicating cytokine activation of the neuron in GnRH neuronal development and function. To date, the specific cytokine(s) essential for activating Jak2 during neuroendocrine development are not known. In this article, we review the evidence for the role of several class 1 cytokines in regulating GnRH neuronal development, GnRH secretion, and GnRH expression. PMID:22161498

  10. Tamm-Horsfall Protein Regulates Circulating and Renal Cytokines by Affecting Glomerular Filtration Rate and Acting as a Urinary Cytokine Trap*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; El-Achkar, Tarek M.; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2012-01-01

    Although few organ systems play a more important role than the kidneys in cytokine catabolism, the mechanism(s) regulating this pivotal physiological function and how its deficiency affects systemic cytokine homeostasis remain unclear. Here we show that elimination of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) expression from mouse kidneys caused a marked elevation of circulating IFN-γ, IL1α, TNF-α, IL6, CXCL1, and IL13. Accompanying this were enlarged spleens with prominent white-pulp macrophage infiltration. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exacerbated the increase of serum cytokines without a corresponding increase in their urinary excretion in THP knock-out (KO) mice. This, along with the rise of serum cystatin C and the reduced inulin and creatinine clearance from the circulation, suggested that diminished glomerular filtration may contribute to reduced cytokine clearance in THP KO mice both at the baseline and under stress. Unlike wild-type mice where renal and urinary cytokines formed specific in vivo complexes with THP, this “trapping” effect was absent in THP KO mice, thus explaining why cytokine signaling pathways were activated in renal epithelial cells in such mice. Our study provides new evidence implicating an important role of THP in influencing cytokine clearance and acting as a decoy receptor for urinary cytokines. Based on these and other data, we present a unifying model that underscores the role of THP as a major regulator of renal and systemic immunity. PMID:22451664

  11. Autoimmunity and Cytokine Imbalance in Inherited Epidermolysis Bullosa.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Guez, Sophie; Orenti, Annalisa; Tadini, Gianluca; Scuvera, Giulietta; Corti, Laura; Scala, Alessia; Biganzoli, Elia; Berti, Emilio; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the serum anti-skin autoantibodies and cytokine concentrations in patients with different epidermolysis bullosa (EB) types and severity, 42 EB patients and 38 controls were enrolled. Serum anti-skin antibodies were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls (p = 0.008, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 for desmoglein 1 (DSG1) desmoglein 3 (DSG3), bullous pemphigoid 180 (BP180), BP230 and type VII collagen (COL7), respectively). The same trend was observed for interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-β, and interferon-γ (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.008, p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Increases in anti-skin antibodies and cytokine concentrations were higher in patients with recessive dystrophic EB than in those with different types of EB, in generalized cases than in localized ones, and in patients with higher Birmingham Epidermolysis Bullosa Severity (BEBS) scores than in those with a lower score. The BEBS score was directly correlated with BP180, BP230, COL7 (p = 0.015, p = 0.008 and p < 0.001, respectively) and IL-6 (p = 0.03), whereas IL-6 appeared significantly associated with DSG1, DSG3, BP180, BP230 and COL7 (p = 0.015, p = 0.023, p = 0.023, p = 0.015 and p = 0.005, respectively). This study showed that autoimmunity and inflammatory responses are frequently activated in EB, mainly in severe forms, suggesting the use of immunosuppressive drugs or biologicals that are active against pro-inflammatory cytokines to reduce clinical signs and symptoms of disease.

  12. T-lymphocyte cytokine profiles in compositae airborne dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stingeni, L; Agea, E; Lisi, P; Spinozzi, F

    1999-10-01

    Compositae airborne dermatitis is a well-recognized disorder characterized by erythematosquamous lesions and papules on light-exposed areas. The presence of positive patch test reactions and the absence of specific serum IgE suggest delayed-type hypersensitivity, the murine model of which is characterized by a Th1 cytokine production profile [high amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2; little or no IL-4 and IL-5]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytokine profile of T-cell lines and T-cell clones from peripheral blood in a 38-year-old non-atopic male woodcutter affected by seasonal airborne contact dermatitis. The patient showed positive patch test reactions to several Compositae extracts (Achillea millefolium, Chamomilla recutita, Tanacetum parthenium, T. vulgare) and sesquiterpene lactone mix. On prick testing with Compositae and other plants, serum-specific IgE levels and phototesting were negative or normal. Allergen-specific T-cell lines produced with Compositae extracts showed a good in vitro cell proliferation only to C. recutita extract. Serial cloning performed using the C. recutita-specific T-cell lines revealed an alphabeta+CD4+ phenotype with high amounts of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in T-cell clones. Thus, these cells expressed a preferential Th0 phenotype. These data suggest that in addition to IFN-gamma, other T-cell derived cytokines, such as IL-4, may play a part in the immunopathogenesis of contact dermatitis. PMID:10583117

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids modulate neonatal cytokine response to endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Espiritu, Michael M; Lin, Hong; Foley, Elizabeth; Tsang, Valerie; Rhee, Eunice; Perlman, Jeffrey; Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    Neonatal immune response is characterized by an uncompensated pro-inflammatory response that can lead to inflammation-related morbidity and increased susceptibility to infection. We investigated the effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) pre-treatment on cytokine secretion to low-concentration endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) in THP-1 monocytes and neonatal cord blood (CB) from healthy full-term infants. Pre-treatment of THP-1 cells, with either n-3 PUFA at 25 or 100 μM significantly reduced IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 secretion while DHA, but not EPA, reduced TNF-α response to LPS. DHA inhibition was stronger compared to EPA and effective at the low concentration. The same concentrations of n-3 PUFAs inhibited IL-12 but not IL-10 cytokine response in whole CB from 9 infants pre-treated for 24 h. To assess clinical relevance for acute response to LPS, the effects of low-concentration DHA at 25 μM or 12.5 μM were assessed before and after LPS exposure of isolated CB mononuclear cells from 20 infants for 1 h. When added before or after LPS, physiologic DHA treatment produced significant concentration-dependent inhibition of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-8 secretion. The results demonstrate prophylactic and therapeutic modulation of neonatal cytokine response to LPS and provide proof-of-concept that low-concentration administration of n-3 PUFA could attenuate or resolve neonatal inflammatory response.

  14. Autoimmunity and Cytokine Imbalance in Inherited Epidermolysis Bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Susanna; Guez, Sophie; Orenti, Annalisa; Tadini, Gianluca; Scuvera, Giulietta; Corti, Laura; Scala, Alessia; Biganzoli, Elia; Berti, Emilio; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the serum anti-skin autoantibodies and cytokine concentrations in patients with different epidermolysis bullosa (EB) types and severity, 42 EB patients and 38 controls were enrolled. Serum anti-skin antibodies were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls (p = 0.008, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 for desmoglein 1 (DSG1) desmoglein 3 (DSG3), bullous pemphigoid 180 (BP180), BP230 and type VII collagen (COL7), respectively). The same trend was observed for interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-β, and interferon-γ (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.008, p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Increases in anti-skin antibodies and cytokine concentrations were higher in patients with recessive dystrophic EB than in those with different types of EB, in generalized cases than in localized ones, and in patients with higher Birmingham Epidermolysis Bullosa Severity (BEBS) scores than in those with a lower score. The BEBS score was directly correlated with BP180, BP230, COL7 (p = 0.015, p = 0.008 and p < 0.001, respectively) and IL-6 (p = 0.03), whereas IL-6 appeared significantly associated with DSG1, DSG3, BP180, BP230 and COL7 (p = 0.015, p = 0.023, p = 0.023, p = 0.015 and p = 0.005, respectively). This study showed that autoimmunity and inflammatory responses are frequently activated in EB, mainly in severe forms, suggesting the use of immunosuppressive drugs or biologicals that are active against pro-inflammatory cytokines to reduce clinical signs and symptoms of disease. PMID:27669234

  15. Regulation of cytokine gene expression by adjuvants in vivo.

    PubMed

    Victoratos, P; Yiangou, M; Avramidis, N; Hadjipetrou, L

    1997-09-01

    Antibody isotype affects biological activity of the antibodies and therefore should be considered in prevention of disease by vaccination. In previous reports, we demonstrated that adjuvants affect the antibody isotype switching process and favour the production of certain isotypes. The present study extends these findings and shows fundamental differences in the cytokine induction pattern according to the adjuvant used. Cytokine mRNA levels were determined by in situ RNA-RNA hybridization performed on splenocytes isolated from mice injected with different adjuvants. The results revealed that Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), Al(OH)3 and QuilA administration results in a type-2 (humoral) response, increasing IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 gene expression, while poly I:C exhibits a type-1 (cell-mediated) response, increasing the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-2 and IL-6 mRNA. Finally, BeSO4 and poly A:U augment IL-5 and IL-6 mRNA production, while lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LiCl augment IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA production. Also, the adjuvants appear capable of overcoming the inherent IL-2/IFN-gamma and IL-4 dichotomy of C57B1/6 and BALB/c mice, respectively, in response to cellular antigens such as Leishmania and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The overall data suggest that adjuvants direct the isotype switching process via induction of certain cytokines, a finding that can be useful in selection of the most efficient isotype of protective antibodies for disease prevention by vaccination.

  16. Cytokine and Growth Factor Responses After Radiotherapy for Localized Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E. Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Gaber, M. Waleed

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the time course and clinical significance of cytokines and peptide growth factors in pediatric patients with ependymoma treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We measured 15 cytokines and growth factors (fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], interleukin [IL]-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-{gamma}, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-{alpha}) from 30 patients before RT and 2 and 24 h, weekly for 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the initiation of RT. Two longitudinal models for the trend of log-transformed measurements were fitted, one during treatment and one through 12 months. Results: During RT, log IL-8 declined at a rate of -0.10389/wk (p = 0.0068). The rate of decline was greater (p = 0.028) for patients with an infratentorial tumor location. The decline in IL-8 after RT was significant when stratified by infratentorial tumor location (p = 0.0345) and more than one surgical procedure (p = 0.0272). During RT, the decline in log VEGF was significant when stratified by the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. After RT, the log VEGF declined significantly at a rate of -0.06207/mo. The decline was significant for males (p = 0.0222), supratentorial tumors (p = 0.0158), one surgical procedure (p = 0.0222), no ventriculoperitoneal shunt (p = 0.0005), and the absence of treatment failure (p = 0.0028). Conclusion: The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 declined significantly during RT and the decline differed according to tumor location. The angiogenesis factor VEGF declined significantly during the 12 months after RT. The decline was greater in males, those without a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and in those with favorable disease factors, including one surgical procedure, supratentorial tumor location, and

  17. Autoimmunity and Cytokine Imbalance in Inherited Epidermolysis Bullosa.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Guez, Sophie; Orenti, Annalisa; Tadini, Gianluca; Scuvera, Giulietta; Corti, Laura; Scala, Alessia; Biganzoli, Elia; Berti, Emilio; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the serum anti-skin autoantibodies and cytokine concentrations in patients with different epidermolysis bullosa (EB) types and severity, 42 EB patients and 38 controls were enrolled. Serum anti-skin antibodies were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls (p = 0.008, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 for desmoglein 1 (DSG1) desmoglein 3 (DSG3), bullous pemphigoid 180 (BP180), BP230 and type VII collagen (COL7), respectively). The same trend was observed for interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-β, and interferon-γ (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.008, p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Increases in anti-skin antibodies and cytokine concentrations were higher in patients with recessive dystrophic EB than in those with different types of EB, in generalized cases than in localized ones, and in patients with higher Birmingham Epidermolysis Bullosa Severity (BEBS) scores than in those with a lower score. The BEBS score was directly correlated with BP180, BP230, COL7 (p = 0.015, p = 0.008 and p < 0.001, respectively) and IL-6 (p = 0.03), whereas IL-6 appeared significantly associated with DSG1, DSG3, BP180, BP230 and COL7 (p = 0.015, p = 0.023, p = 0.023, p = 0.015 and p = 0.005, respectively). This study showed that autoimmunity and inflammatory responses are frequently activated in EB, mainly in severe forms, suggesting the use of immunosuppressive drugs or biologicals that are active against pro-inflammatory cytokines to reduce clinical signs and symptoms of disease. PMID:27669234

  18. Cytokine-mediated regulation of chronic intestinal helminth infection

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Most inbred strains of mouse infected with the intestinal nematode Trichuris muris are resistant to infection expelling the parasite before adult worms establish. However, a few susceptible strains exist that are incapable of worm expulsion and harbor chronic infections of mature adult worms. Analyses of in vitro cytokine production by cells from the draining lymph node (mesenteric lymph node) have indicated that expulsion phenotype is tightly correlated with the selective expansion of helper T cells (Th) of the Th1 or Th2 cell subset within the mesenteric lymph node, resulting in susceptibility and resistance to T. muris, respectively. We have now confirmed and extended our in vitro observations in a series of experiments involving the in vivo manipulation of host cytokine levels. Depletion of interferon (IFN)- gamma in normally susceptible mice resulted in expulsion of the parasite, representing the first evidence for a role for IFN-gamma in the establishment of chronic helminth infection. Blocking interleukin (IL)-4 function in normally resistant animals prevented the generation of a protective immune response allowing adult stages of the parasite to develop. Conversely the administration of IL-4 to a normally susceptible host facilitated expulsion and indeed enabled established adult worms to be expelled when administered late in infection. In all cases assessment of a variety of in vivo parameters indicative of a Th1- or Th2-type response (parasite-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G2a and the parasite-specific IgG1, total IgE levels and intestinal mastocytosis, respectively) demonstrated that the in vivo modulation of a Th1- or Th2- specific cytokine allowed the reciprocal Th cell subset to expand and become dominant with dramatic consequences for worm expulsion. PMID:8270879

  19. MICROFLUIDIC MODULES FOR ISOLATION OF RECOMBINANT CYTOKINE FROM BACTERIAL LYSATES

    SciTech Connect

    Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2014-01-01

    The portability and personalization of health-care diagnostics and treatments benefits from advancements and applications of micro and nanotechnology. Modularization and miniaturization of standardized biochemical processes and tests facilitates the advancement and customization of analyte detection and diagnosis on-chip. The goal of our work here is to develop modular platforms for on-chip biochemical processing of synthesized biologics for a range of on-demand applications. Our report focuses on the initial development, characterization and application of microfluidic size exclusion/gel filtration and ion exchange protein concentration modules for cytokine isolation from spiked cell extracts.

  20. Cytokine orchestration in post-operative peritoneal adhesion formation

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Ronan A; Redmond, H Paul

    2008-01-01

    Peritoneal adhesions are a near inevitable occurrence after laparotomy and a major cause of both patient and physician misery. To date, clinical attempts at their amelioration have concentrated on manipulating the physical factors that affect their development despite a wealth of experimental data elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie their initiation, development and maturation. However, the advent of targeted, specific anti-cytokine agents as directed therapy for inflammatory and neoplastic conditions raises the prospect of a new era for anti-adhesion strategies. To harness this potential will require considerable cross-disciplinary collaboration and that surgeon-scientists propel themselves to the forefront of this emerging field. PMID:18756592

  1. Tregs Are Regulated by Cytokines: Implications for Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    La Cava, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Several immune cell subsets contribute to the maintenance of peripheral tolerance by taking active participation in the networks that suppress autoreactive immune responses. There is ample evidence that CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) can have an important role in suppressing the production of autoimmune responses in animal models and in humans. This review describes the influences that specific cytokines have on the differentiation, maintenance and survival of Tregs, and how these effects can ultimately directly influence both number and functional activity of these cells in autoimmune disease. PMID:18771756

  2. Modulation of cytokine expression in human macrophages by endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yanzhen; Mei, Chenfang; Liu, Hao; Wang, Hongsheng; Zeng, Guoqu; Lin, Jianhui; Xu, Meiying

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on the cytokines expression of human macrophages were investigated. • BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 production. • BPA decreased anti-inflammation IL-10 and TGF-β production. • ERα/β/ERK/NF-κB signaling involved in BPA-mediated cytokines expression. - Abstract: Exposure to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A (BPA) is often associated with dysregulated immune homeostasis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of BPA on the cytokines responses of human macrophages were investigated. Treatment with BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, but decreased anti-inflammation cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production in THP1 macrophages, as well as in primary human macrophages. BPA effected cytokines expression through estrogen receptor α/β (ERα/β)-dependent mechanism with the evidence of ERα/β antagonist reversed the expression of cytokines. We also identified that activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)/nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal cascade marked the effects of BPA on cytokines expression. Our results indicated that BPA effected inflammatory responses of macrophages via modulating of cytokines expression, and provided a new insight into the link between exposure to BPA and human health.

  3. Performance evaluation of FlowCytomix assays to quantify cytokines in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuefeng; Dong, Liyang; Liang, Yong; Ni, Hongchang; Tang, Jun; Xu, Chengcheng; Zhou, Yuepeng; Su, Yuting; Wang, Jun; Chen, Deyu; Mao, Chaoming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the cytokine profile in RA patients and healthy control by using two methods-FlowCytomix assay and traditional ELISA. Methods: Cytokine levels were evaluated by FlowCytomix assay and ELISA in serum and supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cultures with and without stimulation by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Results: The levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α were significantly higher in sera of RA patients than those of healthy controls. The levels of IL-22, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-10 were higher in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatant of RA patients than those of healthy controls. PHA stimulation significantly increased the production of proinflammatory cytokines from PBMC with RA patients. Compared with detectable cytokine levels in sera, cytokine concentration in the supernatant of PBMCs was remarkably higher. FlowCytomix and ELISA showed significant correlation in detecting cytokines. However, the FlowCytomix assay detected more cytokines than ELISA. Conclusion: The supernatant of PBMCs provide a fine condition for the study of cytokine production because of the lack of interference factors in sera. The FlowCytomix assay is more sensitive than ELISA in detecting cytokines from RA patients. Multiple cytokine signatures using FlowCytomix assay may represent a more realistic approach in the future of personalized medicine in RA. PMID:26629129

  4. Longitudinal tracking of cytokines after acute exposure to tuberculosis: association of distinct cytokine patterns with protection and disease development.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Rabia; Talat, Najeeha; Shahid, Firdaus; Dawood, Ghaffar

    2007-12-01

    Household contacts (HCs) of patients with tuberculosis (TB) are at higher risk of infection as well as the development of active disease. Longitudinal tracking of antigen-specific cytokines after acute exposure may significantly advance our understanding of the dynamic changes in cytokine patterns associated with disease establishment. To achieve this objective, we carried out a prospective cohort study with healthy HCs after exposure to TB. The patterns of cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-gamma] and interleukin 10 [IL-10]) in response to mycobacterial antigens (culture filtrate [CF] proteins) and nonspecific mitogens (phytohemagglutinin [PHA] and lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) were assessed at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months after exposure. Seven of 109 (6.4%) HCs developed active disease. Six of the seven individuals were females, and active disease developed between 12 and 15 months after exposure in 5/20 families. The most significant findings were the exponential increases ( approximately 1,000-fold) in both the CF protein- and the PHA- or LPS-induced IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio in healthy HCs (n = 26), which peaked at 12 months, compared to the levels in HCs who developed disease (n = 7), in whom relatively flat responses were observed during the 24-month period. Linear trends for 0 to 12 and 0 to 24 months for the CF protein-induced IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio showed significant differences between the two groups, as determined by the use of the Mantel extension test for chi(2) analysis (odds ratio = 0.45; 95% confidence interval = 0.295 to 0.685; P = 0.0002). Our results strongly suggest that the magnitude of the IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio at 12 months after exposure may be a critical determinant in the resolution of infection. These studies provide new insights into the cytokine responses associated with disease establishment or the resolution of infection after natural exposure to TB and have implications for TB control programs as well vaccine efficacy studies. PMID:17928427

  5. Cytokine Mediated Control of Muscle Stem Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Joanisse, Sophie; Parise, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SC), are an absolute requirement for muscle regeneration and contribute significantly to post-natal muscle growth. This stem cell population is governed by a network of transcription factors collectively referred to as the myogenic regulatory factors. These factors are responsible for the progression of a SC from the quiescent state through activation, proliferation and terminal differentiation in a process referred to as the myogenic programme. At each stage in this process, cytokines and growth factors have been shown to play a role in directing the myogenic response. The myogenic programme is complex and requires input from a host of factors that provide both stimulatory and inhibitory signals that regulate SC. Despite years of work in this field, there remains a paucity of information on the precise factors that drive the myogenic programme. In recent years, factors, such as IL-6, have been shown to be critical factors in promoting SC proliferation. In fact, a complete absence of IL-6 in skeletal muscle substantially impairs muscle SC proliferation. These observations highlight the potential importance of the inflammatory response and the cross-talk between inflammatory cells and SC in promoting muscle repair and growth. This chapter will focus on recent advances in cytokine (and some growth factors) regulation of SC. Work from cell, animal and human models will be discussed. PMID:27003395

  6. Borrelia burgdorferi Spirochetes Induce Mast Cell Activation and Cytokine Release

    PubMed Central

    Talkington, Jeffrey; Nickell, Steven P.

    1999-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is introduced into human hosts via tick bites. Among the cell types present in the skin which may initially contact spirochetes are mast cells. Since spirochetes are known to activate a variety of cell types in vitro, we tested whether B. burgdorferi spirochetes could activate mast cells. We report here that freshly isolated rat peritoneal mast cells or mouse MC/9 mast cells cultured in vitro with live or freeze-thawed B. burgdorferi spirochetes undergo low but detectable degranulation, as measured by [5-3H] hydroxytryptamine release, and they synthesize and secrete the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In contrast to findings in previous studies, where B. burgdorferi-associated activity was shown to be dependent upon protein lipidation, mast cell TNF-α release was not induced by either lipidated or unlipidated recombinant OspA. This activity was additionally shown to be protease sensitive and surface expressed. Finally, comparisons of TNF-α-inducing activity in known low-, intermediate-, and high-passage B. burgdorferi B31 isolates demonstrated passage-dependent loss of activity, indicating that the activity is probably plasmid encoded. These findings document the presence in low-passage B. burgdorferi spirochetes of a novel lipidation-independent activity capable of inducing cytokine release from host cells. PMID:10024550

  7. Expression of class II cytokine genes in children's skin.

    PubMed

    Reemann, Paula; Reimann, Ene; Suutre, Siim; Paavo, Maarjaliis; Loite, Ulvi; Porosaar, Orm; Abram, Kristi; Silm, Helgi; Vasar, Eero; Kõks, Sulev; Kingo, Külli

    2014-07-01

    Immune regulation of the skin plays an important role in susceptibility and development of illnesses. The aim of our study was to localise the interleukin (IL)-10 family of cytokines, in children's skin and to determine possible age-related differences in the expression level. The mRNA expression level of IL10, IL19, IL20, IL22, IL24, IL26, IL28B, IL29 and their receptors IL10RA, IL10RB, IL20RA, IL20RB, IL22RA1, IL22RA2, IL28RA was compared in skin biopsies of children and adults and in childrens' skin cells by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry was performed to confirm the qRT-PCR findings. We found age-related differences in the expression of IL10RB, IL20, IL20RA, IL22RA1, IL22RA2, IL26 and IL28RA genes. Cell type-dependent expression of IL10 family cytokines was apparent in the skin. In addition to previously known differences in systemic immunological response of adults and children, the present results reveal differences in immune profile of adult and juvenile skin.

  8. Macrophage cytokine response to particles and lipopolysaccharide in vitro.

    PubMed

    Daniels, A U; Barnes, F H; Charlebois, S J; Smith, R A

    2000-03-15

    Several investigators have suggested that biologic molecules adsorbed onto particles may play a key role in determining macrophage response. Adsorbed endotoxins (bacterial debris) may be of particular importance since they are widely present exogenously and endogenously and adhere strongly to many materials. Murine-transformed peritoneal macrophages (IC-21) were used in this in vitro study. Secretions of IL-1 beta, TNF alpha, and IL-6 were used as a measure of macrophage response to micron-range particles of high-density polyethylene and Co-Cr-Mo alloy, with and without adsorbed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin. Little cytokine secretion was measured in response to particles (and to polypropylene experimental chambers) cleaned with ethanol and saline and not exposed to LPS. The lack of macrophage response to cleaned particles has been reported by others and may help reconcile conflicting reports in the literature. Cytokine secretion levels were high in all cases if the chambers (with or without particles) were exposed to LPS (and rinsed to minimize nonbound LPS). Secretion patterns were different with particles present and for polymer versus metal particles. Overall, these results suggest that (1) adsorbed molecules on material surfaces strongly affect macrophage response and (2) particle surface chemistry and microstructure affect the concentration and configuration of adsorbed molecules, further influencing particle interaction with macrophage surface receptors. PMID:10602080

  9. Consideration of the production methods and safety evaluation of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Liu, D T

    1988-01-01

    Cytokines are natural endogenous substances whose biological effects in humans are little known when given in therapeutic rather than physiologic doses. Yet, there is intense interest in seeking their possible clinical use. While E. coli are effective in making "simple proteins" with few disulfide bonds, mammalian cells are becoming more generally used for the production of "complex proteins" with multiple disulfide bonds and glycoproteins. There appears to be much less concern about the safety of possibly oncogenic residual DNA from transformed cell lines, but viral contamination of products continues to be an active concern. Both physicochemical and biological methods are necessary to establish the identity, purity and potency of biological drugs. For proteins to manifest their proper biological and therapeutic effects in humans, their correct conformation must be maintained throughout production, purification and formulation. Regulating novel biological drugs such as the cytokines might raise new scientific issues that are not currently apparent, but the basic principles involved will be consistent with those used to evaluate other biologics, e.g., sound scientific principles, flexibility, case-by-case approach, good common sense and risk vs benefit assessment.

  10. Evaluation of plasma inflammatory cytokine concentrations in racing sled dogs

    PubMed Central

    von Pfeil, Dirsko J. F.; Cummings, Bethany P.; Loftus, John P.; Levine, Corri B.; Mann, Sabine; Downey, Robert L.; Griffitts, Caroline; Wakshlag, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    In human athletes significant changes in cytokine concentrations secondary to exercise have been observed. This prospective study evaluated the effect of a multi-day stage sled dog race on plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Samples from 20 dogs were harvested prior to and on days 2 and 8 of an 8-day race. Exercise resulted in significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-8 as well as increases of MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations (P-value between 0.01 and < 0.0001 for all parameters). The proportion of values for IL-2 that were below the detection limit increased from 40% on day 0 to 75% on day 2 and decreased on day 8 to 40% (P = 0.04). Racing sled dogs show cytokine-concentration changes that are different from those in humans. PMID:26663920

  11. Inflammatory bowel disease: the role of inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed Central

    Balding, Joanna; Livingstone, Wendy J; Conroy, Judith; Mynett-Johnson, Lesley; Weir, Donald G; Mahmud, Nasir; Smith, Owen P

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have not been fully elucidated, although the main cause of disease pathology is attributed to up-regulated inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate frequencies of polymorphisms in genes encoding pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers in IBD patients and controls. We determined genotypes of patients with IBD (n= 172) and healthy controls (n= 389) for polymorphisms in genes encoding various cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist). Association of these genotypes to disease incidence and pathophysiology was investigated. No strong association was found with occurrence of IBD. Variation was observed between the ulcerative colitis study group and the control population for the TNF-alpha-308 polymorphism (p= 0.0135). There was also variation in the frequency of IL-6-174 and TNF-alpha-308 genotypes in the ulcerative colitis group compared with the Crohn's disease group (p= 0.01). We concluded that polymorphisms in inflammatory genes are associated with variations in IBD phenotype and disease susceptibility. Whether the polymorphisms are directly involved in regulating cytokine production, and consequently pathophysiology of IBD, or serve merely as markers in linkage disequilibrium with susceptibility genes remains unclear. PMID:15223609

  12. Immunosuppressive factor from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans down regulates cytokine production.

    PubMed Central

    Kurita-Ochiai, T; Ochiai, K

    1996-01-01

    A cytoplasmic soluble fraction of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 was isolated and characterized as suppressing mitogen-stimulated proliferation of and cytokine production by C3H/HeN mouse splenic T cells. This factor, designated suppressive factor 1 (SF1), was isolated from the supernatant of sonicated whole bacteria and purified by Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography, DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography, hydroxyapatite high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and Protein Pack 300 & 125 gel filtration HPLC. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the purified SF1 migrated as a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 14 kDa. This molecule was protease labile, heat resistant, and noncytotoxic. N'-terminal sequence analysis revealed no homology with any known peptides of periodontopathic bacteria or with any host-derived growth factors. Purified SF1 suppressed the proliferation of mouse splenic T cells which had been stimulated with concanavalin A, as well as suppressing the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), gamma interferon, IL-4, and IL-5 from CD4+ T cells as 0.1 microgram/ml or more. These data suggest that SF1 produced by the periodontal pathogen A. actinomycetemcomitans functions as a virulence factor by down regulating T-cell proliferation and cytokine production at local defense sites. PMID:8557373

  13. Heparanase upregulaes Th2 cytokines, ameliorating experimental autoimmune encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Bitan, Menachem; Weiss, Lola; Reibstein, Israel; Zeira, Michael; Fellig, Yakov; Slavin, Shimon; Zcharia, Eyal; Nagler, Arnon; Vlodavsky, Israel

    2010-01-01

    Heparanase is an endo–β–D-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate (HS) saccharide chains. The enzyme promotes cell adhesion, migration and invasion and plays a significant role in cancer metastasis, angiogenesis and inflammation. The present study focuses on the involvement of heparanase in autoimmunity, applying the murine experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) model, a T cell dependent disease often used to investigate the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Intraperitoneal administration of recombinant heparanase ameliorated, in a dose dependent manner, the clinical signs of the disease. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that heparanase inhibited mitogen induced splenocyte proliferation and mixed lymophocyte reaction (MLR) through modulation of their repertoire of cytokines indicated by a marked increase in the levels of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10, and a parallel decrease in IL-12 and TNF-α. Similar results were obtained with active, latent, or point mutated inactive heparanase, indicating that the observed inhibitory effect is attributed to a non-enzymatic activity of the heparanase protein. We suggest that heparanase induces upregulation of Th2 cytokines, resulting in inhibition of the inflammatory lesion of EAE. PMID:20399501

  14. Detection of CXCR2 cytokine receptor surface expression using immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Lam, Clarissa; Pavel, Mahmud Arif; Kashyap, Parul; Salehi-Najafabadi, Zahra; Valentino, Victoria; Yu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL8) chemokine, also known as the neutrophil chemotactic factor, is a cytokine that plays a key role in inflammatory response, cell proliferation, migration, and survival. IL-8 expression is increased not only in inflammatory disorders, but also in many types of cancer, including prostate cancer. IL-8 acts as a ligand for the C-X-C chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) protein present on the cell plasma membrane. Binding of the IL-8 ligand to the CXCR2 receptor results in an intracellular signaling pathway mediated by GTP binding proteins coupled to the receptor itself. Knowledge of the CXCR2 expression levels facilitates the understanding of the role and function of IL-8. In this chapter, we describe a protocol that uses the immunofluorescence method and confocal microscopy to analyze the CXCR2 surface expression in human prostate cancer cells. However, this protocol is easily adaptable to analyze the surface expression of other cytokine receptors in different cell types. PMID:24908306

  15. Molecular breeding of allergy vaccines and antiallergic cytokines.

    PubMed

    Punnonen, J

    2000-03-01

    Molecular breeding, also called DNA shuffling, is a technology that enables the generation of large libraries of novel genes and vectors, from which improved variants can be selected based on functional properties. In a common format, it involves recursive recombination and mutation, performed by random fragmentation of related DNA sequences, followed by reassembly of the fragments in a self-priming polymerase chain reaction. As in natural evolution, the technique takes advantage of crossovers, deletions, insertions, inversions and point mutations of genes to generate large pools of related sequences. Molecular breeding can be used to generate improved variants of proteins used as therapeutics, such as vaccine antigens, growth factors and immunomodulatory molecules. Moreover, the technology can be applied to evolve entire viruses or vectors, including DNA vaccines. Cytokines downregulating allergic immune responses and allergens are attractive targets for evolution by molecular breeding. This review describes approaches to generate chimeric allergens with T cell epitopes from multiple allergen homologues, while reducing the recognition by preexisting IgE. In addition, the results and applications of molecular breeding in the evolution of improved antiallergic cytokines are discussed.

  16. Cytokine Regulation of Microenvironmental Cells in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Hoermann, Gregor; Greiner, Georg; Valent, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The term myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) refers to a heterogeneous group of diseases including not only polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), but also chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and systemic mastocytosis (SM). Despite the clinical and biological differences between these diseases, common pathophysiological mechanisms have been identified in MPN. First, aberrant tyrosine kinase signaling due to somatic mutations in certain driver genes is common to these MPN. Second, alterations of the bone marrow microenvironment are found in all MPN types and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the diseases. Finally, elevated levels of proinflammatory and microenvironment-regulating cytokines are commonly found in all MPN-variants. In this paper, we review the effects of MPN-related oncogenes on cytokine expression and release and describe common as well as distinct pathogenetic mechanisms underlying microenvironmental changes in various MPN. Furthermore, targeting of the microenvironment in MPN is discussed. Such novel therapies may enhance the efficacy and may overcome resistance to established tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment in these patients. Nevertheless, additional basic studies on the complex interplay of neoplastic and stromal cells are required in order to optimize targeting strategies and to translate these concepts into clinical application. PMID:26543328

  17. Cytokine-mediated PGE2 expression in human colonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, E C; Zhu, Y; Andersen, V; Sciaky, D; Cao, H J; Meekins, H; Smith, T J; Lance, P

    1998-10-01

    We investigated prostanoid biogenesis in human colonic fibroblasts (CCD-18Co and 5 primary fibroblast cultures) and epithelial cell lines (NCM460, T84, HT-29, and LS 174T) and the effect of PGE2 on fibroblast morphology. Cytokine-stimulated PGE2 production was measured. PGH synthase-1 and -2 (PGHS-1 and -2) protein and mRNA expression were evaluated. Basal PGE2 levels were low in all cell types (0.15-6.47 ng/mg protein). Treatment for 24 h with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta; 10 ng/ml) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (50 ng/ml), respectively, elicited maximal 25- and 6-fold inductions of PGE2 synthesis in CCD-18Co cultures and similar results in primary fibroblast cultures; maximal inductions with IL-1beta in colonic epithelial cell lines were from zero to fivefold. Treatment of CCD-18Co fibroblasts with IL-1beta caused maximal 21- and 53-fold increases, respectively, in PGHS-2 protein and mRNA levels without altering PGHS-1 expression. PGE2 (0.1 micromol/l) elicited a dramatic shape change in selected fibroblasts. Colonic fibroblasts are potentially important as cytokine targets and a source of and target for colonic prostanoids in vivo. PMID:9755052

  18. JAK2 activation by growth hormone and other cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Michael J.; Brooks, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and structurally related cytokines regulate a great number of physiological and pathological processes. They do this by coupling their single transmembrane domain (TMD) receptors to cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, either as homodimers or heterodimers. Recent studies have revealed that many of these receptors exist as constitutive dimers rather than being dimerized as a consequence of ligand binding, which has necessitated a new paradigm for describing their activation process. In the present study, we describe a model for activation of the tyrosine kinase Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) by the GH receptor homodimer based on biochemical data and molecular dynamics simulations. Binding of the bivalent ligand reorientates and rotates the receptor subunits, resulting in a transition from a form with parallel TMDs to one where the TMDs separate at the point of entry into the cytoplasm. This movement slides the pseudokinase inhibitory domain of one JAK kinase away from the kinase domain of the other JAK within the receptor dimer–JAK complex, allowing the two kinase domains to interact and trans-activate. This results in phosphorylation and activation of STATs and other signalling pathways linked to this receptor which then regulate postnatal growth, metabolism and stem cell activation. We believe that this model will apply to most if not all members of the class I cytokine receptor family, and will be useful in the design of small antagonists and agonists of therapeutic value. PMID:25656053

  19. Detection of CXCR2 cytokine receptor surface expression using immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Lam, Clarissa; Pavel, Mahmud Arif; Kashyap, Parul; Salehi-Najafabadi, Zahra; Valentino, Victoria; Yu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL8) chemokine, also known as the neutrophil chemotactic factor, is a cytokine that plays a key role in inflammatory response, cell proliferation, migration, and survival. IL-8 expression is increased not only in inflammatory disorders, but also in many types of cancer, including prostate cancer. IL-8 acts as a ligand for the C-X-C chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) protein present on the cell plasma membrane. Binding of the IL-8 ligand to the CXCR2 receptor results in an intracellular signaling pathway mediated by GTP binding proteins coupled to the receptor itself. Knowledge of the CXCR2 expression levels facilitates the understanding of the role and function of IL-8. In this chapter, we describe a protocol that uses the immunofluorescence method and confocal microscopy to analyze the CXCR2 surface expression in human prostate cancer cells. However, this protocol is easily adaptable to analyze the surface expression of other cytokine receptors in different cell types.

  20. Anti-viral CD8 T cells and the cytokines that they love.

    PubMed

    Cox, Maureen A; Kahan, Shannon M; Zajac, Allan J

    2013-01-01

    Viral infections cause an immunological disequilibrium that provokes CD8 T cell responses. These cells play critical roles in purging acute infections, limiting persistent infections, and conferring life-long protective immunity. At every stage of the response anti-viral CD8 T cells are sensitive to signals from cytokines. Initially cytokines operate as immunological warning signs that inform of the presence of an infection, and also influence the developmental choices of the responding cells. Later during the course of the response other sets of cytokines support the survival and maintenance of the differentiated anti-viral CD8 T cells. Although many cytokines promote virus-specific CD8 T cells, other cytokines can suppress their activities and thus favor viral persistence. In this review we discuss how select cytokines act to regulate anti-viral CD8 T cells throughout the response and influence the outcome of viral infections. PMID:23217625

  1. Suppression of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Functionalized Fullerene-Exposed Dermal Keratinocytes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gao, Jun; Wang, Hsing-Lin; Iyer, Rashi

    2010-01-01

    Initial experiments using differentially functionalized fullerenes, CD-, hexa-, and tris-, suggested a properties dependent effect on cytotoxic and proliferative responses in human skin keratinocytes. In the present study we investigated the cytokine secretion profile of dermal epithelial cells exposed to functionalized fullerenes. Keratinocyte-derived cytokines affect homing and trafficking of normal and malignant epidermal immune as well as nonimmune cells in vivo. These cytokines are critical for regulating activation, proliferation, and differentiation of epidermal cells. Our results indicate that tris- (size range <100 nm) significantly reduces inflammatory cytokine release in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In contrast CD- demonstrated a relatively pro-inflammatorymore » cytokine response, while hexa- did not significantly perturb cytokine responses. Physical and chemical characterizations of these engineered nanomaterials suggest that the disparate biological responses observed may potentially be a function of the aggregation properties of these fullerenes.« less

  2. Flavonoids as Cytokine Modulators: A Possible Therapy for Inflammation-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Leyva-López, Nayely; Gutierrez-Grijalva, Erick P.; Ambriz-Perez, Dulce L.; Heredia, J. Basilio

    2016-01-01

    High levels of cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6, are associated with chronic diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and cancer; therefore cytokine inhibition might be an important target for the treatment of these diseases. Most drugs used to alleviate some inflammation-related symptoms act by inhibiting cyclooxygenases activity or by blocking cytokine receptors. Nevertheless, these drugs have secondary effects when used on a long-term basis. It has been mentioned that flavonoids, namely quercetin, apigenin and luteolin, reduce cytokine expression and secretion. In this regard, flavonoids may have therapeutical potential in the treatment of inflammation-related diseases as cytokine modulators. This review is focused on current research about the effect of flavonoids on cytokine modulation and the description of the way these compounds exert their effect. PMID:27294919

  3. Modulation of Cytokine Network in the Comorbidity of Schizophrenia and Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lei; Yang, Yu-Hong; He, Lin; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe complex disabling disease that has impaired about 1% of the total population. It is widely recognized that schizophrenia is caused by the abnormal immune system. However, the current genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia did not identify any cytokine molecules except genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, suggesting that new strategies are needed to find out the effects of cytokines during the development of Schizophrenia. Recently, increasing evidences have found the comorbidity of schizophrenia with tuberculosis. To narrow down the scope of cytokines and reveal the core culprit, we first systematically review the common cytokines between these two diseases, followed by summarizing the core cytokines' interaction and modulation. The findings thus obtained may provide useful insights into the pathogeneses of both schizophrenia and tuberculosis from the angle of cytokines.

  4. Cytokines, atherogenesis, and hypercatabolism in chronic kidney disease: a dreadful triad.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Juan Jesus; Park, Sun-Hee; Axelsson, Jonas; Lindholm, Bengt; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The term cytokine clusters denotes a copious family of molecules and correspondent receptors implicated in numerous processes mediating health and disease. In the context of chronic kidney disease (CKD), generation and metabolism of most of these cytokines are disturbed. Available evidence suggests that cytokine imbalances contribute to the progression of common CKD complications, such as atherosclerosis, mineral-bone disease, and protein-energy wasting via pleiotropic effects. The belief that cytokine CKD research is solely represented by interleukins (IL) and tumor-necrosis factors (TNF) (mainly IL-6 and TNF-alpha) is a common misconception among nephrologists. We here explore recent findings concerning the pathophysiological role of various cytokines in uremic complications, and discuss how cytokines could be used as novel potential therapeutic targets in CKD. At the same time, we provide a brief overview of current discoveries in the main transforming growth factors and chemokines.

  5. Keratinocytes as targets for interleukin-10-related cytokines: a putative role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Boniface, Katia; Lecron, Jean-Claude; Bernard, François-Xavier; Dagregorio, Guy; Guillet, Gérard; Nau, François; Morel, Franck

    2005-12-01

    Cytokines are key factors in the cross talk between the immune system and other systems including hepatic, nervous, cardiac and cutaneous systems, leading to an adaptive and integrated response of the organism to stress. They are also involved in the regulation of many processes, including hematopoiesis, the immune response and inflammation. IL-10 is one of the most important anti-inflammatory cytokines. Five cytokines structurally related to IL-10 have been described and presently form this family of cytokines: IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24 and IL-26. In contrast to IL-10, these cytokines display pro-inflammatory activities in different tissues, including skin. Indeed, some of them induce an inflammatory keratinocyte gene expression profile and an epidermis histology resembling psoriatic lesions. In this review, we discuss recent knowledge about the effects of cytokines of the IL-10 family on keratinocytes and their potential role in psoriasis, a cutaneous inflammatory disease.

  6. TLR3-/4-Priming Differentially Promotes Ca2+ Signaling and Cytokine Expression and Ca2+-Dependently Augments Cytokine Release in hMSCs

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung Sun; Kim, Sun Hwa; Das, Amitabh; Yang, Shao-Nian; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Mi Kyung; Berggren, Per-Olof; Lee, YoungSeek; Chai, Jin Choul; Kim, Hyun Jin; Chai, Young Gyu

    2016-01-01

    In human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR4 act as key players in the tissue repair process by recognizing their ligands and stimulating downstream processes including cytokine release. The mechanisms of TLR3- and TLR4-mediated cytokine releases from hMSCs remain uncertain. Here, we show that exposure to the TLR3 agonist polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) or incubation with the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased the mRNA expression levels of TLR3, TLR4 and cytokines in hMSCs. Poly(I:C) exposure rather than LPS incubation not only elevated inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) expression and IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release, but also promoted Orai and STIM expression as well as store-operated Ca2+ entry into hMSCs. In addition, we also observed that 21 Ca2+ signaling genes were significantly up-regulated in response to TLR3 priming of hMSCs by RNA sequencing analysis. Both poly(I:C) and LPS exposure enhanced cytokine release from hMSCs. The enhanced cytokine release vanished upon siRNA knockdown and chelation of intracellular Ca2+. These data demonstrate that TLR3- and TLR4-priming differentially enhance Ca2+ signaling and cytokine expression, and Ca2+ -dependently potentiates cytokine release in hMSCs. PMID:26980664

  7. TLR3-/4-Priming Differentially Promotes Ca(2+) Signaling and Cytokine Expression and Ca(2+)-Dependently Augments Cytokine Release in hMSCs.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung Sun; Kim, Sun Hwa; Das, Amitabh; Yang, Shao-Nian; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Mi Kyung; Berggren, Per-Olof; Lee, YoungSeek; Chai, Jin Choul; Kim, Hyun Jin; Chai, Young Gyu

    2016-01-01

    In human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR4 act as key players in the tissue repair process by recognizing their ligands and stimulating downstream processes including cytokine release. The mechanisms of TLR3- and TLR4-mediated cytokine releases from hMSCs remain uncertain. Here, we show that exposure to the TLR3 agonist polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) or incubation with the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased the mRNA expression levels of TLR3, TLR4 and cytokines in hMSCs. Poly(I:C) exposure rather than LPS incubation not only elevated inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) expression and IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) release, but also promoted Orai and STIM expression as well as store-operated Ca(2+) entry into hMSCs. In addition, we also observed that 21 Ca(2+) signaling genes were significantly up-regulated in response to TLR3 priming of hMSCs by RNA sequencing analysis. Both poly(I:C) and LPS exposure enhanced cytokine release from hMSCs. The enhanced cytokine release vanished upon siRNA knockdown and chelation of intracellular Ca(2+). These data demonstrate that TLR3- and TLR4-priming differentially enhance Ca(2+) signaling and cytokine expression, and Ca(2+) -dependently potentiates cytokine release in hMSCs. PMID:26980664

  8. Inflammatory Cytokine Production Predominates in Early Lyme Disease in Patients with Erythema Migrans

    PubMed Central

    Glickstein, Lisa; Moore, Brian; Bledsoe, Tara; Damle, Nitin; Sikand, Vijay; Steere, Allen C.

    2003-01-01

    In a study of cytokine production ex vivo by Borrelia burgdorferi-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 27 patients with culture-positive erythema migrans, production of inflammatory cytokines predominated, particularly gamma interferon and, to a lesser degree, tumor necrosis factor alpha. In contrast, with the exception of interleukin-13, anti-inflammatory cytokine production was negligible. Thus, B. burgdorferi antigens in early Lyme disease often induce a strong inflammatory response. PMID:14500528

  9. Inflammatory cytokine production predominates in early Lyme disease in patients with erythema migrans.

    PubMed

    Glickstein, Lisa; Moore, Brian; Bledsoe, Tara; Damle, Nitin; Sikand, Vijay; Steere, Allen C

    2003-10-01

    In a study of cytokine production ex vivo by Borrelia burgdorferi-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 27 patients with culture-positive erythema migrans, production of inflammatory cytokines predominated, particularly gamma interferon and, to a lesser degree, tumor necrosis factor alpha. In contrast, with the exception of interleukin-13, anti-inflammatory cytokine production was negligible. Thus, B. burgdorferi antigens in early Lyme disease often induce a strong inflammatory response.

  10. Fetal exposure to chlordane and permethrin mixtures in relation to inflammatory cytokines and birth outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Neta, Gila; Goldman, Lynn R.; Barr, Dana; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Witter, Frank R.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to characterize the relationships between cord serum concentrations of chlordane and permethrin pesticides, inflammatory cytokines, gestational age, and size at birth. Umbilical cord serum levels of trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, cis- and trans-permethrin, piperonyl butoxide, and cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, GMCSF), were quantified in 300 newborns at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, MD (2004–2005). Principal component analyses were used to quantitate chlordane and permethrin mixtures, and to identify independent cytokine components. Five cytokine components described 87% of the variance in cord serum cytokine levels; these (and predominant loadings) were: (1) all 9 cytokines; (2) acute phase (IL-1β, IL-6); (3) anti-inflammatory (IL-10) (4) TNF-α; and (5) IL-1β. Of these, the TNF-α component was significantly associated with a 2-day decrease in gestational age. Chlordane was associated with lower levels of the pro-inflammatory IL-1β [β: −0.11 (−0.20, −0.02)]. Permethrin was negatively associated with the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 [β: −0.14 (−0.22, −0.05)]. Neither pesticides nor cytokines were significantly associated with birthweight, length or head circumference, and pesticides were not associated with gestational age. Our findings suggest that chlordane and permethrin concentrations in cord blood may be associated with levels of inflammatory cytokines in the fetus. PMID:21235202

  11. Neuroinflammation and cytokine abnormality in major depression: Cause or consequence in that illness?

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sang Won; Kim, Yong Ku

    2016-09-22

    Depression results from changes in the central nervous system (CNS) that may result from immunological abnormalities. The immune system affects the CNS through cytokines, which regulate brain activities and emotions. Cytokines affect two biological systems that are most associated with the pathophysiology of depression: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the catecholamine/sympathetic nervous system. Neuroinflammation and cytokines affect the brain signal patterns involved in the psychopathology of depression and the mechanisms of antidepressants, and they are associated with neurogenesis and neural plasticity. These observations suggest that neuroinflammation and cytokines might cause and/or maintain depression, and that they might be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of depression. This psychoneuroimmunologic perspective might compensate for some of the limitations of the monoamine theory by suggesting that depression is a result of a failure to adapt to stress and that inflammatory responses and cytokines are involved in this process. In this review, the interactions of cytokines with the CNS, neuroendocrine system, neurotransmitters, neurodegeneration/neurogenesis, and antidepressants are discussed. The roles of cytokines in the etiology and psychopathology of depression are examined. The use of cytokine inhibitors or anti-inflammatory drugs in depression treatment is explored. Finally, the significance and limitations of the cytokine hypothesis are discussed. PMID:27679767

  12. Type 1 and type 2 cytokine dysregulation in human infectious, neoplastic, and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, D R; Clerici, M; Shearer, G M

    1996-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, Mosmann, Coffman, and their colleagues discovered that murine CD4+ helper T-cell clones could be distinguished by the cytokines they synthesized. The isolation of human Th1 and Th2 clones by Romagnani and coworkers in the early 1990s has led to a large number of reports on the effects of Th1 and Th2 on the human immune system. More recently, cells other than CD4+ T cells, including CD8+ T cells, monocytes, NK cells, B cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and other cells, have been shown to be capable of producing "Th1" and "Th2" cytokines. In this review, we examine the literature on human diseases, using the nomenclature of type 1 (Th1-like) and type 2 (Th2-like) cytokines, which includes all cell types producing these cytokines rather than only CD4+ T cells. Type 1 cytokines include interleukin-2 (IL-2), gamma interferon, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor beta, while type 2 cytokines include IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13. In general, type 1 cytokines favor the development of a strong cellular immune response whereas type 2 cytokines favor a strong humoral immune response. Some of these type 1 and type 2 cytokines are cross-regulatory. For example, gamma interferon and IL-12 decrease the levels of type 2 cytokines whereas IL-4 and IL-10 decrease the levels of type 1 cytokines. We use this cytokine perspective to examine human diseases including infections due to viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, as well as selected neoplastic, atopic, rheumatologic, autoimmune, and idiopathic-inflammatory conditions. Clinically, type 1 cytokine-predominant responses should be suspected in any delayed-type hypersensitivity-like granulomatous reactions and in infections with intracellular pathogens, whereas conditions involving hypergammaglobulinemia, increased immunoglobulin E levels, and/or eosinophilia are suggestive of type 2 cytokine-predominant conditions. If this immunologic concept is relevant to human diseases, the potential exists for

  13. Neuroinflammation and cytokine abnormality in major depression: Cause or consequence in that illness?

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sang Won; Kim, Yong Ku

    2016-01-01

    Depression results from changes in the central nervous system (CNS) that may result from immunological abnormalities. The immune system affects the CNS through cytokines, which regulate brain activities and emotions. Cytokines affect two biological systems that are most associated with the pathophysiology of depression: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the catecholamine/sympathetic nervous system. Neuroinflammation and cytokines affect the brain signal patterns involved in the psychopathology of depression and the mechanisms of antidepressants, and they are associated with neurogenesis and neural plasticity. These observations suggest that neuroinflammation and cytokines might cause and/or maintain depression, and that they might be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of depression. This psychoneuroimmunologic perspective might compensate for some of the limitations of the monoamine theory by suggesting that depression is a result of a failure to adapt to stress and that inflammatory responses and cytokines are involved in this process. In this review, the interactions of cytokines with the CNS, neuroendocrine system, neurotransmitters, neurodegeneration/neurogenesis, and antidepressants are discussed. The roles of cytokines in the etiology and psychopathology of depression are examined. The use of cytokine inhibitors or anti-inflammatory drugs in depression treatment is explored. Finally, the significance and limitations of the cytokine hypothesis are discussed. PMID:27679767

  14. Neuroinflammation and cytokine abnormality in major depression: Cause or consequence in that illness?

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sang Won; Kim, Yong Ku

    2016-01-01

    Depression results from changes in the central nervous system (CNS) that may result from immunological abnormalities. The immune system affects the CNS through cytokines, which regulate brain activities and emotions. Cytokines affect two biological systems that are most associated with the pathophysiology of depression: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the catecholamine/sympathetic nervous system. Neuroinflammation and cytokines affect the brain signal patterns involved in the psychopathology of depression and the mechanisms of antidepressants, and they are associated with neurogenesis and neural plasticity. These observations suggest that neuroinflammation and cytokines might cause and/or maintain depression, and that they might be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of depression. This psychoneuroimmunologic perspective might compensate for some of the limitations of the monoamine theory by suggesting that depression is a result of a failure to adapt to stress and that inflammatory responses and cytokines are involved in this process. In this review, the interactions of cytokines with the CNS, neuroendocrine system, neurotransmitters, neurodegeneration/neurogenesis, and antidepressants are discussed. The roles of cytokines in the etiology and psychopathology of depression are examined. The use of cytokine inhibitors or anti-inflammatory drugs in depression treatment is explored. Finally, the significance and limitations of the cytokine hypothesis are discussed.

  15. Taxonomic applicability of inflammatory cytokines in adverse outcome pathway (AOP) development.

    PubMed

    Angrish, Michelle M; Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Madden, Michael C; Moser, Virginia C; Herr, David W

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines, low-molecular-weight messenger proteins that act as intercellular immunomodulatory signals, have become a mainstream preclinical marker for assessing the systemic inflammatory response to external stressors. The challenge is to quantitate from healthy subjects cytokine levels that are below or at baseline and relate those dynamic and complex cytokine signatures of exposures with the inflammatory and repair pathways. Thus, highly sensitive, specific, and precise analytical and statistical methods are critically important. Investigators at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have implemented advanced technologies and developed statistics for evaluating panels of inflammatory cytokines in human blood, exhaled breath condensate, urine samples, and murine biological media. Advanced multiplex, bead-based, and automated analytical platforms provided sufficient sensitivity, precision, and accuracy over the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thus, baseline cytokine levels can be quantified from healthy human subjects and animals and compared to an in vivo exposure response from an environmental chemical. Specifically, patterns of cytokine responses in humans exposed to environmental levels of ozone and diesel exhaust, and in rodents exposed to selected pesticides (such as fipronil and carbaryl), were used as case studies to generally assess the taxonomic applicability of cytokine responses. The findings in this study may aid in the application of measureable cytokine markers in future adverse outcome pathway (AOP)-based toxicity testing. Data from human and animal studies were coalesced and the possibility of using cytokines as key events (KE) to bridge species responses to external stressors in an AOP-based framework was explored.

  16. Impact of Exogenous Gonadotropin Stimulation on Circulatory and Follicular Fluid Cytokine Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Baskind, N. Ellissa; Orsi, Nicolas M.; Sharma, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Background. The natural cycle is the prototype to which we aspire to emulate in assisted reproduction techniques. Increasing evidence is emerging that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) with exogenous gonadotropins may be detrimental to oogenesis, embryo quality, and endometrial receptivity. This research aimed at assessing the impact of COH on the intrafollicular milieu by comparing follicular fluid (FF) cytokine profiles during stimulated in vitro fertilization (IVF) and modified natural cycle (MNC) IVF. Methods. Ten women undergoing COH IVF and 10 matched women undergoing MNC IVF were recruited for this pilot study. 40 FF cytokine concentrations from individual follicles and plasma were measured by fluid-phase multiplex immunoassay. Demographic/cycle/cytokine data were compared and correlations between cytokines were computed. Results. No significant differences were found between COH and MNC groups for patient and cycle demographics, including outcome. Overall mean FF cytokine levels were higher in the MNC group for 29/40 cytokines, significantly so for leukaemia inhibitory factor and stromal cell-derived factor-1α. Furthermore, FF MNC cytokine correlations were significantly stronger than for COH data. Conclusions. These findings suggest that COH perturbs intrafollicular cytokine networks, in terms of both cytokine levels and their interrelationships. This may impact oocyte maturation/fertilization and embryo developmental competence. PMID:25763393

  17. Cytokine gene polymorphisms, cytokine levels and the risk of colorectal neoplasia in a screened population of Northeast Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraju, U; Shebl, FM; Palmer, AJ; Berry, S; Hold, GL; El-Omar, EM; Rabkin, CS

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Cytokine gene polymorphisms modify expression and their circulating protein levels reflect inflammatory response. Chronic inflammation plays key role in pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but it is not clear if inflammation is a cause or effect of tumours in sporadic CRN. We therefore investigated association of cytokine gene polymorphisms and circulating cytokine levels on risk of CRN in North East Scotland, which has a high incidence of CRN. Methods We recruited two groups of subjects from a screening colonoscopy cohort, either pre-procedure or 3–24 months post-procedure. Participants with (CRN) were compared to participants with no evidence of CRN (controls). Blood-derived DNA was used to genotype polymorphisms in IL1B, IL1-RN, IL6, IL8, IL10, PTGS2 and TNFA genes. Circulating levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and 6 cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-alpha) were measured. In order to examine effect of CRN resection on marker levels, we used propensity score matching. Results There were 884 subjects eligible for analysis, including 388 CRN cases and 496 controls. Cases were older (mean age 64 vs. 62 yrs, p<0.01) and more likely to be male (67% vs. 55%, p<0.001). Controls were more likely to be regular users of NSAID (p<0.0001). Compared to homozygous carriage of respective common alleles, pro-inflammatory CC genotypes of IL1B-31 C>T [OR (95% CI) 1.68 (1.03–2.73)] and PTGS2-765 C>G [OR (95% CI) 2.97 (1.05–8.46)] were each associated with increased CRN risk. Conversely, carriage of the A allele of IL8-251 A>T was associated with lower CRN risk compared to the TT genotype [ORs (95% CI) 0.60 (0.41–0.86) for heterozygous, 0.88 (0.57–1.37) for homozygous, and 0.68 (0.48–0.95) for heterozygous and homozygous combined]. Compared to post-procedure cases, IL8, TNFα, and CRP levels were significantly higher in pre-procedure cases, but IL4 and IL

  18. Effect of pregnancy on serum cytokines in SLE patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate an extensive panel of cytokines involved in immune regulation during pregnancy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and in healthy women. Methods A total of 47 consecutive successful pregnancies in 46 SLE patients and 56 pregnancies in 56 matched healthy subjects, as controls, were prospectively studied. Serum interleukin (IL)-1-α, IL-1-β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, interferon (INF)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected in sera obtained at the first and third trimester of pregnancy by a highly sensitive, multiplexed sandwich ELISA. Results Medians (pg/ml) of serum levels of most helper T (Th)1-type cytokines were significantly lower in the third trimester compared with those observed in the first trimester of pregnancy in healthy women: INF-γ 2.0 vs 3.4, TNF-α 10.2 vs 11.5, IL-1-α 0.9 vs 1.1, IL-1-β 0.6 vs 1.0, IL-2 3.0 vs 3.5, and IL-12p70 4.9 vs 5.6 (P-values < 0.02 for all). By contrast, only the IL-1-α serum levels were lower in the third trimester compared with the first trimester in SLE patients (P = 0.006). IFN-γ/IL-6 and IFN-γ/IL-10 ratios were higher in controls than in SLE (P = 0.002, and P = 0.001, respectively); moreover, they were significantly reduced in the third compared to the first trimester of pregnancy in healthy women, but not in SLE. Conclusions In SLE patients, Th1/Th2 cytokine serum level ratio does not decrease during pregnancy progression as much as in healthy pregnant women. This could account for the observation of a low frequency of disease flares in the third trimester of gestation. PMID:22417776

  19. Proliferative hemangiomas: analysis of cytokine gene expression and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chang, J; Most, D; Bresnick, S; Mehrara, B; Steinbrech, D S; Reinisch, J; Longaker, M T; Turk, A E

    1999-01-01

    Hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of childhood that can lead to disfigurement and/or life-threatening consequences. The pathogenesis of hemangioma formation is likely to involve increased angiogenesis. Basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor are cytokines that stimulate angiogenesis in multiple in vivo and in vitro models. Proliferative hemangiomas have been found to have elevated levels of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor protein, but the gene expression of these cytokines in human specimens has not been previously studied. We examined the gene expression and spatial distribution of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA in proliferative versus involuted human hemangioma specimens using nonisotopic in situ hybridization techniques. Thirteen hemangioma specimens were harvested during initial surgical excision. In situ hybridization was performed on frozen sections of both proliferative and involuted hemangioma specimens using genetically engineered antisense probes specific for basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA. Controls were an interleukin-6 sense sequence and a transforming growth factor-beta 1 antisense sequence. A large number of cells within the specimens of proliferative hemangiomas revealed localized gene expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA (626 +/- 129 and 1660 +/- 371 cells/mm2, respectively). The majority of the cells were endothelial in origin. In contrast, involuted hemangioma specimens revealed significantly lower numbers of cells staining positive for basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA (44 +/- 11 and 431 +/- 76 cells/mm2, respectively; p < 0.05). Transforming growth factor-beta 1 messenger RNA was slightly more expressed by involuted hemangiomas (117 +/- 30 cells/mm2). There

  20. Cytokine treatment of macrophage suppression of T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Daniel; Bucknum, Amanda; Kozlowski, Megan; Matlack, Robin; Riggs, James

    2010-01-01

    High Mphi:T cell ratios suppress the immune response to the retroviral superantigen Mls by IFNgamma-triggered production of the arg- and trp-consuming enzymes iNOS and IDO. Attempts to reverse suppression by treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokines revealed that IL-6 improved the T cell response to Mls and the pro-hematopoietic cyokines IL-3 and GM-CSF increased suppression. GM-CSF treatment increased Mphi expression of CD80, a ligand for the immune suppressive B7H1 and CTLA-4 receptors. These results illustrate potential strategies for reversing the suppression of cell-mediated immunity characteristic of the high Mphi:T cell ratios found in many tumors.

  1. The role of inflammatory cytokines in endothelial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, C.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and experimental data support a link between endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. Inflammatory cytokines are important protagonists in formation of atherosclerotic plaque, eliciting effects throughout the atherosclerotic vessel. Importantly, the development of atherosclerotic lesions, regardless of the risk factor, e.g., diabetes, hypertension, obesity, is characterized by disruption in normal function of the endothelial cells. Endothelial cells, which line the internal lumen of the vasculature, are part of a complex system that regulates vasodilation and vasoconstriction, growth of vascular smooth muscle cells, inflammation, and hemostasis, maintaining a proper blood supply to tissues and regulating inflammation and coagulation. Current concepts suggest that the earliest event in atherogenesis is endothelial dysfunction, manifested by deficiencies in the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin. The focus of this review is to summarize recent evidence showing the effects of inflammation on vascular dysfunction in ischemic-heart disease, which may prompt new directions for targeting inflammation in future therapies. PMID:18600364

  2. Immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells: cytokines and factors.

    PubMed

    Soleymaninejadian, Ehsan; Pramanik, Krishna; Samadian, Esmaeil

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are defined as undifferentiated cells that are capable of self renewal and differentiation into several cell types such as chondrocyte, adipocyte, osteocyte, myocyte, hepatocyte, and neuron-like cells. MSC can be isolated from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, placenta, periosteum, trabecular bone, synovium, skeletal muscle, and deciduous teeth. Immunomodulatory of MSCs is one of the important issues nowadays, because this aspect can be clinically applied for graft-versus-host and autoimmune diseases. In this review, we tried to discuss in detail about cytokines and factors such as members of the transforming growth factor superfamily (transforming growth factor-β), hepatic growth factors (HGF), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), IL-10, indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), nitric oxide (NO), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) that are involved in immunomodulatory of MSCs.

  3. Septic encephalopathy: when cytokines interact with acetylcholine in the brain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Hong; Sheng, Zhi-Yong; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a brain dysfunction that occurs secondary to infection in the body, characterized by alteration of consciousness, ranging from delirium to coma, seizure or focal neurological signs. SAE involves a number of mechanisms, including neuroinflammation, in which the interaction between cytokines and acetylcholine results in neuronal loss and alterations in cholinergic signaling. Moreover, the interaction also occurs in the periphery, accelerating a type of immunosuppressive state. Although its diagnosis is not specific in biochemistry and imaging tests, it could potentiate severe outcomes, including increased mortality, cognitive decline, progressive immunosuppression, cholinergic anti-inflammatory deficiency, and even metabolic and hydroelectrolyte imbalance. Therefore, the bilateral communication between SAE and the multiple peripheral organs and especially the immune system should be emphasized in sepsis management.

  4. Cytokines and T-Cell Homeostasis in HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael L; Shive, Carey L; Nguyen, Thao P; Younes, Souheil-Antoine; Panigrahi, Soumya; Lederman, Michael M

    2016-10-01

    Untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by progressive CD4(+) T-cell depletion and CD8(+) T-cell expansion, and CD4(+) T-cell depletion is linked directly to the risk for opportunistic infections and infection-associated mortality. With suppression of HIV replication by antiretroviral therapy, circulating CD4(+) Tcell numbers typically improve while CD8(+) T-cell expansion persists, and both CD4(+) T-cell cytopenia and CD8(+) T-cell expansion are associated with morbidity and mortality. In this brief review, we report on the role that selected homeostatic and inflammatory cytokines may play both in the failure of CD4(+) T-cell restoration and the CD8(+) T-cell expansion that characterize HIV infection. PMID:27625431

  5. Cytokines and growth factors cross-link heparan sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Migliorini, Elisa; Thakar, Dhruv; Kühnle, Jens; Sadir, Rabia; Dyer, Douglas P.; Li, Yong; Sun, Changye; Volkman, Brian F.; Handel, Tracy M.; Coche-Guerente, Liliane; Fernig, David G.; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Richter, Ralf P.

    2015-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate (HS), present at the surface of most cells and ubiquitous in extracellular matrix, binds many soluble extracellular signalling molecules such as chemokines and growth factors, and regulates their transport and effector functions. It is, however, unknown whether upon binding HS these proteins can affect the long-range structure of HS. To test this idea, we interrogated a supramolecular model system, in which HS chains grafted to streptavidin-functionalized oligoethylene glycol monolayers or supported lipid bilayers mimic the HS-rich pericellular or extracellular matrix, with the biophysical techniques quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). We were able to control and characterize the supramolecular presentation of HS chains—their local density, orientation, conformation and lateral mobility—and their interaction with proteins. The chemokine CXCL12α (or SDF-1α) rigidified the HS film, and this effect was due to protein-mediated cross-linking of HS chains. Complementary measurements with CXCL12α mutants and the CXCL12γ isoform provided insight into the molecular mechanism underlying cross-linking. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), which has three HS binding sites, was also found to cross-link HS, but FGF-9, which has just one binding site, did not. Based on these data, we propose that the ability to cross-link HS is a generic feature of many cytokines and growth factors, which depends on the architecture of their HS binding sites. The ability to change matrix organization and physico-chemical properties (e.g. permeability and rigidification) implies that the functions of cytokines and growth factors may not simply be confined to the activation of cognate cellular receptors. PMID:26269427

  6. Alveolar macrophage cytokine response to air pollution particles: Oxidant mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, Amy; Ning Yaoyu; Lawrence, Joy; Coull, Brent; Gitin, Elena; Knutson, Mitchell; Kobzik, Lester . E-mail: lkobzik@hsph.harvard.edu

    2007-02-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) primed with LPS and treated with concentrated ambient air particles (CAPs) showed enhanced release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and provide an in vitro model for the amplified effects of air pollution particles seen in people with preexisting lung disease. To investigate the mechanism(s) by which CAPs mediate TNF release in primed rat AMs, we first tested the effect of a panel of antioxidants. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (20 mM), dimethyl thiourea (20 mM) and catalase (5 {mu}M) significantly inhibited TNF release by primed AMs incubated with CAPs. Conversely, when LPS-primed AMs were treated with CAPs in the presence of exogenous oxidants (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated by glucose oxidase, 10 {mu}M/h), TNF release and cell toxicity was significantly increased. The soluble fraction of CAPs suspensions caused most of the increased bioactivity in the presence of exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The metal chelator deferoxamine (DFO) strongly inhibited the interaction of the soluble fraction with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} but had no effect on the bioactivity of the insoluble CAPs fraction. We conclude that CAPs can mediate their effects in primed AMs by acting on oxidant-sensitive cytokine release in at least two distinct ways. In the primed cell, insoluble components of PM mediate enhanced TNF production that is H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-dependent (catalase-sensitive) yet independent of iron (DFO-insensitive). In the presence of exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} released by AMs, PMNs, or other lung cells within an inflamed alveolar milieu, soluble iron released from air particles can also mediate cytokine release and cell toxicity.

  7. Interleukin-6: a multifunctional targetable cytokine in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Culig, Zoran; Puhr, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Several cytokines are involved in regulation of cellular events in prostate cancer. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was frequently investigated in prostate cancer models because of its increased expression in cancer tissue at early stages of the disease. In patients with metastatic prostate cancer, it is well-known that IL-6 levels increase in serum. High levels of IL-6 were measured in the supernatants of cells which do not respond to androgenic stimulation. IL-6 expression in prostate cancer increases due to enhanced expression of transforming growth factor-beta, and members of the activating protein-1 complex, and loss of the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor. IL-6 activation of androgen receptor (AR) may contribute to progression of a subgroup of prostate cancers. Results obtained with two prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and MDA PCa 2b, indicate that IL-6 activation of AR may cause either stimulatory or inhibitory responses on proliferation. Interestingly, prolonged treatment with IL-6 led to establishment of an IL-6 autocrine loop, suppressed signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 activation, and increased mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. In several cell lines IL-6 acts as a survival molecule through activation of the signalling pathway of phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase. Expression of suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) has been studied in prostate cancer. SOCS-3 prevents phosphorylation of STAT3 and is an important anti-apoptotic factor in AR-negative prostate cancer cells. Experimental therapy against IL-6 in prostate cancer is based on the use of the monoclonal antibody siltuximab which may be used for personalised therapy coming in the future. PMID:21664423

  8. Cytokines and Prognostic Factors in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jammal, Millena Prata; Martins-Filho, Agrimaldo; Silveira, Thales Parenti; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido; Nomelini, Rosekeila Simões

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ovarian cancer has a high mortality and delayed diagnosis. Inflammation is a risk factor for ovarian cancer, and the inflammatory response is involved in almost all stages of tumor development. Immunohistochemical staining in stroma and epithelium of a panel of cytokines in benign and malignant ovarian neoplasm was evaluated. In addition, immunostaining was related to prognostic factors in malignant tumors. METHOD The study group comprised 28 ovarian benign neoplasias and 28 ovarian malignant neoplasms. A panel of cytokines was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (Th1: IL-2 and IL-8; Th2: IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10; and TNFR1). Chi-square test with Yates’ correction was used, which was considered significant if less than 0.05. RESULTS TNFR1, IL-5, and IL-10 had more frequent immunostaining 2/3 in benign neoplasms compared with malignant tumors. Malignant tumors had more frequent immunostaining 2/3 for IL-2 in relation to benign tumors. The immunostaining 0/1 of IL 8 was more frequent in the stroma of benign neoplasms compared with malignant neoplasms. Evaluation of the ovarian cancer stroma showed that histological grade 3 was significantly correlated with staining 2/3 for IL-2 (P = 0.004). Women whose disease-free survival was less than 2.5 years had TNFR1 stromal staining 2/3 (P = 0.03) more frequently. CONCLUSION IL-2 and TNFR1 stromal immunostaining are related prognostic factors in ovarian cancer and can be the target of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:27512342

  9. The Role of Proinflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-18 in Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Mang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Massive radiation-induced inflammatory factors released from injured cells may cause innate and acquired immune reactions that can further result in stress response signal activity-induced local and systemic damage. IL‐1 family members IL‐1β, IL‐18, and IL‐33 play key roles in inflammatory and immune responses and have been recognized to have significant influences on the pathogenesis of diseases. IL‐1β, IL‐18, and IL‐33 share similarities of cytokine biology, but differences exist in signaling pathways. A key component of the inflammatory reaction is the inflammasome, which is a caspase‐1‐containing multiprotein oligomer. Pathological stimuli such as radiation can induce inflammasome and caspase‐1 activation, and subsequently cause maturation (activation) of pro-forms of IL‐1 and IL‐18 upon caspase‐1 cleavage. This caspase‐1 dependent and IL‐1 and IL‐18 associated cell damage is defined as pyroptosis. Activated IL‐1 and IL‐18 as proinflammatory cytokines drive pathology at different immune and inflammatory disorders through Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. While the mechanisms of IL‐1β-induced pathophysiology of diseases have been well studied, IL‐18 has received less attention. The author recently reported that gamma radiation highly increased IL‐1β, IL‐18 and IL‐33 expression in mouse thymus, spleen and/or bone marrow cells; also circulating IL‐18 can be used as a radiation biomarker to track radiation injury in mice, minipigs, and nonhuman primates. This mini-review focuses on the role of IL‐18 in response to gamma radiation-induced injury. PMID:27356067

  10. The Role of Proinflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-18 in Radiation Injury.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Mang

    2016-08-01

    Massive radiation-induced inflammatory factors released from injured cells may cause innate and acquired immune reactions that can further result in stress response signal activity-induced local and systemic damage. IL-1 family members IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33 play key roles in inflammatory and immune responses and have been recognized to have significant influences on the pathogenesis of diseases. IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33 share similarities of cytokine biology, but differences exist in signaling pathways. A key component of the inflammatory reaction is the inflammasome, which is a caspase-1-containing multiprotein oligomer. Pathological stimuli such as radiation can induce inflammasome and caspase-1 activation, and subsequently cause maturation (activation) of pro-forms of IL-1 and IL-18 upon caspase-1 cleavage. This caspase-1 dependent and IL-1 and IL-18 associated cell damage is defined as pyroptosis. Activated IL-1 and IL-18 as proinflammatory cytokines drive pathology at different immune and inflammatory disorders through Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. While the mechanisms of IL-1β-induced pathophysiology of diseases have been well studied, IL-18 has received less attention. The author recently reported that gamma radiation highly increased IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-33 expression in mouse thymus, spleen and/or bone marrow cells; also circulating IL-18 can be used as a radiation biomarker to track radiation injury in mice, minipigs, and nonhuman primates. This mini-review focuses on the role of IL-18 in response to gamma radiation-induced injury.

  11. Combinatorial Cytokine Code Generates Anti-Viral State in Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Boris M.; Marjanovic, Nada; Nudelman, German; Moran, Thomas M.; Sealfon, Stuart C.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological function of the immune system and the response to therapeutic immunomodulators may be sensitive to combinatorial cytokine micro-environments that shape the responses of specific immune cells. Previous work shows that paracrine cytokines released by virus-infected human dendritic cells (DC) can dictate the maturation state of naïve DCs. To understand the effects of paracrine signaling, we systematically studied the effects of combinations cytokines in this complex mixture in generating an anti-viral state. After naïve DCs were exposed to either IFNβ or to paracrine signaling released by DCs infected by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), microarray analysis revealed a large number of genes that were differently regulated by the DC-secreted paracrine signaling. In order to identify the cytokine mechanisms involved, we identified 20 cytokines secreted by NDV infected DCs for which the corresponding receptor gene is expressed in naïve DCs. By exposing cells to all combinations of 19 cytokines (leave-one-out studies), we identified five cytokines (IFNβ, TNFα, IL-1β, TNFSF15, and IL28) as candidates for regulating DC maturation markers. Subsequent experiments identified IFNβ, TNFα, and IL1β as the major contributors to this anti-viral state. This finding was supported by infection studies in vitro, by T-cell activation studies and by in vivo infection studies in mouse. Combination of cytokines can cause response states in DCs that differ from those achieved by the individual cytokines alone. These results suggest that the cytokine microenvironment may act via a combinatorial code to direct the response state of specific immune cells. Further elucidation of this code may provide insight into responses to infection and neoplasia as well as guide the development of combinatorial cytokine immunomodulation for infectious, autoimmune, and immunosurveillance-related diseases. PMID:24616721

  12. Characterization of IK cytokine expression in mouse endometrium during early pregnancy and its significance on implantation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ruyue; Liu, Xueqing; Ding, Yubin; Chen, Xuemei; Gao, Rufei; He, Junlin; Wang, Yingxiong

    2012-09-01

    The expression of IK cytokine was investigated in the mouse endometrium during early pregnancy (D1-D7 of pregnancy) and pseudopregnancy using real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis, and the effects of IK cytokine on embryo implantation were observed by injection with antisense IK cytokine oligodeoxynucleotides in the uterine horn. Our data showed that the expression of IK cytokine mRNA increased gradually from D1 to D4 of pregnancy and reached a peak level at D4 of pregnancy (P<0.05). Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of IK cytokine protein increased gradually from D1 to D5 of pregnancy and reached a peak level at D5 of pregnancy (P<0.05). The expression of IK cytokine in the pseudopregnant uterus was significantly lower compared to that in the normal pregnant uterus and the level of the protein never showed a high peak during the whole pseudopregnancy. The expression of IK cytokine at the implantation site was much stronger than that in the peri-implantation site on Day 5 of pregnancy. After 24 and 48 h of injection with antisense IK cytokine oligodexynucleotides in the uterine horn on D3 of pregnancy (i.e. implantation window), the expression of IK cytokine in the uterus was remarkably inhibited, while the expression of major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) increased and the number of implanted embryos significantly decreased in the site of uterine horns receiving antisense IK cytokine (P<0.05). These results suggested that IK cytokine may play a crucial role in implantation.

  13. Circulating monocytes are not the major source of plasma cytokines in patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Gille-Johnson, Patrik; Smedman, Christian; Gudmundsdotter, Lindvi; Somell, Anna; Nihlmark, Kopek; Paulie, Staffan; Andersson, Jan; Gårdlund, Bengt

    2012-12-01

    In sepsis, large quantities of inflammatory cytokines are released into the bloodstream. The cellular source of these cytokines is unclear, and we have here investigated to what extent circulating cells in blood contributed to this production. We used the enzyme-linked immunospot technique to study the spontaneous as well as the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IL-1β, IL-12p40, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 from whole-blood cells. The study comprised 32 septic patients (24 with septic shock) and 30 healthy controls. Despite significantly increased plasma cytokine levels in the septic patients, the number of spontaneous cytokine-secreting cells was small or nonexistent and did not differ between the two groups. Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of cells from the same samples triggered substantially increased numbers of cytokine-producing cells in both patients and controls. However, although the numbers of IL-6- and tumor necrosis factor α-secreting monocytes were very similar in both groups, significantly fewer IL-1β-, IL-10-, IL-12p40-, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting monocytes were seen in samples from septic patients as compared with healthy controls. The reduced number of cytokine-secreting cells in response to LPS stimulation correlated with disease severity, as expressed by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and the stage of sepsis. In summary, circulating leukocytes did not appear to be responsible for the increased plasma levels of cytokines observed in sepsis. A selective sepsis-induced downregulation of cytokine secretion in response to LPS underscores the complexity of cytokine regulation in sepsis.

  14. Age, gender and litter-related variation in T-lymphocyte cytokine production in young pigs

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Johanna; Kruijt, Leo; Scholten, Jan Willem; Boersma, Wim J A; Buist, Willem G; Engel, Bas; van Reenen, Cornelis G

    2005-01-01

    The capacity of farm animals to produce cytokines could be an important determinant of robustness and health. From research in rodents and humans it appears that the production and the balance of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2)-type cytokines influences susceptibility to autoimmune and infectious diseases. It is known that pigs show a large variation in many immune response parameters. So far the extent of individual variation in the production of Th1- and Th2-type cytokines in commercial outbred pigs has not been reported. In the current experiment we determined mRNA expression, as well as protein production of cytokines in 32 pigs from eight litters. From each litter two male and two female pigs were tested at 2, 5 and 8 weeks of age. Two Th1-type cytokines, interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma, and two Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, were measured after phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulation of blood mononuclear cells. Cytokine production and the Th1/Th2-ratio were highly variable. The variation in cytokine protein production was moderately consistent across ages, i.e. pigs that produced high levels of cytokine at 2 weeks of age tended to do so as well at 5 and 8 weeks of age. Cytokine production tended to increase with age, and gilts and boars differed in their IL-2/IL-4 ratio. Unexpectedly, age, gender and litter effects often differed for mRNA and protein production data. We hypothesize that cytokine production is a consistent trait in pigs, especially at the protein production level. Future investigations in more animals and across a wider age range are necessary. PMID:16011518

  15. [Effect of gallic acid derivatives on secretion of Th1 cytokines and Th2 cytokines from anti CD3-stimulated spleen cells].

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Yamashita, S; Kitanaka, S; Toyoshima, S

    2001-06-01

    As reported previously (Kosuge et al., Yakugaku Zasshi, 120, 408 (2000)), methyl gallate, a gallic acid derivative, which has been one of compounds isolated from extracts of Psidium geneus Myrtaceae, selectively suppresses Th2 cytokine secretion. In the present study, to examine more effective compounds than methyl gallate, the effects of various gallic acid derivatives on the secretion of helper T cell subtype specific cytokines from anti CD3-stimulated spleen cells were investigated. Ten micrograms/ml of methyl gallate and ethyl gallate remarkably suppressed the secretion of IL-4 and IL-5, Th2 cytokines, but did not suppress meaningfully the secretion of IFN-gamma, a Th1 cytokine. On the other hand, the other gallic acid derivatives suppressed the secretion of both IL-4 and IFN-gamma. Ten micrograms/ml of methyl gallate suppressed the secretion of IL-2, a Th1 cytokine, but the same concentration of ethyl gallate did not suppress it. In conclusion, it seemed that ethyl gallate was the most selective inhibitor for the secretion of Th2 cytokines among gallic acid derivatives used in this study.

  16. Circulating Cytokines and Cytokine Receptors in Infliximab Treatment Failure Due to TNF-α Independent Crohn Disease

    PubMed Central

    Steenholdt, Casper; Coskun, Mehmet; Buhl, Sine; Bendtzen, Klaus; Ainsworth, Mark A.; Brynskov, Jørn; Nielsen, Ole H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The inflammatory response at infliximab (IFX) treatment failure due to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-independent Crohn disease activity is unknown. This is an exploratory, hypothesis-generating study based on samples collected in a clinical trial among patients failing conventional IFX dosages and treated with an intensified IFX regimen for 12 weeks. Patients with clinical response at week 12, as defined by a reduction of Crohn disease activity index by ≥70, were considered to suffer from nonimmune pharmacokinetic (PK) treatment failure (n = 18), and nonresponders had a presumed pharmacodynamic (PD) failure due to non-TNF-driven disease (n = 8). Patients failing IFX due to functional anti-IFX antibodies (n = 2) were excluded. The study population also comprised a group of 12 patients in long-term remission on IFX. A functional cell-based reporter gene assay was applied to measure IFX and anti-IFX antibodies. Circulating cytokines and cytokine receptors were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, soluble TNF receptor (sTNF-R) 1, sTNF-R2, IL-17A, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1. The IFX levels were similar between patients with IFX failure caused by nonimmune PK or PD at treatment failure (median 1.4 vs 2.4 μg/mL; P = 0.52), during treatment intensification (8.1 vs 5.6; P = 0.85), and after 12 weeks (8.8 vs 7.7; P = 0.93), congruent with nonresponders failing IFX due to predominantly TNF-α-independent signaling pathways in their disease. Cytokine and cytokine receptor levels were comparable between patients with nonimmune PK failure and PD failure at time of manifestation of IFX failure, but with higher IL-6 and sTNF-R2 levels among IFX treatment failures as compared with patients in remission (IL-6 median 3.6 vs <3.1 pg/mL; P = 0.03; sTNF-R2 3207 vs 2547 pg/mL; P = 0.01). IL-6 and

  17. Circulating Cytokines and Cytokine Receptors in Infliximab Treatment Failure Due to TNF-α Independent Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Steenholdt, Casper; Coskun, Mehmet; Buhl, Sine; Bendtzen, Klaus; Ainsworth, Mark A; Brynskov, Jørn; Nielsen, Ole H

    2016-04-01

    The inflammatory response at infliximab (IFX) treatment failure due to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-independent Crohn disease activity is unknown. This is an exploratory, hypothesis-generating study based on samples collected in a clinical trial among patients failing conventional IFX dosages and treated with an intensified IFX regimen for 12 weeks. Patients with clinical response at week 12, as defined by a reduction of Crohn disease activity index by ≥70, were considered to suffer from nonimmune pharmacokinetic (PK) treatment failure (n = 18), and nonresponders had a presumed pharmacodynamic (PD) failure due to non-TNF-driven disease (n = 8). Patients failing IFX due to functional anti-IFX antibodies (n = 2) were excluded. The study population also comprised a group of 12 patients in long-term remission on IFX. A functional cell-based reporter gene assay was applied to measure IFX and anti-IFX antibodies. Circulating cytokines and cytokine receptors were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, soluble TNF receptor (sTNF-R) 1, sTNF-R2, IL-17A, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1. The IFX levels were similar between patients with IFX failure caused by nonimmune PK or PD at treatment failure (median 1.4 vs 2.4 μg/mL; P = 0.52), during treatment intensification (8.1 vs 5.6; P = 0.85), and after 12 weeks (8.8 vs 7.7; P = 0.93), congruent with nonresponders failing IFX due to predominantly TNF-α-independent signaling pathways in their disease. Cytokine and cytokine receptor levels were comparable between patients with nonimmune PK failure and PD failure at time of manifestation of IFX failure, but with higher IL-6 and sTNF-R2 levels among IFX treatment failures as compared with patients in remission (IL-6 median 3.6 vs <3.1 pg/mL; P = 0.03; sTNF-R2 3207 vs 2547 pg/mL; P = 0.01). IL-6 and sTNF-R2

  18. Associations between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Haplotypes in Cytokine and Cytokine Receptor Genes and Immunity to Measles Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Haralambieva, Iana H.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Jacobson, Robert M.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of host genetic determinants of measles vaccine-induced immunity can be used to design better vaccines and ultimately predict immune responses to vaccination. We performed a comprehensive candidate gene association study across 801 genetic markers in 56 cytokine/cytokine receptor genes, in a racially diverse cohort of 745 schoolchildren after two doses of MMR vaccine. Using linear regression methodologies we examined associations between SNPs/haplotypes and measles virus-specific immunity. Forty-eight significant SNP associations with variations in neutralizing antibodies and measles-specific IFNγ Elispot responses were identified (p<0.05). Our study replicated an important previously found association of a functional IL12B genetic variant rs3212227 with variations in measles-specific humoral immunity (p=0.037). Similarly, two previously reported promoter IL10 and IL2 polymorphisms (rs1800890 and rs2069762) demonstrated associations with measles-specific cellular immunity in Caucasians (p≤0.034). Multiple IL7R polymorphisms, including a non-synonymous functional SNP (rs6897932/Thr244Ile), were associated with humoral (p≤0.024) and/or cellular (IFNγ Elispot, p≤0.023) measles-specific immune responses in Caucasians, but not African-Americans. Haplotype level analysis confirmed the association of IL7R genetic variants with measles vaccine-induced immunity in the Caucasian group (global p-value=0.003). Our results validate previous findings and identify new plausible genetic determinants, including IL7R polymorphisms, regulating measles vaccine-induced immunity in a race-specific manner. PMID:21875636

  19. Tear Cytokines as Biomarkers for Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji Won; Han, Soo Jung; Song, Mi Kyung; Kim, Tae-im; Kim, Eung Kweon; Min, Yoo Hong; Cheong, June-Won; Seo, Kyoung Yul

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the tear cytokine profiles in patients who underwent stem cell transplantation (SCT) and attempted to evaluate whether tear cytokines are associated with the presence of systemic chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), regardless of ocular GVHD status. We also tested tear cytokines as biomarkers for chronic ocular GVHD severity. Forty-four patients who underwent SCT were enrolled and their diagnosis of chronic GVHD was confirmed. Ocular surface parameters and tear cytokine profiles were evaluated and the correlations between concentrations of cytokines and ocular surface parameters or several chronic ocular GVHD severity scales were evaluated. Tear interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, IL-17α, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were elevated in patients with chronic systemic GVHD compared with patients without chronic systemic GVHD. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that area under the curve (AUC) values for tear IL-10 (AUC = .795), IL-17α (AUC = .821), IL-6 (AUC = .912), and TNF-α (AUC = .910) were significantly correlated with the presence of chronic GVHD (all P < .001). Tear IL-10, IL-6, and TNF-α showed a stronger correlation with ocular surface parameters than other cytokines and these cytokines also correlated with several chronic ocular GVHD severity scales (all P < .05). Our data suggest the tear cytokines are useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of chronic GVHD after SCT and chronic ocular GVHD severity.

  20. Change in Plasma Cytokine Levels During Risperidone Treatment in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Eun; Widjaja, Felicia; Careaga, Milo; Bent, Stephen; Ashwood, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Atypical antipsychotics decrease irritability in autism. They also affect the cytokine network. Psychological stress, depression, and, possibly, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We sought to determine if risperidone treatment led to changes in plasma cytokine levels. Methods: Forty-five subjects from an open-label study of risperidone treatment of children and adolescents with ASD, ages 4–18 years, had an analysis of 27 different cytokines at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment using multiplex assays (Millipore) and read on the Luminex 100™ platform. We examined changes in each of the cytokine levels in the entire group, and also compared changes in cytokines in responders versus nonresponders. Results: After 8 weeks of risperidone treatment, 2 of the 27 plasma cytokines showed statistically significant decreases in median levels: Eotaxin (p=0.0003) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (p=0.0024). Six of the 48 subjects met two criteria for responders to risperidone, and the median values of interleukin (IL)-5 were significantly higher (p=0.005) in the overall responder group than in nonresponders. Conclusions: Two cytokines, eotaxin and MCP-1, which have previously been identified as abnormally elevated in children with autism, decreased during treatment with risperidone. This suggests a possible mechanism of action of risperidone treatment and a balancing of the immune system in affected subjects in this very preliminary study. PMID:24828014

  1. Inhibition of dengue virus production and cytokine/chemokine expression by ribavirin and compound A.

    PubMed

    Rattanaburee, Thidarath; Junking, Mutita; Panya, Aussara; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Songprakhon, Pucharee; Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Haegeman, Guy; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2015-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a worldwide public health problem with an increasing magnitude. The severity of disease in the patients with DENV infection correlates with high viral load and massive cytokine production - the condition referred to as "cytokine storm". Thus, concurrent inhibition of DENV and cytokine production should be more effective for treatment of DENV infection. In this study, we investigated the effects of the antiviral agent - ribavirin (RV), and the anti-inflammatory compound - compound A (CpdA), individually or in combination, on DENV production and cytokine/chemokine transcription in human lung epithelial carcinoma (A549) cells infected with DENV. Initially, the cells infected with DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) was studied. The results showed that treatment of DENV-infected cells with RV could significantly reduce both DENV production and cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) and chemokine (IP-10 and RANTES) transcription while treatment of DENV-infected cells with CpdA could significantly reduce cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) and chemokine (RANTES) transcription. Combined RV and CpdA treatment of the infected cells showed greater reduction of DENV production and cytokine/chemokine transcription. Similar results of this combined treatment were observed for infection with any one of the four DENV (DENV1, 2, 3, and 4) serotypes. These results indicate that combination of the antiviral agent and the anti-inflammatory compound offers a greater efficiency in reduction of DENV and cytokine/chemokine production, providing a new therapeutic approach for DENV infection.

  2. A COMPARISON OF CYTOKINE MESSAGE AND PROTEIN PROFILES OBTAINED FOLLOWING DERMAL EXPOSURE TO DIISOCYANATES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to certain low molecular weight chemicals is associated with asthma. A simple method to identify this hazard is needed. Increased expression of Th2 cytokine mRNA in draining lymph nodes following dermal exposure and increased production of Th2 cytokines by cultured cell...

  3. INCONSISTENCIES BETWEEN CYTOKINE PROFILES, ANTIBODY RESPONSES, AND RESPIRATORY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS FOLLOWING DERMAL EXPOSURE TO ISOCYANATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytokine profiling of local lymph node responses has been proposed as a simple test to identify chemicals, such as low molecular weight diisocyanates, that pose a significant risk of occupational asthma. Previously, we reported cytokine mRNA profiles for dinitrochlorobenzene (DNC...

  4. Anti-cytokine autoantibodies are associated with opportunistic infection in patients with thymic neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Burbelo, Peter D.; Sampaio, Elizabeth P.; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Zaman, Rifat; Kristosturyan, Ervand; Rajan, Arun; Ding, Li; Ching, Kathryn H.; Berman, Arlene; Oliveira, Joao B.; Hsu, Amy P.; Klimavicz, Caitlin M.; Iadarola, Michael J.; Holland, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with thymic malignancy have high rates of autoimmunity leading to a variety of autoimmune diseases, most commonly myasthenia gravis caused by anti-acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies. High rates of autoantibodies to cytokines have also been described, although prevalence, spectrum, and functionality of these anti-cytokine autoantibodies are poorly defined. To better understand the presence and function of anti-cytokine autoantibodies, we created a luciferase immunoprecipitation system panel to search for autoantibodies against 39 different cytokines and examined plasma from controls (n = 30) and patients with thymic neoplasia (n = 17). In this screen, our patients showed statistically elevated, but highly heterogeneous immunoreactivity against 16 of the 39 cytokines. Some patients showed autoantibodies to multiple cytokines. Functional testing proved that autoantibodies directed against interferon-α, interferon-β, interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-12p35, IL-12p40, and IL-17A had biologic blocking activity in vitro. All patients with opportunistic infection showed multiple anti-cytokine autoantibodies (range 3-11), suggesting that anti-cytokine autoantibodies may be important in the pathogenesis of opportunistic infections in patients with thymic malignancy. This study was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00001355. PMID:20716769

  5. Novel cancer vaccines prepared by anchoring cytokines to tumor cells avoiding gene transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizard, Philippe; Gross, David-Alexandre; Chenal, Alexandre; Beaumelle, Bruno; Kosmatopoulos, Konstadinos; Gillet, Daniel

    2002-06-01

    Cytokines have a strong potential for triggering anticancer immunity if released in the tumor microenvironment. Successful vaccines have been engineered using tumor cells genetically modified to secrete the cytokines. Unfortunately, this approach remains difficult and hazardous to perform in the clinic. We describe a new way of combining cytokines with tumor cells to prepare anticancer vaccines. This consists in anchoring recombinant cytokines to the membrane of killed tumor cells. Attachment is mediated by a fragment of diphtheria toxin (T) genetically connected to the cytokine. It is triggered by an acid pH pulse. The method was applied to IL-2, a potent anti-tumor cytokine. IL-2 anchored to the surface of tumor cells by the T anchor retained its IL-2 activity and remained exposed several days. Interestingly, vaccination of mice with these modified tumor cells induced a protective anti-tumor immunity mediated by tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This procedure presents several advantages as compared to the conventional approaches based on the transfection of tumor cells with cytokine genes. It does not require the culture of tumor cells from the patients and eliminates the safety problems connected with viral vectors while allowing the control of the amount of cytokines delivered with the vaccine.

  6. Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Plasma Cytokines, and Heart Rate Variability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Binyao; Deng, Qifei; Zhang, Wangzhen; Feng, Yingying; Dai, Xiayun; Feng, Wei; He, Xiaosheng; Huang, Suli; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Xiaohai; Lin, Dafeng; He, Meian; Guo, Huan; Sun, Huizhen; Yuan, Jing; Lu, Jiachun; Hu, Frank B; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heart rate variability (HRV). However, the roles of plasma cytokines in these associations are limited. In discovery stage of this study, we used Human Cytokine Antibody Arrays to examine differences in the concentrations of 280 plasma cytokines between 8 coke-oven workers and 16 community residents. We identified 19 cytokines with significant different expression (fold change ≥2 or ≤-2, and q-value <5%) between exposed workers and controls. 4 cytokines were selected to validate in 489 coke-oven workers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in validation stage. We found OH-PAHs were inversely associated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (p < 0.05), and interquartile range (IQR) increases in OH-PAHs were associated with >16% BDNF decreases. Additionally, OH-PAHs were positively associated with activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.05), and IQR increases in OH-PAHs were associated with >20% increases in CRP. We also found significant associations between these cytokines and HRV (p < 0.05), and IQR increases in BDNF and CRP were associated with >8% decreases in HRV. Our results indicated PAH exposure was associated with plasma cytokines, and higher cytokines were associated with decreased HRV, but additional human and potential mechanistic studies are needed. PMID:26758679

  7. St. John's wort extract and hyperforin protect rat and human pancreatic islets against cytokine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Michela; Beffy, Pascale; Menegazzi, Marta; De Tata, Vincenzo; Martino, Luisa; Sgarbossa, Anna; Porozov, Svetlana; Pippa, Anna; Masini, Matilde; Marchetti, Piero; Masiello, Pellegrino

    2014-02-01

    The extract of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort, SJW) and its component hyperforin (HPF) were previously shown to inhibit cytokine-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 and nuclear factor κB and prevent apoptosis in a cultured β-cell line. Objective of this study was to assess the protection exerted by SJW and HPF on isolated rat and human islets exposed to cytokines in vitro. Functional, ultrastructural, biomolecular and cell death evaluation studies were performed. In both rat and human islets, SJW and HPF counteracted cytokine-induced functional impairment and down-regulated mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory target genes, such as iNOS, CXCL9, CXCL10, COX2. Cytokine-induced NO production from cultured islets, evaluated by nitrites measurement in the medium, was significantly reduced in the presence of the vegetal compounds. Noteworthy, the increase in apoptosis and necrosis following 48-h exposure to cytokines was fully prevented by SJW and partially by HPF. Ultrastructural morphometric analysis in human islets exposed to cytokines for 20 h showed that SJW or HPF avoided early β-cell damage (e.g., mitochondrial alterations and loss of insulin granules). In conclusion, SJW compounds protect rat and human islets against cytokine effects by counteracting key mechanisms of cytokine-mediated β-cell injury and represent promising pharmacological tools for prevention or limitation of β-cell dysfunction and loss in type 1 diabetes.

  8. CYTOKINE PROFILES DO NOT PREDICT ANTIBODY RESPONSES AND RESPIRATORY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS FOLLOWING DERMAL EXPOSURE TO ISOCYANATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Cytokine profiling of local lymph node responses following dermal exposure has been proposed as a test to identify chemicals that pose a risk of occupational asthma. The present study tested the hypothesis that relative differences in cytokine profiles for dini...

  9. [Profile of RNA cytokines in blood plasma under conditions of normal physiological state of human body].

    PubMed

    Turchaninova, M A; Rebrikov, D V

    2009-01-01

    The level of representation of extracellular RNA 14 cytokines in blood plasma in a group of apparently healthy subjects was analyzed. The level of representation of the transcripts of these cytokines in extracellular medium is characterized by specific profile different from the profile of expression of the genes in blood cells.

  10. Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Plasma Cytokines, and Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Binyao; Deng, Qifei; Zhang, Wangzhen; Feng, Yingying; Dai, Xiayun; Feng, Wei; He, Xiaosheng; Huang, Suli; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Xiaohai; Lin, Dafeng; He, Meian; Guo, Huan; Sun, Huizhen; Yuan, Jing; Lu, Jiachun; Hu, Frank B.; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heart rate variability (HRV). However, the roles of plasma cytokines in these associations are limited. In discovery stage of this study, we used Human Cytokine Antibody Arrays to examine differences in the concentrations of 280 plasma cytokines between 8 coke-oven workers and 16 community residents. We identified 19 cytokines with significant different expression (fold change ≥2 or ≤−2, and q-value <5%) between exposed workers and controls. 4 cytokines were selected to validate in 489 coke-oven workers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in validation stage. We found OH-PAHs were inversely associated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (p < 0.05), and interquartile range (IQR) increases in OH-PAHs were associated with >16% BDNF decreases. Additionally, OH-PAHs were positively associated with activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.05), and IQR increases in OH-PAHs were associated with >20% increases in CRP. We also found significant associations between these cytokines and HRV (p < 0.05), and IQR increases in BDNF and CRP were associated with >8% decreases in HRV. Our results indicated PAH exposure was associated with plasma cytokines, and higher cytokines were associated with decreased HRV, but additional human and potential mechanistic studies are needed. PMID:26758679

  11. Th17 cytokines differentiate obesity from obesity-associated type 2 diabetes and promote TNFα production

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Blanche; Cilfone, Nicholas; Belkina, Anna C.; DeFuria, Jason; Jagannathan-Bogdan, Madhumita; Zhu, Min; Kuchibhatla, Ramya; McDonnell, Marie E.; Xiao, Qiang; Kepler, Thomas B.; Apovian, Caroline M.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective T cell inflammation plays pivotal roles in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The identification of dominant sources of T cell inflammation in humans remains a significant gap in understanding disease pathogenesis. We hypothesized that cytokine profiles from circulating T cells identify T cell subsets and T cell cytokines that define T2DM-associated inflammation. Methods We used multiplex analyses to quantify T cell-associated cytokines in αCD3/αCD28-stimulated PBMCs, or B cell-depleted PBMCs, from subjects with T2DM or BMI-matched controls. We subjected cytokine measurements to multivariate (principal component and partial least squares) analyses. Flow cytometry detected intracellular TNFα in multiple immune cells subsets in the presence/absence of antibodies that neutralize T cell cytokines. Results T cell cytokines were generally higher in T2DM samples, but Th17 cytokines are specifically important for classifying individuals correctly as T2DM. Multivariate analyses indicated that B cells support Th17 inflammation in T2DM but not control samples, while monocytes supported Th17 inflammation regardless of T2DM status. Partial least squares regression analysis indicated that both Th17 and Th1 cytokines impact %HbA1c. Conclusions Among various T cell subsets, Th17 cells are major contributors to inflammation and hyperglycemia, and are uniquely supported by B cells in obesity-associated T2DM. PMID:26576827

  12. Characterization and Regulation of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) Genes in Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are a family of intracellular proteins that are centrally involved with vertebrate growth, development, and immunity via their effects as negative feedback regulators of cytokine (and hormone) signaling. A number of SOCS genes have been recently ...

  13. Endocytosis of pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors and its relevance for signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Hermanns, Heike M; Wohlfahrt, Julia; Mais, Christine; Hergovits, Sabine; Jahn, Daniel; Geier, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are key players of the innate and adaptive immunity. Their activity needs to be tightly controlled to allow the initiation of an appropriate immune response as defense mechanism against pathogens or tissue injury. Excessive or sustained signaling of either of these cytokines leads to severe diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), steatohepatitis, periodic fevers and even cancer. Studies carried out in the last 30 years have emphasized that an elaborate control system for each of these cytokines exists. Here, we summarize what is currently known about the involvement of receptor endocytosis in the regulation of these pro-inflammatory cytokines' signaling cascades. Particularly in the last few years it was shown that this cellular process is far more than a mere feedback mechanism to clear cytokines from the circulation and to shut off their signal transduction.

  14. Circulating Cytokine Levels as Markers of Inflammation in Philadelphia Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Diagnostic and Prognostic Interest

    PubMed Central

    Mondet, Julie; Hussein, Kais; Mossuz, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are well known mediators of numerous physiological and pathological processes. They contribute to the regulation of normal hematopoiesis but increasing data suggest that they also have a clinical impact in some hematopoietic malignancies. In particular, there is evidence that cytokines are implicated in the functional symptoms of Philadelphia negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph− MPNs), suggesting that evaluation of circulating levels of cytokines could be of clinical interest for the characterization of patients at the time of diagnosis and for disease prognosis. In this review, we present the current knowledge on alteration of circulating cytokine profiles in MPNs and their role in myelofibrosis pathogenesis. Phenotypic correlation, prognostic value of cytokines, and impact of JAK inhibitors are also discussed. PMID:26525644

  15. Neuroendocrine hormones such as growth hormone and prolactin are integral members of the immunological cytokine network.

    PubMed

    Redelman, Doug; Welniak, Lisbeth A; Taub, Dennis; Murphy, William J

    2008-01-01

    Neuroendocrine hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) have been demonstrated to accelerate the recovery of the immune response after chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation and to enhance the restoration of immunity in individuals infected with HIV and in normal individuals with compromised immune systems associated with aging. As the mechanism of action of these hormones has been elucidated, it has become clear that they are integral members of the immunological cytokine/chemokine network and share regulatory mechanisms with a wide variety of cytokines and chemokines. The members of this cytokine network induce and can be regulated by members of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of intracellular proteins. In order to take advantage of the potential beneficial effects of hormones such as GH or PRL, it is essential to take into consideration the overall cytokine network and the regulatory effects of SOCS proteins.

  16. Multiple Serum Cytokine Profiling to Identify Combinational Diagnostic Biomarkers in Attacks of Familial Mediterranean Fever.

    PubMed

    Koga, Tomohiro; Migita, Kiyoshi; Sato, Shuntaro; Umeda, Masataka; Nonaka, Fumiaki; Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Nakamura, Hideki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Ueki, Yukitaka; Masumoto, Junya; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Yachie, Akihiro; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Eguchi, Katsumi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-04-01

    The precise cytokine networks in the serum of individuals with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) that are associated with its pathogenesis have been unknown. Here, we attempted to identify specific biomarkers to diagnose or assess disease activity in FMF patients. We measured serum levels of 45 cytokines in 75 FMF patients and 40 age-matched controls by multisuspension cytokine array. FMF in "attack" or "remission" was classified by Japan College of Rheumatology-certified rheumatologists according to the Tel Hashomer criteria. Cytokines were ranked by their importance by a multivariate classification algorithm. We performed a logistic regression analysis to determine specific biomarkers for discriminating FMF patients in attack. To identify specific molecular networks, we performed a cluster analysis of each cytokine. Twenty-nine of the 45 cytokines were available for further analyses. Eight cytokines' serum levels were significantly elevated in the FMF attack versus healthy control group. Nine cytokines were increased in FMF attack compared to FMF remission. Multivariate classification algorithms followed by a logistic regression analysis revealed that the combined measurement of IL-6, IL-18, and IL-17 distinguished FMF patients in attack from the controls with the highest accuracy (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 100%, and accuracy 95.5%). Among the FMF patients, the combined measurement of IL-6, G-CSF, IL-10, and IL-12p40 discriminated febrile attack periods from remission periods with the highest accuracy (sensitivity 75.0%, specificity 87.9%, and accuracy 84.0%). Our data identified combinational diagnostic biomarkers in FMF patients based on the measurement of multiple cytokines. These findings help to improve the diagnostic performance of FMF in daily practice and extend our understanding of the activation of the inflammasome leading to enhanced cytokine networks. PMID:27100444

  17. Comparative sequence analysis of cytokine genes from human and nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Villinger, F.; Brar, S.S.; Mayne, A.

    1995-10-15

    Two major issues severely limit the studies of human recombinant cytokines/growth factors in nonhuman primates. First, assays and reagents specific for the detection and quantitation of human cytokines do not all function when utilized to detect/quantitate the nonhuman primate cytokines. Second, although most of the human cytokines appear to induce similar, if not identical, biologic function when used with cells from nonhuman primates in vitro or in vivo, they invariably induce Ab responses in vivo, precluding their repeated and/or continued use in vivo. Our laboratory has thus initiated studies to clone, sequence, and prepare recombinant cytokines from nonhuman primates and to define assays and reagents for their detection and quantitation at the nucleic acid and protein level. The data that were derived from such studies show that the nonhuman primate cytokines IL-1{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12{alpha}, IL-12{beta}, IL-15, IFN-{alpha}, IFN-{gamma}, and TNF-{alpha} share 93 to 99% homology at the nucleic acid and protein level with the human equivalents. The most prominent differences between human and nonhuman primate cytokine sequences were noted for IL-1{alpha}/{beta}, IL-2, IL-8, IFN-{alpha}, IFN-{gamma}, and IL-12{beta}. The aligned sequences of cytokines for human and several nonhuman primate species are provided herein, and a phylogenetic analysis of the published sequences of select cytokines from other species, along with those of the nonhuman primates, are described. In addition, comparative analysis of the relative bioactivity of our immunoaffinity-purified recombinant rhesus macaque IL-4, IL-15, and IFN-{gamma} with commercially available human recombinant cytokines is described herein. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Gallium arsenide selectively up-regulates inflammatory cytokine expression at exposure site.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen M; McCoy, Kathleen L

    2003-12-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), a technologically and economically important semiconductor, is widely utilized in both military and commercial applications. This chemical is a potential health hazard as a carcinogen and immunotoxicant. We previously reported that macrophages at the exposure site exhibit characteristics of activation. In vitro culture of macrophages with GaAs fails to recapitulate the in vivo phenotype, suggesting that complete GaAs-mediated activation in vivo may require other cells or components found in the body's microenvironment. Our present study examined the role of cytokines upon GaAs-mediated macrophage activation. Intraperitoneal administration of GaAs elicited rapid specific recruitment of blood monocytes to the exposure site. This recruitment occurred concomitant with up-regulation of 17 chemokine and inflammatory cytokine mRNAs, while transcripts of three inhibitory cytokines diminished. Administration of latex beads caused less cytokine induction than GaAs, indicating that changes in mRNA levels could not be attributed to phagocytosis. Four representative chemokines and cytokines were selected for further analysis. Increased cytokine mRNA expression was paralleled by similar increases in cytokine protein levels, and secreted protein products were detected in peritoneal fluid. Cytokine protein expression was constrained to myeloid cells, and to a lesser extent to B cells. Alterations in patterns of cytokine gene expression elucidate mechanisms for increased cellular activation and antigen processing, and modulation of the inflammatory response. Our findings indicate that in vivo GaAs exposure alters cytokine gene expression, which may lead to an inflammatory reaction and contribute to pathological tissue damage.

  19. Reduced expression of microenvironmental Th1 cytokines accompanies adenomas-carcinomas sequence of colorectum.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guanglin; Goll, Rasmus; Olsen, Trine; Steigen, Sonja Eriksson; Husebekk, Anne; Vonen, Barthold; Florholmen, Jon

    2007-07-01

    Cytokines have been suggested to be key factors in modulating immune response against tumorigenesis in the microenvironment. Therefore, characterization of cytokine expression along the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence may add important information for understanding the immune-related mechanisms of the development of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). In this study, biopsies from 32 patients with colorectal adenoma (CRA), 20 patients with CRC and 18 healthy controls were examined. Cytokine gene expressions of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma and its upstream inducers (IL-12A and IL-18) were measured at messenger RNA (mRNA) level with quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR). Cytokine expressing cells were characterized using immunohistochemistry (IHC). A distinct different cytokine profile between adenoma and CRC was observed: the Th1 cytokines (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-12A and IL-18) were increased in local tissues of CRA and decreased in CRC. Consistent with the quantitative cytokine data, IHC examinations revealed slightly increased densities of Th1 cytokine-expressing cells in CRA and a remarkably decreased density of the Th1 cells in CRC. In CRA, the cytokine-expressing cells were highly polarized to the subepithelial stroma while the cells were evenly distributed through the stroma in CRC. In conclusion, distinct changes in the Th1 cytokine profile appear along the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This may reflect a change in the host immune regulatory function in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. PMID:17160410

  20. Cytokine-induced neutrophil-derived interleukin-8.

    PubMed Central

    Strieter, R. M.; Kasahara, K.; Allen, R. M.; Standiford, T. J.; Rolfe, M. W.; Becker, F. S.; Chensue, S. W.; Kunkel, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    During acute inflammation, the first line of cellular response for host defense is the neutrophil. In addition to the historic role of the neutrophil as a phagocyte, recent studies have identified this cell as an important source of a number of cytokines. In this study, we provide evidence that the neutrophil is a significant source of interleukin-8 (IL-8). Neutrophils freshly isolated from whole blood were not found to constitutively express IL-8 mRNA. In contrast, when these leukocytes were cultured on plastic they were activated, leading to the significant expression of de novo steady-state levels of IL-8 mRNA. In addition, when neutrophils were treated with cycloheximide, there was evidence for "superinduction" of steady-state levels of IL-8 mRNA and inhibition of antigenic IL-8 production. Neutrophils were subsequently stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or interleukin-1-beta and were found to express IL-8 mRNA and antigen in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, neutrophils stimulated with traditional chemotactic/activating factors, such as the split product of the fifth component of complement (C5a), formylmethionyleucylphenylalanine (fMLP), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in a dose-dependent manner did not produce significant antigenic IL-8, as compared with unstimulated controls. In contrast, when neutrophils were exposed to either of these neutrophil agonists in the presence of LPS, the production of antigenic IL-8 was significantly elevated, as compared with either of the stimuli alone, suggesting a synergistic response. These data would suggest that the neutrophil can no longer be viewed as only a phagocyte or warehouse for proteolytic enzymes, but is a pivotal effector cell that is able to respond to mediators in its environment and generate cytokines. This latter neutrophil response may be important for either the elicitation of additional neutrophils or to orchestrate the conventional immune response at

  1. Differential expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling-1, -2, and -3 in the rat hippocampus after seizure: implications for neuromodulation by gp130 cytokines.

    PubMed

    Rosell, D R; Akama, K T; Nacher, J; McEwen, B S

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the expression of various cytokine families in the CNS after brain injury. The gp130 or interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines have received a great deal of focus, and it is clear that they exhibit an acute and robust upregulation in various brain injury models. We are interested to determine, however, whether endogenously expressed cytokines in the CNS act in a direct neuromodulatory manner. In an accompanying study, we examined the expression of five gp130 cytokines and their receptors in the lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus. We follow up that study here by trying to determine if gp130 signal transduction occurs in hippocampal principal neurons after seizure. Therefore, using the expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1 and -3 as indices of gp130 signal transduction, we performed a detailed in situ hybridization seizure time-course study in the adult rat hippocampus. For comparison, we also examined SOCS-2, which is involved in insulin-like growth factor signaling. We found that while SOCS-1 and -3 were faintly expressed under basal conditions, only SOCS-3 exhibited a rapid, robust, and transient induction. This occurred first in non-principal cells, which appeared to be glial, peaking at approximately 12 h post-seizure. Subsequently, a robust induction of SOCS-3 occurred in pyramidal and granule neurons, peaking at approximately 24 h. SOCS-2 displayed a relatively higher level of basal expression, particularly in CA3, and a mild and transient downregulation by 24 h. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that seizure-induced gp130 cytokines play a direct neuromodulatory role in the hippocampus. Since in our previous study we did not detect cytokine receptor expression in non-principal cells, it is unclear what elicits SOCS-3 expression in this population.

  2. Cross-Regulation of Proinflammatory Cytokines by Interleukin-10 and miR-155 in Orientia tsutsugamushi-Infected Human Macrophages Prevents Cytokine Storm.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Tsai, Rong-Kung; Hong, Yi-Ren; Chuang, Tsung-Hsien; Fan, Kan-Tang; Peng, Chi-Wen; Wu, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wen-Li; Wang, Lih-Shinn; Chen, Li-Kuang; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2016-07-01

    Scrub typhus is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. Macrophages are host cells for its replication and clearance. Severe complications in patients are mainly caused by a cytokine storm resulting from overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines; nevertheless, the molecular mechanism for the occurrence remains obscure. Herein, we investigate the interactive regulation of cytokines and micro-RNA (miR) in human macrophages infected with low and high doses of O. tsutsugamushi. During low dose infection, macrophages produce high levels of IL-10 through extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, which inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production and facilitates pathogen replication. Increasing levels of pathogen results in reduced levels of IL-10, and macrophages begin to generate high levels of proinflammatory cytokines through NF-κB activation. However, during a high dose infection, macrophages produce high levels of miR-155 to slow the proinflammatory response. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase/IL-10 axis suppresses the NF-κB/tumor necrosis factor alpha axis via activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. Both IL-10 and miR-155 inhibit the NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, IL-10 is a potent inhibitor of miR-155. Patients susceptible to a cytokine storm, peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed significantly lower IL-10 and miR-155 responses to O. tsutsugamushi challenge. Thus, IL-10 and miR-155 operate inhibitory mechanisms to achieve a proper defense mechanism and prevent a cytokine storm.

  3. Intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine does not modify plasma cytokines and chemokines or intracellular cytokine responses to Plasmodium falciparum in Mozambican Children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cytokines and chemokines are key mediators of anti-malarial immunity. We evaluated whether Intermittent Preventive Treatment in infants with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (IPTi-SP) had an effect on the acquisition of these cellular immune responses in Mozambican children. Multiple cytokines and chemokines were quantified in plasma by luminex, and antigen-specific cytokine production in whole blood was determined by intracellular cytokine staining and flow cytometry, at ages 5, 9, 12 and 24 months. Results IPTi-SP did not significantly affect the proportion of CD3+ cells producing IFN-γ, IL-4 or IL-10. Overall, plasma cytokine or chemokine concentrations did not differ between treatment groups. Th1 and pro-inflammatory responses were higher than Th2 and anti-inflammatory responses, respectively, and IFN-γ:IL-4 ratios were higher for placebo than for SP recipients. Levels of cytokines and chemokines varied according to age, declining from 5 to 9 months. Plasma concentrations of IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13 were associated with current infection or prior malaria episodes. Higher frequencies of IFN-γ and IL-10 producing CD3+ cells and elevated IL-10, IFN-γ, MCP-1 and IL-13 in plasma were individually associated with increased malaria incidence, at different time points. When all markers were analyzed together, only higher IL-17 at 12 months was associated with lower incidence of malaria up to 24 months. Conclusions Our work has confirmed that IPTi-SP does not negatively affect the development of cellular immune response during early childhood. This study has also provided new insights as to how these cytokine responses are acquired upon age and exposure to P. falciparum, as well as their associations with malaria susceptibility. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00209795 PMID:22280502

  4. Translational implications of inflammatory biomarkers and cytokine networks in psychoneuroimmunology.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Developments in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) need to be translated into personalized medicine to achieve better clinical outcomes. One of the most critical steps in this translational process is to identify systemic biomarkers for better diagnosis and treatment. Applications of systems biology approaches in PNI would enable the insights into the correlations among various systems and different levels for the identification of the basic elements of the psychophysiological framework. Among the potential PNI biomarkers, inflammatory markers deserve special attention as they play a pivotal role linking various health conditions and disorders. The elucidation of inflammatory markers, cytokine networks, and immune-brain-behavior interactions may help establish PNI profiles for the identification of potential targets for personalized interventions in at risk populations. The understanding of the general systemic pathways among different disorders may contribute to the transition from the disease-centered medicine to patient-centered medicine. Integrative strategies targeting these factors and pathways would be useful for the prevention and treatment of a spectrum of diseases that share the common links. Examples of the translational implications of potential PNI biomarkers and networks in diseases including depression, Alzheimer's disease, obesity, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and HIV are discussed in details.

  5. Molecular mechanisms of alcoholic liver disease: innate immunity and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew M; Horiguchi, Norio; Jeong, Won-Il; Radaeva, Svetlana; Gao, Bin

    2011-05-01

    Alcohol consumption is a predominant etiological factor in the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases worldwide, causing fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the past few decades, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying alcoholic liver injury. Activation of innate immunity components such as Kupffer cells, LPS/TLR4, and complements in response to alcohol exposure plays a key role in the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). LPS activation of Kupffer cells also produces IL-6 and IL-10 that may play a protective role in ameliorating ALD. IL-6 activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells, while IL-10 activates STAT3 in Kupffer cells/macrophages, subsequently protecting against ALD. In addition, alcohol consumption also inhibits some components of innate immunity such as natural killer (NK) cells, a type of cells that play key roles in anti-viral, anti-tumor, and anti-fibrotic defenses in the liver. Ethanol inhibition of NK cells likely contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of ALD. Understanding the roles of innate immunity and cytokines in alcoholic liver injury may provide insight into novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:21284667

  6. Suppressors of cytokine signalling-3 and -1 in human carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Culig, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    The role of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 and -1 has been investigated in various cancers. These proteins have been identified as endogenous controllers of activation of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription factors pathway factors under physiological conditions and in disease. SOCS-3 expression is lost in several cancers due to epigenetic mechanisms, mostly promoter methylation. In liver, lung, and squamous head and neck cancer, and several hematological malignancies SOCS-3 acts as a classic tumor suppressor. In prostate cancer, SOCS-3 effects are cell type-dependent. It prevents apoptosis in androgen receptor-negative cells. However, in androgen-sensitive cells, it could act as a negative feedback factor for androgenic regulation. Melanoma cells which overexpress SOCS-3 confer a growth advantage. SOCS-1 is in most cancers a tumor suppressor which may inhibit expression of cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclins. In general, the mechanisms responsible for the different effects of SOCS in cancer cell lines have to be further investigated. The results discussed in the present review may have an impact on personalized approaches in cancer medicine. PMID:23277051

  7. Adiponectin stimulates proliferation and cytokine secretion in colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ogunwobi, Olorunseun Olatunji; Beales, Ian L P

    2006-05-15

    Adiponectin is a recently described mediator secreted by adipose tissue. Here we report the growth promoting and pro-inflammatory actions of adiponectin on colonic epithelial cancer cells. Full-length and globular adiponectin produced an identical stimulation of HT-29 cell growth that was blocked by inhibition of adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A and partially inhibited by a pan-specific protein kinase C inhibitor, but was unaffected by specific inhibition of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) or p38 MAP kinase. Globular adiponectin but not full-length adiponectin significantly increased the secretion and mRNA levels of IL-8, GM-CSF and MCP-1. Globular adiponectin doubled IL-1beta-stimulated IL-8 and GM-CSF secretion. Adiponectin-stimulated cytokine secretion was blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of NF-kappaB, ERK and p38 MAP kinase. Globular adiponectin increased phosphorylation of both ERK and p38 MAP kinase and increased the nuclear translocation of active NF-kappaB. Adiponectin has pro-proliferative and pro-inflammatory actions on colonic epithelial cells; these appear to be differentially activated by the adiponectin isoforms. Adiponectin may have a role in the regulation of gastrointestinal mucosal function, inflammation and colon carcinogenesis.

  8. Vaccine-Drug Interactions: Cytokines, Cytochromes, and Molecular Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Paolo; Perrotta, Cristiana; Clementi, Emilio; Radice, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Vaccinations are recommended throughout life to reduce the risk of vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequelae. Vaccines are often administered in patients with chronic diseases who are likely to be treated with several drugs. A growing number of clinical observations have indicated the possibility of interactions between vaccines and drugs, leading to changes in drug metabolism after vaccination. These interactions represent a significant concern because of the increasing use of vaccines in older patients who are likely to be treated with several drugs. Because of the possible implications of adverse reactions in terms of public health, several studies were performed to verify the risk posed by these interactions and to clarify the biologic mechanisms that drive these events. Of the several mechanisms proposed to be at the basis of vaccine-drug interactions, the most convincing evidence suggests a role of inflammatory cytokines on the regulation of specific cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver. Differences in the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of these drugs could explain these contrasting results and provide important insights to fully understand the clinical importance of these events. Further studies are required to verify whether vaccine-drug interactions may occur in other clinical settings, especially the ones for which patients are required to be vaccinated against specific diseases.

  9. Preterm birth and single nucleotide polymorphisms in cytokine genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qin; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is an important issue in neonates because of its complications as well as high morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of PTB is approximately 12-13% in USA and 5-9% in many other developed countries. China represents 7.8% (approximately one million) of 14.9 million babies born prematurely annually worldwide. The rate of PTB is still increasing. Both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are the major causes of PTB. Inflammation is regarded as an enabling characteristic factor of PTB. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literatures to illustrate the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytokine genes in PTB. These polymorphisms are different among different geographic regions and different races, thus different populations may have different risk factors of PTB. SNPs affect the ability to metabolize poisonous substances and determine inflammation susceptibility, which in turn has an influence on reproduction-related risks and on delivery outcomes after exposure to environmental toxicants and pathogenic organisms. PMID:26835330

  10. Measuring Cytokine Concentrations Using Magnetic Spectroscopy of Nanoparticle Brownian Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Shi, Yipeng; Weaver, John

    The magnetic particle spectroscopy is a newly developed non-invasive technique for obtaining information about the nanoparticles' micro environment. In this technique the nanoparticles' magnetization, induced by an alternating magnetic field at various applied frequencies, is processed to analyze rotational freedom of nanoparticles. By analyzing average rotational freedom, it is possible to measure the nanoparticle's relaxation time, and hence get an estimate of the temperature and viscosity of the medium. In molecular concentration sensing, the rotational freedom indicates the number of nanoparticles that are bound by a selected analyte. We have developed microscopic nanoparticles probes to measure the concentration of selected molecules. The nanoparticles are targeted to bind the selected molecule and the resulting reduction in rotational freedom can be quantified remotely. Previously, sensitivity measurements has been reported to be of the factor of 200. However, with our newer perpendicular field setup (US Patent Application Serial No 61/721,378), it possible to sense cytokine concentrations as low as 5 Pico-Molar in-vitro. The excellent sensitivity of this apparatus is due to isolation of the drive field from the signal so the output can be amplified to a higher level. Dartmouth College.

  11. Plasma Cytokine Levels During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Zwart, Sara R.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2012-01-01

    Determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation. Specific measurements include leukocyte distribution, T cell function, cytokine production profiles (mRNA, intracellular, secreted, plasma), virus-specific T cell number/function, latent herpesvirus reactivation, stress hormone levels. Determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight, as well as an appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures. Specific Study Objectives: Determine the nutritional status of astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight ensure adequate intake of energy, protein, and vitamins during missions. The Clinical Nutritional Status Assessment measures dietary intake, body composition, protein, bone, iron, mineral, vitamin, and antioxidant status (60 total analytes). Currently, it is a medical requirement for U.S. crewmembers on-board the ISS. The results of data analysis are used both to understand the connections between nutrition and human health during space flight, and to develop effective dietary strategies to reduce adverse health impacts (including bone loss, loss of important vitamins and minerals, and increased genetic damage from radiation).

  12. Cytokines in Pericardial Effusion of Patients with Inflammatory Pericardial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Karatolios, Konstantinos; Moosdorf, Rainer; Maisch, Bernhard; Pankuweit, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Background. The role of inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines in patients with inflammatory pericardial effusion still remains uncertain. Methods. We assessed pericardial and serum levels of VEGF, bFGF, IL-1β and TNF-α by ELISA in patients with inflammatory pericardial effusion (PE) of autoreactive (n = 22) and viral (n = 11) origin, and for control in pericardial fluid (PF) and serum (n = 26) of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Results. VEGF levels were significantly higher in patients with autoreactive and viral PE than in patients with CAD in both PE (P = 0, 006 for autoreactive and P < 0, 001 for viral PE) and serum (P < 0, 001 for autoreactive and P < 0, 001 for viral PE). Pericardial bFGF levels were higher compared to serum levels in patients with inflammatory PE and patients with CAD (P ≤ 0, 001 for CAD; P ≤ 0, 001 for autoreactive PE; P = 0, 005 for viral PE). Pericardial VEGF levels correlated positively with markers of pericardial inflammation, whereas pericardial bFGF levels showed a negative correlation. IL-1β and TNF-α were detectable only in few PE and serum samples. Conclusions. VEGF and bFGF levels in pericardial effusion are elevated in patients with inflammatory PE. It is thus possible that VEGF and bFGF participate in the pathogenesis of inflammatory pericardial disease. PMID:22577248

  13. Cytokines and macrophage function in humans - role of stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    We have begun this study to commence the determination of the role of mild chronic stress in the effects of space flight on macrophage/monocyte function, a component of the immune response. Medical students undergoing regular periods of stress and relaxation have been shown to be an excellent model for determining the effects of stress on immune responses. We have begun using this model using the macrophage/monocyte as model leukocyte. The monocyte/macrophage plays a central role in immunoregulation. The studies to be included in this three year project are the effects of stress on: (1) interactions of monocytes with microbes, (2) monocyte production of cytokines, (3) monocyte phagocytosis and activity, and (4) monocyte expression of cell surface antigens important in immune responses. Stress hormone levels will also be carried out to determine if there is a correlation between stress effects on immune responses and hormonal levels. Psychological testing to insure subjects are actually stressed or relaxed at the time of testing will also be carried out. The results obtained from the proposed studies should be comparable with space flight studies with whole animals and isolated cell cultures. When complete this study should allow the commencement of the establishment of the role of stress as one compartment of the induction of immune alterations by space flight.

  14. Control of glioblastoma tumorigenesis by feed-forward cytokine signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jahani-Asl, Arezu; Yin, Hang; Soleimani, Vahab D; Haque, Takrima; Luchman, H Artee; Chang, Natasha C; Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Puram, Sidharth V; Scott, Andrew M; Lorimer, Ian A J; Perkins, Theodore J; Ligon, Keith L; Weiss, Samuel; Rudnicki, Michael A; Bonni, Azad

    2016-01-01

    EGFRvIII-STAT3 signaling is important in glioblastoma pathogenesis. Here, we identified the cytokine receptor OSMR as a direct target gene of the transcription factor STAT3 in mouse astrocytes and human brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs). We found that OSMR functioned as an essential co-receptor for EGFRvIII. OSMR formed a physical complex with EGFRvIII, and depletion of OSMR impaired EGFRvIII-STAT3 signaling. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of EGFRvIII phosphorylation inhibited the EGFRvIII-OSMR interaction and activation of STAT3. EGFRvIII-OSMR signaling in tumors operated constitutively, whereas EGFR-OSMR signaling in nontumor cells was synergistically activated by the ligands EGF and OSM. Finally, knockdown of OSMR strongly suppressed cell proliferation and tumor growth of mouse glioblastoma cells and human BTSC xenografts in mice, and prolonged the lifespan of those mice. Our findings identify OSMR as a critical regulator of glioblastoma tumor growth that orchestrates a feed-forward signaling mechanism with EGFRvIII and STAT3 to drive tumorigenesis. PMID:27110918

  15. Active immunization by a dengue virus-induced cytokine.

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, U C; Mukerjee, R; Dhawan, R

    1994-01-01

    Dengue type 2 virus (DV)-induced cytotoxic factor (CF) is capable of reproducing various pathological lesions in mice that are seen in human dengue. The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of active immunization of mice with CF. Mice were immunized with 5 microgram of CF and prevention of CF-induced increase in capillary permeability and damage to the blood-brain barrier were studied at weekly intervals, up to 48 weeks, by challenging with 3 microgram of CF. Maximum protection against increase in capillary permeability and damage to the blood-brain barrier was observed in week 4 after immunization. A breakthrough in the protection occurred with higher doses of CF in a dose-dependent manner. Challenge with a lethal intracerebral (i.c.) dose of DV showed significantly prolonged mean survival time and delayed onset of symptoms of sickness in the immunized mice compared with the normal mice, but the titre of the virus in the brain was similar in the two groups. On i.p. challenge with the virus the protection against damage to the blood-brain barrier was 86 +/- 7% at week 4 and 17 +/- 4% at week 26 after immunization. Sera obtained from the immunized mice showed the presence of CF-specific antibodies by ELISA, Western blot, and by neutralization of the cytotoxic activity of CF in vitro. The present study describes successful prevention of a cytokine-induced pathology by specific active immunization. PMID:8187327

  16. Cytokine detection for the diagnosis of chromium allergy*

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Luis Eduardo Agner Machado; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patch testing remains the gold standard method for the identification of the etiologic agent of allergic contact dermatitis. However, it is a subjective, time-consuming exam whose technique demands special care and which presents some contraindications, which hamper its use. In a recent study, we showed that the proliferation assay can suitably replace patch testing for the diagnosis of chromium allergy, which had been previously demonstrated only for nickel allergy. In this study, we try to refine the method by reducing the incubation period of cultures for lymphocyte proliferation assays in response to chromium. OBJECTIVE Develop an alternative or complementary diagnostic test for chromium allergic contact dermatitis. METHODS We compared the production of 9 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17 and RANTES) between 18 chromium-allergic patients and 19 controls. RESULTS Chromium increased the production of IFN-y, IL-5, IL-2 and IL-13 in allergic patients, but only IL-2 and especially IL-13 helped discriminate allergic patients from controls. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy found with IL-13 were about 80%. CONCLUSIONS IL-13 and IL-2 detection may be used to diagnose chromium allergy in 2-day cultures. However, in general, the 6-day cultures seem to be superior for this purpose. PMID:24173176

  17. Pathophysiologic and prognostic role of cytokines in dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Bethell, D B; Flobbe, K; Cao, X T; Day, N P; Pham, T P; Buurman, W A; Cardosa, M J; White, N J; Kwiatkowski, D

    1998-03-01

    Dengue shock syndrome is a severe complication of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), characterized by a massive increase in vascular permeability. Plasma cytokine concentrations were prospectively studied in 443 Vietnamese children with DHF, of whom 6 died. Shock was present in 188 children on admission to hospital, and in 71 children it developed later. Contrary to expectations, certain inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1) were lower in the group with shock, and this may reflect the general loss of protein from the circulation due to capillary leakage. Only soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) levels showed a consistent positive relationship with disease severity. In patients with suspected DHF without shock, admission levels of sTNFR-75 in excess of 55 pg/mL predicted the subsequent development of shock, with a relative risk of 5.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-13.2). Large-scale release of soluble TNFR may be an early and specific marker of the endothelial changes that cause dengue shock syndrome.

  18. Gut commensalism, cytokines, and central nervous system demyelination.

    PubMed

    Telesford, Kiel; Ochoa-Repáraz, Javier; Kasper, Lloyd H

    2014-08-01

    There is increasing support for the importance of risk factors such as genetic makeup, obesity, smoking, vitamin D insufficiency, and antibiotic exposure contributing to the development of autoimmune diseases, including human multiple sclerosis (MS). Perhaps the greatest environmental risk factor associated with the development of immune-mediated conditions is the gut microbiome. Microbial and helminthic agents are active participants in shaping the immune systems of their hosts. This concept is continually reinforced by studies in the burgeoning area of commensal-mediated immunomodulation. The clinical importance of these findings for MS is suggested by both their participation in disease and, perhaps of greater clinical importance, attenuation of disease severity. Observations made in murine models of central nervous system demyelinating disease and a limited number of small studies in human MS suggest that immune homeostasis within the gut microbiome may be of paramount importance in maintaining a disease-free state. This review describes three immunological factors associated with the gut microbiome that are central to cytokine network activities in MS pathogenesis: T helper cell polarization, T regulatory cell function, and B cell activity. Comparisons are drawn between the regulatory mechanisms attributed to first-line therapies and those described in commensal-mediated amelioration of central nervous system demyelination.

  19. Plasmodium genetic loci linked to host cytokine and chemokine responses

    PubMed Central

    Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Li, Jian; Wu, Jian; Qi, Yanwei; Eastman, Richard T.; Zilversmit, Martine; Nair, Sethu C.; Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Quinones, Mariam; Jiang, Hongying; Li, Na; Zhu, Jun; Zhao, Keji; Kaneko, Osamu; Long, Carole A.; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2014-01-01

    Both host and parasite factors contribute to disease severity of malaria infection; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the disease and the host-parasite interactions involved remain largely unresolved. To investigate effects of parasite factors on host immune responses and pathogenesis, we measured levels of plasma cytokines/chemokines (CC) and growth rates in mice infected with two Plasmodium yoelii strains having different virulence phenotypes and in progeny from a genetic cross of the two parasites. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis linked levels of many CCs, particularly IL-1β, IP-10, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and MIG, and early parasite growth rate to loci on multiple parasite chromosomes, including chromosomes 7, 9, 10, 12, and 13. Comparison of the genome sequences spanning the mapped loci revealed various candidate genes. The loci on chromosome 7 and 13 had significant (p < 0.005) additive effects on IL-1β, IL-5, and IP-10 responses, and the chromosome 9 and 12 loci had significant (p = 0.017) interaction. Infection of knockout mice showed critical roles of MCP-1 and IL-10 in parasitemia control and host mortality. These results provide important information for better understanding of malaria pathogenesis and can be used to examine the role of these factors in human malaria infection. PMID:24452266

  20. Piperine inhibits cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Chuchawankul, S; Khorana, N; Poovorawan, Y

    2012-01-01

    Piperine, an amide isolated from Piper species (Piperaceae), has been reported to exhibit central nervous system depression, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory activity. Immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activity of piperine has been demonstrated in mouse carcinomas. However, there is little information available concerning the effect of piperine on humans. We evaluated the immunopharmacological activity of this compound in human immune cells. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were exposed to piperine, and cell proliferation was determined by the MTS assay. Piperine significantly inhibited phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human PBMC proliferation after exposure for 72 h. This compound inhibited PBMC activity, with an IC(50) of 100.73 ± 11.16 μg/mL. Production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was measured using an ELISA assay and RT-PCR. Piperine inhibited IL-2 and IFN-γ production in the PBMCs. RT-PCR data indicated that IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA expression in PBMCs is suppressed by piperine. This compound significantly inhibited the production of these two cytokines by activated PBMCs in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, piperine appears to have potential as an immunomodulatory agent for immune system suppression. PMID:22535397

  1. Role of IRS-2 in insulin and cytokine signalling.

    PubMed

    Sun, X J; Wang, L M; Zhang, Y; Yenush, L; Myers, M G; Glasheen, E; Lane, W S; Pierce, J H; White, M F

    1995-09-14

    The protein IRS-1 acts as an interface between signalling proteins with Src-homology-2 domains (SH2 proteins) and the receptors for insulin, IGF-1, growth hormone, several interleukins (IL-4, IL-9, IL-13) and other cytokines. It regulates gene expression and stimulates mitogenesis, and appears to mediate insulin/IGF-1-stimulated glucose transport. Thus, survival of the IRS-1-/- mouse with only mild resistance to insulin was surprising. This dilemma is provisionally resolved with our discovery of a second IRS-signalling protein. We purified and cloned a likely candidate called 4PS from myeloid progenitor cells and, because of its resemblance to IRS-1, we designate it IRS-2. Alignment of the sequences of IRS-2 and IRS-1 revealed a highly conserved amino terminus containing a pleckstrin-homology domain and a phosphotyrosine-binding domain, and a poorly conserved carboxy terminus containing several tyrosine phosphorylation motifs. IRS-2 is expressed in many cells, including tissues from IRS-1-/- mice, and may be essential for signalling by several receptor systems.

  2. Gut commensalism, cytokines, and central nervous system demyelination.

    PubMed

    Telesford, Kiel; Ochoa-Repáraz, Javier; Kasper, Lloyd H

    2014-08-01

    There is increasing support for the importance of risk factors such as genetic makeup, obesity, smoking, vitamin D insufficiency, and antibiotic exposure contributing to the development of autoimmune diseases, including human multiple sclerosis (MS). Perhaps the greatest environmental risk factor associated with the development of immune-mediated conditions is the gut microbiome. Microbial and helminthic agents are active participants in shaping the immune systems of their hosts. This concept is continually reinforced by studies in the burgeoning area of commensal-mediated immunomodulation. The clinical importance of these findings for MS is suggested by both their participation in disease and, perhaps of greater clinical importance, attenuation of disease severity. Observations made in murine models of central nervous system demyelinating disease and a limited number of small studies in human MS suggest that immune homeostasis within the gut microbiome may be of paramount importance in maintaining a disease-free state. This review describes three immunological factors associated with the gut microbiome that are central to cytokine network activities in MS pathogenesis: T helper cell polarization, T regulatory cell function, and B cell activity. Comparisons are drawn between the regulatory mechanisms attributed to first-line therapies and those described in commensal-mediated amelioration of central nervous system demyelination. PMID:25084177

  3. Principles of interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokine signalling and its regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Peter C; Behrmann, Iris; Haan, Serge; Hermanns, Heike M; Müller-Newen, Gerhard; Schaper, Fred

    2003-01-01

    The IL (interleukin)-6-type cytokines IL-6, IL-11, LIF (leukaemia inhibitory factor), OSM (oncostatin M), ciliary neurotrophic factor, cardiotrophin-1 and cardiotrophin-like cytokine are an important family of mediators involved in the regulation of the acute-phase response to injury and infection. Besides their functions in inflammation and the immune response, these cytokines play also a crucial role in haematopoiesis, liver and neuronal regeneration, embryonal development and fertility. Dysregulation of IL-6-type cytokine signalling contributes to the onset and maintenance of several diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis and various types of cancer (e.g. multiple myeloma and prostate cancer). IL-6-type cytokines exert their action via the signal transducers gp (glycoprotein) 130, LIF receptor and OSM receptor leading to the activation of the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades. This review focuses on recent progress in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of IL-6-type cytokine signal transduction. Emphasis is put on the termination and modulation of the JAK/STAT signalling pathway mediated by tyrosine phosphatases, the SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signalling) feedback inhibitors and PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) proteins. Also the cross-talk between the JAK/STAT pathway with other signalling cascades is discussed. PMID:12773095

  4. Effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle cytokine expression in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Della Gatta, Paul A; Garnham, Andrew P; Peake, Jonathan M; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-07-01

    Aging is associated with increased circulating pro-inflammatory and lower anti-inflammatory cytokines. Exercise training, in addition to improving muscle function, reduces these circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Yet, few studies have evaluated changes in the expression of cytokines within skeletal muscle after exercise training. The aim of the current study was to examine the expression of cytokines both at rest and following a bout of isokinetic exercise performed before and after 12weeks of resistance exercise training in young (n=8, 20.3±0.8yr) and elderly men (n=8, 66.9±1.6yr). Protein expression of various cytokines was determined in muscle homogenates. The expression of MCP-1, IL-8 and IL-6 (which are traditionally classified as 'pro-inflammatory') increased substantially after acute exercise. By contrast, the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 increased only slightly (or not at all) after acute exercise. These responses were not significantly different between young and elderly men, either before or after 12weeks of exercise training. However, compared with the young men, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines 2h post exercise tended to be greater in the elderly men prior to training. Training attenuated this difference. These data suggest that the inflammatory response to unaccustomed exercise increases with age. Furthermore, regular exercise training may help to normalize this inflammatory response, which could have important implications for muscle regeneration and adaptation in the elderly.

  5. Integrated review of the association of cytokines with fibromyalgia and fibromyalgia core symptoms.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Victoria; Lyon, Debra E

    2010-04-01

    Fibromyalgia (FMS) is a chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fatigue syndrome that affects three to six million adults in the United States. Core symptoms of FMS include pain, fatigue, and mood and sleep disturbances. To date, consensus has not been reached among researchers regarding the pathogenesis of FMS nor the specific role of cytokine activation on the neuroendocrine-immune response patterns in persons with FMS. The purpose of this article is to describe and synthesize the results of research studies focused on the relationship between cytokines and FMS and among cytokines and core symptoms of FMS. There is some support in the literature for relationships among FMS symptoms and cytokines; however, there are discrepant findings related to whether proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are elevated or reduced in persons with FMS and whether their levels correlate with the core symptoms of this disorder. Although the use of cytokine biomarkers must be considered exploratory at this time due to the lack of consistent empirical findings, biobehavioral research focused on understanding the relationship of FMS with cytokines may lead to a better understanding of this complex syndrome. This knowledge may ultimately contribute to the development of interventions for symptom management that address not only the symptom manifestation but also a biological mediator of symptoms.

  6. Role of inflammatory cytokines in the response of solid cancers to photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Sun, Jinghai; Cecic, Ivana; Dougherty, Graeme J.

    2001-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) elicits a strong acute inflammatory response that has both local and systemic (acute phase response) attributes. The insult mediated by PDT-induced oxidative stress at the targeted site triggers a complex multifactorial response engaging host defence mechanisms associated with the inflammatory process to participate in the eradication of the treated tumor. Inflammatory cytokines are important mediators of critical events in this process as they regulate the activity of inflammatory, endothelial and other cells. The initial stimulus for enhanced production and release of cytokines likely originates from several types of events, such as activated transcription factors and complement deposition. The PDT-induced complement activation appears to be directly linked to the enhanced expression of various cytokines, including chemokines such as KC (in mouse models), and classic inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α , IL-6 and IL-10. A variety of interventions that modulate the activity of particular cytokines performed in conjunction with PDT were shown to influence the therapy outcome. The treatments such as using blocking antibodies and local or systemic cytokine delivery may either reduce or dramatically improve the curative effect of PDT. The inflammatory and related cytokines that at present appear particularly interesting and merit further investigation for use as adjuvants to PDT are IL-3, IL-8, IL-15, TNF-α, IFN-γ, G-CSF and GM-CSF.

  7. Overview of cytokines and nitric oxide involvement in immuno-pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Soufli, Imene; Toumi, Ryma; Rafa, Hayet; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are complex disorders with undetermined etiology. Several hypotheses suggest that IBDs result from an abnormal immune response against endogenous flora and luminal antigens in genetically susceptible individuals. The dysfunction of the mucosal immune response is implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD. The balance between pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and IL-17A], anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13), and immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-10 and transforming growth factors β) is disturbed. Moreover, evidence from animal and clinical studies demonstrate a positive correlation between an increased concentration of nitric oxide (NO) and the severity of the disease. Interestingly, proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the up-regulation of inducible oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in IBD. However, anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines are responsible for the negative regulation of iNOS. A positive correlation between NO production and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, IL-12, and interferon-γ) were reported in patients with IBD. This review focuses on the role of cytokines in intestinal inflammation and their relationship with NO in IBD. PMID:27602236

  8. Overview of cytokines and nitric oxide involvement in immuno-pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Soufli, Imene; Toumi, Ryma; Rafa, Hayet; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are complex disorders with undetermined etiology. Several hypotheses suggest that IBDs result from an abnormal immune response against endogenous flora and luminal antigens in genetically susceptible individuals. The dysfunction of the mucosal immune response is implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD. The balance between pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and IL-17A], anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13), and immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-10 and transforming growth factors β) is disturbed. Moreover, evidence from animal and clinical studies demonstrate a positive correlation between an increased concentration of nitric oxide (NO) and the severity of the disease. Interestingly, proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the up-regulation of inducible oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in IBD. However, anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines are responsible for the negative regulation of iNOS. A positive correlation between NO production and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, IL-12, and interferon-γ) were reported in patients with IBD. This review focuses on the role of cytokines in intestinal inflammation and their relationship with NO in IBD. PMID:27602236

  9. Cytokines (interleukin-9, IL-17, IL-22, IL-25 and IL-33) and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Rahim; Sherkat, Roya; Hakemi, Mazdak Ganjalikhani; Eskandari, Nahid; Yazdani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a reversible airway obstruction that is characterized by constriction of airway smooth muscle, hyper secretion of mucus, edema and airway hyper responsiveness (AHR), mucus secretion and thickening of the basement membrane underlying the airway epithelium. During the process of airway inflammation, complex interactions of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as structural cells and their cytokines have many important roles. It was believed that airway inflammation is orchestrated by allergen specific T helper (Th) 2 cells, which recruit and accumulate in the lungs and produce a range of different effector cytokines. However, more recent studies have revealed the potential collaboration of other helper T cells and their cytokines in this process. Th17 cell may have a role in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Interleukin (IL)-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. Cytokines are important in asthma and play a critical role in orchestrating the allergic inflammatory response, although the precise role of each cytokine remains to be determined. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the possible roles of newly identified helper T cells derived cytokines (IL-9, 17, 22, 25 and IL-33) in asthma. The potential therapeutic applications emerging from the roles of these cytokines will be discussed as well. PMID:24949298

  10. Cytokine dysregulation associated with malarial anemia in Plasmodium yoelii infected mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lili; Zheng, Xiaoying; Berzins, Klavs; Chaudhuri, Asok

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of malaria anemia remain incompletely understood although much effort has been put on studies in both human and murine systems. Hematopoiesis is regulated by the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of erythropoietic progenitor cells into erythrocytes and is tightly controlled by a complex communication network of cytokines as signal mediators. The present study used the murine P. yoelii 17XNL malaria model to investigate the profile of cytokines and leukocytes throughout the entire infection. Moreover, malaria induced anemia was studied in comparison with anemia induced by hemorrhage and hemolysis. During the P. yoelii infection, the levels of erythropoietic-related cytokines, such as G-CSF, GMCSF, IL-7, and IL-17, were pronouncedly reduced, while those of regulatory cytokines, such as IL-10 and TNF-α, were constantly increased. This cytokine profile corresponded well with the cellular composition during the infection, such as drastically decreased levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The profiles of erythropoiesis or hematopoiesis related cytokines during malarial anemia showed striking differences from those during anemia induced by hemorrhage or hemolysis. This study demonstrates that a markedly dysregulated cytokine network occurred in this murine malaria model, which may open a new window of insight into the mechanisms of malaria related anemia. PMID:23573367

  11. Cytokine Production in the Serum and Spleen of Mice from Day 6 to 14 of Gestation: Cytokines/Placenta/ Spleen/Serum

    PubMed Central

    Iconomidou, Bessy

    1995-01-01

    Pregnancy, like most biologic phenomena, involves the action of cytokines. These proteins have a short half-life and are believed to exert their effect close to their site of production, where diagnostic tests cannot be easily performed. Here we show that the cytokine content in the maternal serum reflects cytokine production and secretion from maternal spleen cells, which also correlates with production from decidual cells. We show that GM-CSF, IL- 3, and IL-10 are present in the serum at specific time intervals during the first half of murine pregnancy, which correlates with their production from maternal spleen cells. Purified GM-CSF and IL-3 from spleen-cell-culture supernatants are biologically active molecules, able to stimulate placental-cell proliferation. Furthermore, TNF-0, which has been identified in many cases of fetal rejection as well as in labor, is shown to be naturally produced during the second half of pregnancy. Additionally, within the limits of the sensitivity of the technique we have used, the detection of IL-4 and the absence of detectable levels of IL- 2 in the maternal serum strongly comforts the hypothesis that pregnancy is a Th2-dependent phenomenon. The results presented in this paper show that the cytokine profile during pregnancy can be monitored by simple blood tests, which may be of relevance both in the followup of a physiological human pregnancy and to the diagnosis of recurrent abortions due to cytokine imbalance. PMID:8924760

  12. Early induction of cytokines/cytokine receptors and Cox2, and activation of NF-κB in 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced murine oral cancer model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Ho, Heng-Chien; Lee, Miau-Rong; Lai, Kuang-Chi; Yeh, Chung-Min; Lin, Yueh-Min; Ho, Tin-Yun; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify the genes induced early in murine oral carcinogenesis. Murine tongue tumors induced by the carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO), and paired non-tumor tissues were subjected to microarray analysis. Hierarchical clustering of upregulated genes in the tumor tissues revealed an association of induced genes with inflammation. Cytokines/cytokine receptors induced early were subsequently identified, clearly indicating their involvement in oral carcinogenesis. Hierarchical clustering also showed that cytokine-mediated inflammation was possibly linked with Mapk6. Cox2 exhibited the greatest extent (9–18 fold) of induction in the microarray data, and its early induction was observed in a 2 h painting experiment by RT-PCR. MetaCore analysis showed that overexpressed Cox2 may interact with p53 and transcriptionally inhibit expression of several downstream genes. A painting experiment in transgenic mice also demonstrated that NF-κB activates early independently of Cox2 induction. MetaCore analysis revealed the most striking metabolic alterations in tumor tissues, especially in lipid metabolism resulting from the reduction of Pparα and Rxrg. Reduced expression of Mapk12 was noted, and MetaCore analysis established its relationship with decreased efficiency of Pparα phosphorylation. In conclusion, in addition to cytokines/cytokine receptors, the early induction of Cox2 and NF-κB activation is involved in murine oral carcinogenesis.

  13. Interleukin-6-type cytokine signalling through the gp130/Jak/STAT pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, P C; Behrmann, I; Müller-Newen, G; Schaper, F; Graeve, L

    1998-01-01

    The family of cytokines signalling through the common receptor subunit gp130 comprises interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, leukaemia inhibitory factor, oncostatin M, ciliary neurotrophic factor and cardiotrophin-1. These so-called IL-6-type cytokines play an important role in the regulation of complex cellular processes such as gene activation, proliferation and differentiation. The current knowledge on the signal-transduction mechanisms of these cytokines from the plasma membrane to the nucleus is reviewed. In particular, we focus on the assembly of receptor complexes after ligand binding, the activation of receptor-associated kinases of the Janus family, and the recruitment and phosphorylation of transcription factors of the STAT family, which dimerize, translocate to the nucleus, and bind to enhancer elements of respective target genes leading to transcriptional activation. The important players in the signalling pathway, namely the cytokines and the receptor components, the Janus kinases Jak1, Jak2 and Tyk2, the signal transducers and activators of transcription STAT1 and STAT3 and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 [SH2 (Src homology 2) domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase] are introduced and their structural/functional properties are discussed. Furthermore, we review various mechanisms involved in the termination of the IL-6-type cytokine signalling, namely the action of tyrosine phosphatases, proteasome, Jak kinase inhibitors SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signalling), protein inhibitors of activated STATs (PIAS), and internalization of the cytokine receptors via gp130. Although all IL-6-type cytokines signal through the gp130/Jak/STAT pathway, the comparison of their physiological properties shows that they elicit not only similar, but also distinct, biological responses. This is reflected in the different phenotypes of IL-6-type-cytokine knock-out animals. PMID:9716487

  14. Cytokine and Antibody Based Diagnostic Algorithms for Sputum Culture-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Joy; Chen, Liang; Wang, Yunxia; Li, Haicheng; Guo, Huixin; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Xunxun; Chen, Yuhui; Liao, Qinghua; Shu, Yang; Tan, Yaoju; Yu, Meiling; Li, Guozhou; Zhou, Lin; Zhong, Qiu; Bi, Lijun; Guo, Lina; Zhao, Meigui

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most serious infectious diseases globally and has high mortality rates. A variety of diagnostic tests are available, yet none are wholly reliable. Serum cytokines, although significantly and frequently induced by different diseases and thus good biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis, are not sufficiently disease-specific. TB-specific antibody detection, on the other hand, has been reported to be highly specific but not sufficiently sensitive. In this study, our aim was to improve the sensitivity and specificity of TB diagnosis by combining detection of TB-related cytokines and TB-specific antibodies in peripheral blood samples. Methods TB-related serum cytokines were screened using a human cytokine array. TB-related cytokines and TB-specific antibodies were detected in parallel with microarray technology. The diagnostic performance of the new protocol for active TB was systematically compared with other traditional methods. Results Here, we show that cytokines I-309, IL-8 and MIG are capable of distinguishing patients with active TB from healthy controls, patients with latent TB infection, and those with a range of other pulmonary diseases, and that these cytokines, and their presence alongside antibodies for TB-specific antigens Ag14-16kDa, Ag32kDa, Ag38kDa and Ag85B, are specific markers for active TB. The diagnostic protocol for active TB developed here, which combines the detection of three TB-related cytokines and TB-specific antibodies, is highly sensitive (91.03%), specific (90.77%) and accurate (90.87%). Conclusions Our results show that combining detection of TB-related cytokines and TB-specific antibodies significantly enhances diagnostic accuracy for active TB, providing greater accuracy than conventional diagnostic methods such as interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs), TB antibody Colloidal Gold Assays and microbiological culture, and suggest that this diagnostic protocol has potential for clinical

  15. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Breen, Elizabeth Crabb

    2002-09-01

    In persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and/or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the immune system becomes dysfunctional in many ways. There is both immunodeficiency due to the loss of CD4-positive T helper cells and hyperactivity as a result of B-cell activation. Likewise, both decreases and increases are seen in the production and/or activity of cytokines. Cytokine changes in HIV infection have been assessed by a variety of techniques, ranging from determination of cytokine gene expression at the mRNA level to secretion of cytokine proteins in vivo and in vitro. Changes in cytokine levels in HIV-infected persons can affect the function of the immune system, and have the potential to directly impact the course of HIV disease by enhancing or suppressing HIV replication. In particular, the balance between the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which up-regulate HIV expression, and IL-10, which can act both as an anti-inflammatory cytokine and a B-cell stimulatory factor, may play an important role in the progression to AIDS. In light of its ability to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and, under some conditions, suppress HIV replication, increased IL-10 may be viewed as beneficial in slowing HIV disease progression. However, an association between increased IL-10 and the development of AIDS-associated B-cell lymphoma highlights the bifunctional nature of IL-10 as both an anti-inflammatory and B-cell-stimulatory cytokine that could have beneficial and detrimental effects on the course of HIV infection and AIDS.

  16. Relationship between Pesticide Metabolites, Cytokine Patterns, and Asthma-Related Outcomes in Rural Women Workers

    PubMed Central

    Mwanga, Hussein H.; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Singh, Tanusha S.; Channa, Kalavati; Jeebhay, Mohamed F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PYR) pesticides with serum cytokine patterns and asthma-related outcomes among rural women workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among rural women (n = 211), including those working and living on farms and nearby town dwellers. Pesticide exposure was assessed using urinary metabolite concentrations of OP and PYR pesticides. Health outcome assessment was ascertained through the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and serum cytokines associated with asthma. The prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma was 11%, adult-onset asthma 9%, and current asthma 6%. In this population, the proportion of T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13) detectable in subjects was between 18% and 40%, while the proportion of non-Th2 cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, and interferon gamma) was between 35% and 71%. Most Th2 and non-Th2 cytokines were positively associated with either OP or PYR metabolites. Non-Th2 cytokines showed much stronger associations with OP metabolites (Dimethyl phosphate OR = 4.23; 95% CI: 1.54–11.65) than Th2 cytokines (Dimethyl phosphate OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 0.83–3.46). This study suggests that exposure to most OP and some PYR pesticides may be associated with asthma-related cytokines, with non-Th2 cytokines demonstrating consistently stronger relationships. PMID:27690066

  17. Taxonomic applicability of inflammatory cytokines in adverse outcome pathway (AOP) development.

    PubMed

    Angrish, Michelle M; Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Madden, Michael C; Moser, Virginia C; Herr, David W

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines, low-molecular-weight messenger proteins that act as intercellular immunomodulatory signals, have become a mainstream preclinical marker for assessing the systemic inflammatory response to external stressors. The challenge is to quantitate from healthy subjects cytokine levels that are below or at baseline and relate those dynamic and complex cytokine signatures of exposures with the inflammatory and repair pathways. Thus, highly sensitive, specific, and precise analytical and statistical methods are critically important. Investigators at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have implemented advanced technologies and developed statistics for evaluating panels of inflammatory cytokines in human blood, exhaled breath condensate, urine samples, and murine biological media. Advanced multiplex, bead-based, and automated analytical platforms provided sufficient sensitivity, precision, and accuracy over the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thus, baseline cytokine levels can be quantified from healthy human subjects and animals and compared to an in vivo exposure response from an environmental chemical. Specifically, patterns of cytokine responses in humans exposed to environmental levels of ozone and diesel exhaust, and in rodents exposed to selected pesticides (such as fipronil and carbaryl), were used as case studies to generally assess the taxonomic applicability of cytokine responses. The findings in this study may aid in the application of measureable cytokine markers in future adverse outcome pathway (AOP)-based toxicity testing. Data from human and animal studies were coalesced and the possibility of using cytokines as key events (KE) to bridge species responses to external stressors in an AOP-based framework was explored. PMID:26914248

  18. Contribution of vascular cell-derived cytokines to innate and inflammatory pathways in atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Loppnow, Harald; Buerke, Michael; Werdan, Karl; Rose-John, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Inflammation is a central element of atherogenesis. Innate pathways contribute to vascular inflammation. However, the initial molecular process(es) starting atherogenesis remain elusive. The various risk factors, represented by particular compounds (activators), may cause altered cellular functions in the endothelium (e.g. vascular endothelial cell activation or -dysfunction), in invading cells (e.g. inflammatory mediator production) or in local vessel wall cells (e.g. inflammatory mediators, migration), thereby triggering the innate inflammatory process. The cellular components of innate immunology include granulocytes, natural killer cells and monocytes. Among the molecular innate constituents are innate molecules, such as the toll-like receptors or innate cytokines. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 are among the innate cytokines. Cytokines are potent activators of a great number of cellular functions relevant to maintain or commove homeostasis of the vessel wall. Within the vessel wall, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can significantly contribute to the cytokine-dependent inflammatory network by: (i) production of cytokines, (ii) response to cytokines and (iii) cytokine-mediated interaction with invading leucocytes. The cytokines IL-1 and IL-6 are involved in SMC-leucocyte interaction. The IL-6 effects are proposed to be mediated by trans-signalling. Dysregulated cellular functions resulting from dysregulated cytokine production may be the cause of cell accumulation, subsequent low-density lipoprotein accumulation and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). The deposition of ECM, increased accumulation of leucocytes and altered levels of inflammatory mediators may constitute an ‘innate-immunovascular-memory’ resulting in an ever-growing response to anew invasion. Thus, SMC-fostered inflammation, promoted by invading innate cells, may be a potent component for development and acceleration of atherosclerosis. PMID:21199323

  19. Characterization of Adsorbents for Cytokine Removal from Blood in an In Vitro Model

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, Franz; Hartmann, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cytokines are basic targets that have to be removed effectively in order to improve the patient's health status in treating severe inflammation, sepsis, and septic shock. Although there are different adsorbents commercially available, the success of their clinical use is limited. Here, we tested different adsorbents for their effective removal of cytokines from plasma and the resulting effect on endothelial cell activation. Methods. The three polystyrene divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) based adsorbents Amberchrom CG161c and CG300m and a clinically approved haemoperfusion adsorbent (HAC) were studied with regard to cytokine removal in human blood. To induce cytokine release from leucocytes, human blood cells were stimulated with 1 ng/ml LPS for 4 hours. Plasma was separated and adsorption experiments in a dynamic model were performed. The effect of cytokine removal on endothelial cell activation was evaluated using a HUVEC-based cell culture model. The beneficial outcome was assessed by measuring ICAM-1, E-selectin, and secreted cytokines IL-8 and IL-6. Additionally the threshold concentration for HUVEC activation by TNF-α and IL-1β was determined using this cell culture model. Results. CG161c showed promising results in removing the investigated cytokines. Due to its pore size the adsorbent efficiently removed the key factor TNF-α, outperforming the commercially available adsorbents. The CG161c treatment reduced cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules by HUVEC which underlines the importance of effective removal of TNF-α in inflammatory diseases. Conclusion. These results confirm the hypothesis that cytokine removal from the blood should approach physiological levels in order to reduce endothelial cell activation. PMID:26770992

  20. Analysis of alloreactivity and intragraft cytokine profiles in living donor liver transplant recipients with graft acceptance.

    PubMed

    Takatsuki, M; Uemoto, S; Inomata, Y; Sakamoto, S; Hayashi, M; Ueda, M; Kanematsu, T; Tanaka, K

    2001-02-01

    Although some previous studies have indicated the possibility of immunosuppression withdrawal in clinical liver transplantation, the mechanism of graft acceptance is not clear. The aim of this study is to elucidate the alloreactivity against the donor and intragraft cytokine profiles in living donor liver transplant (LDLT) recipients with graft acceptance. In October 1999, we had 23 patients who survived without immunosuppression after LDLT with a median drug-free period of 25 months (range: 3-69 months). They consisted of six patients who were electively weaned by an elective weaning protocol and 17 either forcibly or accidentally weaned patients due to various causes but mainly due to infection. We evaluated the alloreactivity against the donor in these patients by a mixed lymphocyte reaction and intragraft cytokine profiles by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The development of donor-specific hyporeactivity was observed in the patients with graft acceptance. The cytokine pattern in the supernatant of the culture medium revealed a down regulation of T helper (Th) 1 cytokine INF gamma against the donor while no significant difference was seen in Th2 cytokine IL-10. Regarding the intragraft cytokine profiles, we could find no amplification of Thl cytokines (IL-2, INF y) and IL-4 while some of the patients revealed a gene expression of IL-10 with no significant difference from that of the normal, untransplanted liver specimen. In addition, no difference was observed in any other cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-8, IL-15, TNFalpha) compared with those of the normal controls. We propose that the down regulation of Th1 cytokine is one possible mechanism of graft acceptance in LDLT recipients.

  1. Differential binding of cytokines to environmentally relevant particles: a possible source for misinterpretation of in vitro results?

    PubMed

    Kocbach, A; Totlandsdal, A I; Låg, M; Refsnes, M; Schwarze, P E

    2008-01-30

    Inflammation is considered as a key event in adverse health effects associated with exposure to ambient particulate matter. The inflammatory potential of particles is often compared using in vitro cell systems, where the particle-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines is measured. A major concern in these assays is the potential of particles to bind cytokines, which may lead to an underestimation of the inflammatory potential. We therefore investigated the cytokine binding to a selection of particle samples, including particles collected from outdoor sources (wood combustion, traffic) and particles commonly used to model environmental sources (ultrafine carbon black, diesel, quartz), for a range of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8). Furthermore, the influence of serum proteins and particle- and cytokine concentrations on the cytokine binding was studied. Cytokines primarily bound to carbonaceous particles (up to 85%), not to mineral particles. Furthermore, depending on the type of cytokine, the cytokine binding could be reduced partly or completely by adding serum proteins to the cell growth medium or particle suspensions. Based on these observations we recommend either to adjust culturing and exposure conditions to prevent cytokine binding, or to adjust the measured cytokine release by application of correction factors obtained from cytokine binding experiments.

  2. [Cytokine spectrum of blood serum during inflammatory processes in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Lapovets', N Ie

    2010-01-01

    The levels of cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-10) in patients with phlegmonous appendicitis and abdominal tuberculoses were studied. It is established that the level of cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha considerably increases in patients with acute inflammatory process (phlegmonous appendicitis) and the level of interleukines IL-2, IL-10 considerably increases in patients with chronic inflammatory process (abdominal tuberculoses). Such parity of the cytokines levels can serve as a marker for differential diagnostics of acute and chronic inflammatory processes in abdominal cavity.

  3. Small-molecule control of cytokine function: new opportunities for treating immune disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Thomas B.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Shamji, Alykhan F.

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating cytokine function with protein-based drugs has proven effective for treating a wide variety of autoimmune and auto-inflammatory disorders. However, the limited ability of protein-based drugs to modulate intracellular targets, including many implicated by studies of the genetics and physiology of these diseases, and to coordinately neutralize redundant inflammatory cytokines, suggest an important and complementary role for small molecules in immunomodulatory drug development. The recent clinical approval of Janus kinase and phosphodiesterase inhibitors, along with emerging evidence from other compound classes, firmly establish small molecules as effective tools for modulating therapeutically relevant proteins that give rise to aberrant cytokine signaling or mediate its downstream consequences. PMID:25222143

  4. TAK-603 selectively suppresses Th1-type cytokine production and inhibits the progression of adjuvant arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Y; Yamane, M; Sohda, T; Makino, H

    1997-01-01

    We have shown that TAK-603, a new anti-rheumatic drug, is more effective in animal models in which cellular immunity plays a central role. Here, we studied the effect of the drug on Th1 cytokines, which are dominantly produced in this type of immune reaction, in an in vitro system and an in vivo model. We established Th1- and Th2-dominant T-cell lines, and studied the effect of TAK-603 on their cytokine production. Th1 cell lines were BALB/c mouse allo-reactive T cells and C57BL mouse mite antigen-reactive T cells, and the Th2 cell line was BALB/c mouse ovalbumin-reactive T cells. TAK-603 suppressed the production of Th1 cytokines [interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-2 (IL-2)] and not that of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) in these cell lines. Furthermore, selective suppression of Th1 cytokine production was also observed in the T-cell clones obtained from the ovalbumin-reactive T-cell line. To investigate the effect on cytokine production in animal models of arthritis, we analysed the expression of cytokine messenger RNA using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In adjuvant arthritis rats, Th1-dominant cytokine production was observed both in the arthritic joint and the spleen, and the time-course paralleled the progression of arthritis. On the other hand, in type-II collagen-induced arthritis, in which TAK-603 has little effect, Th1-dominant cytokine production was not observed and Th2 cytokines were shown to be more important. The adjuvant arthritis rats treated with TAK-603 (6.25 mg/kg/day, per os) showed significantly lower cytokine mRNA expression both locally and systemically. These data suggest that TAK-603 selectively suppresses Th1 cytokine production, which is consistent with its effect on cellular immunity in animal models. Images Figure 4 PMID:9370927

  5. Cytokine decoy and scavenger receptors as key regulators of immunity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bonecchi, Raffaella; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto; Riva, Federica

    2016-11-01

    IL-1R2 was the first decoy receptor to be described. Subsequently receptors which act as pure decoys or scavengers or trigger dampening of cytokine signaling have been described for cytokines and chemokines. Here we review the current understanding of the mode of action and significance in pathology of the chemokine atypical receptor ACKR2, the IL-1 decoy receptor IL-1R2 and the atypical IL-1 receptor family IL-1R8. Decoy and scavenger receptors with no or atypical signaling have emerged as a general strategy conserved in evolution to tune the action of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. PMID:27498604

  6. The cytokine osteopontin modulates the severity of rotavirus diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Ellen E; Hempson, Scott J; Bansal, Ajay; Tsao, Ernest; Habib, Iman; Rittling, Susan R; Denhardt, David T; Mackow, Erich R; Shaw, Robert D

    2005-03-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a sialated phosphoprotein found in tissues and secreted into body fluids. It is an integrin ligand with pleiotropic functions as an extracellular matrix protein in mineralized tissues and a cytokine that is active in cell signaling (A. B. Tuck, C. Hota, S. M. Wilson, and A. F. Chambers, Oncogene 22:1198-1205, 2003). To determine whether OPN may be important in mucosal defense against viral pathogens, we evaluated the OPN response to rotavirus infection and the extent of diarrhea manifested by infected opn null mutant (opn-/-) mice. Reverse transcription-PCR, Northern and Western blots, and immunohistochemical studies of the HT-29 intestinal epithelial cell line and murine intestine were used to evaluate OPN mRNA and product. Intestinal closed loops and diarrheal observations determined disease severity and duration. OPN mRNA levels increased after infection of HT-29 cells, peaking in 4 to 6 h. Infected cultures contained 925 microg of OPN/ml, while for controls the levels were below detection (50 microg/ml). Infection increased OPN mRNA levels in intestinal tissue between 2 and 24 h postinoculation and increased OPN protein in intestinal fluid. The cellular localization of OPN was supranuclear and apical, and responding cells were diffusely distributed on the villus surface. Three days after infection, closed intestinal loops from opn-/- mice contained more fluid than loops from controls, although secretion levels at the onset of illness were similar. Null mutant mice experienced more intense and prolonged diarrhea than controls. Rotavirus infection of intestinal epithelial cells and murine intestine caused marked increases in OPN mRNA levels and secreted OPN protein. OPN-deficient mice suffered prolonged disease.

  7. Liver cyst cytokines promote endothelial cell proliferation and development.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Kelley S; McWilliams, Ryan R; Amura, Claudia R; Barry, Nicholas P; Doctor, R Brian

    2009-10-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney (ADPKD) is highly prevalent genetic disease. Liver cyst disease is the most common extrarenal manifestation in ADPKD and accounts for up to 10% of ADPKD morbidity and mortality. The clinical features of ADPKD liver disease arise from dramatic increases in liver cyst volumes. To identify mechanisms that promote liver cyst growth, the present study characterized the degree of vascularization of liver cyst walls and determined that cyst-specific cytokines and growth factors can drive endothelial cell proliferation and development. Microscopic techniques demonstrated liver cyst walls are well vascularized. A comparative analysis found the vascular density in free liver cyst walls was greater in mice than in humans. Treatment of human micro-vascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) with human liver cyst fluid (huLCF) induced a rapid increase in vascular endothelium growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) phosphorylation that persisted for 45-60 min and was blocked by 20 microM SU5416, a VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Similarly, huLCF treatment of HMEC-1 cells induced an increase in the cell proliferation rate (131 +/- 6% of control levels; P > 0.05) and the degree of vascular development ('tube' diameter assay: 92 +/- 14 microm for huLCF vs. 12 +/- 7 microm for vehicle); P > 0.05). Both cell proliferation and vascular development were sensitive to SU5416. These studies indicate that factors secreted by liver cyst epithelia can activate VEGF signaling pathways and induce endothelial cell proliferation and differentiation. The present studies suggest that targeting VEGFR2-dependent angiogenesis may be an effective therapeutic strategy in blocking ADPKD liver cyst vascularization and growth. PMID:19596832

  8. Interleukin-11: A Multifunctional Cytokine with Intrinsically Disordered Regions.

    PubMed

    Permyakov, Eugene A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Permyakov, Sergei E

    2016-09-01

    Cytokine interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a multifunctional protein with diverse roles in the normal cell signaling and in various pathologies. The structure of IL-11 is characterized by a four-helix bundle motif comprising two pairs of antiparallel α-helices arranged in an up-up-down-down configuration. Evaluation of the intrinsic disorder predisposition of human IL-11 by several computational tools clearly shows that this protein is predicted to have functional disordered regions potentially involved in interaction with natural binding partners. Signaling by IL-11 proceeds via an interaction of the protein with its membrane-specific receptor IL-11Rα and a subsequent interaction of the complex with the transmembrane signal-transducing receptor GP130. Cytoplasmic domain of IL-11Rα is predicted to be very disordered, and noticeable amount of disorder is present even in the large extracellular domain of the protein. GP130 is also predicted to have long disordered region that is located at the C-terminal of the protein and is expected to have several disorder-based binding sites. It shows that intrinsic disorder might play an important role in functioning of this signaling machine. A specific subset of the calcium sensor proteins (calmodulin, S100P, S100B, NCS-1, GCAP-1/2) exhibits metal-dependent binding of IL-11 with dissociation constants in a range of 1-19 μM, and the structural features of their hinge regions likely ensure selectivity and calcium sensitivity of IL-11 binding to the EF-hand proteins studied. IL-11 exhibits multiple effects on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic systems. It plays a major role in orchestrating complex processes of tumor development and progression. PMID:27334537

  9. A cytokine-inducing hemagglutinin from small taros.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-07-01

    A 22.4-kDa dimeric hemagglutinin was isolated from tubers of Colocasia esculenta cv. 'Small Taro' by employing a purification protocol that involved ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC)-ion exchange chromatography on Mono Q, and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 75. The hemagglutinin was isolated from the fraction of the taro extract adsorbed on Q-Sepharose and subsequently adsorbed on Mono Q. The major absorbance peak from the Superdex 75 column constituted purified hemagglutinin. Its hemagglutinating activity could not be inhibited by simple sugars, and was stable after exposure for 30 minutes to temperatures up to 40 degrees C and to ambient pH in the range of pH 2 to pH 13. The activity decreased progressively when the ambient temperature was raised from 40 degrees C to 100 degrees C. Negligible activity was detected at 100 degrees C. The activity plummeted, with about 40% and 10% remaining, 4 minutes and 20 minutes after exposure to 100 degrees C, respectively. About half of the activity remained at pH 0 and pH 1 whereas the activity was completely abolished at pH 14. The hemagglutinin exhibited slight anti-tumor activity toward hepatoma HepG2 cells, and weak mitogenic activity toward murine splenocytes. It induced expression of the cytokines interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-2, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, it was devoid of anti-fungal activity toward a number of fungal species. PMID:19807671

  10. A common model for cytokine receptor activation: combined scissor-like rotation and self-rotation of receptor dimer induced by class I cytokine.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The precise mechanism by which the binding of a class I cytokine to the extracellular domain of its corresponding receptor transmits a signal through the cell membrane remains unclear. Receptor activation involves a cytokine-receptor complex with a 1∶2 stoichiometry. Previously we used our transient-complex theory to calculate the rate constant of the initial cytokine-receptor binding to form a 1∶1 complex. Here we computed the binding pathway leading to the 1∶2 activation complex. Three cytokine systems (growth hormone, erythropoietin, and prolactin) were studied, and the focus was on the binding of the extracellular domain of the second receptor molecule after forming the 1∶1 complex. According to the transient-complex theory, translational and rotation diffusion of the binding entities bring them together to form a transient complex, which has near-native relative separation and orientation but not the short-range specific native interactions. Subsequently conformational rearrangement leads to the formation of the native complex. We found that the changes in relative orientations between the two receptor molecules from the transient complex to the 1∶2 native complex are similar for the three cytokine-receptor systems. We thus propose a common model for receptor activation by class I cytokines, involving combined scissor-like rotation and self-rotation of the two receptor molecules. Both types of rotations seem essential: the scissor-like rotation separates the intracellular domains of the two receptor molecules to make room for the associated Janus kinase molecules, while the self-rotation allows them to orient properly for transphosphorylation. This activation model explains a host of experimental observations. The transient-complex based approach presented here may provide a strategy for designing antagonists and prove useful for elucidating activation mechanisms of other receptors.

  11. Proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in CSF of patients with VZV vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dallas; Alvarez, Enrique; Selva, Sean; Gilden, Don

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the CSF of patients with virologically verified varicella zoster virus (VZV) vasculopathy. Methods: CSF from 30 patients with virologically verified VZV vasculopathy was analyzed for levels of proinflammatory cytokines and MMPs using the Meso Scale Discovery multiplex ELISA platform. Positive CNS inflammatory disease controls were provided by CSF from 30 patients with multiple sclerosis. Negative controls were provided by CSF from 20 healthy controls. Results: Compared to multiple sclerosis CSF and CSF from healthy controls, levels of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and MMP-2 were significantly elevated in VZV vasculopathy CSF. Conclusions: CSF of patients with VZV vasculopathy revealed a unique profile of elevated proinflammatory cytokines, IL-8 and IL-6, along with elevated MMP-2. The relevance of these cytokines to the pathogenesis of VZV vasculopathy requires further study. PMID:27340684

  12. The effect of pseudomonas exotoxin A on cytokine production in whole blood exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Schultz, M J; Speelman, P; Zaat, S A; Hack, C E; van Deventer, S J; van der Poll, T

    2000-11-01

    To determine the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (P-ExA) on cytokine production, we studied cytokine release induced by heat-killed P. aeruginosa (HKPA) in human whole blood in the presence or absence of P-ExA. P-ExA (0.01-1 microgram ml(-1)) caused a dose-dependent decrease in HKPA-induced production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), interleukin (IL-) 10, IL-6 and IL-8 (all P<0.05). P-ExA-induced inhibition of IL-10, IL-6 and IL-8 release was not dependent on reduced TNF concentrations, since the relative attenuation of the production of these cytokines was similar in the presence or absence of a neutralizing anti-TNF antibody. The effect of P-ExA on cytokine production may offer a disadvantage to the host with respect to clearance of the infection.

  13. EXTRINSIC COAGULATION BLOCKADE ATTENUATES LUNG INJURY AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE RELEASE AFTER INTRATRACHEAL LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initiation of coagulation by tissue factor (TF) is a potentially powerful regulator of local inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that blockade of TF-factor VIIa (FVIIa) complex would decrease lung inflammation and proinflammatory cytokine release after tracheal instillation o...

  14. Neutral buoyancy and sleep-deprived serum factors alter expression of cytokines regulating osteogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorczynski, Reginald M.; Gorczynski, Christopher P.; Gorczynski, Laura Y.; Hu, Jiang; Lu, Jin; Manuel, Justin; Lee, Lydia

    2005-05-01

    We examined expression of genes associated with cytokine production, and genes implicated in regulating bone metabolism, in bone stromal and osteoblast cells incubated under standard ground conditions and under conditions of neutral buoyancy, and in the presence/absence of serum from normal or sleep-deprived mice. We observed a clear interaction between these two conditions (exposure to neutral buoyancy and serum stimulation) in promoting enhanced osteoclastogenesis. Both conditions independently altered expression of a number of cytokines implicated in the regulation of bone metabolism. However, using stromal cells from IL-1 and TNF α cytokine r KO mice, we concluded that the increased bone loss under microgravity conditions was not primarily cytokine mediated.

  15. Inflammatory Cytokines as Preclinical Markers of Adverse Responses to Chemical Stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The in vivo cytokine response to chemical stressors is a promising mainstream tool used to assess potential systemic inflammation and immune function changes. Notably, new instrumentation and statistical analysis provide the selectivity and sensitivity to rapidly diff...

  16. Adaptive interactions between cytokines and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Cannon, J G

    1998-09-29

    Circulating and tissue concentrations of pyrogenic cytokines, especially interleukin (IL)-1 beta, vary temporally through the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The secretion of these cytokines in vitro by isolated human mononuclear cells is significantly influenced by exogenous gonadal steroids and gonadotropins. Reciprocally, cytokines influence gonadotropin secretion by the pituitary and steroidogenesis by the ovaries and testes. Several hypotheses have been advanced regarding the adaptive value of these interrelationships. Cytokine-induced synthesis of proteolytic enzymes and extracellular matrix proteins may be important for the tissue remodeling necessary for ovulation, implantation, and delivery. Tolerance of the fetal allograft may require downregulation of cytotoxic effector cells and reciprocal upregulation of humoral and nonspecific host defenses. The inhibitory influence of IL-1 beta on the luteinizing hormone surge may prevent inopportune conception, and the abortive influences of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and gamma interferon may terminate pregnancy during periods of infection.

  17. Dataset of aqueous humor cytokine profile in HIV patients with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Jayant Venkatramani; Agrawal, Rupesh; Yeo, Tun Kuan; Gunasekeran, Dinesh V; Balne, Praveen Kumar; Lee, Bernett; Au, Veonice Bijin; Connolly, John; Teoh, Stephen C B

    2016-09-01

    The data shows the aqueous humor cytokine profiling results acquired in a small cohort of 17 HIV patients clinically diagnosed with Cytomegalovirus retinitis using the FlexMAP 3D (Luminex®) platform using the Milliplex Human Cytokine® kit. Aqueous humor samples were collected from these patients at different time points (pre-treatment and at 4-weekly intervals through the 12-week course of intravitreal ganciclovir treatment) and 41 cytokine levels were analyzed at each time point. CMV DNA viral load was assessed in 8 patients at different time points throughout the course of ganciclovir treatment. The data described herein is related to the research article entitled "Aqueous humor immune factors and cytomegalovirus (CMV) levels in CMV retinitis through treatment - The CRIGSS study" (Iyer et al., 2016) [1]. Cytokine levels against the different time points which indicate the response to the given treatment and against the CMV viral load were analyzed. PMID:27547803

  18. Altered cytokine and chemokine profiles in multiple myeloma and precursor disease

    PubMed Central

    Zingone, Adriana; Wang, Weixin; Corrigan-Cummins, Meghan; Wu, Shengyang P.; Plyler, Ryan; Korde, Neha; Kwok, Mary; Manasanch, Elisabet E.; Tageja, Nishant; Bhutani, Manisha; Mulquin, Marcia; Zuchlinski, Diamond; Yancey, Mary Ann; Roschewski, Mark; Zhang, Yong; Roccaro, Aldo M.; Ghobrial, Irene M.; Calvo, Katherine R.; Landgren, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Currently, no reliable biomarkers are available to predict transformation from smoldering myeloma (SMM) to multiple myeloma (MM). Using an ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) we assessed the levels of a broad range of cytokines and chemokines in the peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) supernatant collected from 14 SMM and 38 MM patients and compared to healthy donors. We found significantly increased levels of key cytokines, in particular CXCL8 (IL-8), associated with progressive disease state (controls→SMM→MM). Cytokine profiles were found similar in PB and BM. Five of fourteen SMM patients (36%) progressed to MM. Our findings, although based on a limited number of patients, suggest that serum-based cytokines may have a future role as biomarkers for disease progression and could potentially be assessed as novel targets for treatment. PMID:25043675

  19. Intracellular staining and detection of cytokines by fluorescence-activated flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Freer, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    The detection of cytokines inside cells producing them has made a tremendous impact on the way immune reactivity is measured. Intracellular cytokine staining is the only immunological technique allowing determination of antigen-specific T cell function and phenotype at the same time; for this reason, it is one of the most popular methods to measure antigenicity in the evaluation of vaccine efficacy and in the study of infectious diseases. It is a flow cytometric technique based on staining of intracellular cytokines and cell markers (surface or cytoplasmic) with fluorescent antibodies after short term culture of stimulated immune cells in the presence of a protein secretion inhibitor, followed by fixation and permeabilization. Most experiments involve detection of five to ten different colors but many more can be detected by modern flow cytometers. Here, we discuss our experience using a standard protocol for intracellular cytokine staining. PMID:24908309

  20. The Role and Predictive Value of Cytokines in Atherosclerosis and Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Tousoulis, Dimitris; Economou, Evangelos K; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Papageorgiou, Nikolaos; Siasos, Gerasimos; Latsios, George; Kokkou, Eleni; Mourouzis, Kostantinos; Papaioannou, Spyridon; Deftereos, Spyridon; Cleman, Michael W; Lymberi, Maria; Gennimata, Vasiliki; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is currently regarded as a chronic inflammatory disease that is mediated by several types of cells and molecules. Emphasis has been placed on the role of cytokines and the way they act and interact to initiate and sustain inflammation in the microenvironment of an atherosclerotic plaque. Cytokines are invariably expressed by all cells involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, act on a variety of targets exerting multiple effects and are largely responsible for the crosstalk among endothelial, smooth muscle cells, leukocytes and other vascular residing cells. In the present paper our aim is to review current information on the role of the most commonly discussed cytokines in the process of atherogenesis and to discuss the prognostic significance of these cytokines in atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. PMID:25876746

  1. Association of Cytokines With Exosomes in the Plasma of HIV-1-Seropositive Individuals.

    PubMed

    Konadu, Kateena Addae; Chu, Jane; Huang, Ming Bo; Amancha, Praveen Kumar; Armstrong, Wendy; Powell, Michael D; Villinger, Francois; Bond, Vincent C

    2015-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and viremic individuals exhibit elevated levels of plasma cytokines. Here we show that most cytokines are not in free form but appear associated with exosomes that are distinct from virions. Purified exosomes were analyzed to determine the levels of 21 cytokines and chemokines and compared with exosome-depleted plasma. Most cytokines were markedly enriched in exosomes from HIV-positive individuals relative to negative controls and to plasma. Moreover, exposure of naive peripheral blood mononuclear cells to exosomes purified from HIV-positive patients induced CD38 expression on naive and central memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, probably contributing to inflammation and viral propagation via bystander cell activation.

  2. Exercise and sleep deprivation do not change cytokine expression levels in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toru; Schwander, Stephan; Donnelly, Robert; Cook, Dane B; Ortega, Felix; Togo, Fumiharu; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Cherniack, Neil S; Klapholz, Marc; Rapoport, David; Natelson, Benjamin H

    2013-11-01

    A major hypothesis regarding the cause of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is immune dysregulation, thought to be reflected in upregulated proinflammatory cytokines leading to the symptoms that are characteristic of this illness. Because the symptoms worsen with physical exertion or sleep loss, we hypothesized that we could use these stressors to magnify the underlying potential pathogenic abnormalities in the cytokine systems of people with CFS. We conducted repeat blood sampling for cytokine levels from healthy subjects and CFS patients during both postexercise and total sleep deprivation nights and assayed for protein levels in the blood samples, mRNA activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), and function in resting and stimulated PBLs. We found that these environmental manipulations did not produce clinically significant upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. These data do not support an important role of immune dysregulation in the genesis of stress-induced worsening of CFS.

  3. Optimized Expression of IL-12 Cytokine Family | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute's Human Retrovirus Section is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize methods for improved expression of IL-12 family cytokines.

  4. The impact of weight loss on circulating cytokines in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Berenice C; Patil, Avinash; Satyaraj, Ebenezer

    2015-02-15

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity is characterized by an increased production of pro-inflammatory and chemotactic cytokines that are contributing to insulin resistance and related co-morbidities. Cytokines act in networks and exhibit pleiotropic effects so we investigated the circulating levels of a wide array of cytokines (pro and anti-inflammatory, chemotactic and growth factors) in a canine model of weight loss. The dogs served as their own control in order to study the impact of weight loss independent of potential confounding factors, such as history of excess weight or gender. While low-grade inflammation had been previously investigated in obese dogs by measuring changes in adipokines, acute phase proteins and key pro-inflammatory cytokines, to the best of our knowledge this is the first study to evaluate how weight loss impacts a wide array of circulating cytokines. Eighteen overweight Beagle dogs were recruited (six spayed females and 12 neutered males), and none of them were grossly obese according to the body condition score (BCS). All the dogs reached an ideal weight by the end of the program. Parameters were assessed before (baseline), at mid-point (month 3) and at end-point (month 6). Plasma GM-CSF, IL-2, Il-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, IFNγ, IP-10, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), keratinocyte chemokine (KC) were measured with canine multiplex immunoassays. Fat mass was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorption (DEXA). Several cytokines decreased throughout the weight loss program (p<0.01) and were correlated with the percentage of fat measured by DEXA (p<0.05): chemotactic (MCP-1), growth factors (GM-CSF, IL-7 and IL-2), and pro-inflammatory (KC and IL-18). We could not show trends for several cytokines, possibly because their level may be lower than the assay sensitivity: anti-inflammatory (IL-4 and IL-10), and pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and TNFα). In conclusion, while our findings for several pro-inflammatory and

  5. Corticosteroids reverse cytokine-induced block of survival and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from rats

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Stefan A; Versmold, Beatrix; Marx, Romy; Stahlhofen, Sabine; Dietzel, Irmgard D; Heumann, Rolf; Berger, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a frequent complication of preterm delivery. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) released from astrocytes and microglia activated by infection or ischemia have previously been shown to impair survival and maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitors and could thus be considered as potential factors contributing to the generation of this disease. The first goal of the present study was to investigate whether exposure of oligodendrocyte precursors to these cytokines arrests the maturation of ion currents in parallel to its effects on myelin proteins and morphological maturation. Secondly, in the search for agents, that can protect differentiating oligodendrocyte precursor cells from cytokine-induced damage we investigated effects of coapplications of corticosteroids with proinflammatory cytokines on the subsequent survival and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Methods To exclude influences from factors released from other cell types purified cultures of oligodendrocyte precursors were exposed to cytokines and/or steroids and allowed to differentiate for further 6 days in culture. Changes in membrane surface were investigated with capacitance recordings and Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy. Na+- and K+- currents were investigated using whole cell patch clamp recordings. The expression of myelin specific proteins was investigated using western blots and the precursor cells were identified using immunostaining with A2B5 antibodies. Results Surviving IFN-γ and TNF-α treated cells continued to maintain voltage-activated Na+- and K+ currents characteristic for the immature cells after 6 days in differentiation medium. Corticosterone, dihydrocorticosterone and, most prominently dexamethasone, counteracted the deleterious effects of IFN-γ and TNF-α on cell survival, A2B5-immunostaining and expression of myelin basic protein. The most potent

  6. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced phagocytosis of cultured microglia via nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Kakita, Hiroki; Aoyama, Mineyoshi; Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Asai, Hayato; Hussein, Mohamed Hamed; Suzuki, Mieko; Kato, Shin; Saitoh, Shinji; Asai, Kiyofumi

    2013-04-15

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a central nervous system complication with a high mortality rate, which is increased significantly by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DCF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of DCF on brain immune cells (i.e. microglia) stimulated with three proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ. Similar to previous findings in astrocytes, all three cytokines induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), as well as NO production, in microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system augmented iNOS expression and NO production. Immunocytochemical analysis and the phagocytosis assay revealed that cytokine treatment induced morphological changes to and phagocytosis by the microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system enhanced microglial activation, as well as the phagocytic activity of cytokine-stimulated microglia. Inhibitors of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated microglia with or without DCF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is one of the main signaling pathways involved. The iNOS inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) reduced both cytokine-induced phagocytosis and phagocytosis induced by the combination of cytokines plus DCF. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside induced phagocytosis, indicating that NO production is a key regulator of microglial phagocytosis. In conclusion, DCF acts synergistically with proinflammatory cytokines to increase the production of NO in microglia, leading to phagocytic activity of the activated microglia. These findings, together with previous observations regarding astrocytes, may explain the significant increase in mortality of IAE patients treated with DCF.

  7. Expression of cytokine mRNA transcripts in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Olive, C; Cheung, C; Nicol, D; Falk, M C

    1998-08-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a solid tumour of the kidney and is the most common renal neoplasm. Despite the presence of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in RCC, these tumours continue to progress in vivo suggesting a poor host immune response to the tumour, and the suppression of TIL effector function. Cytokines are key molecules that modulate the function of T cells. The possibility is investigated that the local production of cytokines in RCC contributes to immunosuppression of TIL. The expression of pro-inflammatory (IFN-gamma/IL-2) and immunosuppressive (IL-10/TGF-beta) cytokine mRNA transcripts was determined in RCC, normal kidney and peripheral blood of RCC patients using a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with cytokine-specific primers. Following Southern blot hybridization of the PCR products with internal radiolabelled oligonucleotide probes, cytokine transcript levels were measured by densitometry and expressed relative to the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase densitometry score. With the exception of IL-10, there were no differences in expression of cytokine mRNA transcripts between the peripheral blood of patients and normal healthy individuals. It was found that TGF-beta transcripts were well represented in normal kidney and RCC. In contrast, the expression of IFN-gamma transcripts, while low in the majority of samples, was significantly increased in RCC when compared to normal kidney (P=0.05). The IL-2 and IL-10 transcripts showed a more variable expression in normal kidney and RCC, with no significant differences in expression between the sample groups. The data demonstrating pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine expression in RCC do not support a prominent immunosuppressive cytokine profile in these tumours. PMID:9723777

  8. Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom injected to dams during pregnancy affects some cytokines of fetuses.

    PubMed

    Dorce, Ana L C; Frare, Eduardo O; Paulo, Maria E F V; Dorce, Valquiria A C; Nencioni, Ana L A

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high incidence of scorpion stings in Brazil, pregnant women are among the possible victims. Cytokines are important during the pregnancy, and scorpion venoms can change their release. We evaluated the levels of some cytokines in the fetuses after the treatment of pregnant rats with the Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom. The concentration of some of them is altered and can be responsible for the effects previously observed on innate reflexes, and the physical and behavioral development of the offspring.

  9. Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom injected to dams during pregnancy affects some cytokines of fetuses.

    PubMed

    Dorce, Ana L C; Frare, Eduardo O; Paulo, Maria E F V; Dorce, Valquiria A C; Nencioni, Ana L A

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high incidence of scorpion stings in Brazil, pregnant women are among the possible victims. Cytokines are important during the pregnancy, and scorpion venoms can change their release. We evaluated the levels of some cytokines in the fetuses after the treatment of pregnant rats with the Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom. The concentration of some of them is altered and can be responsible for the effects previously observed on innate reflexes, and the physical and behavioral development of the offspring. PMID:26140840

  10. Combinatorial signals by inflammatory cytokines and chemokines mediate leukocyte interactions with extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Vaday, G G; Franitza, S; Schor, H; Hecht, I; Brill, A; Cahalon, L; Hershkoviz, R; Lider, O

    2001-06-01

    On their extravasation from the vascular system into inflamed tissues, leukocytes must maneuver through a complex insoluble network of molecules termed the extracellular matrix (ECM). Leukocytes navigate toward their target sites by adhering to ECM glycoproteins and secreting degradative enzymes, while constantly orienting themselves in response to specific signals in their surroundings. Cytokines and chemokines are key biological mediators that provide such signals for cell navigation. Although the individual effects of various cytokines have been well characterized, it is becoming increasingly evident that the mixture of cytokines encountered in the ECM provides important combinatorial signals that influence cell behavior. Herein, we present an overview of previous and ongoing studies that have examined how leukocytes integrate signals from different combinations of cytokines that they encounter either simultaneously or sequentially within the ECM, to dynamically alter their navigational activities. For example, we describe our findings that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha acts as an adhesion-strengthening and stop signal for T cells migrating toward stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha, while transforming growth factor-beta down-regulates TNF-alpha-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion by monocytes. These findings indicate the importance of how one cytokine, such as TNF-alpha, can transmit diverse signals to different subsets of leukocytes, depending on its combination with other cytokines, its concentration, and its time and sequence of exposure. The combinatorial effects of multiple cytokines thus affect leukocytes in a step-by-step manner, whereby cells react to cytokine signals in their immediate vicinity by altering their adhesiveness, directional movement, and remodeling of the ECM. PMID:11404372

  11. Fatigue in primary Sjögren's syndrome is associated with lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Howard Tripp, Nadia; Tarn, Jessica; Natasari, Andini; Gillespie, Colin; Mitchell, Sheryl; Hackett, Katie L; Bowman, Simon J; Price, Elizabeth; Pease, Colin T; Emery, Paul; Lanyon, Peter; Hunter, John; Gupta, Monica; Bombardieri, Michele; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Pitzalis, Costantino; McLaren, John; Cooper, Annie; Regan, Marian; Giles, Ian; Isenberg, David A; Saravanan, Vadivelu; Coady, David; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; McHugh, Neil; Young-Min, Steven; Moots, Robert; Gendi, Nagui; Akil, Mohammed; Griffiths, Bridget; Lendrem, Dennis W; Ng, Wan-Fai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This article reports relationships between serum cytokine levels and patient-reported levels of fatigue, in the chronic immunological condition primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Methods Blood levels of 24 cytokines were measured in 159 patients with pSS from the United Kingdom Primary Sjögren's Syndrome Registry and 28 healthy non-fatigued controls. Differences between cytokines in cases and controls were evaluated using Wilcoxon test. Patient-reported scores for fatigue were evaluated, classified according to severity and compared with cytokine levels using analysis of variance. Logistic regression was used to determine the most important predictors of fatigue levels. Results 14 cytokines were significantly higher in patients with pSS (n=159) compared to non-fatigued healthy controls (n=28). While serum levels were elevated in patients with pSS compared to healthy controls, unexpectedly, the levels of 4 proinflammatory cytokines—interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10) (p=0.019), tumour necrosis factor-α (p=0.046), lymphotoxin-α (p=0.034) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) (p=0.022)—were inversely related to patient-reported levels of fatigue. A regression model predicting fatigue levels in pSS based on cytokine levels, disease-specific and clinical parameters, as well as anxiety, pain and depression, revealed IP-10, IFN-γ (both inversely), pain and depression (both positively) as the most important predictors of fatigue. This model correctly predicts fatigue levels with reasonable (67%) accuracy. Conclusions Cytokines, pain and depression appear to be the most powerful predictors of fatigue in pSS. Our data challenge the notion that proinflammatory cytokines directly mediate fatigue in chronic immunological conditions. Instead, we hypothesise that mechanisms regulating inflammatory responses may be important. PMID:27493792

  12. Diverse Toll-like receptors mediate cytokine production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Ra; Kim, Dong-Jae; Han, Seung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Jung; Lee, Jun-Young; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Lee, Sang-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hyoun; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2014-05-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) orchestrate a repertoire of immune responses in macrophages against various pathogens. Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans are two important periodontal pathogens. In the present study, we investigated TLR signaling regulating cytokine production of macrophages in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans. TLR2 and TLR4 are redundant in the production of cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) in F. nucleatum- and A. actinomycetemcomitans-infected macrophages. The production of cytokines by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection was impaired in MyD88-deficient macrophages. Moreover, cytokine concentrations were lower in MyD88-deficient macrophages than in TLR2/TLR4 (TLR2/4) double-deficient cells. An endosomal TLR inhibitor, chloroquine, reduced cytokine production in TLR2/4-deficient macrophages in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans, and DNA from F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans induced IL-6 production in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), which was abolished by chloroquine. Western blot analysis revealed that TLR2/4 and MyD88 were required for optimal activation of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in macrophages in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans, with different kinetics. An inhibitor assay showed that NF-κB and all MAPKs (p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK], and Jun N-terminal protein kinase [JNK]) mediate F. nucleatum-induced production of cytokines in macrophages, whereas NF-κB and p38, but not ERK and JNK, are involved in A. actinomycetemcomitans-mediated cytokine production. These findings suggest that multiple TLRs may participate in the cytokine production of macrophages against periodontal bacteria.

  13. Modeling the intra- and extracellular cytokine signaling pathway under heat stroke in the liver.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Maria; Grosman, Benyamin; Yuraszeck, Theresa M; Helwig, Bryan G; Leon, Lisa R; Doyle, Francis J

    2013-01-01

    Heat stroke (HS) is a life-threatening illness induced by prolonged exposure to a hot environment that causes central nervous system abnormalities and severe hyperthermia. Current data suggest that the pathophysiological responses to heat stroke may not only be due to the immediate effects of heat exposure per se but also the result of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). The observation that pro- (e.g., IL-1) and anti-inflammatory (e.g., IL-10) cytokines are elevated concomitantly during recovery suggests a complex network of interactions involved in the manifestation of heat-induced SIRS. In this study, we measured a set of circulating cytokine/soluble cytokine receptor proteins and liver cytokine and receptor mRNA accumulation in wild-type and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor knockout mice to assess the effect of neutralization of TNF signaling on the SIRS following HS. Using a systems approach, we developed a computational model describing dynamic changes (intra- and extracellular events) in the cytokine signaling pathways in response to HS that was fitted to novel genomic (liver mRNA accumulation) and proteomic (circulating cytokines and receptors) data using global optimization. The model allows integration of relevant biological knowledge and formulation of new hypotheses regarding the molecular mechanisms behind the complex etiology of HS that may serve as future therapeutic targets. Moreover, using our unique modeling framework, we explored cytokine signaling pathways with three in silico experiments (e.g. by simulating different heat insult scenarios and responses in cytokine knockout strains in silico). PMID:24039931

  14. Evaluation of proinflammatory cytokine pathway inhibitors for p38 MAPK inhibitory potential.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Rameshwar U; Garg, Divita; Paul, Atish T; Bhutani, K K; Roy, Nilanjan

    2007-12-13

    The target for the anti-inflammatory natural products like amentoflavone ( 2), which act by interfering with the proinflammatory cytokine pathway (e.g., TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and NO synthase), is not yet well-defined. Data obtained from docking, electronic, and surface analyses shed some light on steric and electronic complementarity of these molecules to p38 MAPK, thereby suggesting a possible mechanism by which they might reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:17988083

  15. Modeling the Intra- and Extracellular Cytokine Signaling Pathway under Heat Stroke in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Maria; Grosman, Benyamin; Yuraszeck, Theresa M.; Helwig, Bryan G.; Leon, Lisa R.; Doyle III, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Heat stroke (HS) is a life-threatening illness induced by prolonged exposure to a hot environment that causes central nervous system abnormalities and severe hyperthermia. Current data suggest that the pathophysiological responses to heat stroke may not only be due to the immediate effects of heat exposure per se but also the result of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). The observation that pro- (e.g., IL-1) and anti-inflammatory (e.g., IL-10) cytokines are elevated concomitantly during recovery suggests a complex network of interactions involved in the manifestation of heat-induced SIRS. In this study, we measured a set of circulating cytokine/soluble cytokine receptor proteins and liver cytokine and receptor mRNA accumulation in wild-type and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor knockout mice to assess the effect of neutralization of TNF signaling on the SIRS following HS. Using a systems approach, we developed a computational model describing dynamic changes (intra- and extracellular events) in the cytokine signaling pathways in response to HS that was fitted to novel genomic (liver mRNA accumulation) and proteomic (circulating cytokines and receptors) data using global optimization. The model allows integration of relevant biological knowledge and formulation of new hypotheses regarding the molecular mechanisms behind the complex etiology of HS that may serve as future therapeutic targets. Moreover, using our unique modeling framework, we explored cytokine signaling pathways with three in silico experiments (e.g. by simulating different heat insult scenarios and responses in cytokine knockout strains in silico). PMID:24039931

  16. The role of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of human tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Walker Nonato; Ribeiro, Luís Eduardo; Schrieffer, Albert; Machado, Paulo; Carvalho, Edgar M; Bacellar, Olívia

    2014-04-01

    In tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis, there is evidence that increased production of IFN-γ, TNF-α and absence of IL-10 is associated with strong inflammatory reaction and with tissue destruction and development of the lesions observed in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). We evaluate the role of regulatory cytokines and cytokine antagonists in the downregulation of immune response in L. braziliensis infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CL and ML were stimulated with soluble Leishmania antigen in the presence or absence of regulatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-27 and TGF-β) or antagonists of cytokines (α-TNF-α and α-IFN-γ). Cytokines production (IL-10, IL-17, TNF-α and IFN-γ) was measured by ELISA. IL-10 and TGF-β downmodulate TNF-α and IL-17 production, whereas IL-27 had no effect in the production of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17 in these patients. Neutralization of TNF-α decreased IFN-γ level and the neutralization of IFN-γ decreased TNF-α level and increased IL-10 production. This study demonstrate that IL-10 and TGF-β are cytokines that appear to be more involved in modulation of immune response in CL and ML patients. IL-10 might have a protective role, since the neutralization of IFN-γ decreases the production of TNF-α in an IL-10-dependent manner.

  17. Detecting multiple cell-secreted cytokines from the same aptamer-functionalized electrode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Ying; Matharu, Zimple; Rahimian, Ali; Revzin, Alexander

    2015-02-15

    Inflammatory cytokines are secreted by immune cells in response to infection or injury. Quantification of multiple cytokines in parallel may help with disease diagnosis by illuminating inflammatory pathways related to disease onset and progression. This paper describes development of an electrochemical aptasensor for simultaneous detection of two important inflammatory cytokines, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). To enable multiplexing, IFN-γ and TNF-α aptamers were labeled with anthraquinone (AQ) and methylene blue (MB) redox reporters respectively. Random immobilization of two aptamer on gold exhibited redox peaks at -0.37 V (AQ) and -0.15 V (MB) vs. Ag/AgCl reference. When challenged with either IFN-γ or TNF-α, redox signal of the appropriate reporter changed in concentration dependent manner. To demonstrate one possible application of this sensing approach, electrodes were integrated into microfluidic devices and used to dynamically monitor cytokine release from immune cells. Two cell types, primary human CD4 T-cells and U937 monocytic cells, were used to compare differences in cytokine secretions upon stimulation. These cells were infused into the microfluidic devices and stimulated to commence cytokine production. Release of IFN-γ and TNF-α was monitored concurrently from the same small group of cells over the course of 2h. The strategy of encoding specific aptamer types with unique redox reporters allows sensitive and specific detection of multiple protein biomarkers from the same electrode. PMID:25189099

  18. Rapid flow cytometric measurement of cytokine-induced phosphorylation pathways [CIPP] in human peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Montag, David T; Lotze, Michael T

    2006-11-01

    Current strategies designed to assess cells in the peripheral blood are limited to evaluation of phenotype or delayed measurement [>6 h] of function, usually quantifying cytokine production, cytolytic activity, or response to antigens. We reasoned that measurable abnormalities in signaling pathways could reflect pathological environs that cells experience in the setting of inflammatory states/cancer and could be represented in the peripheral blood. Two major pathways regulating the immune response are the JAK/STAT and MAPK/ERK pathways. These pathways are initiated by ligand-receptor binding and are rapidly propagated by subsequent protein phosphorylation cascades. We evaluated the brief application of cytokines in vitro to interrogate the early phosphorylation events of these signaling pathways in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Individual cytokine doses and time intervals of treatment were assessed to identify conditions useful in a clinical laboratory and as an initial goal to induce maximal phosphorylation. Surprisingly, all of the STAT proteins assessed and ERK1/2 are maximally phosphorylated within 15 min in human PBMC simply following addition of cytokines without preactivation of the cells. At 2 h, cells typically return to their basal phosphorylation states. For most of the cytokines tested, increased phosphorylation directly correlated with increased concentrations of the individual cytokines. These strategies will enable robust development of simple blood analyses to identify normal levels as well as impairments in STAT and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways associated with various human disease states including acute and chronic inflammatory conditions throughout clinical immunology.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Its Bacterial Components Influence the Cytokine Response in Thymocytes and Splenocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Corinna; Mausberg, Anne K.; Dehmel, Thomas; Kieseier, Bernd C.; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Hofstetter, Harald H.

    2016-01-01

    Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa may cause many different diseases. The spectrum of such infections in general includes inflammation and bacterial sepsis. Hospital-acquired pneumonia, naturally resistant to a wide range of antibiotics, is associated with a particularly high mortality rate in mechanically ventilated patients. The pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa is complex and mediated by several virulence factors, as well as cell-associated factors. We have previously demonstrated that stimulation with different bacteria triggers the cytokine response of thymocytes. In this study, we investigated the effect of P. aeruginosa and its different components on the cytokine production of immature and mature immune cells. We found that the induced cytokine pattern in the thymus and the spleen after infections with P. aeruginosa is primarily mediated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the outer cell membrane, but other components of the bacterium can influence the cytokine secretion as well. Stimulation with heat-killed P. aeruginosa and LPS does not influence the amount of cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells but instead suppresses the emergence of Th17 cells. However, stimulation with P. aeruginosa or its components triggers the interleukin-17 (IL-17) response both in thymocytes and in splenocytes. We conclude that infections with P. aeruginosa affect the cytokine secretion of immature and mature cells and that IL-17 and Th17 cells play only a minor role in the development of pathological systemic inflammatory disease conditions during P. aeruginosa infections. Therefore, other inflammatory immune responses must be responsible for septic reactions of the host. PMID:26902726

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Its Bacterial Components Influence the Cytokine Response in Thymocytes and Splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Weber, Andreas; Zimmermann, Corinna; Mausberg, Anne K; Dehmel, Thomas; Kieseier, Bernd C; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Hofstetter, Harald H

    2016-05-01

    Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa may cause many different diseases. The spectrum of such infections in general includes inflammation and bacterial sepsis. Hospital-acquired pneumonia, naturally resistant to a wide range of antibiotics, is associated with a particularly high mortality rate in mechanically ventilated patients. The pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa is complex and mediated by several virulence factors, as well as cell-associated factors. We have previously demonstrated that stimulation with different bacteria triggers the cytokine response of thymocytes. In this study, we investigated the effect of P. aeruginosa and its different components on the cytokine production of immature and mature immune cells. We found that the induced cytokine pattern in the thymus and the spleen after infections with P. aeruginosa is primarily mediated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the outer cell membrane, but other components of the bacterium can influence the cytokine secretion as well. Stimulation with heat-killed P. aeruginosa and LPS does not influence the amount of cytokine-producing CD4(+) T cells but instead suppresses the emergence of Th17 cells. However, stimulation with P. aeruginosa or its components triggers the interleukin-17 (IL-17) response both in thymocytes and in splenocytes. We conclude that infections with P. aeruginosa affect the cytokine secretion of immature and mature cells and that IL-17 and Th17 cells play only a minor role in the development of pathological systemic inflammatory disease conditions during P. aeruginosa infections. Therefore, other inflammatory immune responses must be responsible for septic reactions of the host.

  1. Transduced Tat-DJ-1 protein inhibits cytokines-induced pancreatic RINm5F cell death

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyo Sang; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Cha, Hyun Ju; Kim, Sang Jin; Cho, Su Bin; Park, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chi Hern; Yeo, Eun Ji; Choi, Yeon Joo; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2016-01-01

    Loss of pancreatic β-cells by oxidative stress or cytokines is associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). DJ-1 is known to as a multifunctional protein, which plays an important role in cell survival. We prepared cell permeable wild type (WT) and mutant type (M26I) Tat-DJ-1 proteins to investigate the effects of DJ-1 against combined cytokines (IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α)-induced RINm5F cell death. Both Tat-DJ-1 proteins were transduced into RINm5F cells. WT Tat-DJ-1 proteins significantly protected against cell death from cytokines by reducing intracellular toxicities. Also, WT Tat-DJ-1 proteins markedly regulated cytokines-induced pro- and anti-apoptosis proteins. However, M26I Tat-DJ-1 protein showed relatively low protective effects, as compared to WT Tat-DJ-1 protein. Our experiments demonstrated that WT Tat-DJ-1 protein protects against cytokine-induced RINm5F cell death by suppressing intracellular toxicities and regulating apoptosisrelated protein expression. Thus, WT Tat-DJ-1 protein could potentially serve as a therapeutic agent for DM and cytokine related diseases. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 297-302] PMID:26996344

  2. Inflammatory Cytokines and Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain: Review and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, Trehani M; Müller, Daniel J; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2016-05-01

    Antipsychotic medications (APs), particularly second-generation APs, are associated with significant weight gain in schizophrenia patients. Recent evidence suggests that the immune system may contribute to antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) via AP-mediated alterations of cytokine levels. Antipsychotics with a high propensity for weight gain, such as clozapine and olanzapine, influence the expression of immune genes, and induce changes in serum cytokine levels to ultimately down-regulate neuroinflammation. Since inflammatory cytokines are normally involved in anorexigenic responses, reduced inflammation has been independently shown to mediate changes in feeding behaviours and other metabolic parameters, resulting in obesity. Genetic variation in pro-inflammatory cytokines is also associated with both general obesity and weight change during AP treatment, and thus, may be implicated in the pharmacogenetics of AIWG. At this time, preliminary data support a cytokine-mediated model of AIWG which may have clinical utility in developing more effective metabolic monitoring guidelines and prevention measures. However, further research is still needed to clearly elucidate the validity of this immune model. This article reviews the evidence implicating inflammatory cytokines in AIWG and its potential clinical relevance. PMID:27606316

  3. Cytokines produced by microwave-radiated Sertoli cells interfere with spermatogenesis in rat testis.

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Wang, D; Shu, Z; Zhou, H; Zuo, H; Wang, S; Li, Y; Xu, X; Li, N; Peng, R

    2012-05-01

    Microwave radiation resulted in degeneration, apoptosis or necrosis in germ cells at different stages. The molecular mechanisms by which microwaves induce spermatogenesis disorder have not been completely understood. Sertoli cells play crucial roles in mammalian spermatogenesis. Cytokines produced by Sertoli cells play pleiotropic roles in different conditions. At physiologically low concentration, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 behave as survival factors; while under pathological condition, these cytokines can induce apoptosis in testis. The effects of cytokines produced by microwave-radiated Sertoli cells on spermatogenesis are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cytokines produced by microwave-radiated Sertoli cells on the germ cells. We focused the effect of TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 on the germ cells. The results showed that TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 were increased in Sertoli cells after exposure to microwave radiation. These up-regulated cytokines can induce apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in the membrane of germ cells. In addition, germ cell apoptosis was associated with the up-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-3. These results suggest that cytokines produced by microwave-radiated Sertoli cells may disrupt spermatogenesis. Our data provided novel insight into the injury mechanism of germ cells induced by microwave radiation.

  4. Does the devil facial tumour produce immunosuppressive cytokines as an immune evasion strategy?

    PubMed

    Morris, Katrina; Belov, Katherine

    2013-05-15

    A unique transmissible cancer known as the Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) is threatening the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) with extinction. This disease is highly unusual as it is one of only two naturally occurring contagious cancers. The tumour is transmitted by biting and is able to spread between genetically diverse hosts. Why the tumours are not recognised as foreign and rejected by the host immune system in unknown. One mechanism that allows human cancers to avoid immune suppression is by producing cytokines which down-regulate the hosts immune system. Four key cytokines involved in this process are TGFβ1, VEGF-A, IL-10 and IL-6. In this study we investigated whether these cytokines could be involved in immune avoidance in DFTD. To do this we compared expression of these cytokines in tumour and control tissues using qPCR. We found no significant upregulation of any of these cytokines in tumour tissue. We therefore conclude that these cytokines do not play a role in the spread of DFTD. Further work will be needed to elucidate how DFTD cells avoid immune rejection.

  5. Regulation of Neutrophil Degranulation and Cytokine Secretion: A Novel Model Approach Based on Linear Fitting

    PubMed Central

    Naegelen, Isabelle; Beaume, Nicolas; Plançon, Sébastien; Schenten, Véronique; Tschirhart, Eric J.; Bréchard, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils participate in the maintenance of host integrity by releasing various cytotoxic proteins during degranulation. Due to recent advances, a major role has been attributed to neutrophil-derived cytokine secretion in the initiation, exacerbation, and resolution of inflammatory responses. Because the release of neutrophil-derived products orchestrates the action of other immune cells at the infection site and, thus, can contribute to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases, we aimed to investigate in more detail the spatiotemporal regulation of neutrophil-mediated release mechanisms of proinflammatory mediators. Purified human neutrophils were stimulated for different time points with lipopolysaccharide. Cells and supernatants were analyzed by flow cytometry techniques and used to establish secretion profiles of granules and cytokines. To analyze the link between cytokine release and degranulation time series, we propose an original strategy based on linear fitting, which may be used as a guideline, to (i) define the relationship of granule proteins and cytokines secreted to the inflammatory site and (ii) investigate the spatial regulation of neutrophil cytokine release. The model approach presented here aims to predict the correlation between neutrophil-derived cytokine secretion and degranulation and may easily be extrapolated to investigate the relationship between other types of time series of functional processes. PMID:26579547

  6. A Cytokine-Centric View of the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Autoimmune Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Astry, Brian; Harberts, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Cytokines are immune mediators that play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease that targets the synovial joints. The cytokine environment in the peripheral lymphoid tissues and the target organ (the joint) has a strong influence on the outcome of the initial events that trigger autoimmune inflammation. In susceptible individuals, these events drive inflammation and tissue damage in the joints. However, in resistant individuals, the inflammatory events are controlled effectively with minimal or no overt signs of arthritis. Animal models of human RA have permitted comprehensive investigations into the role of cytokines in the initiation, progression, and recovery phases of autoimmune arthritis. The discovery of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and its association with inflammation and autoimmune pathology has reshaped our viewpoint regarding the pathogenesis of arthritis, which previously was based on a simplistic T helper 1 (Th1)-Th2 paradigm. This review discusses the role of the newer cytokines, particularly those associated with the IL-17/IL-23 axis in arthritis. Also presented herein is the emerging information on IL-32, IL-33, and IL-35. Ongoing studies examining the role of the newer cytokines in the disease process would improve understanding of RA as well as the development of novel cytokine inhibitors that might be more efficacious than the currently available options. PMID:22149412

  7. Multiplex Analysis of Serum Cytokines in Humans with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morzunov, Sergey P.; Khaiboullina, Svetlana F.; St. Jeor, Stephen; Rizvanov, Albert A.; Lombardi, Vincent C.

    2015-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an acute zoonotic disease transmitted primarily through inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosols. Hantavirus infection of endothelial cells leads to increased vascular permeability without a visible cytopathic effect. For this reason, it has been suggested that the pathogenesis of HPS is indirect with immune responses, such as cytokine production, playing a dominant role. In order to investigate their potential contribution to HPS pathogenesis, we analyzed the serum of hantavirus-infected subjects and healthy controls for 68 different cytokines, chemokines, angiogenic, and growth factors. Our analysis identified differential expression of cytokines that promote tissue migration of mononuclear cells including T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. Additionally, we observed a significant upregulation of cytokines known to regulate leukocyte migration and subsequent repair of lung tissue, as well as cytokines known to increase endothelial monolayer permeability and facilitate leukocyte transendothelial migration. Conversely, we observed a downregulation of cytokines associated with platelet numbers and function, consistent with the thrombocytopenia observed in subjects with HPS. This study corroborates clinical findings and extends our current knowledge regarding immunological and laboratory findings in subjects with HPS. PMID:26379668

  8. Expression of Th1- Th2- and Th17-associated cytokines in laryngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoqun; Wang, Rui; Su, Qinghong; Huang, Haiyan; Zhou, Peng; Luan, Junwen; Liu, Jingsheng; Wang, Junfu; Chen, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    T-helper (Th) 0 cell differentiation into Th1 or Th2 cells is dependent on a number of transcription factors that act at specific time points to regulate gene expression. Th17 cells, a subset of interleukin (IL)-17-producing T cells distinct from Th1 or Th2 cells, are considered to exhibit a critical function in inflammation and autoimmune diseases, as well as cancer development. In the present study, the expression of Th1-, Th2- and Th17-associated cytokines in laryngeal cancer and pericarcinoma tissues obtained from 57 laryngeal carcinoma patients was investigated. The association between Th1, Th2 and Th17 infiltration and tumor development was also evaluated. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting results revealed that the mRNA and protein expression of Th2 cytokines was lower, while the expression of Th1 and Th17 cytokines was higher in tumor tissues than in pericarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, the early stage cancer patients exhibited a higher level of interferon-γ, IL-2 and IL-17 mRNA expression than those at advanced stages. Cancer tissues exhibited higher Th17 cytokine expression than pericarcinoma tissues. By contrast, Th1 cytokine expression was increased in pericarcinoma tissues compared with cancer tissues. These results indicate that high expression of Th1- and Th17-associated cytokines in laryngeal carcinoma may contribute to suppression of cancer development and a relatively good prognosis. PMID:27588143

  9. The signaling symphony: T cell receptor tunes cytokine-mediated T cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weishan; August, Avery

    2015-03-01

    T cell development, differentiation, and maintenance are orchestrated by 2 key signaling axes: the antigen-specific TCR and cytokine-mediated signals. The TCR signals the recognition of self- and foreign antigens to control T cell homeostasis for immune tolerance and immunity, which is regulated by a variety of cytokines to determine T cell subset homeostasis and differentiation. TCR signaling can synergize with or antagonize cytokine-mediated signaling to fine tune T cell fate; however, the latter is less investigated. Murine models with attenuated TCR signaling strength have revealed that TCR signaling can function as regulatory feedback machinery for T cell homeostasis and differentiation in differential cytokine milieus, such as IL-2-mediated Treg development; IL-7-mediated, naïve CD8(+) T cell homeostasis; and IL-4-induced innate memory CD8(+) T cell development. In this review, we discuss the symphonic cross-talk between TCR and cytokine-mediated responses that differentially control T cell behavior, with a focus on the negative tuning by TCR activation on the cytokine effects.

  10. The effects of age and gender on plasma levels of 63 cytokines.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Anders; Carlsson, Lena; Gordh, Torsten; Lind, Anne-Li; Thulin, Måns; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood

    2015-10-01

    Cytokines play important roles as regulators of cell functions, and over the last decades a number of cytokine assays have been developed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokines. Plasma samples were collected from 33 healthy blood donors. The samples were analyzed using a multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) allowing simultaneous measurement of 92 cytokines and four technical controls. Biomarkers with less than 80% quantitative results were excluded leaving 63 cytokines that were analyzed for the effects of gender and age. The plasma level of three of the investigated biomarkers (DNER, MCP-4 and MMP-10) were found to be significantly different for the two genders (adjusted p-value<0.05), and 15 of the biomarkers (CCL11, CCL25, CDCP1, CSF-1, CXCL11, CXCL9, FGF-23, Flt3L, HGF, IL-10RB, MCP-3, MCP-4, MMP-10, OPG, VEGF-A) were significantly associated with age. This study reveals the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokine assays. CXCL5 and TNFB were significantly higher in females, while the other markers with significant gender-dependent differences were higher in males. For the markers that were significantly associated with age, only CXCL6 was found to decrease with age, while the other biomarkers increased with age.

  11. Optimal Method to Stimulate Cytokine Production and Its Use in Immunotoxicity Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Wenchao; Li, Haishan; Song, Naining; Li, Lei; Chen, Huiming

    2013-01-01

    Activation of lymphocytes can effectively produce a large amount of cytokines. The types of cytokines produced may depend on stimulating reagents and treatments. To find an optimal method to stimulate cytokine production and evaluate its effect on immunotoxicity assessments, the authors analyzed production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, RANTES and TGF-β in undiluted rat whole blood culture (incubation for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 h) with different concentrations of PMA/ionomycin, PHA, Con A, LPS and PWM. We also evaluated the effects of cyclosporin A and azathioprine on cytokine production. The results revealed a rapid increase of IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, RANTES and TGF-β secretion within 6 h after stimulation with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin. The inhibition of these cytokine profiles reflected the effects of immunosuppressants on the immune system. Therefore, the results of this is study recommend the detection of cytokine profiles in undiluted whole blood stimulated 6 h with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin as a powerful immunotoxicity assessment method. PMID:23985769

  12. Proinflammatory cytokines contribute to development and function of regulatory T cells in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Helen E; Graham, Kate L; Chee, Jonathan; Thomas, Ranjeny; Kay, Thomas W; Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian

    2013-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes is caused by immune-mediated loss of pancreatic beta cells. It has been proposed that inflammatory cytokines play a role in killing beta cells. Expression of interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) has been detected in islets from patients with type 1 diabetes, and these cytokines can induce beta cell death in vitro. We produced nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice lacking receptors for these cytokines. Islets from mice lacking IL-1RI or TNFR1 were killed when transplanted into wild-type NOD mice, suggesting that cytokine action on beta cells is not required for killing. Mice lacking TNFR1 did not develop diabetes, and mice lacking IL-1R had delayed onset of diabetes, indicating a role for these cytokines in disease development. TNFR1-deficient mice had an increased number of CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells with enhanced suppressive capacity. IL-1 was produced at higher levels in NOD mice and resulted in dilution of suppressor function of CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. Our data suggest that blocking inflammatory cytokines may increase the capacity of the immune system to suppress type 1 diabetes through regulatory T cells.

  13. Effect of dihydrotestosterone on the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in cultured sebocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Weon Ju; Jung, Hong Dae; Chi, Seong Geun; Kim, Byung Soo; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Moon Kyu; Kim, Jung Chul

    2010-08-01

    Acne is a complex, chronic and common skin disorder of pilosebaceous units. Hyperkeratinization of keratinocytes, increased sebum excretion from sebocytes via androgen stimulation and inflammatory cytokines are the major factors involved in the pathophysiology of acne. In addition, it is known that keratinocytes play an important role in acne synthesizing a number of inflammatory cytokines. However, the nature of the association between inflammatory cytokines and sebocytes in acne remains unclear. Culture of sebocytes provides a new insight into the participation of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the production of inflammatory cytokines in acne. To examine the possible involvement of DHT in the production of inflammatory cytokines in the cultured sebocytes, we used immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR to compare the expression of interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Upregulation of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in immunohistochemistry, and increase in RNA amplification for IL-6 and TNF-alpha were observed after addition of DHT compared with the control. This study suggests that DHT may not only be involved in sebum production but also in production of proinflammatory cytokines in acne. PMID:20043171

  14. Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells Have a Potential to Produce NK Cells Using IL2Rg Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Khaziri, Nahid; Mohammadi, Momeneh; Aliyari, Zeinab; Soleimani Rad, Jafar; Tayefi Nasrabadi, Hamid; Nozad Charoudeh, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although bone marrow represents the main site for NK cell development and also distinct thymic-dependentNK cell pathway was identified, the cytokines effect on the NK cell generation from cord blood is unclear. Studies were identified the role of cytokines in the regulation of bone marrow and thymic NK cells. Previous studies reported that IL15 are critical for bone marrow dependent and IL7 is important for thymic NK cells. It is remain unclear the cytokines influence on the expantion of NK cells in cord blood mononuclear cells. Methods: We evaluated cultured cord blood mononuclear cells suplememnted with combinations of cytokines using FACS in distinct time points. In this study, we presented the role of IL2, IL7 and IL15 as members of the common gamma receptor -chain (Il2rg) on the expansion NK cells from cord blood cells. Results: By investigating cord blood mononuclear cells in vitro , we demonstrated that IL2 and IL15 are important for expansion of NK cells. IL2 in comparision with IL15 has more influences in NK cell expansion. In contrast IL-7 is dispensable for NK cell generation in cord blood. Conclusion: Thus,IL-2Rg cytokines play complementary roles and are indispensable for homeostasis of NK cell development in cord blood. Probably these cytokines could help to use NK beneficials in engrafment of transplanted cells and Anti tumor activity of NK cells. PMID:27123412

  15. Type I/II cytokines, JAKs, and new strategies for treating autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Daniella M.; Bonelli, Michael; Gadina, Massimo; O’Shea, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are major drivers of autoimmunity, and biologic agents targeting cytokines have revolutionized the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. Despite the effectiveness of these drugs, they do not induce complete remission in all patients, prompting the development of alternative strategies—including targeting of intracellular signal transduction pathways downstream of cytokines. Many cytokines that bind type I and type II cytokine receptors are critical regulators of immune-mediated diseases and employ the Janus kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway to exert their effect. Pharmacological inhibition of JAKs block the actions of type I/II cytokines, and within the past 3 years therapeutic JAK inhibitors, or Jakinibs, have become available to rheumatologists. Jakinibs have proven effective for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Adverse effects of these agents are largely related to their mode of action and include infections and hyperlipidemia. Jakinibs are currently being investigated for a number of new indications, and second-generation selective Jakinibs are being developed and tested. Targeting STATs could be a future avenue for the treatment of rheumatic diseases, although substantial challenges remain. Nonetheless, the ability to therapeutically target intracellular signalling pathways has already created a new paradigm for the treatment of rheumatologic disease. PMID:26633291

  16. Role of Cytokines as a Double-edged Sword in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    CHAUDHRY, HINA; ZHOU, JUHUA; ZHONG, YIN; ALI, MIR MUSTAFA; MCGUIRE, FRANKLIN; NAGARKATTI, PRAKASH S.; NAGARKATTI, MITZI

    2014-01-01

    Background Sepsis is a deadly immunological disorder and its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. We aimed to determine if specific pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines can be used as diagnostic and therapeutic targets for sepsis. Materials and Methods Recent publications in the MEDLINE database were searched for articles regarding the clinical significance of inflammatory cytokines in sepsis. Results In response to pathogen infection, pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-18 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)] and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) increased in patients with sepsis. Importantly, a decrease in IL-6 was associated with a better prognosis and overproduction of IL-10 was found to be the main predictor of severity and fatal outcome. Conclusion Both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines constitute a double-edged sword in sepsis; on one hand they are critical to eliminate the infection while on the other, excessive production can cause tissue and organ damage. Increase in cytokines such as IL-6, Il-8, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α may have implications in diagnosis and treatment of sepsis. PMID:24292568

  17. Modulation of MUC1 and blood group antigen expression in gastric adenocarcinoma cells by cytokines.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Georg P M; Schirmacher, Peter; Manzke, Oliver; Hanisch, Franz Georg; Dienes, Hans P; Baldus, Stephan E

    2003-08-01

    Immunohistological studies demonstrated that MUC1 expression in gastric cancer is associated with a poor prognosis. As a mediator of cell-cell interactions, MUC1 may also be involved in metastasis. However, these aspects are of relevance since cytokine levels are locally increased as a consequence of peritumorous inflammatory response and coexisting chronic gastritis. Therefore we analyzed the potential influence of several cytokines on the expression of tumor-associated MUC1 and Lewis blood group antigens in gastric carcinoma cells. Gastric cancer cell lines AGS and KATOIII were incubated with the cytokines interleukin-1beta, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and hepatocyte growth factor over a period of 72 h. Expressions of mucin antigens and cytokine secretion were measured by immunocytochemistry and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analysis by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) demonstrated that MUC1 and sialyl Lewis A reactivities of AGS cells were increased significantly following TNF-alpha stimulation but not by other cytokines. Expression of mucin-associated antigens by cell line KATOIII was not affected by any of the employed cytokines. These data provide evidence that TNF-alpha can raise the expression of important mucin peptide as well as mucin-associated carbohydrate antigens and thereby potentially influence the progression of gastric carcinomas. PMID:12906871

  18. Multiplexed Cytokine Detection of Interstitial Fluid Collected from Polymeric Hollow Tube Implants – A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangdan; Lennartz, Michelle R.; Loegering, Daniel J.; Stenken, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    Cytokines are important cellular signaling proteins involved in inflammation, wound healing and are thought to direct the foreign body response to implanted materials. In this work, polyurethane tubes (25 mm length, 1.02 mm i.d., and 1.65 mm o.d.) were implanted into subcutaneous tissue of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The tubes served as the biomaterial and a means to collect the interstitial fluid that would be exchanged within the tube lumen and the surrounding tissue. After three and seven days, the tubes were explanted and cytokines in the fluid were quantified with a multiplexed cytokine immunoassay. Six cytokines, interleukin-1β. (IL-1β), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were simultaneously quantified. All cytokine concentrations with the exception of IL-4 and TNF-α ranged between low pg/mL to mid ng/mL levels. Neither TNF-α nor IL-4 was detected from any sample. These results illustrate the potential of using the tube materials combined with bead-based immunoassays as a direct method for in vivo collection of multiple cytokines in low microliter sample volumes for fixed day biomaterial implant studies. PMID:18519165

  19. Detection of inflammatory cytokines using a fiber optic microsphere immunoassay array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blicharz, Timothy M.; Walt, David R.

    2006-10-01

    A multiplexed fiber optic microsphere-based immunoassay array capable of simultaneously measuring five inflammatory cytokines has been developed. Five groups of amine-functionalized 3.1 micron microspheres were internally encoded with five distinct concentrations of a europium dye and converted to cytokine probes by covalently coupling monoclonal capture antibodies specific for human VEGF, IFN-gamma, RANTES, IP-10, and Eotaxin-3 to the microspheres via glutaraldehyde chemistry. The microspheres were pooled and loaded into a 1 mm diameter fiber optic bundle containing ~50,000 individual etched microwells, producing the multiplexed cytokine immunoassay array. Multiple arrays can be created from a single microsphere pool for high throughput sample analysis. Sandwich fluoroimmunoassays were performed by incubating the probe array in a sample, followed by incubation in a mixture of biotin-labeled detection antibodies that are complementary to the five cytokines. Finally, universal detection of each protein was performed using a fluorescence imaging system after briefly immersing the array in a solution of fluorophore-labeled streptavidin. The multiplexed cytokine array has been shown to respond selectively to VEGF, IFNgamma, RANTES, IP-10, and Eotaxin-3, permitting multiplexed quantitative analysis. Ultimately, the multiplexed cytokine array will be utilized to evaluate the potential of using saliva as a noninvasive diagnostic fluid for pulmonary inflammatory diseases such as asthma.

  20. Human cytokine responses induced by Gram-positive cell walls of normal intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Chen, T; Isomäki, P; Rimpiläinen, M; Toivanen, P

    1999-01-01

    The normal microbiota plays an important role in the health of the host, but little is known of how the human immune system recognizes and responds to Gram-positive indigenous bacteria. We have investigated cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to Gram-positive cell walls (CW) derived from four common intestinal indigenous bacteria, Eubacterium aerofaciens (Eu.a.), Eubacterium limosum(Eu.l.), Lactobacillus casei(L.c.), and Lactobacillus fermentum (L.f.). Our results indicate that Gram-positive CW of the normal intestinal microbiota can induce cytokine responses of the human PBMC. The profile, level and kinetics of these responses are similar to those induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or CW derived from a pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes (S.p.). Bacterial CW are capable of inducing production of a proinflammatory cytokine, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and an anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, but not that of IL-4 or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Monocytes are the main cell population in PBMC to produce TNF-α and IL-10. Induction of cytokine secretion is serum-dependent; both CD14-dependent and -independent pathways are involved. These findings suggest that the human cytokine responses induced by Gram-positive CW of the normal intestinal microbiota are similar to those induced by LPS or Gram-positive CW of the pathogens. PMID:10540188

  1. Xuebijing injection alleviates cytokine-induced inflammatory liver injury in CLP-induced septic rats through induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ailin; Li, Jing; Bao, Yuhua; Yuan, Dingshan; Huang, Zhongwei

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines and liver injury are associated with the pathogenesis of sepsis. Xuebijing injection, a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used in the treatment of sepsis and can contribute to the improvement of patients' health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet clearly illuminated. In the present study, a septic rat model with liver injury was established by the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) method. Histological alterations to the liver, activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), levels of inflammatory cytokine secretion and the expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1) in the CLP model rats with and without Xuebijing treatment were determined. The results showed that Xuebijing injection ameliorated the pathological changes in liver tissues caused by sepsis, and reduced the sepsis-induced elevation in serum ALT and AST levels. Furthermore, Xuebijing injection markedly downregulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin (IL)-6, and upregulated the expression of IL-10. More importantly, SOCS1 expression levels at the protein and mRNA levels were further increased by Xuebijing. These findings demonstrate that Xuebijing injection can significantly alleviate liver injury in CLP-induced septic rats via the regulation of inflammatory cytokine secretion and the promotion of SOCS1 expression. The protective effects of Xuebijing injection suggest its therapeutic potential in the treatment of CLP-induced liver injury. PMID:27602076

  2. Differential induction of innate defense antimicrobial peptides in primary nasal epithelial cells upon stimulation with inflammatory cytokines, Th17 cytokines or bacterial conditioned medium from Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    PubMed

    Burgey, Christine; Kern, Winfried V; Römer, Winfried; Rieg, Siegbert

    2016-01-01

    To date it is incompletely understood why half of the human population is intrinsically resistant to Staphylococcus aureus colonization whereas the other half is intermittently or permanently colonized. Nasal colonization represents the primary niche for S. aureus. We therefore investigated whether primary nasal epithelial cells (HNEC) express antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) upon stimulation by inflammatory cytokines or bacterial conditioned medium (BCM) of different colonizing and invasive staphylococci. Stimulation with classical cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ) potently induced hBD-3 and RNase7 in HNEC. Th17 cytokines (IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22) yielded comparably weak hBD-3 and RNase7 induction and no synergistic effects with classical cytokines. BCM of S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates moderately induced hBD3 and RNase7 mRNA expression without significant differences when comparing colonizing vs. invasive isolates. Our results indicate that HNEC contribute to the innate defense by secretion of an AMP-containing chemical defense shield along the nasal mucosa i.e. within the primary colonization niche of S. aureus. Further studies are needed to investigate whether a deficient AMP expression in the nasal mucosa may be related to different S. aureus carrier states. AMPs or AMP-inducing agents may be promising candidates for future topical decolonization regimens that aim to prevent invasive S. aureus infections.

  3. Xuebijing injection alleviates cytokine-induced inflammatory liver injury in CLP-induced septic rats through induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ailin; Li, Jing; Bao, Yuhua; Yuan, Dingshan; Huang, Zhongwei

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines and liver injury are associated with the pathogenesis of sepsis. Xuebijing injection, a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used in the treatment of sepsis and can contribute to the improvement of patients' health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet clearly illuminated. In the present study, a septic rat model with liver injury was established by the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) method. Histological alterations to the liver, activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), levels of inflammatory cytokine secretion and the expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1) in the CLP model rats with and without Xuebijing treatment were determined. The results showed that Xuebijing injection ameliorated the pathological changes in liver tissues caused by sepsis, and reduced the sepsis-induced elevation in serum ALT and AST levels. Furthermore, Xuebijing injection markedly downregulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin (IL)-6, and upregulated the expression of IL-10. More importantly, SOCS1 expression levels at the protein and mRNA levels were further increased by Xuebijing. These findings demonstrate that Xuebijing injection can significantly alleviate liver injury in CLP-induced septic rats via the regulation of inflammatory cytokine secretion and the promotion of SOCS1 expression. The protective effects of Xuebijing injection suggest its therapeutic potential in the treatment of CLP-induced liver injury.

  4. Gene cloning and function analysis of cytokine-induced suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Guang; Huang, Xian-De; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Mi; Wu, Shan-Zeng; He, Mao-Xian

    2013-03-01

    Cytokine-induced suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family acts as a negative regulator of cytokine receptor signaling to control excessive cytokine effects and inhibit a variety of signal transduction pathways, particularly the Janus kinases/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. In present study, SOCS-2 homolog (PfSOCS-2) from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata was cloned and its gene has no intron. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis showed that PfSOCS-2 was clustered with other mollusk SOCS-2. LPS or polyI:C challenge and gene expression analysis revealed that PfSOCS-2 involved the innate immune response against bacterial and viral infections and that induction of PfSOCS-2 was varied with the different challenge stimulations. Furthermore, Dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that PfSOCS-2 involved in the regulation of vertebrate target genes containing the IFN-stimulated response element or NF-κB binding site in vitro. These results indicated that SOCS-2 from P. fucata plays a regulatory role against the stimulation.

  5. Cytokine release assays for the prediction of therapeutic mAb safety in first-in man trials — Whole blood cytokine release assays are poorly predictive for TGN1412 cytokine storm

    PubMed Central

    Vessillier, S.; Eastwood, D.; Fox, B.; Sathish, J.; Sethu, S.; Dougall, T.; Thorpe, S.J.; Thorpe, R.; Stebbings, R.

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) TGN1412 (anti-CD28 superagonist) caused near-fatal cytokine release syndrome (CRS) in all six volunteers during a phase-I clinical trial. Several cytokine release assays (CRAs) with reported predictivity for TGN1412-induced CRS have since been developed for the preclinical safety testing of new therapeutic mAbs. The whole blood (WB) CRA is the most widely used, but its sensitivity for TGN1412-like cytokine release was recently criticized. In a comparative study, using group size required for 90% power with 5% significance as a measure of sensitivity, we found that WB and 10% (v/v) WB CRAs were the least sensitive for TGN1412 as these required the largest group sizes (n = 52 and 79, respectively). In contrast, the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) solid phase (SP) CRA was the most sensitive for TGN1412 as it required the smallest group size (n = 4). Similarly, the PBMC SP CRA was more sensitive than the WB CRA for muromonab-CD3 (anti-CD3) which stimulates TGN1412-like cytokine release (n = 4 and 4519, respectively). Conversely, the WB CRA was far more sensitive than the PBMC SP CRA for alemtuzumab (anti-CD52) which stimulates FcγRI-mediated cytokine release (n = 8 and 180, respectively). Investigation of potential factors contributing to the different sensitivities revealed that removal of red blood cells (RBCs) from WB permitted PBMC-like TGN1412 responses in a SP CRA, which in turn could be inhibited by the addition of the RBC membrane protein glycophorin A (GYPA); this observation likely underlies, at least in part, the poor sensitivity of WB CRA for TGN1412. The use of PBMC SP CRA for the detection of TGN1412-like cytokine release is recommended in conjunction with adequately powered group sizes for dependable preclinical safety testing of new therapeutic mAbs. PMID:25960173

  6. Induction of anti-inflammatory cytokine expression by IPNV in persistent infection.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Cerpa, Sebastián; Reyes-López, Felipe; Toro-Ascuy, Daniela; Montero, Ruth; Maisey, Kevin; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Sunyer, J Oriol; Parra, David; Sandino, Ana María; Imarai, Mónica

    2014-12-01

    Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) is the agent of a well-characterized acute disease that produces a systemic infection and high mortality in farmed fish species but also persistent infection in surviving fish after outbreaks. Because viral persistence of susceptible mammal hosts appears to be associated with the modulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine expression, in this study we examined the expression levels of key pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in kidney and spleen of trout, as well as humoral immune response (IgM and IgT) during experimental persistent viral infection and in the acute phase of infection as a comparison. IPNV infection in rainbow trout resulted in a distinct profile of cytokine expression depending on the type of infection, acute or persistent. Levels of early pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-8, did not increase in the head kidney of the fish with persistent asymptomatic infection but increased in some of the symptomatic infected fish. The antiviral cytokine IFNα was not significantly induced in any of the infected fish groups. The level of expression of the Th1-related cytokine IL-12 was significantly higher in trout with persistent asymptomatic infection than in symptomatic fish. This was also accompanied by an increase in IFNγ. The anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β1 had distinct expression profiles. While IL-10 expression increased in all infected fish, TGF-β1 was only up-regulated in fish with persistent infection. All infected fish had significantly lower total IgM levels than the non-infected fish whereas IgT levels did not change. Specific and neutralizing antibodies against IPNV were not observed in acute and persistent infection except in the group of fish with the lowest degree of clinical signs. Interestingly, the lack of humoral immune response could be associated with the high expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, which might inhibit antibody production. The balance between pro

  7. Preserved ex vivo inflammatory status and cytokine responses in naturally long-lived mice

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Lorena; Lord, Janet M.

    2010-01-01

    Preserved immune cell function has been reported in mice that achieve extreme longevity. Since cytokines are major modulators of immune responses, we aimed to determine the levels of 21 cytokines secreted ex vivo by peritoneal leukocytes cultured under basal- and mitogen- (conconavalin A (ConA) and LPS) stimulated conditions in middle-aged (44 ± 4 weeks), old (69 ± 4 weeks), very old (92 ± 4 weeks), and extreme long-lived (125 ± 4 weeks) ICR (CD1) female mice. The secretion of cytokines was measured by multiplex luminometry. Increased basal levels of proinflammatory IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 (p70), IFN-γ, and TNF-α were seen in the old and very old animals, accompanied by decreased IL-10. In contrast, the extreme long-lived mice maintained the overall cytokine profile of middle-aged mice, though the basal secretion of IL-2, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-12 (p40) was raised. Under LPS- and/or ConA-stimulated conditions, leukocytes from old and very old animals showed a significantly impaired response with respect to secretion of Th1 cytokines IL-3, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α; Th2 cytokines IL-6, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13; and the regulatory cytokines IL-2, IL-5, and IL-17. Extreme long-lived mice preserved the middle-aged-like cytokine profile, with the most striking effect seen for the IL-2 response to ConA, which was minimal in the old and very old mice but increased with respect to the middle-aged level in extreme long-lived mice. Chemokine responses in regard to KC, MCP-1, MIP1β, and RANTES were more variable, though similar secretion of LPS-induced KC and MCP-1 and ConA-induced MCP-1, MIP-1β, and RANTES was found in long-lived and middle-aged mice. Thus, extreme long-lived animals showed only a minimal inflammatory profile, much lower than the old and very old groups and also lower than the middle-aged, which is likely mediated by the increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10. This was coupled to a robust response to immune stimuli

  8. Blocking Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Release Modulates Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Response to Porphyromonas Gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Berker, Ezel; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease in which cytokines play a major role in the progression of disease. Anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) were reported to be absent or reduced in diseased periodontal tissues, suggesting an imbalance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. We have tested the hypothesis that there is cellular cross-talk mediated by pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and that blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1) production will enhance anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10) production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in response to P. gingivalis. Methods PBMC were isolated from individuals diagnosed with chronic periodontitis or healthy individuals and cultured for 24 hours. Concanavalin-A (ConA) was used as an activator of lymphocyte function. Live and heat-killed P .gingivalis or lipopolysaccharide from P. gingivalis was used as the bacterial stimulants. TNF-α and IL-1 production was neutralized by specific antibodies against TNF-α and IL-1α or β. Culture supernatants were evaluated by ELISA for TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-10 production. Results Live P. gingivalis did not result in any significant IL-10 or IL-4 release while heat-killed P. gingivalis led to a significant increase in IL-10 levels compared to unstimulated or live P. gingivalis-stimulated cells from both healthy and periodontitis individuals. Overall, PBMC from patients with chronic periodontitis produced significantly lower IL-10 in response to ConA and P. gingivalis suggesting chronic suppression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine production. Blocking the pro-inflammatory cytokine response did not result in any substantial change in IL-10 or IL-4 response to live P. gingivalis. Blocking the pro-inflammatory cytokine response restored IL-10 production by cells from chronic periodontitis in response to P. gingivalis LPS. Conclusion These findings suggest that PBMC from patients with chronic

  9. Epigenetic regulation of high glucose-induced proinflammatory cytokine productionin monocytes by curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jung-Mi; Jialal, Ishwarlal; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is a pro-inflammatory state. We have previously shown increased monocyte pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. High glucose induces pro-inflammatory cytokines via epigenetic changes. Curcumin, a polyphenol responsible for the yellow color of the spice turmeric, is known to exert potent anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. Recent studies indicate that it may regulate chromatin remodeling by inhibiting histone acetylation. In this study, we aimed to test the effect of curcumin on histone acetylation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion under high-glucose conditions in human monocytes. Human monocytic (THP-1) cells were cultured in presence of mannitol (osmolar control, mannitol) or normoglycemic (NG, 5.5 mmol/L glucose) or hyperglycemic (HG, 25 mmol/L glucose) conditions in absence or presence of curcumin (1.5-12.5μM) for 72 h. Cytokine level, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transactivation, histone deacetylases (HDACs) activity, histone acetylases (HATs) activity were measured by western blots, qRT-PCR, ELISA, Immunofluorescence (IF) staining. HG significantly induced histone acetylation, NF-κB activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1) release from THP-1 cells. Curcumin suppressed NF-κB binding and cytokine release in THP-1 cells. Also, since p300 histone acetyltransferase is a coactivator of NF-κB, we examined its acetylation. Curcumin treatment also significantly reduced HAT activity, level of p300 and acetylated CBP/p300 gene expression, and induced histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression by curcumin. These results indicate that curcumin decreases HG-induced cytokine production in monocytes via epigenetic changes involving NF-κB. In conclusion, curcumin supplementation by reducing vascular inflammation may prevent diabetic complications. PMID:20655188

  10. Induction of suppressors of cytokine signaling by the trichothecene deoxynivalenol in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Amuzie, Chidozie J; Shinozuka, Junko; Pestka, James J

    2009-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin found in grains and cereal-based foods worldwide, impairs weight gain in experimental animals but the underlying mechanisms remain undetermined. Oral exposure to DON induces rapid and transient upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine expression in the mouse. The latter are known to induce several suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS), some of which impair growth hormone (GH) signaling. We hypothesized that oral exposure to DON will induce SOCS expression in the mouse. Real-time PCR and cytokine bead array revealed that oral gavage with DON rapidly (1 h) induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 mRNA and protein expression in several organs and plasma, respectively. Upregulation of mRNAs for four well-characterized SOCS (CIS [cytokine-inducible SH2 domain protein], SOCS1, SOCS2, and SOCS3) was either concurrent with (1 h) or subsequent to cytokine upregulation (2 h). Notably, DON-induced SOCS3 mRNAs in muscle, spleen and liver, with CIS1, SOCS1, and SOCS2 occurring to a lesser extent. Hepatic SOCS3 mRNA was a very sensitive indicator of DON exposure with SOCS3 protein being detectable in the liver well after the onset of cytokine decline (5 h). Furthermore, hepatic SOCS upregulation was associated with about 75% suppression of GH-inducible insulin-like growth factor acid labile subunit. Taken together, DON-induced cytokine upregulation corresponded to increased expression of several SOCS, and was associated with suppression of GH-inducible gene expression in the liver.

  11. Implantable synthetic cytokine converter cells with AND-gate logic treat experimental psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Schukur, Lina; Geering, Barbara; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-12-16

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by a relapsing-remitting disease course and correlated with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 22 (IL22). Psoriasis is hard to treat because of the unpredictable and asymptomatic flare-up, which limits handling of skin lesions to symptomatic treatment. Synthetic biology-based gene circuits are uniquely suited for the treatment of diseases with complex dynamics, such as psoriasis, because they can autonomously couple the detection of disease biomarkers with the production of therapeutic proteins. We designed a mammalian cell synthetic cytokine converter that quantifies psoriasis-associated TNF and IL22 levels using serially linked receptor-based synthetic signaling cascades, processes the levels of these proinflammatory cytokines with AND-gate logic, and triggers the corresponding expression of therapeutic levels of the anti-inflammatory/psoriatic cytokines IL4 and IL10, which have been shown to be immunomodulatory in patients. Implants of microencapsulated cytokine converter transgenic designer cells were insensitive to simulated bacterial and viral infections as well as psoriatic-unrelated inflammation. The designer cells specifically prevented the onset of psoriatic flares, stopped acute psoriasis, improved psoriatic skin lesions and restored normal skin-tissue morphology in mice. The antipsoriatic designer cells were equally responsive to blood samples from psoriasis patients, suggesting that the synthetic cytokine converter captures the clinically relevant cytokine range. Implanted designer cells that dynamically interface with the patient's metabolism by detecting specific disease metabolites or biomarkers, processing their blood levels with synthetic circuits in real time, and coordinating immediate production and systemic delivery of protein therapeutics may advance personalized gene- and cell-based therapies.

  12. Cytokine expression in the seminal plasma and its effects on fertilisation rates in an IVF cycle.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, S; Bates, M; Vince, G; Jones, D I Lewis

    2011-12-01

    Cytokines are released by various immunocompetent cell subsets in the male urogenital tract and are thought to affect sperm cell function and reproductive process. The aim of the study was to evaluate the levels and a possible role of seven seminal plasma cytokines with fertilisation rates in men attending an in vitro fertilisation (IVF) programme. A total of 36 men of couples who were undergoing traditional IVF in a regional reproductive medicine unit were recruited into this prospective study. Cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-11, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in the seminal plasma were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-11 and IFN-γ were detected in all samples. IL-12, and TNF-α were detected in most samples. Levels of IL-11 were significantly higher in the good fertiliser group (P ≤ 0.05). Positive correlation between cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8 (P < 0.03), IL-10 and IL-11 (P < 0.001) and IFN-γ and IL-10 and IL-11 (P < 0.04 and P < 0.0001 respectively) were found. Our study confirms that the six cytokines other than IL-11 do not affect spermatozoon-oocyte interaction and fertilisation rates in IVF. IL-11 could have a role in the fertilising capacity of the spermatozoa. Significant correlation exists among these cytokines which shows that cytokines rarely act in isolation but rather in a network.

  13. Children With Islet Autoimmunity and Enterovirus Infection Demonstrate a Distinct Cytokine Profile

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Wing-Chi G.; Al-Shabeeb, Ammira; Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Wilkins, Marc R.; Catteau, Jacki; Howard, Neville J.; Rawlinson, William D.; Craig, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Cytokines are upregulated in prediabetes, but their relationship with Enterovirus (EV) infection and development of islet autoimmunity is unknown. Cytokines (n = 65) were measured using Luminex xMAP technology in a nested case-control study of 67 children with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes: 27 with islet autoantibodies (Ab+) and 40 age-matched persistently autoantibody negative (Ab−) control subjects. Of 74 samples, 37 (50%) were EV-PCR+ in plasma and/or stool (EV+) and the remainder were negative for EV and other viruses (EV−). Fifteen cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were elevated (P ≤ 0.01) in Ab+ versus Ab− children (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12(p70), IL-16, IL-17, IL-20, IL-21, IL-28A, tumor necrosis factor-α, chemokine C-C motif ligand [CCL]13, CCL26, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and thrombopoietin); most have proinflammatory effects. In EV+ versus EV− children, IL-10 was higher (P = 0.005), while IL-21 was lower (P = 0.008). Cytokine levels did not differ between Ab+EV+ and Ab+EV− children. Heat maps demonstrated clustering of some proinflammatory cytokines in Ab+ children, suggesting they are coordinately regulated. In conclusion, children with islet autoimmunity demonstrate higher levels of multiple cytokines, consistent with an active inflammatory process in the prediabetic state, which is unrelated to coincident EV infection. Apart from differences in IL-10 and IL-21, EV infection was not associated with a specific cytokine profile. PMID:22474026

  14. Dimerization by a cytokine receptor is necessary for constitutive activation of JAK2V617F.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaohui; Huang, Lily Jun-Shen; Lodish, Harvey F

    2008-02-29

    The majority of the BCR-ABL-negative myeloproliferative disorders express the mutant JAK2, JAK2V617F. Previously we showed that constitutive activation of this oncogenic JAK2 mutant in Ba/F3 or 32D cells requires coexpression of a cognate homodimeric cytokine receptor, such as the EpoR. However, overexpression of JAK2V617F in Ba/F3 cells renders them cytokine-independent for growth in the absence of an exogenous cytokine receptor. Here, we demonstrated that JAK2V617F domains required for receptor association are essential for cytokine-independent growth by overexpressed JAK2V617F, suggesting JAK2V617F is binding to an unknown endogenous cytokine receptor(s) for its activation. We further showed that disruption of EpoR dimerization by coexpressing a truncated EpoR disrupted JAK2V617F-mediated transformation, indicating that EpoR dimerization plays an essential role in the activation of JAK2V617F. Interestingly, coexpression of JAK2V617F with EpoR mutants that retain JAK2 binding but are defective in mediating Epo-dependent JAK2 activation due to mutations in a conserved juxtamembrane motif does lead to cytokine-independent activation of JAK2V617F. Overall, these findings confirm that JAK2V617F requires binding to a dimerized cytokine receptor for its activation, and that the key EpoR juxtamembrane regulatory motif essential for Epo-dependent JAK2 activation is not essential for the activation of JAK2V617F. The structure of the activated JAK2V617F is thus likely to be different from that of the activated wild-type JAK2, raising the possibility of developing a specifically targeted therapy for myeloproliferative disorders.

  15. Neutrophils and monocytes as potentially important sources of proinflammatory cytokines in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, E; Monteagudo, P T; Marrocos, M S M; Campa, A

    2006-01-01

    Neutrophils and monocytes play a central role in host defence. The invading leucocytes are capable of synthesizing and releasing a variety of proinflammatory mediators including cytokines. Given the importance of cytokines in the progression of chronic and acute inflammatory processes, we aimed to ascertain whether the release of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1ra of neutrophils and monocytes was modified in diabetes. To this end, we measured the release of cytokines in suspensions of cell culture in basal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated conditions. In basal conditions, neutrophils of diabetics release 1·6, 3·2, 1·9 and 1·9-fold higher amounts of IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-1ra, respectively, than do healthy controls. Under our experimental conditions, this effect was more evident for neutrophils than for monocytes. Incremental cytokine production was also found to occur when neutrophils were stimulated with LPS. IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α increased, respectively, by 4·0, 1·7 and 2·8-fold. Although the effect was more marked for neutrophils, monocytes showed a tendency for increased cytokine production. The discovery of this increase in cytokines released by the neutrophils of diabetics contributes towards a clearer understanding of other deficiencies described for neutrophils in diabetes, such as the migration of neutrophils to inflammatory sites, phagocytes, release of lytic proteases, production of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis. The excessive production of cytokines may lead to inappropriate activation and tissue injury and even to increased susceptibility to invasive microorganisms. Thus, the increased responsiveness of neutrophils of diabetics demonstrated in this study may be considered part of the scenario of diabetes physiopathology. PMID:17100763

  16. Impact of Whole-Blood Processing Conditions on Plasma and Serum Concentrations of Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Kim, Jong-Wan; Han, Bok-Ghee; Shin, So-Youn

    2016-02-01

    Pre-analytical variations in plasma and serum samples can occur because of variability in whole-blood processing procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of delayed separation of whole blood on the plasma and serum concentrations of cytokines. The concentrations of 16 cytokines were measured in plasma and serum samples when the centrifugation of whole blood at room temperature was delayed for 4, 6, 24, or 48 h, and the values were compared with those observed after separation within 2 h of whole-blood collection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed for cytokines to determine whether cytokine levels in plasma and serum samples can be used to assess delayed separation of whole blood. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and MIP-1β increased significantly (>2-fold) when separation was delayed at room temperature for 24 h. The concentrations of 6 of these cytokines (all except serum IL-1β and IL-6) demonstrated high diagnostic performance (area under the ROC curve >0.8) for delayed separation of whole blood. Furthermore, these cytokine concentrations typically exhibited high sensitivity and specificity at each optimal cutoff point. Conversely, IL-17A was stable in both plasma and serum samples, even when whole-blood centrifugation was delayed at room temperature for 48 h. This study shows that certain cytokines (IL-1β, GM-CSF, sCD40L, IL-8, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β) could be used for assessing the quality of plasma or serum samples. PMID:26808439

  17. Elevated Systemic Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Older Women with Persistent Cervical HPV Infection1234

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Troy J.; Hildesheim, Allan; García-Piñeres, Alfonso; Williams, Marcus C.; Shearer, Gene M.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert; Freer, Enrique; Bonilla, Jose; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Defects in lymphoproliferative responses to mitogen/antigens in women >45 years old ith a persistent type-specific HPV infection have been reported. Methods To determine whether these defects were associated with altered cytokine profiles, plasma and PBMC culture supernatants from 50 cases (persistent HPV infection and weak lymphoproliferative responses) and 50 uninfected controls were examined for 24 cytokines using multiplexed bead-based immunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The following plasma cytokines were significantly increased from cases relative to controls: (cases vs. controls (median pg/ml); IL-6: 393.1 vs. 14.5, IL-8: 1128.5 vs. 43.9, TNF-α: 164.1 vs. 9.2, MIP-1α: 1368.9 vs. 25.5, GM-CSF: 13.8 vs. 7.3, IL-1β: 8.3 vs. 1.6, all p<0.0001, and IL-1α: 218.2 vs. 169.5, p=0.02). We focused our analysis on the following cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and MIP-1α due to high fold change (>10) and highly statistically significant difference between cases and controls. Moreover, length of persistence or type of infection (high risk and low risk) did not affect these differences. IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α levels were increased in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants from cases compared to controls (p <0.05), except for IL-8 (p=0.09). However, the cytokine levels from PHA-stimulated PBMC culture supernatants were significantly lower in the cases (p<0.0001). Conclusions Persistent HPV infection in older women with evidence of immune deficit is associated with an increase in systemic inflammatory cytokines. Impact Future studies are needed to determine whether the inflammatory profile is age dependent and to examine the role inflammatory cytokines play in HPV-induced progression from infection to cervical cancer. PMID:20647411

  18. Delineation of Diverse Macrophage Activation Programs in Response to Intracellular Parasites and Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuyi; Kim, Charles C.; Batra, Sajeev; McKerrow, James H.; Loke, P'ng

    2010-01-01

    Background The ability to reside and proliferate in macrophages is characteristic of several infectious agents that are of major importance to public health, including the intracellular parasites Trypanosoma cruzi (the etiological agent of Chagas disease) and Leishmania species (etiological agents of Kala-Azar and cutaneous leishmaniasis). Although recent studies have elucidated some of the ways macrophages respond to these pathogens, the relationships between activation programs elicited by these pathogens and the macrophage activation programs elicited by bacterial pathogens and cytokines have not been delineated. Methodology/Principal Findings To provide a global perspective on the relationships between macrophage activation programs and to understand how certain pathogens circumvent them, we used transcriptional profiling by genome-wide microarray analysis to compare the responses of mouse macrophages following exposure to the intracellular parasites T. cruzi and Leishmania mexicana, the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the cytokines IFNG, TNF, IFNB, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17. We found that LPS induced a classical activation state that resembled macrophage stimulation by the Th1 cytokines IFNG and TNF. However, infection by the protozoan pathogen L. mexicana produced so few transcriptional changes that the infected macrophages were almost indistinguishable from uninfected cells. T. cruzi activated macrophages produced a transcriptional signature characterized by the induction of interferon-stimulated genes by 24 h post-infection. Despite this delayed IFN response by T. cruzi, the transcriptional response of macrophages infected by the kinetoplastid pathogens more closely resembled the transcriptional response of macrophages stimulated by the cytokines IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17 than macrophages stimulated by Th1 cytokines. Conclusions/Significance This study provides global gene expression data for a diverse set of biologically significant pathogens and

  19. Implantable synthetic cytokine converter cells with AND-gate logic treat experimental psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Schukur, Lina; Geering, Barbara; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-12-16

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by a relapsing-remitting disease course and correlated with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 22 (IL22). Psoriasis is hard to treat because of the unpredictable and asymptomatic flare-up, which limits handling of skin lesions to symptomatic treatment. Synthetic biology-based gene circuits are uniquely suited for the treatment of diseases with complex dynamics, such as psoriasis, because they can autonomously couple the detection of disease biomarkers with the production of therapeutic proteins. We designed a mammalian cell synthetic cytokine converter that quantifies psoriasis-associated TNF and IL22 levels using serially linked receptor-based synthetic signaling cascades, processes the levels of these proinflammatory cytokines with AND-gate logic, and triggers the corresponding expression of therapeutic levels of the anti-inflammatory/psoriatic cytokines IL4 and IL10, which have been shown to be immunomodulatory in patients. Implants of microencapsulated cytokine converter transgenic designer cells were insensitive to simulated bacterial and viral infections as well as psoriatic-unrelated inflammation. The designer cells specifically prevented the onset of psoriatic flares, stopped acute psoriasis, improved psoriatic skin lesions and restored normal skin-tissue morphology in mice. The antipsoriatic designer cells were equally responsive to blood samples from psoriasis patients, suggesting that the synthetic cytokine converter captures the clinically relevant cytokine range. Implanted designer cells that dynamically interface with the patient's metabolism by detecting specific disease metabolites or biomarkers, processing their blood levels with synthetic circuits in real time, and coordinating immediate production and systemic delivery of protein therapeutics may advance personalized gene- and cell-based therapies. PMID:26676608

  20. ELISA assays and alcohol: increasing carbon chain length can interfere with detection of cytokines.

    PubMed

    von Maltzan, Kristine; Pruett, Stephen B

    2011-02-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are frequently used in studies on cytokine production in response to treatment of cell cultures or laboratory animals. When an ELISA assay is performed on cell culture supernatants, samples often contain the treatment agents. The purpose of the present study was to determine if some of the agents evaluated might inhibit cytokine detection by interfering with the ELISA, leaving the question of whether cytokine production was inhibited unanswered. Mouse and human cytokine ELISA kits from BD Biosciences were used according to the manufacturer's instructions. Cytokine proteins were subjected to one to five carbon alcohols at 86.8mM (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, n-butanol, and n-pentanol). After treating cell cultures with alcohols of different carbon chain lengths, we found that some of the alcohols interfered with measurement of some cytokines by ELISA, thus making their effects on cytokine production by cells in culture unclear. Increasing carbon chain length of straight chain alcohols positively correlated with their ability to inhibit detection of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 10 (IL-10), but not with the detection of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8, (IL-8), and interleukin 12 (IL-12). To avoid misinterpretation of treatment effects, ELISA assays should be tested with the reference protein and the treatment agent first, before testing biological samples. These results along with other recent results we obtained using circular dichroism indicate that alcohols with two or more carbons can directly alter protein conformation enough to disrupt binding in an ELISA (shown in the present study) or to inhibit ligand-induced conformational changes (results not shown). Such direct effects have not been given enough consideration as a mechanism of ethanol action in the immune system.

  1. Stability of Regulatory T Cells Undermined or Endorsed by Different Type-1 Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Piconese, Silvia; Barnaba, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) encompass an array of immunosuppressive cells responsible for the protection against exacerbated immune responses and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Various Treg subtypes, normally resident within distinct lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, can be recruited and expanded during inflammation, possibly undergoing functional and molecular re-programming. Generally, two processes have been reported in different settings of type-1 response: i) Treg subpopulations acquiring the ability to specifically suppress Th1 cells (called Th1-suppressing Tregs), and ii) Treg subsets rather polarizing into IFN-γ-producing (called Th1-like) Tregs.Along the development of type-1 responses, Tregs are exposed to a variety of cytokines and other signals, exerting disparate activities. The combinatorial effects of typical Th1-driving cytokines, such as IL-12 (mostly produced by antigen-presenting cells during Th1 priming) and IFN-γ (mostly produced by pre-existing NK cells) lead to inhibition of Treg expansion and function, while promoting Th1-like Treg polarization. Conversely, cytokines produced at more advanced phases by Th1 effectors, such as IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ, promote Treg proliferation and/or Th1-suppressing Treg specialization. Some controversy exists around IL-27 and IFN-α, cytokines possibly released during bacterial or viral infections. Furthermore, cytokine signals can be finely tuned by the concomitant stimulation of costimulatory or coinhibitory receptors, such as OX40 and PD-1 respectively, within inflamed tissues.A model may be envisaged of an alternate Treg response to type-1 cytokines, being hampered or boosted by early or late phase cytokines, respectively. Such regulation would unleash the development of protective type-1 immunity while constraining exacerbated Th1 responses, possibly causing immunopathology. PMID:26324343

  2. Human tear analysis with miniaturized multiplex cytokine assay on “wall-less” 96-well plate

    PubMed Central

    Quah, Joanne; Tong, Louis; Kim, Namyong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Tears are a particularly limited body fluid and commonly used in the diagnosis of patients who have ocular diseases. A popular method for analysis of ocular inflammation in tears uses Luminex® bead multiplex technology to generate valuable multiple cytokine profile outputs with 25–50 µl tear sample volume. We propose a method for measuring tear cytokines with 5 μl tear sample volume and 80% reduced Luminex reagents compared to previous protocols. Methods Using human tears pooled from 1,000 participants, the DA-Bead-based method running at 5–20 µl volume, using manual pipetting, in conjunction with a magnetic Luminex cytokine (four-plex) panel assay in a 96-well format was performed and validated for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. Results Upon use of the DA-Bead method at the 5 μl volume with cytokine standards, the concentrations of each of the four cytokines were found to be linear over a range of 3.5–4 log pg/ml with an intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) ≤5%, inter-assay %CV ≤10%, and accuracy within the 70–130% range. Upon use of a 5 µl healthy pooled tear sample, cytokine concentrations were detected with a precision intra-assay %CV ˂ 20% for IL-6, IFN-γ, or TNF-α or 30.37% with IL-1β. The inter-assay %CV with tears was ≤20.84% for all cytokines. Tear volumes run at 5 μl on DA-Bead produced a similar cytokine expression profile at a 1-month interval and were highly correlated with the larger 10 μl–based tear sample volume cytokine profile with R2 = 0.98. Conclusions DA-Bead assay is highly sensitive and reproducible and has a performance profile that is potentially suitable for use in standard clinical scenarios. Considering the use of as little as 5 µl of assay beads and 5 µl sample, this is also likely to reduce the assay cost significantly and ease diagnosis of patients with ocular diseases. PMID:26539027

  3. Heterogeneity of single cell cytokine gene expression in clonal T cell populations.

    PubMed

    Bucy, R P; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, A; Huang, G Q; Li, J; Karr, L; Ross, M; Russell, J H; Murphy, K M; Weaver, C T

    1994-10-01

    T helper type 0 (Th0), Th1, and Th2 CD4+ T cell clones derived from a T cell receptor alpha/beta (TCR-alpha/beta) transgenic mouse were activated by antigen presented on "artificial" antigen-presenting cells that expressed or lacked the costimulatory molecule B7-1, and were analyzed for single cell cytokine mRNA expression by in situ hybridization. There was significant heterogeneity in the frequency of T cells that expressed individual cytokine mRNAs within each clonal population, suggesting that transcriptional control of each of the cytokine genes was not coordinate within an individual cell. The majority of antigen-stimulated Th1 cells expressed mRNA for interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), but far fewer cells in the same population expressed interleukin 2 (IL-2). Similarly, the frequency of IL-4-expressing cells was greater than that of IL-5- or IL-10-expressing cells in the same Th2 population, but the difference in expression frequencies was more variable between clones. The expression frequencies of each of the cytokines was quite heterogeneous in the antigen-activated Th0 population. The principal effect of increased antigen on the activation of individual cytokine genes in each of the clonal populations was to increase recruitment of mRNA-positive cells, with little or no effect on the level of cytokine mRNA expression in individual positive cells. The effects of B7 costimulation were variable depending on the cytokine gene analyzed. B7 costimulation markedly increased the frequency and the level of IL-2 mRNA expression in individual positive cells in the Th1 and Th0 populations, with less effect on the recruitment and single cell expression level of IFN-gamma. IL-4 frequencies were modestly increased by B7 costimulation of the Th2 clones, but there was no detectable increase in single cell IL-4 expression level. The observed patterns of cytokine mRNA expression favor a model of T cell activation in which all-or-none, rather than graded, responses of cytokine

  4. Th1, Th2 and Treg/T17 cytokines in two types of proliferative glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Stangou, M.; Bantis, C.; Skoularopoulou, M.; Korelidou, L.; Kouloukouriotou, D.; Scina, M.; Labropoulou, I. T.; Kouri, N. M.; Papagianni, A.; Efstratiadis, G.

    2016-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and focal segmental necrotizing glomerulonephritis (FSNGN) are characterized by proliferation of native glomerular cells and infiltration by inflammatory cells. Several cytokines act as mediators of kidney damage in both diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Th1, Th2 and Treg/T17 cytokines in these types of proliferative glomerulonephritis. Simultaneous measurement of Th1 interleukin (IL-2, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], interferon-gamma [INF-γ]), Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13), Treg/T17 transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], IL-17) cytokines and C-C chemokines Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 [MIP-1] β) was performed in first-morning urine samples, at the day of renal biopsy, using a multiplex cytokine assay. Cytokine concentrations were correlated with histological findings and renal function outcome. Urinary excretion of Th1, Th2 and Treg/Th17 cytokines were significantly higher in FSNGN compared to IgAN patients. In IgAN patients (n = 50, M/F: 36/14, M age: 40.7 [17–67] years), Th1, Th2 and T17 cytokines correlated significantly with the presence of endocapillary proliferation, while in FSNGN patients (n = 40, M/F: 24/16, M age: 56.5 [25–80] years), MCP-1 and TGF-β1 had a positive correlation with severe extracapillary proliferation (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Urinary IL-17 was the only independent parameter associated with endocapillary proliferation in IgAN and with MCP-1 urinary excretion in FSNGN. Response to treatment was mainly predicted by IL-6 in IgAN, and by Th2 (IL-4, IL-6), Treg (GM-CSF) cytokines and MIP-1 β in FSNGN. Th1, Th2 and T17 cytokines were directly implicated in renal pathology in IgAN and possibly through MCP-1 production in FSNGN. IL-17 and IL-6 seem to have a central role in inflammation and progression of kidney injury. PMID:27194829

  5. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced phagocytosis of cultured microglia via nitric oxide production

    SciTech Connect

    Kakita, Hiroki; Aoyama, Mineyoshi; Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Asai, Hayato; Hussein, Mohamed Hamed; Suzuki, Mieko; Kato, Shin; Saitoh, Shinji; Asai, Kiyofumi

    2013-04-15

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a central nervous system complication with a high mortality rate, which is increased significantly by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DCF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of DCF on brain immune cells (i.e. microglia) stimulated with three proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ. Similar to previous findings in astrocytes, all three cytokines induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), as well as NO production, in microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system augmented iNOS expression and NO production. Immunocytochemical analysis and the phagocytosis assay revealed that cytokine treatment induced morphological changes to and phagocytosis by the microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system enhanced microglial activation, as well as the phagocytic activity of cytokine-stimulated microglia. Inhibitors of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated microglia with or without DCF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is one of the main signaling pathways involved. The iNOS inhibitor N{sup G}-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) reduced both cytokine-induced phagocytosis and phagocytosis induced by the combination of cytokines plus DCF. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside induced phagocytosis, indicating that NO production is a key regulator of microglial phagocytosis. In conclusion, DCF acts synergistically with proinflammatory cytokines to increase the production of NO in microglia, leading to phagocytic activity of the activated microglia. These findings, together with previous observations regarding astrocytes, may explain the significant increase in mortality of IAE patients treated with DCF. - Highlights: ► Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is associated with a high mortality rate. ► Hyperimmunization in the brain is believed to be responsible for

  6. Neuropoietic cytokines and activin A differentially regulate the phenotype of cultured sympathetic neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Fann, M J; Patterson, P H

    1994-01-01

    A number of cytokines sharing limited sequence homology have been grouped as a family because of partially overlapping biological activities, receptor subunit promiscuity, and the prediction of a shared secondary structure. Since several of these cytokines regulate gene expression and cell number in the nervous and hematopoietic systems, this specific group is termed the neuropoietic cytokine family. Using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based assay system for monitoring the expression of multiple phenotypic markers in cultured sympathetic neurons, we present further evidence that, in addition to cholinergic differentiation factor/leukemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor, oncostatin M, growth promoting activity, interleukin 6, and interleukin 11 belong in this family. In addition, one member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, activin A, shares a selective overlap with the neuropoietic family in the spectrum of neuropeptides that it induces in sympathetic neurons. The particular neuropeptides induced by activin A, however, demonstrate that the activity of this cytokine is distinct from that of the neuropoietic family. Twenty-six other cytokines and growth factors were without detectable activity in this assay. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7904069

  7. A cytokine gene screen uncovers SOCS1 as genetic risk factor for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroeck, K; Alvarez, J; Swaminathan, B; Alloza, I; Matesanz, F; Urcelay, E; Comabella, M; Alcina, A; Fedetz, M; Ortiz, M A; Izquierdo, G; Fernandez, O; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, N; Matute, C; Caillier, S; Arroyo, R; Montalban, X; Oksenberg, J R; Antigüedad, A; Aransay, A

    2012-01-01

    Cytokine and cytokine receptor genes, including IL2RA, IL7R and IL12A, are known risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS). Excitotoxic oligodendroglial death mediated by glutamate receptors contributes to demyelinating reactions. In the present study, we screened 368 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 55 genes or gene clusters coding for cytokines, cytokine receptors, suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS), complement factors and glutamate receptors for association with MS in a Spanish-Basque resident population. Top-scoring SNPs were found within or nearby the genes coding for SOCS-1 (P=0.0005), interleukin-28 receptor, alpha chain (P=0.0008), oncostatin M receptor (P=0.002) and interleukin-22 receptor, alpha 2 (IL22RA2; P=0.003). The SOCS1 rs243324 variant was validated as risk factor for MS in a separate cohort of 3919 MS patients and 4003 controls (combined Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel P=0.00006; odds ratio (OR)=1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.07-1.20). In addition, the T allele of rs243324 was consistently increased in relapsing-remitting/secondary progressive versus primary-progressive MS patients, in each of the six data sets used in this study (P(CMH)=0.0096; OR=1.24; 95% CI 1.05-1.46). The association with SOCS1 appears independent from the chr16MS risk locus CLEC16A.

  8. Influence of prenatal maternal stress on umbilical cord blood cytokine levels

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Niklas W.; Li, Qian; Mills, Carrie W.; Ly, Jenny; Chen, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) is known to influence fetal programming and development. Thus far, the effects of PNMS on the developing immune system have mainly been documented in animal studies. This study aimed to examine the association between PNMS and immune cytokine profiles in the umbilical cord blood of newborn human infants. Methods PNMS, including perceived stress, numbers of stressful life events experiences (both partner and health related), and state and trait anxiety, was assessed with five questionnaires and interviews from 43 pregnant women during the second trimester. Seven key cytokines important for immune function, i.e., IL-12, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, were analyzed in cord blood by bead-based ELISA method (Luminex 200). Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations of PNMS scores and cytokine levels. Results Increased levels of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-8 were significantly associated with at least one of the maternal stress assessments, while the levels of IL-12 and TNF-α were not significantly associated with any of the PNMS measurements examined. Conclusion These preliminary findings suggest that PNMS may influence cytokine levels in newborn infants, in particular Th2-related cytokines. This report supports previous findings in animal studies and could suggest that newborns born to mothers with elevated PNMS have a predisposition to immune-related disorders. PMID:26846778

  9. Dynamics of the HPA axis and inflammatory cytokines: Insights from mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Malek, Hamed; Ebadzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Safabakhsh, Reza; Razavi, Alireza; Zaringhalam, Jalal

    2015-12-01

    In the work presented here, a novel mathematical model was developed to explore the bi-directional communication between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and inflammatory cytokines in acute inflammation. The dynamic model consists of five delay differential equations 5D for two main pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and two hormones of the HPA axis (ACTH and cortisol) and LPS endotoxin. The model is an attempt to increase the understanding of the role of primary hormones and cytokines in this complex relationship by demonstrating the influence of different organs and hormones in the regulation of the inflammatory response. The model captures the main qualitative features of cytokine and hormone dynamics when a toxic challenge is introduced. Moreover, in this work a new simple delayed model of the HPA axis is introduced which supports the understanding of the ultradian rhythm of HPA hormones both in normal and infection conditions. Through simulations using the model, the role of key inflammatory cytokines and cortisol in transition from acute to persistent inflammation through stability analysis is investigated. Also, by employing a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, parameter uncertainty and the effects of parameter variations on each other are analyzed. This model confirms the important role of the HPA axis in acute and prolonged inflammation and can be a useful tool in further investigation of the role of stress on the immune response to infectious diseases.

  10. Inflammaging and Anti-Inflammaging: The Role of Cytokines in Extreme Longevity.

    PubMed

    Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Catalano, Antonino; Mandraffino, Giuseppe; Casciaro, Marco; Crucitti, Andrea; Maltese, Giuseppe; Morabito, Nunziata; Lasco, Antonino; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Basile, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    Longevity and aging are two sides of the same coin, as they both derive from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Aging is a complex, dynamic biological process characterized by continuous remodeling. One of the most recent theories on aging focuses on immune response, and takes into consideration the activation of subclinical, chronic low-grade inflammation which occurs with aging, named "inflammaging". Long-lived people, especially centenarians, seem to cope with chronic subclinical inflammation through an anti-inflammatory response, called therefore "anti-inflammaging". In the present review, we have focused our attention on the contrast between inflammaging and anti-inflammaging systems, by evaluating the role of cytokines and their impact on extreme longevity. Cytokines are the expression of a network involving genes, polymorphisms and environment, and are involved both in inflammation and anti-inflammation. We have described the role of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, IL-22, IL-23, TNF-α, IFN-γ as pro-inflammatory cytokines, of IL-1Ra, IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β1 as anti-inflammatory cytokines, and of lipoxin A4 and heat shock proteins as mediators of cytokines. We believe that if inflammaging is a key to understand aging, anti-inflammaging may be one of the secrets of longevity.

  11. Comparison of cytokine expressions in acute myocardial infarction and stable angina stages of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wenwen; Wen, Siwan; Wang, Lemin; Duan, Qianglin; Ding, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differential gene expression of cytokines and compare their impacts on the immune functions among the acute myocardial infarction patients (AMI), the stable angina patients (SA) and the controls. Methods: 20 patients with AMI, 20 patients with SA and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited into the study. Whole human genome microarray analysis was used to detect the gene expression differences in interferons, interleukins, chemokines, tumor necrosis factors and associated receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) among three groups. Results: Compared with SA patients and the controls respectively, in AMI patients, IFNα2, IFNαR1, IFNαR2, IFNγR1, IFNγR2, L1β, IL16, IL18, Cxcl1, Cxcl2, Cxcl6, CxcR2, CxcR4, LIGHT, TNFR1, LT-βR, CD137, TRAILR, and TWEAKR mRNA expressions were significantly up-regulated (P<0.05), while Ccl5, Ccl24, Ccl28, CcR5, TWEAK, CD40, CD27, and BAFFR mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated (P<0.05). But, there was no significant difference in cytokine expression between the SA patients and the controls. Conclusion: In AMI patients, mRNA expression levels of cytokines were imbalanced, indicating the dysfunction of the immune system. Together with no significant change of cytokines was observed between the SA and controls, showing the different cytokine related immune activity in the AMI and SA patients. PMID:26770404

  12. Faithful expression of the human 5q31 cytokine cluster intransgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Dee A.; Wang, Zhi-En; Symula, Derek J.; McArthur, CliffordJ.; Rubin, Edward M.; Frazer, Kelly A.; Locksley, Richard M.

    1999-12-03

    ILs 4,5, and 13, cardinal cytokines produced by Th2 cells,are coordinately expressed and clustered in the 150-kb syntenic regions on mouse chromosome 11 and human chromosome 5q31. We analyzed two sets of human yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mice that contained the5931cytokines to assess whether conserved sequences required for their coordinate and cell-specific regulation are contained within the cytokine cluster itself. Human Il-4, IL-13, and Il-5 were expressed under Th2, but not Th1, conditions in vitro. Each of these cytokines was produced during infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, a Th2 inducing stimulus, and human Il-4 was generated after activation of NK T cells in vivo.Consistently fewer cells produced the endogenous mouse cytokines in transgenic than in control mice, suggesting competition for stable expression between the mouse and human genes. These data imply the existence of both conserved trans-activating factors and cis-regulatory elements that underlie the coordinate expression and lineage specificity of the type 2 ctyokine genes in lymphocytes.

  13. Quantification of llama inflammatory cytokine mRNAs by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Odbileg, Raadan; Konnai, Satoru; Usui, Tatsufumi; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Onuma, Misao

    2005-02-01

    We have developed a method by which llama cytokine mRNAs can be quantified using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Total RNA was extracted from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of llama, reverse transcribed to cDNA, and cytokine profiles for interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha were quantified by real-time PCR. The expressions of mRNAs of inflammatory cytokines IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNFalpha were upregulated upon stimulation with LPS in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Incubation of PBMCs with 100 and 1,000 pg/ml of LPS for 3 to 6 hr resulted in the acceleration of the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines. Here, we describe a highly sensitive and reproducible method to quantify the transcription of llama cytokine mRNAs by real-time RT-PCR with the double-stranded DNA-binding dye SYBR Green I.

  14. Acute exposure to methamphetamine alters TLR9-mediated cytokine expression in human macrophage.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ariel; Ciborowski, Pawel

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies show that methamphetamine (Meth) use leads to higher susceptibility to and progression of infections, which suggests impairment of the immune system. The first line of defense against infections is the innate immune system and the macrophage is a key player in preventing and fighting infections. So we profiled cytokines over time in Meth treated THP-1 cells, as a human macrophage model, at a relevant concentration using high throughput screening to find a signaling target. We showed that after a single exposure, the effect of Meth on macrophage cytokine production was rapid and time dependent and shifted the balance of expression of cytokines to pro-inflammatory. Our results were analogous to previous reports in that Meth up-regulates TNF-α and IL-8 after two hours of exposure. However, global screening led to the novel identification of CXCL16, CXCL1 and many other up-regulated cytokines. We also showed CCL7 as the most down-regulated chemokine due to Meth exposure, which led us to hypothesize that Meth dysregulates the MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling pathway. In conclusion, altered cytokine expression in macrophages suggests it could lead to a suppressed innate immunity in people who use Meth.

  15. [Clinical variations of chronic generalized periodontitis, genetic polymorphism and systemic production of inflammatory cytokines].

    PubMed

    Grigorovich, E Sh; Pomorgailo, E G; Khomutova, E Yu; Stepanov, S S

    2015-01-01

    Carriage of polymorphic alleles of genes of cytokines-interleukines IL-1β, IL-1RN, TNFα, IL-4 can be a specific feature of chronic periodontitis patients. Genetic tests can be used to predict the course of the disease at its early manifestations. Objective: To establish the relationship of clinical manifestations of periodontal disease, inflammatory cytokines gene polymorphism and systemic levels of cytokine production. Periodontal tissue assessment and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) were performed in 150 periodontitis patients. A molecular--genetic testing for the presence of polymorphic alleles of genes IL-1β -511 C>T and +3953 C>T, IL-1RN (VNTR intron 2), IL-4 (VNTR intron 3), TNFα-308 G>A; content determined IL-1β, TNFα, IL-4 in peripheral blood was carried out in 150 patients with periodontitis and 150 healthy donors. Based on the analysis of the speed and nature of the supporting bone resorption and clinical manifestations patients are divided in "aggressive", "moderately progressive" and "slowly progressive" periodontits course groups. Disease severity was associated with distribution of genotypes and alleles of polymorphic genes cytokine IL-1RN (VNTR intron 2), TNFα-308 G>A and IL-4 (VNTR intron 3); haplotype IL-1β-511 TIL-1β +3953 T/IL-1RN 2R. There was no statistically significant difference in systemic level of IL-1β, TNFα and IL-4 between periodontitis groups but the donor level of cytokines was 2-4 times less.

  16. The emerging role of avian cytokines as immunotherapeutics and vaccine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Louise S; Bean, Andrew G D; Lowenthal, John W

    2002-03-01

    The use of antibiotic feed additives and chemical antimicrobials in food production animals is a double-edged sword. On one hand, it helps to prevent the outbreak of disease and promotes the growth of animals, but on the other hand, concerns are mounting over the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. As a consequence, some countries have already banned the use of in-feed antibiotics which has resulted in meat producers urgently seeking environmentally friendly alternative methods to control disease. Cytokines are proteins that control the type and extent of an immune response following infection or vaccination. They therefore represent excellent naturally occurring therapeutics. The use of cytokines in poultry has become more feasible with the discovery of a number of avian cytokine genes. Since the immune system of chickens is similar to that of mammals, they offer an attractive model system to study the effectiveness of cytokine therapy in the control of disease in livestock. This review will focus on the recent advances made in avian cytokines, with a particular focus on their assessment as therapeutic agents and vaccine adjuvants. PMID:11943313

  17. DNA Repair and Cytokines: TGF-β, IL-6, and Thrombopoietin as Different Biomarkers of Radioresistance

    PubMed Central

    Centurione, Lucia; Aiello, Francesca B.

    2016-01-01

    Double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by radiotherapy are highly cytotoxic lesions, leading to chromosomal aberrations and cell death. Ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-dependent DNA-damage response, non-homologous end joining, and homologous recombination pathways coordinately contribute to repairing DSBs in higher eukaryotes. It is known that the expression of DSB repair genes is increased in tumors, which is one of the main reasons for radioresistance. The inhibition of DSB repair pathways may be useful to increase tumor cell radiosensitivity and may target stem cell-like cancer cells, known to be the most radioresistant tumor components. Commonly overexpressed in neoplastic cells, cytokines confer radioresistance by promoting proliferation, survival, invasion, and angiogenesis. Unfortunately, tumor irradiation increases the expression of various cytokines displaying these effects, including transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-6. Recently, the capabilities of these cytokines to support DNA repair pathways and the ATM-dependent DNA response have been demonstrated. Thrombopoietin, essential for megakaryopoiesis and very important for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis, has also been found to promote DNA repair in a highly selective manner. These findings reveal a novel mechanism underlying cytokine-related radioresistance, which may be clinically relevant. Therapies targeting specific cytokines may be used to improve radiosensitivity. Specific inhibitors may be chosen in consideration of different tumor microenvironments. Thrombopoietin may be useful in fending off irradiation-induced loss of HSCs. PMID:27500125

  18. Impact of antidepressants on cytokine production of depressed patients in vitro.

    PubMed

    Munzer, Alexander; Sack, Ulrich; Mergl, Roland; Schönherr, Jeremias; Petersein, Charlotte; Bartsch, Stefanie; Kirkby, Kenneth C; Bauer, Katrin; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2013-11-01

    The interplay between immune and nervous systems plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of depression. In depressive episodes, patients show increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. There is limited information on the effect of antidepressant drugs on cytokines, most studies report on a limited sample of cytokines and none have reported effects on IL-22. We systematically investigated the effect of three antidepressant drugs, citalopram, escitalopram and mirtazapine, on secretion of cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α in a whole blood assay in vitro, using murine anti-human CD3 monoclonal antibody OKT3, and 5C3 monoclonal antibody against CD40, to stimulate T and B cells respectively. Citalopram increased production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-22. Mirtazapine increased IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-22. Escitalopram decreased IL-17 levels. The influence of antidepressants on IL-2 and IL-4 levels was not significant for all three drugs. Compared to escitalopram, citalopram led to higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and IL-22; and mirtazapine to higher levels of IL-1β, IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α. Mirtazapine and citalopram increased IL-22 production. The differing profile of cytokine production may relate to differences in therapeutic effects, risk of relapse and side effects. PMID:24257035

  19. DNA Repair and Cytokines: TGF-β, IL-6, and Thrombopoietin as Different Biomarkers of Radioresistance.

    PubMed

    Centurione, Lucia; Aiello, Francesca B

    2016-01-01

    Double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by radiotherapy are highly cytotoxic lesions, leading to chromosomal aberrations and cell death. Ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-dependent DNA-damage response, non-homologous end joining, and homologous recombination pathways coordinately contribute to repairing DSBs in higher eukaryotes. It is known that the expression of DSB repair genes is increased in tumors, which is one of the main reasons for radioresistance. The inhibition of DSB repair pathways may be useful to increase tumor cell radiosensitivity and may target stem cell-like cancer cells, known to be the most radioresistant tumor components. Commonly overexpressed in neoplastic cells, cytokines confer radioresistance by promoting proliferation, survival, invasion, and angiogenesis. Unfortunately, tumor irradiation increases the expression of various cytokines displaying these effects, including transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-6. Recently, the capabilities of these cytokines to support DNA repair pathways and the ATM-dependent DNA response have been demonstrated. Thrombopoietin, essential for megakaryopoiesis and very important for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis, has also been found to promote DNA repair in a highly selective manner. These findings reveal a novel mechanism underlying cytokine-related radioresistance, which may be clinically relevant. Therapies targeting specific cytokines may be used to improve radiosensitivity. Specific inhibitors may be chosen in consideration of different tumor microenvironments. Thrombopoietin may be useful in fending off irradiation-induced loss of HSCs. PMID:27500125

  20. EMD in periodontal regenerative surgery modulates cytokine profiles: A randomised controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Oscar; Wohlfahrt, Johan C.; Koldsland, Odd Carsten; Brookes, Steven J.; Lyngstadaas, Staale P.; Aass, Anne M.; Reseland, Janne E.

    2016-01-01

    The enamel matrix derivative (EMD) contains hundreds of peptides in different levels of proteolytic processing that may provide a range of biological effects of importance in wound healing. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of EMD and its fractions on the cytokine profiles from human gingival fibroblasts in vitro and in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in a randomized controlled split-mouth clinical study (n = 12). Levels of cytokines in cell culture medium and in GCF were measured by Luminex over a 2-week period. In the clinical study, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were increased, whereas the levels of transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) were reduced. The in vitro study showed that EMD and its high and low molecular weight fractions reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines compared to untreated cells. EMD had an effect on levels of cytokines related to fibroplasia, angiogenesis, inflammation and chemotaxis both in vitro and in vivo, however, the anti-inflammatory effect induced by EMD observed in the in vitro study could not be confirmed clinically. PMID:26976446