Background Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) infection is widespread in cattle worldwide, causing important economic losses. Pathogenesis of the disease caused by BVDV is complex, as each BVDV strain has two biotypes: non-cytopathic (ncp) and cytopathic (cp). BVDV can cause a persistent latent infection and immune suppression if animals are infected with an ncp biotype during early gestation, followed by a subsequent infection of the cp biotype. The molecular mechanisms that underscore the complex disease etiology leading to immune suppression in cattle caused by BVDV are not well understood. Results Using proteomics, we evaluated the effect of cp and ncp BVDV infection of bovine monocytes to determine their role in viral immune suppression and uncontrolled inflammation. Proteins were isolated by differential detergent fractionation and identified by 2D-LC ESI MS/MS. We identified 137 and 228 significantly altered bovine proteins due to ncp and cp BVDV infection, respectively. Functional analysis of these proteins using the Gene Ontology (GO) showed multiple under- and over- represented GO functions in molecular function, biological process and cellular component between the two BVDV biotypes. Analysis of the top immunological pathways affected by BVDV infection revealed that pathways representing macropinocytosis signalling, virus entry via endocytic pathway, integrin signalling and primary immunodeficiency signalling were identified only in ncp BVDV-infected monocytes. In contrast, pathways like actin cytoskeleton signalling, RhoA signalling, clathrin-mediated endocytosis signalling and interferon signalling were identified only in cp BDVD-infected cells. Of the six common pathways involved in cp and ncp BVDV infection, acute phase response signalling was the most significant for both BVDV biotypes. Although, most shared altered host proteins between both BVDV biotypes showed the same type of change, integrin alpha 2b (ITGA2B) and integrin beta 3 (ITGB3) were
Castrucci, G; Frigeri, F; Ferrari, M; Traldi, V
Four calves were infected with noncytopathic (NCP) New York-1 strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). During the observation period of one month the calves remained clinically normal but the virus was repeatedly recovered from their pharyngeal swabbings and blood. Thirty days following infection the four calves were vaccinated, together with two uninfected calves, with a modified-live vaccine containing cytopathic (CP) BVDV, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and parainfluenza-3 virus. No detrimental effects were observed after vaccination. Forty-three days after vaccination the calves were challenged by exposure either with the CP TVM-2 strain or the NCP New York-1 strain of BVDV. The vaccinated calves remained healthy throughout the 60-day observation period.
Quantification and determination of spread mechanisms of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in blood and tissues from colostrum-deprived calves during an experimental acute infection induced by a non-cytopathic genotype 1 strain.
Pedrera, M; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Molina, V; Risalde, M A; Rodríguez-Sánchez, B; Sánchez-Cordón, P J
To detect and monitor the sequential changes in virus levels, a reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay using a TaqMan probe was carried out on frozen blood and tissues samples collected from calves experimentally infected with a non-cytopathic Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) genotype 1 strain. Blood samples were collected among days 1-14 post-inoculation (p.i). On day 3 p.i, viral RNA was detected in blood samples from six of the eight inoculated animals. Viral RNA was detected in all remaining inoculated animals between 5 and 12 days p.i. The levels of viral RNA increased along the experiment, with a maximal peak between 6 and 9 days p.i. Analysis of virus load in tissues collected from calves euthanized on days 3, 6, 9 and 14 p.i displayed that BVDV was detected on day 3 p.i, being especially abundant in tonsils and ileocaecal valve, highlighting the role of tonsils as the main earliest viral replication sites as well as the principal source for virus spread to other lymphoid tissues and visceral organs. Coinciding with the highest viraemia levels, the highest viral loads were recorded at 9 days p.i. in tonsils, ileal lymph nodes, distal ileum and spleen, showing the main role of these secondary lymphoid organs in the pathogenic mechanisms of BVDV. However, virus levels in the liver and lung increased only towards the end of the infection. This fact could influence in the appearance of bovine respiratory diseases because of the capacity of BVDV for enhancing susceptibility to secondary infections.
Deregt, D; Loewen, K G
Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic disease, and a disease resembling mucosal disease that is apparently caused solely by noncytopathic virus. Although a good understanding of the roles of the 2 biotypes in the production of persistent infections and the precipitation of mucosal disease has been obtained, there are still unanswered questions regarding the origin of cytopathic viruses and the mechanism by which they cause pathological changes in cells. It is apparent, however, that cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses arise by mutation of noncytopathic viruses, and it is known that p80 is the marker protein for cytopathic viruses. The previous distinction between mild bovine viral diarrhea and fatal mucosal disease has been eroded with the emergence of new virulent bovine viral diarrhea viruses. The new diseases pose a threat to the cattle industry and present a new challenge for investigators. Index Veterinarius (1984-1994) and Medline (1985-1994) databases and personal files updated since 1987 from BIOSIS Previews and Biosciences Information Services were used to search the literature. Images Figure 1. PMID:7648541
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviradae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp) or non-cytopathic (ncp) effects in epithelial cell culture. In addition, BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2...
Trachte, E; Stringfellow, D; Riddell, K; Galik, P; Riddell, M; Wright, J
Gametes, somatic cells and materials of animal origin in media are potential sources for introducing bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) into systems for production of IVF bovine embryos. Further, the efficacy of washing and trypsin treatment for removal of BVDV from IVF embryos is questionable. Washing and trypsin treatments recommended by the International Embryo Transfer Society for in vivo-derived embryos were applied to in vitro-derived, virus-exposed, bovine embryos in this side-by-side comparison of treatments. Embryos for the study were produced in a virus-free system in which follicular oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro and presumptive zygotes were co-cultured with bovine uterine tubal cells for 7 d. A total of 18 trials was performed, 9 using a noncytopathic BVDV and 9 using a cytopathic BVDV. In each trial, 4 equal groups of 10 or less, zona pellucida-intact embryos/ova were assembled, including 2 groups of morulae and blastocysts (M/B) and 2 groups of nonfertile or degenerated ova (NFD). Each group was prewashed and exposed to 10(4) to 10(6) TCID50/mL of either noncytopathic (SD-1) or cytopathic (NADL) BVDV for 2 h. Following in vitro viral exposure, one group of M/B and one group of NFD were washed. The other groups of M/B and NFD were trypsin-treated. Both treatments were consistent with IETS guidelines. After in vitro exposure to noncytopathic BVDV and washing, viral assays of 100% (9/9) and 78% (7/9) of the groups of M/B and NFD ova, respectively, were positive. After in vitro exposure to cytopathic BVDV and washing, viral assay of 33% (3/9) of the groups of both M/B and NFD ova were positive. After in vitro exposure to noncytopathic BVDV and trypsin treatment, viral assay of 44% (4/9) of groups of M/B and 67% (6/9) of groups of NFD ova were positive. Finally, after in vitro exposure to cytopathic BVDV and trypsin treatment, viral assay of 22% (2/9) of the groups of M/B and 44% (4/9) of the groups of NFD ova were positive. Contingency
Li, Ge; Poulsen, Melissa; Fenyvuesvolgyi, Csaba; Yashiroda, Yoko; Yoshida, Minoru; Simard, J. Marc; Gallo, Robert C.; Zhao, Richard Y.
The Zika virus (ZIKV) causes microcephaly and the Guillain-Barré syndrome. Little is known about how ZIKV causes these conditions or which ZIKV viral protein(s) is responsible for the associated ZIKV-induced cytopathic effects, including cell hypertrophy, growth restriction, cell-cycle dysregulation, and cell death. We used fission yeast for the rapid, global functional analysis of the ZIKV genome. All 14 proteins or small peptides were produced under an inducible promoter, and we measured the intracellular localization and the specific effects on ZIKV-associated cytopathic activities of each protein. The subcellular localization of each ZIKV protein was in overall agreement with its predicted protein structure. Five structural and two nonstructural ZIKV proteins showed various levels of cytopathic effects. The expression of these ZIKV proteins restricted cell proliferation, induced hypertrophy, or triggered cellular oxidative stress leading to cell death. The expression of premembrane protein (prM) resulted in cell-cycle G1 accumulation, whereas membrane-anchored capsid (anaC), membrane protein (M), envelope protein (E), and nonstructural protein 4A (NS4A) caused cell-cycle G2/M accumulation. A mechanistic study revealed that NS4A-induced cellular hypertrophy and growth restriction were mediated specifically through the target of rapamycin (TOR) cellular stress pathway involving Tor1 and type 2A phosphatase activator Tip41. These findings should provide a reference for future research on the prevention and treatment of ZIKV diseases. PMID:28049830
Castrucci, G; Ferrari, M; Traldi, V; Tartaglione, E
The objective of this study was to verify whether a mixed infection in calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and other bovine viruses, such as bovid herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4), parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, would influence the pathogenesis of the BVDV infection sufficiently to result in the typical form of mucosal disease being produced. Accordingly, two experiments were undertaken. In one experiment calves were first infected with BVDV and subsequently with BHV-4 and IBR virus, respectively. The second experiment consisted in a simultaneous infection of calves with BVDV and PI-3 virus or BVDV and IBR virus. From the first experiment it seems that BVDV infection can be reactivated in calves by BHV-4 and IBR virus. Evidence of this is that BVDV, at least the cytopathic (CP) strain, was recovered from calves following superinfection. Moreover, following such superinfection the calves showed signs which could most likely be ascribed to the pathogenetic activity of BVDV. Superinfection, especially by IBR virus, created a more severe clinical response in calves that were initially infected with CP BVDV, than in those previously given the non-cytopathic (NCP) biotype of the virus. Simultaneous infection with PI-3 virus did not seem to modify to any significant extent the pathogenesis of the experimentally induced BVDV infection whereas a severe clinical response was observed in calves when simultaneous infection was made with BVDV and IBR virus.
Development of transplacental infection depends on the ability of the virus to cross the placenta and replicate within the fetus while counteracting maternal and fetal immune responses.Unfortunately, little is known about this complex process. Non-cytopathic (ncp) strains of bovine viral diarrhea vi...
Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie
We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease. In addition, concomitant fourfold rises of antibody titers were frequently observed to two or more viral agents in seroconverted calves (61%) or adult animals (38%). Bovine viral diarrhea virus was found to be the most frequent viral agent associated with multiple viral infection in calves only (92%). PMID:17423116
Greig, A. S.
A serum neutralization (SN) test based on a combination of indicator colour change in medium and cytopathic (CP) effect in cells has been devised for the detection of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis antibodies. Serum dilutions of 1:6, 1:18 and 1:54 are made in a medium containing phenol red and are mixed in equal quantities with a suspension of virus containing 100 cell culture infectious doses (CCID50) per volume of mixture. The serum-virus mixtures are held in small glass tubes and are covered with a layer of mineral oil. Following a two hour period of incubation at 37°C a quantity of bovine fetal kidney cells is added to each tube to detect the presence of unneutralized virus. After four to six days incubation the results of the SN test may be read by microscopic examination for CP effect by means of an inverted microscope, or by observing the colour of the phenol red. PMID:4305762
Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...
Kohara, Junko; Nishikura, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Tajima, Motoshi; Onuma, Misao
In this study, the antiviral effects of bovine interferon-tau (boIFN-tau) on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were examined in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiments, the replication of cytopathic and non-cytopathic BVDV was inhibited in the bovine cells treated with boIFN-tau. The replication of BVDV was completely suppressed by boIFN-tau at a concentration higher than 10(2) U/ml. In order to examine the effect of boIFN-tau on virus propagation in cattle persistently infected (PI) with non-cytopathic BVDV, boIFN-tau was subcutaneously administered to PI cattle at 10(5) U/kg or 10(6) U/kg body weight 5 times per week for 2 weeks. No physical abnormality such as depression was observed in the cattle during the experiment. The mean BVDV titers in the serum of the PI cattle decreased slightly during the boIFN-tau administration period with the dose of 10(6) U/kg. However, the BVDV titers in the serum returned to the pre-administration level after the final boIFN-tau administration. These results suggest that boIFN-tau demonstrates an anti-BVDV effect, reducing the BVDV level in serum transiently when injected into PI cattle.
High levels of unintegrated viral DNA accumulate during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of CEM T cells. Reinfection of already infected cells is required to attain these levels and reinfection also promotes the development of HIV-induced cytopathology. Rates of virus production, however, are independent of the accumulation of unintegrated viral DNA. Neutralizing antibody added soon after infection reduced viral DNA levels without appreciably affecting the production of cell-free viral p24 antigen or reverse transcriptase activity. Only 50 pM AZT were required to reduce the accumulation of unintegrated viral DNA by 50% in contrast to the 25 nM required to inhibit virus production by 50%. Cytopathology, as measured by number of syncytia in infected cell cultures, was correlated with highly elevated levels of unintegrated viral DNA. The minimal levels of unintegrated viral DNA present constitutively in the persistently infected HCEM cell line were consonant with the absence of cytopathic effects in these cells. These data demonstrate that inhibiting the reinfection of already infected cells modulates cytopathic HIV-1 infection to a form that is persistent and noncytopathic. PMID:2212939
Giangaspero, M; Harasawa, R; Zecconi, A; Luzzago, C
Two strains of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) were isolated from calves in northern Italy. Variations in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of the genome were studied by primary structure alignment and neighbor-joining method based phylogenetic tree analyses and by palindromic nucleotide substitutions at the three variable loci in the 5'-UTR. Genetic analysis indicated their appurtenance to genovar BVDV-2a. Nucleotide sequence at the 5'-UTR of strain BS-95-II, one of the Italian isolates from healthy calves, showed 98% homology to that of the Japanese isolate OY89, a cytopathic strain derived from cattle with mucosal disease.
Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel
Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation.
Guliukin, M I; Iurov, K P; Glotov, A G; Donchenko, N A
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the greatest challenges for breeding and commercial livestock. It is characterized by lesions of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, abortion, infertility, immune deficiency, and persistence of the pathogen. In this work, a set of measures for the rehabilitation and prevention of BVD in cattle is described. It includes the data of the literature, guidance documents for the diagnosis and control of BVD adopted by OIE, EU countries, USA, as well as the results of this research.
Fros, Jelke J; van der Maten, Erika; Vlak, Just M; Pijlman, Gorben P
Alphavirus nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) has pivotal roles in viral RNA replication, host cell shutoff, and inhibition of antiviral responses. Mutations that individually rendered other alphaviruses noncytopathic were introduced into chikungunya virus nsP2. Results show that (i) nsP2 mutation P718S only in combination with KR649AA or adaptive mutation D711G allowed noncytopathic replicon RNA replication, (ii) prohibiting nsP2 nuclear localization abrogates inhibition of antiviral interferon-induced JAK-STAT signaling, and (iii) nsP2 independently affects RNA replication, cytopathicity, and JAK-STAT signaling.
Belknap, E B; Collins, J K; Larsen, R S; Conrad, K P
A virus known to cause multiple problems in cattle, bovine viral diarrhea virus, was isolated from 3 different cases in New World camelids. Virus isolation, immunoperoxidase staining, and fluorescent antibody staining were used to detect the virus. The herds involved were screened for antibody titers to bovine viral diarrhea and virus isolation from the buffy coat. Bovine viral diarrhea virus should be considered as a cause of death in young and old New World camelids.
Goens, S Denise
The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms are now being reevaluated because of these "new" virus strains. This shift in virulence has confounded both nomenclature and the significance of current bovine viral diarrhea virus categorization. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of bovine viral diarrhea virus with a chronological review of prevailing scientific tenets and practices as described in clinical and scientific North American veterinary journals and textbooks. The first part of this review describes how we have arrived at our current understanding of the viruses, the diseases, and their nomenclature. The second part of the review deals with current concepts in virology and how these concepts may both explain and predict bovine viral diarrhea virus pathogenesis. By reviewing how knowledge of bovine viral diarrhea has evolved and the theories of how the virus itself is able to evolve, the interpretation of diagnostic tests are more effectively utilized in the control and treatment of bovine viral diarrhea virus associated disease.
Turin, Lauretta; Lucchini, Barbara; Bronzo, Valerio; Luzzago, Camilla
The present study focused on the in vitro infection of Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells and bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from naÏve animals with non-cytopathic (ncp, BVDV-1b NY-1) and cytopathic (cp, BVDV-1a NADL) strains. Infections with 0.1 and 1 multiplicity of infections (MOI) and incubation times of 18 and 36 hr were compared. Twelve BVDV naÏve heifers were enrolled to collect PBMCs. The viral loads in MDBK cells and in PBMCs after in vitro infections were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The highest viral loads were measured at 1 MOI and 36 hr post infection in both cell systems and the lowest at 0.1 MOI and 18 hr with the exception of the cp strain NADL in PBMCs, for which the highest viral load was observed at 0.1 MOI and 36 hr. Viral load mean values were higher for the cp strain than the ncp strain irrespective of the extent of the infection period and MOI. The models of infection studied uncovered different replication activities respectively according to the biotype of virus, the cell substrate and the duration of infection. Replication tends to be higher in PBMCs, particularly at low MOIs and for the ncp strain.
Ridpath, Julia F
Despite the success of regional bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) eradication programs, infections remain a source of economic loss for producers. The wide variation among BVDV results in differences in genotype, biotype, virulence, and types of infections. BVDV infect a range of domestic and wild ruminants. Clinical presentation varies depending on strain of virus, species of host, immune status of host, reproductive status of host, age of host, and concurrent infections. Recent advances in BVDV research and diagnostics have led to the development of regional eradication/control programs, the most efficacious of which focus on biosecurity, surveillance, and control.
Shin, T; Acland, H
The tissue distribution and cellular localization of viral antigens in three cattle with persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was studied. In three cases, necropsy findings of oral ulcers, abmasal ulcers and necrosis of Peyer's patches were suspected have been caused by BVDV infection. Non-cytopathic BVDV was isolated from a tissue pool of liver, kidneys and spleen. Immunohistochemical detection of BVDV showed that BVDV antigens were detected in both epithelial and nonepithelial cells in all examined organs, including the gastrointestinal tract, liver, pancreas, lung, lymphatic organs (spleen, lymph nodes), adrenal gland, ovary, uterus, and the mammary gland. These findings support the hypothesis that animals with persistent BVDV infection spread BVDV through all routes, and that infertility in BVDV infection is associated with the infection of BVDV in the ovaries and uteri.
Kottwitz, Jack J; Ortiz, Melissa
The many different species in close proximity make zoological collections a unique environment for disease transmission. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is of special concern with zoos due to the numerous exotic ruminant species that this virus can infect. BVDV occurs as both a non-cytopathic and a cytopathic strain both of which are capable of infecting exotic ruminants. The cytopathic strain causes mucosal disease (MD) and death. Infection with the non-cytopathic strain may produce persistently infected (PI) animals. PI individuals may show vague clinical signs, including abortion. Management of BVDV in zoos should focus on identification of PI individuals and prevention of infection of other animals of the collection. Variability makes serological testing as the sole method of screening for BVDV infection undesirable in exotic ruminants. Combination testing provides a definitive answer, especially in sensitive wildlife. Use of a combination of antigen-capture ELISA (ACE) with haired skin, Real Time-PCR (RT-PCR) on whole blood, and antibody detection via serum neutralization has the greatest potential to identify PI animals. An animal that is positive on both ACE and RT-PCR, but is negative on serology should be considered highly suspicious of being a PI, and should be isolated and undergo repeat testing 4-6 weeks later to confirm positive status. This testing methodology also allows screening of pregnant and newborn animals. Isolation or culling may need to be considered in animals determined to be positive via combination testing. These decisions should only be made after careful consideration and evaluation, especially with endangered species.
Kottwitz, Jack J.; Ortiz, Melissa
The many different species in close proximity make zoological collections a unique environment for disease transmission. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is of special concern with zoos due to the numerous exotic ruminant species that this virus can infect. BVDV occurs as both a non-cytopathic and a cytopathic strain both of which are capable of infecting exotic ruminants. The cytopathic strain causes mucosal disease (MD) and death. Infection with the non-cytopathic strain may produce persistently infected (PI) animals. PI individuals may show vague clinical signs, including abortion. Management of BVDV in zoos should focus on identification of PI individuals and prevention of infection of other animals of the collection. Variability makes serological testing as the sole method of screening for BVDV infection undesirable in exotic ruminants. Combination testing provides a definitive answer, especially in sensitive wildlife. Use of a combination of antigen-capture ELISA (ACE) with haired skin, Real Time-PCR (RT-PCR) on whole blood, and antibody detection via serum neutralization has the greatest potential to identify PI animals. An animal that is positive on both ACE and RT-PCR, but is negative on serology should be considered highly suspicious of being a PI, and should be isolated and undergo repeat testing 4–6 weeks later to confirm positive status. This testing methodology also allows screening of pregnant and newborn animals. Isolation or culling may need to be considered in animals determined to be positive via combination testing. These decisions should only be made after careful consideration and evaluation, especially with endangered species. PMID:26779151
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus and is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, severe disease. Presently, limited studies ha...
Lanyon, Sasha R; Hill, Fraser I; Reichel, Michael P; Brownlie, Joe
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is the most prevalent infectious disease of cattle. It causes financial losses from a variety of clinical manifestations and is the subject of a number of mitigation and eradication schemes around the world. The pathogenesis of BVDV infection is complex, with infection pre- and post-gestation leading to different outcomes. Infection of the dam during gestation results in fetal infection, which may lead to embryonic death, teratogenic effects or the birth of persistently infected (PI) calves. PI animals shed BVDV in their excretions and secretions throughout life and are the primary route of transmission of the virus. These animals can usually be readily detected by virus or viral antigen detection assays (RT-PCR, ELISA), except in the immediate post-natal period where colostral antibodies may mask virus presence. PI calves in utero (the 'Trojan cow' scenario) currently defy detection with available diagnostic tests, although dams carrying PI calves have been shown to have higher antibody levels than seropositive cows carrying non-PI calves. Acute infection with BVDV results in transient viraemia prior to seroconversion and can lead to reproductive dysfunction and immunosuppression leading to an increased incidence of secondary disease. Antibody assays readily detect virus exposure at the individual level and can also be used in pooled samples (serum and milk) to determine herd exposure or immunity. Diagnostic tests can be used to diagnose clinical cases, establish disease prevalence in groups and detect apparently normal but persistently infected animals. This review outlines the pathogenesis and pathology of BVD viral infection and uses this knowledge to select the best diagnostic tests for clinical diagnosis, monitoring, control and eradication efforts. Test methods, types of samples and problems areas of BVDV diagnosis are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koteneva, Svetlana V.; Semenova, Olga V.; Sergeev, Alexander A.; Titova, Ksenya A.; Morozova, Anastasia A.
The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d) have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4–6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3–5 days postinfection (p.i.), refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm3), and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4–1 : 16). Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines. PMID:27190687
Castrucci, G; Frigeri, F; Osburn, B I; Ferrari, M; Sawyer, M M; Aldrovandi, V
The cytopathic (CP) TVM-2 strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) induced in calves a severe disease, characterized by the clinical picture which is usually reported for the acute primary infection observed under natural conditions. In contrast, the calves inoculated with a different biotype of BVDV, the non-cytopathic (NCP) New York-1 strain, remained clinically normal with the only evidence of virus replication in these calves being the recovery of the virus from their pharyngeal swabbings and blood and also the detection of specific neutralizing antibody in their serums. When calves were immunosuppressed with dexamethasone (DMS), they underwent an overt systemic disease of such a severity that in most of the cases it ended with the death of the animals. This result was obtained with either the CP and the NCP strain of BVDV. Finally, the mixed infection that was obtained in the calves with the CP and the NCP BVDV did not result in any particular unexpected pathological situation. It was speculated that the immunosuppressive activity of BVDV could be a property peculiar to certain isolates of the virus.
Castrucci, G; Osburn, B I; Ferrari, M; Traldi, V
This presentation summarizes the results of a study on the pathogenesis of bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) infection. The cytopathic (CP) strain TVM-2 of BVDV induced in calves an overt clinical disease which is usually recorded as the acute primary BVDV infection observed under natural conditions. In contrast the non-cytopathic (NCP) strain New York-1 of BVDV did not cause any significant signs of disease. However, when the calves were immunosuppressed by treatment with dexamethasone (DMS) the biotype of BVDV involved did not seem to be as important as it appeared to be in an immunologically normal animal. This was shown in this study by the NCP BVDV which caused a fatal disease in calves treated with DMS. A mixed infection given to calves by injecting them with both CP and NCP BVDV, did not result in any particularly serious disease. So, the potential immunosuppressive activity of BVDV itself for the host has not been proven under the experimental procedures used in this experiment. Finally, a modified-live CP BVDV vaccine was unable to cause clinical disease when injected into calves that had been infected previously with strain New York-1 of BVDV.
Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...
Brock, Kenny V
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) has a unique capacity to cause persistent infections of foetuses exposed within the first 150 days of gestation. Preventing foetal BVDV infection will aid in improved control. This unique ability gives BVDV a selective advantage allowing continual mutation and antigenic variation within cattle populations. Therefore, BVDV has become widespread and causes economic losses due to respiratory, reproductive and enteric disease. Vaccination (modified-live or killed) can provide some protection from acute disease and the development of persistently infected foetuses. However, vaccination programmes alone cannot control or eliminate BVDV. In naturally exposed and vaccinated herds, BVDV infections are not self-limiting and may persistent over time. This underscores the ability of the BVDV genome to remain fluid and adapt under selective pressures. Factors influencing persistence of BVDV infections in cattle populations include: non-lytic infections; evasion of host immune responses; foetal infections; acute infections; management practices; contaminated biologics; secondary hosts; defective replicated intermediates; antigenic variation; and replication in privileged anatomical sites.
Molina, V; Risalde, M A; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Romero-Palomo, F; Pedrera, M; Garfia, B; Gómez-Villamandos, J C
Acute infections with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), a major pathogen of cattle, are often asymptomatic or produce only mild clinical symptoms. However, they may play an important role in the bovine respiratory disease complex by exerting a marked immunosuppressive effect, as a result of the death of the immunocompetent cell populations involved in controlling innate and adaptive immune responses, together with a marked reduction of both cytokine expression and co-stimulatory molecule synthesis. Although experimental research and field studies have shown that acute BVDV infection enhances susceptibility to secondary infection, the precise mechanism involved in BVDV-induced immunosuppression remains unclear. The present study is aimed at measuring a range of blood parameters in a single group of fourteen calves infected with non-cytopathic BVDV-1. Focus has been put on those related to the cell-mediated immune response just as leucocyte populations and lymphocyte subpopulations, serum concentrations of cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-4 and IL-10) and acute phase proteins [haptoglobin, serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen and albumin], as well as BVDV-specific antibodies and viremia. After non-cytopathic BVDV-1 infection, clinical signs intensity was never more than moderate coinciding with the presence of viremia and leucocyte and lymphocyte depletion. An early increase in TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-12 levels in contrast to IL-1β was observed in line with a raise in haptoglobin and SAA levels on the latest days of the study. As regards IL-4 levels, no evidence was found of any changes. However, a slight increase in IL-10 was observed, matching up the TNF-α decline during the acute phase response. These findings would help to increase our knowledge of the immune mechanisms involved in acute infection with non-cytopathic BVDV-1 strains, suggesting the existence of a clear tendency towards a type 1 immune response, thereby enhancing resistance against
Müllbacher, A; Ebnet, K; Blanden, R V; Hla, R T; Stehle, T; Museteanu, C; Simon, M M
Cytolytic lymphocytes are of cardinal importance in the recovery from primary viral infections. Both natural killer cells and cytolytic T cells mediate at least part of their effector function by target cell lysis and DNA fragmentation. Two proteins, perforin and granzyme B, contained within the cytoplasmic granules of these cytolytic effector cells have been shown to be directly involved in these processes. A third protein contained within these granules, granzyme A, has so far not been attributed with any biological relevance. Using mice deficient for granzyme A, we show here that granzyme A plays a crucial role in recovery from the natural mouse pathogen, ectromelia, by mechanisms other than cytolytic activity. PMID:8650169
This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...
Stringfellow, David A; Riddell, Kay P; Givens, M Daniel; Galik, Patricia K; Sullivan, Eddie; Dykstra, Christine C; Robl, James; Kasinathan, Poothapillai
Culture of cell lines from fetuses or postnatal animals is an essential part of somatic cell cloning. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is commonly used in media for propagation of these cells. Unfortunately, bovine fetuses and postnatal animals as well as FBS are all possible sources of non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) which is widely distributed among cattle. This study was prompted when screening of samples sent to veterinary diagnostic labs revealed that 15 of 39 fetal fibroblast cell lines used in cloning research were positive for BVDV as determined by various assays including reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Goals of the research were to use both virus isolation and reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) to confirm which of the cell lines were actually infected with BVDV and to assay samples of media, FBS and the earliest available passages of each cell line in an attempt to determine the source of the viral infections. Sequence analysis of amplified cDNA from all isolates was performed to provide a definitive link between possible sources of virus and infected cell lines. Only 5 of the 39 cell lines were actually infected with BVDV. Three of these five lines were not infected at the earliest cryopreserved passage, leading to the conclusion that they likely became infected after culture in media containing contaminated FBS. In fact, sequence comparison of the amplified cDNA from one lot of FBS confirmed that it was the source of infection for one of these cell lines. Since BVDV was isolated from the remaining two cell lines at the earliest available passage, the fetuses from which they were established could not be ruled out as the source of the virus.
Molecular cloning of a field isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain 72 RNA was done in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of cloned cDNA sequences in hybridization assays with various BVDV strains were determined. cDNA was synthesized from polyadenylated BVDV RNA templates with oligo-dT primers, reverse transcriptase, and DNA polymerase I. The newly synthesized double-stranded BVDV cDNA was C-tailed with terminal deoxytransferase and annealed into G-tailed, Pst-1-cut pUC9 plasmid. Escherichia coli was transformed with the recombinant plasmids and a library of approximately 200 BVDV specific cDNA clones varying in length from 0.5 to 2.6 kilobases were isolated. The sensitivity and specificity of hybridization between the labelled cDNA and BVDV target sequences were determined. Cloned BVDV sequences were isolated from pUC9 plasmid DNA and labelled with /sup 32/P by nick translation. The detection limit by dot blot hybridization assay was 20 pg of purified genomic BVDV RNA. cDNA hybridization probes were specific for all strains of BVDV tested, regardless of whether they were noncytopathic and cytopathic, but did not hybridize with heterologous bovine viruses tested. Probes did not hybridize with uninfected cell culture or cellular RNA. Hybridization probes were at least as sensitive as infectivity assays in detecting homologous virus.
This document is a consensus statement, produced at the request of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine that reflects the opinion of an expert panel regarding the prevalence and host range, clinical manifestations, and the potential for ultimate eradication of bovine viral diarrhea v...
Tollis, M; Di Trani, L; Cordioli, P; Vignolo, E; Di Pasquale, I
The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Italy, is in charge of assessing the quality, safety and efficacy of veterinary vaccines before and after licensing. To evaluate the relative potency of several vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), the serological responses in vaccinated calves were studied. Vaccination with any of the vaccines under study induced specific antibody titres against the different viral antigens. The differences of the mean antibody titres within and among the test group vaccines were statistically significant. The results confirm and support those obtained by other authors in similar studies, suggesting that serological responses in vaccinated calves can be used as a helpful means of assessing the relative potency of vaccines against viral respiratory diseases of cattle. The criteria allowing such an evaluation are discussed.
Larson, Robert L
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.
Risalde, M A; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Pedrera, M; Molina, V; Cerón, J J; Martínez-Subiela, S; Sánchez-Cordón, P J
Eight colostrum-deprived calves aged 8-12 weeks were inoculated intranasally with a non-cytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) genotype-1 and the effects on the hepatic immune response were studied. Two calves were sacrificed at each of 3, 6, 9 and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi) and two uninoculated animals were used as negative controls. BVDV was detected in hepatic macrophages and monocytes from 3 to 14dpi and in Küpffer cells (KCs) from 6 to 14dpi. Increases in the numbers of MAC387(+) KCs and monocytes, but not interstitial macrophages, differentiated by morphological features, were evident in the liver following inoculation with BVDV. There was a substantial increase in the number of monocytes positive for tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but only small increases in the numbers of TNF-α(+) KCs and interstitial macrophages and interleukin (IL)-6(+) monocytes, KCs and interstitial macrophages. There was an increase in the number of interstitial CD3(+) T lymphocytes in the liver, but no substantial changes in the numbers of circulating CD3(+) T lymphocytes, interstitial or circulating CD4(+) or CD8(+) T lymphocytes, or CD79αcy(+) B lymphocytes. Serum haptoglobin and serum amyloid A increased transiently at 12dpi. Upregulation of some pro-inflammatory cytokines by hepatic macrophages is evident in subclinical acute BVDV type 1 infection in calves.
Lopez, O J; Osorio, F A; Donis, R O
The polymerase chain reaction was used to detect genomic sequences of the positive-stranded RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a member of the family Togaviridae. Using a set of 20-bp primers located within the conserved 3' region of the BVDV genome, we were able to consistently amplify a 205-bp target sequence from BVDV cDNA. BVDV RNAs from cell culture-propagated BVDV reference strains, diverse unrelated cytopathic and noncytopathic field isolates, and clinical serum samples were transcribed to cDNA by using avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase and further specifically amplified by using the polymerase chain reaction assay. The amplification assay was sensitive enough to detect one molecule of cloned BVDV cDNA. Reconstitution experiments conducted by adding decreasing amounts of BVDV (NADL strain) to BVDV-free serum indicated that the threshold of sensitivity of the assay was less than or equal to 1 50% tissue culture infective dose. These results show that the polymerase chain reaction may be used for the rapid detection of diverse strains of BVDV in cell cultures, biological products, and clinical specimens from cattle. Images PMID:1709950
Grooms, Daniel L
Bovine viral diarrhea virus and Leptospira spp. are two of the common pathogenic organisms responsible for reproductive losses in cattle worldwide. Both can be come endemic in herds resulting in chronic low-grade reproductive losses or they can be introduced into relatively naïve herds, resulting in substantial reproductive losses over a short period of time. Both organisms are a differential diagnoses for common reproductive losses that veterinarians investigate, including low conception rates and abortions.
Esmaelizad, Majid; Kargar-Moakhar, Rohani
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus is a pathogen of bovids associated with reproduction system, causing in infected animals a range of ailments, from abortion to congenital defects. In this article, the nucleotide structure of the 5'-untranslated region (5-UTR) from 7 Iranian bovine diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates was characterized and subjected to comparative analysis against a panel of BVDV isolates from different sources. To this end, a 288 bp-long stretch of the internal ribosome entry site was amplified by RT-PCR. The PCR products subsequently cloned into PTZ57T vector and sequenced using T7 promoter primers. This resulted in detection of 3 new point mutations G → A and G → T in 2 isolates. When these findings were phylogenetically assessed, all the examined Iranian isolates were deemed to belong to the type1 of BVDV. Besides, 2 subtypes were identified among these isolates. In group A, a high level of similarity (99.2%) between Iranian isolates with a cytopathic Australian strain of BVDV-1c was detected; while in group B, the 4 Iranian isolates proved to be very similar to NADL-like BVDV-1a strains. We believe that the surprisingly high level of similarity between group A Iranian isolates and their corresponding Australian strain is likely to be an indication of a shared common ancestor. If correct, the most likely explanation of this observation is the introduction of such strains from Australia to Iran, possibly through exportation of infected live animals or animal productions (e.g. semen and meat) at some points in the past. Nevertheless, this hypothesis remains to be proved as further epidemiological work at genomic level is required to understand population of BVDV in Iran.
of 2 of 7 calves that were dying with pulmonary lesions. Two of the calves dying with pneumonic lesions in the study had been BVDV1b viremic prior to death. Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1b was isolated from both calves that received the killed or MLV vaccines. There were cytopathic (CP) strains isolated from MLV vaccinated calves during the same time frame as the BVDV1b isolations. These viruses were typed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genetic sequencing, and most CP were confirmed as vaccinal origin. A BVDV2 NCP strain was found in only 1 OB calf, on multiple collections, and the calf seroconverted to BVDV2. This virus was not identical to the BVDV2 CP 296 vaccine strain. The use of subtyping is required to differentiate vaccinal strains from the field strains. This study detected 2 different vaccine strains, the BVDV1b in PI calves and infected contact calves, and a heterologous BVDV2 subtype brought in as an acutely infected calf. The MLV vaccination, with BVDV1a and BVDV2 components, administered 3 d prior to exposure to PI calves did not protect 100% against BVDV1b viremias or nasal shedding. There were other agents associated with the bovine respiratory disease signs and lesions in this study including Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma spp., PI-3V, BRSV, and BHV-1. PMID:16187545
Carman, S; van Dreumel, T; Ridpath, J; Hazlett, M; Alves, D; Dubovi, E; Tremblay, R; Bolin, S; Godkin, A; Anderson, N
In 1993, noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains with enhanced virulence caused unprecedented outbreaks of severe acute bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in dairy, beef, and veal herds in Ontario (Canada). Fever, pneumonia, diarrhea, and sudden death occurred in all age groups of cattle. Abortions often occurred in pregnant animals. Gross lesions in the alimentary tract were similar to those associated with mucosal disease, especially in animals >6 months of age. Cattle of all age groups had microscopic lesions in the alimentary tract similar to those seen with mucosal disease. The epidemic peaked in the summer of 1993, with 15% of all bovine accessions from diseased cattle presented to the diagnostic laboratory being associated with BVDV. The virus strains involved in the outbreak were analyzed using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and the polymerase chain reaction. The virus isolates from these outbreaks of severe disease were determined to be type 2 BVDV. Type 2 BVDV has been present in Ontario at least since 1981 without causing widespread outbreaks of severe acute BVD, which suggests that type 2 designation in itself does not imply enhanced virulence. Cattle properly vaccinated with type 1 BVDV vaccines appear to be protected from clinical disease.
Newcomer, Benjamin W; Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is responsible for significant losses to the cattle industry. Currently, modified-live viral (MLV) and inactivated viral vaccines are available against BVDV, often in combination with other viral and bacterial antigens. Inactivated and MLV vaccines provide cattle producers and veterinarians safe and efficacious options for herd immunization to limit disease associated with BVDV infection. Vaccination of young cattle against BVDV is motivated by prevention of clinical disease and limiting viral spread to susceptible animals. For reproductive-age cattle, vaccination to prevent viremia and birth of persistently infected offspring is considered more important, while also more difficult to achieve than prevention of clinical disease. Recent advances have been made in the understanding of BVDV vaccine efficacy. In terms of preventing clinical disease, current BVDV vaccines have been demonstrated to have a rapid onset of immunity and MLV vaccines can be effectively utilized in calves possessing maternal immunity. For reproductive protection, more recent studies using multivalent MLV vaccines have demonstrated consistent fetal protection rates in the range of 85-100% in experimental studies. Proper timing and administration of BVDV vaccines can be utilized to maximize vaccine efficacy to provide an important contribution to reducing risks associated with BVDV infection. With improvements in vaccine formulations and increased understanding of the protective immune response following vaccination, control of BVDV through vaccination can be enhanced. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Oem, Jae-Ku; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Cha, Sang-Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Park, Choi-Kyu; Joo, Yi-Seok
Thirty-six bovine viral disease viruses (BVDVs) were identified in bovine feces (n=16), brains (n=2), and aborted fetuses (n=18) in Korea. To reveal the genetic diversity and characteristics of these Korean strains, the sequences of their 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTRs) were determined and then compared with published reference sequences. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the Korean viruses were of the BVDV subtypes 1a (n=17) or 2a (n=17). The remaining strains were of subtypes 1b (n=1) and 1n (n=1). This analysis indicates that the 1a and 2a BVDV subtypes are predominant and widespread in Korea. In addition, the prevalence of BVDV-2 was markedly higher in aborted fetuses than in other samples and was more often associated with reproductive problems and significant mortality in cattle.
Diminished availability of oxygen at the cellular level might account for organ dysfunction in sepsis. Although the classical forms of tissue hypoxia due to hypoxemia, anemia, or inadequate perfusion all might be important under some conditions, it seems increasingly likely that a fourth mechanism, namely cytopathic hypoxia, might play a role as well. The term cytopathic hypoxia is used to denote diminished production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) despite normal (or even supranormal) PO2 values in the vicinity of mitochondria within cells. At least in theory, cytopathic hypoxia could be a consequence of several different (but mutually compatible) pathogenic mechanisms, including diminished delivery of a key substrate (e.g., pyruvate) into the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, inhibition of key mitochondrial enzymes involved in either the TCA cycle or the electron transport chain, activation of the enzyme, poly-(ADP)-ribosylpolymerase (PARP), or collapse of the protonic gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane leading to uncoupling of oxidation (of NADH and FADH) from phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP. Tantalizing, but limited, data support the view that cytopathic hypoxia occurs in both animals and patients with sepsis or endotoxemia.
Tao, Jie; Liao, Jinhu; Wang, Yin; Zhang, Xinjun; Wang, Jianye; Zhu, Guoqiang
Cattle are the natural hosts of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), which causes mucosal disease, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections, and reproductive problems in cattle. However, BVDV can also infect goats, sheep, deer, and pigs. The prevalence of BVDV infection in pig herds has substantially increased in the last several years, causing increased economic losses to the global pig breeding industry. This article is a summary of BVDV infections in pigs, including a historical overview, clinical signs, pathology, source of infection, genetic characteristics, impacts of porcine BVDV infection for diagnosis of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), differentiation of infection with CSFV and BVDV, and future prospects of porcine BVDV infection.
Kubovicová, E; Makarevich, A V; Pivko, J; Chrenek, P; Grafenau, P; Ríha, L'; Sirotkin, A V; Louda, F
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the development and ultrastructure of preimplantation bovine embryos that were exposed to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in vitro. The embryos were recovered from superovulated and fertilized Holstein-Friesian donor cows on day 6 of the estrous cycle. Compact morulae were microinjected with 20 pl of BVDV suspension (10(5.16) TCID(50)/ml viral stock diluted 1:4) under the zona pellucida (ZP), then washed in SOF medium and cultured for 24-48 h. Embryos were evaluated for developmental stages and then processed immunocytochemically for the presence of viral particles, using fluorescent anti-BVDV-FITC conjugate. Ultrastructure of cellular organelles was analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).After microinjection of BVDV under the ZP, significantly more (p<0.001) embryos (83.33%) were arrested at the morula stage compared with the intact control (30.33%). Immunocytochemical analysis localized the BVDV-FITC signal inside the microinjected embryos. TEM revealed: (i) the presence of virus-like particles in the dilated endoplasmic reticulum and in cytoplasmic vacuoles of the trophoblast and embryoblast cells; (ii) the loss of microarchitecture: and (iii) abnormal disintegrated nuclei, which lacked reticular structure and the heterochromatin area. In all, the embryo nuclear structure was altered and the microarchitecture of the nucleolus had disappeared when compared with the nuclei from control embryos. Dilatation of the intercellular space and the loss of the intercellular gap junctions were often observed in bovine BVDV-exposed embryos. These findings provide evidence for the adverse effect of BVDV virus on the development of bovine embryos, which is related to irreversible changes in the ultrastructure of cell organelles.
Zheng, L; Zhang, S; Xue, W; Kapil, S; Minocha, H C
The expression of a 50 kDa bovine viral diarrhea virus putative receptor in different bovine fetal tissues from 3-month old fetuses was studied. The receptor expression was examined by immunocytochemical staining and by immunoblotting using antiidiotypic probe (anti-D89). Intense specific staining in enterocytes of the small and large intestines, cortical tubular epithelial cells of kidneys, respiratory epithelial cells of the trachea and esophageal mucosal epithelial cells was observed, demonstrating the strong expression of bovine viral diarrhea virus receptor in the tissues. Weak staining was found in cerebellum, thymus, spleen, liver, cerebrum, and lung tissues; however, heart tissues were negative. Immunoblotting results correlated with the immunoperoxidase staining assays. Thus, the expression levels of the receptor are variable in different tissues. This pattern of expression may provide clues to the pathogenic potential of bovine viral diarrhea virus in the bovine fetus. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9553718
Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. Results we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China) using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE), indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX) and electron microscopy(EM). The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV) in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer. PMID:21352530
Gao, Yugang; Wang, Shijie; Du, Rui; Wang, Quankai; Sun, Changjiang; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Pengju; Zhang, Lianxue
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China) using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE), indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX) and electron microscopy(EM). The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV) in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer.
Infection of pregnant cattle with bovine viral diarrhea viruses can result in reproductive disease that includes fetal reabsorption, mummification, abortion, still births, congenital defects affecting structural, neural, reproductive and immune systems and the birth of calves persistently infected w...
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...
Falcone, E; Cordioli, P; Tarantino, M; Muscillo, M; Sala, G; La Rosa, G; Archetti, I L; Marianelli, C; Lombardi, G; Tollis, M
A non-cytopathic strain of BVDV-2 was isolated from a batch of live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) vaccine, and inoculated intranasally into four 3-month-old calves. Severe signs of disease developed by days 4 and 6 in three of the calves, free of BVDV and antibodies to BVDV, that had been exposed to the virus. These calves survived the acute phase of the infection and progressively recovered. BVDV was consistently isolated, or the respective viral RNA was detected, in the buffy coats from blood samples collected starting from days 2 or 4 up to days 11 or 14 after the experimental infection. Viral RNA was also detected in sera from these infected calves until the presence in the serum of virus neutralizing antibodies was demonstrated. By contrast, the only calf having pre-existing neutralizing antibodies to BVDV at the start of the study was protected from the disease. No virus was detected at any time after experimental inoculation of this calf. Genomic characterization of the BVDV-2 isolated in cell cultures, or detected in sera from the experimentally infected animals, revealed 100%, homology in the nucleotide sequence with the BVDV-2 detected as a contaminant of the live IBR virus vaccine. These findings provided evidence of the infective nature of the contaminant BVDV-2 and of its potential to generate disease outbreaks when inoculated into susceptible animals.
Vilander, A C; Niles, G A; Frank, C B
Candida species are opportunistic fungi associated with immunosuppression and are the most commonly isolated fungal pathogens from the human central nervous system. Invasive candidiasis is reported uncommonly in animals and there have only been two reports of candidal infection of the brain. This report presents a case of a cerebral candidal abscess in an aborted late-term calf co-infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Candida etchellsii, a species not previously identified as pathogenic, was identified as the causative agent by polymerase chain reaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Falcone, E; Cordioli, P; Tarantino, M; Muscillo, M; La Rosa, G; Tollis, M
The genetic characteristics, of 38 field isolates of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) collected in 1999 from sick or healthy and persistently infected cattle of dairy farms situated in northern Italy, were investigated. A partial 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) sequence of each isolate was determined and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. All the isolates were classified as belonging to the BVDV-1 genotype and could be assigned to different BVDV-1 groups, namely BVDV-1b (n = 20), BVDV-1d (n = 6) and BVDV-1e (n = 10). Two remaining isolates could be classified as BVDV-1f and BVDV-1h, respectively. These results provided evidence for genetic heterogeneity of BVDV in Italy, and contribute to a better knowledge of the circulation of BVDV strains, and to their classification.
Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections, whether as acute, persistent or contributing to co-infections, result in significant losses for cattle producers. BVDV can be identified by real-time PCR and ELISA, detection and quantification of viral infection at the single cell level is extremely di...
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections, whether as acute, persistent or contributing to co-infections, result in significant losses for cattle producers. BVDV can be identified by real-time PCR and ELISA, detection and quantification of viral infection at the single cell level is extremely di...
Sentsui, H; Takami, R; Nishimori, T; Murakami, K; Yokoyama, T; Yokomizo, Y
To get basic information to control persistent virus infection among domestic animals by cytokines, the antiviral activity of four natural human cytokines against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was evaluated. Normal bovine peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML) and fetal bovine muscular cells (FBMC) were treated with varying doses of human interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and TNF-beta. The antiviral activity in treated cells was measured by the titration of virus infectivity in comparison with non-treated controls. IFN-alpha significantly suppressed virus growth in both PBML and FBMC. The growth of two cytopathogenic and two noncytopathogenic strains was suppressed in the presence of more than 10(3) u/ml of IFN-alpha. Addition of either TNF-alpha or TNF-beta to IFN-alpha did not potentiate the suppressive effect. IFN-alpha also suppressed the replication of BVDV in PBML from cattle persistently infected with BVDV.
Seong, Giyong; Oem, Jae-Ku; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong
The objective of this study was to test the ability of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to infect mice. Two mice each were either mock infected or inoculated with one of three BVDV strains by the intraperitoneal (IP) (n = 8) or intranasal (IN) (n = 8) route. All mice were euthanized at day 7 postinfection (p.i.). None of the infected mice exhibited any clinical signs of illness; however, the tissues harvested after BVDV challenge showed significant histopathological changes. Blood samples from five mice that were injected IP and one mouse that was inoculated IN were positive for BVDV by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to assess the presence of viral antigen in the organs of mice infected with three BVDV strains. In IP-injected mice, BVDV antigen was detected in the spleen (5/6), mesenteric lymph nodes (4/6), lymphatic tissue of the lung (3/6), lung (1/6), and stomach (1/6) of the infected mice; however, it was not detected in the liver (0/6) or kidney (0/6). In IN-inoculated mice, BVDV antigen was detected in the lung and mesenteric lymph nodes of one BVDV-infected mouse but was not detected in other tissues. The results of this study suggest that the spleen is the most reliable tissue for BVDV antigen detection using IHC in the IP-injected group. Our study demonstrates that mice can be infected by BVDV. This is the first report of BVDV infection in mice.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) subtype 1b was isolated from tissues of a term bovine fetus with hemorrhages in multiple tissues. At autopsy, multiple petechial hemorrhages were observed at gross examination throughout the body and placenta. Lung, kidney, thymus, and liver fresh tissues were exam...
Taxis, Tasia M.; Bauermann, Fernando V.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Casas, Eduardo
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an RNA virus that is often associated with respiratory disease in cattle. MicroRNAs have been proposed as indicators of exposure to respiratory pathogens. The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs in cattle that had been challenged with a non-cytopathic field strain of BVDV. Five colostrum deprived neonate Holstein calves were inoculated with BVDV (challenged) and 4 were mock challenged (control). Serum from all calves was collected at four different times: prior to challenge (day 0) and at 4, 9, and 16 days post-challenge. RNA was extracted from sera, and expression, via read counts, of small non-coding RNAs were obtained using next-generation sequencing. A total of 905,861 sequences identified 427 microRNAs. Sixty-two microRNAs had >1,000 total reads across all samples. Bta-miR-339a, bta-miR-185, bta-miR-486, Bta-miR-92a, bta-miR-30e-5p, bta-let-7c, and bta-miR-2284x were significantly different (P < 0.05) across time regardless of challenge status. Bta-miR-423-5p (P = 0.008) and bta-miR-151-3p (P = 0.005) were significantly different between challenged and control animals across time. In challenged animals, bta-miR-423-5p peaked in number of reads by day 4 and steadily declined from day 4 to day 16. In control animals, bta-miR-423-5p declined from day 0 to day 9 and increased in number by day 16. By day 16, both challenged and control animals had similar levels of bta-miR-423-5p, and these levels were similar to day 0 levels. Bta-miR-151-3p peaked at day 9 in challenged animals, while control animals decreased across time. By day 16, the number of reads of bta-miR-151-3p were similar between challenged and control animals. The level in challenged animals had returned to day 0 levels by day 16, whereas the levels for control animals was significantly lower (P = 0.006) than day 0. Further studies are needed to establish if bta-miR-423-5p or bta-miR-151-3p could be used as a biomarker for exposure to BVDV. PMID
Taxis, Tasia M; Bauermann, Fernando V; Ridpath, Julia F; Casas, Eduardo
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an RNA virus that is often associated with respiratory disease in cattle. MicroRNAs have been proposed as indicators of exposure to respiratory pathogens. The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs in cattle that had been challenged with a non-cytopathic field strain of BVDV. Five colostrum deprived neonate Holstein calves were inoculated with BVDV (challenged) and 4 were mock challenged (control). Serum from all calves was collected at four different times: prior to challenge (day 0) and at 4, 9, and 16 days post-challenge. RNA was extracted from sera, and expression, via read counts, of small non-coding RNAs were obtained using next-generation sequencing. A total of 905,861 sequences identified 427 microRNAs. Sixty-two microRNAs had >1,000 total reads across all samples. Bta-miR-339a, bta-miR-185, bta-miR-486, Bta-miR-92a, bta-miR-30e-5p, bta-let-7c, and bta-miR-2284x were significantly different (P < 0.05) across time regardless of challenge status. Bta-miR-423-5p (P = 0.008) and bta-miR-151-3p (P = 0.005) were significantly different between challenged and control animals across time. In challenged animals, bta-miR-423-5p peaked in number of reads by day 4 and steadily declined from day 4 to day 16. In control animals, bta-miR-423-5p declined from day 0 to day 9 and increased in number by day 16. By day 16, both challenged and control animals had similar levels of bta-miR-423-5p, and these levels were similar to day 0 levels. Bta-miR-151-3p peaked at day 9 in challenged animals, while control animals decreased across time. By day 16, the number of reads of bta-miR-151-3p were similar between challenged and control animals. The level in challenged animals had returned to day 0 levels by day 16, whereas the levels for control animals was significantly lower (P = 0.006) than day 0. Further studies are needed to establish if bta-miR-423-5p or bta-miR-151-3p could be used as a biomarker for exposure to BVDV.
Fulton, R W; d'Offay, J M; Saliki, J T; Burge, L J; Helman, R G; Confer, A W; Bolin, S R; Ridpath, J F
A nested reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was evaluated for differentiating reference bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains, BVDV from diagnostic accessions, modified-live virus (MLV) BVDV strains in bovine viral vaccines, and a reference border disease virus (BDV). The detection level of this assay was compared to viral infection in cell culture. The PCR assay was used to distinguish 3 ruminant pestiviruses, types 1 and 2 BVDV, and type 3 BDV. The consensus (first) PCR assay detected all 3 ruminant pestiviruses, a result of the shared sequence homology. The consensus PCR product was subjected to a second (nested) PCR which used type-specific primers. The nested PCR was able to differentiate the 3 ruminant pestiviruses. Viral stocks of BVDV were diluted 10-fold and processed for the 2-step PCR assay. The sensitivity of this 2-step PCR assay was compared to viral infectivity in cell culture based on identical volumes of the system tested (cell culture assay and processing for RNA). The RT-PCR type-specific assay differentiated BVDV laboratory reference strains (12), diagnostic laboratory isolates (15), 2 MLV BVDV vaccine strains, and a BDV strain. The 30 ruminant pestiviruses typed included: (1) 27 reference strains and diagnostic laboratory isolates; 18 cytopathic (CP) type 1 strains, 3 CP type 2 strains, 3 noncytopathic (NCP) type 1 strains, and 3 NCP type 2 strains; (2) 2 MLV strains, type 1; and (3) 1 CP BDV type 3. The PCR assay had a detection limit of 10 TCID50/0.025 mL of virus when 3 separate BVDV were tested. This 2 step RT-PCR assay would be useful for the typing of ruminant pestiviruses, particularly BVDV isolates from the diagnostic laboratory. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:10534007
McClurkin, A W; Littledike, E T; Cutlip, R C; Frank, G H; Coria, M F; Bolin, S R
Inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into 58 to 125 day old fetuses of bovine virus diarrhea virus seropositive pregnant cows, or inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into seronegative cows 42 to 114 days pregnant, may produce clinically normal calves which are persistently infected with the specific isolate of bovine virus diarrhea virus yet seronegative to the homologous and heterologous isolates. Reinoculation of these persistently infected cattle with their homologous isolate produced no neutralizing antibody response to bovine virus diarrhea virus. These persistently infected cattle were immunocompetent as they developed neutralizing serotiters to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3 viruses and agglutinating serotiters to Pasteurella hemolytica . Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6326980
Smirnova, Natalia P; Webb, Brett T; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q; Morarie, Susan E; Hansen, Thomas R
Transplacental viral infections are dependent upon complex interactions between feto-placental and maternal immune responses and the stage of fetal development at which the infection occurs. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has the ability to cross the placenta and infect the fetus. Infection early in gestation with non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV leads to persistent infection. Establishment of fetal persistent infection results in life-long viremia, virus-specific immunotolerance, and may have detrimental developmental consequences. We have previously shown that heifers infected experimentally with ncp BVDV type 2 on d. 75 of gestation had transient robust up-regulation of the type I interferon (IFN) stimulated genes (ISGs) 3-15 days after viral inoculation. Blood from persistently infected (PI) fetuses, collected 115 days post maternal infection, demonstrated moderate chronic up-regulation of ISGs. This infection model was used to delineate timing of the development of innate immune responses in the fetus and placenta during establishment of persistent infection. It was hypothesized that: (i) chronic stimulation of innate immune responses occurs following infection of the fetus and (ii) placental production of the type I IFN contributes to up-regulation of ISGs in PI fetuses. PI fetuses, generated by intranasal inoculation of pregnant heifers with ncp BVDV, and control fetuses from uninfected heifers, were collected via Cesarean sections on d. 82, 89, 97, 192, and 245 of gestation. Fetal viremia was confirmed starting on d. 89. Significant up-regulation of mRNA encoding cytosolic dsRNA sensors -RIG-I and MDA5 - was detected on d. 82-192. Detection of viral dsRNA by cytosolic sensors leads to the stimulation of ISGs, which was reflected in significant up-regulation of ISG15 mRNA in fetal blood on d. 89, 97, and 192. No difference in IFN-α and IFN-β mRNA concentration was found in fetal blood or caruncular tissue, while a significant increase in both IFN-α and IFN
Fulton, Robert W
Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are diverse genetically and antigenically. This diversity impacts both diagnostic testing and vaccination. In North America, there are two BVDV species, 1 and 2 with 3 subgenotypes, BVDV1a, BVDV1b and BVDV2a. Initially, US vaccines contained BVDV1a cytopathic strains. With the reporting of BVDV2 severe disease in Canada and the USA there was focus on protection by BVDV1a vaccines on BVDV2 disease. There was also emphasis of controlling persistently infected (PI) cattle resulted in studies for fetal protection afforded by BVDV1a vaccines. Initially, studies indicated that some BVDV1a vaccines gave less than 100% protection against BVDV2 challenge for fetal infection. Eventually vaccines in North America added BVDV2a to modified live virus (MLV) and killed BVDV1a vaccines. Ideally, vaccines should stimulate complete immunity providing 100% protection against disease, viremias, shedding, and 100% fetal protection in vaccinates when challenged with a range of diverse antigenic viruses (subgenotypes). There should be a long duration of immunity stimulated by vaccines, especially for fetal protection. MLV vaccines should be safe when given according to the label and free of other pathogens. While vaccines have now included BVDV1a and BVDV2a, with the discovery of the predominate subgenotype of BVDV in the USA to be BVDV1b, approximately 75% or greater in prevalence, protection in acute challenge and fetal protection studies became more apparent for BVDV1b. Thus many published studies examined protection by BVDV1a and BVDV2a vaccines against BVDV1b in acute challenge and fetal protection studies. There are no current BVDV1b vaccines in the USA. There are now more regulations on BVDV reproductive effects by the USDA Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) regarding label claims for protection against abortion, PI calves, and fetal infections, including expectations for studies regarding those claims. Also, the USDA CVB has a memorandum
Jones, Leandro Roberto; Weber, E Laura
Bovine pestiviruses (Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 1 (BVDV 1) and Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 2 (BVDV 2)) belong to the genus Pestivirus (Flaviviridae), which is composed of positive stranded RNA viruses causing significant economic losses world-wide. We used phylogenetic and bootstrap analyses to systematically scan alignments of previously sequenced genomes in order to explore further the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for variation in the virus. Previously published data suggested that homologous crossover might be one of the mechanisms responsible for the genomic rearrangements observed in cytopathic (cp) strains of bovine pestiviruses. Nevertheless, homologous recombination involves not just homologous crossovers, but also replacement of a homologous region of the acceptor RNA. Furthermore, cytopathic strains represent dead paths in evolution, since they are isolated exclusively from the fatal cases of mucosal disease. Herein, we report evidence of homologous inter-genotype recombination in the genome of a non-cytopathic (ncp) strain of Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 1, the type species of the genus Pestivirus. We also show that intra-genotype homologous recombination might be a common phenomenon in both species of Pestivirus. This evidence demonstrates that homologous recombination contribute to the diversification of bovine pestiviruses in nature. Implications for virus evolution, taxonomy and phylogenetics are discussed.
Ratta, Barkha; Yadav, Brijesh Singh; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVD2) are endemic in India although no mixed infection with these viruses has been reported from India. We report first mixed infection of these viruses in cattle during routine screening with a microarray chip. 62 of the 69 probes of BHV1 and 42 of the 57 BVD2 probes in the chip gave positive signals for the virus. The virus infections were subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR. We also discuss the implications of these findings.
Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Odbileg, Raadan; Odzaya, Battogtokh; Gansukh, Shura; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into two species, namely, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, and affects cattle worldwide, resulting in significant economic loss. The prevalence of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 infections and its genotypes in Mongolian animals has not been studied. In this study, we surveyed BVDV infection in dairy cattle and yaks from Bornuur and Bulgan counties by RT-PCR, and the average infection rate in the sampling sites was 15.8 % and 20.0 %, respectively. In addition, molecular features of the 5'-UTR region of the BVDV genome in Mongolian cattle and yaks were identified as belonging to the subtypes BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a, respectively. Determining the prevalence, geographical distribution, and molecular diversity of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 in various host species in Mongolia is important for further studies and process control programs.
Gao, Shandian; Du, Junzheng; Tian, Zhancheng; Xing, Shanshan; Luo, Jianxun; Liu, Guangyuan
A bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), GS5, of the BVDV-1a subgenotype was isolated from dairy cattle in Gansu Province, northwest China. Its near-full-length genome was determined to be closely related to an early Belgian BVDV-1a strain, WAX-N, but the relatedness to domestic strains is relatively low, indicating that different genetic evolution occurred between the viral strains in cattle in China. PMID:27834720
Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are pestiviruses that have been isolated from domestic and wild ruminants, and there is serologic evidence of pestiviral infection in more than 40 species of free-ranging and captive mammals. Vertical transmission can produce persistently infected animals that ar...
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an RNA virus that is often associated with respiratory disease in cattle. MicroRNAs have been proposed as indicators of exposure to respiratory pathogens. The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs in cattle that had been challenged with a non-cytopat...
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into 2 genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, each of which contains distinct subtypes with genetic and antigenic differences. Currently, three major subtypes circulate in the United States: BVDV-1a, 1b, and 2a. In addition, a single case of BVDV-2b infection ...
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infects cattle populations worldwide causing significant economic losses though its impact in animal health. Previous studies have reported the prevalence of BVDV species and subgenotypes in cattle from the United States and Canada. In this study, we investigated t...
Stalder, Hanspeter; Bachofen, Claudia
We sequenced the complete genome of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain Carlito. It belongs to the subgenotype 1e that is described in Europe only and represents the second most prevalent subgenotype in Switzerland. This is the first report of a full-length sequence of BVDV-1e. PMID:26067971
This paper details the impact that infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has on cattle performance. Published studies are reviewed that suggest that BVDV infections can alter the normal production of cytokines and free radicals, thus resulting in more severe inflammation and tissue dam...
Laureyns, Jozef; Pardon, Bart; Letellier, Carine; Deprez, Piet
After 3 cows of a dairy herd had died from severe hemorrhagic diarrhea, a 4th sick cow was transported to the clinic. Blood analyses revealed the complete absence of white blood cells, the presence of a type 1b strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and seroconversion to BVDV. PMID:22467972
The objective of this study was to describe the outcome of natural bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in a herd of 136 bred heifers. This outbreak was notable in that a total of 36 PI calves were generated. Of the 136 bred heifers, 8 failed to deliver a calf. Eight calves died shortly a...
Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. ...
Giangaspero, M; Cominardi, P F
The Parsonage-Turner syndrome, a rare form of neuralgic amyotrophy of unknown aetiology, was diagnosed in a patient involved in an outbreak of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The patient, suffering from inflammation of the right shoulder with a permanent atrophy, developed anti-BVDV antibody titres which remained very high during the four following years of monitoring.
Bazzucchi, Moira; Bertolotti, Luigi; Giammarioli, Monica; Casciari, Cristina; Rossi, Elisabetta; Rosati, Sergio; De Mia, Gian Mario
We sequenced the complete genome of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain UM/126/07. It belongs to subgenotype 1h. The complete genome is composed of 12,196 nucleotides organized as one open reading frame encoding 3,898 amino acids. This is the first report of a full-length sequence of BVDV-1h.
Bazzucchi, Moira; Bertolotti, Luigi; Casciari, Cristina; Rossi, Elisabetta; Rosati, Sergio; De Mia, Gian Mario
ABSTRACT We sequenced the complete genome of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain UM/126/07. It belongs to subgenotype 1h. The complete genome is composed of 12,196 nucleotides organized as one open reading frame encoding 3,898 amino acids. This is the first report of a full-length sequence of BVDV-1h. PMID:28232427
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to have significant economic impact on the cattle industry worldwide. The virus is primarily maintained in the cattle population due to persistently infected animals. Herd surveillance along with good vaccination programs and biosecurity practices are the...
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. Age of calf was...
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. This study util...
Background: Substantial bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-related production losses in North American alpaca herds have been associated with BVDV type Ib infection. Objectives: To classify and differentiate the long-term clinicopathological characteristics of BVDV type Ib infection of alpaca crias,...
Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing over the past several years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report describes research performed to characterize the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected...
Wang, Wei; Shi, Xinchuan; Chen, Chaoyang; Wu, Hua
In January 2013, several clinical signs of cattle with diarrhea, cough, nasal discharge, and fever were reported in Jilin province, China. One virus named SD1301 was isolated and identified. Complete genome of the virus is 12258nt in length and contains a 5'UTR, one open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3,897 amino acids and a 3'UTR. Phylogenetic analysis of 5'UTR, N(pro), E1 and E2 gene demonstrated the virus belonged to BVDV 2b, and genetically related to the BVDV strain Hokudai-Lab/09 from Japan in 2010. This bovine viral diarrhea virus displays a unique genetic signature with 27-nucleotide deletion in the 5'UTR, which is similar to the bovine viral diarrhea virus C413 (AF002227). This was the first confirmed isolation of ncp BVDV2b circulating in bovine herd of China.
Byers, Stacey R.; Evermann, James F.; Bradway, Daniel S.; Grimm, Amanda L.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Parish, Steven M.; Tibary, Ahmed; Barrington, George M.
Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing in recent years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report characterizes the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected (PI) alpacas to BVDV naïve alpacas, documents shedding patterns, and characterizes the disease effects in both PI and transiently infected alpacas. Two PI alpacas shed BVDV Type 1b virus in most body fluids, and commonly available diagnostic tests verified their status. Bovine viral diarrhea virus Type 1b transient infections produced only mild signs of disease in BVDV naïve alpacas. Viremia was detected in whole blood, but viral shedding during the acute phase was not detected and antibody appeared to be protective upon re-exposure to the virus. PMID:21629418
Risalde, M A; Molina, V; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Romero-Palomo, F; Pedrera, M; Gómez-Villamandos, J C
The aim of this work was to study the interstitial aggregates of immune cells observed in pulmonary parenchyma of calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus and challenged later with bovine herpesvirus 1. In addition, the intent of this research was to clarify the role of bovine viral diarrhea virus in local cell-mediated immunity and potentially in predisposing animals to bovine respiratory disease complex. Twelve Friesian calves, aged 8 to 9 months, were inoculated with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1. Ten were subsequently challenged with bovine herpesvirus 1 and euthanized at 1, 2, 4, 7, or 14 days postinoculation. The other 2 calves were euthanized prior to the second inoculation. Another cohort of 10 calves was inoculated only with bovine herpesvirus 1 and then were euthanized at the same time points. Two calves were not inoculated with any agent and were used as negative controls. Pulmonary lesions were evaluated in all animals, while quantitative and biosynthetic changes in immune cells were concurrently examined immunohistochemically to compare coinfected calves and calves challenged only with bovine herpesvirus 1. Calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus demonstrated moderate respiratory clinical signs and histopathologic evidence of interstitial pneumonia with aggregates of mononuclear cells, which predominated at 4 days postinoculation. Furthermore, this group of animals was noted to have a suppression of interleukin-10 and associated alterations in the Th1-driven cytokine response in the lungs, as well as inhibition of the response of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes against bovine herpesvirus 1. These findings suggest that bovine viral diarrhea virus preinfection could affect the regulation of the immune response as modulated by regulatory T cells, as well as impair local cell-mediated immunity to secondary respiratory pathogens.
Abstract Blood was drawn from 1530 dairy cows in 51 herds. For antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum, 37.4%, 2.7%, and 5.6% of cows were test positive, respectively, while 29.2% of herds had unvaccinated animals with ≥ 1:64 for bovine viral diarrhea virus. PMID:15759829
Ridpath, Julia F; Fulton, Robert W; Kirkland, Peter D; Neill, John D
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is divided into 2 different species within the Pestivirus genus, BVDV type 1 (BVDV-1) and BVDV type 2 (BVDV-2). Further phylogenetic analysis has revealed subgenotype groupings within the 2 types. Thus far, 12 BVDV-1 subgenotypes (a-l) and 2 BVDV-2 subgenotypes (a and b) have been identified. The purpose of the current study was to determine the prevalence of BVDV subgenotypes in the United States and Australia and to determine if there are detectable antigenic differences between the prevalent subgenotypes. To determine prevalence, phylogenetic analysis was performed on 2 blinded panels of isolates consisting of 351 viral isolates provided by the Elizabeth Macarthur Laboratory, New South Wales, and 514 viral isolates provided by Oklahoma State University. Differences were observed in the prevalence of BVDV subgenotypes between the United States (BVDV-1b most prevalent subgenotype) and Australia (BVDV-1c most prevalent subgenotype). To examine antigenic differences between the subgenotypes identified in samples from the United States and Australia, polyclonal antisera was produced in goats by exposing them at 3-week intervals to 2 noncytopathic and 1 cytopathic strain of either BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, BVDV-1c, BVDV-2a, or Border disease virus (BDV). Virus neutralization (VN) assays were then performed against 3 viruses from each of the 5 subgenotypes. Comparison of VN results suggests that there are antigenic differences between BVDV strains belonging to different subgenotypes. The present study establishes a foundation for further studies examining whether vaccine protection can be improved by basing vaccines on the BVDV subgenotypes prevalent in the region in which the vaccine is to be used.
Accurate diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) induced reproductive disease is important to herd health management and BVDV control programs. Diagnosing BVDV, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as a cause of reproductive disease may be problematic because viral nucleic acid may be degrade...
Polak, Mirosław P; Kuta, Aleksandra; Rybałtowski, Wiesław; Rola, Jerzy; Larska, Magdalena; Zmudziński, Jan F
This report describes the first identification in Poland of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV)-2 in a dairy herd where severe clinical disease with losses of young animals was observed. The virus was readily cultivated in cell culture and a phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences and secondary structures of the viral genomic 5' untranslated region confirmed virus identity. The economic impact of the infection was significant compared to the previously prevalent BVDV-1 infections confirming that this genotype of BVDV can cause severe sickness in affected herds. The use of BVDV-1 vaccine did not prevent the infection with the BVDV-2 genotype.
Ciulli, Sara; Galletti, Elena; Battilani, Mara; Scagliarini, Alessandra; Gentile, Arcangelo; Morganti, Luigi; Prosperi, Santino
Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) is responsible worldwide for severe economic losses on cattle farms. BVDV is an RNA virus with a high genome variability having practical consequences on epidemiology, diagnosis and disease control. Genetic monitoring was suggested as the first step in BVDV control. Thirty-seven Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Viruses were identified in persistently infected cattle, mucosal disease-affected animals and in bulk milk, and were characterised genetically. The 5'UTR region was amplified and sequenced, and a phylogenetic analysis was carried out comparing all the Italian sequences of BVDV available from the Genbank database. An unusual number of persistent infected animals was evidenced on more than one farm. Phylogenetic analysis attributed all our viruses to BVDV type I and distinguished four different subgroups inside this genotype. Analysis of old and new viruses revealed the circulation of viruses classified in subgroups BVDV Ia and Ij never reported in Italy.
Quinet, Christian; Czaplicki, Guy; Dion, Elise; Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; Kurz, Anke; Saegerman, Claude
Infection due to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is endemic in most cattle-producing countries throughout the world. The key elements of a BVDV control programme are biosecurity, elimination of persistently infected animals and surveillance. Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is a notifiable disease in Belgium and an official eradication programme started from January 2015, based on testing ear notches sampled during the official identification and registration of calves at birth. An antigen-capture ELISA test based on the detection of BVDV Erns protein is used. Ear notch sample may also be used to characterize the genotype of the calf when appropriate elution/dilution buffer is added. Both BVDV antigen-ELISA analysis and animal traceability could be performed. With regards to the reference protocol used in the preparation of ear notch samples, alternative procedures were tested in terms of BVDV analytic sensitivity, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, as well as quality and purity of animal DNA. The Allflex DNA Buffer D showed promising results in BVDV diagnosis and genome analyses, opening new perspectives for the livestock industry by the exploitation of the animal genome. Due to the high number of cattle involved in the Belgian official BVDV eradication programme based on ear notch tags sample, a large database on both BVDV status of newborn calves and cattle genome could be created for subsequent different uses (e.g. traceability, determination of parentage, genetic signatures throughout the genome associated with particular traits) evolving through a more integrated animal health.
Falkenberg, Shollie M; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections, whether as acute, persistent or contributing to co-infections, result in significant losses for cattle producers. Although, BVDV can be identified readily by real-time PCR and ELISA, detection and quantification of viral infection at the single cell level is extremely difficult. Detection at the single lymphoid cell level is important due to the immunomodulation that accompanies BVDV infection. A novel PrimeFlow RNA assay using in-situ detection of BVDV was evaluated. The model used to develop this technique included three BL-3 cell lines with different infection statuses, one not infected with BVDV, one infected with BVDV and one dual infected with BVDV and bovine leukosis virus. Using RNA probes specific for the BVDV-2a N(pro)-E(rns) coding region, BVDV RNA was detected from both contaminated BL-3 cell lines by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. This is the first report on in-situ detection of BVDV at the single-cell level. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Aguirre, I M; Quezada, M P; Celedón, M O
Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity.
Diéguez, Francisco J; Yus, Eduardo; Vilar, María J; Sanjuán, María L; Arnaiz, Ignacio
The aim of this study was to compare the cumulative incidence of mortality, clinical diarrhoea and respiratory disease in calves, during their first six months of age, in herds with different bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection status. Calves' health indicators were tested by comparing proportions in 101 farms with dissimilar infection condition. The results indicate that there was a significant relationship between the BVDV status (actively infected herd or not) and the cumulative incidence of mortality and respiratory disorders.
Gao, Shandian; Shao, Junjun; Du, Junzheng; Lin, Tong; Cong, Guozheng; Zhao, Furong; Chang, Huiyun; Yin, Hong
A bovine viral diarrhea disease virus (BVDV) GS-4 was isolated in Western China form dairy cattle with respiratory disease. Genomic comparison analysis with the 5' half genome sequence encompassing the coding region of N(pro), capsid, and envelope glycoproteins showed that the GS-4 should be classified into BVDV-1b1, which is considered as one of the predominant subgenotypes found in China. This classification was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis based on E2 coding region.
Evaluation of reproductive protection against bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1 afforded by annual revaccination with modified-live viral or combination modified-live/killed viral vaccines after primary vaccination with modified-live viral vaccine.
Walz, Paul H; Givens, M Daniel; Rodning, Soren P; Riddell, Kay P; Brodersen, Bruce W; Scruggs, Daniel; Short, Thomas; Grotelueschen, Dale
The objective of this study was to compare reproductive protection in cattle against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) provided by annual revaccination with multivalent modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine or multivalent combination viral (CV) vaccine containing temperature-sensitive modified-live BoHV-1 and killed BVDV when MLV vaccines were given pre-breeding to nulliparous heifers. Seventy-five beef heifers were allocated into treatment groups A (n=30; two MLV doses pre-breeding, annual revaccination with MLV vaccine), B (n=30; two MLV doses pre-breeding, annual revaccination with CV vaccine) and C (n=15; saline in lieu of vaccine). Heifers were administered treatments on days 0 (weaning), 183 (pre-breeding), 366 (first gestation), and 738 (second gestation). After first calving, primiparous cows were bred, with pregnancy assessment on day 715. At that time, 24 group A heifers (23 pregnancies), 23 group B heifers (22 pregnancies), and 15 group C heifers (15 pregnancies) were commingled with six persistently infected (PI) cattle for 16days. Ninety-nine days after PI removal, cows were intravenously inoculated with BoHV-1. All fetuses and live offspring were assessed for BVDV and BoHV-1. Abortions occurred in 3/23 group A cows, 1/22 group B cows, and 11/15 group C cows. Fetal infection with BVDV or BoHV-1 occurred in 4/23 group A offspring, 0/22 group B offspring, and 15/15 group C offspring. This research demonstrates efficacy of administering two pre-breeding doses of MLV vaccine with annual revaccination using CV vaccine to prevent fetal loss due to exposure to BVDV and BoHV-1.
A beef producer purchased Angus crossbred cattle that were pregnant with nursing calves. The purchased cattle, their nursing calves, and subsequent born calves were not initially tested for BVDV. Bovine viral diarrhea virus subtype 2a (BVDV2a) was isolated from an aborted bovine fetus, 6.5 months,...
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen of domestic cattle. Serological, experimental and individual case studies have explored the presence and pathogenesis of the virus in wild ungulates; however there remain large gaps in knowledge regarding BVDV infection in non-bovine speci...
Nelson, Danielle D; Dark, Michael J; Bradway, Daniel S; Ridpath, Julia F; Call, Neill; Haruna, Julius; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Evermann, James F
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) viruses are pestiviruses that have been isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. There is serologic evidence of pestiviral infection in more than 40 species of free-range and captive mammals. Vertical transmission can produce persistently infected animals that are immunotolerant to the infecting strain of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and shed virus throughout their lives. Seven species (white-tailed deer, mouse deer, eland, domestic cattle, alpaca, sheep, and pigs) have been definitively identified as persistently infected with BVDV. This study provides serological, molecular, immunohistochemical, and histological evidence for BVDV infection in 2 captive mountain goats from a zoological park in Idaho. The study was triggered by isolation of BVDV from tissues and immunohistochemical identification of viral antigen within lesions of a 7-month-old male mountain goat (goat 1). Blood was collected from other mountain goats and white-tailed and mule deer on the premises for BVDV serum neutralization, viral isolation, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. One 3-month-old mountain goat (goat 2) was antibody negative and BVDV positive in serum samples collected 3 months apart. This goat subsequently died, and though still antibody negative, BVDV was isolated from tissues and identified by immunohistochemistry within lesions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified the isolates as BVDV-2. These findings provide evidence of persistent infection in a mountain goat, underscoring the need for pestivirus control strategies for wild ruminants in zoological collections.
Heinze, Brian C.; Song, Jae-Young; Han, Jin-Hee; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol
We have investigated the utilization of particle agglutination assays using forward light scattering measurements in a microfluidic device towards detecting viral particles. The model viral target was bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Highly carboxylated polystyrene microspheres (510 nm) were coated with anti-BVDV monoclonal antibodies. This solution was in turn used to detect live modified BVDV. This assay was first performed in a two well slide for proof of concept and then in a simple y-channel microfluidic device with optical fibers arranged in a close proximity setup. Particle immunoagglutination was detected through static light scattering measurements taken at 45° to incident light. In the microfluidic device, modified live BVDV was detected with a detection limit of 0.5 TCID 50 mL -1.
Immunogenicity of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus when administered intranasally in young calves.
Xue, Wenzhi; Ellis, John; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Brady, Ryan; Trigo, Emilio
The immunogenicity of an intranasally-administered modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine in 3-8 day old calves was evaluated against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves were intranasally vaccinated with a single dose of a multivalent MLV vaccine and were challenged with one of the respective viruses three to four weeks post-vaccination in five separate studies. There was significant sparing of diseases in calves intranasally vaccinated with the MLV vaccine, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding, greater white blood cell and platelet counts, and less severe pulmonary lesions than control animals. This was the first MLV combination vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against BVDV types 1 and 2, IBR, PI-3 and BRSV in calves 3-8 days of age.
Walz, P H; Baker, J C; Mullaney, T P; Kaneene, J B; Maes, R K
Some isolates of type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are capable of causing severe clinical disease in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection has been reported in pigs, but the ability of these more virulent isolates of type II BVDV to induce severe clinical disease in pigs is unknown. It was our objective to compare clinical, virologic, and pathologic findings between type I and type II BVDV infection in pigs. Noninfected control and BVDV-infected 2-month-old pigs were used. A noncytopathic type I and a noncytopathic type II BVDV isolate were chosen for evaluation in feeder age swine based upon preliminary in vitro and in vivo experiments. A dose titration study was performed using 4 groups of 4 pigs for each viral isolate. The groups were inoculated intranasally with either sham (control), 10(3), 10(5), or 10(7) TCID50 of virus. The pigs were examined daily and clinical findings were recorded. Antemortem and postmortem samples were collected for virus isolation. Neither the type I nor type II BVDV isolates resulted in clinical signs of disease in pigs. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from antemortem and postmortem samples from groups of pigs receiving the 10(5) and the 10(7) TCID50 dose of the type I BVDV isolate. In contrast, BVDV was only isolated from postmortem samples in the group of pigs receiving the 10(7) TCID50 dose of the type II BVDV isolate. Type I BVDV was able to establish infection in pigs at lower doses by intranasal instillation than type II BVDV. Infection of pigs with a type II isolate of BVDV known to cause severe disease in calves did not result in clinically apparent disease in pigs. PMID:10369569
Quinet, Christian; Czaplicki, Guy; Dion, Elise; Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; Kurz, Anke; Saegerman, Claude
Background Infection due to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is endemic in most cattle-producing countries throughout the world. The key elements of a BVDV control programme are biosecurity, elimination of persistently infected animals and surveillance. Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is a notifiable disease in Belgium and an official eradication programme started from January 2015, based on testing ear notches sampled during the official identification and registration of calves at birth. An antigen-capture ELISA test based on the detection of BVDV Erns protein is used. Ear notch sample may also be used to characterize the genotype of the calf when appropriate elution/dilution buffer is added. Both BVDV antigen-ELISA analysis and animal traceability could be performed. Methodology With regards to the reference protocol used in the preparation of ear notch samples, alternative procedures were tested in terms of BVDV analytic sensitivity, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, as well as quality and purity of animal DNA. Principal Findings/Significance The Allflex DNA Buffer D showed promising results in BVDV diagnosis and genome analyses, opening new perspectives for the livestock industry by the exploitation of the animal genome. Due to the high number of cattle involved in the Belgian official BVDV eradication programme based on ear notch tags sample, a large database on both BVDV status of newborn calves and cattle genome could be created for subsequent different uses (e.g. traceability, determination of parentage, genetic signatures throughout the genome associated with particular traits) evolving through a more integrated animal health. PMID:27764130
Segura-Correa, J C; Zapata-Campos, C C; Jasso-Obregón, J O; Martinez-Burnes, J; López-Zavala, R
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico.
Segura-Correa, J.C.; Zapata-Campos, C.C.; Jasso-Obregón, J.O.; Martinez-Burnes, J.; López-Zavala, R.
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico. PMID:27622156
Xu, Jian; Zhang, Xixi; Zhou, Shuanghai; Shen, Junjun; Yang, Dawei; Wu, Jing; Li, Xiaoyang; Li, Meiling; Huang, Xiufen; Sealy, Joshua E; Iqbal, Munir; Li, Yongqing
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is an important pathogen of domestic and wild cattle responsible for major economic losses in dairy and beef industries throughout the world. Inhibition of viral entry plays a crucial role in the control of BoHV-1 infection and aptamers have been reported to inhibit viral replication. In this study, nine DNA aptamers that target BoHV-1 were generated using systemic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. Of the nine candidates, aptamer IBRV-A4 exhibited the highest affinity and specificity for BoHV-1, which bound to BoHV-1 with a Kd value of 3.519 nM and demonstrated the greatest virus binding as shown by fluorescence imaging. The neutralizing ability of aptamer IBRV-A4 was determined using neutralization assays and real time PCR in BoHV-1 infected Madin-darby bovine kidney cells. Virus titration, immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed virus replication significantly decreased when aptamer IBRV-A4 was added to BoHV-1 infected MDBK cells at 0 and 0.5 hours post-infection, whereas no change was seen when IBRV-A4 was added 2 hours post-infection. This concludes that aptamer IBRV-A4 efficiently inhibits viral entry of BoHV-1 in MDBK cells and is therefore a novel tool for diagnosis and treatment of BoHV-1 infection in cattle.
Qvist, P; Aasted, B; Bloch, B; Meyling, A; Rønsholt, L; Houe, H
Flow cytometry was investigated for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes of persistently infected cattle. The mononuclear leukocytes were purified by sedimentation in a gradient of Ficoll-Paque, fixed, permeabilized, and then labelled by indirect immunofluorescence using biotinylated immunoglobulins from a porcine antiserum to BVDV. Flow cytometric analysis of blood samples obtained from persistently infected cattle revealed virus in 3.0-21.0% (mean +/- SD, 11.2% +/- 6.4%) of the mononuclear leukocytes. Fluorescent cells were not observed in controls. Flow cytometric detection of BVDV in blood cells of persistently infected bovines is a rapid and objective technique which does not require cell culture facilities. PMID:2174298
Ridpath, Julia F; Neill, John D; Chiang, Yu-Wei; Waldbillig, Jill
Infection of pregnant cattle with both species of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can result in reproductive disease that includes fetal reabsorption, mummification, abortion, stillbirths, congenital defects affecting structural, neural, reproductive, and immune systems, and the birth of calves persistently infected with BVDV. Accurate diagnosis of BVDV-associated reproductive disease is important to control BVDV at the production unit level and assessment of the cost of BVDV infections in support of BVDV control programs. The purpose of the current study was to examine the stability of viral nucleic acid in fetal tissues exposed to different conditions, as measured by detection by polymerase chain reaction. Five different types of fetal tissue, including brain, skin and muscle, ear, and 2 different pooled organ samples, were subjected to conditions that mimicked those that might exist for samples collected after abortions in production settings or possible storage conditions after collection and prior to testing. In addition, tissues were archived for 36 months at -20°C and then retested, to mimic conditions that might occur in the case of retrospective surveillance studies. Brain tissue showed the highest stability under the conditions tested. The impact of fecal contamination was increased following archiving in all tissue types suggesting that, for long-term storage, effort should be made to reduce environmental contaminants before archiving.
Goga, Izedin; Berxholi, Kristaq; Hulaj, Beqe; Sylejmani, Driton; Yakobson, Boris; Stram, Yehuda
Three serum samples positive in Antigen ELISA BVDV have been tested to characterise genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Kosovo. Samples were obtained in 2011 from heifers and were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sequenced and analysed by computer-assisted phylogenetic analysis. Amplified products and nucleotide sequence showed that all 3 isolates belonged to BVDV 1 genotype and 1b sub genotype. These results enrich the extant knowledge of BVDV and represent the first documented data about Kosovo BVDV isolates.
Chase, Christopher C L; Thakur, Neelu; Darweesh, Mahmoud F; Morarie-Kane, Susan E; Rajput, Mrigendra K
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has long been associated with a wide variety of clinical syndromes and immune dysregulation, many which result in secondary bacterial infections. Current understanding of immune cell interactions that result in activation and tolerance are explored in light of BVDV infection including: depletion of lymphocytes, effects on neutrophils, natural killer cells, and the role of receptors and cytokines. In addition, we review some new information on the effect of BVDV on immune development in the fetal liver, the role of resident macrophages, and greater implications for persistent infection.
Castro, Eliana F.; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Cavallaro, Lucía V.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototype Pestivirus. BVDV infection is distributed worldwide and causes serious problems for the livestock industry. The thiosemicarbazone of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC) is a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (NNI) of BVDV. All TSC-resistant BVDV variants (BVDV-TSCr T1–5) present an N264D mutation in the NS5B gene (RdRp) whereas the variant BVDV-TSCr T1 also presents an NS5B A392E mutation. In the present study, we carried out twenty passages of BVDV-TSCr T1–5 in MDBK cells in the absence of TSC to evaluate the stability of the resistance. The viral populations obtained (BVDV R1–5) remained resistant to the antiviral compound and conserved the mutations in NS5B associated with this phenotype. Along the passages, BVDV R2, R3 and R5 presented a delay in the production of cytopathic effect that correlated with a decrease in cell apoptosis and intracellular accumulation of viral RNA. The complete genome sequences that encode for NS2 to NS5B, Npro and Erns were analyzed. Additional mutations were detected in the NS5B of BVDV R1, R3 and R4. In both BVDV R2 and R3, most of the mutations found were localized in NS5A, whereas in BVDV R5, the only mutation fixed was NS5A V177A. These results suggest that mutations in NS5A could alter BVDV cytopathogenicity. In conclusion, the stability of the resistance to TSC may be due to the fixation of different compensatory mutations in each BVDV-TSCr. During their replication in a TSC-free medium, some virus populations presented a kind of interaction with the host cell that resembled a persistent infection: decreased cytopathogenicity and viral genome synthesis. This is the first report on the stability of antiviral resistance and on the evolution of NNI-resistant BVDV variants. The results obtained for BVDV-TSCr could also be applied for other NNIs. PMID:24950191
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae that has significant negative economic impact on beef and dairy production worldwide. In recent years, the North American bison industry has grown considerably with increases in the numbers of both wild and private herds. ...
Gómez-Romero, Ninnet; Basurto-Alcántara, Francisco J; Verdugo-Rodríguez, Antonio; Bauermann, Fernando V; Ridpath, Julia F
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infects cattle populations worldwide, causing significant economic losses though its impact on animal health. Previous studies have reported the prevalence of BVDV species and subgenotypes in cattle from the United States and Canada. We investigated the genetic diversity of BVDV strains detected in bovine serum samples from 6 different Mexican regions. Sixty-two BVDV isolates from Mexico were genetically typed based on comparison of sequences from the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the viral genome. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that 60 of the samples belonged to the BVDV-1 genotype and 2 to the BVDV-2 genotype. Comparison of partial 5'-UTR sequences clustered 49 samples within BVDV-1c, 8 samples within BVDV-1a, 3 samples within BVDV-1b, and 2 samples clustered with the BVDV-2a subgenotypes. Our study, combined with information previously published on BVDV field strain diversity in the United States and Canada, benefits the development of effective detection assays, vaccines, and control programs for North America.
Juránková, J; Kamler, M; Kovařčík, K; Koudela, B
Enterocytozoon bieneusi known as a causative agent of opportunistic infections instigating diarrhoea in AIDS patients was identified also in a number of immunocompetent patients and in a wide range of animals, including cattle. In the present study we tested if the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), the most common pathogen underlying immunosuppressive Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD), can enhance the occurrence of opportunistic infections with E. bieneusi in cattle. Six dairy farms were investigated using ELISA to detect antibodies against or antigens arising from BVDV in collected sera. A total of 240 individual faecal samples from four age groups were examined for the presence of E. bieneusi by nested PCR. Sequence analysis of six E. bieneusi positive samples revealed the presence of the genotype I of E. bieneusi, previously described in cattle. The hypothesis expecting higher prevalence of E. bieneusi in BVDV positive cattle herds was not confirmed in this study; however this is the first description about E. bieneusi in cattle in the Czech Republic.
Falcone, E; Cordioli, P; Sala, G; Tarantino, M; Tollis, M
Following the first official report of a clinically severe outbreak of bovine viral diarrhoea disease occurring in a farm in northern Italy, which had originated from the use of a live vaccine contaminated with a strain of BVD genotype II virus, a retrospective study on the prevalence of BVDV genotypes in Italy became highly relevant. For this purpose, the genotype of 78 BVDV-positive specimens, obtained in 1998-1999 from dairy cattle in an area near to where the outbreak occurred, was characterized by PCR technology. Two sets of primers, spanning the 5' UTR of BVDV genome, were used sequentially in a first round of RT-PCR, performed on viral RNA extracted directly from 15 clinical samples and 63 BVDV-infected cell-culture fluids; a second PCR assay followed to selectively amplify only BVDV genotype II. All the viruses under study were characterized as BVDV genotype I. As well as contributing to a better understanding of the prevalence of BVDV genotypes in the field, the results of the present study illustrate the possibility that novel BVDV strains can emerge in susceptible animals through the use of contaminated immunobiological products for bovine use.
Karakaya, E; Alpay, G; Yilmazbas-Mecitoglu, G; Alasonyalilar-Demirer, A; Akgül, B; Inan-Ozturkoglu, S; Ozyigit, M O; Seyrek-Intas, D; Seyrek-Intas, K; Yesilbag, K; Gumen, A; Keskin, A
The detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a female Holstein calf presented with perosomus elumbis, a congenital anomaly, is reported here. A cow with dystocia was evaluated and an abnormal dead calf was detected during vaginal examination. The calf was retrieved via caesarean section and exhibited abnormalities characteristic of PE, such as vertebral and pelvic malformations. These abnormalities were further confirmed using radiographic and necropsy examinations. At necropsy cerebellar hypoplasia was an additional finding, which is a typical lesion associated with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD). Several tissue samples from the calf were tested for the presence of antigens of BVDV and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) by ELISA. In addition, sera samples from the dam and calf were tested for the presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, and bluetongue disease virus (BTV) using a virus neutralization assay. Results indicated that the calf was congenitally infected with BVDV, whereas there was no evidence for the presence of BHV-1 and BTV. In the dam's serum no antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, and BTV were detected. Even though the etiology of perosomus elumbis is unknown, BVDV, which causes fetal anomalies at early gestation in cows, may have been a contributing factor in this case.
Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan
Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections cause respiratory, reproductive, and enteric disease in cattle. Vaccination raises herd resistance and then limits the spread of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) among cattle. The goal of this research was to evaluate new adjuvants, consisting of c...
Fulton, R W; Purdy, C W; Confer, A W; Saliki, J T; Loan, R W; Briggs, R E; Burge, L J
The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections was determined in a group of stocker calves suffering from acute respiratory disease. The calves were assembled after purchase from Tennessee auctions and transported to western Texas. Of the 120 calves, 105 (87.5%) were treated for respiratory disease. Sixteen calves died during the study (13.3%). The calves received a modified live virus BHV-1 vaccine on day 0 of the study. During the study, approximately 5 wk in duration, sera from the cattle, collected at weekly intervals, were tested for BVDV by cell culture. Sera were also tested for neutralizing antibodies to BVDV types 1 and 2, bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3V), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). The lungs from the 16 calves that died during the study were collected and examined by histopathology, and lung homogenates were inoculated onto cell cultures for virus isolation. There were no calves persistently infected with BVDV detected in the study, as no animals were viremic on day 0, nor were any animals viremic at the 2 subsequent serum collections. There were, however, 4 animals with BVDV type 1 noncytopathic (NCP) strains in the sera from subsequent collections. Viruses were isolated from 9 lungs: 7 with PI-3V, 1 with NCP BVDV type 1, and 1 with both BVHV-1 and BVDV. The predominant bacterial species isolated from these lungs was Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1. There was serologic evidence of infection with BVDV types 1 and 2, PI-3V, and BRSV, as noted by seroconversion (> or = 4-fold rise in antibody titer) in day 0 to day 34 samples collected from the 104 survivors: 40/104 (38.5%) to BVDV type 1; 29/104 (27.9%) to BVDV type 2; 71/104 (68.3%) to PI-3V; and 81/104 (77.9%) to BRSV. In several cases, the BVDV type 2 antibody titers may have been due to crossreacting BVDV type 1 antibodies; however, in 7 calves the BVDV type 2 antibodies were higher, indicating BVDV type 2 infection. At the outset of
Radtke, Christina; Tews, Birke Andrea
Pestiviruses are enveloped viruses that bud intracellularly. They have three envelope glycoproteins, E(rns), E1, and E2. E2 is the receptor binding protein and the main target for neutralizing antibodies. Both E(rns) and E2 are retained intracellularly. Here, E2 of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain CP7 was used to study the membrane topology and intracellular localization of the protein. E2 is localized in the ER and there was no difference between E2 expressed alone or in the context of the viral polyprotein. The mature E2 protein was found to possess a single span transmembrane anchor. For the mapping of a retention signal CD72-E2 fusion proteins, as well as E2 alone were analysed. This confirmed the importance of the transmembrane domain and arginine 355 for intracellular retention, but also revealed a modulating effect on retention through the cytoplasmic tail of the E2 protein, especially through glutamine 370. Mutants with a strong impact on retention were tested in the viral context and we were able to rescue BVDV with certain mutations that in E2 alone impaired intracellular retention and lead to export of E2 to the cells surface.
Lang, Yifei; Gao, Shandian; Du, Junzheng; Shao, Junjun; Cong, Guozheng; Lin, Tong; Zhao, Furong; Liu, Lihong; Chang, Huiyun
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the wide distributed pathogenic viruses of livestock and wild animals worldwide. E2 glycoprotein is a major structural component of the BVDV virion and plays a key role in viral attachment to host cells and inducing immune responses against viral infection. In order to gain detailed information of the E2 coding region of BVDV circulating in China, 46 positive samples were tested by RT-PCR for the E2 coding region. The 1122 nt nucleotide sequences of full-length E2 were harvested and analyzed. The results suggested that full-length E2 was an ideal target for BVDV genotyping and divided the domestic BVDV isolates into 9 subgenotypes, namely BVDV-1a, -1b1, -1c, -1d, -1o, -1m, -1p, -1q and BVDV-2a, showing great diversity. The difference of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates (dN-dS) inferred both positive and purifying selection of the E2. However, combination of positive and purifying selection at different points indicated purifying selection within the complete E2. Protein properties analysis based on glycosylation sites and epitope prediction demonstrated that the biological character of E2 among individual BVDV subgenotype was similar, but may alter due to amino acid changes. For the first time, the comprehensive collection of E2 sequences of Chinese BVDV isolates was elucidated, which would provide information for future vaccine design and BVD control in China.
Anderson, R A; Scobie, L; O'Neil, B W; Grindlay, G J; Campo, M S
In cattle infection of the upper alimentary canal mucosa by bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) results in the development of papillomas which can progress to cancer in animals fed on bracken fern. This paper describes a study of the cellular and subcellular distribution of a number of different BPV-4 products in experimentally-induced BPV-4 tumours. E8 and E4 proteins were detected solely as cytoplasmic antigens in the undifferentiated and differentiated layers of the papilloma, respectively; L2 was detected solely as a nuclear antigen in the differentiated layers, whereas E7 was present in either the nucleus or the cytoplasm depending on the differentiation stage of the keratinocyte. Replicative forms of viral DNA were detected from the spinous to the squamous layers. Viral antigens were not detected during papilloma regression or in carcinomas. E8 was most prominent in early developmental stages, while E4 and L2 were most abundant in mature papillomas. E7 was present in large amounts in both early and mature stages, declining at later stages. These results suggest a temporal and spatial requirement for the expression and function of the viral proteins.
Han, Yu-Jung; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of livestock and causes substantial economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. BVDV is not necessarily species specific and is known to infect domesticated and wild ruminants. In the present study, BVDV infection was identified in two Saanen goats from one farm, and two different viral subtypes were found, BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a. Each isolate was closely related to cattle isolates identified in the Republic of Korea. The two sequences obtained in this study were not consistent with border disease virus (BDV). The incidence of BVDV in this farm apparently occurred in the absence of contact with cattle and may be associated with grazing. This study demonstrates that BVDV infection may be possible to transmit among goats without exposure to cattle. Therefore, this result indicates that Saanen goats may act as natural reservoirs for BVDV. This is the first report of BVDV-1a infection in a Saanen goat.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of commercially available vaccines against bovine herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza type 3 virus for mitigation of bovine respiratory disease complex in cattle.
Theurer, Miles E; Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J
To evaluate and analyze data from controlled studies on the effectiveness of vaccinating cattle with commercially available viral antigen vaccines for mitigation of the effects of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Systematic review and meta-analysis. 31 studies comprising 88 trials. Studies that reported the effectiveness of commercially available bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI3) vaccines for protection of cattle against BRDC or its components were included in the analysis. Studies or trials were categorized as natural exposure or experimental challenge and were further divided by the viral antigen evaluated and vaccine type (modified-live virus [MLV] or inactivated vaccine). Meta-analysis was performed; summary Mantel-Haenszel risk ratios were determined, and Forest plots were generated. In natural exposure trials, beef calves vaccinated with various antigen combinations had a significantly lower BRDC morbidity risk than did nonvaccinated control calves. In trials evaluating BHV-1 and MLV BVDV vaccines in experimental challenge models, vaccinated calves had a lower BRDC morbidity risk than did control calves; however, in experimental challenge trials evaluating MLV BRSV and PI3 vaccines, no significant difference in morbidity or mortality risk was found between vaccinated and control calves. Estimating clinical efficacy from results of experimental challenge studies requires caution because these models differ substantially from those involving natural exposure. The literature provides data but does not provide sufficiently strong evidence to guide definitive recommendations for determining which virus components are necessary to include in a vaccination program for prevention or mitigation of BRDC in cattle.
Case Description: 1,081 newborn calves from a commercial dairy were tested for bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen by pooled RT-PCR as part of a screening program. Ear tissue from twenty six calves initially tested positive and 14 confirmed positive with antigen capture ELISA two weeks later (1.3...
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an RNA virus that causes respiratory disease in cattle. MicroRNAs have been proposed as indicators of exposure to respiratory pathogens. However, microRNA profiles in cattle exposed to BVDV are currently nonexistent and few studies have been reported; therefore,...
Yeşilbağ, Kadir; Förster, Christine; Ozyiğit, M Ozgür; Alpay, Gizem; Tuncer, Pelin; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; König, Matthias
During 2007 a disease outbreak occurred in cattle in the Marmara region of western Turkey characterised by severe pneumonia and haemorrhagic enteritis in calves. Cases from three farms at different locations were examined and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolated in all cases. Phylogenetic characterisation of the virus isolates allocated them in a new cluster tentatively named as BVDV-1r.
Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is a diverse group of viruses causing disease in ruminants. The objective was to determine genomic regions harboring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with presence or absence of persistent BVDV infections. A genome wide association approach based on...
Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses (BVDV) comprise a diverse group of viruses that cause disease in cattle. BVDV may establish both, transient and persistent infections depending on the developmental stage of the animal at exposure. The objective was to determine if genomic regions harboring single nucle...
Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses (BVDV) comprises a diverse group of viruses that causes disease in cattle. BVDV may establish both, transient and persistent infections depending on the developmental stage of the animal at exposure. The objective was to determine if genomic regions harboring single nuc...
Kuhar, Urška; Kušar, Darja; Papić, Bojan; Koren, Simon; Toplak, Nataša
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) subgenotype 1e was isolated for the first time in Slovenia in 2006. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of BVDV-1e, strain SLO/2407/2006. The published genome will increase our understanding of the molecular characteristics of the BVDV-1e strains circulating in Europe. PMID:27856597
In 2008, a northwest Texas feedlot underwent an outbreak of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) disease causing high morbidity and mortality involving two lots of calves (Lots A and B). Severe mucosal surface lesions were observed grossly in the oral cavity, larynx and esophagus. Mucosal lesions vari...
This is the third installment of a 3 part series on bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), written for a lay publication whose core audience in dairy producers. Control of BVD in any dairy operation must rely on the implementation of an organized strategy combining biosecurity, surveillance and increased herd...
Hay, K E; Ambrose, R C K; Morton, J M; Horwood, P F; Gravel, J L; Waldron, S; Commins, M A; Fowler, E V; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S; Mahony, T J
Viruses play a key role in the complex aetiology of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is widespread in Australia and has been shown to contribute to BRD occurrence. As part of a prospective longitudinal study on BRD, effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on risk of BRD in Australian feedlot cattle were investigated. A total of 35,160 animals were enrolled at induction (when animals were identified and characteristics recorded), held in feedlot pens with other cattle (cohorts) and monitored for occurrence of BRD over the first 50days following induction. Biological samples collected from all animals were tested to determine which animals were persistently infected (PI) with BVDV-1. Data obtained from the Australian National Livestock Identification System database were used to determine which groups of animals that were together at the farm of origin and at 28days prior to induction (and were enrolled in the study) contained a PI animal and hence to identify animals that had probably been exposed to a PI animal prior to induction. Multi-level Bayesian logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on the risk of occurrence of BRD. Although only a total of 85 study animals (0.24%) were identified as being PI with BVDV-1, BVDV-1 was detected on quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 59% of cohorts. The PI animals were at moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.9; 95% credible interval 1.0-3.2). Exposure to BVDV-1 in the cohort was also associated with a moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.7; 95% credible interval 1.1-2.5) regardless of whether or not a PI animal was identified within the cohort. Additional analyses indicated that a single quantitative real-time PCR test is useful for distinguishing PI animals from transiently infected animals. The results of the study suggest that removal of PI animals and/or vaccination, both before feedlot entry, would reduce the impact of BVDV-1 on BRD risk
Aly, N M; Shehab, G G; Abd el-Rahim, I H A
This study reported field outbreaks of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection, either alone or mixed with bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and/or parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3V) in Egypt during 2000. In Lower Egypt, young calves in three cattle herds in El-Minufiya Province, El-Fayoum Province and in governmental quarantine in El-Behira Province, showed symptoms of enteritis, either alone or accompanied by respiratory manifestations. The affected herds were visited and the diseased animals were clinically examined. Many epidemiological aspects, such as morbidities, mortalities and case fatalities, as well as the abortive rate, were calculated. Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid-blood samples, sterile nasal swabs and serum samples were obtained for virological and serological diagnosis. The laboratory investigations revealed that the main cause of calf mortalities in the three herds was infection with BVDV, either alone, as on the El-Minufiya farm, or mixed with PI-3V, as on the El-Fayoum farm, or mixed with both BHV-1 and PI-3V, as in the herd in governmental quarantine in El-Behira Province. A total of nine dead calves from the three herds were submitted for thorough post-mortem examination. Tissue samples from recently dead calves were obtained for immunohistochemical and histopathological studies. The most prominent histopathological findings were massive degeneration, necrosis and erosions of the lining epithelium of the alimentary tract. Most of the lymphoreticular organs were depleted of lymphocytes. In pneumonic cases, bronchopneumonia and atypical interstitial pneumonia were evident. The present study suggested that the immunosuppressive effect of BVDV had predisposed the animals to secondary infection with BHV-1 and PI-3V. This study concluded that concurrent infection with BVDV, BHV-1 and PI-3V should be considered as one of the infectious causes of pneumoenteritis and, subsequently, the high morbidities and mortalities among young calves in Egypt
Rusiñol, Marta; Moriarty, Elaine; Lin, Susan; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Gilpin, Brent
This study evaluated the sources of fecal contamination in different river catchments, using a combination of microbial source tracking tools, for human, ruminant, ovine and bovine livestock, in order to define appropriate water management strategies. Every source of waterway pollution was evaluated in river water samples from one urban river catchment and two important farming regions in New Zealand. Fecal pollution was initially measured by testing Escherichia coli and evaluating the presence of human- and ruminant-associated DNA markers of Bacteroidales (BiAdo, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and BacR) and human and ruminant fecal sterols/stanols ratios. Then specific fecal pollution sources were assessed with previously reported quantitative PCR assays targeting human-, bovine-, and ovine-specific viruses: human adenoviruses (HAdV), human JC polyomaviruses, bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV), and ovine polyomaviruses (OPyV). High level of ruminant fecal contamination was detected all over the farming areas, whereas no ruminant sources were identified in the urban river sampling sites. BacR was the most frequently observed ruminant marker and OPyV and BPyV allowed the identification of ovine and bovine fecal sources. The human fecal viral marker (HAdV) was the most frequently observed human marker, highly abundant in the urban sites, and also present in farming areas. This is the first study using simultaneously the ovine and the bovine viral markers to identify and quantify both bovine and ovine fecal pollution.
KAMEYAMA, Ken-ichiro; KONISHI, Misako; TSUTSUI, Toshiyuki; YAMAMOTO, Takehisa
To establish effective and efficient control measures for bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in Japan, a pilot survey on persistently infected (PI) animals in dairy farms was conducted. A total of 5,949 cattle from 79 farms in 11 prefectures were tested; seven cattle in six farms were identified as PI animals. The proportion of farms with PI animals in Japan was calculated as 7.6% (95% confidence interval: 3.1–16.4%), and proportion of cattle tested as PI animals was 0.12% (95% confidence interval: 0.05–0.25%). The presence of only one or two animals in PI positive farms suggested the application of screening tests covering almost all cattle in each farm using pooled serum or bulk milk could be effective for implementing a large-scale survey for detecting PI animals. PMID:27108988
Smith, Rebecca L; Sanderson, Michael W; Jones, Rodney; N'Guessan, Yapo; Renter, David; Larson, Robert; White, Brad J
A stochastic model was designed to calculate the cost-effectiveness of biosecurity strategies for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cow-calf herds. Possible sources of BVDV introduction considered were imported animals, including the calves of pregnant imports, and fenceline contact with infected herds, including stocker cattle raised in adjacent pastures. Spread of BVDV through the herd was modeled with a stochastic SIR model. Financial consequences of BVDV, including lost income, treatment costs, and the cost of biosecurity strategies, were calculated for 10 years, based on the risks of a herd with a user-defined import profile. Results indicate that importing pregnant animals and stockers increased the financial risk of BVDV. Strategic testing in combination with vaccination most decreased the risk of high-cost outbreaks in most herds. The choice of a biosecurity strategy was specific to the risks of a particular herd.
Alves, Pedro A; Figueiredo, Poliana O; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; Barbosa, José D; Lima, Danillo H S; Bomjardim, Henrique A; Silva, Natália S; Campos, Karinny F; Oliveira, Carlos Magno C; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Kroon, Erna G; de Souza Trindade, Giliane
In 2011, an outbreak of severe vesicular disease occurred in the state of Pará, Amazon region. Besides proliferative or verrucous lesions, cattle showed atypical clinical signs such as diarrhea and leading to death. The animals were submitted to clinical, pathological and molecular diagnosis, and laboratory tests have confirmed the presence of Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), a Parapoxvirus genus member, and have also found Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1), probably causing persistent infection. The results of molecular diagnostics, followed by sequencing data demonstrated the circulation of both viruses (PCPV and BVDV-1) in an area previously affected by another poxvirus, as Vaccinia virus.The cocirculation between PCPV and BVDV-1 indicates a major concern for animal health because the clinical presentation can be a severe disease. This is the first detection of PCPV in the Brazilian Amazon.
Szabára, Ágnes; Lang, Zsolt; Földi, József; Hornyák, Ákos; Abonyi, Tamás; Ózsvári, László
A study was performed to survey the virological prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus (BVDV) in cattle herds in Hungary between 2008 and 2012. A total of 40,413 samples for BVDV detection and 24,547 samples for antibody testing were collected from 3,247 herds (570,524 animals), thus representing approximately 75% of the cattle population in Hungary. Retrospective Bayesian analysis demonstrated that (1) the herd-level true virus prevalence was 12.4%, (2) the mean individual (within-herd) true virus prevalence was 7.2% in the herds having at least one virus-positive animal and 0.89% for all investigated herds with a mean apparent prevalence of 1.15% for the same population. This is the first study about BVDV prevalence in Hungary.
Heffernan, C; Misturelli, F; Nielsen, L; Gunn, G J; Yu, J
At present, national-level policies concerning the eradication and control of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) differ widely across Europe. Some Scandinavian countries have enacted strong regulatory frameworks to eradicate the disease, whereas other countries have few formal policies. To examine these differences, the attitudes of stakeholders and policy makers in 17 European countries were investigated. A web-based questionnaire was sent to policy makers, government and private sector veterinarians, and representatives of farmers' organisations. In total, 131 individuals responded to the questionnaire and their responses were analysed by applying a method used in sociolinguistics: frame analysis. The results showed that the different attitudes of countries that applied compulsory or voluntary frameworks were associated with different views about the attribution or blame for BVD and the roles ascribed to farmers and other stakeholders in its eradication and control.
Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product.
Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H; Haines, Deborah M; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M Daniel
Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses.
Decaro, N; Lucente, M S; Lanave, G; Gargano, P; Larocca, V; Losurdo, M; Ciambrone, L; Marino, P A; Parisi, A; Casalinuovo, F; Buonavoglia, C; Elia, G
Recently, bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2c (BVDV-2c) was responsible for a severe outbreak in cattle in northern Europe. Here, we present the results of an epidemiological survey for pestiviruses in ruminants in southern Italy. Pooled serum samples were obtained from 997 bovine, 800 ovine, 431 caprine and eight bubaline farms, and pestiviral RNA was detected by molecular methods in 44 farms consisting of 16 cattle and one buffalo herds and of 21 sheep and six goat flocks. Twenty-nine and 15 farms were infected by BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 strains, respectively. BVDV-1 strains were recovered mainly from cattle and were heterogeneous, belonging to the subtypes 1b, 1u, 1e, 1g and 1h. In contrast, all BVDV-2 viruses but two were detected in sheep or goats and were characterized as BVDV-2c by sequence analysis of 5'UTR. These strains displayed high genetic identity to BVDV-2c circulating in cattle in northern Europe and were more distantly related to a BVDV-2c isolate recovered from a cattle herd in southern Italy more than 10 years before. The circulation of a BVDV-2c in small ruminants suggests the need for a continuous surveillance for the emergence of pestivirus-induced clinical signs in southern Italian farms.
Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Givens, M. Daniel; Brock, Kenny V.; DeYoung, Randy W.; Walz, Paul H.
Cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, are an important source of viral transmission to susceptible hosts. Persistent BVDV infections have been identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America. As PI deer shed BVDV similarly to PI cattle, maintenance of BVDV within white-tailed deer populations may be possible. To date, intraspecific transmission of BVDV in white-tailed deer has not been evaluated, which prompted this study. Six pregnant white-tailed deer were captured in the first trimester of pregnancy and cohabitated with a PI white-tailed deer. Cohabitation with the PI deer resulted in BVDV infection in all does, as indicated by seroconversion. All does gave birth to live fawns and no reproductive losses were observed. At birth, evidence of BVDV infection was identified in two singlet fawns, of which one was determined to be PI by repeated serum reverse transcription nested PCR, whole blood virus isolation and immunohistochemistry. This study demonstrates for the first time that BVDV transmission may occur among white-tailed deer. The birth of a PI fawn through contact to a PI white-tailed deer indicates that under appropriate circumstances, BVDV may be maintained in white-tailed deer by congenital infection. PMID:19922743
Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S; Givens, M Daniel; Brock, Kenny V; DeYoung, Randy W; Walz, Paul H
Cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, are an important source of viral transmission to susceptible hosts. Persistent BVDV infections have been identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America. As PI deer shed BVDV similarly to PI cattle, maintenance of BVDV within white-tailed deer populations may be possible. To date, intraspecific transmission of BVDV in white-tailed deer has not been evaluated, which prompted this study. Six pregnant white-tailed deer were captured in the first trimester of pregnancy and cohabitated with a PI white-tailed deer. Cohabitation with the PI deer resulted in BVDV infection in all does, as indicated by seroconversion. All does gave birth to live fawns and no reproductive losses were observed. At birth, evidence of BVDV infection was identified in two singlet fawns, of which one was determined to be PI by repeated serum reverse transcription nested PCR, whole blood virus isolation and immunohistochemistry. This study demonstrates for the first time that BVDV transmission may occur among white-tailed deer. The birth of a PI fawn through contact to a PI white-tailed deer indicates that under appropriate circumstances, BVDV may be maintained in white-tailed deer by congenital infection. INRA, EDP Sciences, 2009
Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, M Daniel
The pestiviruses, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), classical swine fever (CSFV) and border disease virus, are important livestock pathogens in many countries, but current vaccines do not completely prevent the spread of infection. Control of pestiviral diseases is especially difficult due to the constant viremia and viral shedding of persistently infected (PI) animals, which must be identified and eliminated to prevent disease transmission. Existing vaccines are limited by the delay between vaccination and the onset of protection, the difficulty of differentiating serologically between vaccinated and naturally infected animals and the need for broad vaccine cross-protection against diverse virus strains. Antiviral therapy could potentially supplement vaccination by providing immediate protection in the case of an outbreak. Numerous compounds with in vitro antiviral activity against BVDV have been identified through its role as a surrogate for hepatitis C virus. Fewer drugs active against CSFV have been identified, but many compounds that are effective against BVDV will likely inhibit CSFV, given their similar genomic sequences. While in vitro research has been promising, the paucity of efficacy studies in animals has hindered the commercial development of effective antiviral drugs against the pestiviruses. In this article, we summarize the clinical syndromes and routes of transmission of BVD, CSF and border disease, discuss currently approved vaccines, review efforts to develop antiviral therapies for use in outbreak control and suggest promising directions for future research.
Aduriz, Gorka; Atxaerandio, Raquel; Cortabarria, Nekane
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a member of the genus Pestivirus that belongs to the family Flaviviridae. BVDV is found worldwide in cattle population and causes significant economic losses to the dairy and beef industries. Two distinct genotypes of BVDV exist: BVDV type 1 (BVDV-1) and BVDV type 2 (BVDV-2). The aim of the present study was to investigate retrospectively the presence of BVDV-2 in Spain. With this objective, 47 blood samples that had tested positive in an ELISA for BVDV antigen were selected. Samples had been submitted by practitioners to the Diagnostic Service of NEIKER. The 18 herds of origin were all located in the northern half of Spain. BVDV positive samples were genotyped by reverse transcription-PCR. BVDV-1 was detected with the highest frequency (46/47), in contrast to BVDV-2 (2/47). In one blood sample, both pestivirus genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, were detected. Sequencing of a viral genomic region, 5' untranslated region, confirmed the identity of the BVDV-2 isolate. So far as the authors know, this is the first reported presence of BVDV-2 in cattle herds in Spain. This finding may have important implications for the epidemiology, diagnosis and control of BVDV infection in the country.
Hansen, Thomas R; Smirnova, Natalia P; Webb, Brett T; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Sacco, Randy E; Van Campen, Hana
Infection of pregnant cows with noncytopathic (ncp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) induces rapid innate and adaptive immune responses, resulting in clearance of the virus in less than 3 weeks. Seven to 14 days after inoculation of the cow, ncpBVDV crosses the placenta and induces a fetal viremia. Establishment of persistent infection with ncpBVDV in the fetus has been attributed to the inability to mount an immune response before 90-150 days of gestational age. The result is 'immune tolerance', persistent viral replication and shedding of ncpBVDV. In contrast, we describe the chronic upregulation of fetal Type I interferon (IFN) pathway genes and the induction of IFN-γ pathways in fetuses of cows infected on day 75 of gestation. Persistently infected (PI) fetal IFN-γ concentrations also increased at day 97 at the peak of fetal viremia and IFN-γ mRNA was significantly elevated in fetal thymus, liver and spleen 14-22 days post maternal inoculation. PI fetuses respond to ncpBVDV infection through induction of Type I IFN and IFN-γ activated genes leading to a reduction in ncpBVDV titer. We hypothesize that fetal infection with BVDV persists because of impaired induction of IFN-γ in the face of activated Type I IFN responses. Clarification of the mechanisms involved in the IFN-associated pathways during BVDV fetal infection may lead to better detection methods, antiviral compounds and selection of genetically resistant breeding animals.
Factor, C.; Yus, E.; Eiras, C.; Sanjuan, M. L.; Cerviño, M.; Arnaiz, I.; Diéguez, F. J.
This study examined the frequency and diversity of bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDVs) infecting cattle in Galicia (northwestern Spain). A total of 86 BVDV strains were typed in samples of serum from 79 persistently infected animals and 3 viraemic animals and of abomasal fluid from 4 fetuses. Samples came from 73 farms participating in a voluntary BVDV control programme. Typing was based on a 288-bp sequence from the 5′ untranslated region amplified using primers 324 and 326. Of the 86 strains, 85 (98.8 per cent) belonged to species BVDV-1 and 1 (1.2 per cent) belonged to BVDV-2; 73 strains (84.9 per cent) were typed as BVDV-1b, 2 as BVDV-1e and 6 as BVDV-1d. One strain each was typed as belonging to 1a, 1h, 1k and 1l. The sole BVDV-2 strain was classified as 2a. These results identify BVDV-1b as the predominant species, and they indicate the presence of viral types not previously described anywhere in Spain. This is also the first report of BVDV-2 in Galicia and only the second report of BVDV-2 in Spain. PMID:27843559
Russell, G C; Grant, D M; Lycett, S; Bachofen, C; Caldow, G L; Burr, P D; Davie, K; Ambrose, N; Gunn, G J; Zadoks, R N
Samples from bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV)-positive cattle were gathered by Scottish diagnostic laboratories and used to produce a Biobank of samples with associated location and identification data in support of the Scottish BVDV eradication scheme. The samples were subject to direct amplification and sequencing of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) to define the viral types and subtypes present. From 2693 samples collected prior to 2016, approximately 2300 sequences were obtained, representing 8 BVDV type 1 subtypes. No BVDV type 2 samples were detected. The samples came from all regions of the UK but 66 per cent were from Scotland. Analysis of the sequences showed great diversity in the 5'-UTR, with 1206 different sequences. Many samples carried virus with identical 5'-UTR sequences; often from single locations, but there were also examples of the same sequence being obtained from samples at several different locations. This work provides a resource that can be used to analyse the movement of BVDV strains both within Scotland and between Scotland and other nations, particularly in the latter stages of the Scottish eradication programme, and so inform the advice available to both livestock keepers and policymakers. British Veterinary Association.
Collett, M S; Anderson, D K; Retzel, E
The molecular features of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), a member of the Pestivirus genus currently classified in the Togaviridae, were examined for characteristics resembling those of the Flaviviridae family. Like flaviviruses, BVDV possesses a single-stranded RNA genome (approx. 4.3 x 10(6) Mr) deficient in a 3' poly(A) tract. This RNA has a single open reading frame spanning the length of the genome in the viral RNA sense (positive polarity), implying an expression strategy involving the processing of a precursor polyprotein. With the exception of several short but significant stretches of identical amino acids within two non-structural proteins, no extended regions of nucleotide or amino acid sequence homology between BVDV and representatives of three serological subgroups of mosquito-borne flaviviruses were noted. However, comparison of the organization of protein-coding domains along the genomes and the hydropathic profiles of amino acid sequences revealed pronounced similarities. It is proposed that Pestivirus, of which BVDV is the prototype member, should no longer be grouped in the Togaviridae family, but rather be considered a genus of non-arthropod-borne viruses within the Flaviviridae.
Callens, Nathalie; Brügger, Britta; Bonnafous, Pierre; Drobecq, Hervé; Gerl, Mathias J.; Krey, Thomas; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Till; Lambert, Olivier; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves
The family Flaviviridae includes viruses that have different virion structures and morphogenesis mechanisms. Most cellular and molecular studies have been so far performed with viruses of the Hepacivirus and Flavivirus genera. Here, we studied bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a member of the Pestivirus genus. We set up a method to purify BVDV virions and analyzed their morphology by electron microscopy and their protein and lipid composition by mass spectrometry. Cryo-electron microscopy showed near spherical viral particles displaying an electron-dense capsid surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer with no visible spikes. Most particles had a diameter of 50 nm and about 2% were larger with a diameter of up to 65 nm, suggesting some size flexibility during BVDV morphogenesis. Morphological and biochemical data suggested a low envelope glycoprotein content of BVDV particles, E1 and E2 being apparently less abundant than Erns. Lipid content of BVDV particles displayed a ~2.3 to 3.5-fold enrichment in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and hexosyl-ceramide, concomitant with a 1.5 to 5-fold reduction of all glycerophospholipid classes, as compared to lipid content of MDBK cells. Although BVDV buds in the endoplasmic reticulum, its lipid content differs from a typical endoplasmic reticulum membrane composition. This suggests that BVDV morphogenesis includes a mechanism of lipid sorting. Functional analyses confirmed the importance of cholesterol and sphingomyelin for BVDV entry. Surprisingly, despite a high cholesterol and sphingolipid content of BVDV envelope, E2 was not found in detergent-resistant membranes. Our results indicate that there are differences between the structure and molecular composition of viral particles of Flaviviruses, Pestiviruses and Hepaciviruses within the Flaviviridae family. PMID:26939061
Abe, Yuri; Tamura, Tomokazu; Torii, Shiho; Wakamori, Shiho; Nagai, Makoto; Mitsuhashi, Kazuya; Mine, Junki; Fujimoto, Yuri; Nagashima, Naofumi; Yoshino, Fumi; Sugita, Yukihiko; Nomura, Takushi; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro
In our previous study, we genetically analyzed bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) isolated from 2000 to 2006 in Japan and reported that subgenotype 1b viruses were predominant. In the present study, 766 BVDVs isolated from 2006 to 2014 in Hokkaido, Japan, were genetically analyzed to understand recent epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the 5'-untranslated region of viral genome revealed that 766 isolates were classified as genotype 1 (BVDV-1; 544 isolates) and genotype 2 (BVDV-2; 222). BVDV-1 isolates were further divided into BVDV-1a (93), 1b (371) and 1c (80) subgenotypes, and all BVDV-2 isolates were grouped into BVDV-2a subgenotype (222). Further comparative analysis was performed with BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a viruses isolated from 2001 to 2014. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the viral glycoprotein E2 gene, a major target of neutralizing antibodies, revealed that BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were further classified into several clusters. Cross-neutralization tests showed that BVDV-1b isolates were antigenically different from BVDV-1a isolates, and almost BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were antigenically similar among each subgenotype and each E2 cluster. Taken together, BVDV-1b viruses are still predominant, and BVDV-2a viruses have increased recently in Hokkaido, Japan. Field isolates of BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a show genetic diversity on the E2 gene with antigenic conservation among each subgenotype during the last 14 years.
Vander Ley, Brian L; Ridpath, Julia F; Sweiger, Shaun H
Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a costly disease of cattle that can be controlled by vaccination, biosecurity, and removal of persistently infected cattle. Development and proficiency testing of assays to identify persistently infected cattle requires substantial quantities of known positive- and negative-sample material. The objective of this study was to determine what sections of bovine skin contained Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen. Two commercially available antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunoassays were used to test subsamples representing the entire skin of 3 persistently infected calves. Both assays detected Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen in the samples indicated for use by assay protocol. However, one assay identified all subsamples as positive, while the second assay identified 64.4% of subsamples as positive. These results show that use of samples other than those specified by the assay protocol must be validated for each individual assay. In this study, alternative sample sites and use of the entire hide for proficiency testing would be acceptable for only one of the assays tested.
Villalba, Melina; Canales, Nivia; Maldonado, Nicolas; Otth, Carola; Fredericksen, Fernanda; Garcés, Pablo; Stepke, Cristopher; Arriagada, Valentina; Olavarría, Víctor H
Viruses have developed cellular strategies to ensure progeny survival. One of the most interesting is immune camouflage, where the virus triggers a controlled-intensity immune response that prevents total destruction of the infected cell, thus "winning time" for the virus. This study explored the regulatory contexts of the bovine A20 gene during bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-1 infection, using IL-8 as an immune-response sentinel molecule. Assessments were conducted through RT-qPCR, Western blotting, gene silencing/overexpression, luciferase assays, and the use of pharmacological inhibitors, among other approaches. The results demonstrated that a) BVDV-1 increased A20 levels in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells, b) increased A20 led to decreased IL-8 expression, and c) the virus affected the NF-κB signaling pathway. Collectively, these data identify bovine A20 as a strong regulator of immune marker expression. In conclusion, this is the first report on BVDV-1 modulating bovine IL-8 activation through the NF-κB/A20 pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fulton, Robert W.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Briggs, Robert E.; Confer, Anthony W.; Burge, Lurinda J.; Purdy, C. W.; Loan, Raymond W.; Duff, Glenn C.; Payton, Mark E.
The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections was determined in 2 groups of stocker calves with acute respiratory disease. Both studies used calves assembled after purchase from auction markets by an order buyer and transported to feedyards, where they were held for approximately 30 d. In 1 study, the calves were mixed with fresh ranch calves from a single ranch. During the studies, at day 0 and at weekly intervals, blood was collected for viral antibody testing and virus isolation from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs), and nasal swabs were taken for virus isolation. Samples from sick calves were also collected. Serum was tested for antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), BVDV1a, 1b, and 2, parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3V), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). The lungs from the calves that died during the studies were examined histopathologically, and viral and bacterial isolation was performed on lung homogenates. BVDV was isolated from calves in both studies; the predominant biotype was noncytopathic (NCP). Differential polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid sequencing showed the predominant subtype to be BVDV1b in both studies. In 1999, NCP BVDV1b was detected in numerous samples over time from 1 persistently infected calf; the calf did not seroconvert to BVDV1a or BVDV2. In both studies, BVDV was isolated from the serum, PBLs, and nasal swabs of the calves, and in the 1999 study, it was isolated from lung tissue at necropsy. BVDV was demonstrated serologically and by virus isolation to be a contributing factor in respiratory disease. It was isolated more frequently from sick calves than healthy calves, by both pen and total number of calves. BVDV1a and BVDV2 seroconversions were related to sickness in selected pens and total number of calves. In the 1999 study, BVDV-infected calves were treated longer than noninfected calves (5.643 vs 4.639 d; P = 0.0902). There was a limited number of BVDV1a isolates and, with BVDV1b
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen of cattle that can naturally infect a wide range of even-toed ungulates. Non-bovine hosts may represent reservoirs for the virus that have the potential to hamper BVDV eradication programs usually focused on cattle. Rabbits are very abundant in countries such as the United Kingdom or Australia and are often living on or near livestock pastures. Earlier reports indicated that rabbits can propagate BVDV upon intravenous exposure and that natural infection of rabbits with BVDV may occur but experimental proof of infection of rabbits by a natural route is lacking. Therefore, New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to a Scottish BVDV field strain intravenously, oro-nasally and by contaminating their hay with virus. None of the animals showed any clinical signs. However, the lymphoid organs from animals sacrificed at day five after exposure showed histological changes typical of transient infection with pestivirus. Most organ samples and some buffy coat samples were virus positive at day five but saliva samples remained negative. Development of antibodies was observed in all intravenously challenged animals, in all of the nebulised group and in four of six animals exposed to contaminated hay. To our knowledge this is the first report of BVDV propagation in a species other than ruminants or pigs after exposure to the virus by a natural route. However, to assess the role of rabbits as a potential reservoir for BVDV it remains to be determined whether persistent infection caused by intra-uterine infection is possible and whether BVDV is circulating in wild rabbit populations. PMID:24690167
Taniyama, H; Ushiki, T; Tajima, M; Kurosawa, T; Kitamura, N; Takahashi, K; Matsukawa, K; Itakura, C
Histologic and immunohistochemical studies were carried out on four young cattle with diabetes mellitus associated with persistent bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus infection. Clinical findings included persistent hyperglycemia, decreased glucose tolerance, glycosuria, polydipsia, and severe emaciation. Macroscopically, multiple erosions and ulcers in the mucosa of upper and lower alimentary tracts and swollen lymph nodes were commonly observed. Erosions and ulcers in the mucosa of tongue, esophagus, and forestomach were represented histologically by necrosis of squamous epithelium with neutrophilic infiltration. In the small and large intestines, villous atrophy and suppurative cryptitis were often observed, along with diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages and fibroplasia in the lamina propria. In the pancreas of all cattle, there was a reduction in the number of islet cells, and most of the residual islet cells had hydropic degeneration and a decreased number of secretory granules. Immunohistochemical examination confirmed that these cells were severely degranulated beta-cells. In addition, many islets containing necrotic islet cells were observed. These islet cells had increased eosinophilia and shrinkage of cytoplasm, as well as pyknotic nuclei. Inflammation of the islets with mild infiltration of lymphocytes was observed in all pancreatic lobes. In addition, bovine IgG-immunoreactive cells were identified immunohistochemically in the affected pancreatic islets. The BVD virus antigen was not identified in the cytoplasm of the islet cells by immunohistochemical study, although it was identified in the epithelial cells of the small intestine. The histologic and immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that the pancreatic lesions in these animals were similar to those caused by acute insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in human beings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Yilmaz, Huseyin; Altan, Eda; Ridpath, Julia; Turan, Nuri
The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and diversity of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) infecting cattle in Turkey. A total of 1124 bovine blood samples from 19 farms in 4 different Turkish regions were tested by antigen capture ELISA (ACE). BVDV antigen was found in 26 samples from 13 farms. Only 20 of the 26 initial test positive cattle were available for retesting. Of these, 6 of 20 tested positive for BVDV, by ACE and real-time RT-PCR, one month after initial testing. Phylogenetic analysis, based on comparison of the E2 or the 5'UTR coding regions, from 19 of the 26 initial positive samples, indicated that 17 belonged to the BVDV-1 genotype and 2 to the BVDV-2 genotype. Comparison of 5'UTR sequences segregated 8 BVDV-1 strains (strains 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, and 19) to the BVDV1f, 1 strain (strain 8) to the BVDV1i and 1 strain (strain 14) to the BVDV1d subgenotypes. One strain (strain 4) did not group with other subgenotypes but was closer to the BVDV1f. The remaining 6 BVDV-1 strains (strains 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, and 18) segregated to a novel subgenotype. The E2 sequence comparison results were similar, with the exception that strain 5 grouped with the novel subgenotype rather than BVDV1f subgenotype. It appears that among the diverse BVDV strains in circulation there may be a subgenotype that is unique to Turkey. This should be considered in the design of diagnostics and vaccines to be used in Turkey.
Wang, H-M; Xia, X-Z; Hu, G-X; Yu, L; He, H-B
Innate immunity, especially the anti-viral genes, exerts an important barrier function in preventing viral infections. Myxovirus-resistant (Mx) gene take an anti-viral role, whereas its effects on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in naturally susceptible cells are still unclear. The bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cell line BPTE-siMx1, in which bovine Mx1 gene was silenced, was established and treated with IFN alpha for 6 hr before FMDV infection. The copy numbers of the negative and positive strand viral RNA were determined by strand-specific real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The TCID50 of BPTE-siMx1 cells increased at least 17-fold as compared to control cells BPTE-LacZ at 8 hr post infection, thus silencing of bovine Mx1 could promote the replication of FMDV. The amount of both the negative and positive strand viral RNA in BPTE-siMx1 cells significantly increased as compared to BPTE-LacZ cells, indicating that the replication levels of viral RNA were promoted by silencing bovine Mx1. The bovine Mx1 gene could provide resistance against FMDV in the bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cells via suppressing the replication of viral RNA.
Palomares, Roberto A; Sakamoto, Kaori; Walz, Heather L; Brock, Kenny V; Hurley, David J
The objective of this study was to determine the abundance and distribution of γδ T lymphocytes in lymphoid tissue during acute infection with high (HV) or low virulence (LV) non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in beef calves. This study was performed using tissue samples from a previous experiment in which thirty beef calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: LV [n=10; animals inoculated intranasally (IN) with LV BVDV-1a (strain SD-1)], HV [n=10; animals inoculated IN with HV BVDV-2 (strain 1373)], and control (n=10; animals inoculated with cell culture medium). On day 5 post inoculation, animals were euthanized, and samples from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were collected to assess the abundance of WC1(+) γδ T cells. A higher proportion of calves challenged with BVDV showed signs of apoptosis and cytophagy in MLN and spleen samples compared to the control group. A significantly lower number of γδ T cells was observed in spleen and MLN from calves in HV and LV groups than in the control calves (P<0.05). In conclusion, acute infection with HV or LV BVDV resulted in depletion of WC1(+) γδ T cells in mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues at five days after challenge in beef calves. This reduction in γδ T cells in the studied lymphoid tissues could be also due to lymphocyte trafficking to other tissues.
Sayers, R G; Byrne, N; O'Doherty, E; Arkins, S
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) are contagious bovine viral agents. The objectives of this study were to use quarterly bulk milk and 'spot' testing of unvaccinated youngstock to establish the national prevalence of exposure to BVDV and/or BoHV-1 in Irish dairy herds. Seasonality of bulk milk ELISA results was also examined. From a geographically representative population of 305 dairy herds, 88% and 80% of herds yielded mean annual positive bulk milk readings for BVDV and BoHV-1, respectively. Of these, 61% were vaccinated against BVDV and 12% against BoHV-1. A total of 2171 serum samples from weanlings having a mean age of 291 days yielded 543 (25%) seropositive for BVDV, and 117 (5.4%) seropositive for BoHV-1. A significant seasonal trend in bulk milk antibody ELISA readings and herd status was recorded for BVDV, with more herds categorised as positive in the latter half of the year.
Gebauer, Mandy; Behrens, Martina; König, Matthias; Behrens, Sven-Erik
Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) have a huge economic impact on cattle production and reproduction worldwide. A key factor for BVDV surveillance and eventual eradication is to efficiently detect infections and to monitor herd immunity. In this study, we generated a stable, bi-cistronic BVDV that encoded EGFP in addition to the viral proteins. Applying this recombinant virus, a new flow-cytometry-based virus neutralization test was established that enabled accurate and reliable detection of field-virus-infected and vaccinated animals. The test, which is simple and fast, is expected to support novel, effective screening procedures in eradication and vaccination programmes.
Givens, M Daniel; Riddell, Kay P; Zhang, Yijing; Galik, Patricia K; Stringfellow, David A; Brodersen, Bruce W; Jackson, James A; Ellsworth, Michael A; Ficken, Martin D; Carson, Robert L; Wenzel, James G W; Marley, M Shonda
A commercial vaccine containing modified-live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV; types 1 and 2) was administered to one group of 22 peripubertal bulls 28 days before intranasal inoculation with a type 1 strain of BVDV. A second group of 23 peripubertal bulls did not receive the modified-live BVDV vaccine before intranasal inoculation. Ten of 23 unvaccinated bulls--but none of the vaccinated bulls--developed a persistent testicular infection as determined by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. Results of this study indicate that administration of a modified-live vaccine containing BVDV can prevent persistent testicular infection if peripubertal bulls are vaccinated before viral exposure.
Smirnova, Natalia P; Ptitsyn, Andrey A; Austin, Kathleen J; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Han, Hyungchul; van Olphen, Alberto L; Hansen, Thomas R
The consequences of viral infection during pregnancy include impact on fetal and maternal immune responses and on fetal development. Transplacental infection in cattle with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) during early gestation results in persistently infected (PI) fetuses with life-long viremia and susceptibility to infections. Infection of the fetus during the third trimester or after birth leads to a transient infection cleared by a competent immune system. We hypothesized that ncpBVDV infection and presence of an infected fetus would alter immune response and lead to downregulation of proinflammatory processes in pregnant dams. Naïve pregnant heifers were challenged with ncpBVDV2 on day 75 (PI fetus) and day 175 [transiently infected (TI) fetus] or kept uninfected (healthy control fetus). Maternal blood samples were collected up to day 190 of gestation. Genome-wide microarray analysis of gene expression in maternal peripheral white blood cells, performed on days 160 and 190 of gestation, revealed multiple signal transduction pathways affected by ncpBVDV infection. Acute infection and presence of a TI fetus caused upregulation of the type I interferon (IFN) pathway genes, including dsRNA sensors and IFN-stimulated genes. The presence of a PI fetus caused prolonged downregulation of chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and T cell receptor (TCR) signaling in maternal blood cells. We conclude that: 1) infection with ncpBVDV induces a vigorous type I IFN response, and 2) presence of a PI fetus causes downregulation of important signaling pathways in the blood of the dam, which could have deleterious consequences on fetal development and the immune response.
Passler, T; Walz, H L; Ditchkoff, S S; van Santen, E; Brock, K V; Walz, P H
Infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), analogous to that occurring in cattle, is reported rarely in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). This study evaluated the distribution of BVDV antigen in persistently infected (PI) white-tailed deer and compared the findings with those from PI cattle. Six PI fawns (four live-born and two stillborn) from does exposed experimentally to either BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 were evaluated. Distribution and intensity of antigen expression in tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed in binary fashion with a proportional odds model. Viral antigen was distributed widely and was present in all 11 organ systems. Hepatobiliary, integumentary and reproductive systems were respectively 11.8, 15.4 and 21.6 times more likely to have higher antigen scores than the musculoskeletal system. Pronounced labelling occurred in epithelial tissues, which were 1.9-3.0 times likelier than other tissues to contain BVDV antigen. Antigen was present in >90% of samples of liver and skin, suggesting that skin biopsy samples are appropriate for BVDV diagnosis. Moderate to severe lymphoid depletion was detected and may hamper reliable detection of BVDV in lymphoid organs. Muscle tissue contained little antigen, except for in the cardiovascular system. Antigen was present infrequently in connective tissues. In nervous tissues, antigen expression frequency was 0.3-0.67. In the central nervous system (CNS), antigen was present in neurons and non-neuronal cells, including microglia, emphasizing that the CNS is a primary target for fetal BVDV infection. BVDV antigen distribution in PI white-tailed deer is similar to that in PI cattle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bedekovic, Tomislav; Mihaljevic, Zeljko; Jungic, Andreja; Lemo, Nina; Lojkic, Ivana; Cvetnic, Zeljko; Cac, Zeljko
To eliminate cytotoxic effects of colostrum on cells, a modified virus neutralization test (VNT) for the detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in colostrum was developed. The new test was compared to the World Organization for Animal Health-recommended VNT and the results evaluated. The agreement of the new test compared to the standard VNT was determined to be 98%, whereas sensitivity and specificity of the modified VNT compared to the standard VNT were 100%. Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific antibodies were detected in 42 sera samples and 38 colostrum samples. The antibody titers in serum and colostrum showed a high correlation (n = 56, r = 0.9719, P < 0.001). The modified virus neutralization technique described herein succeeds in eliminating cytotoxic effects and can be readily applied for the detection of specific antibodies against other infectious agents in colostrum.
Joo, Soo-Kyung; Lim, Seong-In; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Song, Jae-Young; Oem, Jae-Ku; Mun, Seong-Hwan; An, Dong-Jun
Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belonging to genotype 1d, strain 10JJ-SKR, which was isolated from cattle. The complete genome is 12,267 nucleotides (nt) in length, with a single large open reading frame. This is the first report of a BVDV belonging to genotype 1d and will enable further study of the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of this virus.
Mósena, Ana Cristina S; Weber, Matheus N; Cibulski, Samuel P; Silveira, Simone; Silva, Mariana S; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Canal, Cláudio W
Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Based on the 5' untranslated region (UTR) sequence, BVDV-1 can be divided into at least 17 subtypes (1a though 1q). BVDV-1i is an uncommon subtype that has been reported in the United Kingdom and Uruguay. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the first subtype 1i BVDV-1 (strain ACM/BR/2016) isolated from cattle in southern Brazil. The genome is 12,231 nt in length and contains a single ORF that encodes a polyprotein of 3,896 amino acids, flanked by 5' and 3'UTRs of 325 and 220 nt, respectively. Phylogenetic inferences based on the whole genome, the 5'UTR, and the N(pro) region showed that strain ACM/BR/2016 is closely related to previously characterized BVDV-1i members. Its 5'UTR shares the highest nucleotide identity (90.5%) with BVDV-1i strains from United Kingdom, and its N(pro) is most closely related to that of a Uruguayan strain (90.6%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first BVDV-1i strain from which the whole genome has been completely sequenced and characterized. The complete genome of a BVDV-1i will help future studies on pestivirus evolution and heterogeneity.
Greth, A; Calvez, D; Vassart, M; Lefèvre, P C
Tests for antibodies to bovine bacterial and viral pathogens were conducted on 239 sera from 128 Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from seven locations (Taif, Riyadh and Mahazat as Said, Saudi Arabia; San Diego, United States of America [USA]; Shaumari, Jordan; Qatar; and Bahrain). No antibodies to Pasteurella multocida type E or epizootic haemorrhagic disease 1 virus were found. Antibodies to Brucella abortus, P. multocida type B, P. multocida type D, lumpy skin disease virus and Akabane virus were detected in 2, 1, 5, 2 and 1 animals, respectively. Evidence of P. multocida type A, Coxiella burnetti, Chlamydia psittaci and parainfluenza 3 virus was found in 3 herds (prevalence in the main herd [n = 78]: 8%), 3 herds (8%), 6 herds (7%) and 5 herds (15%), respectively. Evidence of antibodies against bluetongue virus was found in five oryx from the USA and in one oryx from the Taif herd. Antibody vaccinal titres against rinderpest virus (and the virus of peste des petits ruminants, due to cross-reactions) were found in almost all the herds. This is the first report of antibodies against B. abortus, C. burnetti, C. psittaci, parainfluenza 3 virus and Akabane virus in the genus Oryx.
Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Walz, Paul H.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototypic member of the genus Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Infections with BVDV cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industries, prompting various organized control programs in several countries. In North America, these control programs are focused on the identification and removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle, enhancement of BVDV-specific immunity through vaccination, and the implementation of biosecure farming practices. To be successful, control measures must be based on complete knowledge of the epidemiology of BVDV, including the recognition of other potential sources of the virus. BVDV does not possess strict host-specificity, and infections of over 50 species in the mammalian order Artiodactyla have been reported. Over 50 years ago, serologic surveys first suggested the susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America, to BVDV. However, susceptibility of white-tailed deer to BVDV infection does not alone imply a role in the epidemiology of the virus. To be a potential wildlife reservoir, white-tailed deer must: (1) be susceptible to BVDV, (2) shed BVDV, (3) maintain BVDV in the population, and (4) have sufficient contact with cattle that allow spillback infections. Based on the current literature, this review discusses the potential of white-tailed deer to be a reservoir for BVDV. PMID:27379074
Foddai, Alessandro; Boklund, Anette; Stockmarr, Anders; Krogh, Kaspar; Enøe, Claes
A quantitative risk assessment was carried out to estimate the likelihood of introducing bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Danish dairy herds per year and per trimester, respectively. The present study gives important information on the impact of risk mitigation measures and sources of uncertainty due to lack of data. As suggested in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement), the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code was followed for a transparent science-based risk assessment. Data from 2010 on imports of live cattle, semen, and embryos, exports of live cattle, as well as use of vaccines were analyzed. Information regarding the application of biosecurity measures, by veterinarians and hoof trimmers practicing in Denmark and in other countries, was obtained by contacting several stakeholders, public institutions and experts. Stochastic scenario trees were made to evaluate the importance of the various BVDV introduction routes. With the current surveillance system, the risk of BVDV introduction was estimated to one or more introductions within a median of nine years (3-59). However, if all imported animals were tested and hoof trimmers always disinfected the tools used abroad, the risk could be reduced to one or more introductions within 33 years (8-200). Results of this study can be used to improve measures of BVD surveillance and prophylaxis in Danish dairy herds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S; Walz, Paul H
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototypic member of the genus Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Infections with BVDV cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industries, prompting various organized control programs in several countries. In North America, these control programs are focused on the identification and removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle, enhancement of BVDV-specific immunity through vaccination, and the implementation of biosecure farming practices. To be successful, control measures must be based on complete knowledge of the epidemiology of BVDV, including the recognition of other potential sources of the virus. BVDV does not possess strict host-specificity, and infections of over 50 species in the mammalian order Artiodactyla have been reported. Over 50 years ago, serologic surveys first suggested the susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America, to BVDV. However, susceptibility of white-tailed deer to BVDV infection does not alone imply a role in the epidemiology of the virus. To be a potential wildlife reservoir, white-tailed deer must: (1) be susceptible to BVDV, (2) shed BVDV, (3) maintain BVDV in the population, and (4) have sufficient contact with cattle that allow spillback infections. Based on the current literature, this review discusses the potential of white-tailed deer to be a reservoir for BVDV.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, and is one of the most widely distributed viruses in cattle worldwide. Approximately 60 % of cattle in endemic areas without control measures are infected with BVDV during their lifetime. This wide prevalence of BVDV in cattle populations results in significant economic losses. BVDV is capable of establishing persistent infections in its host due to its ability to infect fetuses, causing immune tolerance. However, this cannot explain how the virus evades the innate immune system. The objective of the present work was to test the potential activity of E2 as a complement regulatory protein. E2 glycoprotein, produced both in soluble and transmembrane forms in stable CHO-K1 cell lines, was able to reduce complement-mediated cell lysis up to 40 % and complement-mediated DNA fragmentation by 50 %, in comparison with cell lines not expressing the glycoprotein. This work provides the first evidence of E2 as a complement regulatory protein and, thus, the finding of a mechanism of immune evasion by BVDV. Furthermore, it is postulated that E2 acts as a self-associated molecular pattern (SAMP), enabling the virus to avoid being targeted by the immune system and to be recognized as self.
Tråvén, M; Alenius, S; Fossum, C; Larsson, B
Six calves, aged 24 to 58 days and not previously exposed to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), were infected with this agent by nose-to-nose contact with a persistently BVDV viraemic calf. The study was conducted in two trials, using 3 calves in each. All 6 calves showed a peak interferon level in serum at 4 days post infection (dpi), and they seroconverted to BVDV at 16-21 dpi. The calves in trial 1 had diarrhoea for 2 or 3 days between 2 and 6 dpi and one calf again from 9 to 11 dpi. During the periods of fever, the calves were slightly depressed. Those in trial 2 were more depressed and their oral and nasal mucous membranes were reddened but they never had diarrhoea. In both trials, fever (up to 41.3 degrees C) was a prominent symptom at 8 to 9 dpi and 2 calves showed a diphasic fever course. Respiratory affection was mild and no medical treatment was required. Haematological assessment demonstrated a transient but significant leukopenia and lymphopenia at 4 dpi (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.05 respectively) and 11 dpi (P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.01 respectively). A significant decrease in thrombocyte count was seen at 4 dpi (P less than 0.05, n = 3). This study has demonstrated that nose-to-nose contact is an effective way of transmitting BVDV from persistently infected to susceptible cattle.
Brodersen, B W
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to be of economic significance to the livestock industry in terms of acute disease and fetal loss. Many of the lesions relating to BVDV infection have been well described previously. The virus is perpetuated in herds through the presence of calves that are persistently infected. Relationships between various species and biotypes of BVDV and host defenses are increasingly understood. Understanding of the host defense mechanisms of innate immunity and adaptive immunity continues to improve, and the effects of the virus on these immune mechanisms are being used to explain how persistent infection develops. The noncytopathic biotype of BVDV plays the major role in its effects on the host defenses by inhibiting various aspects of the innate immune system and creation of immunotolerance in the fetus during early gestation. Recent advances have allowed for development of affordable test strategies to identify and remove persistently infected animals. With these improved tests and removal strategies, the livestock industry can begin more widespread effective control programs.
Behera, Sthita Pragnya; Mishra, Niranjan; Vilcek, Stefan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Nema, Ram Kumar; Prakash, Anil; Kalaiyarasu, S; Dubey, Shiv Chandra
Previous studies have shown that bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) subtype b is predominantly circulating in Indian cattle. During testing for exotic pestiviruses between 2007 and 2010, BVDV-2 was identified by real time RT-PCR in two of 1446 cattle blood samples originating from thirteen states of India. The genetic analysis of the isolated virus in 5' UTR, N(pro), entire structural genes (C, E(rns), E1 and E2), nonstructural genes NS2-3 besides 3' UTR demonstrated that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed highest similarity with BVDV-2. The entire 5' and 3' UTR consisted of 387 and 204 nucleotides, respectively, and an eight nucleotide repeat motif was found twice within the variable part of 3' UTR that may be considered as a characteristic of BVDV-2. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cattle isolate and earlier reported goat BVDV-2 isolate fall into separate clades within BVDV-2a subtype. Antigenic typing with monoclonal antibodies verified the cattle isolate also as BVDV-2. In addition, cross-neutralization tests using antisera raised against Indian BVDV strains circulating in ruminants (cattle, sheep, goat and yak) displayed significant antigenic differences only between BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 strains. This is the first identification of BVDV-2 in Indian cattle that may have important implications for immunization strategies and molecular epidemiology of BVD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Truyers, I G R; Mellor, D J; Norquay, R; Gunn, G J; Ellis, K A
The strategies used and the results obtained in Orkney's bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication programme over eight years (2001 to 2008) are presented and discussed. The venture was undertaken by local veterinary practices and the Orkney Livestock Association (OLA) with the financial support of the Orkney Islands Council. Participation is voluntary; the programme comprises screening of youngstock, a whole-herd test if required, elimination of persistently infected animals and strict biosecurity measures and/or vaccination. BVDV-free herds are certified, and certification is updated annually by retesting the youngstock. The programme aims to minimise economic losses, thereby increasing the competitiveness of the Orcadian cattle industry and to improve animal health and welfare by eliminating virus circulation. Information from databases of the Scottish Agricultural College, Biobest Laboratories and OLA show that despite a significant reduction in the overall prevalence of BVDV on Orkney during the initial stages of the eradication programme, there has been little progress made since 2006 and that some difficulties have been encountered, with herd BVDV breakdowns following initial eradication. These results highlight the need for continued motivation of farmers, strict application of biosecurity measures and/or systematic vaccination of all seronegative breeding animals.
Sarrazin, S; Dewulf, J; Mathijs, E; Laureyns, J; Mostin, L; Cay, A B
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes persistent infections by infecting the fetus of susceptible animals during gestation. These persistently infected (PI) animals are important sources of infection. On the contrary, transiently infected (TI) animals are believed to be less important, but transient infections with a severe BVDV-2 strain can spread explosively. To assess the importance of TI cattle in the epidemiology of BVDV, two experimental infections were performed to determine basic reproduction ratios (R0). In each experiment three calves were infected via intranasal inoculation and housed together with seven susceptible animals. Two strains isolated in Belgium were used, a virulent BVDV-1b and a virulent BVDV-2a field isolate, resulting in an R0 of 0.25 (95% CI 0.01; 1.95) and 0.24 (95% CI 0.01; 2.11), respectively. A PI animal was then introduced to the remaining uninfected animals and produced an R of +∞ (95% CI 1.88; +∞). These results support the suggestion that TI animals, compared to PI animals, contribute only a limited amount to BVDV spread. Additionally, the severe clinical symptoms observed in the field with these isolates could not be reproduced during these experiments, suggesting that other factors besides strain virulence influence the clinical manifestations evoked by BVDV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Machado, Gustavo; Mendoza, Mariana Recamonde; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most economically important diseases in cattle, and the virus is found worldwide. A better understanding of the disease associated factors is a crucial step towards the definition of strategies for control and eradication. In this study we trained a random forest (RF) prediction model and performed variable importance analysis to identify factors associated with BVDV occurrence. In addition, we assessed the influence of features selection on RF performance and evaluated its predictive power relative to other popular classifiers and to logistic regression. We found that RF classification model resulted in an average error rate of 32.03% for the negative class (negative for BVDV) and 36.78% for the positive class (positive for BVDV).The RF model presented area under the ROC curve equal to 0.702. Variable importance analysis revealed that important predictors of BVDV occurrence were: a) who inseminates the animals, b) number of neighboring farms that have cattle and c) rectal palpation performed routinely. Our results suggest that the use of machine learning algorithms, especially RF, is a promising methodology for the analysis of cross-sectional studies, presenting a satisfactory predictive power and the ability to identify predictors that represent potential risk factors for BVDV investigation. We examined classical predictors and found some new and hard to control practices that may lead to the spread of this disease within and among farms, mainly regarding poor or neglected reproduction management, which should be considered for disease control and eradication.
Booth, R E; Brownlie, J
Beginning in April 2006, 41 farms were recruited onto a pilot Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication programme across the south of England with the majority of study herds concentrated in Somerset. Each herd was assessed and where relevant cleared of persistently infected (PI) animals. Seven farms dropped out before whole herd screening could be performed. Of the remaining 34 farms, 20 (59 per cent) were classified as infected although two of these were initially misclassified as BVDV-free. Over the course of three years, 61 PIs were identified across 16 of the 20 infected farms. 72 per cent of PIs indentified on the first herd test were below two years of age. PI prevalence ranged from 0.2 to 3.1 per cent of infected herds and was highest in herds that did not vaccinate. By the end of 2009, 24/34 (71 per cent) of study farms were BVDV-free while 10 (29 per cent) remained infected.
Schwermer, H; Bernet, D; Presi, P; Schaller, P; Stern, M; Heim, D
A programme to eradicate bovine viral diarrhoea was launched in Switzerland in 2008 with the aim of eradicating the causal virus. During the first year of the programme, the entire population of 1.6 million cattle were tested for the presence of the virus; in the following three years an additional 1.8 million calves were tested. The complexity of information generated during the eradication programme, together with a tight schedule, made computerised data management a necessity. To organise, coordinate and supervise the programme, extensions were made to the computerised information system ISVet, of the Swiss Veterinary Service, which provides automated documents for both the Veterinary Service and private veterinarians. Specific data are accessible by user groups via the BVD-Web platform, ISVet and the Swiss animal movement database. The functionalities of the structure and the reports needed to control the progress of the programme are described in detail. The authors also discuss the major advantages, disadvantages and pitfalls when planning an eradication programme using a national centralised database over a distributed computer network.
Lindberg, A; Brownlie, J; Gunn, G J; Houe, H; Moennig, V; Saatkamp, H W; Sandvik, T; Valle, P S
This paper summarises the views of a European group of scientists involved in the control of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), as part of a European Union Thematic Network. The group concludes that the technical tools and the knowledge needed to eradicate BVDV are at hand, as proven by successful national control schemes in several European countries. A generic model for BVDV control is presented, which includes biosecurity, elimination of persistently infected animals and surveillance as central elements. These elements are termed 'systematic', in contrast to control efforts without clear goals and surveillance to evaluate progress. The network concludes that a systematic approach is needed to reach a sustainable reduction in the incidence and prevalence of BVDV in Europe. The role of vaccines in systematic control programmes is considered as an additional biosecurity measure, the effect of which should be evaluated against cost, safety and efficacy. It is also concluded that active participation by farmers' organisations is a strong facilitator in the process that leads up to the initiation of control, and that public funding to support the initiation of organised BVD control programmes can be justified on the basis of expected wider societal benefits, such as animal welfare and reduction in the use of antibiotics. If applied successfully, the focus on biosecurity in systematic BVD control programmes would also reduce the risk of the introduction and spread of other epizootic and zoonotic agents, thereby improving both cattle health and welfare in general, as well as increasing the competitiveness of the cattle industry.
Gunn, G J; Saatkamp, H W; Humphry, R W; Stott, A W
The objective of this paper is to present a preliminary assessment of variation in the economic impact of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) at dairy farm level between a sample of nations within the EU and hence assess differences in pressure to respond to this disease that may be impeding progress in control and hence restricting collective benefits from healthier livestock. We used a questionnaire to obtain national average values of key epidemiological and economic parameters for a typical dairy farm from BVDV experts in the countries concerned. These parameters were converted into assessments of economic impact using a computer simulation model. Uncontrolled output losses for a BVDV-naïve herd with virus introduced in year 1 of a 10-year epidemic represented 22, 7, 8, 5, 8 and 20% of the BVDV-free annuity for the UK, Northern Portugal, Holland, Norway, Italy and Germany, respectively. Differences between countries will be widened by differences in the risk of acquiring BVDV. These will be much reduced in countries, such as Norway that have a national BVDV eradication programme. Farmers in such countries can therefore justify spending much less on maintaining BVDV-free status than BVDV-free farms in other countries. This result illustrates the paradox that in countries where BVDV prevalence is high, farmers have least to gain from unilateral BVDV eradication because of the high cost of maintaining freedom from the disease. We discuss this issue in the light of increasing recognition at international level of the importance of BVDV control.
Duncan, A J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W
Globally, the eradication of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is still in its infancy, but eradication has been, or is being, adopted by several countries or regions. Comparisons between countries' schemes allow others to assess best practice, and aggregating published results from eradication schemes provides greater statistical power when analysing data. Aggregating data requires that results derived from different testing schemes be calibrated against one another. The authors aimed to evaluate whether relationships between published BVDV test results could be created and present the outcome of a systematic literature review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The results are tabulated, providing a summary of papers where there is potential cross-calibration and a summary of the obstacles preventing such data aggregation. Although differences in measuring BVDV present barriers to academic progress, they may also affect progress within individual eradication schemes. The authors examined the time taken to retest following an initial antibody BVDV test in the Scottish eradication scheme. The authors demonstrate that retesting occurred quicker if the initial not negative test was from blood rather than milk samples. Such differences in the response of farmers/veterinarians to tests may be of interest to the design of future schemes.
Cai, Dongjie; Song, Quanjiang; Wang, Jiufeng; Zhu, Yaohong
Three strains of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were isolated from cattle in Beijing, China. To investigate their genomic features, we sequenced and characterized the complete genome of each of the isolates. Each of the three virus genomes is about 12,220 bp in length, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR), one open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 3897-amino-acid polypeptide, and a 3' UTR. The nucleotide sequence of the three isolates were 99.0 % identical to each and other shared nucleotide sequence identities of 73.4 % to 98.3 % with other BVDV-1 strains, about 70.0 % with BVDV-2 strains, about 67.0 % with BVDV-3, and less than 67.0 % with other pestiviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome, 3' UTR, and the N(pro) gene demonstrated that the three viruses were BVDV-1 isolates. This is the first report of complete genome sequences of BVDV 1d isolates from China and might have implications for vaccine development.
Luzzago, C; Bandi, C; Bronzo, V; Ruffo, G; Zecconi, A
The genetic variation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was studied by comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of 26 Italian field strains collected during the period 1995-2000 in 18 cattle herds. A fragment within the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) was sequenced directly from gel-purified products obtained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. BVDV-1b (n=14), -1c (n=1), -1d (n=1) and BVDV-2 (n=2) strains have been isolated. Most herds were infected by BVDV-1b. Pairwise similarity and cluster analysis of the remaining BVDV-1 isolates (n=8) did not provide a clear-cut assignation to defined BVDV-1 groups. This is the first time that a BVDV-2 isolation was reported in Italy. Among BVDV-2 reference strains, Italian BVDV-2 isolates showed the highest sequence similarity with the CD87 strain. Both BVDV-2 strains were isolated in two healthy animals from different herds. The 5'-UTR sequence of one of the two BVDV-2 strains was identical to a German BVDV field strain. Complete nucleotide homology was found only among BVDV strains isolated from the same herd, showing a herd-specific clustering. Moreover, 99.6% homology was observed between strains from herds linked by livestock trade. Despite the small number of BVDV isolates analysed, it revealed a high level of genetic diversity among Italian field BVDV strains.
Luzzago, Camilla; Ebranati, Erika; Sassera, Davide; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Lauzi, Stefania; Gabanelli, Elena; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Zehender, Gianguglielmo
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a widespread and economically important pathogen of cattle; genetic typing of BVDV isolates distinguished two species, namely BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. BVDV-1 is the most widespread worldwide and it includes at least 11 subtypes. With the aim of clarifying the routes of circulation of BVDV-1 subtypes in an endemic area and in order to investigate the relationships between the genetic diversity of BVDV and its geographic distribution, a phylogenetic analysis of 5' untranslated region of Italian sequences was performed using a new Bayesian framework allowing the spatial-temporal reconstruction of the evolutionary dynamics of highly variable viruses. Our analyses suggested that different BVDV subtypes entered the North-Eastern part of Italy at different times within a time span between 23 and 7 years ago. The largest virus dispersion occurred between the mid 1990s and the early 2000s. A possible gravity-like dynamic of the infection, originating in larger animal population then following patterns of national commercial-flow, should be hypothesized.
Vilcek, S; Paton, D J; Durkovic, B; Strojny, L; Ibata, G; Moussa, A; Loitsch, A; Rossmanith, W; Vega, S; Scicluna, M T; Paifi, V
Seventy-eight bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDV) recently collected in Austria, France, Hungary, Italy, Slovakia, Spain and UK were genetically typed in the 5'-untranslated (5'UTR) and autoprotease (Npro) regions of the pestivirus genome. Seventy-six of the isolates were BVDV-1 and two French isolates were of the BVDV-2 genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'UTR (245 nt), including additional BVDV-1 sequences from USA, Canada, Germany, New Zealand, Mozambique and Sweden, taken from GenBank and from our previous works, indicated that these viruses were clustered not only into the two generally accepted groups (BVDV-1a-"NADL like" and BVDV-1b-"Osloss like"), but altogether into 11 phylogenetic groups. Similar clustering was observed with Npro region sequences (385 nt) and the highest bootstrap values (over 95%) were obtained by phylogeny combining 5'UTR and Npro sequences. Some associations between the genetic grouping and the origin of the isolates were apparent, probably reflecting historical trade contacts. Considering the variability of isolates it is recommended that diagnostic PCR primers should be re-examined to ensure coverage of all BVDV-1 groups. The genogroups were less clearly differentiated by monoclonal antibody typing, suggesting significant antigenic similarities within the BVDV-1 genotype.
Giangaspero, Massimo; Harasawa, Ryô
Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) strains, isolated from sheep showing clinical symptoms of border disease, have been evaluated by the palindromic nucleotide substitution (PNS) method at the three variable loci (V1, V2 and V3) in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of genomic RNA. The characteristic two base-pairings common to the BVDV-2 species, a C-G pairing which was common to the V1 locus, and a G*U pairing common to the V2 locus, were observed in all tested strains. Strains BD-78 and C413 were identified by a unique C-G pairing at position 4 from the bottom of the V2 stem region, which is characteristic to BVDV-2b. BVDV-2d characteristic U-A pairing at position 18 of the V1 stem region was observed in five strains, Lees, 167 237, 168 149, 173 157 and 175 375. No strains have been assigned to the genotypes BVDV-2a or BVDV-2c. Furthermore, the investigation at the level of the 5'-UTR excluded the application in sheep of the proposed BVDV-2 genetic virulence markers described in cattle. The two specific positions of uracil and cytosine nucleotides related to low or high virulence where indifferently present in the ovine BVDV-2 strains responsible of border disease.
Martucciello, Alessandra; De Mia, Gian Mario; Giammarioli, Monica; De Donato, Immacolata; Iovane, Giuseppe; Galiero, Giorgio
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen that primarily infects ruminants, leading to several clinical problems including abortion. BVDV-specific antibodies were reported in a wide range of hosts within domestic and wildlife animal populations, and serological studies also indicated BVDV infection in buffaloes. The purpose of this study was to analyze the presence of BVDV in 2 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) herds with a history of abortion. Virus isolation from aborted fetuses and from maternal buffy coat and the molecular characterization of the isolates confirmed the presence of BVDV in these animals. The sequence analysis based on the 5' UTR and N(pro) coding regions of the Pestivirus genome revealed that the isolates belong to subgenotype 1b of BVDV. The findings of this study also suggest a possible role of BVDV in causing congenital infection in water buffalo. Its presence in fetal tissues as well as in maternal blood raises questions about the possible development of clinical disease or its influence in abortions in water buffalo.
Grooms, Daniel L; Bartlett, Benjamin B; Bolin, Steven R; Corbett, Erik M; Grotelueschen, Dale M; Cortese, Victor S
To evaluate the effects of a voluntary regional bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) control project implemented in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Longitudinal study. Sample-294 cattle producers and 11,917 cattle from the Upper Peninsula. Producer participation was assessed to determine the effectiveness of the project's promotional and educational campaigns. Participating herds were screened for cattle persistently infected (PI) with BVDV by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay on ear notch specimens from all newborn calves and cattle that did not calve (bulls and young stock) during the year of enrollment. Responses to a survey administered to producers 4 years after project initiation were evaluated to assess the project's effect on BVDV management practices implemented by producers. 294 of 495 (59%) known cattle producers in the Upper Peninsula participated in the project, and 11,917 cattle from 232 herds were tested for BVDV, of which 22 (0.18%) cattle from 9 (3.9%) herds were identified as PI with BVDV and euthanized or slaughtered. Of 140 survey respondents, 85 (61%) indicated they would test all new herd additions for BVDV, 83 (59%) would quarantine new herd additions for 30 days before introducing them to the main herd, and 81 (58%) would use the fact that their herd was free of cattle PI with BVDV for marketing purposes. Results indicated that the project enhanced producer knowledge about BVDV and led to changes in producer behavior regarding BVDV management. Stakeholder engagement was as critical to project success as was increased BVDV knowledge.
Fray, M D; Mann, G E; Clarke, M C; Charleston, B
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a major cattle pathogen responsible for a spectrum of symptoms, including reproductive failure. This study was designed to establish the effects of BVDV infection on estradiol, progesterone and PGF2alpha secretion in the cow. Seven BVDV-free cows were challenged with non-cytopathogenic BVDV (strain Pe 515: 5x10(6) tissue culture infected dose50) so that peak viremia occurred during the initial phase of luteal development in a synchronized estrous cycle. Ovulation was also synchronized in 7 sham-infected animals. Within 2 wk of inoculation, viremia, leukopenia and serum neutralizing antibodies were recorded in all of the BVDV-infected cows but not the sham-infected animals. Between Day 4 and Day 9 post estrus the BVDV-infected cows had significantly (P<0.01) lower plasma estradiol levels than the sham-infected animals. However, the BVDV infection did not alter rectal temperatures, plasma progesterone concentrations or PGF2alpha secretion 17, 18 and 19 d post estrus. These data highlight a potential causal link between BVDV viremia, endocrine dysfunction and poor fertility in the cow.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a widespread bovine pathogen for which there is no specific therapeutic agent. A previous study using 2-(2-benzimidazolyl)-5-[4-(2-imidazolino)phenyl]furan dihydrochloride (DB772) to treat calves persistently infected with BVDV resulted in a decrease in the vira...
Caruso, C; Gobbi, E; Biosa, T; Andra', M; Cavallazzi, U; Masoero, L
Pancreatin is a substance containing enzymes, principally amylase, lipase, and protease. It is obtained from bovine or porcine pancreas and used in the treatment of pancreatic endocrine insufficiency in humans. Regulations and safety concerns mandate viral clearance (virus removal or inactivation) in biopharmaceuticals such as pancreatin. A virus validation study was performed to evaluate virus clearance achieved in the final step of drying under vacuum by testing a panel of four animal viruses: Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and Porcine parvovirus (PPV). Because of the product's virucidal effect and high cytotoxicity, the starting material was diluted to a ratio of 0.67 g of dried pancreatin resuspended in 13.5 mL of cell culture medium followed by a 50-fold dilution in cell culture medium before spiking. After heating at 60±1°C for 5 h, the samples were diluted about 5-fold in cell culture medium and titered by the plaque assay method. The virus reduction factor ranged from 5.59 (for PPV) to 7.07 (for EMCV) and no viral plaque was observed, indicating that the process step was effective in the reduction and removal of virus contamination. Though no virus contamination events in pancreatin have been reported to date, evaluation of the production process for its ability to inactivate and/or remove virus contamination, particularly from zoonotic viral agents such as hepatitis E virus and Norovirus considered emerging pathogens, is necessary to ensure the viral safety of animal-derived biopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus is one of the most significant and costly viral pathogens of cattle worldwide. Alphavirus-derived replicon particles have been shown to be safe and highly effective vaccine vectors against a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Replicon particles are non-propagating...
"Self" and "nonself" manipulation of interferon defense during persistent infection: bovine viral diarrhea virus resists alpha/beta interferon without blocking antiviral activity against unrelated viruses replicating in its host cells.
Schweizer, Matthias; Mätzener, Philippe; Pfaffen, Gabriela; Stalder, Hanspeter; Peterhans, Ernst
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), together with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV) of sheep, belongs to the genus Pestivirus of the Flaviviridae. BVDV is either cytopathic (cp) or noncytopathic (ncp), as defined by its effect on cultured cells. Infection of pregnant animals with the ncp biotype may lead to the birth of persistently infected calves that are immunotolerant to the infecting viral strain. In addition to evading the adaptive immune system, BVDV evades key mechanisms of innate immunity. Previously, we showed that ncp BVDV inhibits the induction of apoptosis and alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) synthesis by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Here, we report that (i) both ncp and cp BVDV block the induction by dsRNA of the Mx protein (which can also be induced in the absence of IFN signaling); (ii) neither biotype blocks the activity of IFN; and (iii) once infection is established, BVDV is largely resistant to the activity of IFN-alpha/beta but (iv) does not interfere with the establishment of an antiviral state induced by IFN-alpha/beta against unrelated viruses. The results of our study suggest that, in persistent infection, BVDV is able to evade a central element of innate immunity directed against itself without generally compromising its activity against unrelated viruses ("nonself") that may replicate in cells infected with ncp BVDV. This highly selective "self" and "nonself" model of evasion of the interferon defense system may be a key element in the success of persistent infection in addition to immunotolerance initiated by the early time point of fetal infection.
Fray, M D; Mann, G E; Bleach, E C L; Knight, P G; Clarke, M C; Charleston, B
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a major pathogen of cattle and is responsible for considerable reproductive loss. In this study, the in vivo responses in six multiparous cows were investigated after a non-cytopathogenic BVDV challenge (strain Pe 515; 5 x 10(6) tissue culture infective dose 50) given 9 days before a synchronized ovulation. Six similar cows challenged with non-infectious culture medium served as controls. The experimental noncytopathogenic BVDV infection was followed by a viraemia and leucopenia at days 5-9 after challenge, but no other clinical signs of infection were detected. However, the BVDV infection altered endocrine function. Mean LH pulse frequency immediately before CIDR withdrawal was lower (P < or = 0.05) in the BVDV-infected (2.17 +/- 0.34 pulses per 8 h) compared with the sham-infected (4.83 +/- 1.04 pulses per 8 h) animals. At day 3 after CIDR withdrawal, plasma oestradiol concentrations remained high (P < 0.05) in the infected cows (2.19 +/- 0.51 pg ml(-1)) compared with the sham-infected controls (0.72 +/- 0.29 pg ml(-1)). However, there was no difference in the peak oestradiol concentration (BVDV: 2.31 +/- 0.29 versus sham: 2.34 +/- 0.41 pg ml(-1)). In addition, non-cytopathogenic BVDV significantly (P < 0.05) increased the duration of the interval between ovulation and onset of the postovulatory progesterone increase (values 1.0 ng ml(-1)) (BVDV: 3.0 +/- 0.26 versus sham: 4.0 +/- 0.26 days). The viral infection also significantly (P < 0.01) decreased mean plasma progesterone concentrations between day 3 and day 11 after ovulation (BVDV: 2.59 +/- 0.32 versus sham: 4.13 +/- 0.27 ng ml(-1)). These data show that non-cytopathogenic BVDV viraemias during the follicular phase can modulate the secretion of gonadotrophins and sex steroids, in particular progesterone, during a synchronized oestrous cycle. Therefore, viraemias during the follicular phase may reduce the fertility of cattle by disrupting the capacity of the ovulatory
Stringfellow, D A; Riddell, K P; Galik, P K; Damiani, P; Bishop, M D; Wright, J C
Introduction of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) with cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) from the abattoir is a concern in the production of bovine embryos in vitro. Further, International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) guidelines for washing and trypsin treatment of in-vivo-derived bovine embryos ensure freedom from a variety of pathogens, but these procedures appear to be less effective when applied to IVF embryos. In this study, COCs were exposed to virus prior to IVM, IVF and IVC. Then, virus isolations from cumulus cells and washed or trypsin-treated nonfertile and degenerated ova were evaluated as quality controls for IVF embryo production. The effect of BVDV on rates of cleavage and development was also examined. All media were analyzed prior to the study for anti-BVDV antibody. Two approximately equal groups of COCs from abattoir-origin ovaries were washed and incubated for 1 h in minimum essential medium (MEM) with 10% equine serum. One group was incubated in 10(7) cell culture infective doses (50% endpoint) of BVDV for 1 h, while the other was incubated without virus. Subsequently, the groups were processed separately with cumulus cells, which were present throughout IVM, IVF and IVC. Cleavage was evaluated at 4 d and development to morulae and blastocysts at 7 d of IVC. After IVC, groups of nonfertile and degenerated ova or morulae and blastocysts were washed or trypsin-treated, sonicated and assayed for virus. Cumulus cells collected at 4 and 7 d were also assayed for virus. Anti-BVDV antibody was found in serum used in IVM and IVC but not in other media. A total of 1,656 unexposed COCs was used to produce 1,284 cleaved embryos (78%), 960 embryos > or = 5 cells (58%), and 194 morulae and blastocysts (12%). A total of 1,820 virus-exposed COCs was used to produce 1,350 cleaved embryos (74%), 987 embryos > or = 5 cells (54%), and 161 morulae and blastocysts (9%). Rates of cleavage (P = 0.021), cleavage to > or = 5 cells (P = 0.026) and development to morula
Houe, H; Lindberg, A; Moennig, V
Several European countries have initiated national and regional control-and-eradication campaigns for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Most of these campaigns do not involve the use of vaccines; in Germany, vaccination is used only in states in which it is considered necessary because of high BVDV prevalence. In European countries without organized BVDV control programs, vaccination is commonly used to control BVDV. Diagnostic test strategies are fundamental to all control-and-eradication campaigns; therefore, the purpose of this review is to describe how the available diagnostic tests are combined into test strategies in the various phases of control-and-eradication campaigns in Europe. Laboratory techniques are available for BVDV diagnosis at the individual animal level and at the herd level. These are strategically used to achieve 3 main objectives: 1) initial tests to classify herd status, 2) follow-up tests to identify individual BVDV-infected animals in infected herds, and 3) continued monitoring to confirm BVDV-free status. For each objective or phase, the validity of the diagnostic tests depends on the mode of BVDV introduction and duration of infection in test-positive herds, and on how long noninfected herds have been clear of BVDV. Therefore, the various herd-level diagnostic tools--such as antibody detection in bulk milk or in blood samples from young stock animals, or BVDV detection in bulk milk--need to be combined appropriately to obtain effective strategies at low cost. If the individual diagnostic tests are used with due consideration of the objectives of a specific phase of a BVDV control program, they are effective tools for controlling and eradicating BVDV in regions not using vaccination and where vaccination is a part of the control or eradication program.
Foddai, Alessandro; Enøe, Claes; Krogh, Kaspar; Stockmarr, Anders; Halasa, Tariq
A stochastic simulation model was developed to estimate the time from introduction of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in a herd to detection of antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples using three ELISAs. We assumed that antibodies could be detected, after a fixed threshold prevalence of seroconverted milking cows was reached in the herd. Different thresholds were set for each ELISA, according to previous studies. For each test, antibody detection was simulated in small (70 cows), medium (150 cows) and large (320 cows) herds. The assays included were: (1) the Danish blocking ELISA, (2) the SVANOVIR(®)BVDV-Ab ELISA, and (3) the ELISA BVD/MD p80 Institute Pourquier. The validation of the model was mainly carried out by comparing the predicted incidence of persistently infected (PI) calves and the predicted detection time, with records from a BVD infected herd. Results showed that the SVANOVIR, which was the most efficient ELISA, could detect antibodies in the BTM of a large herd 280 days (95% prediction interval: 218; 568) after a transiently infected (TI) milking cow has been introduced into the herd. The estimated time to detection after introduction of one PI calf was 111 days (44; 605). With SVANOVIR ELISA the incidence of PIs and dead born calves could be limited and the impact of the disease on the animal welfare and income of farmers (before detection) could be minimized. The results from the simulation modeling can be used to improve the current Danish BVD surveillance program in detecting early infected herds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Webb, B T; Norrdin, R W; Smirnova, N P; Van Campen, H; Weiner, C M; Antoniazzi, A Q; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H; Hansen, T R
Persistent infection (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been associated with osteopetrosis and other long bone lesions, most commonly characterized as transverse zones of unmodeled metaphyseal trabeculae in fetuses and calves. This study was undertaken to characterize the morphogenesis of fetal long bone lesions. Forty-six BVDV-naïve pregnant Hereford heifers of approximately 18 months of age were inoculated with noncytopathic BVDV type 2 containing media or media alone on day 75 of gestation to produce PI and control fetuses, respectively, which were collected via cesarean section on days 82, 89, 97, 192, and 245 of gestation. Radiographic and histomorphometric abnormalities were first detected on day 192, at which age PI fetal long bone metaphyses contained focal densities (4 of 7 fetuses) and multiple alternating transverse radiodense bands (3 of 7 fetuses). Day 245 fetuses were similarly affected. Histomorphometric analysis of proximal tibial metaphyses from day 192 fetuses revealed transverse zones with increased calcified cartilage core (Cg.V/BV, %) and trabecular bone (BV/TV, %) volumes in regions corresponding to radiodense bands (P < .05). Numbers of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase positive osteoclasts (N.Oc/BS, #/mm(2)) and bone perimeter occupied (Oc.S/BS, %) were both decreased (P < .05). Mineralizing surface (MS/BS, %), a measure of tissue level bone formation activity, was reduced in PI fetuses (P < .05). It is concluded that PI with BVDV induces cyclic abnormal trabecular modeling, which is secondary to reduced numbers of osteoclasts. The factors responsible for these temporal changes are unknown but may be related to the time required for osteoclast differentiation from precursor cells.
Passler, Thomas; Walz, Paul H; Ditchkoff, Stephen S; Givens, M Daniel; Maxwell, Herris S; Brock, Kenny V
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industries. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the most important reservoir for BVDV. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are the most abundant species of wild ruminants in the United States and contact between cattle and deer is common. If the outcome of fetal infection of white-tailed deer is similar to cattle, PI white-tailed deer may pose a threat to BVDV control programs. The objective of this study was to determine if experimental infection of pregnant white-tailed deer with BVDV would result in the birth of PI offspring. Nine female and one male white-tailed deer were captured and housed at a captive deer isolation facility. After natural mating had occurred, all does were inoculated intranasally at approximately 50 days of pregnancy with 10(6) CCID(50) each of a BVDV 1 (BJ) and BVDV 2 (PA131) strain. Although no clinical signs of BVDV infection were observed or abortions detected, only one pregnancy advanced to term. On day 167 post-inoculation, one doe delivered a live fawn and a mummified fetus. The fawn was translocated to an isolation facility to be hand-raised. The fawn was determined to be PI with BVDV 2 by serial virus isolation from serum and white blood cells, immunohistochemistry on skin biopsy, and RT-PCR. This is the first report of persistent infection of white-tailed deer with BVDV. Further research is needed to assess the impact of PI white-tailed deer on BVDV control programs in cattle.
González, Ana M; Arnaiz, Ignacio; Yus, Eduardo; Eiras, Carmen; Sanjuán, María; Diéguez, Francisco J
The aim of the present study was to determine the serological response of heifers after vaccination with two inactivated bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines by means of various ELISA tests. Three dairy farms were selected from the Galicia region of Spain. In each herd, a batch of heifers to be vaccinated for the first time was selected and followed for 15 months. Heifers from farm 1 (n=25) were vaccinated with Vaccine A, whereas heifers from farm 2 (n=16) were vaccinated with Vaccine B. Heifers from farm 3 (n=17), where no BVDV vaccines were used, acted as controls. Blood samples were analyzed periodically for BVDV antibodies, using five commercial ELISAs, based on BVDV p80 antigen or whole virus. At the end of the study, none of the animals vaccinated with Vaccine A seroconverted according to p80 antibody status, whereas up to 80% tested positive by ELISA against whole virus antigen. For the animals vaccinated with Vaccine B, 2/16 animals seroconverted according to p80 antibody ELISAs, whereas all had seroconverted according to the ELISA against whole virus antigen. In most cases, based on the use of ELISAs to detect specific antibodies against the p80 protein, at 15 months post-vaccination with inactivated BVDV vaccines the responses did not seem to interfere with detection of antibody to BVDV infection. However, the finding of a small proportion of vaccinated animals seropositive against BVDV p80 antigen suggests that antibodies that interfere with diagnosis of BVDV infection within the herd could exist, even when using p80 ELISAs.
Zhu, Lisai; Lu, Haibing; Cao, Yufeng; Gai, Xiaochun; Guo, Changming; Liu, Yajing; Liu, Jiaxu; Wang, Xinping
As one of the major pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus caused a significant economic loss to the livestock industry worldwide. Although BVDV infections have increasingly been reported in China in recent years, the molecular aspects of those BVDV strains were barely characterized. In this study, we reported the identification and characterization of a novel BVDV isolate designated as SD-15 from cattle, which is associated with an outbreak characterized by severe hemorrhagic and mucous diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality in Shandong, China. SD-15 was revealed to be a noncytopathic BVDV, and has a complete genomic sequence of 12,285 nucleotides that contains a large open reading frame encoding 3900 amino acids. Alignment analysis showed that SD-15 has 93.8% nucleotide sequence identity with BVDV ZM-95 isolate, a previous BVDV strain isolated from pigs manifesting clinical signs and lesions resembling to classical swine fever. Phylogenetic analysis clustered SD-15 to a BVDV-1m subgenotype. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of glycoproteins revealed that E2 has several highly conserved and variable regions within BVDV-1 genotypes. An additional N-glycosylation site (240NTT) was revealed exclusively in SD-15-encoded E2 in addition to four potential glycosylation sites (Asn-X-Ser/Thr) shared by all BVDV-1 genotypes. Furthermore, unique amino acid and linear epitope mutations were revealed in SD-15-encoded Erns glycoprotein compared with known BVDV-1 genotype. In conclusion, we have isolated a noncytopathic BVDV-1m strain that is associated with a disease characterized by high morbidity and mortality, revealed the complete genome sequence of the first BVDV-1m virus originated from cattle, and found a unique glycosylation site in E2 and a linear epitope mutation in Erns encoded by SD-15 strain. Those results will broaden the current understanding of BVDV infection and lay a basis for future investigation on SD-15-related pathogenesis. PMID:27764206
Alpay, Gizem; Yeşilbağ, Kadir
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has various economic impacts associated with diarrhea, poor performance, an increase in the frequency of other infections and lethal outcomes. Both genotypes, namely BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, as well as different subgroups within these genotypes have been reported worldwide. Understanding the serological differences among the BVDV subgroups is important for disease epidemiology and prevention as well as vaccination programs. The aim of this study was to determine the serological relatedness among the subgroups in BVDV-1. For that purpose, sheep hyperimmune sera were collected against representative strains from 6 of the subgroups of BVDV-1 (BVDV-1a, -1b, -1d, -1f, -1h and -1l). The serum samples that gave the peak antibody titer to the homologous strains were used to perform cross neutralization assays. The highest homologous antibody titer (1:5160) was obtained against BVDV-1h. Regarding the cross neutralizing (heterologous) antibodies, the lowest titer (1:20) was produced by the BVDV-1f antiserum against the BVDV-1a and BVDV1-b viruses. The highest cross neutralizing titer (1:2580) achieved by the BVDV-1h antiserum was against the BVDV-1b strain. The cross neutralization results indicated particular serological differences between the recently described subgroup (BVDV-1l) and BVDV-1a/-1b, which are widely used in commercial vaccines. Considering the cross neutralization titers, it is concluded that selected BVDV-1l and BVDV-1h strains can be used for the development of diagnostic and control tools.
Viltro, A; Alaots, J; Pärn, M; Must, K
The results of a survey conducted during 1993-2000 to study the spread of bovine viral diarrhoeal virus (BVDV) among Estonian cattle are presented. The BVDV infection status of a representative random sample of cattle herds housing 20 or more dairy cows was established to estimate the prevalence of herds with active BVDV infection [potentially having persistently infected (PI) cattle--suspect PI herds]. The herds investigated comprised approximately 70% of all Estonian dairy cows. The BVDV infection status was established in 315-350 herds (making the sampling fraction about 20%) during three sampling periods: 1993-95, 1997-98, 1999-2000. BVDV antibodies were detected in herd bulk milk samples and/or sera from young stock by a liquid-phase-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed in the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research. The results of the survey demonstrate the reduction in the prevalence of herds with active BVDV infection in the studied fraction of the Estonian cattle population. During the first sampling period (1993-95) a prevalence of 46% (+/- 5%) for suspect PI herds was observed, during the second sampling period this prevalence was 16% (+/- 3%) and in the third period it was 18% (+/- 3%). As there is no control programme for BVDV in Estonia, the observed changes reflect the natural course of the infection in the study population. A possible cause for these changes is the decreased trade in breeding animals as a result of the economic difficulties present in cattle farming during the study period. The farming practices (most large herds are managed as closed herds) and the low density of cattle farms have obviously facilitated the self-clearance of herds from the BVDV infection, diminishing the new introduction of infection into the herds.
Heuer, C; Healy, A; Zerbini, C
The economic loss to dairy farmers associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is believed to be high in New Zealand, but no estimates are yet available. The aim was therefore to estimate the economic loss associated with BVDV in dairy herds in New Zealand. Bulk tank milk (BTM) from a random sample of 590 herds from the Northland, Bay of Plenty, and Waikato regions was tested for antibody against BVDV. The inhibition percentage (sample to positive ratio), based on a threshold validated in an earlier study, was used to indicate herd-level infection. Herd reproductive indices, herd lactation-average somatic cell counts, and herd average production of milk solids were regressed on BTM inhibition percentage. Herd averages of the overall annual culling rate, the rate of culling because of failure to conceive, the proportion of physiological inter-service intervals, the first-service conception rate, the pregnancy rate at the end of mating, and somatic cell counts were not associated with BVDV antibody in BTM. Abortion rates, rates of calving induction, the time from calving to conception, and the number of services per conception increased, however, whereas milk production decreased with increasing BVDV antibody in BTM. The results indicated significant reproductive and production loss associated with the amount of BVDV antibody in BTM. Total loss attributable to infection with BVDV was similar to reports from other countries and estimated as NZ$87 per cow and year in affected herds, and NZ$44.5 million per year for the New Zealand dairy industry based on an estimated 14.6% affected herds. The loss estimate excludes added cost and negative consequences with respect to animal welfare attributable to increased induction rates, and a greater incidence of production disease because of BVD-induced immune suppression.
Bachofen, Claudia; Bollinger, Barbara; Peterhans, Ernst; Stalder, Hanspeter; Schweizer, Matthias
Detection of antibodies against Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in serum and milk by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a crucial part of all ongoing national schemes to eradicate this important cattle pathogen. Serum and milk are regarded as equally suited for antibody measurement. However, when retesting a seropositive cow 1 day after calving, the serum was negative in 6 out of 9 different ELISAs. To further investigate this diagnostic gap around parturition, pre- and postcalving serum and milk samples of 5 cows were analyzed by BVDV antibody ELISA and serum neutralization test (SNT). By ELISA, 3 out of the 5 animals showed a diagnostic gap in the serum for up to 12 days around calving but all animals remained positive in SNT. In milk, the ELISA was strongly positive after birth but antibody levels decreased considerably within the next few days. Because of the immunoglobulin G (IgG)1-specific transport of serum antibodies into the mammary gland for colostrum production, the IgG subclass specificity of the total and the BVDV-specific antibodies were determined. Although all 5 animals showed a clear decrease in the total and BVDV-specific IgG1 antibody levels at parturition, the precalving IgG1-to-IgG2 ratios of the BVDV-specific antibodies were considerably lower in animals that showed the diagnostic gap. Results showed that BVDV seropositive cows may become "false" negative in several ELISAs in the periparturient period and suggest that the occurrence of this diagnostic gap is influenced by the BVDV-specific IgG subclass response of the individual animal.
Giammarioli, Monica; Pellegrini, Claudia; Casciari, Cristina; Rossi, Elisabetta; De Mia, Gian Mario
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle. Two approved species are recognized, namely BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. To date, only 4 subgenotypes of BVDV-2 are known, and at least 11 distinct subgenotypes have been detected for BVDV-1. In a previous study, the genetic characteristics of 38 field isolates of BVDV from northern Italy were investigated, and all 38 isolates were classified as BVDV-1 and could be assigned to 5 different subgenotypes, namely BVDV-1b, BVDV-1d, BVDV-1e, BVDV-1h, and BVDV-1f. However, the circulation of BVDV-2 has been reported in Italy as well. The aim of the current study was to type 88 BVD viruses found throughout Italy. Genetic study was based on the 5'-UTR, supported by select comparison within the N(pro) coding region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 5 isolates could be typed as BVDV-2a. The remaining 83 isolates were typed as BVDV-1 and were found to belong to 7 distinct subgenotypes, namely BVDV-1a (n = 8), BVDV-1b (n = 37), BVDV-1d (n = 3), BVDV-1e (n = 22), BVDV-1f (n = 4), BVDV-1g (n = 4), and BVDV-1h (n = 5). The majority of cattle farms in the current study were predominantly infected by BVDV-1b and BVDV-1e isolates, whereas the other BVDV subgenotypes occurred only sporadically. The results also provided evidence for circulation of additional subgenotypes BVDV-1a and BVDV-1g. The occurrence of BVDV-2 was also reconfirmed.
Rodning, Soren P; Marley, M Shonda D; Zhang, Yijing; Eason, Andrew B; Nunley, Callie L; Walz, Paul H; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia K; Brodersen, Bruce W; Givens, M Daniel
Eighty crossbred beef heifers were randomly allocated to four groups to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination in preventing development of calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Group 1 (n=11) was non-vaccinated controls, whereas three groups were vaccinated with commercially available multivalent BVDV vaccines at weaning (approximately 7 mo of age), 28 d post-weaning, approximately 1 y of age, and 28 d later. Groups 2 (n=23) and 3 (n=23) were given a modified-live BVDV vaccine, whereas Group 4 was given an inactivated BVDV vaccine. Heifers were bred by AI and subsequently exposed to two bulls. At 61 d after AI, 70 heifers were pregnant (n=10 for Group 1 and n=20/group for Groups 2, 3, and 4). Three cattle persistently infected with BVDV were commingled with the pregnant heifers (in an isolated pasture) from 68 to 126 d after AI. Thereafter, viremias were detected in pregnant heifers from Groups 1, 3, and 4 (10/10, 1/20, and 10/20, respectively), but not in pregnant heifers from Group 2 (0/20). Resulting calves were assessed for persistent infection using serum PCR, ear notch antigen capture-ELISA, and immunohistochemistry. Persistently infected calves were only produced in Group 1 (10/10) and Group 4 (2/18). In conclusion, commercial vaccines provided effective fetal protection despite prolonged natural exposure to BVDV. Given that viremias were detected in 11 vaccinated heifers after BVDV exposure, and two vaccinated heifers gave birth to persistently infected calves, there is continued need for biosecurity and diagnostic surveillance, in addition to vaccination, to ensure effective BVDV control.
Lucchini, Barbara; Ponti, Wilma; Turin, Lauretta; Bronzo, Valerio; Scaccabarozzi, Licia; Luzzago, Camilla
The in vitro permissivity to infection with homologous and heterologous bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strains of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from eight naïve and eight BVDV-1b immune animals was studied. Four reference strains (BVDV-1a NADL, BVDV-1b NY-1, BVDV-2 125 and BVDV-2 890) were selected, based on genotype, prevalence and biotype. Virus neutralizing antibody titres were determined at bleeding and the viral loads were measured in PBMCs by end point titration in cell culture and by real-time PCR. PBMCs from both naïve and immune animals became infected by all BVDV strains tested, although virus titres were lower for immune heifers than naïve ones; the differences were significant for NADL (P<0.05) and 890 (P<0.001) strains. The in vitro model used in this study showed that PBMCs from immune animals are susceptible to re-infection with both homologous and heterologous BVDV strains, albeit at a lower extent than naïve cattle.
Smith, Billy I; Rieger, Randall H; Dickens, Charlene M; Schultz, Ronald D; Aceto, Helen
To determine the effect of a commercially available multivalent killed virus vaccine on serum neutralizing (SN) and colostrum neutralizing (CN) antibodies against bovine herpesvirus (BHV) type 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 in pregnant dairy cattle. 49 Holstein dairy cattle. PROCEDURES :25 cattle were vaccinated (IM injection) at least 60 days prior to calving (ie, at the end of the lactation period or according to the expected calving date for heifers) and again 5 weeks later. The remaining 24 cattle were not vaccinated (control group). Titers of SN antibodies were measured at the 5-week time point. Titers of SN and CN antibodies were measured at parturition. 5 weeks after initial vaccination, titers of SN antibodies against BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2 were 1:512, 1:128, and 1:2,048, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:64, 1:128, and 1:64, respectively, in unvaccinated controls. Equivalent SN antibody titers at parturition were 1:256, 1:64, and 1:512, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:128, 1:128, and 1:64, respectively, in controls. Median titers of CN antibodies against BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2 were 1:1,280, 1:10,240, and 1:20,480, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:80, 1:1,280, and 1:2,560, respectively, in controls. Titers of antibodies against viral respiratory pathogens were significantly enhanced in both serum (BHV-1 and BVDV type 2) and colostrum (BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2) in cattle receiving a killed virus vaccine (with no adverse reactions) before parturition. To maximize protection of bovine neonates, this method of vaccination should be considered.
Mahony, D.; Cavallaro, A. S.; Mody, K. T.; Xiong, L.; Mahony, T. J.; Qiao, S. Z.; Mitter, N.
Our work focuses on the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a combined delivery vehicle and adjuvant for vaccine applications. Here we present results using the viral protein, E2, from bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). BVDV infection occurs in the target species of cattle and sheep herds worldwide and is therefore of economic importance. E2 is a major immunogenic determinant of BVDV and is an ideal candidate for the development of a subunit based nanovaccine using mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Hollow type mesoporous silica nanoparticles with surface amino functionalisation (termed HMSA) were characterised and assessed for adsorption and desorption of E2. A codon-optimised version of the E2 protein (termed Opti-E2) was produced in Escherichia coli. HMSA (120 nm) had an adsorption capacity of 80 μg Opti-E2 per mg HMSA and once bound E2 did not dissociate from the HMSA. Immunisation studies in mice with a 20 μg dose of E2 adsorbed to 250 μg HMSA was compared to immunisation with Opti-E2 (50 μg) together with the traditional adjuvant Quillaja saponaria Molina tree saponins (QuilA, 10 μg). The humoral responses with the Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine although slightly lower than those obtained for the Opti-E2 + QuilA group demonstrated that HMSA particles are an effective adjuvant that stimulated E2-specific antibody responses. Importantly the cell-mediated immune responses were consistently high in all mice immunised with Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine formulation. Therefore we have shown the Opti-E2/HMSA nanoformulation acts as an excellent adjuvant that gives both T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 mediated responses in a small animal model. This study has provided proof-of-concept towards the development of an E2 subunit nanoparticle based vaccine.Our work focuses on the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a combined delivery vehicle and adjuvant for vaccine applications. Here we present results using the viral protein, E2, from bovine viral
Murakami, Hironobu; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Nikaido, Sae; Sato, Reiichiro; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Tsukamoto, Kenji
Enzootic bovine leucosis is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, which is highly prevalent in several regions of the world and significantly impacts the livestock industry. In BLV infection, the proviral load in the blood reflects disease progression. Although the BLV genome is highly conserved among retroviruses, genetic variation has been reported. However, the relationship between proviral load and genetic variation is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the changes in proviral load in BLV-infected cattle in Japan and then identified and analysed a BLV strain pvAF967 that had a static proviral load. First, examining the proviral load in the aleukaemic cattle in 2014 and 2015, cow AF967 showed a static proviral load, while the other cows showed significant increases in proviral load. Sequencing the provirus in cow AF967 showed a deletion of 12 nt located in the G4 gene. An in vitro assay system using BLV molecular clone was set up to evaluate viral replication and production. In this in vitro assay, the deletion mutation in the G4 gene resulted in a significant decrease in viral replication and production. In addition, we showed that the deletion mutation did not affect the viral transcriptional activity of Tax protein, which is also important for virus replication. The emergence of strain pvAF967 that showed a static proviral load, combined with other retrovirus evolutionary traits, suggests that some BLV strains may have evolved to be symbiotic with cattle.
Strong, R; Errington, J; Cook, R; Ross-Smith, N; Wakeley, P; Steinbach, F
Currently, there are two recognised genotypes of Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), type 1 and type 2. These genotypes are divided into subtypes based on phylogenetic analysis, namely a-p for BVDV-1 and a-c for BVDV-2. Within this study, the genetic heterogeneity of BVDV-1 in England and Wales was investigated and compared to the situation in 1996/1997. Viral RNA was extracted from 316 blood samples collected between 2004 and 2009 that were previously identified as BVDV-1 positive. A region of the 5' untranslated region (UTR) was amplified by RT-PCR and the PCR products were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'UTR demonstrated the existence of five subtypes of BVDV-1 circulating in England and Wales, namely BVDV-1a (244 samples), BVDV-1b (50), BVDV-1e (3), BVDV-1f (1) and BVDV-1i (18). Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence for the N(pro) region of the viral genome supported the classification obtained with the 5'UTR. Given the fact that only three subtypes were detected in 1999 this report supports the notion that the restocking of cattle from continental Europe, after the mass culling during the Foot-and-Mouth outbreak in 2001 and slaughter of cattle due to bovine tuberculosis infection, has increased the genetic diversity of BVDV-1 subtypes in England and Wales in the past 10 years.
Yates, W D
Unanswered questions on the etiology and prevention of shipping fever pneumonia have allowed this disease to remain one of the most costly to the North American cattle industry. Research in this area has indirected that while Pasteurella haemolytica and, to a lesser extent, P. multocida are involved in most cases, they seem to require additional factors to help initiate the disease process. Bovine herpes virus 1 has been shown experimentally to be one such factor. This review examines in some detail the topics of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, shipping fever, and viral-bacterial interactions in the production of respiratory disease in various species. It deals with history, definitions, etiologies, clinical signs and lesions, and considers exposure levels, transmission and various pathogenetic mechanisms that are postulated or known to occur. PMID:6290011
Givens, M D; Galik, P K; Riddell, K P; Stringfellow, D A
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been isolated from washed and sonicated, in vitro-produced embryos, but the infectivity of BVDV associated with intact, developing, embryos has not been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to determine if a dose of BVDV infective for co-culture cells was associated with individual, developing embryos, following artificial exposure to the virus and washing. In 5 replicates, zona pellucida-intact, in vitro-produced embryos were assigned to a negative control embryo group, or were incubated in 10(5)-10(6) cell culture infective doses (50%, CCID50) per milliliter of a type I, noncytopathic (strain SD-1) BVDV for 2 h. Unexposed negative control embryos and exposed positive control embryos were washed, sonicated and assayed for BVDV using virus isolation with immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. Immediately or following cryopreservation, remaining virally-exposed, washed embryos were co-cultured individually with BVDV-negative cultures of bovine uterine tubal cells in a medium free of BVDV-neutralizing activity. After two days in culture, uterine tubal cells and embryos (including the zona pellucida) were separated and washed. The culture medium, uterine tubal cells and embryos were then assayed for BVDV. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was not isolated from any negative control embryo group, but was isolated from all positive control embryo groups. Although all uterine tubal cell populations were confirmed to be susceptible to BVDV, virus was never isolated from uterine tubal cells or embryos from post-exposure culture. In conclusion, although BVDV remains associated with washed in vitro-produced embryos, the virus associated with unsonicated embryos was not infective for uterine tubal cells in vitro.
Gregg, K; Gosch, G; Guerra, T; Chen, S H; Xiang, T; Broek, D; Bruner, B; Polejaeva, I
The objective was to use the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) as a model to assess the risk of infectious disease transmission in the system of in vitro embryo production and transfer via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. The risks of BVDV transmission in the SCNT embryo production were previously evaluated. In that in vitro study, following standard operating procedures (SOP), including pre-nuclear transfer donor cell testing, oocyte decontamination and virus-free cell and embryo culture conditions, SCNT embryos produced were free of detectable viral RNA. The current study focused on the evaluation of the potential risk of disease transmission from SCNT embryos to recipients, and the risk of producing persistently infected animals via SCNT embryo transfer. Blood samples were collected from 553 recipients of SCNT embryos and 438 cloned calves and tested for the presence of BVDV viral RNA via a sensitive real time PCR method. All samples tested were negative. These results, in conjunction with the previous in vitro study, confirmed that the established SCNT embryo production and transfer system is safe and presents no detectable risk of disease transmission.
Oem, Jae-Ku; Joo, Soo-Kyung; An, Dong-Jun
Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) (strains 11F011 and 12F004) isolated from brain tissues from nonambulatory (downer) cattle. The complete genomes of strains 11F011 and 12F004 contain 12,287 nucleotides (nt) with a single large open reading frame and 12,301 nt with a single large open reading frame, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these strains belong to the BVDV-2a and -1b genotypes, respectively.
Donofrio, Gaetano; Bottarelli, Ezio; Sandro, Cavirani; Flammini, Cesidio Filippo
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) membrane-anchored type I glycoprotein E2 is an approximately 53-kDa immunodominant glycoprotein inducing the production of neutralizing antibodies in the animal host after natural infection or following immunization with live or killed vaccines. The E2 coding region lacking the transmembrane domain was constructed in a soluble secreted form (secE2) and expressed in the medium of a transiently transfected human cell line. The crude conditioned medium containing secE2 can be potentially employed to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antigen for the diagnosis of BVDV infection or for vaccine purposes.
Cerutti, Francesco; Luzzago, Camilla; Lauzi, Stefania; Ebranati, Erika; Caruso, Claudio; Masoero, Loretta; Moreno, Ana; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Peletto, Simone
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 in Italy is characterized by high genetic diversity, with at least 20 subtypes. Subtype 1f is endemic in a restricted geographic area, meaning that it has local distribution. We investigated the population dynamics of BVDV-1f in Northern Italy and characterized the transmission chains of a subset of samples from Piedmont and Aosta Valley regions. A total of 51 samples from 1966 to 2013 were considered and 5' UTR sequences were used for phylogeography. A subset of 12 samples was selected for Npro gene sequencing and further characterization of the transmission chains using both molecular and epidemiological data. Phylogeography estimated the root of BVDV-1f tree in Veneto in 1965. Four significant subclades included sequences clustering by region: Lombardy (n=3), Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna (n=7), Piedmont (n=17), Piedmont and Aosta Valley (n=21). The Piedmont-only subclade has a ladder-like branching structure, while the Piedmont and Aosta Valley subclade has a nearly complete binary structure. In the subset, the outbreak reconstruction identified one sample from Piedmont as the most probable source of infection for the Aosta Valley cases. An ad hoc questionnaire submitted to public veterinarians revealed connections between sampled and non-sampled farms by means of trades, exhibitions and markets. According to the phylogeography, BVDV-1f moved westward, entering from Veneto, and spreading to Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna in the early 1990s, and finally to Piedmont and Aosta Valley in the first decade of 2000s. Both phylogeographic analyses on the whole dataset and on the selection of Npro dataset pointed out that subtype 1f entered Aosta Valley from Piedmont. The integration of molecular and epidemiological data revealed connections between farms, and such approach should be considered in any control plan. In Aosta Valley, the study showed that BVDV1f can be controlled only monitoring the introduction of cattle from Piedmont
Kuta, A; Woźniakowski, G; Polak, M P
The aim of the study was the development of cross-priming amplification for ubiquitous detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) species 1 and 2. Three and five specific primers, respectively, for the detection of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, were designed on the basis of the sequences of the 5'UTR region. Incubation temperature and reaction time were determined. The optimal incubation conditions using water bath were 63°C for 75 min. Reverse transcription step (RT) was not required. The results were visualized under UV-light as a bright yellow fluorescence in positive samples. Additional method for results interpretation was agarose gel electrophoresis. Positive samples showed the presence of ladder-like banding patterns, formed by harpin-like cross-priming amplification (CPA) products. Sensitivity of CPA was compared with conventional RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. The CPA detection limit was 3500 copies for BVDV-1 and 80000 copies for BVDV-2 per reaction. For RT-PCR it was 350 and 80 copies for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, respectively, and for real-time RT-PCR it was 35 copies for BVDV-1 and 80 copies for BVDV-2. The sensitivity of the developed method is sufficient to detect persistently infected (PI) animals. Positive results were found in 24 of 25 BVDV isolates belonging to species 1 and 2. Additionally, one false-negative result for BVDV-2 was detected. There were no false-positive results in negative samples and in the negative control. Both sets of primers used for the detection of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 were not able to detect atypical pestiviruses. CPA positive results were confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. CPA is a rapid method for the detection of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 in field samples from PI animals. This is the first report on the application of the CPA method for the detection of BVDV. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Graham, D A; Clegg, T A; Thulke, H-H; O'Sullivan, P; McGrath, G; More, S J
The control of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) mainly focuses on the identification and restriction of persistently infected (PI) animals. However, other transmission pathways can also result in new breakdowns, including the movement of animals pregnant with PI calves (Trojan animals) and the spread of infection between contiguous farms. Contiguous spread is likely an important problem in the BVD eradication programme in Ireland, given the spatial distribution of residual infection, and the highly fragmented nature of land holdings on many Irish farms. In this study, we seek to quantify the risk of BVD spread between contiguous herds in Ireland. Multivariable logistic models were used to estimate the risk of a herd having BVD positive calves in January to June 2014 (the study period) when contiguous to a herd that had at least one BVD positive calf born in 2013. The models included risk factors relating to the study herd and to neighbouring herds. Separate multivariable models were built for each of four "PI-neighbour" factors relating to the presence of BVD+ animals and/or the presence of offspring of PI breeding animals. In total, 58,483 study herds were enrolled. The final model contained the province, the log of the number of calf births born during the study period, the number of cattle purchased between January 2013 and January 2014, and with a two-way interaction between the number of animals of unknown BVD status in the study herd and the PI-neighbour risk factor. When the number of PI-neighbour herds was used as the PI-neighbour risk factor, the odds ratio (OR) associated with the number of PI-neighbour herds ranged from 1.07 to 3.02, depending on the number of unknown animals present. To further explore the risk associated with PI-neighbour factors, the models were repeated using a subset of the study herds (n=7440) that contained no animals of unknown status. The best fitting model including "any PI-neighbour" as the PI-neighbour factor and also
Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n = 314) from a population (N = 1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95% = 20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n = 21) and matched (n = 63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1 : 3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR = 0.10; CI 95% = 0.02-0.39; P < 0.01); farms that provided milk to other industries previously (OR = 4.13; CI 95% = 1.17-14.49; P = 0.02); and isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.14; CI 95% = 0.01-0.26; P = 0.02). The biosecurity model revealed a significant association with the use of natural mating (OR = 9.03; CI 95% = 2.14-38.03; P < 0.01); isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.06; CI 95% = 0.05-0.83; P = 0.03); years providing milk for the same industry (OR = 0.94; CI 95% = 0.91-0.97; P = 0.02); and direct contact over fences among cattle of neighbouring farms (OR = 5.78; CI 95% = 1.41-23.67; P = 0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Thomann, B; Tschopp, A; Magouras, I; Meylan, M; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Häsler, B
Since 2008, the Swiss veterinary service has been running a mandatory eradication program for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) that is focused on detecting and eliminating persistently infected (PI) animals. Detection was initially based on antigen testing from ear tag samples of the entire cattle population, followed by antigen testing of all newborn calves until 2012. Since then, bulk milk serology (dairy herds) and blood sample serology (beef herds) have been used for the surveillance of disease-free herds. From 2008 to 2012, the proportion of newborn PI calves decreased from 1.4% to less than 0.02%. However, this success was associated with substantial expenditures. The aim of this study was to conduct an economic evaluation of the BVD eradication program in the Swiss dairy sector. The situation before the start of the program (herd-level prevalence: 20%) served as a baseline scenario. Production models for three dairy farm types were used to estimate gross margins as well as net production losses and expenditures caused by BVD. The total economic benefit was estimated as the difference in disease costs between the baseline scenario and the implemented eradication program and was compared to the total eradication costs in a benefit-cost analysis. Data on the impact of BVD virus (BVDV) infection on animal health, fertility and production parameters were obtained empirically in a retrospective epidemiological case-control study in Swiss dairy herds and complemented by literature. Economic and additional production parameters were based on benchmarking data and published agricultural statistics. The eradication costs comprised the cumulative expenses for sampling and diagnostics. The economic model consisted of a stochastic simulation in @Risk for Excel with 20,000 iterations and was conducted for a time period of 14 years (2008-2021). The estimated annual financial losses in BVDV infected herds were CHF 85-89 per dairy cow and CHF 1337-2535 for an average farm
Seong, Giyong; Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Kyoung-Seong
The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and virological differences between non-cytopathic (ncp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-1 and ncp BVDV-2 isolated from Korean field cases. Each five naïve calves were experimentally infected with Korean ncp BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 isolates. Two additional age-matched animals were used as uninfected controls. Leukocyte, lymphocyte, and platelet counts declined in all infected calves, but were significantly lower and remained decreased longer in calves infected with ncp BVDV-2 isolate. The number of monocytes was greater in calves infected with ncp BVDV-2. Flow cytometric assay showed that lymphocyte apoptosis occurred with an increase of annexin-V positive cells in all infected calves by day 6. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) concentration in all infected calves was lower than in control calves. In ncp BVDV-1 infected calves, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels in the serum were increased by day 6 compared to calves infected with ncp BVDV-2. These results demonstrated that the Korean ncp BVDV-2 isolate shows a reduced IFN-γ production, indicating prevention of the antiviral activity, and therefore promotes the development of pathological effects.
Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J.; Carvalho, R. F.; Ruiz, R. M.; Melo, T. C.; Araldi, R. P.; Carvalho, E.; Thompson, C. E.; Sircili, M. P.; Beçak, W.; Stocco, R. C.
Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are recognized as the causal agents of economical relevant diseases in cattle, associated with the development of tumors in skin and mucosa. The oncogenesis process is mainly associated with different viral oncoprotein expressions, which are involved in cell transformation. The expression and characterization of recombinant viral oncoproteins represent an attractive strategy to obtain biotechnological products as antibodies and potential vaccines, Thus, the aim of this work was to clone and express the BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins and perform in silico analysis in order to develop a strategy for the systematic study of other papillomaviruses oncoproteins. The results demonstrated that BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins were expressed and purified from bacterial system as well as its in silico analysis was performed in order to explore and predict biological characteristics of these proteins. PMID:23878806
Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Carvalho, R F; Ruiz, R M; Melo, T C; Araldi, R P; Carvalho, E; Thompson, C E; Sircili, M P; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C
Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are recognized as the causal agents of economical relevant diseases in cattle, associated with the development of tumors in skin and mucosa. The oncogenesis process is mainly associated with different viral oncoprotein expressions, which are involved in cell transformation. The expression and characterization of recombinant viral oncoproteins represent an attractive strategy to obtain biotechnological products as antibodies and potential vaccines, Thus, the aim of this work was to clone and express the BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins and perform in silico analysis in order to develop a strategy for the systematic study of other papillomaviruses oncoproteins. The results demonstrated that BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins were expressed and purified from bacterial system as well as its in silico analysis was performed in order to explore and predict biological characteristics of these proteins.
Giliberti, Gabriele; Ibba, Cristina; Marongiu, Esther; Loddo, Roberta; Tonelli, Michele; Boido, Vito; Laurini, Erik; Posocco, Paola; Fermeglia, Maurizio; Pricl, Sabrina
Starting from a series of arylazoenamine derivatives, shown to be selectively and potently active against the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), we developed a hierarchical combined experimental/molecular modeling strategy to explore the drug leads for the BVDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Accordingly, BVDV mutants resistant to lead compounds in our series were isolated, and the mutant residues on the viral molecular target, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, were identified. Docking procedures upon previously identified pharmacophoric constraints and actual mutational data were carried out, and the binding affinity of all active compounds for the RdRp was estimated. Given the excellent agreement between in silico and in vitro data, this procedure is currently being employed in the design a new series of more selective and potent BVDV inhibitors.
Inabe, Kazunori; Nishizawa, Masako; Tajima, Shigeru; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Aida, Yoko
The cytoplasmic domain of an envelope transmembrane glycoprotein (gp30) of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) has two overlapping copies of the (YXXL)2 motif. The N-terminal motif has been implicated in in vitro signal transduction pathways from the external to the intracellular compartment and is also involved in infection and maintenance of high viral loads in sheep that have been experimentally infected with BLV. To determine the role of YXXL sequences in the replication of BLV in vitro, we changed the tyrosine or leucine residues of the N-terminal motif in an infectious molecular clone of BLV, pBLV-IF, to alanine to produce mutated proviruses designated Y487A, L490A, Y498A, L501A, and Y487/498A. Transient transfection of African green monkey kidney COS-1 cells with proviral DNAs that encoded wild-type and mutant sequences revealed that all of the mutated proviral DNAs synthesized mature envelope proteins and released virus particles into the growth medium. However, serial passages of fetal lamb kidney (FLK) cells, which are sensitive to infection with BLV, after transient transfection revealed that mutation of a second tyrosine residue in the N-terminal motif completely prevented the propagation of the virus. Similarly, Y498A and Y487/498A mutant BLV that was produced by the stably transfected COS-1 cells exhibited significantly reduced levels of cell-free virion-mediated transmission. Analysis of the protein compositions of mutant viruses demonstrated that lower levels of envelope protein were incorporated by two of the mutant virions than by wild-type and other mutant virions. Furthermore, a mutation of a second tyrosine residue decreased the specific binding of BLV particles to FLK cells and the capacity for viral penetration. Our data indicate that the YXXL sequences play critical roles in both viral entry and the incorporation of viral envelope protein into the virion during the life cycle of BLV. PMID:9882334
Oguejiofor, Chike F; Cheng, Zhangrui; Abudureyimu, Ayimuguli; Anstaett, Olivia L; Brownlie, Joe; Fouladi-Nashta, Ali A; Wathes, D Claire
Infection with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) is associated with uterine disease and infertility. This study investigated the influence of ncpBVDV on immune functions of the bovine endometrium by testing the response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Primary cultures of mixed epithelial and stromal cells were divided into four treatment groups (control [CONT], BVDV, CONT+LPS, and BVDV+LPS) and infected with ncpBVDV for 4 days followed by treatment with LPS for 6 h. Whole-transcriptomic gene expression was measured followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Differential expression of 184 genes was found between CONT and BVDV treatments, showing interplay between induction and inhibition of responses. Up-regulation of TLR3, complement, and chemotactic and TRIM factors by ncpBVDV all suggested an ongoing immune response to viral infection. Down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, CXCR4, and serine proteinase inhibitors suggested mechanisms by which ncpBVDV may simultaneously counter the host response. Comparison between BVDV+LPS and CONT+LPS treatments showed 218 differentially expressed genes. Canonical pathway analysis identified the key importance of interferon signaling. Top down-regulated genes were RSAD2, ISG15, BST2, MX2, OAS1, USP18, IFIT3, IFI27, SAMD9, IFIT1, and DDX58, whereas TRIM56, C3, and OLFML1 were most up-regulated. Many of these genes are also regulated by IFNT during maternal recognition of pregnancy. Many innate immune genes that typically respond to LPS were inhibited by ncpBVDV, including those involved in pathogen recognition, inflammation, interferon response, chemokines, tissue remodeling, cell migration, and cell death/survival. Infection with ncpBVDV can thus compromise immune function and pregnancy recognition, thereby potentially predisposing infected cows to postpartum bacterial endometritis and reduced fertility.
Segura-Correa, J C; Domínguez-Díaz, D; Avalos-Ramírez, R; Argaez-Sosa, J
Knowledge of the intraherd correlation coefficient (ICC) and design (D) effect for infectious diseases could be of interest in sample size calculation and to provide the correct standard errors of prevalence estimates in cluster or two-stage samplings surveys. Information on 813 animals from 48 non-vaccinated cow-calf herds from North-eastern Mexico was used. The ICC for the bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), leptospirosis and neosporosis diseases were calculated using a Bayesian approach adjusting for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tests. The ICC and D values for BVD, IBR, leptospirosis and neosporosis were 0.31 and 5.91, 0.18 and 3.88, 0.22 and 4.53, and 0.11 and 2.68, respectively. The ICC and D values were different from 0 and D greater than 1, therefore large sample sizes are required to obtain the same precision in prevalence estimates than for a random simple sampling design. The report of ICC and D values is of great help in planning and designing two-stage sampling studies. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chi, Junwook; VanLeeuwen, John A; Weersink, Alfons; Keefe, Gregory P
Our purpose was to determine direct production losses (milk loss, premature voluntary culling and reduced slaughter value, mortaliy loss, and abortion and reproductive loss) and treatmetn costs (veterinary services, medication cost, and extra farm labour cost) due to four infectious diseases in the maritime provinces of Canada: bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD), enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), Johne's Disease (JD), and neosporosis. We used a partial-budget model, and incorporated risk and sensitivity analyses to identify the effects of uncertainty on costs. Total annual costs for an average, infected, 50 cow herd were: JD$ 2472; BVD$ 2421; neosporosis $ 2304; EBL$ 806. The stochastic nature of the proportion of infected herds and prevalence of infection within a herd were used to estimate probability distributions for these ex post costs. For all diseases, these distributions were right skewed. A sensitivity analysis showed the largest effect on costs was due to milk yield effects. For example, changing milk production loss from 0 to 5% for BVD increased the costs for the disease by 266%.
Craig, María I; König, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, María G
Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2). Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Bachofen, Claudia; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Stalder, Hanspeter; Mathys, Tanja; Zanoni, Reto; Hilbe, Monika; Schweizer, Matthias; Peterhans, Ernst
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable.
Gogorza, L M; Morán, P E; Larghi, J L; Braun, M; Esteban, E N
A bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) amplification method combined with an enzyme immunoassay was developed to detect BVDV antigens in seropositive cattle. Reconstitution assays conducted by adding decreasing amounts of BVDV (Singer strain) to Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells showed that the sensitivity threshold of the combined assay was 10(-7) TCID50. BVDV amplification was carried out in polycation (DEAE-Dextran and polybrene)-treated MDBK cells. Treated cells were able to replicate both ether-treated virus and neutralizing antibody-coated virus. Ammonium chloride decreased virus replication in polycation-treated cells, suggesting viral penetration by endocytosis. BVDV detection was tested in leukocytes from 104 seropositive cattle from 2 unvaccinated commercial closed dairy herds with high seroprevalence. Lysates and co-cultures of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) were tested, directly or after up to 6 blind passages in normal or polycation-treated cells. BVDV was detected in 10/104 cattle after only one co-culture of PBL in treated cells. No virus was detected in whole blood or plasma samples. BVDV positive and negative cattle were retested three times, achieving consistent results. The finding of immune carriers supports the possibility that these animals may constitute an epidemiological risk.
Soltan, Mohamed Ahmed; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Elsheery, Mohamed Nagy; Elhaig, Mahmoud Mohy; Riley, Matthhew C; Kennedy, Melissa A
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the most economically significant diseases in the bovine industry causing losses due to diarrhea, reproductive disorders, immunosuppression and mortalities. The aim of our investigation was to detect and subtype BVDV from calves on two dairy cattle and two buffalo farms in Ismailia province, Egypt as an indicator of BVDV infection status in the province. A total of 298 blood samples were collected and tested using an optimized one-step, real-time multiplex Taqman-based RT-PCR. All the positive samples by the multiplex real-time RT-PCR were tested using conventional RT-PCR to amplify multiple areas of the genome for further phylogenetic analysis and subtyping. Thirty one (10.4%) of the tested samples were positive for BVDV-1. Only three samples, all from a single dairy cattle farm, had enough viral RNA to be amplified by RT-PCR. The PCR products were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis revealed detection of BVDV-1b. The detected strain is closely related to worldwide BVDV-1b strains, making it difficult to trace its origin. Nucleotide and amino acid alignments of the E2 glycoprotein region of the detected strain with other BVDV-1b strains showed high divergence, with identity ranging from 81.3% to 93.6% and 85.3% to 93.6%, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the circulation of BVDV-1b in Egyptian dairy cattle populations.
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947
Karikalan, M; Rajukumar, K; Mishra, N; Kumar, M; Kalaiyarasu, S; Rajesh, K; Gavade, V; Behera, S P; Dubey, S C
In this study, cellular localization and the distribution pattern of BVDV genome in lymphoid tissues during the course of experimental acute BVDV-1 infection of sheep was investigated. Tonsils, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were collected on 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days post infection (dpi) from twenty 4-month-old lambs, experimentally inoculated intra-nasally with 5 × 10(5) TCID50 of a non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV-1 isolate, Ind-17555. Tissues collected from ten mock-infected lambs served as controls. In situ hybridization (ISH) was carried out in paraformaldehyde fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections using digoxigenin labelled riboprobe targeting 5'-UTR of BVDV-1. BVDV genome was detected at all the intervals from 3 dpi to 15 dpi in the lymphoid tissues with variations between the intervals and also amongst the infected sheep. During the early phase of acute infection, presence of viral genome was more in tonsils than MLN and spleen, whereas the distribution was higher in MLN during later stages. BVDV-1 genome positive cells included lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, reticular cells and sometimes crypt epithelial cells. Genome distribution was frequently observed in the lymphoid follicles of tonsils, MLN and spleen, besides the crypt epithelium in tonsils, paracortex and medullary sinus and cords of MLN. Most abundant and widespread distribution of BVDV-1 genome was observed on 6 dpi while there was a reduction in number and intensity of positive signals by 15 dpi in most of the infected animals. This is the first attempt made to study the localisation of BVDV-1 in lymphoid tissues of acutely infected sheep by in situ hybridization. The results show that the kinetics of BVDV-1 distribution in lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected non-pregnant sheep follows almost a similar pattern to that demonstrated in BVDV infected cattle.
Driskell, Elizabeth A; Ridpath, Julia F
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has a great economic impact on the United States cattle industry. The Academy of Veterinary Consultants, the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, and the National Cattlemen's Beef Association have called for the goal of BVDV control and eventual eradication in the U.S.A. One of the key factors in such efforts will be the detection of BVDV infections, particularly targeting persistently infected animals. To assess current BVDV detection methods in the U.S.A., 26 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in 23 states were surveyed. Survey questions related to the types of tests currently offered, the number of tests performed, the reasons for test requests, the type of samples used, whether sample pooling was performed, and whether follow-up testing or information regarding bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) management was provided after positive tests. There was no clear consensus on an individual BVDV testing method, the pooling of samples or the retesting of positive animals. Ear-notch antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE) was the test most frequently performed based on the absolute number of tests. However, when the data were adjusted to reflect individual laboratory choices, the number of ACE and immunohistochemistry tests performed on ear notches was nearly equal. Only 55% of diagnostic laboratories provided BVD management information to producers or veterinarians who submitted positive samples. There was no significant difference in the number of positive tests in laboratories that received the majority of their samples for screening purposes versus laboratories that received the majority of their samples because BVDV was suspected based on clinical signs in a herd.
Afshar, A; Dulac, G C; Dubuc, C; Howard, T H
An indirect immunoperoxidase staining technique (IP) is described for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in bovine semen. The performance of the IP was compared to the reference immunofluorescent staining test in its ability to detect BVDV in 23 coded field semen samples. The IP assay which can be applied with ease to a large number of samples and does not require expensive fluorescence microscope equipment, appears to be an alternative method for BVDV detection. The IP assay can be strongly recommended for certification of BVDV-free bovine semen for artificial insemination and trading purposes and for laboratories which are not equipped for performing the immunofluorescent test. PMID:1653102
Recent achievements and trends in the molecular diagnosis of bovine viral diseases--a view from the "OIE Collaborating Centre for the Application of Polymerase Chain Reaction Methods for the Diagnosis of Viral Diseases in Veterinary Medicine".
Belák, S; Hakhverdyan, M
The activities of the "OIE Collaborating Centre for the Application of Polymerase Chain Reaction Methods for the Diagnosis of Viral Diseases" and its partner laboratories are summarised, providing a view of recent achievements and trends in the field the molecular diagnosis of bovine viral diseases. Results are briefly discussed concerning the diagnostic application of various techniques and approaches, such as PCR, semi-nested and nested PCR assays, phylogeny and molecular epidemiology, real-time PCR assays, "general" PCR systems, multiplex PCR, multi PCR, robotics in nucleic acid extraction, automated diagnosis, international standardisation and validation of the PCR-based diagnostic assays, and several future trends in molecular diagnostics. These achievements and trends lead to more rapid and specific detection of various viral infections in the cattle populations. Their application will certainly contribute to the reduction of losses which are caused by bovine viral diseases worldwide.
Häsler, B; Howe, K S; Presi, P; Stärk, K D C
Economic analyses are indispensable as sources of information to help policy makers make decisions about mitigation resource use. The aim of this study was to conduct an economic evaluation of the Swiss national mitigation programme for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), which was implemented in 2008 and concludes in 2017. The eradication phase of the mitigation programme comprised testing and slaughtering of all persistently infected (PI) animals found. First, the whole population was antigen tested and all PI cattle removed. Since October 2008, all newborn calves have been subject to antigen testing to identify and slaughter PI calves. All mothers of PI calves were retested and slaughtered if the test was positive. Antigen testing in calves and elimination of virus-carriers was envisaged to be conducted until the end of 2011. Subsequently, a surveillance programme will document disease freedom or detect disease if it recurs. Four alternative surveillance strategies based on antibody testing in blood from newborn calves and/or milk from primiparous cows were proposed by Federal Veterinary Office servants in charge of the BVDV mitigation programme. A simple economic spreadsheet model was developed to estimate and compare the costs and benefits of the BVDV mitigation programme. In an independent project, the impact of the mitigation programme on the disease dynamics in the population was simulated using a stochastic compartment model. Mitigation costs accrued from materials, labour, and processes such as handling and testing samples, and recording results. Benefits were disease costs avoided by having the mitigation programme in place compared to a baseline of endemic disease equilibrium. Cumulative eradication costs and benefits were estimated to determine the break-even point for the eradication component of the programme. The margin over eradication cost therefore equalled the maximum expenditure potentially available for surveillance without the net benefit
Gu, Baohua; Liu, Changbao; Lin-Goerke, Juili; Maley, Derrick R.; Gutshall, Lester L.; Feltenberger, Cynthia A.; Del Vecchio, Alfred M.
Helicase/nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) motifs have been identified in many RNA virus genomes. Similarly, all the members of the Flaviviridae family contain conserved helicase/NTPase motifs in their homologous NS3 proteins. Although this suggests that this activity plays a critical role in the viral life cycle, the precise role of the helicase/NTPase in virus replication or whether it is essential for virus replication is still unknown. To determine the role of the NS3 helicase/NTPase in the viral life cycle, deletion and point mutations in the helicase/NTPase motifs of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) (NADL strain) NS3 protein designed to abolish either helicase activity alone (motif II, DEYH to DEYA) or both NTPase and helicase activity (motif I, GKT to GAT and deletion of motif VI) were generated. The C-terminal domain of NS3 (BVDV amino acids 1854 to 2362) of these mutants and wild type was expressed in bacteria, purified, and assayed for RNA helicase and ATPase activity. These mutations behaved as predicted with respect to RNA helicase and NTPase activities in vitro. When engineered back into an infectious cDNA for BVDV (NADL strain), point mutations in either the GKT or DEYH motif or deletion of motif VI yielded RNA transcripts that no longer produced infectious virus upon transfection of EBTr cells. Further analysis indicated that these mutants did not synthesize minus-strand RNA. These findings represent the first report unequivocably demonstrating that helicase activity is essential for minus-strand synthesis. PMID:10644352
Kubiça, Thaís F.; Alves, Sydney H.; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T.
The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL−1) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL−1) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle. PMID:24948933
Kubiça, Thaís F; Alves, Sydney H; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T
The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL(-1)) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL(-1)) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle.
Gupta, V; Mishra, N; Pateriya, A; Behera, S P; Rajukumar, K
The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro permissivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-immune field cattle to homologous and heterologous BVDVs. PBMCs from seventeen BVDV-naïve and sixteen BVDV-immune animals were infected with noncytopathic BVDV-1 or BVDV-2. The immune status of cattle was indicated by the presence of virus neutralizing antibodies, while viral load of PBMCs was determined by real-time RT-PCR. The results revealed that the PBMCs from naïve or immune animals were permissive to either BVDV-1 or BVDV-2, but the viral load was significantly higher for the naïve than for the immune animals. Furthermore, the load of homologous virus in PBMCs from immune animals was lower than that of heterologous virus. Our results provide evidence that the PBMCs from BVDV-immune cattle in field are susceptible to reinfection with homologous or heterologous BVDV, albeit to a lower extent in the former case.
Santman-Berends, I M G A; Mars, M H; van Duijn, L; van Schaik, G
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important endemic infection. However, no information was available on whether it would be economically beneficial to implement a national control program in the Netherlands. Therefore, a stochastic simulation model was developed in which control scenarios were added to compare the epidemiological and economic consequences of BVDV control in Dutch dairy herds in the next 10 yr. In the epidemiological part of the model, herds could be classified as susceptible, infectious, recovered, or vaccinated. The outputs of the epidemiological module served as input for the economic module. Net costs that could be attributed to bovine viral diarrhea consisted of production losses, costs for testing, and culling persistently infected cattle in the present voluntary Dutch BVDV control program and costs for vaccination. Four different control scenarios were simulated, involving testing and culling of persistently infected (based on serum or ear-notch testing), and monitoring BVDV statuses and vaccination and were derived from BVDV control programs that are currently executed in Europe. The costs and benefits of BVDV control in the current situation and in each of the simulated control scenarios were evaluated assuming an annual discount rate of 2%. The model estimated a mean BVDV herd prevalence of 18.0% in 2014 and showed a slightly decreasing prevalence over time. The outputs seemed realistic for the present situation in the Netherlands when compared with actual survey data. The average annual net costs associated with bovine viral diarrhea were estimated at €27.8 million for the dairy industry. Two control scenarios were beneficial in controlling BVDV during the study period (between 2015 and 2025). In the scenario where tracing and removing of PI animals and monitoring of the subsequent status was obligatory, the benefit to cost (B/C) ratio was 1.5 (€1.5 benefit for each invested euro). In the scenario in which the BVDV status of
The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined in 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples collected by ear notches were tested for BVDV antigen using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture ELISA (ACE). Animals wit...
The ability of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to establish persistent infection (PI) following fetal infection is central to keeping these viruses circulating. Similarly, an emerging species of pestivirus, HoBi-like viruses, is also able to establish PIs. Dams that are not PI, but carrying PI ...
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genotype 1 subtype b caused an outbreak of premature births, late term abortions, brachygnathism, growth retardation, brain deformities and rare other skeletal deformities in Holstein calves born to first calf heifers on one dairy. Experimental challenge of three,...
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes clinical signs in cattle ranging from mild to severe acute infection which can lead to increased susceptibility to secondary bacteria. In this study we examined the effects of BVDV genotype 2 (BVDV2) infection on the ability of myeloid lineage cells derived...
We report here the full-length coding sequence of 12 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from persistently infected cattle from a feedyard in southwest Kansas, USA. These 12 genomes represent the three major genotypes (BVDV 1a, 1b, and 2a) of BVDV currently circulating in the United States....
The term bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) has come to refer to a diverse collection of clinical presentations that include respiratory, enteric and reproductive symptoms accompanied by immunosuppression. While the majority of cases are subclinical in nature two forms exist, mucosal disease and hemorrhag...
Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was detected in 2009-10 during a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 ...
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains circulating in domestic livestock herds show significant sequence variation. Conventional wisdom states that most sequence variation arises during acute infections in response to immune or other environmental pressures. A recent study showed that more nucle...
Exposure to bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) may result in acute and persistent infections. Persistent infections are the consequence of in utero exposure during the first trimester of gestation. The resulting persistently infected (PI) animals are immunotolerant to the virus. Clinical presen...
Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV is often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected (PI). The complete nucleotide se...
Bachofen, Claudia; Braun, Ueli; Hilbe, Monika; Ehrensperger, Felix; Stalder, Hanspeter; Peterhans, Ernst
Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is an economically important cattle disease with a world-wide distribution that is caused by BVD virus, a pestivirus of the flaviviridae family. BVD viruses are genetically highly variable. They are classified into two genetic species (BVDV-1 and -2) that are further divided into numerous subgroups, particularly for BVDV-1. The complexity of these viruses is also reflected in their interaction with the host animals. Infections are either transient or persistent and can cause a wide spectrum of clinical signs, from no or very mild disease to severe forms, reminiscent of viral haemorrhagic fevers. In this work, we have analysed the clinical signs and the pathology of BVD viral infections in a cattle population where different subgroups of BVDV-1 genotype viruses are endemic. In addition, we have examined potential virulence properties of BVDV-1 subgroups during persistent infection by comparing the viral subgroups present in clinical cases with those detected in persistently infected (PI) animals sampled for epidemiological criteria, irrespective of their health condition. Furthermore, the clinical and postmortem findings were compared with respect to genetic characteristics of the viruses isolated from these animals. Our results indicate that the BVDV positive animals fall roughly into two categories, depending on the primary organ affected and the age, with lung-centred pathology occurring mainly in young animals and mucosal pathology predominantly in older animals. Furthermore, we found a markedly higher proportion of representatives of the BVDV-1e subgroup in stillborn calves and aborted foetuses originating from epidemically unrelated cattle herds, suggesting that BVDV-1e may play a special role in prenatal and perinatal losses. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Snider, Marlene; Garg, Ravendra; Brownlie, Robert; van den Hurk, Jan V; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is still one of the most serious pathogens in cattle, meriting the development of improved vaccines. Recently, we developed a new adjuvant consisting of poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)]-phosphazene (PCEP), either CpG ODN or poly(I:C), and an immune defense regulator (IDR) peptide. As this adjuvant has been shown to mediate the induction of robust, balanced immune responses, it was evaluated in an E2 subunit vaccine against BVDV in lambs and calves. The BVDV type 2 E2 protein was produced at high levels in a mammalian expression system and purified. When formulated with either CpG ODN or poly(I:C), together with IDR and PCEP, the E2 protein elicited high antibody titers and production of IFN-γ secreting cells in lambs. As the immune responses were stronger when poly(I:C) was used, the E2 protein with poly(I:C), IDR and PCEP was subsequently tested in cattle. Robust virus neutralizing antibodies as well as cell-mediated immune responses, including CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses, were induced. The fact that CTL responses were demonstrated in calves vaccinated with an E2 protein subunit vaccine indicates that this adjuvant formulation promotes cross-presentation. Furthermore, upon challenge with a high dose of virulent BVDV-2, the vaccinated calves showed almost no temperature response, weight loss, leukopenia or virus replication, in contrast to the control animals, which had severe clinical disease. These data suggest that this E2 subunit formulation induces significant protection from BVDV-2 challenge, and thus is a promising BVDV vaccine candidate; in addition, the adjuvant platform has applications in bovine vaccines in general.
Nelson, Danielle D; Duprau, Jennifer L; Wolff, Peregrine L; Evermann, James F
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).
Nelson, Danielle D.; Duprau, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Evermann, James F.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). PMID:26779126
Gonzalez, A M; Arnaiz, I; Eiras, C; Camino, F; Sanjuán, M L; Yus, E; Diéguez, F J
This study was designed to determine long-term responses in dairy herds after vaccination with 1 of 3 inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccines with regard to antibodies against p80 protein in bulk tank milk samples, as detected by ELISA. In the present study, 29 dairy herds were vaccinated with Bovilis BVD (MSD Animal Health, Milton Keynes, UK), 11 with Hiprabovis Balance (Laboratorios Hipra, Amer, Spain), and 9 with Pregsure BVD (Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ). In these herds, bulk tank milk samples were collected and examined at the time of the first vaccination and every 6 mo during a 3-yr period. Samples were analyzed with a commercial ELISA test for the p80 protein of BVDV. The results demonstrated that vaccination affected the level of antibodies against p80. Hence, vaccination status should be taken into consideration when interpreting bulk tank milk antibody tests.
Serological titers to bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus and Pasteurella haemolytica in feedlot calves with respiratory disease: associations with bacteriological and pulmonary cytological variables.
Allen, J W; Viel, L; Bateman, K G; Nagy, E; Røsendal, S; Shewen, P E
Acute and convalescent serum samples were taken from 59 calves with signs of respiratory disease (cases) and 60 clinically normal animals (controls) during their first month in the feedlot. Sera were analyzed for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza 3 (PI3) virus by hemagglutination inhibition, to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus, bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) by virus neutralization, and to Pasteurella haemolytica by indirect agglutination (PhIA) and cytotoxin neutralization (PhCN) tests. There was minimal evidence of serological activity to BHV1. Serological activity to the other agents occurred commonly and the prevalence of acute titers and their mean values was similar in case and control groups. Mean convalescent PI3 and P. haemolytica (PhIA) titers were higher in controls than cases (p < 0.01) but, otherwise, convalescent titers did not differ between groups. The incidence of seroconversion was similar in both groups for all agents except for PI3 virus which was more frequent in controls than cases (p < 0.0001). There was a positive association between PhIA and CN seroconversion and isolation of P. haemolytica from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (p < 0.1). The measure of agreement (kappa) between seroconversion with the P. haemolytica PhIA and PhCN tests was 0.51. Bacteriological and cytological evaluations of the respiratory tract were made using BAL. No associations were evident between serological titers and pulmonary cytology. A multivariate logistic analysis was used to evaluate associations between disease status and serological, bacteriological and cytological data. Cases were positively associated with the presence of neutrophils and Pasteurella multocida in BAL fluid and negatively associated with PI3 virus and PhIA seroconversion. PMID:1335831
Kuta, A; Polak, M P; Larska, M; Żmudziński, J F
The genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was determined from 65 animals persistently infected with BVDV and diagnosed between 2004 and 2011 in Poland. The samples originated from 28 herds in 12 provinces, where over 90% of the whole cattle population of Poland is reared. Phylogenetic analysis based on the fragments of two genomic regions of BVDV namely, 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and N(pro) was performed. All the BVDV isolates belonged to BVDV-1 species and were further divided into four subtypes. There were 31 viruses of BVDV-1b subtype (47.6%) present in 12 herds, 24 of BVDV-1d subtype (36.9%) in 9 herds, 8 of BVDV-1f subtype (12.3%) in 5 herds and 2 BVDV-1g subtype (3.0%) in 2 herds. Neither BVDV-1a subtype, nor BVDV-2 species or any atypical bovine pestivirus were found among isolates tested. Despite increasing import of live cattle in the recent years, genetic diversity of Polish BVDV isolates was rather low.
Ridpath, J F; Bayles, D O; Neill, J D; Falkenberg, S M; Bauermann, F V; Holler, L; Braun, L J; Young, D B; Kane, S E; Chase, C C L
Exposure to bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) results in acute and persistent infections. Persistent infections result from in utero exposure during the first trimester of gestation. Clinical presentation, in persistently infected cattle (PI), is highly variable. The reasons for this variation is largely unknown. The BVDV circulating in PI exist as quasispecies (swarms of individual viruses). An outbreak resulting in 34 PI cattle presented an opportunity to compare a large number of PI׳s. Methods were developed to compare the circulating viral populations within PI animals. It was found that PI animals generated in the same outbreak carry circulating viral populations that differ widely in size and diversity. Further, it was demonstrated that variation in PI viral populations could be used as a quantifiable phenotype. This observation makes it possible to test the correlation of this phenotype to other phenotypes such as growth rate, congenital defects, viral shed and cytokine expression.
Rose-Dye, T K; Burciaga-Robles, L O; Krehbiel, C R; Step, D L; Fulton, R W; Confer, A W; Richards, C J
Remote rumen temperature monitoring is a potential method for early disease detection in beef cattle. This experiment was conducted to determine if remotely monitored rumen temperature boluses could detect a temperature change in steers exposed to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and challenged with a common bovine respiratory disease pathogen, Mannheimia haemolytica (MH). Twenty-four Angus crossbred steers (BW = 313 ± 31 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) no challenge (control); 2) challenge by a 72-h exposure to 2 steers persistently infected with BVDV; 3) bacterial challenge with MH; and 4) viral challenge by a 72-h exposure to 2 steers persistently infected with BVDV followed by bacterial challenge with MH (BVDV + MH). Remotely monitored rumen temperature boluses programmed to transmit temperature every minute were placed in the rumen before the time of exposure to steers persistently infected with BVDV. Rectal temperatures were taken before MH challenge (0) and at 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 h after MH challenge. Rumen temperatures were recorded 3 d before (-72 h; period of BVDV exposure) through 14 d after (336 h) MH challenge. Rumen temperatures were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and a first-order autoregressive covariance structure for repeated measures. A treatment × day interaction was observed for average daily rumen temperature (P < 0.01). A treatment difference (P < 0.01) was observed on d 0, when MH-challenged steers had greater rumen temperatures than steers not challenged with MH. There was no BVDV × day interaction (P > 0.01). Rumen temperatures averaged every 2 h resulted in a BVDV × hour interaction (P < 0.01) and an MH × hour interaction (P < 0.01). The BVDV × hour differences occurred at h -18 to -14, 40 to 46, 110, 122, and 144 to 146 (P < 0.01). The MH × hour difference occurred at h 4 to 24 (P < 0.01). Maximum rumen temperature was increased (P
Lanyon, S R; Anderson, M L; Reichel, M P
We aimed to establish the attitudes of South Australian cattle farmers towards endemic animal disease prevention and control, with a particular focus on the awareness of and attitudes towards bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD). This cross-sectional postal survey involved mailing a questionnaire to all South Australian cattle owners with 35 or more head of cattle. Worms and lice were the most common animal disease concerns. Less than half of responding farmers were adequately vaccinating their herds against clostridial diseases, but 53.0% stated that they utilised quarantine procedures. Less than 20% of respondents had actively taken part in BVD educational opportunities, or had vaccinated or tested their herd for BVD; less than 20% of respondents were actively involved in any systematic control of Johne's disease. Overall, farmers' actual knowledge of BVD was lower than their perceived understanding, although their interest in BVD and its control was high. Disease prevention measures such as vaccination, quarantine and participation in systematic control schemes were used by a minority of respondents. The results suggest that respondents acknowledge BVD as an important and relevant disease, despite many believing it was not a problem in their herd. Interest in BVD appears to be high and it is likely that an education program would be well received. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.
Meiring, Thelma; Prozesky, Leon; Du Preez, Eben R; Verwoerd, Dirk J
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection is an important viral infection affecting the cattle industry today. The prevalence of this infection in South African feedlots is unknown. Ear notch biopsies were collected from chronic poor doers and animals that appeared unthrifty upon entering feedlots, as well as animals entering the hospital pen with respiratory disease for the first time. A total of 1690 samples were collected: 1074 from the former category and 616 from the latter. A routine immunohistochemistry staining protocol showed that 49 animals tested positive, of which 43 (4%) came from the feedlot entry group and six (1%) from the hospitalised group. The prevalence of persistently infected cattle from this selected, nonrandom sample entering six large South African feedlots was found to be 2.9%, which is higher than the international rule of thumb that 0.5% of all cattle entering feedlots are persistently infected. There was no clear correlation between persistent infection and respiratory disease. Serum samples were also collected when possible and 10 positive cases were found. Results from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for antigen and antibody performed on these sera correlated well with those from the immunohistochemistry staining method in six cases, but in four cases the animals tested falsely positive owing to nonspecific staining. Immunohistochemistry staining on ear notch biopsies is thus a reliable diagnostic method to identify persistently infected animals with BVDV, but the pathologist should be aware of nonspecific positive staining.
Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Roh, In-Soon; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Bae, You-Chan; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Jin, Young-Hwa; Lee, O-Soo
Between August 2008 and May 2009, 386 brain and serum samples from adult cattle (2-7 years old) showing a variety of clinical signs of downer cow syndrome were received by the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service. All brain samples were tested for the presence of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and antigen capture ELISA (Ag-ELISA). The BVDV nucleic acid was detected in 54 of 386 (15.5%) brain samples tested by RT-PCR. Positive results were detected in 14 (3.67%) and 13 (3.4%) of samples tested by IHC and Ag-ELISA, respectively. Both BVDV nucleic acid and antigen were detected in 11 cattle (2.9%) by all 3 diagnostic tests; however, antibodies against BVDV were not detected in these 11 cattle. A molecular classification of the identified viral strains (n = 40) was also carried out. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the identified viruses belonged to BVDV genotype 1a (n = 10), 1b (n = 16), and 2a (n = 8). The remaining strains were subtypes 1c (n = 1), 1n (n = 4), and 1m (n = 1). Interestingly, most of the BVDV-1b strains (n = 9) identified in brain samples were confirmed by all 3 diagnostic tests. Further studies should be performed to determine why the BVDV-1b strain was found in brain samples that were positive using all 3 diagnostic tests.
Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are ubiquitous viral pathogens of cattle. There is a high degree of sequence diversity between strains circulating in livestock herds. The driving force behind change in sequence is not known but the inaccurate replication of the genomic RNA by a viral RNA polyme...
Compare antigenic differences between HoBi virus and BVDV strains that might impact on diagnostics and control. Eighteen non-cytopathic isolates of pestiviruses including the 5 genotypic groups (BVDV1a-c, BVDV2, BDV) and HoBi virus, were tested using antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
Garoussi, M Talebkhan; Mehrzad, J
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), a member of the Pestivirus genus, is one of the most important pathogens of dairy cattle; it can cause several clinical syndromes, ranging from subclinical to severe disease. The objectives of the current studies were to assess the effects of two biotypes of BVDV on sperm attachment to the zona pellucida (ZP) of oocytes and on fertilization rate in bovine in vitro fertilization (IVF). In two experiments, sperm at two concentrations (10⁵ and 10⁶/mL) and oocytes were incubated with 10⁶ TCID₅₀/mL cythopatic (CP) or noncythopatic (NCP) BVDV. In the first experiment, with the lower sperm concentration (10⁵/mL), male and female gametes were infected with CP or NCP BVDV, whereas in the second experiment, the sperm concentration was 10⁶/mL, and sperm and oocytes were also infected with CP or NCP BVDV. The number of sperm attached to the ZP and the fertilization rate were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy on the ZP of fertile and infertile oocytes. In the first experiment, compared to the control group (n = 97), oocytes infected with CP BVDV and incubated at the lower (10⁵/mL) sperm concentration positively affected sperm attachment (n = 123) to the ZP of fertile oocytes (P < 0.05). In comparison with the control group (n = 115), sperm infected with CP BVDV negatively affected sperm binding (n = 93) to the ZP of infertile oocytes (P < 0.05). In the second experiment (10⁶ sperm/mL), for both fertile and infertile oocyte groups, sperm attachment in the control group was very high and deemed uncountable. However, in treated groups, the number of sperm attached to the ZP was countable. Only sperm infected with CP BVDV negatively affected sperm binding capacity (n = 81) to the ZP of fertile oocytes (P < 0.05). Although CP and NCP BVDV significantly reduced the fertilization rate of oocytes incubated with a higher sperm concentration, with the lower sperm concentration, only NCP BVDV significantly diminished
Castro, Eliana F.; Fabian, Lucas E.; Caputto, María E.; Gagey, Dolores; Finkielsztein, Liliana M.; Moltrasio, Graciela Y.; Moglioni, Albertina G.; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Cavallaro, Lucía V.
In the present work, we described the activity of the thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC), which we previously characterized as a new compound that inhibits bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection. We showed that TSC acts at a point of time that coincides with the onset of viral RNA synthesis and that it inhibits the activity of BVDV replication complexes (RCs). Moreover, we have selected five BVDV mutants that turned out to be highly resistant to TSC but still susceptible to ribavirin (RBV). Four of these resistant mutants carried an N264D mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The remaining mutant showed an A392E mutation within the same protein. Some of these mutants replicated slower than the wild-type (wt) virus in the absence of TSC, whereas others showed a partial reversion to the wt phenotype over several passages in the absence of the compound. The docking of TSC in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed a close contact between the indane ring of the compound and several residues within the fingers domain of the enzyme, some hydrophobic contacts, and hydrogen bonds with the thiosemicarbazone group. Finally, in the mutated RdRp from resistant BVDV, these interactions with TSC could not be achieved. Interestingly, TSC inhibited BVDV replication in cell culture synergistically with RBV. In conclusion, TSC emerges as a new nonnucleoside inhibitor of BVDV RdRp that is synergistic with RBV, a feature that turns it into a potential compound to be evaluated against hepatitis C virus (HCV). PMID:21430053
DiStefano, D J; Gould, S L; Munshi, S; Robinson, D K
A colorimetric end-point dilution assay was developed for the titration of rotavirus-containing samples that uses commercially available tetrazolium dyes as an indicator of virus infection. This assay offers several advantages over both plaque assays and traditional end-point dilution methods. The latter assays require manual counting of plaques or the scoring of wells for the presence of virus based on observed cytopathic effects. The colorimetric end-point dilution assay enables the scoring of wells based upon absorbance readings alone, thereby eliminating time-consuming and subjective manual screenings. This method also has the potential for automating the analysis of large numbers of samples. Virus titers of human-bovine rotavirus reassortants obtained using this method are comparable to those determined by plaque assay. The scoring of wells based on absorbance readings was also found to agree with manual scoring of cytopathic effects and with the production of viral antigen.
Kruger, Ernesto Renato; Penha, Tania Regina; Stoffelo, Daura Regina Eira; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Ribeiro, Magda Costa; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz
Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a member of Gammaherpesvirinae sub-family and belongs to genus Rhadinovirus . This virus has been associated with different clinical manifestations and research activity has put forward a strong correlation among virus infection, postpartum metritis, and abortion. The goal of this work was to characterize a virus strain isolate from a cow’s uterine outflow. From swabs drawn of uterine secretion, a virus strain was isolated and characterized by its cytopathology, morphology, and molecular biology approaches. In culture there was CPE development, characterized mainly by long strands with several small balloons along them, radiated from infected cells. Electron microscopy analysis revealed virus particles that had icosahedrical capsid symmetry surrounded by a loose envelope, typical of a herpesvirus. A 2,571 bp PCR product after Hind III digestion generated four fragments, whose base pair composition were 403, 420, 535, and 1,125 bp. Restriction enzymes Hind III and Bam HI generated the expected diagnostic bands as well as a 2,350 bp hypermolar fragment as a result of Bam HI treatment to demonstrate that agent was a bovine herpesvirus 4, appertaining to DN-599 group. PMID:26221118
Abed, Yacine; Boivin, Guy
The sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA) method was performed to identify a virus in 17 clinical respiratory samples producing uncharacterized cytopathic effects in LLC-MK2 cells. Sequence analysis of 600-1600 bp amplicons allowed the identification of six viruses (one influenza C, two parechovirus-3 and three cardioviruses). Genomic sequences of the cardioviruses showed similarities with those of the recently-described Saffold virus strain although significant variation was present in the viral surface EF and CD loops. These results demonstrate the usefulness of SISPA for identifying emerging viruses and also known viruses not easily identified by standard virological methods.
Abed, Yacine; Boivin, Guy
The sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA) method was performed to identify a virus in 17 clinical respiratory samples producing uncharacterized cytopathic effects in LLC-MK2 cells. Sequence analysis of 600–1600 bp amplicons allowed the identification of six viruses (one influenza C, two parechovirus-3 and three cardioviruses). Genomic sequences of the cardioviruses showed similarities with those of the recently-described Saffold virus strain although significant variation was present in the viral surface EF and CD loops. These results demonstrate the usefulness of SISPA for identifying emerging viruses and also known viruses not easily identified by standard virological methods. PMID:21994539
Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Camero, Michele; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Colao, Valeriana; Cavaliere, Nicola; Lovero, Angela; Lorusso, Eleonora; Buonavoglia, Canio
Hobi-like pestivirus, a new tentative species within genus Pestivirus, was firstly detected in foetal bovine serum batches and later associated to respiratory distress and reproductive failures in cattle. In the present study, the cross-antibody response between bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) and the emerging pestivirus was evaluated in the sheep model. Ten sheep were immunised against BVDV-1 or Hobi-like pestivirus using inactivated preparations and the induced antibody responses were evaluated against the homologous and heterologous viruses. The results showed that heterologous antibody titres were significantly lower than the homologous ones, thus suggesting the need to develop specific vaccines against the emerging pestiviral species.
Fang, Xin; Waghela, Suryakant D.; Bray, Jocelyn; Njongmeta, Leo M.; Herring, Andy; Abdelsalam, Karim W.; Chase, Christopher; Mwangi, Waithaka
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) plays a key role in bovine respiratory disease complex, which can lead to pneumonia, diarrhea and death of calves. Current vaccines are not very effective due, in part, to immunosuppressive traits and failure to induce broad protection. There are diverse BVDV strains and thus, current vaccines contain representative genotype 1 and 2 viruses (BVDV-1 & 2) to broaden coverage. BVDV modified live virus (MLV) vaccines are superior to killed virus vaccines, but they are susceptible to neutralization and complement-mediated destruction triggered by passively acquired antibodies, thus limiting their efficacy. We generated three novel mosaic polypeptide chimeras, designated NproE2123; NS231; and NS232, which incorporate protective determinants that are highly conserved among BVDV-1a, 1b, and BVDV-2 genotypes. In addition, strain-specific protective antigens from disparate BVDV strains were included to broaden coverage. We confirmed that adenovirus constructs expressing these antigens were strongly recognized by monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal sera, and IFN-γ-secreting T cells generated against diverse BVDV strains. In a proof-of-concept efficacy study, the multi-antigen proto-type vaccine induced higher, but not significantly different, IFN-γ spot forming cells and T-cell proliferation compared to a commercial MLV vaccine. In regards to the humoral response, the prototype vaccine induced higher BVDV-1 specific neutralizing antibody titers, whereas the MLV vaccine induced higher BVDV-2 specific neutralizing antibody titers. Following BVDV type 2a (1373) challenge, calves immunized with the proto-type or the MLV vaccine had lower clinical scores compared to naïve controls. These results support the hypothesis that a broadly protective subunit vaccine can be generated using mosaic polypeptides that incorporate rationally selected and validated protective determinants from diverse BVDV strains. Furthermore, regarding biosafety of using a
Gregg, K; Chen, S H; Sadeghieh, S; Guerra, T; Xiang, T; Meredith, J; Polejaeva, I
The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive risk assessment on infectious disease transmission in the system of in vitro embryo production via somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT) technology using bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) as a model. The risks of BVDV transmission in each step of the SCNT embryo production procedure, from donor cells to preimplantation SCNT embryo culture, were carefully examined using a sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The identified primary source of BVDV transmission in SCNT embryo production was donor cell infection, most likely caused by contaminated fetal bovine serum in the culture medium. The risk of disease transmission through contaminated oocytes from an abattoir was relatively low, and it can be greatly minimized by cumulus cell removal and adequate oocyte washing procedures. Of the 200 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and more than 1500 cumulus cell-free oocyte (CFO) samples collected from multiple sources over a course of 7 months, only 2.5% of the COCs were BVDV positive, and all of the CFOs (100%) were BVDV negative. To evaluate the risk of BVDV introduction during in vitro SCNT embryo culture, 324 SCNT embryos were produced from 18 different cell lines using oocytes from 26 different batches collected over a course of 9 months. The embryos were cultured in vitro for 7 days and then tested for BVDV. All of the 324 SCNT embryos (100%) were negative, indicating that the embryo culture system is virtually risk-free for BVDV transmission. Based on these results, a standard operational protocol (SOP) for SCNT embryo production was proposed to greatly minimize the risk of BVDV transmission through the SCNT embryo production system. This SOP could be a starting point to produce a SCNT system that is virtually risk-free for disease transmission in general.
Lokhandwala, Shehnaz; Fang, Xin; Waghela, Suryakant D; Bray, Jocelyn; Njongmeta, Leo M; Herring, Andy; Abdelsalam, Karim W; Chase, Christopher; Mwangi, Waithaka
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) plays a key role in bovine respiratory disease complex, which can lead to pneumonia, diarrhea and death of calves. Current vaccines are not very effective due, in part, to immunosuppressive traits and failure to induce broad protection. There are diverse BVDV strains and thus, current vaccines contain representative genotype 1 and 2 viruses (BVDV-1 & 2) to broaden coverage. BVDV modified live virus (MLV) vaccines are superior to killed virus vaccines, but they are susceptible to neutralization and complement-mediated destruction triggered by passively acquired antibodies, thus limiting their efficacy. We generated three novel mosaic polypeptide chimeras, designated NproE2123; NS231; and NS232, which incorporate protective determinants that are highly conserved among BVDV-1a, 1b, and BVDV-2 genotypes. In addition, strain-specific protective antigens from disparate BVDV strains were included to broaden coverage. We confirmed that adenovirus constructs expressing these antigens were strongly recognized by monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal sera, and IFN-γ-secreting T cells generated against diverse BVDV strains. In a proof-of-concept efficacy study, the multi-antigen proto-type vaccine induced higher, but not significantly different, IFN-γ spot forming cells and T-cell proliferation compared to a commercial MLV vaccine. In regards to the humoral response, the prototype vaccine induced higher BVDV-1 specific neutralizing antibody titers, whereas the MLV vaccine induced higher BVDV-2 specific neutralizing antibody titers. Following BVDV type 2a (1373) challenge, calves immunized with the proto-type or the MLV vaccine had lower clinical scores compared to naïve controls. These results support the hypothesis that a broadly protective subunit vaccine can be generated using mosaic polypeptides that incorporate rationally selected and validated protective determinants from diverse BVDV strains. Furthermore, regarding biosafety of using a
Ularamu, H G; Sibeko, K P; Bosman, A B; Venter, E H; van Vuuren, M
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) has emerged as one of the economically important pathogens in cattle populations, with a worldwide distribution and causing a complex of disease syndromes. Two genotypes, BVDV 1 and 2, exist and are discriminated on the basis of the sequence of the 5' non-coding region (5' NCR) using real-time PCR. Real-time PCR is more sensitive, specific, and less time-consuming than conventional PCR, and it has less risk of cross-contamination of samples. Limited information exists on BVDV genetic subtypes in South Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypes of BVDV currently circulating in South African feedlots. A total of 279 specimens (219 tissue samples, 59 trans-tracheal aspirates and 1 blood sample) were collected from dead and living cattle with lesions or clinical signs compatible with BVDV infection. Pooled homogenates from the same animals were prepared, and total RNA was extracted. A screening test was performed on the pooled samples, and positive pools were investigated individually. A Cador BVDV Type 1/2 RT-PCR Kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany) was used for the real-time PCR assay on a LightCycler(®) V2.0 real-time PCR machine (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). The results were read at 530 and 640 nm for BVDV 1 and 2, respectively. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus was detected in a total of 103 samples that included 91 tissue samples, 1 blood sample and 11 trans-tracheal aspirates. Eighty-five (82.5 %) of the strains were genotype 1 and 18 (17.5 %) were genotype 2. Comparing the sequencing data, genotypes 1 and 2 from the field strains did not cluster with vaccine strains currently used in feedlots in South Africa. The present study revealed the presence of BVDV genotype 2 in cattle in South Africa based on the high sequence similarity between genotype 2 field strains and strain 890 from North America. The presence of genotype 2 viruses that phylogenetically belong to different clusters and coexist in feedlots is
Platt, Ratree; Coutu, Christopher; Meinert, Todd; Roth, James A
The objective of this research project was to evaluate the antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to a multivalent vaccine containing killed bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2. Twenty castrated male crossbred beef cattle (350-420kg body weight) seronegative to BVDV were randomly divided into two groups of 10 each. Group 1 served as negative mock-vaccinated control. Group 2 was vaccinated subcutaneously twice, 3 weeks apart, with modified live bovine herpesvirus 1, parainfluenza 3 virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus diluted in diluent containing killed BVDV type 1 (strain 5960) and type 2 (strain 53637) in an adjuvant containing Quil A, Amphigen, and cholesterol. Serum samples were collected from all cattle at days -21, 0, and days 21, 28, 35, 56 and 70 post-vaccination. Standard serum virus neutralization tests were performed with BVDV type 1 (strain 5960) and type 2 (strain 125C). Anticoagulated blood samples were collected at day 0, and days 28, 35, 56 and 70 post-vaccination. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated, stimulated with live BVDV type 1 (strain TGAN) and type 2 (strain 890) and cultured in vitro for 4 days. Supernatants of cultured cells were collected and saved for interferon gamma (IFNgamma) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Four-color flow cytometry was performed to stain and identify cultured PBMC for three T cell surface markers (CD4, CD8, and gammadelta TCR) and to detect the activation marker CD25 (alpha chain of IL-2 receptor) expression. The net increase in %CD25+ cells (Delta%CD25+) of each T cell subset of individual cattle was calculated. The results of all post-vaccination weeks of each animal were plotted and the areas under the curve of each T cell subset were statistically analyzed and compared between groups. The mean area under the curve of the Delta%CD25+ data for days 0-70 of all subsets, except CD4-CD8+gammadelta TCR- (cytotoxic) T cell subset of both BVDV types 1 and
Zhao, Yuelan; Ma, Tianyi; Ju, Xingyu; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Min; Liu, Teng; Cao, Wenbo; Bao, Yongzhan; Qin, Jianhua
The E2 gene containing the EcoR I and Not I sites of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was amplified from the plasmid pMD-18T-E2 of the HB-bd isolated, and inserted into Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) expression vector pPIC9K, and transfected into Escherichia coli DH5α. The recombinant plasmid pPIC9K-E2 was digested by the SalI restriction enzyme and transformed into the P. pastoris strain GS115 by electroporation. High copy integrative transformants were obtained by G418 screening and induced for expression with methanol. The expressed products in the culture medium were identified by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the Western blotting and the antibody test for immunity. An indirect Dot-ELISA for the detection of antibody against BVDV was established by the recombinant E2 protein as the coating antigen. The reaction conditions of the indirect Dot-ELISA were optimized. The coating concentration of the E2 recombinant protein antigen, the dilution of serum sample, the optimal concentration of HRP labeled antibody, the optimal blocking reagent and blocking time were studied. 100 sera samples from cows in the field were tested for the antibody against BVDV by the Dot-ELISA and the IDEXX HerdChek BVDV antibody ELISA kit simultaneously to compare the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy. The results showed that the expressed products in the culture medium resulted in single band of 44kDa by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The results of the immunogenicity assay indicated that the protein E2 expressed in P. pastoris could induce the experimental animals of the rabbit to produce BVDV specific antibodies. The results of the indirect Dot-ELISA showed that the optimal coating concentration of the E2 recombinant protein was 2.0μg/mL, the bovine serum dilution was 1:100, the optimal concentration of HRP-labeled rabbit anti-bovine antibody IgG was 1:500, and the optimal blocking reagent was 3% glutin-TBS and blocking for 45min. The
Sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus in pooled serum samples and use of pooled polymerase chain reaction to determine prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus in auction market cattle.
Smith, Rebecca L; Sanderson, Michael W; Walz, Paul H; Givens, M Daniel
Two reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction tests, 1 quantitative (qRT-nPCR) and 1 standard (RT-nPCR), were evaluated to assess sensitivity for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of a single positive serum sample in a pool of 30. The RT-nPCR and qRT-nPCR each detected 95 of 100 known positives. The RT-nPCR was used to estimate the prevalence of BVDV in adult beef cows. Serum samples were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture brucellosis testing laboratories in 3 Midwestern states. Samples originated from auction markets and private treaty sales throughout the 3 states. A total of 2,990 serum samples were collected and randomly pooled into 100 pools for testing. Two of the 100 pools of field samples were positive, and each positive pool had a single positive individual sample upon confirmation. The estimate of BVDV prevalence in adult cows in this study was 0.07%. This study estimates the diagnostic sensitivity of RT-nPCR for BVDV and confirms that it is a useful diagnostic tool for pools of 30 serum samples and that prevalence of BVDV in adult cattle from auction markets is low.
Abstract To investigate the hematologic abnormalities observed with noncytopathic type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV-2), calves 6 to 8 mo old were inoculated with an isolate of either high virulence (HV24515) or low virulence (LV11Q); control animals received the same volume of uninfected cell-culture supernatant. Peripheral blood neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet counts decreased in all the virus-inoculated calves but were significantly lower and remained decreased longer in the calves given HV24515. For each isolate, a decrease in the number of mature myeloid cells in the bone marrow coincided with the development of neutropenia, but the depletion persisted significantly longer (4 to 6 d) in the calves given HV24515. In the bone marrow of calves given LV11Q, the number of proliferating myeloid cells increased in proportion to the decrease in the number of mature myeloid cells. In the calves inoculated with HV24515, BVDV antigen was observed in bone marrow cells when the peripheral blood counts were lowest. Megakaryocytes were the predominant cell type exhibiting positive BVDV staining; myeloid cells rarely stained positively. Viral antigen was not observed in the bone marrow of calves given LV11Q. These experiments demonstrated that ncpBVDV-2 isolates of both high and low virulence caused decreased leukocyte and platelet counts, but only the high-virulence HV24515 isolate caused a delay in the production of myeloid proliferating cells. The delay may contribute to the ability of certain ncpBVDV-2 isolates to induce severe disease. PMID:14979434
Radostits, Otto M.; Littlejohns, Ian R.
The new information on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of mucosal disease of cattle is reviewed. It is now known that clinical mucosal disease occurs only in cattle which were infected with a pestivirus in early gestation and were born with persistent viral infection and specific immunotolerance. These animals may be clinically normal at birth but may develop fatal mucosal disease, perhaps following superinfection with another pestivirus, usually between 6 and 24 months of age. They may also remain clinically normal indefinitely and breed successfully. The progeny from persistently infected females will similarly be persistently viremic, and maternal families of such animals may be established. Congenital defects may occur when infection of the fetus occurs in mid-gestation. Although fetuses may be infected in utero in late gestation, the infections do not persist, the fetuses develop antibodies, and they appear to suffer no ill-effects. Postnatal infection can result in subclinical disease (bovine viral diarrhea) with a normal immune response; the virus may also be responsible for enhanced susceptibility to other infections, diarrhea in newborn calves, and reproductive failure. Prevention of the economically important diseases caused by the virus is dependent upon the identification and elimination of persistently viremic animals, which are reservoirs of infection, and the vaccination of immunocompetent females at least three weeks before breeding. However, because of serotypic differences between strains, there is some doubt whether vaccination will reliably provide protection against the transplacental fetal infections that are important in the pathogenesis of this disease. There is no substantial evidence to warrant the vaccination of feedlot cattle. PMID:17423063
Bocharov, Gennady; Züst, Roland; Cervantes-Barragan, Luisa; Luzyanina, Tatyana; Chiglintsev, Egor; Chereshnev, Valery A; Thiel, Volker; Ludewig, Burkhard
Plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC)-mediated protection against cytopathic virus infection involves various molecular, cellular, tissue-scale, and organism-scale events. In order to better understand such multiscale interactions, we have implemented a systems immunology approach focusing on the analysis of the structure, dynamics and operating principles of virus-host interactions which constrain the initial spread of the pathogen. Using high-resolution experimental data sets coming from the well-described mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) model, we first calibrated basic modules including MHV infection of its primary target cells, i.e. pDCs and macrophages (Mphis). These basic building blocks were used to generate and validate an integrative mathematical model for in vivo infection dynamics. Parameter estimation for the system indicated that on a per capita basis, one infected pDC secretes sufficient type I IFN to protect 10(3) to 10(4) Mphis from cytopathic viral infection. This extremely high protective capacity of pDCs secures the spleen's capability to function as a 'sink' for the virus produced in peripheral organs such as the liver. Furthermore, our results suggest that the pDC population in spleen ensures a robust protection against virus variants which substantially down-modulate IFN secretion. However, the ability of pDCs to protect against severe disease caused by virus variants exhibiting an enhanced liver tropism and higher replication rates appears to be rather limited. Taken together, this systems immunology analysis suggests that antiviral therapy against cytopathic viruses should primarily limit viral replication within peripheral target organs.
R El-Attar, Laila M; Thomas, Carole; Luke, Jeremy; A Williams, James; Brownlie, Joe
DNA vaccination is effective in inducing potent immunity in mice; however it appears to be less so in large animals. Increasing the dose of DNA plasmid to activate innate immunity has been shown to improve DNA vaccine adaptive immunity. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a critical cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA pattern receptor required for innate immune activation in response to viral infection. RIG-I recognise viral RNA and trigger antiviral response, resulting in type I interferon (IFN) and inflammatory cytokine production. In an attempt to enhance the antibody response induced by BVDV DNA in cattle, we expressed BVDV truncated E2 (E2t) and NS3 codon optimised antigens from antibiotic free-plasmid vectors expressing a RIG-I agonist and designated either NTC E2t(co) and NTC NS3(co). To evaluate vaccine efficacy, groups of five BVDV-free calves were intramuscularly injected three times with NTC E2t(co) and NTC NS3(co) vaccine plasmids individually or in combination. Animals vaccinated with our (previously published) conventional DNA vaccines pSecTag/E2 and pTriExNS3 and plasmids expressing RIG-I agonist only presented both the positive and mock-vaccine groups. Our results showed that vaccines coexpressing E2t with a RIG-I agonist induced significantly higher E2 antigen specific antibody response (p<0.05). Additionally, E2t augmented the immune response to NS3 when the two vaccines were delivered in combination. Despite the lack of complete protection, on challenge day 4/5 calves vaccinated with NTC E2t(co) alone or NTC E2t(co) plus NTC NS3(co) had neutralising antibody titres exceeding 1/240 compared to 1/5 in the mock vaccine control group. Based on our results we conclude that co-expression of a RIG-I agonist with viral antigen could enhance DNA vaccine potency in cattle.
Gao, Yugang; Zang, Pu; Liu, Qun; Wei, Gongqing
The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a single-stranded RNA virus, can cause fatal diarrhea syndrome, respiratory problems, and reproductive disorders in herds. Over the past few years, it has become clear that the BVDV infection rates are increasing and it is likely that an effective vaccine for BVDV will be needed. In this study, transgenic Astragalus was used as an alternative productive platform for the expression of glycoprotein E0. The immunogenicity of glycoprotein E0 expressed in transgenic Astragalus was detected in deer. The presence of pBI121-E0 was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transcription was verified by reverse transcription- (RT-) PCR, and recombinant protein expression was confirmed by ELISA and Western blot analyses. Deer that were immunized subcutaneously with the transgenic plant vaccine developed specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against BVDV. This study provides a new method for a protein with weak immunogenicity to be used as part of a transgenic plant vaccine. PMID:24963321
Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne-France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of disease introductions through fenceline contact with neighboring herds and the purchase of infected cattle, and (3) the risk of individual pregnant cattle generating persistently infected (PI) calves based on their stage in gestation. The model predicted the highest losses from BVDV during the first 3 years after disease was introduced into a naive herd. During the endemic phase, the impact of BVDV on the yearly herd productivity was much lower due to herd immunity. However, cumulative losses over 10 years in an endemic situation greatly surpassed the losses that occurred during the acute phase. A sensitivity analysis of key model parameters revealed that herd size, the duration of breeding, grazing, and selling periods, renewal rate of breeding females, and the level of numerical productivity expected by the farmer had a significant influence on the predicted losses. This model provides a valuable framework for evaluating the impact of BVDV and the efficacy of different control strategies in beef cow-calf herds.
Gao, Yugang; Zhao, Xueliang; Zang, Pu; Liu, Qun; Wei, Gongqing; Zhang, Lianxue
The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a single-stranded RNA virus, can cause fatal diarrhea syndrome, respiratory problems, and reproductive disorders in herds. Over the past few years, it has become clear that the BVDV infection rates are increasing and it is likely that an effective vaccine for BVDV will be needed. In this study, transgenic Astragalus was used as an alternative productive platform for the expression of glycoprotein E0. The immunogenicity of glycoprotein E0 expressed in transgenic Astragalus was detected in deer. The presence of pBI121-E0 was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transcription was verified by reverse transcription- (RT-) PCR, and recombinant protein expression was confirmed by ELISA and Western blot analyses. Deer that were immunized subcutaneously with the transgenic plant vaccine developed specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against BVDV. This study provides a new method for a protein with weak immunogenicity to be used as part of a transgenic plant vaccine.
Kővágó, Csaba; Hornyák, Ákos; Kékesi, Violetta; Rusvai, Miklós
Complete genome sequences of bovine viral diarrhoea virus types 1 and 2 (BVDV-1 and 2) deposited in the GenBank were submitted to bioinformatic analysis using a recombination-detecting software. The results indicate that recombination events are not rare in the case of BVDV, which frequently causes immunotolerance and, consequently, persistent infection in calves. The lack of specific immunity provides an ideal possibility for multiple infections by antigenically related but genetically different BVDV strains, and hence recombinations may occur. Among the 62 BVDV-1 genomes five recombinants and their possible parent strains, while among the 50 BVDV-2 genomes one simple recombinant and its parent strains were identified, which were supported by extremely strong probability values (P values varying between 1.26 × 10(-4) and 1.58 × 10(-310)). Besides the newly identified recombinants, recombination events described previously were confirmed, but in some of these cases former information was completed with new data, or different parent(s) were suggested by the programme (RDP 4.46 BETA) used in this study.
Arenhart, Sandra; Silva, José Valter Joaquim; Flores, Eduardo Furtado; Weiblen, Rudi; Gil, Laura Helena Vega Gonzales
The open reading frame of a Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain, IBSP4ncp, was recombined with the untranslated regions of the reference NADL strain by homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in chimeric full-length cDNA clones of BVDV (chi-NADL/IBSP4ncp#2 and chi-NADL/IBSP4ncp#3). The recombinant clones were successfully recovered, resulting in viable viruses, having the kinetics of replication, focus size, and morphology similar to those of the parental virus, IBSP4ncp. In addition, the chimeric viruses remained stable for at least 10 passages in cell culture, maintaining their replication efficiency unaltered. Nucleotide sequencing revealed a few point mutations; nevertheless, the phenotype of the rescued viruses was nearly identical to that of the parental virus in all experiments. Thus, genetic stability of the chimeric clones and their phenotypic similarity to the parental virus confirm the ability of the yeast-based homologous recombination to maintain characteristics of the parental virus from which the recombinant viruses were derived. The data also support possible use of the yeast system for the manipulation of the BVDV genome. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Gates, M Carolyn; Humphry, Roger W; Gunn, George J; Woolhouse, Mark E J
Many economically important cattle diseases spread between herds through livestock movements. Traditionally, most transmission models have assumed that all purchased cattle carry the same risk of generating outbreaks in the destination herd. Using data on bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Scotland as a case example, this study provides empirical and theoretical evidence that the risk of disease transmission varies substantially based on the animal and herd demographic characteristics at the time of purchase. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that purchasing pregnant heifers and open cows sold with a calf at foot were associated with an increased risk of beef herds being seropositive for BVDV. Based on the results from a dynamic within-herd simulation model, these findings may be partly explained by the age-related probability of animals being persistently infected with BVDV as well as the herd demographic structure at the time of animal introductions. There was also evidence that an epidemiologically important network statistic, "betweenness centrality" (a measure frequently associated with the potential for herds to acquire and transmit disease), was significantly higher for herds that supplied these particular types of replacement beef cattle. The trends for dairy herds were not as clear, although there was some evidence that open heifers and open lactating cows were associated with an increased risk of BVDV. Overall, these findings have important implications for developing simulation models that more accurately reflect the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases.
Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Silveira, Fernando; Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; Yendo, Anna Carolina; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo Michel
A saponin fraction extracted from Quillaja brasiliensis leaves (QB-90) and a semi-purified aqueous extract (AE) were evaluated as adjuvants in a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine in mice. Animals were immunized on days 0 and 14 with antigen plus either QB-90 or AE or an oil-adjuvanted vaccine. Two-weeks after boosting, antibodies were measured by ELISA; cellular immunity was evaluated by DTH, lymphoproliferation, cytokine release and single cell IFN-γ production. Serum anti-BVDV IgG, IgG1 and IgG2b were significantly increased in QB-90- and AE-adjuvanted vaccines. A robust DTH response, increased splenocyte proliferation, Th1-type cytokines and enhanced production of IFN-γ by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes were detected in mice that received QB-90-adjuvanted vaccine. The AE-adjuvanted preparation stimulated humoral responses but not cellular immune responses. These findings reveal that QB-90 is capable of stimulating both cellular and humoral immune responses when used as adjuvant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ghasemi Monjezi, Shahrzad; Rezatofighi, Seyedeh Elham; Mirzadeh, Khalil; Rastegarzadeh, Saadat
A novel bovine viral diarrheal virus (BVDV)-RNA detection method was developed using a combination of the amplification capability of hybridization chain reaction (HCR) with the sensitivity of an unmodified-gold nanoparticle (AuNP) colorimetric detection assay. Two auxiliary probes were designed to target a conserved RNA sequence among the BVDV isolates. The complementary target BVDV-RNA was used as the initiator to trigger a cascade of hybridization events to yield nicked double-helix DNA analogous to the alternating copolymers. DNA in the form of a nicked double helix did not prevent salt-induced aggregation of AuNPs. In contrast, in the absence of the complementary target BVDV-RNA, free hairpins with single-stranded sticky ends adsorbed onto the AuNPs, stabilize them, and prevent salt-induced aggregation of the AuNP. The limit of detection (LOD) for the BVDV-RNA was estimated to be 0.008 tissue culture infective dose (TCID50)/reaction. The method developed was highly selective and specific to detect BVDV isolates in clinical samples. This protocol offers a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay for detecting BVDV.
Rizzo, Giorgia; Forti, Katia; Serroni, Anna; Cagiola, Monica; Baglivo, Sara; Scoccia, Eleonora; De Giuseppe, Antonio
The bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) envelope protein (Env) is synthesized as a polyprotein precursor (gp72) proteolytically cleaved into the mature surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) glycoproteins. The amino-terminal region of SU contains conformational epitopes F, G and H, which require a glycosylated SU to be recognized by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and antibodies from BLV-infected cattle. The SU contains eight asparagine (N) residues that are putative N-glycosylation sites. The N129, N203, N230 and N251 appear involved in carbohydrate binding, play an essential role in the in vitro infection. To determine which sites were actually glycosylated, we generated mutated SU forms, where each N-glycosylation site was changed to alanine (A). Subsequently, these N to A mutations were inserted into the env gene to generate Env mutants. The increase of electrophoretic mobility of EnvA256 and EnvA271 derived SU showed that the asparagine residues N256 and N271 were also glycosylated. ELISA revealed that only the N129 oligosaccharide determined the antigenic conformation of SU. The syncytium formation induced by EnvA129 showed that fusogenic capacity was independent of amino-terminal SU glycan conformational structure. Finally, anti-BLV serum inhibited syncytia formation even with the EnvA129 mutant. The latter inhibition was higher than Env, suggesting that the oligosaccharides could be also involved in the glycan shield for viral escape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Padilla, Marina Aiello; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira; Bastos, Juliana Cristina Santiago; Martini, Matheus Cavalheiro; Barnabé, Ana Caroline de Souza; Kohn, Luciana Konecny; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Bomfim, Getúlio Freitas; Afonso, Rafael Sanches; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Arns, Clarice Weis
Extracts from termite-associated bacteria were evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Two bacterial strains were identified as active, with percentages of inhibition (IP) equal to 98%. Both strains were subjected to functional analysis via the addition of virus and extract at different time points in cell culture; the results showed that they were effective as posttreatments. Moreover, we performed MTT colorimetric assays to identify the CC50, IC50, and SI values of these strains, and strain CDPA27 was considered the most promising. In parallel, the isolates were identified as Streptomyces through 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Specifically, CDPA27 was identified as S. chartreusis. The CDPA27 extract was fractionated on a C18-E SPE cartridge, and the fractions were reevaluated. A 100% methanol fraction was identified to contain the compound(s) responsible for antiviral activity, which had an SI of 262.41. GC-MS analysis showed that this activity was likely associated with the compound(s) that had a peak retention time of 5 min. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new information for antiviral research using natural sources, demonstrate the antiviral potential of Streptomyces chartreusis compounds isolated from termite mounds against BVDV, and lay the foundation for further studies on the treatment of HCV infection.
Padilla, Marina Aiello; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira; Bastos, Juliana Cristina Santiago; Martini, Matheus Cavalheiro; Barnabé, Ana Caroline de Souza; Kohn, Luciana Konecny; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Bomfim, Getúlio Freitas; Afonso, Rafael Sanches; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Arns, Clarice Weis
Extracts from termite-associated bacteria were evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Two bacterial strains were identified as active, with percentages of inhibition (IP) equal to 98%. Both strains were subjected to functional analysis via the addition of virus and extract at different time points in cell culture; the results showed that they were effective as posttreatments. Moreover, we performed MTT colorimetric assays to identify the CC50, IC50, and SI values of these strains, and strain CDPA27 was considered the most promising. In parallel, the isolates were identified as Streptomyces through 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Specifically, CDPA27 was identified as S. chartreusis. The CDPA27 extract was fractionated on a C18-E SPE cartridge, and the fractions were reevaluated. A 100% methanol fraction was identified to contain the compound(s) responsible for antiviral activity, which had an SI of 262.41. GC-MS analysis showed that this activity was likely associated with the compound(s) that had a peak retention time of 5 min. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new information for antiviral research using natural sources, demonstrate the antiviral potential of Streptomyces chartreusis compounds isolated from termite mounds against BVDV, and lay the foundation for further studies on the treatment of HCV infection. PMID:26579205
Ma, Jian-Gang; Cong, Wei; Zhang, Fu-Heng; Feng, Sheng-Yong; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Wang, Yi-Ming; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Yin, Hong; Hu, Gui-Xue
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), a member of the Pestivirus genus, is an important pathogen of cattle worldwide, causing reproductive disorders in adult cattle and mucosal disease in calves. However, limited information about BVDV infection in yaks (Bos grunniens) in China is available, especially in white yaks which is a unique yak breed that only lives in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County (TTAC), Gansu Province, northwest China. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with BVDV infection in 1584 yaks in Gansu province, northwest China, between April 2013 and March 2014 using an indirect ELISA test. The overall seroprevalence of BVDV in yaks was 37.56 % (595/1584), with 45.08 % (275/610) in black yaks and 32.85 % (320/974) in white yaks. Moreover, positive yaks were found in all four regions, varied from 33.22 to 40.31 %. Male yaks had a similar seroprevalence (37.84 %) with that of the female yaks (37.11 %). Season, species and geographical origins of yaks were considered as risk factors analyzed by logistic regression model. To our knowledge, this is the first report of seroprevalence and risk factors associated with BVDV infection in white yaks in China.
Kabongo, N; Van Vuuren, M
Studies covering all aspects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) have been conducted in several countries in Europe, Asia and America. In southern Africa, more information is required about the nature of BVDV infection, the prevalence of different strains and the economic importance of the disease. The presence of BVDV in southern Africa has been known since the early 1970s through serological surveys but few reports confirming its presence by virus isolation and correlation with clinical disease are available. Specimens (n = 312) collected in 1998/99, from live and dead cattle from different farming systems, were obtained from private practitioners, feedlot consultants and abattoirs throughout the country. Specimens (n = 37) from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park were also included. All specimens were processed for virus isolation in cell culture with confirmation by means of immunofluorescent antibody tests and some also by means of an antigen capture ELISA. BVDV was isolated from 15 (4.7%) cattle and were all noncytopathic biotypes. BVDV was not detected in 37 lymph nodes obtained from buffaloes in the Kruger National Park. Of the clinical signs in cattle from which virus were isolated, respiratory signs was the most frequent (10/15), followed by diarrhoea (5/15). Abortion, congenital malformations, haemorrhagic diarrhoea and poor growth were also included as criteria for selection of animals for specimen collection, but no BVD viruses were isolated from cattle manifesting these clinical signs.
Muñoz-Zanzi, C A; Johnson, W O; Thurmond, M C; Hietala, S K
The study was conducted to develop methodology for least-cost strategies for using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/probe testing of pooled blood samples to identify animals in a herd persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Cost was estimated for 5 protocols using Monte Carlo simulations for herd prevalences of BVDV persistent infection (BVDV-PI) ranging from 0.5% to 3%, assuming a cost for a PCR/probe test of $20. The protocol associated with the least cost per cow involved an initial testing of pools followed by repooling and testing of positive pools. For a herd prevalence of 1%, the least cost per cow was $2.64 (95% prediction interval = $1.72, $3.68), where pool sizes for the initial and repooled testing were 20 and 5 blood samples per pool, respectively. Optimization of the least cost for pooled-sample testing depended on how well a presumed prevalence of BVDV-PI approximated the true prevalence of BVDV infection in the herd. As prevalence increased beyond 3%, the least cost increased, thereby diminishing the competitive benefit of pooled testing. The protocols presented for sample pooling have general application to screening or surveillance using a sensitive diagnostic test to detect very low prevalence diseases or pathogens in flocks or herds.
Rola, Jolanta G; Larska, Magdalena; Grzeszuk, Monika; Bocian, Lukasz; Kuta, Aleksandra; Polak, Miroslaw P; Rola, Jerzy
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection on bulk tank milk somatic cell counts (BMSCC). Twenty nine dairy farms supplying milk to a dairy in Eastern Poland were recruited for the study. Bulk milk ELISA and RT-PCR were used to determine the BVDV infection status and the presence of PI animals in the farms. The BMSCC mean values for the BVDV seronegative (218.7 × 10(3)cells/ml; SD: 89.8) and seropositive (214.9 × 10(3)cells/ml; SD: 74.0) herds did not differ significantly. To assess the relationship between BVDV infection and BMSCC a multilevel mixed-effects linear model was used. No statistically significant effect of BVDV infection on BMSCC was found. The mean values of BMSCC for the herds with PI individuals measured before (230.1 × 10(3)cells/ml, SD: 64.9) and after (223.3 × 10(3)cells/ml, SD: 62.4) the PI removal were not statistically different. An increase in herd size was associated with a significant decrease in BMSCC. An increase in BMSCC was observed during summer (from May to September) compared to during winter (from October to April).
Muhsen, Mahmod; Ohi, Kota; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Fukusho, Akio
A new, reliable and secure virus assay method, named the competitive virus assay (CVA) method, has been established for the titration of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) that either show the exaltation of Newcastle disease virus (END) phenomenon or heterologous interference phenomenon (but not the END phenomenon). This method is based on the principle of (1) homologous interference between BVDVs, by using BVDV RK13/E(-) or BVDV RK13/E(+) strains as competitor virus, and (2) END phenomenon and heterologous interference, by using attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) TCND strain as challenge virus. In titration of BVDV END(+) and BVDV END(-) viruses, no significant difference in estimated virus titer was observed between CVA and conventional methods. CVA method demonstrated comparable levels of sensitivity and accuracy as conventional END and interference methods, which require the use of a velogenic Miyadera strain of NDV and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), both of which are agents of high-risk diseases. As such, the CVA method is a safer alternative, with increased bio-safety and bio-containment, through avoidance of virulent strains that are commonly employed with conventional methods.
Talebkhan Garoussi, M; Haghparast, A; Hajenejad, M R
Mashhad is a major dairy production in Iran. The subject of this study was to survey the seroprevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) infection using an indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test in industrial dairy cattle herds in suburb of Mashhad-Iran. Totally, 141 serum samples were tested. None of the herds had been vaccinated against BVDV. Commercial indirect ELISA kit was used. The herds divided to 3 sizes as cow population. They were included: small, medium and large herds. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Ninety-seven (68.79%) cows were ELISA seropositive. However, the true BVDV seroprevalence was 72.25%. All of the herds were antibody positive against BVDV. The prevalence ranged from 66 to 100% within the herds. There were no significant differences between the presence of antibodies to BVDV and the herd size (P > 0.05). The prevalence in animals lower than 2 years old differed significantly with cows higher than 2 years old (P < 0.05). According to the results, it is concluded that it is likely the presence of persistently infection (PI) animal(s) within the herds in suburb of Mashhad-Iran, which is responsible for the presence antibody.
Brojatsch, Jürgen; Naughton, John; Adkins, Heather B.; Young, John A. T.
The identification of TVBS3, a cellular receptor for the cytopathic subgroups B and D of avian leukosis virus (ALV-B and ALV-D), as a tumor necrosis factor receptor-related death receptor with a cytoplasmic death domain, provides a compelling argument that viral Env-receptor interactions are linked to cell death (4). However, other TVB proteins have been described that appear to have similar death domains but are cellular receptors for the noncytopathic subgroup E of ALV (ALV-E): TVBT, a turkey subgroup E-specific ALV receptor, and TVBS1, a chicken receptor for subgroups B, D, and E ALV. To begin to understand the role of TVB receptors in the cytopathic effects associated with infection by specific ALV subgroups, we asked whether binding of a soluble ALV-E surface envelope protein (SU) to its receptor can lead to cell death. Here we report that ALV-E SU-receptor interactions can induce apoptosis in quail or turkey cells. We also show directly that TVBS1 and TVBT are functional death receptors that can trigger cell death by apoptosis via a mechanism involving their cytoplasmic death domains and activation of the caspase pathway. These data demonstrate that ALV-B and ALV-E use functional death receptors to enter cells, and it remains to be determined why only subgroups B and D viral infections lead specifically to cell death. PMID:11090145
McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Windeyer, Claire; Schaefer, Al
Temperature sensing ear tags were tested in 1) auction-derived calves with 50% incidence of bovine respiratory disease, and 2) specific pathogen-free calves infected with bovine virus diarrhea virus. There were no false positives, but tag placement, probe displacement, and a high threshold for activation all contributed to failure to reliably detect sick calves. PMID:24982523
Rainey, G Jonah A; Coffin, John M
The ability of many retroviruses to cause disease can be correlated to their cytopathic effect (CPE) in tissue culture characterized by an acute period of cell death and viral DNA accumulation. Here, we show that mutants of a subgroup B avian retrovirus (Alpharetrovirus) cause a very dramatic CPE in certain susceptible avian cells that is coincident with elevated levels of apoptosis, as measured by nuclear morphology, and persistent viral DNA accumulation. These mutants also have a broadly extended host range that includes rodent, cat, dog, monkey, and human cells (31). Previously, we have shown that the mutants exhibit diminished resistance to superinfection. The results presented here have important implications for the process of evolution of retroviruses to use distinct cellular receptors.
Grassmann, Claus Wilhelm; Yu, Haiying; Isken, Olaf; Behrens, Sven-Erik
The 5' non-translated regions (5'NTRs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) initiate translation of the viral RNA genome through an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) and operate as major determinants of the RNA replication cycle. We report on comparative studies with both virus systems demonstrating that the functional organization of the 5'NTRs of HCV and BVDV shows evident differences despite a similar RNA structure. In the BVDV 5'NTR, replication signals are restricted to the 5' terminal domain I. With HCV, we defined specific replication signals in domain I but also in domains II and III that constitute the functional IRES. While the BVDV domain I supports IRES activity, the HCV domain I appears to down-regulate IRES function. These data suggest that HCV and BVDV apply different mechanisms to coordinate viral protein and RNA synthesis, which may explain differences in the replication efficiency of both related viruses.
Management factors related to seroprevalences to bovine viral-diarrhoea virus, bovine-leukosis virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in dairy herds in the Canadian Maritimes.
Chi, Junwook; VanLeeuwen, John A; Weersink, Alfons; Keefe, Gregory P
Bovine viral-diarrhoea (BVD), enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), Johne's disease (JD), and neosporosis lower on-farm productivity, reduce export competitiveness, and increase consumer concerns regarding safety. Our purpose was to examine the relationship between 27 control practices and the estimated true seroprevalences for these four diseases for 2604 cattle in 90 dairy herds in the Maritimes provinces of Canada. Overall, 37.8, 20.4, 3.4, and 19.2% of all sampled cattle were truly exposed to the agents of BVD, EBL, JD, and neosporosis, respectively. The median within-herd true prevalences were 0, 9.3, 0, and 12.3%, respectively. Factor analysis reduced the 27 control practices to two highly correlated factors. Tobit-regression analyses determined that vaccination practices were associated with reduced prevalence of exposure for Bovine viral-diarrhoea and EBL. Also, farms that tended to purchase their dairy animals were associated with higher seroprevalence for Johnes' disease. Neither of these two factors was associated with the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection. The few routine biosecurity measures that were investigated in this study were generally not related to the seroprevalences of these farms.
Abuelzein, Eltayb M; Al-Khaliyfa, Mofeed A; Gameel, Ahmed A
The dairy industry is a large and important business in Saudi Arabia. Although farms are administered to high international standards, some reproduction problems, of uncertain aetiology, are encountered. The most frequently seen are conception failures, abortions, stillbirths and the birth of weak or malformed calves. These conditions are suggestive of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection. Unfortunately, very little published information is available regarding the impact of this disease on cattle populations in Saudi Arabia. As a consequence, the present study was carried out and is the first of its kind in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of in utero BVDV infection leading to the birth of weak or malformed calves on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia. The study was divided into two parts. Firstly, apparently healthy neonatal calves were sampled for the detection of pre-colostral serum antibodies to BVDV. The presence of these antibodies indicates exposure of the foetus to BVDV during the last two trimesters of gestation. Secondly, tissue samples from malformed neonatal calves were examined for the presence of BVDV antigens. Detection of such antigens confirms exposure of the foetus to the virus during the first trimester of gestation. The results of the investigation indicated that 36.1% of the neonatal calves were exposed to BVDV infection in utero. This is higher than what has been reported in the literature and suggests that dairy farmers in the Arabian Peninsula need to be made aware of the dangers of BVDV infections in their herds. The epidemiological significance of the results is discussed.
Mao, Li; Li, Wenliang; Yang, Leilei; Wang, Jianhui; Cheng, Suping; Wei, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Zhang, Wenwen; Hao, Fei; Ding, Yonglong; Sun, Yinhua; Jiang, Jieyuan
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of domestic and wildlife animals worldwide and is associated with several diseases. In China, there are many reports about genotyping of BVDV strains originated from cattle and pigs, and some of them focused on the geographical distributions of BVDV. Currently, the goat industry in Jiangsu province of China is under going a rapid expansion. Most of these goat farms are backyard enterprises and in close proximity to pig and cattle farms. However, there was very limited information about BVDV infections in goats. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of BVDV infections of goats, the relationship of these infections to clinical signs and determine what BVDV genotypes are circulating in Jiangsu province. From 236 goat sera collected from six regions in Jiangsu province between 2011 and 2013, BVDV-1 was identified in 29 samples from the five regions by RT-PCR. The BVDV-1 infections occurred with/without clinical signs. Eight different BVDV-1 strains were identified from these positive samples based on the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) sequences, and further clustered into four BVDV-1 subtypes on the phylogenetic analysis. Three were BVDV-1b, two BVDV-1m, two BVDV-1o, and one BVDV-1p, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the occurrence of BVDV and the genotypes of BVDV infecting goats in China. The results indicated that BVDV-1 infections were indeed present and the viruses were with genetic variations in Chinese goat herds. The information would be very useful for prevention and control of BVDV-1 infections in China.
Paton, D J; Sharp, G; Ibata, G
A flock of 82 non-pregnant ewes was split into three immunisation groups and given an intranasal dose of either cell culture medium, or a type 1 or a type 2 bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV-1 or BVDV-2). Two months later the flock was reconstituted and after a further three weeks, the ewes were bred to pestivirus negative rams after synchronisation of oestrus using progesterone sponges. Fifty-five ewes were segregated into three challenge groups, each of which comprised ewes from different immunisation groups. At 7 weeks gestation, one challenge group was given an intranasal dose of cell culture medium, whilst the other two were given intranasal doses of either BVDV-1 or BVDV-2, using the same inocula as for the immunisations. Three weeks later, the ewes were killed and their foetuses tested for the presence of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. The results showed that immunisation of six ewes without subsequent challenge did not lead to infection of any of their 11 foetuses. Challenge with BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 in the absence of immunisation lead to 15 out of 15 or 11 out of 14 foetuses becoming infected, respectively. Immunisation with the homologous virus to that used for challenge resulted in complete protection of 32 foetuses from 15 ewes. Heterologous protection was one way. All 12 foetuses from ewes immunised with BVDV-1 were protected from challenge with BVDV-2, whereas 18 foetuses from ewes immunised with BVDV-2 were all infected after challenge with BVDV-1. This provides evidence that a recent exposure to infection with one pestivirus does not necessarily induce foetal protection against another. The one-way result suggests that factors other than antigenic differences are involved in cross-protection.
Gates, M C; Humphry, R W; Gunn, G J
Data from 255 Scottish beef suckler herds and 189 Scottish dairy herds surveyed as part of national bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) prevalence studies from October 2006 to May 2008 were examined retrospectively to determine the relationship between serological status and key performance indicators derived from national cattle movement records. On average, calf mortality rates were 1.35 percentage points higher in seropositive beef herds and 3.05 percentage points higher in seropositive dairy herds than in negative control herds. Seropositive beef herds were also more likely to show increases in calf mortality rates and culling rates between successive years. There were no discernible effects of BVDV on the average age at first calving or calving interval for either herd type. Accompanying questionnaire data revealed that only 27% of beef farmers and 25% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds thought their cattle were affected by BVDV, which suggests that the clinical effects of exposure may be inapparent under field conditions or masked by other causes of reproductive failure and culling. Beef farmers were significantly more likely to perceive a problem when their herd experienced acute changes in calf mortality rates, culling rates, and calving intervals between successive years. However, only 35% of these perceived positive herds were actually seropositive for BVDV. These findings emphasize both the importance of routinely screening herds to determine their true infection status and the potential for using national cattle movement records to identify herds that may be experiencing outbreaks from BVDV or other infectious diseases that impact herd performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bayne, Jenna E; Walz, Paul H; Passler, Thomas; White, Brad J; Theurer, Miles E; van Santen, Edzard
OBJECTIVE To assess the use of 3-D accelerometers to evaluate behavioral changes in cattle experimentally infected with a low-virulent strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). ANIMALS 20 beef steers (mean weight, 238 kg). PROCEDURES Calves were allocated to a BVDV (n = 10) or control (10) group. On day 0, calves in the BVDV group were inoculated with a low-virulent strain of BVDV (4 × 10(6) TCID50, intranasally), and calves in the control group were sham inoculated with BVDV-free medium (4 mL; intranasally). An accelerometer was affixed to the right hind limb of each calf on day -7 to record activity (lying, walking, and standing) continuously until 35 days after inoculation. Baseline was defined as days -7 to -1. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for CBC, serum biochemical analysis, virus isolation, and determination of anti-BVDV antibody titers. RESULTS All calves in the BVDV group developed viremia and anti-BVDV antibodies but developed only subclinical or mild disease. Calves in the control group did not develop viremia or anti-BVDV antibodies. Mean time allocated to each activity did not differ significantly between the BVDV and control groups on any day except day 8, when calves in the BVDV group spent less time standing than the calves in the control group. Following inoculation, calves in both groups tended to spend more time lying and less time walking and standing than they did during baseline. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that behavioral data obtained by accelerometers could not distinguish calves subclinically infected with BVDV from healthy control calves. However, subtle changes in the behavior of the BVDV-infected calves were detected and warrant further investigation.
Purtle, Lisa; Mattick, Debra; Schneider, Corey; Smith, Linda; Xue, Wenzhi; Trigo, Emilio
Three studies were performed to determine the duration of immunity of the bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) fractions of a commercially prepared modified-live vaccine. Vista® Once SQ (Vista®) vaccine contains five modified-live viruses, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus, and two modified-live bacteria, Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica. For all three studies, calves were administered a single dose of vaccine or placebo vaccine subcutaneously, and were challenged with one of the three virulent viruses at least one year following vaccination. Calves were evaluated daily following challenge for clinical signs of disease associated with viral infection, nasal swab samples were evaluated for virus shedding, and serum was tested for neutralizing antibodies. Following the BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 challenges, whole blood was evaluated for white blood cell counts, and for the BVDV-2 study, whole blood was also evaluated for platelet counts. Calves vaccinated with BVDV type 1a, were protected from challenge with BVDV type 1b, and had significant reductions in clinical disease, fever, leukopenia, and virus shedding compared to control calves. Vaccinated calves in the BVDV-2 study were protected from clinical disease, mortality, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and virus shedding compared to controls. Vaccinated calves in the BHV-1 study were protected from clinical disease and fever, and had significantly reduced duration of nasal virus shedding. These three studies demonstrated that a single administration of the Vista® vaccine to healthy calves induces protective immunity against BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and BHV-1 that lasts at least one year following vaccination.
Mari, Viviana; Losurdo, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Lorusso, Eleonora; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Patruno, Giovanni; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Decaro, Nicola
HoBi-like pestiviruses are emerging pestiviruses that infect cattle causing clinical forms overlapping to those induced by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 and 2. As a consequence of their widespread distribution reported in recent years, molecular tools for rapid discrimination among pestiviruses infecting cattle are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay, based on the TaqMan technology, for the rapid and unambiguous characterisation of all bovine pestiviruses, including the emerging HoBi-like strains. The assay was found to be sensitive, specific and repeatable, ensuring detection of as few as 10(0)-10(1) viral RNA copies. No cross-reactions between different pestiviral species were observed even in samples artificially contaminated with more than one pestivirus. Analysis of field samples tested positive for BVDV-1, BVDV-2 or HoBi-like virus by a nested PCR protocol revealed that the developed TaqMan assay had equal or higher sensitivity and was able to discriminate correctly the viral species in all tested samples, whereas a real-time RT-PCR assay previously developed for HoBi-like pestivirus detection showed cross-reactivity with few high-titre BVDV-2 samples.
Orsel, Karin; van Marle, Guido; van der Meer, Frank
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. The primary propagators of the virus are immunotolerant persistently infected (PI) cattle, which shed large quantities of virus throughout life. Despite the absence of an acquired immunity against BVDV in these PI cattle there are strong indications of viral variability that are of clinical and epidemiological importance. In this study the variability of E2 and NS5B sequences in multiple body compartments of PI cattle were characterized using clonal sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BVDV exists as a quasispecies within PI cattle. Viral variants were clustered by tissue compartment significantly more often than expected by chance alone with the central nervous system appearing to be a particularly important viral reservoir. We also found strong indications for a genetic bottleneck during vertical transmission from PI animals to their offspring. These quasispecies analyses within PI cattle exemplify the role of the PI host in viral propagation and highlight the complex dynamics of BVDV pathogenesis, transmission and evolution. PMID:26132819
Dow, Natalie; Chernick, Adam; Orsel, Karin; van Marle, Guido; van der Meer, Frank
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. The primary propagators of the virus are immunotolerant persistently infected (PI) cattle, which shed large quantities of virus throughout life. Despite the absence of an acquired immunity against BVDV in these PI cattle there are strong indications of viral variability that are of clinical and epidemiological importance. In this study the variability of E2 and NS5B sequences in multiple body compartments of PI cattle were characterized using clonal sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BVDV exists as a quasispecies within PI cattle. Viral variants were clustered by tissue compartment significantly more often than expected by chance alone with the central nervous system appearing to be a particularly important viral reservoir. We also found strong indications for a genetic bottleneck during vertical transmission from PI animals to their offspring. These quasispecies analyses within PI cattle exemplify the role of the PI host in viral propagation and highlight the complex dynamics of BVDV pathogenesis, transmission and evolution.
Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus which infects cattle populations worldwide and is recognised as a significant source of economic loss through its impact on health and productivity. Studies investigating the molecular epidemiology of BVDV can give invaluable information about the diversity of viral strains present in a population and this, in turn, can inform control programs, drive vaccine development and determine likely infection sources. The current study investigated 104 viral isolates from forty farms across the UK. Through phylogenetic and nucleotide sequence analysis of the 5′UTR and Npro regions of the isolates investigated, it was determined that BVDV 1a was the predominant sub-genotype. However, BVDV 1b, 1e and 1i were also identified and, for the first time in the UK, BVDV 1d. Through analysis of animal movement data alongside the phylogenetic analysis of these BVD isolates, it was possible to link animal movements to the viral isolates present on several premises and, for the first time, begin to elucidate the routes of viral transmission. With further work, this type of analysis would enable accurate determination and quantification of the true biosecurity risk factors associated with BVDV transmission. PMID:23783173
Booth, Richard E; Thomas, Carole J; El-Attar, Laila M R; Gunn, George; Brownlie, Joe
Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus which infects cattle populations worldwide and is recognised as a significant source of economic loss through its impact on health and productivity. Studies investigating the molecular epidemiology of BVDV can give invaluable information about the diversity of viral strains present in a population and this, in turn, can inform control programs, drive vaccine development and determine likely infection sources. The current study investigated 104 viral isolates from forty farms across the UK. Through phylogenetic and nucleotide sequence analysis of the 5'UTR and Npro regions of the isolates investigated, it was determined that BVDV 1a was the predominant sub-genotype. However, BVDV 1b, 1e and 1i were also identified and, for the first time in the UK, BVDV 1d. Through analysis of animal movement data alongside the phylogenetic analysis of these BVD isolates, it was possible to link animal movements to the viral isolates present on several premises and, for the first time, begin to elucidate the routes of viral transmission. With further work, this type of analysis would enable accurate determination and quantification of the true biosecurity risk factors associated with BVDV transmission.
Lanave, G; Decaro, N; Lucente, M S; Guercio, A; Cavaliere, N; Purpari, G; Padalino, I; Larocca, V; Antoci, F; Marino, P A; Buonavoglia, C; Elia, G
Pestiviruses of cattle include bovine viral diarrhoea 1 (BVDV-1) and 2 (BVDV-2) plus an emerging group, named HoBi-like pestivirus. In the present paper, the results of an epidemiological survey for pestiviruses circulating in cattle in southern Italy are presented. Molecular assays carried out on a total of 924 bovine samples detected 74 BVDV strains, including 73 BVDV-1 and 1 BVDV-2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis carried out on partial 5'UTR and N(pro) sequences revealed the presence of 6 different subtypes of BVDV-1 and a single BVDV-2c strain. BVDV-1 displayed a high level of genetic heterogeneity, which can have both prophylactic and diagnostic implications. In addition, the detection of BVDV-2c highlights the need for a continuous surveillance for the emergence of new pestivirus strains in cattle farms in southern Italy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Taylor, L F; Janzen, E D; Van Donkersgoed, J
In 1992, significant calf losses occurred between birth and weaning in a 650-cow Saskatchewan beef herd. These losses occurred subsequent to ill-thrift and disease, and every calf necropsied was found to be persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The objectives of this study were to describe the losses associated with fetal infection with BVDV in this herd and to determine why they occurred. For investigative purposes, blood samples were collected from the entire cow herd and the surviving calves at pregnancy testing in 1992, and tested by virus isolation for BVDV. Between 51 and 71 persistently infected calves were born in 1992. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was only isolated from calves. The only confirmed fetal infections with BVDV were recorded as the birth of persistently infected calves. However, abortions, reduced pregnancy rates, and delayed calvings were also recorded in the cow herd and may have been the result of fetal infections. The herd was monitored again in 1993. Fetal infections with BVDV were recorded as the birth of stunted, deformed, and persistently infected calves. The greatest losses due to fetal infection with BVDV in the 2 years of this study occurred in cows that were 3-years-old at calving (second calves). Bovine viral diarrhea virus appears to have remained endemic in this herd by transmission from persistently infected calves on young 3- and 4-year-old cows to naive calved 2-year-old cows that were mingled with them annually for rebreeding. Significant numbers of the 2-year-old cows remained naive to BVDV, because they were segregated from persistently infected calves at weaning, preventing cross-infection with BVDV. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 4. PMID:8993781
Blanchard, Patricia C; Ridpath, Julia F; Walker, Jennifer B; Hietala, Sharon K
Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) subtype b was isolated from premature Holstein calves from a dairy herd that experienced an outbreak of premature births, late-term abortions, brachygnathism, growth retardation, malformations of the brain and cranium, and rare extracranial skeletal malformations in calves born to first-calf heifers. Experimental inoculation of 3 colostrum-deprived calves aged 2-4 months old with this BVDV isolate resulted in thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, and leukopenia. Outbreaks of brachygnathism are rarely associated with BVDV, and thrombocytopenia is rarely associated with BVDV-1 strains.
Donofrio, Gaetano; Herath, Shan; Sartori, Chiara; Cavirani, Sandro; Flammini, Cesidio Filippo; Sheldon, Iain Martin
Bovine postpartum uterine disease, metritis, affects about 40% of animals and is widely considered to have a bacterial aetiology. Although the gamma-herpesvirus bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been isolated from several outbreaks of metritis or abortion, the role of viruses in endometrial pathology and the mechanisms of viral infection of uterine cells are often ignored. The objectives of the present study were to explore the interaction, tropism and outcomes of BoHV-4 challenge of endometrial stromal and epithelial cells. Endometrial stromal and epithelial cells were purified and infected with a recombinant BoHV-4 carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression cassette to monitor the establishment of infection. BoHV-4 efficiently infected both stromal and epithelial cells, causing a strong non-apoptotic cytopathic effect, associated with robust viral replication. The crucial step for the BoHV-4 endometriotropism appeared to be after viral entry as there was enhanced transactivation of the BoHV-4 immediate early 2 gene promoter following transient transfection into the endometrial cells. Infection with BoHV-4 increased cyclooxygenase 2 protein expression and prostaglandin estradiol secretion in endometrial stromal cells, but not epithelial cells. Bovine macrophages are persistently infected with BoHV-4, and co-culture with endometrial stromal cells reactivated BoHV-4 replication in the persistently infected macrophages, suggesting a symbiotic relationship between the cells and virus. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence of cellular and molecular mechanisms, supporting the concept that BoHV-4 is a pathogen associated with uterine disease.
Rodríguez-Prieto, Víctor; Kukielka, Deborah; Rivera-Arroyo, Belén; Martínez-López, Beatriz; de las Heras, Ana Isabel; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Vicente, Joaquín
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus that affects cattle production worldwide and that can infect other ungulates such as cervids and even wild boar (Sus scrofa). It is believed that domestic livestock can become infected through contact with wild animals, though it is known that infection can spread among wild animals in the absence of contact with livestock. Little is known about the sharing of BVDV infection between wild and domestic animals in the same habitat, which is important for designing eradication campaigns and preventing outbreaks, especially on hunting estates with high animal densities. We assessed the sharing of BVDV infections among hunted red deer, wild boar and cattle in south-central Spain. Sampled red deer (Cervus elaphus; n = 267) and wild boar (n = 52) were located on 19 hunting estates, and cattle (n = 180) were located on 18 nearby farms. We used ELISA kits for the serological screening, Taqman RT-PCR assay for the virus determination, and subsequent phylogenetic analysis for 17 RT-PCR positive sample amplicons. Fifty-two red deer (19.5%) and 82 cattle (45.6%) samples tested positive by ELISA. A high apparent prevalence (22.47%) was obtained for red deer, while only five cattle farms tested positive by RT-PCR. Conversely, no wild boar tested positive by both ELISA or RT-PCR. Eleven red deer (4.1%) tested positive by both ELISA and RT-PCR; these animals may have been sampled during the last phase of viremia, or they may represent previously exposed individuals infected by a different BVDV strain. The amplicons shared 92.7-100% identity and fell within the BVDV subgroup 1b, although nine of these (from four red deer and five cattle pools) formed a separate branch. This suggests that there might be a common BVDV infecting both cattle and red deer. Higher red deer abundance was significantly associated with greater risk that extensively raised cattle would test positive for BVDV by ELISA. Our findings suggest that BVDV
Mody, Karishma T; Mahony, Donna; Cavallaro, Antonino S; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Bing; Mahony, Timothy J; Yu, Chengzhong; Mitter, Neena
Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) is one of the most serious pathogen, which causes tremendous economic loss to the cattle industry worldwide, meriting the development of improved subunit vaccines. Structural glycoprotein E2 is reported to be a major immunogenic determinant of BVDV virion. We have developed a novel hollow silica vesicles (SV) based platform to administer BVDV-1 Escherichia coli-expressed optimised E2 (oE2) antigen as a nanovaccine formulation. The SV-140 vesicles (diameter 50 nm, wall thickness 6 nm, perforated by pores of entrance size 16 nm and total pore volume of 0.934 cm3 g(-1)) have proven to be ideal candidates to load oE2 antigen and generate immune response. The current study for the first time demonstrates the ability of freeze-dried (FD) as well as non-FD oE2/SV140 nanovaccine formulation to induce long-term balanced antibody and cell mediated memory responses for at least 6 months with a shortened dosing regimen of two doses in small animal model. The in vivo ability of oE2 (100 μg)/SV-140 (500 μg) and FD oE2 (100 μg)/SV-140 (500 μg) to induce long-term immunity was compared to immunisation with oE2 (100 μg) together with the conventional adjuvant Quil-A from the Quillaja saponira (10 μg) in mice. The oE2/SV-140 as well as the FD oE2/SV-140 nanovaccine generated oE2-specific antibody and cell mediated responses for up to six months post the final second immunisation. Significantly, the cell-mediated responses were consistently high in mice immunised with oE2/SV-140 (1,500 SFU/million cells) at the six-month time point. Histopathology studies showed no morphological changes at the site of injection or in the different organs harvested from the mice immunised with 500 μg SV-140 nanovaccine compared to the unimmunised control. The platform has the potential for developing single dose vaccines without the requirement of cold chain storage for veterinary and human applications.
Pinior, Beate; Firth, Clair L; Richter, Veronika; Lebl, Karin; Trauffler, Martine; Dzieciol, Monika; Hutter, Sabine E; Burgstaller, Johann; Obritzhauser, Walter; Winter, Petra; Käsbohrer, Annemarie
Infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in major economic losses either directly through decreased productive performance in cattle herds or indirectly, such as through expenses for control programs. The aim of this systematic review was to review financial and/or economic assessment studies of prevention and/or mitigation activities of BVDV at national, regional and farm level worldwide. Once all predefined criteria had been met, 35 articles were included for this systematic review. Studies were analyzed with particular focus on the type of financially and/or economically-assessed prevention and/or mitigation activities. Due to the wide range of possible prevention and/or mitigation activities, these activities were grouped into five categories: i) control and/or eradication programs, ii) monitoring or surveillance, iii) prevention, iv) vaccination and v) individual culling, control and testing strategies. Additionally, the studies were analyzed according to economically-related variables such as efficiency, costs or benefits of prevention and/or mitigation activities, the applied financial and/or economic and statistical methods, the payers of prevention and/or mitigation activities, the assessed production systems, and the countries for which such evaluations are available. Financial and/or economic assessments performed in Europe were dominated by those from the United Kingdom, which assessed mostly vaccination strategies, and Norway which primarily carried out assessments in the area of control and eradication programs; whereas among non-European countries the United States carried out the majority of financial and/or economic assessments in the area of individual culling, control and testing. More than half of all studies provided an efficiency calculation of prevention and/or mitigation activities and demonstrated whether the inherent costs of implemented activities were or were not justified. The dairy sector was three times more likely to
Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; West, D
The profitability of beef breeding farms in New Zealand depends principally on optimal reproductive performance. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of four major pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Neospora caninum (N. caninum), Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo (Hardjo), and Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona), on rates of fetal loss in commercial beef breeding herds. Farms reporting fetal loss were recruited, and a blood sample from aborting cows (cases) was collected. Controls were normally calving cows from the same farm. At least four controls were selected from each farm contributing cases. Samples were tested using ELISA for detection of antibodies against BVDV and N. caninum, and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for detection of antibody against Hardjo and Pomona. A selection of titer cut-offs was conducted to evaluate the relationship between fetal loss and seropositivity to each pathogen using conditional logistic regression. The cut-off titer with the strongest association with fetal loss was included in the multivariate model. A significant increased risk of fetal loss was found for animals seropositive to N. caninum (odds ratio (OR)=3.36; 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.27-8.89), Hardjo (OR=1.84; 95% CI=1.01-3.33), and Pomona in non-vaccinated cows (OR=14.91, 95% CI=1.73-128.84) at the ELISA titer ≥ 30, and MAT titers of ≥ 1:384 and ≥ 1:768 for a positive sample, respectively. A marginally non-significant increased risk of fetal loss was found for animals exposed to BVDV (OR=2.01; 95% CI=0.99-4.11) at the ELISA titer of ≤ 1. Vaccination did not affect ORs for Hardjo or BVDV and no herd vaccinated against N. caninum. Approximately 14.0% of all fetal loss in the beef breeding cattle population in New Zealand may be attributable to BVDV (3.5%), N. caninum (3.0%), Hardjo (4.7%), and Pomona (3.6%). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Givens, M D; Galik, P K; Riddell, K P; Brock, K V; Stringfellow, D A
Recent studies have shown that exposed, in vitro-derived embryos remain contaminated with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) after washing. However, introduction of a Genotype II versus Genotype I strain of BVDV into an IVF system was reported to provide greater potential for transmission of disease. The primary objective of this study was to compare the potentials for different strains of noncytopathic BVDV to replicate in an IVF system, associate with IVF embryos and infect co-cultured cells via association with washed embryos. The secondary objective was to compare the effect of different strains of BVDV on embryonic development. Two Genotype I (SD-1 and NY-1) and 2 Genotype II (CD-87 and PA-131) strains of BVDV were evaluated. After IVM and IVF of oocytes, presumptive zygotes were washed and transferred into in vitro cultures containing uterine tubal cells (UTC) and medium that was free of BVDV-neutralizing activity. Immediately before addition of zygotes, the cultures were inoculated with 10(5) cell culture infective doses (50%, CCID50) of a strain of BVDV or maintained as a negative control. Cultures of zygotes were then incubated for 7 d. Embryonic development was observed on Days 3 and 7, and attempts were made to isolate BVDV from UTC and medium on Day 7. Also on Day 7, groups of intact, washed blastocysts were either transferred into virus-free secondary cultures containing UTC or sonicated with sonicate fluid assayed by both virus isolation and single-closed-tube reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR). After 3 d in secondary culture, hatched embryos were enumerated, and medium from the cultures, washed UTC and embryos were tested for BVDV by virus isolation. In addition, washed UTC and embryos were tested for BVDV using RT-nPCR. All strains of BVDV persisted and replicated in the embryo culture environment, but cleavage beyond the 4-cell stage, blastocyst development and hatching varied among cultures contaminated with different
Pharmacophore modeling, resistant mutant isolation, docking, and MM-PBSA analysis: Combined experimental/computer-assisted approaches to identify new inhibitors of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV).
Tonelli, Michele; Boido, Vito; La Colla, Paolo; Loddo, Roberta; Posocco, Paola; Paneni, Maria Silvia; Fermeglia, Maurizio; Pricl, Sabrina
Starting from a series of our new 2-phenylbenzimidazole derivatives, shown to be selectively and potently active against the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), we developed a hierarchical combined experimental/molecular modeling strategy to explore the drug leads for the BVDV RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase. Accordingly, a successful 3D pharmacophore model was developed, characterized by distinct chemical features that may be responsible for the activity of the inhibitors. BVDV mutants resistant to lead compounds in our series were then isolated, and the mutant residues on the viral molecular target, the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase, were identified. Docking procedures upon pharmacophoric constraints and mutational data were carried out, and the binding affinity of all active compounds for the RdRp were estimated. Given the excellent agreement between in silico and in vitro data, this procedure is currently being employed in the design a new series of more selective and potent BVDV inhibitors.
Bastos, Juliana Cristina Santiago; Kohn, Luciana Konecny; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Padilla, Marina Aiello; Flores, Eduardo Furtado; da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; de Menezes, Cláudia Beatriz Afonso; Arns, Clarice Weis
The Hepatitis C virus causes chronic infections in humans, which can develop to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Bovine viral diarrhea virus is used as a surrogate model for antiviral assays for the HCV. From marine invertebrates and microorganisms isolated from them, extracts were prepared for assessment of their possible antiviral activity. Of the 128 tested, 2 were considered active and 1 was considered promising. The best result was obtained from the extracts produced from the Bacillus sp. isolated from the sponge Petromica citrina. The extracts 555 (500 µg/mL, SI>18) and 584 (150 µg/mL, SI 27) showed a percentage of protection of 98% against BVDV, and the extract 616, 90% of protection. All of them showed activity during the viral adsorption. Thus, various substances are active on these studied organisms and may lead to the development of drugs which ensure an alternative therapy for the treatment of hepatitis C. PMID:23628828
Workman, Aspen; Eudy, James; Smith, Lynette; Frizzo da Silva, Leticia; Sinani, Devis; Bricker, Halie; Cook, Emily; Doster, Alan
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), an alphaherpesvirinae subfamily member, establishes latency in sensory neurons. Elevated corticosteroid levels, due to stress, reproducibly triggers reactivation from latency in the field. A single intravenous injection of the synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone (DEX) to latently infected calves consistently induces reactivation from latency. Lytic cycle viral gene expression is detected in sensory neurons within 6 h after DEX treatment of latently infected calves. These observations suggested that DEX stimulated expression of cellular genes leads to lytic cycle viral gene expression and productive infection. In this study, a commercially available assay—Bovine Gene Chip—was used to compare cellular gene expression in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of calves latently infected with BHV-1 versus DEX-treated animals. Relative to TG prepared from latently infected calves, 11 cellular genes were induced more than 10-fold 3 h after DEX treatment. Pentraxin three, a regulator of innate immunity and neurodegeneration, was stimulated 35- to 63-fold after 3 or 6 h of DEX treatment. Two transcription factors, promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) and Slug were induced more than 15-fold 3 h after DEX treatment. PLZF or Slug stimulated productive infection 20- or 5-fold, respectively, and Slug stimulated the late glycoprotein C promoter more than 10-fold. Additional DEX-induced transcription factors also stimulated productive infection and certain viral promoters. These studies suggest that DEX-inducible cellular transcription factors and/or signaling pathways stimulate lytic cycle viral gene expression, which subsequently leads to successful reactivation from latency in a small subset of latently infected neurons. PMID:22190728
Fulton, Robert W.; Whitley, Evan M.; Johnson, Bill J.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Kapil, Sanjay; Burge, Lurinda J.; Cook, Billy J.; Confer, Anthony W.
The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined using 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples were collected by ear notches and tested for BVDV antigens using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE). Animals with initial positives on both IHC and ACE were sampled again using both tests and serums were collected for viral propagation and sequencing of a viral genomic region, 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) for viral subtyping. Samples were also collected from the dams of PI calves. There were 25 PI calves from 4530 samples (0.55%) and these PI calves were from 5 of the 30 herds (16.7%). Two herds had multiple PI calves and 3 herds had only 1 PI calf. Only 1 of the 25 dams with a PI calf was also PI (4.0%). The subtype of all the PI isolates was BVDV1b. Histories of the ranches indicated 23 out of 30 had herd additions of untested breeding females. Twenty-four of the 30 herds had adult cowherd vaccinations against BVDV, primarily using killed BVDV vaccines at pregnancy examination. PMID:20046630
Nakajima, Takuma; Tomi, Naoko; Fukuyo, Yayoi; Ishikura, Hiroaki; Ohno, Yuka; Arvind, Ramanathan; Arai, Takao; Ishikawa, Isao; Arakawa, Shinichi
Interactions between pathogens and host induce human disorders including periodontitis, disintegration of the tooth supporting tissues. Tannerella forsythia has been linked to the periodontitis and several cytopathic reagents have been found in the bacterium; however, its contribution to the disease remains unclear. Biochemical approach to explore the cytopathic effect revealed two distinct activities in T. forsythia (ATCC 43037) extract; one detaches adherent cells from substratum and another arrests cells at G2. An executor of former activity, forsythia detaching factor (FDF) was identified; its genomic sequence and peptidase activity revealed that FDF is a substantial form of putative PrtH; prtH gene was hypothetically identified directly from a DNA fragment of the bacterium and its native product has never been shown. Since FDF was found in the bacterial culture supernatant, its activity implies a contribution to the disintegration of tissues although the mechanism how FDF disturbs cellular anchors remains elusive.
Chamorro, Manuel F; Passler, Thomas; Givens, M Daniel; Edmondson, Misty A; Wolfe, Dwight F; Walz, Paul H
Identifying reservoirs and transmission routes for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are important in developing biosecurity programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate BVDV transmission by the hematophagous horn fly (Haematobia irritans). Flies collected from four persistently infected cattle were placed in fly cages attached to principal (n = 4) and control (n = 4) BVDV-naïve calves housed individually in isolation rooms. Flies were able to feed on principal calves, but a barrier prevented fly feeding from control calves. Flies were tested for BVDV by RT-PCR and virus isolation at time of collection from PI cattle and after 48 h of exposure on BVDV-naïve calves. Blood samples were collected from calves and tested for BVDV infection. Virus was isolated from fly homogenates at collection from PI animals and at removal from control and principal calves. All calves remained negative for BVDV by virus isolation and serology throughout the study. Bovine viral diarrhea virus may be detected in horn flies collected from PI cattle, but horn flies do not appear to be an important vector for BVDV transmission.
Gao, Shandian; Luo, Jihuai; Du, Junzheng; Lang, Yifei; Cong, Guozheng; Shao, Junjun; Lin, Tong; Zhao, Furong; Belák, Sándor; Liu, Lihong; Chang, Huiyun; Yin, Hong
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infects both domestic and wild animals, causing substantial economic losses. In order to investigate possible infection in Bactrian camels in Western China, a total of 56 blood samples were collected from clinically healthy Bactrian camels and tested for BVDV antigens and antibodies using antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test. The antigen-positive samples (n=17) were further tested for viral nucleic acids by species-specific real-time RT-PCR assays, which showed presence of BVDV-1, but not BVDV-2 nor atypical bovine pestivirus, in the camel samples. Twelve non-cytopathogenic viruses were isolated and genetically typed by sequencing of the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR) and N(pro) coding sequences. Phylogenetic analysis divided the isolates into six known subgenotypes: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, BVDV-1c, BVDV-1m, BVDV-1o, BVDV-1p and a putative subgenotype, BVDV-1q. This study provides, for the first time, serological and molecular evidence for natural infection of Bactrian camels in Western China with highly divergent BVDV-1 strains. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the possible roles of Bactrian camels in the epidemiology of BVD in Western China.
Bedeković, Tomislav; Lemo, Nina; Lojkić, Ivana; Cvetnić, Zeljko; Cač, Zeljko; Madić, Josip
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes a disease that has a wide range of clinical symptoms in domestic and wild ruminants. It is a major problem in cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. The virus infects bovines of all ages and causes both immunosuppression and reproductive, respiratory and digestive disorders. Cattle infected persistently, as a continuing source of the virus and the main factor in transmission of the disease between and among herds, are the main source of BVDV and a primary factor in the epidemiology of the disease. To determine whether a BVDV infection is persistent, two samples should be taken at 3-4 week intervals and tested for the virus antigen. Animal sera, whole blood, organ and ear notch tissue samples can be used for BVDV diagnosis. In ear notch tissue, viral antigen can be detected by an antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (antigen ELISA), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This paper describes the development and implementation of an indirect immunofluorescence (IF) method using ear notch tissue samples for diagnosis of cattle infected persistently. Results obtained by this method show that IF is a good alternative to RT-PCR and antigen ELISA and can be a quick and accurate method in diagnosis of BVDV in cattle infected persistently with this virus.
Pecora, Andrea; Aguirreburualde, María Sol Pérez; Aguirreburualde, Alejandra; Leunda, Maria Rosa; Odeon, Anselmo; Chiavenna, Sebastián; Bochoeyer, Diego; Spitteler, Marcelo; Filippi, Jorge L; Dus Santos, Maria J; Levy, Susana M; Wigdorovitz, Andrés
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) infection caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a Pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family, is an important cause of morbidity, mortality and economical losses in cattle worldwide. E2 protein is the major glycoprotein of BVDV envelope and the main target for neutralising antibodies (NAbs). Different studies on protection against BVDV infection have focused on E2, supporting its putative use in subunit vaccines. A truncated version of type 1a BVDV E2 (tE2) expressed in mammalian cells was used to formulate an experimental oleous monovalent vaccine. Immunogenicity was studied through immunisation of guinea pigs and followed by trials in cattle. Calves of 8-12 months were vaccinated, twice with a 4 week interval, with either a tE2 subunit vaccine (n = 8), a whole virus inactivated vaccine (n = 8) or left untreated as negative control group (n = 8). Four weeks after the last immunisation the animals were experimentally challenged intranasally with a non-cythopathic BVDV strain. Following challenge, BVDV was isolated from all unvaccinated animals, while 6 out of 8 animals vaccinated with tE2 showed complete virological protection indicating that the tE2 vaccine presented a similar performance to a satisfactory whole virus inactivated vaccine.
Schoepf, Karl; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Steinrigl, Adolf; Fuchs, Reinhard; Sailer, Andreas; Weikel, Joachim; Schmoll, Friedrich
A retrospective epidemiological investigation of molecular and animal husbandry data collected over an observation period of five years (2009-2014) within the compulsory bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programme in Western Austria, covering the federal provinces of Tyrol and Vorarlberg is presented in this study. Samples collected from 232 infected calves were phylogenetically classified based on the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). All but 13 samples, which were typed as border disease virus subtype 3 (BDV-3), belonged to the bovine viral diarrhoea virus genotype 1 (BVDV-1) and clustered within six different subtypes (1b, 1e, 1f, 1h, 1d and 1k). Movement data and survival times from infected individual animals were analysed because of their potential of passing on infection to naive herds. From the moment of submission of the laboratory results, 180 animals were culled within the first month, 13 lived longer than two but not longer than six months and seven infected animals lived longer than one year. 13 of the infected animals were born on alpine pastures and eleven infected animals were grazed on mountain pastures during summer. The movement of infected animals and the role of trade in alpine areas are a possible source for spreading the infection, thus hampering the progress of eradication.
Schaut, Robert G; McGill, Jodi L; Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F; Sacco, Randy E
Symptoms of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection range from subclinical to severe, depending on strain virulence. Several in vitro studies showed BVDV infection impaired leukocyte function. Fewer studies have examined the effects of in vivo BVDV infection on monocyte/macrophage function, especially with strains of differing virulence. We characterized cytokine production by bovine myeloid cells isolated early or late in high (HV) or low virulence (LV) BVDV2 infection. Given BVDV infection may enhance susceptibility to secondary bacterial infection, LPS responses were examined as well. Monocytes from HV and LV infected calves produced higher levels of cytokines compared to cells from controls. In contrast, monocyte-derived macrophage cytokine levels were generally reduced. Modulated cytokine expression in HV BVDV2 macrophages was associated with decreased MyD88 expression, likely due to its interaction with viral NS5A. These data and those of others, suggest that certain Flaviviridae may have evolved strategies for subverting receptor signaling pathways involving MyD88.
Neill, John D; Dubovi, Edward J; Ridpath, Julia F
Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV are often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected. The complete nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame of eleven alpaca-adapted BVDV isolates and the region encoding the envelope glycoproteins of an additional three isolates were determined. With the exception of one, all alpaca isolates were >99.2% similar at the nucleotide level. The Hercules isolate was more divergent, with 95.7% sequence identity to the other viruses. Sequence similarity of the 14 viruses indicated they were isolates of a single BVDV strain that had adapted to and were circulating through alpaca herds. Hercules was a more distantly related strain that has been isolated only once in Canada and represented a separate adaptation event that possessed the same adaptive changes. Comparison of amino acid sequences of alpaca and bovine-derived BVDV strains revealed three regions with amino acid sequences unique to all alpaca isolates. The first contained two small in-frame deletions near the N-terminus of the E2 glycoprotein. The second was found near the C-terminus of the E2 protein where four altered amino acids were located within a 30 amino acid domain that participates in E2 homodimerization. The third region contained three variable amino acids in the C-terminus of the E(rns) within the amphipathic helix membrane anchor. These changes were found in the polar side of the amphipathic helix and resulted in an increased charge within the polar face. Titration of bovine and alpaca viruses in both bovine and alpaca cells indicated that with increased charge in the amphipathic helix, the ability to infect alpaca cells also increased.
Soraires Santacruz, María C; Fabiani, Matías; Castro, Eliana F; Cavallaro, Lucía V; Finkielsztein, Liliana M
A series of N(4)-arylsubstituted thiosemicarbazones derived from 1-indanones and a set of compounds lacking such substitution in the N(4) position of the thiosemicarbazone moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) activity. Among these, derivatives 2 and 15 displayed high activity (EC50=2.7±0.4 and 0.7±0.1µM, respectively) as inhibitors of BVDV replication. Novel key structural features related to the anti-BVDV activity were identified by structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis. In a previous study, the thiosemicarbazone of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (5,6-TSC) was characterized as a non-nucleoside inhibitor (NNI) of the BVDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In the present work, cross-resistance assays were performed with the most active compounds. Such studies were carried out on 5,6-TSC resistant BVDV (BVDV-TSC(r) T1) carrying mutations in the viral polymerase. This BVDV mutant was also resistant to compound 15. Molecular docking studies and MM/PBSA calculations were performed to assess the most active derivatives at the 5,6-TSC viral polymerase binding site. The differences in the interaction pattern and the binding affinity of derivative 15 either to the wild type or BVDV-TSC(r) T1 polymerase were key factors to define the mode of action of this compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xue, Wenzhi; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Umbaugh, Jerry; Trigo, Emilio
Vaccination plays a significant role in the control of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection and spread. Recent studies revealed that type 1b is the predominant BVDV type 1 subgenotype, representing more than 75% of field isolates of BVDV-1. However, nearly all current, commercially available BVDV type 1 vaccines contain BVDV-1a strains. Previous studies have indicated that anti-BVDV sera, induced by BVDV-1a viruses, show less neutralization activity to BVDV-1b isolates than type 1a. Therefore, it is critically important to evaluate BVDV-1a vaccines in their ability to prevent BVDV-1b infection in calves. In current studies, calves were vaccinated subcutaneously, intradermally or intranasally with a single dose of a multivalent, modified-live viral vaccine containing a BVDV-1a strain, and were challenged with differing BVDV-1b strains to determine the efficacy and duration of immunity of the vaccine against these heterologous virus strains. Vaccinated calves, in all administration routes, were protected from respiratory disease caused by the BVDV-1b viruses, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding and greater white blood cell counts than non-vaccinated control animals. The BVDV-1a vaccine elicited efficacious protection in calves against each BVDV-1b challenge strain, with a duration of immunity of at least 6 months.
To evaluate the effects infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) has on immunological and physiological parameters of cattle; 12 Angus crossbred steers (228.82 ± 22.15 kg) were randomly assigned to either a Control group or an IBRV challenged group. Prior to the challenge, steers were fitted w...
HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses with genetic and antigenic similarities to bovine viral diarrhea viruses 1 and 2 (BVDV1 and BVDV2). These viruses have been detected associated with respiratory and/or reproductive disease in cattle in Italy and Brazil. Vaccines for HoBi-like...
Bovine immunoglobulin G does not have an inhibitory effect on diagnostic polymerase chain reaction utilizing magnetic bead extraction methods as demonstrated on the detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus in dairy calves.
Chigerwe, Munashe; Crossley, Beate M
The objective of the current study was to investigate if the presence of colostral-derived immunoglobulin G (IgG) in blood is an inhibitor of diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Eleven precolostral and 11 postcolostral blood samples in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant as well as serum samples were collected from 11 Holstein bull calves. Calves were fed 3 liters of colostrum once, by oroesophageal tubing. Postcolostral, blood, and serum samples were collected at 48 hr of age. Serum IgG concentrations were determined in the precolostral and postcolostral serum samples using radial immunodiffusion. The blood samples (precolostral and postcolostral) were spiked with BVDV, and 2 diagnostic PCR extraction methods were applied to each sample. The extraction and amplification efficiencies of the 2 PCR methods on the precolostral and postcolostral EDTA blood samples were evaluated. Two of the 11 calves had inadequate passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins at 48 hr of age based on the serum IgG concentrations. All blood samples from calves were negative for BVDV prior to the spiking with the virus. Evaluation of the 2 different methods among 3 different virus concentrations demonstrated that there was no difference in extraction or amplification efficiency in precolostral and postcolostral samples. The results of this study suggest that bovine IgG is not an inhibitor of PCR used for detection of BVDV in cattle. The methods used in the current study are acceptable for PCR detection of BVDV in cattle.
Ellis, J A; West, K H; Cortese, V S; Myers, S L; Carman, S; Martin, K M; Haines, D M
During the past several years, acute infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) have been causally linked to hemorrhagic and acute mucosal disease-like syndromes with high mortality. The majority of BVDVs isolated in such cases have been classified as type II on the basis of genetic and antigenic characteristics. It was our objective to examine clinical disease, lesions and potential sites of viral replication, following experimental BVDV type II infection in young calves. On approximately day 35 after birth, calves that had received BVDV-antibody-negative colostrum were infected by intranasal inoculation of 5 x 10(5) TCID50 of BVDV type II isolate 24,515 in 5 mL of tissue culture fluid (2.5 mL/nostril). Calves were monitored twice daily for signs of clinical disease. Approximately 48-72 h after infection, all calves developed transient pyrexia (39.4-40.5 degrees C) and leukopenia. Beginning on approximately day 7 after infection, all calves developed watery diarrhea, pyrexia (40.5-41.6 degrees C), marked leukopenia (> or = 75% drop from preinoculation values), variable thrombocytopenia, and moderate to severe depression. Calves were euthanized on days 10, 11, or 12 after infection due to severe disease. Gross and histological lesions consisted of multifocal bronchointerstitial pneumonia (involving 10%-25% of affected lungs), bone marrow hypoplasia and necrosis, and minimal erosive lesions in the alimentary tract. Immunohistochemical staining for BVDV revealed widespread viral antigen usually within epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells and mononuclear phagocytes in multiple organs, including lung, Peyer's patches, gastric mucosa, thymus, adrenal gland, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and skin. This BVDV type II isolate caused rapidly progressive, severe multisystemic disease in seronegative calves that was associated with widespread distribution of viral antigen and few gross or histological inflammatory lesions. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3
Ellis, J A; West, K H; Cortese, V S; Myers, S L; Carman, S; Martin, K M; Haines, D M
During the past several years, acute infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) have been causally linked to hemorrhagic and acute mucosal disease-like syndromes with high mortality. The majority of BVDVs isolated in such cases have been classified as type II on the basis of genetic and antigenic characteristics. It was our objective to examine clinical disease, lesions and potential sites of viral replication, following experimental BVDV type II infection in young calves. On approximately day 35 after birth, calves that had received BVDV-antibody-negative colostrum were infected by intranasal inoculation of 5 x 10(5) TCID50 of BVDV type II isolate 24,515 in 5 mL of tissue culture fluid (2.5 mL/nostril). Calves were monitored twice daily for signs of clinical disease. Approximately 48-72 h after infection, all calves developed transient pyrexia (39.4-40.5 degrees C) and leukopenia. Beginning on approximately day 7 after infection, all calves developed watery diarrhea, pyrexia (40.5-41.6 degrees C), marked leukopenia (> or = 75% drop from preinoculation values), variable thrombocytopenia, and moderate to severe depression. Calves were euthanized on days 10, 11, or 12 after infection due to severe disease. Gross and histological lesions consisted of multifocal bronchointerstitial pneumonia (involving 10%-25% of affected lungs), bone marrow hypoplasia and necrosis, and minimal erosive lesions in the alimentary tract. Immunohistochemical staining for BVDV revealed widespread viral antigen usually within epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells and mononuclear phagocytes in multiple organs, including lung, Peyer's patches, gastric mucosa, thymus, adrenal gland, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and skin. This BVDV type II isolate caused rapidly progressive, severe multisystemic disease in seronegative calves that was associated with widespread distribution of viral antigen and few gross or histological inflammatory lesions.
Wiskerchen, M; Belzer, S K; Collett, M S
The positive-strand RNA genome of pestiviruses contains a single large open reading frame (ORF) extending its entire length and is capable of encoding 450 kDa of protein. Studies have been undertaken with the purpose of elucidating the specific mechanisms involved in the biogenesis of the complete complement of pestivirus proteins. Here, we report on gene expression at the 5' end of the genome of the prototype pestivirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). We demonstrate, using both a cell-free transcription-translation system and a mammalian-cell transient-expression system, that the first protein product of the large ORF of BVDV, the p20 protein, possesses a specific proteolytic activity. The p20 proteinase activity acts to release the p20 protein from the nascent polyprotein. The p20 proteinase activity is not, however, required for downstream glycoprotein processing, indicating translocation of the pestivirus glycoprotein precursor is affected by an internal signal sequence. Images PMID:1649345
Kuhne, S; Schroeder, C; Holmquist, G; Wolf, G; Horner, S; Brem, G; Ballagi, A
A new diagnostic approach testing tissue samples derived from cattle ear tagging for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) antigen in a commercially available antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE) was developed. To validate this method, 99 positive and 469 negative samples were tested. With those samples the assay yielded a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of >or=99.6%. Serum and ear tissue samples from 11 persistently infected (PI) BVDV calves were tested. While serum samples were negative after intake of colostrum, the ear tissue samples could be detected positive for BVDV all the time. Testing multiple samples derived from the same ear from PI cattle yielded positive results and low variation. Using cattle ear tags combining the ear tag application with sampling of a small ear tissue plug and testing those tissue samples with an ACE could be a reliable and economic way of BVDV testing.
Luzzago, Camilla; Frigerio, Michela; Piccinini, Renata; Daprà, Valentina; Zecconi, Alfonso
To support a voluntary disease control program, this study aimed to develop an integrated scoring system for the risk assessment of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy herds in Northern Italy. Sixty-two dairy herds were classified according to their BVDV serological status. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire on potential BVDV risk factors. Scores were used to define risk levels for factors related to (1) BVDV introduction (through livestock trade, attendance of animals at shows/exhibitions and grazing common pasture), (2) within-herd spread of BVDV and (3) the results of initial serological testing. The calculated odds ratios were significant for all categories, except for livestock trade. The application of the screening test, the questionnaire and the related risk assessment showed this to be a practical approach to predicting BVDV herd status.
Luzzago, Camilla; Frigerio, Michela; Tolari, Francesco; Mazzei, Maurizio; Salvadori, Claudia; Del Piero, Fabio; Arispici, Mario
Indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC) on skin biopsies for identification of persistently infected (PI) animals has been used as a parallel test to antigen and antibody ELISAs in a bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) voluntary control program. The aim was to evaluate the reliability and feasibility of IHC on ear skin tissues to detect PI animals in field conditions, including both adult and calves under 6 months of age. In animals over 6 months of age skin biopsy and blood sample were collected at the same time, whereas in young calves blood sampling was performed when animals reached 6 months of age. One hundred and sixty-five animals were tested and immunohistochemical results were compared with those of antigen ELISA. In case of inconclusive results virus isolation and virus neutralization assays were performed. Agreement K value was 0.96. Immunohistochemical staining in positive animals was clearly detectable in the keratinocytes of the epidermis and adnexa.
Johnson, Bill J.; Briggs, Robert E.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Confer, Anthony W.; Burge, Lurinda J.; Step, Douglas L.; Walker, Derek A.; Payton, Mark E.
Abstract Calves persistently infected (PI) with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) represent an important source of infection for susceptible cattle. We evaluated vaccine efficacy using calves PI with noncytopathic BVDV2a for the challenge and compared tests to detect BVDV in acutely or transiently infected calves versus PI calves. Vaccination with 2 doses of modified live virus vaccine containing BVDV1a and BVDV2a protected the calves exposed to the PI calves: neither viremia nor nasal shedding occurred. An immunohistochemistry test on formalin-fixed ear notches and an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on fresh notches in phosphate-buffered saline did not detect BVDV antigen in any of the acutely or transiently infected calves, whereas both tests had positive results in all the PI calves. PMID:16639944
Garoussi, M Talebkhan; Haghparast, A; Estajee, H
Bulk milk for the presence of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from 38 industrial dairy cattle herds complexes with 250-3000 Holstein dairy cows in suburb of Mashhad-Iran was tested. None of the herds were vaccinated against BVDV. Commercial indirect ELISA-kit for the detection of specific antibodies was used. The result could be read visually where the optical density (OD) was measured at 450 nm. The percent positivity (PP) values >or=7 and <7 interpreted positive and negative, respectively. According to this study the apparent and the true prevalence of BVDV antibody-positive herds was 89.47 and 93.98%, respectively. The range of PP was 1.59-107.66 among the herds. The OD in 52.63% bulk milk of the herds was very high. It is concluded that exposure to BVD virus was widely distributed in the dairy cattle herds in suburb of Mashhad-Iran.
Handel, Ian G.; Willoughby, Kim; Land, Fiona; Koterwas, Bronwyn; Morgan, Kenton L.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.
Bovine viral diarrhoea, caused by the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae, is one of the most important diseases of cattle world wide causing poor reproductive performance in adult cattle and mucosal disease in calves. In addition it causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to other infections, the impact of which is uncertain, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where animals are exposed to a much wider range and higher intensity of infections compared to Europe. There are no previous estimates of the seroprevalence of BVDV in cattle in Cameroon. This paper describes the serological screening for antibodies to BVDV and antigen of BVDV in a cattle population in the Adamawa Region of Cameroon in 2000. The estimates of herd-level and within herd seroprevalences adjusted for test imperfections were 92% and 30% respectively and 16.5% of herds were classed as having a persistently infected calf (PI) in the herd within the last year based on the “spot” test approach. There was evidence of clustering of herds with PI calves across the north and west of the Region which corresponds with the higher cattle density areas and of self-clearance of infection from herds. A multivariable model was developed for the risk of having a PI calf in the herd; proximity to antelope, owning a goat, mixing with 10 other herds at grazing and the catchment area of the veterinary centre the herd was registered at were all significant risk factors. Very little is known about BVDV in sub-Saharan Africa and these high seroprevalences suggest that there is a large problem which may be having both direct impacts on fertility and neonate mortality and morbidity and also indirect effects through immunosuppression and susceptibility to other infections. Understanding and accounting for BVDV should be an important component of epidemiological studies of other diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21754993
Nelson, Guillermo; Marconi, Patricia; Periolo, Osvaldo; La Torre, José; Alvarez, María Alejandra
The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the etiological agent responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical diseases in cattle. The glycoprotein E2 is the major envelope protein of this virus and the strongest inductor of the immune response. There are several available commercial vaccines against bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), which show irregular performances. Here, we report the use of tobacco plants as an alternative productive platform for the expression of the truncated version of E2 glycoprotein (tE2) from the BVDV. The tE2 sequence, lacking the transmembrane domain, was cloned into the pK7WG2 Agrobacterium binary vector. The construct also carried the 2S2 Arabidopsis thaliana signal for directing the protein into the plant secretory pathway, the Kozak sequence, an hexa-histidine tag to facilitate protein purification and the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. The resulting plasmid (pK-2S2-tE2-His-KDEL) was introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 by electroporation. The transformed A. tumefaciens was then used to express tE2 in leaves of Nicotiana tabacum plants. Western blot and ELISA using specific monoclonal antibodies confirmed the presence of the recombinant tE2 protein in plant extracts. An estimated amount of 20 μg of tE2 per gram of fresh leaves was regularly obtained with this plant system. Injection of guinea pigs with plant extracts containing 20 μg of rtE2 induced the production of BVDV specific antibodies at equal or higher levels than those induced by whole virus vaccines. This is the first report of the production of an immunocompetent tE2 in N. tabacum plants, having the advantage to be free of any eventual animal contaminant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reed, Matthew C; O'Connor, Annette M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Cooper, Vickie L
Handling practices of specimens may affect the sensitivity or specificity of diagnostic tests. In this study, as part of the Voluntary Iowa Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Screening Project held in 2006, 2 sample-handling practices were evaluated to determine how they affect the sensitivity and specificity of the antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE) for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The null hypotheses investigated were 1) that maintenance of samples at room temperature would not be associated with decreased sensitivity, and 2) that continued use of a single pair of ear notchers would not be associated with cross-contamination of virus from 1 notch to another and reduce specificity. These hypotheses were tested in 2 studies by collecting known positive and negative samples and giving groups of samples different treatments. The first study used ACE on 4 groups of skin samples, all from a known-positive animal. Each group was subjected to different lengths of time at room temperature, from 24 to 96 hours at 24-hour intervals. No difference in test results was found between specimens subjected to different lengths of time at room temperature. The second study tested the effects of giving 3 different treatments to an ear notcher in between sample collecting (water rinse, Nolvasan solution rinse, or no treatment) on ACE results. No effect on sensitivity or specificity of ACE was observed. No difference in test results was found between the 3 ear-notcher treatment groups. The sample handling practices evaluated appeared to have little impact on test sensitivity or specificity of ACE for BVDV.
Chen, Jian; Yang, Yi-Feng; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Xiaohui; Dong, Zhaoguang; Chen, Tianyue; Yang, Yu; Zou, Peng; Jiang, Biao; Hu, Yunwen; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jia; Xu, Jianqing; Zhu, Tongyu
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can cause fetal developmental abnormalities and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Although progress has been made in understanding the link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly, the pathology of ZIKV, particularly the viral reservoirs in human, remains poorly understood. Several studies have shown that compared to serum samples, patients' urine samples often have a longer duration of ZIKV persistency and higher viral load. This finding suggests that an independent viral reservoir may exist in the human urinary system. Despite the clinical observations, the host cells of ZIKV in the human urinary system are poorly characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that ZIKV can infect renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEpiCs) in immunodeficient mice in vivo and in both immortalized and primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (hRPTEpiCs) in vitro. Importantly, ZIKV infection in mouse kidneys caused caspase-3-mediated apoptosis of renal cells. Similarly, in vitro infection of immortalized and primary hRPTEpiCs resulted in notable cytopathic effects. Consistent with the clinical observations, we found that ZIKV infection can persist with prolonged duration in hRPTEpiCs. RNA-Seq analyses of infected hRPTEpiCs revealed a large number of transcriptional changes in response to ZIKV infection, including type I interferon signaling genes and anti-viral response genes. Our results suggest that hRPTEpiCs are a potential reservoir of ZIKV in the human urinary system, providing a possible explanation for the prolonged persistency of ZIKV in patients' urine.
Luo, Yugang; Yuan, Ying; Ankenbauer, Robert G; Nelson, Lynn D; Witte, Steven B; Jackson, James A; Welch, Siao-Kun W
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections are enzootic in the cattle population and continue to cause significant economic losses to the beef and dairy industries worldwide. Extent of the damages has stimulated increasing interest in control programs directed at eradicating BVDV infections. Use of a BVDV marker vaccine would facilitate eradication efforts as a negatively marked vaccine would enable differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). We describe here the construction of three chimeric BVDVs containing glycoprotein E(rns) of heterologous pestiviruses and the evaluation of the chimera viruses as potential marker vaccines against BVDV infections. Chimeric NADL/G-E(rns), NADL/R-E(rns), and NADL/P-E(rns) were constructed by replacing the E(rns) gene of the full-length BVDV (NADL strain) genome with the E(rns) genes of giraffe (G-E(rns)), reindeer (R-E(rns)), or pronghorn antelope (P-E(rns)) pestiviruses, respectively. Each chimeric NADL virus was viable and infectious in RD 420 (bovine testicular) and BK-6 (bovine kidney) cells. By immunohistochemistry assays, NADL/G-E(rns) and NADL/R-E(rns) chimeric viruses reacted to BVDV E(rns) specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) 15C5, whereas the NADL/P-E(rns) chimeric virus did not. In an animal vaccination study, inactivated vaccines made from two chimeric viruses and the wild type NADL BVDV induced similar neutralizing antibody responses. NADL/P-E(rns)-vaccinated animals were distinguished from animals vaccinated with the wild type virus by means of a companion serological DIVA assay. These results show that chimeric NADL/P-E(rns) virus containing the E(rns) gene of pronghorn antelope pestivirus could be a potential marker vaccine candidate for use in a BVDV control and eradication program.
Pecora, Andrea; Malacari, Darío A; Pérez Aguirreburualde, María S; Bellido, Demian; Escribano, José M; Dus Santos, María J; Wigdorovitz, Andrés
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important cause of economic losses worldwide. E2 is an immunodominant protein and a promising candidate to develop subunit vaccines. To improve its immunogenicity, a truncated E2 (tE2) was fused to a single chain antibody named APCH, which targets to antigen-presenting cells. APCH-tE2 and tE2 proteins were expressed in the baculovirus system and their immunogenicity was firstly compared in guinea pigs. APCH-tE2 vaccine was the best one to evoke a humoral response, and for this reason, it was selected for a cattle vaccination experiment. All the bovines immunized with 1.5 μg of APCH-tE2 developed high levels of neutralizing antibodies against BVDV up to a year post-immunization, demonstrating its significant potential as a subunit vaccine. This novel vaccine is undergoing scale-up and was transferred to the private sector. Nowadays, it is being evaluated for registration as the first Argentinean subunit vaccine for cattle.
González-Robles, Arturo; Castañón, Guadalupe; Cristóbal-Ramos, Ana Ruth; Lázaro-Haller, Amparo; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Bonilla, Patricia; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo
In this study we report observations on the structural mechanisms of the cytopathic effect of Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites on cultured MDCK cell monolayers. Co-incubations were carried out for a maximum of 24h. The first evidence of damage to the cell monolayer was detected by measuring the transepithelial resistance of cell monolayers that interacted with the amoebae. At 6h, transepithelial resistance diminished to 51% and amoebae required 5-6h to produce evidence of structural injury at the light microscopy level. Following 12h of incubation, the cell monolayer was severely damaged. After making intimate contact with the surface of target cells, trophozoites detached cells from the substrate, lysed and by means of food-cups ingested the damaged cells. There was no morphological evidence of modifications in MDCK cell membranes, membrane fusion or junction formation between the amoeba and host plasma membrane. The lytic capacity of the amoebas appears to be the result of cytotoxic factors secreted by the amoebae since, when monolayers were incubated with conditioned medium, there was also a decrease in the transepithelial resistance. Besides, mechanical injury produced by the attachment and movement of the trophozoites may contribute to the disruption of the cell monolayer. As in other pathogenic amoebae, the cytopathic action of A. castellanii on the cell monolayers can subjectively be separated into four stages: adhesion, cytolysis, phagocytosis, and intracellular degradation.
McClenahan, Shasta D.; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L.; Krause, Philip R.; Uhlenhaut, Christine
A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen. PMID:23950875
McClenahan, Shasta D; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L; Krause, Philip R; Uhlenhaut, Christine
A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen.
Wolff, Peregrine L; Schroeder, Cody; McAdoo, Caleb; Cox, Mike; Nelson, Danielle D; Evermann, James F; Ridpath, Julia F
Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was detected in 2009-2010 while investigating a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, canadensis), and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 was 81% (N = 32) in the bighorns and 100% (N = 3) in the mountain goats. Serosurveillance from 2011 to 2015 of surviving bighorns and mountain goats as well as sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), indicated a prevalence of 72% (N = 45), 45% (N = 51), and 51% (N = 342) respectively. All species had antibody titers to BVDV1 and BVDV2. BVDV1 was isolated in cell culture from three bighorn sheep and a mountain goat kid. BVDV2 was isolated from two mule deer. Six deer (N = 96) sampled in 2013 were positive for BVDV by antigen-capture ELISA on a single ear notch. Wild ungulates and cattle concurrently graze public and private lands in these two mountain ranges, thus providing potential for interspecies viral transmission. Like cattle, mule deer, mountain goats, and bighorn sheep can be infected with BVDV and can develop clinical disease including immunosuppression. Winter migration patterns that increase densities and species interaction during the first and second trimester of gestation may contribute to the long term maintenance of the virus in these wild ungulates. More studies are needed to determine the population level impacts of BVDV infection on these three species.
Wolff, Peregrine L.; Schroeder, Cody; McAdoo, Caleb; Cox, Mike; Nelson, Danielle D.; Evermann, James F.; Ridpath, Julia F.
Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was detected in 2009–2010 while investigating a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, canadensis), and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 was 81% (N = 32) in the bighorns and 100% (N = 3) in the mountain goats. Serosurveillance from 2011 to 2015 of surviving bighorns and mountain goats as well as sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), indicated a prevalence of 72% (N = 45), 45% (N = 51), and 51% (N = 342) respectively. All species had antibody titers to BVDV1 and BVDV2. BVDV1 was isolated in cell culture from three bighorn sheep and a mountain goat kid. BVDV2 was isolated from two mule deer. Six deer (N = 96) sampled in 2013 were positive for BVDV by antigen-capture ELISA on a single ear notch. Wild ungulates and cattle concurrently graze public and private lands in these two mountain ranges, thus providing potential for interspecies viral transmission. Like cattle, mule deer, mountain goats, and bighorn sheep can be infected with BVDV and can develop clinical disease including immunosuppression. Winter migration patterns that increase densities and species interaction during the first and second trimester of gestation may contribute to the long term maintenance of the virus in these wild ungulates. More studies are needed to determine the population level impacts of BVDV infection on these three species. PMID:27014215
Gregg, K; Riddell, K P; Chen, S H; Galik, P K; Xiang, T; Guerra, T; Marley, M S; Polejaeva, I; Givens, M D
The objective was to assess the risk of transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) through embryo production via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), with oocytes obtained from persistently infected (PI) donors. Using ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration following superstimulation, oocytes were obtained from five female beef cattle, including three that were PI and two that were negative for BVDV. In the three PI cattle, seven aspirations yielded 32 oocytes (PI-1: three aspirations yielding six oocytes; PI-2: two aspirations yielding 14 oocytes; and PI-3: two aspirations yielding 12 oocytes). The oocyte recovery rate was better in negative control cattle, with 32 oocytes obtained from the two cattle in a single superstimulation and aspiration session. Oocytes were processed individually for SCNT, evaluated, and tested for BVDV. Nearly all (31/32) oocytes from the three PI donors were positive for BVDV by PCR, with detected viral RNA copy number ranging from 1 to 1.1 x 10(5). The proportion of oocytes acceptable for SCNT embryo production (based on oocyte quality and maturation status) was only 16 to 35% from PI donors, but was 81% from control donors. Therefore, routine testing of unacceptable (discarded) oocytes could be an effective approach to identify batches that might contain infected oocytes from PI donors. Identification and removal of high-risk batches of oocytes would minimize the risk of BVDV transmission through SCNT embryo production.
Ridpath, Julia F; Dominowski, Paul; Mannan, Ramasany; Yancey, Robert; Jackson, James A; Taylor, Lucas; Mediratta, Sangita; Eversole, Robert; Mackenzie, Charles D; Neill, John D
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections cause respiratory, reproductive, and enteric disease in cattle. Vaccination raises herd resistance and limits the spread of BVDV among cattle. Both killed and modified live vaccines against BVDV are available. While modified live vaccines elicit an immune response with a broader range and a longer duration of immunity, killed vaccines are considered to be safer. One way to improve the performance of killed vaccines is to develop new adjuvants. The goal of this research was evaluate new adjuvants, consisting of combinations of Quil A cholesterol and dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide, for use in killed vaccines. Responses to three novel killed vaccines, using combinations of Quil A and DDA as adjuvants, were compared to responses to a commercial modified live and a commercial killed vaccine. Vaccination response was monitored by measuring viral neutralizing antibodies (VN) levels and by response to challenge. All three novel vaccines were efficacious based on reduction in virus isolation, pyrexia, and depression. Compared to a commercial killed vaccine, the three novel vaccines elicited higher VN levels and reduced injection site inflammation.
The objective of this research was to characterize isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound (DB772) isolated from persistently infected (PI) calves treated with the compound. Viral isolates were obtained from four Angus-cross beef calves (A,B,C,D) persistently infected with BVDV type 1 or 2 ...
Perry, G H
Bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of the bovine reproductive system causing reduced conception rates, abortions and persistently infected calves. Most if not all strains of BVDV are transmissible by natural mating and AI. For international trade, it is recommended that in vitro fertilized embryos be washed according to the IETS Manual. However, BVDV may not be entirely washed out, resulting in possible transmission risks to recipients. Donor cows, donor bulls and biological agents are all possible sources of contamination. The process for producing in vitro produced (IVP) embryos is complex and non-standard, and some procedures can contribute to spread of BVDV to uninfected embryos. The structure of the zone pellucida (ZP) of IVP embryos permits adherence of BVDV to the ZP. To estimate the risk of producing infected recipients and persistently infected calves from abattoir-derived IVP embryos, a quantitative risk assessment model using Microsoft Excel and Palisade @Risk was developed. Assumptions simplified some of the complexities of the IVP process. Uncertainties due to incomplete or variable data were addressed by incorporating probability distributions in the model. Model variables included: disease prevalence; the number of donor cows slaughtered for ovaries; the number of oocytes collected, selected and cultured; the BVDV status of ovaries, semen, biological compounds and its behavior in the IVP embryo process. The model used the Monte Carlo method to simulate the IVP process. When co-culture cells derived from donor cows of unknown health status were used for in vitro culture (IVC), the probability of a recipient cow at risk of infection to BVDV per oocyte selected for IVP processing averaged 0.0006. However, when co-culture free from BVDV was used, the probability was 1.2 x 10(-5). Thus, for safe international trade in bovine IVP embryos (i.e. negligible risks of transmission of BVDV), co-culture cells, if used during IVC for producing IVP
Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Konnai, Satoru; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nishimori, Asami; Nakahara, Ayako; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) induces abnormal B-cell proliferation and B-cell lymphoma in cattle, where the BLV provirus is integrated into the host genome. BLV-infected B-cells rarely express viral proteins in vivo, but short-term cultivation augments BLV expression in some, but not all, BLV-infected B-cells. This observation suggests that two subsets, i.e. BLV-silencing cells and BLV-expressing cells, are present among BLV-infected B-cells, although the mechanisms of viral expression have not been determined. In this study, we examined B-cell markers and viral antigen expression in B-cells from BLV-infected cattle to identify markers that may discriminate BLV-expressing cells from BLV-silencing cells. The proportions of IgM(high) B-cells were increased in blood lymphocytes from BLV-infected cattle. IgM(high) B-cells mainly expressed BLV antigens, whereas IgM(low) B-cells did not, although the provirus load was equivalent in both subsets. Several parameters were investigated in these two subsets to characterize their cellular behaviour. Real-time PCR and microarray analyses detected higher expression levels of some proto-oncogenes (e.g. Maf, Jun and Fos) in IgM(low) B-cells than those in IgM(high) B-cells. Moreover, lymphoma cells obtained from the lymph nodes of 14 BLV-infected cattle contained IgM(low) or IgM(-) B-cells but no IgM(high) B-cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that IgM(high) B-cells mainly comprise BLV-expressing cells, whereas IgM(low) B-cells comprise a high proportion of BLV-silencing B-cells in BLV-infected cattle. © 2014 The Authors.
Fux, Robert; Wolf, Georg
Infections with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) cause substantial economic losses to cattle industries. Rapid detection of persistently BVDV infected (PI) calves is of utmost importance for the efficacy of BVDV control programs. Blood and ear skin biopsy samples are conveniently used for early mass screening of newborns. However, little is known about the impact of colostral antibodies on the outcome of relevant analyses. Here, we rigorously tested a series of samples obtained from five colostrum-fed PI calves from birth until they reached the status of seronegativity for NS3-specific antibodies. We comparatively quantified virus loads in blood samples and dried skin biopsies as detected with BVDV-NS3-, -Erns-capture ELISA and RT-qPCR. Monitoring of NS3-positive leukocytes was done with flow cytometry. Within seven days after colostrum intake, BVDV infected leukocytes disappeared for a three- to eight-week period. Immediately after colostrum ingestion, detectable Erns antigen levels dropped 10-100-fold in biopsy samples and in sera detection of Erns failed for one to two weeks. Virus demonstration in biopsy samples with a NS3-antigen-ELISA failed until days 90-158 after birth. Specific antibodies against BVDV also impaired the detection of viral RNA in leukocytes and blood. Mean RNA levels of the five calves were reduced in sera 2.500-fold and in leukocytes 400-fold, the lowest values were at week three of live. In contrast, levels of measurable viral RNA in biopsy samples remained constant during the observation period.
Efficacy of four commercially available multivalent modified-live virus vaccines against clinical disease, viremia, and viral shedding in early-weaned beef calves exposed simultaneously to cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus and cattle acutely infected with bovine herpesvirus 1.
Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H; Passler, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto; Newcomer, Benjamin W; Riddell, Kay P; Gard, Julie; Zhang, Yijing; Galik, Patricia
To evaluate the efficacy of 4 commercially available multivalent modified-live virus vaccines against clinical disease, viremia, and viral shedding caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) in early-weaned beef calves. 54 early-weaned beef steers (median age, 95 days). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups and administered PBSS (group A [control]; n = 11) or 1 of 4 commercially available modified-live virus vaccines that contained antigens against BHV1, BVDV types 1 (BVDV1) and 2 (BVDV2), parainfluenza type 3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (groups B , C , D , and E ). Forty-five days after vaccination, calves were exposed simultaneously to 6 cattle persistently infected with BVDV and 8 calves acutely infected with BHV1 for 28 days (challenge exposure). For each calf, serum antibody titers against BVDV and BHV1 were determined before vaccination and before and after challenge exposure. Virus isolation was performed on nasal secretions, serum, and WBCs at predetermined times during the 28-day challenge exposure. None of the calves developed severe clinical disease or died. Mean serum anti-BHV1 antibody titers did not differ significantly among the treatment groups at any time and gradually declined during the study. Mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers appeared to be negatively associated with the incidence of viremia and BVDV shedding. The unvaccinated group (A) had the lowest mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers. The mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers for group D were generally lower than those for groups B, C, and E. Results indicated differences in vaccine efficacy for the prevention of BVDV viremia and shedding in early-weaned beef calves.
Pereira Oliveira, Graziele; Tavares Silva Fernandes, André; Lopes de Assis, Felipe; Augusto Alves, Pedro; Moreira Franco Luiz, Ana Paula; Barcelos Figueiredo, Leandra; Costa de Almeida, Cláudia Maria; Pires Ferreira Travassos, Carlos Eurico; de Souza Trindade, Giliane; Santos Abrahão, Jônatas; Geessien Kroon, Erna
Bovine vaccinia (BV) is an emerging zoonosis caused by the Vaccinia virus (VACV), genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV), Poxviridae family. In general, human cases are related to direct contact with sick cattle but there is a lack of information about human-to-human transmission of VACV during BV outbreaks. In this study, we epidemiologically and molecularly show a case of VACV transmission between humans in São Francisco de Itabapoana County, Rio de Janeiro state. Our group collected samples from the patients, a 49-year-old patient and his son. Our results showed that patients had developed anti-OPV IgG or IgM antibodies and presented neutralizing antibodies against OPV. The VACV isolates displayed high identity (99.9%) and were grouped in the same phylogenetic tree branch. Our data indicate that human-to-human VACV transmission occurred during a BV outbreak, raising new questions about the risk factors of the VACV transmission chain. PMID:24615135
Bauermann, F V; Falkenberg, S M; Ridpath, J F
The ability of ruminant pestivirus including bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and the related emerging pestivirus, HoBi-like virus, to establish persistent infection (PI) following foetal infection is central to keeping these viruses in circulation. Non-PI dams carrying BVDV PI calves develop high levels of immunity due constantly viral exposure. A study to determine whether the immunity developed following the generation of a BVDV PI is enough to prevent HoBi-like virus infection of a subsequent foetus was performed. This study consisted of nine pregnant cows, four had birthed BVDV-1 PI calves in a previous pregnancy, three cows had birthed BVDV-2 PIs and two had birthed pestivirus negative calves. From this, six pregnant cows were challenged with HoBi-like virus about day 85 of gestation (four BVDV-1 and two BVDV-2 cows) and three non-challenged cows (negative control). At the day of challenge, the serum neutralizing titres against the homologous BVDV strains of the first inoculation ranged from 1148 to 5793. At day 6 post-challenge, HoBi-like RNA was detected in the serum of all four BVDV-1 cows but not in the two BVDV-2 cows. The foetuses harvested from five of the exposed dams (three BVDV-1 and two BVDV-2 cows) at day 30 post-challenge were positive for HoBi-like virus RNA. The sixth cow, BVDV-1 cow #541, while pregnant at the time of exposure, had no foetus 30 days after exposure. Foetuses from HoBi-like virus exposed dams were significantly smaller and lighter than control foetuses. HoBi-like RNA was detected in samples of all challenged foetuses. The identification of viral RNA in the serum of 4 cows at day 6 post-challenge, as well viral RNA detection in all foetuses 30 days post-inoculation, indicates that the foetuses of dams with high antibodies titres against BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 would not be protected from challenge with a HoBi-like virus.
Xia, J Q; Yason, C V; Kibenge, F S
Bovine semen samples spiked with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) were used to compare dot blot hybridization, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and virus isolation for detection of BHV-1 in bovine semen. The PCR amplification used primers targeting the BHV-1 thymidine kinase gene and a nucleic acid releasing cocktail (GeneReleaser); the PCR product was used as the DNA probe in dot blot hybridization; virus isolation was done in primary bovine fetal testis (BFT) cell cultures. Semen diluted 1:20 in tissue culture medium had the least cytotoxicity and inhibition of viral cytopathic effects in BFT cells, allowing detection of 1 TCID50/100 microL of BHV-1 suspension by virus isolation. The presence of foreign DNA such as bovine sperm DNA or salmon sperm DNA increased the sensitivity of dot blot hybridization in detecting BHV-1, allowing detection of 20,000 TCID50/100 microL of neat semen. The inhibition of PCR amplification of BHV-1 DNA in bovine semen was eliminated by diluting the samples 1:20 in tissue culture medium. The best PCR amplification was obtained when semen was diluted 1:20 and when a reaction buffer of pH 9.0, with 1.0 mM MgCl2 was used. Under these conditions, the PCR followed by ethidium bromide staining of agarose gels could detect 1 TCID20/100 microL of sample, whereas PCR followed by Southern blot hybridization could detect 0.01 TCID50/100 microL of sample.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:7648521
Carlos-Valdez, L; Wilson, B K; Burciaga-Robles, L O; Step, D L; Holland, B P; Richards, C J; Montelongo, M A; Confer, A W; Fulton, R W; Krehbiel, C R
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common and economically detrimental disease of beef cattle during the postweaning period, causing the majority of morbidity and mortality in feedlots. The pathogenesis of this disease often includes an initial viral infection, which can predispose cattle to a secondary bacterial infection. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of timing of an intratracheal (MH) challenge relative to 72 h of natural exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1b persistently infected (PI) calves on performance, serum antibody production, total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count, rectal temperature, clinical severity score (CS), and haptoglobin (Hp). Steers ( = 24; 276 ± 31 kg initial BW) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments (8 steers/treatment) in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were steers not exposed to calves PI with BVDV 1b and not challenged with MH (CON), steers intratracheally challenged with MH 84 h after being exposed to calves PI with BVDV 1b for 72 h (LateCh), and steers intratracheally challenged with MH 12 h after being exposed to calves PI with BVDV 1b for 72 h (EarlyCh). Performance (ADG, DMI, and G:F) was decreased ( < 0.001) for both EarlyCh and LateCh from d 0 to 4. From d 5 to 17, LateCh appeared to compensate for this lost performance and demonstrated increased ADG ( = 0.01) and G:F ( = 0.01) compared with EarlyCh. Both EarlyCh and LateCh had decreased platelet counts ( < 0.001) compared with CON. Antibody concentrations of BVDV and MH were higher ( < 0.05) for both EarlyCh and LateCh compared with CON. Rectal temperature, CS, and Hp increased ( < 0.001) across time from h 4 to 48, h 4 to 36, and h 8 to 168, respectively. Within 24 h of MH challenge, WBC and neutrophil concentrations within the blood increased whereas lymphocyte concentrations decreased. The timing of BVDV exposure relative to a MH challenge appears to influence the CS and acute phase
Zhao, Yuelan; Jiang, Lufeng; Liu, Teng; Wang, Min; Cao, Wenbo; Bao, Yongzhan; Qin, Jianhua
Bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) is an infectious disease of cattle with a worldwide distribution, creating a substantial economic impact. It is caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). This research was conducted to construct the recombinant Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) pMG36e-E0-LA-5 of BVDV E0 gene and to test its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against BVDV infection in the mice model. The BVDV E0 gene was sub-cloned into the expression vector and then transformed into the L. acidophilus LA-5 strain by electroporation. The recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 was confirmed by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting. The mice were immunized orally with the recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5. The serum IgG antibody and fecal sIgA antibody responses, expression levels of interleukin (IL)-12 (IL-12) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were detected respectively. On the 7th day after the last-immunization, the mice were inoculated with BVDV to evaluate the protective efficiency of the recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5. The results showed that the expressed products protein E0 in the L. acidophilus LA-5 resulted in single band of 27kDa by SDS-PAGE and its strong reactivity with BVDV antibody was confirmed by Western blotting. The IgG and sIgA antibodies responses, IL-12 and IFN-γ expression levels in the vaccinated mice with recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 were significantly higher than those in the control mice. The protective rate of the vaccinated mice against BVDV increased significantly, and a 90.00% protection rate in virulent challenge was observed. These results indicated that the recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 strain was successfully constructed and it could effectively improve the immune response in mice and might provide protection against BVDV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Wei; Shi, Xinchuan; Wu, Yongwang; Li, Xiaoxin; Ji, Ye; Meng, Qingsen; Zhang, Shucheng; Wu, Hua
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1a and 1b strains are the predominant subgenotypes in China. Because of the genetic and antigenic variability among different BVDV strains, a vaccine effective in one region may fail to protect against infections caused by different virus strains in another region. No BVDV vaccine developed with the predominant strains in China are available. In this study, the immunogenicity of an inactivated Chinese BVDV 1a NM01 vaccine strain was evaluated by challenging with a Chinese BVDV 1b JL strain. Ten 2-4-month-old calves were intramuscularly vaccinated with a single dose of the vaccine strain and boosted with same dose three weeks after the first vaccination, with five mock immunized calves serving as a control group. The average titer of neutralization antibody to BVDV 1a and BVDV 1b of immunized calves reached 1:410 and 1:96, respectively, at 21 days post the second vaccination. Twenty-one days post the second vaccination, all calves were challenged with strain JL. The clinical signs, such as the temperature and leukopenia of the immunized calves and viral shedding, were significantly less than the mock immunized calves after challenging with the virulent BVDV 1b strain, indicating that the BVDV 1a vaccine strain elicited efficacious protection against the endemic BVDV 1b strain in China. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an inactivated BVDV vaccine which demonstrated effective cross-protection against BVDV type 1b infection in China.
Zhang, Kuan; Brownlie, Robert; Snider, Marlene
ABSTRACT VP8 is a major tegument protein of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and is essential for viral replication in cattle. The protein undergoes phosphorylation after transcription through cellular casein kinase 2 (CK2) and a viral kinase, US3. In this study, a virus containing a mutated VP8 protein that is not phosphorylated by CK2 and US3 (BoHV-1-YmVP8) was constructed by homologous recombination in mammalian cells. When BoHV-1-YmVP8-infected cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy, blocking phosphorylation of VP8 was found to impair viral DNA encapsidation, resulting in release of incomplete viral particles to the extracellular environment. Consequently, less infectious virus was produced by the mutant virus than by wild-type (WT) virus. A comparison of mutant and WT VP8 by confocal microscopy revealed that mutant VP8 is nuclear throughout infection while WT VP8 is nuclear early during infection and is associated with the Golgi apparatus at later stages. This, together with the observation that mutant VP8 is present in virions, albeit in smaller amounts, suggests that the incorporation of VP8 may occur at two stages. The first takes place without the need for phosphorylation and before or during nuclear egress of capsids, whereas the second occurs in the Golgi apparatus and requires phosphorylation of VP8. The results indicate that phosphorylated VP8 plays a role in viral DNA encapsidation and in the secondary virion incorporation of VP8. To perform these functions, the cellular localization of VP8 is adjusted based on the phosphorylation status. IMPORTANCE In this study, phosphorylation of VP8 was shown to have a function in BoHV-1 replication. A virus containing a mutated VP8 protein that is not phosphorylated by CK2 and US3 (BoHV-1-YmVP8) produced smaller numbers of infectious virions than wild-type (WT) virus. The maturation and egress of WT and mutant BoHV-1 were studied, showing a process similar to that reported for other
Behera, Sthita Pragnya; Mishra, Niranjan; Nema, Ram Kumar; Pandey, Pooja Dubey; Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Prakash, Anil
The aim of this article is to express envelope glycoprotein E2 of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in yeast Pichia pastoris and its utility as a diagnostic antigen in ELISA. The BVDV E2 gene was cloned into the pPICZαA vector followed by integration into the Pichia pastoris strain X-33 genome for methanol-induced expression. SDS-PAGE and Western blot results showed that the recombinant BVDV E2 protein (72 kDa) was expressed and secreted into the medium at a concentration of 40 mg/L of culture under optimized conditions. An indirect ELISA was then developed by using the yeast-expressed E2 protein. Preliminary testing of 300 field cattle serum samples showed that the E2 ELISA showed a sensitivity of 91.07% and a specificity of 92.02% compared to the reference virus neutralization test. The concordance between the E2 ELISA and VNT was 91.67%. This study demonstrates feasibility of BVDV E2 protein expression in yeast Pichia pastoris for the first time and its efficacy as an antigen in ELISA for detecting BVDV neutralizing antibodies in cattle.
Aebischer, Andrea; Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin
Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for rapid and simple diagnostic tools that can be applied outside centralized laboratories by using transportable devices. In veterinary medicine, such mobile test systems would circumvent barriers associated with the transportation of samples and significantly reduce the time to diagnose important infectious animal diseases. Among a wide range of available technologies, high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and the two isothermal amplification techniques loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) represent three promising candidates for integration into mobile pen-side tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of these amplification strategies and to evaluate their suitability for field application. In order to enable a valid comparison, novel pathogen-specific assays have been developed for the detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The newly developed assays were evaluated in comparison with established standard RT-qPCR using samples from experimentally or field-infected animals. Even though all assays allowed detection of the target virus in less than 30 min, major differences were revealed concerning sensitivity, specificity, robustness, testing time, and complexity of assay design. These findings indicated that the success of an assay will depend on the integrated amplification technology. Therefore, the application-specific pros and cons of each method that were identified during this study provide very valuable insights for future development and optimization of pen-side tests.
Liang, Rong; Babiuk, Lorne A; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia
Type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has become increasingly prevalent worldwide, and currently the ratio of type 2 to type 1 strains in the USA approaches 50%. Although there is cross-reactivity between BVDV type 1 and type 2 strains, BVDV1 vaccine strains poorly protect from type 2 infection, so vaccines against BVDV should contain antigens from both BVDV types. Previously we demonstrated efficacy of a BVDV1 E2 DNA vaccine, and in this study we optimized a BVDV2 E2 DNA vaccine. Furthermore, as an approach to vaccinate with a DNA vaccine against both BVDV types, we compared two strategies, mixing of plasmids encoding type 1 and type 2 E2, and co-expression of type 1 and type 2 E2 from one plasmid with an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). An evaluation of the IRES-containing plasmids demonstrated that the C-terminally expressed protein is produced at lower levels and induces weaker immune responses than the N-terminally expressed protein, regardless of the position of the type 1 and type 2 E2 genes. In contrast, when both plasmids encoding type 1 and type 2 E2 were administered to mice, the immune responses were similar to those induced by the individual plasmids. Thus, a mixture of plasmids encoding type 1 and type 2 E2 could be a potential DNA vaccine candidate against both BVDV1 and BVDV2.
Kozasa, Takashi; Tajima, Motoshi; Yasutomi, Ichiro; Sano, Kimihiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Onuma, Misao
The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in dairy herds in Hokkaido, Japan, was estimated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using bulk tank milk samples. Sixteen out of 265 dairy herds were identified as BVDV positive, and at least one persistently infected (PI) cattle was recognized in each of the positive herds except for two herds of which, owners did not agree to examine individual cows. The proportion of positive herds with a history of BVDV PI was significantly higher than that with no history of BVDV PI (odds ratio (OR) 4.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.471-12.278, p = 0.004). The herds examined for BVDV were divided into two groups, high and low disease incidence groups based on the occurrence of diseases such as diarrhea, pneumonia or abortion in the past 1 year. The BVDV positive herds in the high disease incidence group were significantly more than that in the low disease incidence group (OR 2.92, CI 1.110-7.683, p = 0.024). It was observed that there were significantly (p = 0.008) more PI calves or heifers in farms of high disease incidence group than in farms of low disease incidence group. These results suggested that bulk tank milk test was available method for the detection of PI animals in dairy herds, and the existence of PI non-lactating cows in herd correlated with the incidence of diseases of the diarrhea or respiratory disorders.
Collen, T; Douglas, A J; Paton, D J; Zhang, G; Morrison, W I
Cattle that are persistently infected (PI) with one strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can resolve infection with a second, antigenically heterologous strain but not the homologous strain. Since CD4(+) T cells are thought to be critical for the resolution of acute BVDV infection (Howard et al., 1992, Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 32, 303-314), we have examined the recognition of a heterologous virus (NADL) by CD4(+) T cells from Pe515-PI animals. The immune response of non-PI control cattle challenged with NADL or Pe515ncp was strain cross-reactive, whereas Pe515-PI animals responded to NADL only. The immune repertoire of both groups included NS3, which differs by approximately 1% (9/683) amino acids between these two viruses. Lymphoproliferative responses to proteins and synthetic peptides corresponding to three nonconservative differences in NS3 demonstrated that CD4(+) T cells from non-PI control animals responded well to proteins but poorly to the peptides from both viruses. In contrast, PI animals were responsive to heterologous proteins and peptides but nonresponsive to the homologous equivalents. A single amino acid difference between the two sequences was sufficient to allow responsiveness.
Aebischer, Andrea; Wernike, Kerstin; Beer, Martin
Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for rapid and simple diagnostic tools that can be applied outside centralized laboratories by using transportable devices. In veterinary medicine, such mobile test systems would circumvent barriers associated with the transportation of samples and significantly reduce the time to diagnose important infectious animal diseases. Among a wide range of available technologies, high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and the two isothermal amplification techniques loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) represent three promising candidates for integration into mobile pen-side tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of these amplification strategies and to evaluate their suitability for field application. In order to enable a valid comparison, novel pathogen-specific assays have been developed for the detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The newly developed assays were evaluated in comparison with established standard RT-qPCR using samples from experimentally or field-infected animals. Even though all assays allowed detection of the target virus in less than 30 min, major differences were revealed concerning sensitivity, specificity, robustness, testing time, and complexity of assay design. These findings indicated that the success of an assay will depend on the integrated amplification technology. Therefore, the application-specific pros and cons of each method that were identified during this study provide very valuable insights for future development and optimization of pen-side tests. PMID:24648561
Ilha, Marcia R S; Coarsey, Michele; Whittington, Lisa; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Ramamoorthy, Sheela
The prevalence of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in free-ranging white-tailed deer (WTD, Odocoileus virginianus) in the state of Georgia was evaluated using ear notches collected from hunter-harvested deer during the hunting season of 2010-2011. From September to December 2010, 367 ear samples from WTD were collected from 37 counties in Georgia. The samples were from 178 (48.5%) female deer, 187 (51%) male deer, and 2 (0.5%) of unknown sex. The age of the animals varied from 6 months to 6.5 years. The age was not recorded in 34 animals (9.3%). Of the animals with known ages, 42% were under 2 years. Screening of 367 samples for BVDV using an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AgELISA) resulted in 364 negative samples and 3 suspect samples. The 3 suspect samples were negative for BVDV reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), virus isolation, and immunohistochemistry. A subpopulation of samples (n = 89) selected from various geographical regions also tested negative for BVDV RT-PCR. In conclusion, although a few of the samples were suspect for the presence of BVDV by AgELISA, the presence of the virus within the deer population studied could not be confirmed further.
Negrón, María E; Pogranichniy, Roman M; Van Alstine, William; Hilton, W Mark; Lévy, Michel; Raizman, Eran A
To assess the transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from experimentally infected white-tailed deer fawns to colostrum-deprived calves by use of a BVDV strain isolated from hunter-harvested white-tailed deer. 5 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns and 6 colostrum-deprived calves. Fawns were inoculated intranasally with a noncytopathic BVDV-1a isolate (2 mL containing 10(6.7) TCID(50)/mL), and 2 days after inoculation, animals were commingled until the end of the study. Blood and serum samples were obtained on days -6, 0, 7, 14, and 21 after inoculation for reverse transcriptase PCR assay, virus neutralization, and BVDV-specific antibody ELISA. Nasal, oral, and rectal swab specimens were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 17, and 21 for reverse transcriptase PCR testing. By 21 days after inoculation, all animals were euthanized and necropsied and tissues were collected for histologic evaluation, immunohistochemical analysis, and virus isolation. All fawns became infected and shed the virus for up to 18 days as determined on the basis of reverse transcriptase PCR testing and virus isolation results. Evidence of BVDV infection as a result of cohabitation with acutely infected fawns was detected in 4 of the 6 calves by means of reverse transcriptase PCR testing and virus isolation. On the basis of these findings, BVDV transmission from acutely infected fawns to colostrum-deprived calves appeared possible.
Negrón, María; Raizman, Eran A; Pogranichniy, Roman; Hilton, W Mark; Lévy, Michel
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe the application of management practices known to be associated with the prevention of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection on Indiana dairy farms and to determine the extent of BVDV vaccine use within Indiana dairy herds. The population in this study was Indiana dairy producers enrolled under the Indiana Premise ID list by the Indiana State Board of Animal Health (n=1600). During the fall of 2008 a questionnaire was mailed to Indiana dairy producers. Returned questionnaires were entered into a database and descriptive statistics were performed. A total of 208 questionnaires were found useful for analysis. Small herds (<100 head) constituted 60% of the sample population, 33% farms were categorized as medium herds (100-499 head) and finally 7% were large herds (>500 head). Most of the herds (68%) acquired their replacements from external sources (open herds); however, preventive measures against the introduction of BVDV into the farm such as purchased animal history, quarantine and BVDV testing were not commonly performed. Even though producers commonly reported the use of BVDV vaccines, not all animals groups were vaccinated within herds. This study highlights the aspects of management practices of BVDV control on Indiana dairy farms that need reinforcement. In particular, dairy producers should be made aware that vaccination should be complementary to a comprehensive biosecurity program. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lauzi, Stefania; Ebranati, Erika; Giammarioli, Monica; Cannella, Vincenza; Masoero, Loretta; Canelli, Elena; Guercio, Annalisa; Caruso, Claudio; Ciccozzi, Massimo; De Mia, Gian Mario; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Zehender, Gianguglielmo
Genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has distinguished BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 species and an emerging putative third species (HoBi-like virus), recently detected in southern Italy, signaling the occurrence of natural infection in Europe. Recognizing the need to update the data on BVDV genetic variability in Italy for mounting local and European alerts, a wide collection of 5′ UTR sequences (n = 371) was selected to identify the frequency of genotypes and subtypes at the herd level. BVDV-1 had the highest frequency, followed by sporadic BVDV-2. No novel HoBi-like viruses were identified. Four distribution patterns of BVDV-1 subtypes were observed: highly prevalent subtypes with a wide temporal-spatial distribution (1b and 1e), low prevalent subtypes with a widespread geographic distribution (1a, 1d, 1g, 1h, and 1k) or a restricted geographic distribution (1f), and sporadic subtypes detected only in single herds (1c, 1j, and 1l). BVDV-1c, k, and l are reported for the first time in Italy. A unique genetic variant was detected in the majority of herds, but cocirculation of genetic variants was also observed. Northern Italy ranked first for BVDV introduction, prevalence, and dispersion. Nevertheless, the presence of sporadic variants in other restricted areas suggests the risk of different routes of BVDV introduction. PMID:25045658
Weng, Xiao Gang; Song, Quan Jiang; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming Chao; Wang, Meng Ling; Wang, Jiu Feng
To acquire epidemiological data on the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with this virus, 4,327 samples from Holstein dairy cows were screened over a four-year period in Beijing, China. Eighteen BVD viruses were isolated, 12 from PI cattle. Based on genetic analysis of their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), the 18 isolates were assigned to subgenotype BVDV-1m, 1a, 1d, 1q, and 1b. To investigate the innate immune responses in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of PI cattle, the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (MX1), and interferon stimulatory gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed by qPCR. When compared with healthy cattle, the expression of TLR-7, IFN-α, and IFN-β mRNA was downregulated, but the expression of MX1 and ISG-15 mRNA was upregulated in PI cattle. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 was lower in PI cattle than in healthy cattle. Thus, BVDV-1m and 1a are the predominant subgenotypes in the Beijing region, and the strains are highly divergent. Our findings also suggest that the TLR-7/IRF-7 signaling pathway plays a role in evasion of host restriction by BVDV.
Mishra, Niranjan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Pitale, Shruti Shrikant; Prakash, Anil; Nema, Ram Kumar; Behera, Sthita Pragnya; Dubey, Shiv Chandra
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep belonging to the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Although the BVDV non-structural N-terminal protease (N(pro)) acts as an interferon antagonist and subverts the host innate immunity, little is known about its immunogenicity. Hence, we expressed a recombinant BVDV N(pro)-His fusion protein (28 kDa) in E. coli and determined the humoral immune response generated by it in rabbits. The antigenicity of the N(pro) protein was confirmed by western blot using anti-BVDV hyperimmune cattle, sheep and goat serum, and anti-N(pro) rabbit serum. When rabbits were immunized with the N(pro) protein, a humoral immune response was evident by 4 weeks and persisted till 10 weeks post immunization as detected by ELISA and western blot. Despite N(pro)-specific antibodies remaining undetectable in 80 serum samples from BVDV-infected sheep and goats, BVDV hyperimmune sera along with some of the field cattle, sheep and goat sera with high BVDV neutralizing antibody titres were found positive for N(pro) antibodies. Our results provide evidence that despite the low immunogenicity of the BVDV N(pro) protein, a humoral immune response is induced in cattle, sheep and goats only with repeated BVDV exposure.
Weng, Xiao Gang; Song, Quan Jiang; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming Chao; Wang, Meng Ling
To acquire epidemiological data on the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with this virus, 4,327 samples from Holstein dairy cows were screened over a four-year period in Beijing, China. Eighteen BVD viruses were isolated, 12 from PI cattle. Based on genetic analysis of their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), the 18 isolates were assigned to subgenotype BVDV-1m, 1a, 1d, 1q, and 1b. To investigate the innate immune responses in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of PI cattle, the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (MX1), and interferon stimulatory gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed by qPCR. When compared with healthy cattle, the expression of TLR-7, IFN-α, and IFN-β mRNA was downregulated, but the expression of MX1 and ISG-15 mRNA was upregulated in PI cattle. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 was lower in PI cattle than in healthy cattle. Thus, BVDV-1m and 1a are the predominant subgenotypes in the Beijing region, and the strains are highly divergent. Our findings also suggest that the TLR-7/IRF-7 signaling pathway plays a role in evasion of host restriction by BVDV. PMID:26119170
Stott, A W; Humphry, R W; Gunn, G J
A previously published model was re-employed to examine the potential impact of different epidemiological circumstances on output losses due to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in typical British hill cow-calf enterprises. The average annuity equivalent of unchecked losses from 100 simulated 10-year disease scenarios ranged from almost pound0/cow to approximately pound40/cow. Significant differences were found under certain circumstances, depending on the initial disease status of the herd, the initial source of virus, the probability and source of further infection, the probability of virus transmission within the herd and herd size. For naïve herds, losses depended only on the risk of incursion. In most other circumstances, the losses could be mitigated if the annual risk of incursion was <0.3 and risk of within herd transmission was extremely low. Greater understanding of the interaction between these risk factors and management actions are required so that total costs of BVDV infection can be minimised under different circumstances.
Luzzago, Camilla; Lauzi, Stefania; Ebranati, Erika; Giammarioli, Monica; Moreno, Ana; Cannella, Vincenza; Masoero, Loretta; Canelli, Elena; Guercio, Annalisa; Caruso, Claudio; Ciccozzi, Massimo; De Mia, Gian Mario; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Peletto, Simone
Genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has distinguished BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 species and an emerging putative third species (HoBi-like virus), recently detected in southern Italy, signaling the occurrence of natural infection in Europe. Recognizing the need to update the data on BVDV genetic variability in Italy for mounting local and European alerts, a wide collection of 5' UTR sequences (n = 371) was selected to identify the frequency of genotypes and subtypes at the herd level. BVDV-1 had the highest frequency, followed by sporadic BVDV-2. No novel HoBi-like viruses were identified. Four distribution patterns of BVDV-1 subtypes were observed: highly prevalent subtypes with a wide temporal-spatial distribution (1b and 1e), low prevalent subtypes with a widespread geographic distribution (1a, 1d, 1g, 1h, and 1k) or a restricted geographic distribution (1f), and sporadic subtypes detected only in single herds (1c, 1j, and 1l). BVDV-1c, k, and l are reported for the first time in Italy. A unique genetic variant was detected in the majority of herds, but cocirculation of genetic variants was also observed. Northern Italy ranked first for BVDV introduction, prevalence, and dispersion. Nevertheless, the presence of sporadic variants in other restricted areas suggests the risk of different routes of BVDV introduction.
Asmare, K; Regassa, F; Robertson, L J; Martin, A D; Skjerve, E
Abortion and stillbirth are important reproductive disorders in the dairy industry and are often caused by infectious agents. This study investigated whether bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), Brucella spp., and Neospora caninum are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in dairy cattle in Ethiopia. Dairy cattle from 99 farms were categorized as cases (n=134) or controls (n=268) according to reproductive data. Blood samples were screened for antibodies for these infectious agents. The overall proportion of cattle that were seropositive for BVDV, Brucella spp., and N. caninum was 11∙7%, 3∙2%, and 17∙2%, respectively. Seropositivity for BVDV and Brucella spp. was similar for cases and controls, but significantly more cases were seropositive for N. caninum (29∙8%) than controls (10∙8%). This is the first report demonstrating N. caninum is common in dairy cattle in Ethiopia, and is probably a greater impediment to reproductive success in Ethiopian dairy farms than either BVDV or Brucella spp.
Burgstaller, Johann; Obritzhauser, Walter; Kuchling, Sabrina; Kopacka, Ian; Pinior, Beate; Köfer, Josef
Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) leads to substantial economic losses in beef and dairy herds worldwide. Two case-control studies were carried out using production data from 1996 to 2012 to analyse the impact of BVD virus (BVDV) on fertility in dairy herds in the province of Styria during an eradication programme. In study 1, herds in which at least one persistently BVDV-infected (PI) animal was detected (case herds) were compared to a group of control herds proven free from BVDV infection (contro herds). In study 2, within BVD infected herds the period during which P animals were present (exposed period) was compared to the period after successful BVD eradication (unexposed period). Calving interval (CAl) and the probability of a first service conception (FSC) were used as indicators in a mixed regression model to investigate the impact of BVD on reproductive performance. The model results indicated that BVD had a significant influence on CAl and FSC. Cows from control herds were 1.1 times more likely to conceive at first service compared to cows from case herds and cows served during the BVDV unexposed period were 1.3 times more likely to conceive at first service than those inseminated during the exposed period. In BVD-infected herds the CAI averaged seven days shorter in unexposed periods than in exposed periods. Besides BVD the animal breed and the parity substantially impact the analysed fertility indicators.
Durkin, Keith; Rosewick, Nicolas; Artesi, Maria; Hahaut, Vincent; Griebel, Philip; Arsic, Natasa; Burny, Arsène; Georges, Michel; Van den Broeke, Anne
Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus closely related to the Human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1). Cattle are the natural host of BLV where it integrates into B-cells, producing a lifelong infection. Most infected animals remain asymptomatic but following a protracted latency period about 5 % develop an aggressive leukemia/lymphoma, mirroring the disease trajectory of HTLV-1. The mechanisms by which these viruses provoke cellular transformation remain opaque. In both viruses little or no transcription is observed from the 5'LTR in tumors, however the proviruses are not transcriptionally silent. In the case of BLV a cluster of RNA polymerase III transcribed microRNAs are highly expressed, while the HTLV-1 antisense transcript HBZ is consistently found in all tumors examined. Here, using RNA-seq, we demonstrate that the BLV provirus also constitutively expresses antisense transcripts in all leukemic and asymptomatic samples examined. The first transcript (AS1) can be alternately polyadenylated, generating a transcript of ~600 bp (AS1-S) and a less abundant transcript of ~2200 bp (AS1-L). Alternative splicing creates a second transcript of ~400 bp (AS2). The coding potential of AS1-S/L is ambiguous, with a small open reading frame of 264 bp, however the transcripts are primarily retained in the nucleus, hinting at a lncRNA-like role. The AS1-L transcript overlaps the BLV microRNAs and using high throughput sequencing of RNA-ligase-mediated (RLM) 5'RACE, we show that the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) cleaves AS1-L. Furthermore, experiments using altered BLV proviruses with the microRNAs either deleted or inverted point to additional transcriptional interference between the two viral RNA species. The identification of novel viral antisense transcripts shows the BLV provirus to be far from silent in tumors. Furthermore, the consistent expression of these transcripts in both leukemic and nonmalignant clones points to a vital role in the life cycle
Di Serio, Francesco; De Stradis, Angelo; Delgado, Sonia; Flores, Ricardo; Navarro, Beatriz
Viroids are infectious agents identified only in plants so far. In contrast to viruses, the genome of viroids is composed of a tiny circular RNA (250–400 nt) not coding for proteins, but containing in its compact structure all the information needed for parasitizing the transcriptional and RNA trafficking machineries of their hosts. Viroid infections are frequently accompanied by cellular and developmental disorders that ultimately result in macroscopic symptoms. The molecular events linking the structural domains of viroid RNAs with cellular and macroscopic alterations remain largely unexplored, although significant progress has been lately achieved in one specific viroid-host combination, highlighting the ability of viroids to strongly interfere with their host RNA regulatory networks. Cytopathic effects induced by nuclear-replicating viroids, which were investigated since early studies on viroids, consist in irregular proliferations of cell membranes (paramural bodies or plasmalemmasomes), cell wall distortions, and chloroplast malformations. Different alternatives have been proposed regarding how these cytological alterations may influence the onset of macroscopic symptoms. Recently, the cytopathology and histopathology incited by a chloroplast-replicating viroid have been investigated in depth, with defects in chloroplast development having been related to specific molecular events that involve RNA silencing and impairment of chloroplast ribosomal RNA maturation. On this basis, a tentative model connecting specific cytopathologic alterations with symptoms has been put forward. Here, early and more recent studies addressing this issue will be reviewed and reassessed in the light of recent advances in the regulatory roles of small RNAs. PMID:23308076
Kovács, Ferenc; Magyar, Tibor; Rinehart, Carol; Elbers, Knut; Schlesinger, Kathy; Ohnesorge, William Charles
Fetal infection with bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes severe economic loss and virus spread in cattle. This study investigated the ability of modified live BVDV I and II components of a commercially available modified live virus (MLV) vaccine (Breed-Back FP 10, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc.) to prevent fetal infection and abortion, and therefore the birth of persistently infected animals. Heifers immunized with vaccine 4-8 weeks before insemination showed no adverse effects. All vaccinated animals had seroconverted to BVDV 4 weeks after immunization. Pregnant heifers were divided into two vaccination and two control groups and challenged with type I or II BVDV on days 60-90 of gestation. Seroconversion, clinical signs, immunosuppression, viremia, mortality, abortion rate, and fetal infection were studied. Post-challenge, 6/11 (type I challenged) and 8/11 (type II challenged) vaccinated heifers were free from clinical signs of BVD. Post-challenge clinical signs noted in the vaccinated groups were mild to moderate, while all unvaccinated controls had clinical signs ranging from moderate to severe. Viremia was not detected post-challenge in any of the vaccinated heifers. However, 100% of the controls were BVDV viremic on at least 1 day post-challenge. One of 22 vaccinated heifers had transient leukopenia, whereas 2/8 and 6/7 unvaccinated heifers in control groups I and II, respectively, had transient leukopenia. Type II BVDV infection led to abortion or death in 86% of unvaccinated heifers. The corresponding vaccinated group showed no deaths or abortions. All control group fetuses were infected with BVDV. The test vaccine gave 91% (type I BVDV challenged) and 100% (type II BVDV challenged) protection from fetal infection. This vaccine is safe and effective against fetal infection, abortion (type II BVDV) and the birth of persistently infected animals.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a positive single stranded RNA virus belonging to the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV has a wide host range that includes most ruminants. Noncytopathic (ncp) BVDV may establish lifelong persistent infections in calves following infection of t...
Bachofen, Claudia; Willoughby, Kim; Zadoks, Ruth; Burr, Paul; Mellor, Dominic; Russell, George C
Studies of the molecular epidemiology of viral diseases are dependent on the analysis of large numbers of samples from infected individuals, and the assembly of relevant sequence databases are a prerequisite to investigate chains of infection. As part of research in support of the Scottish BVDV eradication campaign, we have established a direct RT-PCR method for the high throughput amplification and analysis of the informative 5'-untranslated region of the BVDV genome. Heat-treatment followed by a one-step RT-PCR, performed in 96-well plates, produced sufficient material for sequence analysis from 0.5 μl of serum or plasma. Of 93 samples assayed, only five failed to give full sequence data for the region amplified and these were subsequently successfully analysed in single tube format reactions. This approach improved the speed of analysis, reduced costs, operator time and the potential for contamination, and may allow analysis of samples for which volumes are too low for conventional RNA isolation. It also has the potential for wider application in both human and animal disease research in which high throughput and low cost would increase the size of datasets that can be obtained.
Comparison of conventional RT-PCR, reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification, and SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR in the rapid detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus nucleotide in contaminated commercial bovine sera batches.
Zhang, Shu-Qin; Tan, Bin; Li, Peng; Wang, Feng-Xue; Guo, Li; Yang, Yong; Sun, Na; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Wen, Yong-Jun; Cheng, Shi-Peng
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can contaminate biological products produced in bovine or porcine cells or manufactured using bovine sera. A rapid, specific, sensitive, and practical method of detecting BVDV in bio-products is needed. The purpose of this study was to compare three assays with respect to their ability to accurately detect BVDV in biological samples, namely reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR, and conventional RT-PCR. All assays detected BVDV nucleotide and differentiated between BVDV-free and -contaminated bovine sera successfully. In addition, the results were specific to BVDV: the amplification of samples containing the closely related classical swine fever virus or other pathogenic bovine viruses yielded negative results. The lowest detection threshold, 10(1) copies, was displayed by the SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR and RT-LAMP assay. This assay was also the most effective in the detection of BVDV contamination in a set of commercially available bovine sera. The field conditions suggest that RT-LAMP is specific and sensitive to detecting BVDV in biological samples and may be used for quality control of biomaterials.
Kiel, Johnathan L; Gonzalez, Yvette; Parker, Jill E; Andrews, Carrie; Martinez, Dominique; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Lefrançois, Thierry
We previously reported a rickettsial heartwater-like disease in vipers from Ghana that resembled heartwater in its gross lesions, was apparently transmitted by ticks (Aponomma and Amblyomma), and responded clinically favorably to early treatment with tetracycline. Cell culture showed consistent cytopathic effects in bovine endothelial cells, viper cells, and mouse cells, and inhibition of cytopathic effect by tetracycline in vitro. A type D retrovirus was observed in vacuoles in all infected cells. The virus and rickettsia infection was associated with transfer of cytopathic effect, regardless of cell species. Close association of virus and rickettsia may indicate a dual infection etiology of viper plague.
Effects of injectable trace minerals on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to Bovine viral diarrhea virus, Bovine herpes virus 1 and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus following administration of a modified-live virus vaccine in dairy calves.
Palomares, R A; Hurley, D J; Bittar, J H J; Saliki, J T; Woolums, A R; Moliere, F; Havenga, L J; Norton, N A; Clifton, S J; Sigmund, A B; Barber, C E; Berger, M L; Clark, M J; Fratto, M A
Our objective was to evaluate the effect of an injectable trace mineral (ITM) supplement containing zinc, manganese, selenium, and copper on the humoral and cell mediated immune (CMI) responses to vaccine antigens in dairy calves receiving a modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine containing BVDV, BHV1, PI3V and BRSV. A total of 30 dairy calves (3.5 months of age) were administered a priming dose of the MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BVDV1 & 2, BRSV, PI3V, and an attenuated-live Mannheimia-Pasteurella bacterin subcutaneously (SQ). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) administration of ITM SQ (ITM, n=15) or (2) injection of sterile saline SQ (Control; n=15). Three weeks later, calves received a booster of the same vaccine combination SQ, and a second administration of ITM, or sterile saline, according to the treatment group. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 90 post-vaccination for determination of antibody titer, viral recall antigen-induced IFN-γ production, and viral antigen-induced proliferation by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination resulted in higher antibody titers to BVDV1 on day 28 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.03). Calves treated with ITM showed an earlier enhancement in PBMC proliferation to BVDV1 following vaccination compared to the control group. Proliferation of PBMC after BVDV stimulation tended to be higher on day 14 after priming vaccination in calves treated with ITM than in the control group (P=0.08). Calves that received ITM showed higher PBMC proliferation to BRSV stimulation on day 7 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.01). Moreover, calves in the ITM group also had an enhanced production IFN-γ by PBMC after stimulation with BRSV on day 21 after priming vaccination compared to day 0 (P<0.01). In conclusion, administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination in dairy calves
Anderson, R W; Ascher, M S; Sheppard, H W
The central paradox of HIV pathogenesis is that the viral burden, either free or cellular, seems too low to deplete the CD4 population by direct killing. Until recently, little data could be used to compare direct and indirect pathogenic theories critically. Clinical trials with potent new antiviral agents have measured important kinetic parameters of HIV infection, including viral and infected cell half-lives. This has led to the construction of explicit models of direct killing. Using a worst-case dynamic analysis, we show that such cytopathic models are untenable. Rates of infected cell removal are orders of magnitude too low to suppress steady state CD4 counts significantly in the face of lymphocyte replenishment, especially in early infection. Furthermore, the direct cytopathic models, as proposed, predict an extremely variable disease course across the broad range of observed viral burdens (five orders of magnitude), which is inconsistent with the relatively small differences in disease progression observed between patients. In contrast, immunologic theories of pathogenesis, such as homeostatic dysregulation based on immune activation, do not suffer from these difficulties and are more consistent with the natural history of HIV infection.
Mahony, Donna; Mody, Karishma T.; Cavallaro, Antonino S.; Hu, Qiuhong; Mahony, Timothy J.; Qiao, Shizhang; Mitter, Neena
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is arguably the most important viral disease of cattle. It is associated with reproductive, respiratory and chronic diseases in cattle across the world. In this study we have investigated the capacity of the major immunological determinant of BVDV-1, the E2 protein combined with hollow type mesoporous silica nanoparticles with surface amino functionalisation (HMSA), to stimulate immune responses in sheep. The current work also investigated the immunogenicity of the E2 nanoformulation before and after freeze-drying processes. The optimal excipient formulation for freeze-drying of the E2 nanoformulation was determined to be 5% trehalose and 1% glycine. This excipient formulation preserved both the E2 protein integrity and HMSA particle structure. Sheep were immunised three times at three week intervals by subcutaneous injection with 500 μg E2 adsorbed to 6.2 mg HMSA as either a non-freeze-dried or freeze-dried nanoformulation. The capacity of both nanovaccine formulations to generate humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated responses in sheep were compared to the responses in sheep immunisation with Opti-E2 (500 μg) together with the conventional adjuvant Quil-A (1 mg), a saponin from the Molina tree (Quillaja saponira). The level of the antibody responses detected to both the non-freeze-dried and freeze-dried Opti-E2/HMSA nanoformulations were similar to those obtained for Opti-E2 plus Quil-A, demonstrating the E2 nanoformulations were immunogenic in a large animal, and freeze-drying did not affect the immunogenicity of the E2 antigen. Importantly, it was demonstrated that the long term cell-mediated immune responses were detectable up to four months after immunisation. The cell-mediated immune responses were consistently high in all sheep immunised with the freeze-dried Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine formulation (>2,290 SFU/million cells) compared to the non-freeze-dried nanovaccine formulation (213–500 SFU/million cells). This
Mahony, Donna; Mody, Karishma T; Cavallaro, Antonino S; Hu, Qiuhong; Mahony, Timothy J; Qiao, Shizhang; Mitter, Neena
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is arguably the most important viral disease of cattle. It is associated with reproductive, respiratory and chronic diseases in cattle across the world. In this study we have investigated the capacity of the major immunological determinant of BVDV-1, the E2 protein combined with hollow type mesoporous silica nanoparticles with surface amino functionalisation (HMSA), to stimulate immune responses in sheep. The current work also investigated the immunogenicity of the E2 nanoformulation before and after freeze-drying processes. The optimal excipient formulation for freeze-drying of the E2 nanoformulation was determined to be 5% trehalose and 1% glycine. This excipient formulation preserved both the E2 protein integrity and HMSA particle structure. Sheep were immunised three times at three week intervals by subcutaneous injection with 500 μg E2 adsorbed to 6.2 mg HMSA as either a non-freeze-dried or freeze-dried nanoformulation. The capacity of both nanovaccine formulations to generate humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated responses in sheep were compared to the responses in sheep immunisation with Opti-E2 (500 μg) together with the conventional adjuvant Quil-A (1 mg), a saponin from the Molina tree (Quillaja saponira). The level of the antibody responses detected to both the non-freeze-dried and freeze-dried Opti-E2/HMSA nanoformulations were similar to those obtained for Opti-E2 plus Quil-A, demonstrating the E2 nanoformulations were immunogenic in a large animal, and freeze-drying did not affect the immunogenicity of the E2 antigen. Importantly, it was demonstrated that the long term cell-mediated immune responses were detectable up to four months after immunisation. The cell-mediated immune responses were consistently high in all sheep immunised with the freeze-dried Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine formulation (>2,290 SFU/million cells) compared to the non-freeze-dried nanovaccine formulation (213-500 SFU/million cells). This study
Fulton, Robert W; Hessman, Bill E; Ridpath, Julia F; Johnson, Bill J; Burge, Lurinda J; Kapil, Sanjay; Braziel, Barbara; Kautz, Kira; Reck, Amy
Several tests for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were applied to samples collected monthly from December 20, 2005, through November 27, 2006 (day 0 to day 342) from 12 persistently infected (PI) cattle with BVDV subtypes found in US cattle: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a. The samples included clotted blood for serum, nasal swabs, and fresh and formalin-fixed ear notches. The tests were as follows: titration of infectious virus in serum and nasal swabs; antigen-capture (AC) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or ACE, on serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; immunohistochemical (IHC) testing of formalin-fixed ear notches; and serologic testing for BVDV antibodies in serum. Of the 12 animals starting the study, 3 died with mucosal disease. The ACE and IHC tests on ear notches had positive results throughout the study, as did the ACE and PCR tests on serum. There was detectable virus in nasal swabs from all the cattle throughout the study except for a few samples that were toxic to cell cultures. The serum had a virus titer > or = log(10) 1.60 in all samples from all the cattle except for 3 collections from 1 animal. Although there were several equivocal results, the PCR test most often had positive results. The BVDV antibodies were due to vaccination or exposure to heterologous strains and did not appear to interfere with any BVDV test. These findings illustrate that PI cattle may be identified by several tests, but differentiation of PI cattle from cattle with acute BVDV infection requires additional testing, especially of blood samples and nasal swabs positive on initial testing. Also, calves PI with BVDV are continual shedders of infectious virus, as shown by the infectivity of nasal swabs over the 11-mo study.
Kampf, Günter; Steinmann, Jochen; Rabenau, Holger
Background A procedure for including activity against enveloped viruses in the post-contamination treatment of hands has been recommended, but so far no European standard is available to implement it. In 2004, the German Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) and the German Association for the Control of Virus Disease (DVV) suggested that vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) should be used as test viruses in a quantitative suspension test to determine the activity of a disinfectant against all enveloped viruses. Methods We have studied the activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs (hand rub A, based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate; hand rub B, based on 80% ethanol; hand rub C, based on 95% ethanol) against vaccinia virus and BVDV, and in addition against four other clinically relevant enveloped viruses: herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and human and avian influenza A virus. The hand rubs were challenged with different organic loads at exposure time of 15, 30 and 60 s. According to the guidelines of both BGA/RKI and DVV, and EN 14476:2005, the reduction of infectivity of each test virus was measured on appropriate cell lines using a quantitative suspension test. Results All three alcohol-based hand rubs reduced the infectivity of vaccinia virus and BVDV by ≥ 4 log10-steps within 15 s, irrespective of the type of organic load. Similar reductions of infectivity were seen against the other four enveloped viruses within 15 s in the presence of different types of organic load. Conclusion Commonly used alcohol-based hand rubs with a total alcohol concentration ≥ 75% can be assumed to be active against clinically relevant enveloped viruses if they effectively reduce the infectivities of vaccinia virus and BVDV in a quantitative suspension test. PMID:17291338
Kirchgessner, Megan S; Dubovi, Edward J; Porter, William F; Zylich, Nancy C; Whipps, Christopher M
Significant pathogens of domestic livestock and public-health related pathogens, such as bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Coxiella burnetii, are commonly diagnosed in some wildlife species. BVDV is an economically important pathogen of domestic bovids and Coxiella burnetii is a highly infectious zoonotic bacterium. As a result of recent shifting patterns of disease, it is critical that baseline information regarding the status of both significant pathogens of domestic livestock and public-health related pathogens are established for commonly encountered wildlife such as white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). White-tailed deer are susceptible to both BVDV and C. burnetii infection, and the purpose of this study was to investigate for the presence of antibodies to these two pathogens in New York and Pennsylvania white-tailed deer. Exposure to BVDV and C. burnetii was determined using sera collected from 333 (219 males and 114 females) wild white-tailed deer in New York and 291 (130 males and 161 females) wild white-tailed deer from Pennsylvania. Samples were collected from hunter-harvested deer in central New York State in 2009 and live-captured deer in Pennsylvania in 2010. Sera were screened for anti-BVDV antibodies via a commercial blocking BVDV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Coxiella burnetii phase II whole-cell antigen-coated slides were used to screen sera via an indirect microimmunofluorescence assay. Antibody prevalence was compared by sex class and location of collection. Deer in New York had higher antibody prevalence to BVDV (6.01%) than did deer in Pennsylvania (0.34%). Conversely, C. burnetii phase II antibodies were more common in Pennsylvania (20.96%) than in New York (14.41%). No statistically significant difference between locations was observed in either BVDV or C. burnetii antibody prevalence when data were analyzed by sex-class. Overall, C. burnetii seroprevalence was not significantly higher in Pennsylvania than in New York.
Fulton, Robert W.; Hessman, Bill E.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Johnson, Bill J.; Burge, Lurinda J.; Kapil, Sanjay; Braziel, Barbara; Kautz, Kira; Reck, Amy
Several tests for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were applied to samples collected monthly from December 20, 2005, through November 27, 2006 (day 0 to day 342) from 12 persistently infected (PI) cattle with BVDV subtypes found in US cattle: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a. The samples included clotted blood for serum, nasal swabs, and fresh and formalin-fixed ear notches. The tests were as follows: titration of infectious virus in serum and nasal swabs; antigen-capture (AC) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or ACE, on serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; immunohistochemical (IHC) testing of formalin-fixed ear notches; and serologic testing for BVDV antibodies in serum. Of the 12 animals starting the study, 3 died with mucosal disease. The ACE and IHC tests on ear notches had positive results throughout the study, as did the ACE and PCR tests on serum. There was detectable virus in nasal swabs from all the cattle throughout the study except for a few samples that were toxic to cell cultures. The serum had a virus titer ≥ log10 1.60 in all samples from all the cattle except for 3 collections from 1 animal. Although there were several equivocal results, the PCR test most often had positive results. The BVDV antibodies were due to vaccination or exposure to heterologous strains and did not appear to interfere with any BVDV test. These findings illustrate that PI cattle may be identified by several tests, but differentiation of PI cattle from cattle with acute BVDV infection requires additional testing, especially of blood samples and nasal swabs positive on initial testing. Also, calves PI with BVDV are continual shedders of infectious virus, as shown by the infectivity of nasal swabs over the 11-mo study. PMID:19436580
Viet, A-F; Fourichon, C; Seegers, H
To control the spread of bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (BVDV), test-and-cull schemes have been used in Scandinavian countries, with success, when combined with strict control of new animal introductions into herds. In situations where BVDV reintroduction is likely to occur, it is necessary to assess precisely the expected efficiency of test-and-cull schemes. The objective of this study was to compare, by simulation, the persistence and consequences of BVDV infection in a fully susceptible dairy herd with either a test-and-cull scheme or no control action. We used a stochastic individual-based model representing the herd structure as groups of animals, herd dynamics, the contact structure within the herd and virus transmission. After an initial introduction of the virus into a fully susceptible herd, the frequency of purchases of animals that introduced the virus was simulated as high, intermediate or null. Virus persistence and epidemic size (total number of animals infected) were simulated over 10 years. The test-and-cull reduced the epidemic size and the number of days the virus was present except in herds with complete prevention of contact between groups of animals. Where no virus was reintroduced, virus persistence did not exceed 6 years with a test-and-cull scheme, whereas the virus was still present 10 years after the virus introduction in some replications with no control action (<2%). Where frequent purchases were made that led to virus introduction (6 within 10 years), with an intermediate virus transmission between groups, the probability of virus persistence 10 years after the first virus introduction fell from 31% to 8% with the test-and-cull scheme (compared to the do-nothing strategy). Within the newly infected herd, the test-and-cull scheme had no effect, on inspection, on the number of PI births, embryonic deaths or abortions over 10 years. Given this, the economic efficiency of the test-and-cull scheme should be further investigated.
Kampf, Günter; Steinmann, Jochen; Rabenau, Holger
A procedure for including activity against enveloped viruses in the post-contamination treatment of hands has been recommended, but so far no European standard is available to implement it. In 2004, the German Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) and the German Association for the Control of Virus Disease (DVV) suggested that vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) should be used as test viruses in a quantitative suspension test to determine the activity of a disinfectant against all enveloped viruses. We have studied the activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs (hand rub A, based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate; hand rub B, based on 80% ethanol; hand rub C, based on 95% ethanol) against vaccinia virus and BVDV, and in addition against four other clinically relevant enveloped viruses: herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and human and avian influenza A virus. The hand rubs were challenged with different organic loads at exposure time of 15, 30 and 60 s. According to the guidelines of both BGA/RKI and DVV, and EN 14476:2005, the reduction of infectivity of each test virus was measured on appropriate cell lines using a quantitative suspension test. All three alcohol-based hand rubs reduced the infectivity of vaccinia virus and BVDV by > or = 4 log10-steps within 15 s, irrespective of the type of organic load. Similar reductions of infectivity were seen against the other four enveloped viruses within 15 s in the presence of different types of organic load. Commonly used alcohol-based hand rubs with a total alcohol concentration > or = 75% can be assumed to be active against clinically relevant enveloped viruses if they effectively reduce the infectivities of vaccinia virus and BVDV in a quantitative suspension test.
Gates, M C; Woolhouse, M E J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W
The success of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication campaigns can be undermined by spread through local transmission pathways and poor farmer compliance with biosecurity recommendations. This work combines recent survey data with cattle movement data to explore the issues likely to impact on the success of BVDV control in Scotland. In this analysis, data from 249 beef suckler herds and 185 dairy herds in Scotland were studied retrospectively to determine the relative influence of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity on BVDV seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that cattle movement risk factors had approximately 3 times greater explanatory power than risk factors for local spread amongst beef suckler herds, but approximately the same explanatory power as risk factors for local spread amongst dairy herds. These findings are most likely related to differences in cattle husbandry practices and suggest that where financial prioritization is required, focusing on reducing movement-based risk is likely to be of greatest benefit when applied to beef suckler herds. The reported use of biosecurity measures such as purchasing cattle from BVDV accredited herds only, performing diagnostic screening at the time of sale, implementing isolation periods for purchased cattle, and installing double fencing on shared field boundaries had minimal impact on the risk of beef or dairy herds being seropositive for BVDV. Only 28% of beef farmers and 24% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds recognized that their cattle were affected by BVDV and those that did perceive a problem were no less likely to sell animals as replacement breeding stock and no more likely to implement biosecurity measures against local spread than farmers with no perceived problems. In relation to the current legislative framework for BVDV control in Scotland, these findings emphasize the importance of requiring infected herds take appropriate biosecurity measures
Stott, A W; Lloyd, J; Humphry, R W; Gunn, G J
We combined epidemiological and economic concepts and modelling techniques, to integrate animal health into whole-farm business management. This allowed us to assess the relative contribution that disease prevention could make to whole-farm income and to the variability in farm income (risk). It also allowed us to assess disease losses in the context of a farm business rather than as a disease outbreak in isolation. A linear program ("MOTAD") establishes the combination of decision maker's activities that minimise risk for a given level of income within farm-business constraints. The MOTAD model was applied to farm-management decision making in Scottish cow-calf herds and was linked to an epidemiological model of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD). When BVD was considered in isolation (i.e. without taking into account risk), the minimum expected total cost of BVD (sum of output losses plus expenditure on prevention) was similar whether the herd was susceptible to BVD or of unknown BVD-status at the outset. However, the expected total cost of BVD fell in response to increasing expenditure on prevention in 'susceptible' herds. This relationship was not apparent in herds of unknown BVD-status. As a consequence of this difference, 'susceptible' herds were better able to use investment in BVD biosecurity as a means to increase farm income at minimum risk than herds of unknown BVD-status. 'Susceptible' herds therefore were able to achieve high income targets with less-intensive production than herds of unknown BVD-status. This suggested that maintaining a cow-calf herd free of BVD contributes to farm income and risk management indirectly through its effect on the management of the whole farm. It follows that measurement of the economic impact of BVD requires a whole-farm perspective that includes a consideration of risk. Because farmers generally are considered to be risk adverse, this means that the least-cost disease-control option might not always be the preferred option.
Sayers, Ríona G; Sayers, Gearóid P; Graham, David A; Arkins, Sean
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is endemic in many countries and vaccines are used as a component of control and eradication strategies. Surveillance programmes to detect exposure to BVDV often incorporate the use of bulk milk (BM) testing for antibodies against BVDV p80 (NS3), but vaccination can interfere with these results. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether BVDV vaccines would confound BM testing for specific antibodies in a nationally representative group of commercial dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland. A total of 256 commercial dairy herds were included in the statistical analysis. Quarterly BM or serum samples from selected weanling heifers (unvaccinated homeborn youngstock) were assessed by ELISA for antibodies against the BVDV p80 subunit and whole virus. Wilcoxon rank-sum and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to examine differences among groups vaccinated with one of three commercially available inactivated BVDV vaccines. Two of the three vaccines showed evidence of interference with ELISA testing of BM samples. ROC analysis highlighted that one vaccine did not reduce the discriminatory power of the BVDV p80 ELISA for identification of herds with evidence of recent BVDV circulation, when compared with unvaccinated herds; thus, administration of this vaccine would allow uncomplicated interpretation of BM ELISA test results in vaccinated seropositive herds. Seasonal differences in BM antibody results were identified, suggesting that the latter half of lactation is the most suitable time for sampling dairy herds containing predominantly spring calving cows. The results of the present study are likely to prove useful in countries allowing vaccination during or following BVDV eradication, where BM testing is required as part of the surveillance strategy.
Jordão, Ricardo Spacagna; Ribeiro, Cláudia Pestana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Okuda, Líria Hiromi; Del Fava, Cláudia; Stefano, Eliana de; Filho, Moacir Marchiori; Mehnert, Dolores Ursula
Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is widespread in cattle in Brazil and research shows its large antigenic variability. Available vaccines are produced with virus strains isolated in other countries and may not be effective. In this study, inactivated vaccines containing the Brazilian BVDV-Ib IBSP11 isolate were developed and tested on 6 groups of 10 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Animals in groups A and C received an aqueous vaccine (aluminum hydroxide); B and D groups received an oily vaccine (Montanide ISA50); Group E positive-control animals were given an imported commercial vaccine with BVDV-Ia Singer; Group F animals were sham vaccinated (negative control). Groups A, B and E received two doses, and Groups C and D, three, every 21 days. Twelve blood samples were taken, at 21-day intervals over 231 days, and evaluated for antibody titer through virus-neutralization (VN), using a homologous strain (IBSP11), and a heterologous strain (BVDV-Ia NADL). Most animals, 42 days following the first dose, seroconverted to both strains and, after the second dose, there was a significant increase of titers in all groups. The oily formulation induced greater response after the third administration. This increase was not observed with the aqueous vaccines, regardless of the virus used in the VN. Antibody decline was more rapid in animals that received aqueous vaccines. The results showed the importance of studying the influence of endemic strains of commercial vaccines, to improve the efficacy of BVD vaccination. Use of the endemic strain in vaccine formulation presented promising results, as well as the use of guinea pigs as a laboratory model.
da Silva Cardoso Pinto, V; Alves, M F; de Souza Nunes Martins, M; Basso, A C; Tannura, J H; Pontes, J H F; Lima, M Santos; Garcia da Silva, T; Okuda, L H; Stefano, E; Romaldini, A H C N; Arnold, D R; Pituco, E M
As production of in vitro (IVP) bovine embryos steadily increases, the sanitary risk associated with IVP embryos remains a concern. One of the greatest concerns is how BVDV may be transmitted through IVP embryos. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects caused by BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and Hobi-like virus exposure during in vitro maturation on embryo development and viral infection. Abittior-derived oocytes were randomly assigned for in vitro maturation with serial concentrations of BVDV-1 (3.12 × 10(2) - 2.50 × 10(3) TCID50/100 μL), BVDV-2 (6.25 × 10(1) - 5.20 × 10(2) TCID50/100 μL) or Hobi-like virus (1.90 × 10(2) - 1.58 × 10(3) TCID50/100 μL) for 22-24 h. After maturation, oocytes were fertilized and embryo cultured following standard in vitro procedures. Embryo development was evaluated and percentage of respective, positive BVDV degenerated and viable embryos were evaluated by RT-qPCR. No concentration of BVDV-1 altered embryo development as measured by cleavage and blastocyst rates, compared to negative control group. However 100% of degenerated embryos and 50-100% of viable embryos tested positive for BVDV-1, depending on the viral concentration. BVDV-2 exposed oocytes had higher cleavage rates than the negative control group (60.2-64.1% vs 49.8%; P = 0.003-0.032). However, no difference was detected for blastocyst rates. In aadition, 100% of degenerated embryos and 20-50% of viable embryos tested positive for BVDV-2. Hobi-like virus treated oocytes had reduced cleavage rates for the three highest viral concentrations (33.3-38.0% vs 49.8% for negative controls; P ≤ 0.001-0.014). Blastocyst rates were only reduced in the 7.9 × 10(2) Hobi-like virus concentration (6.9 ± 0.9% vs 15.1 ± 1.6%; P = 0.009), when calculated by oocyte number. 50-80% of degenerated embryos tested positive for Hobi-like virus. No viable embryos from the Hobi-like virus treated oocytes tested positive. These results suggest that IVP
Bovine trophectoderm (TE) cells were induced [induced bovine trophectoderm-like (iBT)] from bovine fetal liver-derived fibroblasts, and other bovine fetal fibroblasts, after viral-vector transduction with either four or six reprogramming factors (RF), including POU5F1, KLF4, SOX2, C-MYC, SV40 large ...
Background In the frame of an eradication program for bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in Swiss livestock, the question was raised whether free-ranging wildlife could threaten the success of this sanitary measure. Therefore, we conducted serological and virological investigations on BVD virus (BVDV) infections in the four indigenous wild ruminant species (roe deer, red deer, Alpine chamois and Alpine ibex) from 2009 to 2011, and gathered information on interactions between wild and domestic ruminants in an alpine environment by questionnaire survey. Results Thirty-two sera out of 1’877 (1.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.4) were seropositive for BVDV, and a BVDV1 sub genotype h virus was found in a seropositive chamois (0.05%, 95% CI 0.001-0.3). The seropositive animals originated from sub-alpine or alpine regions and significantly more seropositive red deer, chamois and ibex than roe deer were found. There were no statistically significant differences between sampling units, age classes, genders, and sampling years. The obtained prevalences were significantly lower than those documented in livestock, and most positive wild ruminants were found in proximity of domestic outbreaks. Additionally, BVDV seroprevalence in ibex was significantly lower than previously reported from Switzerland. The survey on interspecific interactions revealed that interactions expected to allow BVDV transmission, from physical contacts to non-simultaneous use of the same areas, regularly occur on pastures among all investigated ruminant species. Interactions involving cervids were more often observed with cattle than with small ruminants, chamois were observed with all three domestic species, and ibex interacted mostly with small ruminants. Interactions related to the use of anthropogenic food sources were frequently observed, especially between red deer and cattle in wintertime. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of BVDV RNA isolated from an Alpine chamois
Raizman, E A; Pogranichniy, R; Lévy, M; Negron, M; Langohr, I; Van Alstine, W
The objective of the current study was to elucidate the within-host dynamics of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type-1 infection to better understand how this virus could be maintained in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, WTD) populations. The BVDV type-1 used in this study was originally isolated from a free-ranging WTD in Indiana. Four fawns were intranasally inoculated with 2 ml BVDV type-1 strain 544 WTD at a 10(6) tissue culture infectious dose (TCID(50))/ml. Two fawns were inoculated with sham inoculum (negative controls). Animals were bled on days -7, 0, 1, 7, and 14 postinoculation (PID) for a complete blood count, chemistry panel, buffy coat (BC), real-time RT-PCR, and virus neutralization (VN). On days 7 and 14 PID, nasal and rectal swabs were obtained for RT-PCR and two of the virus-inoculated fawns and one of the negative controls fawns were euthanized. At necropsy, multiple samples were obtained for histopathology and in situ hybridization (ISH). Quantitative RT-PCR was performed on serum, BC, nasal, and rectal swabs. All animals tested negative for BVDV type 1 neutralizing antibodies on day 0 and animals in the control group remained seronegative throughout the study. No gross lesions were observed at necropsy. BVDV was isolated from lung and pooled lymph nodes from all BVDV-inoculated fawns on days 7 and 14 PID. Infected deer had lymphoid depletion, apoptosis, and lymphoid necrosis in the Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. BVDV was detected in lymphoid tissues of infected animals by ISH. No lesions or virus were identified in control fawns. On day 7 PID, samples from two virus-inoculated fawns were positive for BVDV by virus isolation and RT-PCR from BC and nasal swab samples. One fawn was also positive on a rectal swab. Nasal and rectal swabs from all animals were negative on day 14. Results indicate that infection of WTD with BVDV is possible, and leads to histologic lesions in variety of tissues. In addition, virus shedding
Grant, Dawn M.; Dagleish, Mark P.; Bachofen, Claudia; Boag, Brian; Deane, David; Percival, Ann; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Russell, George C.
Eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is ongoing in many European countries and is based on removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle. In this context, low-level risks, including alternative reservoirs of infection, may become more important as the number of BVDV-free herds increases. Alternative reservoirs include livestock, such as sheep and goats, as well as wildlife, including deer and rabbits. Due to the extensive nature of the beef industry in Scotland, where an eradication program started in 2010, contact between cattle and alternative reservoir hosts is common. Seroprevalence to BVDV in rabbit populations can be high. In addition, rabbits can be infected with BVDV by natural routes, indicating that they could be a wildlife reservoir of infection. We analyzed the potential risk to livestock from rabbit populations in the UK by two approaches. First, ∼260 serum samples from free-ranging wild rabbits in Scotland and northern England were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies by ELISA. Only three samples exhibited low level BVDV-specific reactivity, suggesting that BVDV infection of rabbits was not frequent. Second, rabbits were challenged with BVDV at day 7 or 12 of pregnancy. This did not lead to any clinical signs in the infected animals or obvious increases in abortion or stillbirth in the infected dams. Samples from the dams, placental material and ∼130 offspring were tested by BVDV-specific RT-PCR and antibody ELISA. Positive PCR results in the placentas and in the tissues and body fluids of rabbits up to 10 days old showed that trans-placental infection of rabbits with BVDV had occurred. Many of the offspring had BVDV-specific antibodies. These data support the view that a wildlife reservoir of BVDV in rabbit poses a small but non-zero risk of re-infection for BVDV-free cattle herds. Rabbits are susceptible to infection with BVDV but only a small proportion of free-living rabbits in the UK appear to have been infected. PMID:26441927
Packianathan, R; Clough, W J; Hodge, A; Holz, D K; Huang, J; Bryant, G L; Colantoni, C
To evaluate a vaccine containing type 1c bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus for prevention of fetal infection in pregnant heifers when challenged with New Zealand BVD virus type 1a 6 months after vaccination, compared to unvaccinated heifers and heifers vaccinated with a vaccine containing type 1a BVD virus. Fifty five crossbred Friesian heifers, free from BVD virus and antibody, were randomly allocated to three groups. Twenty five heifers were vaccinated twice with a vaccine containing type 1c BVD virus (T1c group), and 10 heifers with a vaccine containing type 1a BVD virus (T1a group), and 20 heifers were unvaccinated (NC group). After oestrus synchronisation the heifers were bred by artificial insemination followed by natural bull mating. Six months after booster vaccination 15 heifers from the T1c group, eight from the T1a group, and 15 from the NC group, were exposed to four calves that were persistently infected with type 1a BVD virus, for 4 weeks. At the beginning of the challenge phase 36/38 heifers were 72-74 days pregnant and 2/38 heifers were approximately 53 days pregnant. Approximately 52 days after the start of the challenge the heifers were subjected to euthanasia and fetal tissues were collected for the detection of BVD virus by ELISA in fetal heart blood and PCR in fetal tissues. Based on PCR results, BVD virus was detected in 15/15 fetuses in the NC group, compared to 4/14 fetuses in the T1c group and 3/8 fetuses in the T1a group. The proportion of BVD virus-positive fetuses was lower in both vaccinated groups compared to the NC group (p<0.002), but there was no difference in proportions between the vaccinated groups (p=1.00). Fetal protection, expressed as the prevented fraction, was 71.4 (95% CI=41.9-91.6)% and 62.5 (95% CI=24.5-91.5)% for the T1c and T1a groups, respectively. The vaccines containing killed type 1c and type 1a BVD viruses significantly reduced fetal infection following challenge with a New Zealand type 1a BVD virus. Prevention
Mody, Karishma T; Mahony, Donna; Zhang, Jun; Cavallaro, Antonino S; Zhang, Bing; Popat, Amirali; Mahony, Timothy J; Yu, Chengzhong; Mitter, Neena
Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) is widely distributed in cattle industries and causes significant economic losses worldwide annually. A limiting factor in the development of subunit vaccines for BVDV is the need to elicit both antibody and T-cell-mediated immunity as well as addressing the toxicity of adjuvants. In this study, we have prepared novel silica vesicles (SV) as the new generation antigen carriers and adjuvants. With small particle size of 50 nm, thin wall (~6 nm), large cavity (~40 nm) and large entrance size (5.9 nm for SV-100 and 16 nm for SV-140), the SV showed high loading capacity (∼ 250 μg/mg) and controlled release of codon-optimised E2 (oE2) protein, a major immunogenic determinant of BVDV. The in vivo functionality of the system was validated in mice immunisation trials comparing oE2 plus Quil A (50 μg of oE2 plus 10 μg of Quil A, a conventional adjuvant) to the oE2/SV-140 (50 μg of oE2 adsorbed to 250 μg of SV-140) or oE2/SV-140 together with 10 μg of Quil A. Compared to the oE2 plus Quil A, which generated BVDV specific antibody responses at a titre of 10(4), the oE2/SV-140 group induced a 10 times higher antibody response. In addition, the cell-mediated response, which is essential to recognise and eliminate the invading pathogens, was also found to be higher [1954-2628 spot forming units (SFU)/million cells] in mice immunised with oE2/SV-140 in comparison to oE2 plus Quil A (512-1369 SFU/million cells). Our study has demonstrated that SV can be used as the next-generation nanocarriers and adjuvants for enhanced veterinary vaccine delivery.
Fernandes, Leise Gomes; Nogueira, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos; De Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Ribeiro, Cláudia Pestana; Alves, Clebert José; Oliveira, Tainara Sombra; Clementino, Inácio José; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos
Serological surveys based on a planned sampling on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in Brazilian cattle herds are scarce. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine herd- and animal-level seroprevalences and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level seroprevalence for BVDV infection in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, from September 2012 to January 2013. The state was divided into three sampling strata, and for each stratum, the prevalence of herds infected with BVDV and the prevalence of seropositive animals was estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In total, 2443 animals were sampled from 478 herds. A virus-neutralization test was used for BVDV antibody detection. A herd was considered positive when at least one seropositive animal was detected. The herd- and animal-level prevalences in the State of Paraíba were 65.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.1-69.7%) and 39.1% (95% CI = 33.1-45.6%), respectively. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 10 to 100% (median of 50%). The risk factors identified were as follows: more than six calves aged ≤12 months (odds ratio (OR) = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.08-6.66), animal purchasing (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.08-2.55), pasture rental (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.35-3.55), and presence of veterinary assistance (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.10-3.79). Our findings suggest that the implementation of control and prevention measures among farmers, with the aim of preventing dissemination of the agent in the herds, is necessary. Special attention should be given to addressing the identified risk factors, such as sanitary control prior to animal purchasing and to discourage the pasture rental, as well as to encourage the vaccination in the herds.
Graham, D A; Clegg, T A; Lynch, M; More, S J
A risk factor study was conducted to identify variables associated with initial positive or inconclusive results for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in ear punch samples collected from calves between 1st January and 15th July 2012 (the study period) as part of the voluntary phase of the Irish national BVD eradication programme based on testing of ear tag tissue samples from calves born in participating herds. Univariable analysis indicated significant associations with the following factors: herd type; the number of cows in the herd; the number of calves born in the study period; the number of calves tested in the study period; the number of cattle purchased in 2011, between 2009 and 2011 and between 2007 and 2011; the number of tested calves whose dams had been purchased within 9 months of their calving date; and the percentage of calf mortality within 28 days of birth. The percentage of the cows in each herd that was homebred, location (province) the number of separate land parcels used by each herd, the presence of an associated sheep enterprise and the purchase of cattle through marts were not found to be significant. An initial logistic regression model was developed to model the probability of a herd having one or more BVD virus-positive or inconclusive calves. When vaccination status was initially excluded, province, log of the numbers of cows in the herd, the number of cows purchased between 2009 and 2011, the number of tested calves whose dams had been purchased within 9 months of their calving date and calf mortality were significant. When vaccination status was included, using a subset of the data based on farmers responding to a survey on vaccination status, it was retained as a significant variable along with the same variables already listed, showing a significant 2-way interaction with the log of the number of cows. There was not a significant association between an initial positive or inconclusive result and the length of time for which herds
Giangaspero, M; Harasawa, R
Pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) strains from 61 isolates from cattle and sheep, and from some adventitious contaminants of biologicals, have been assessed using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS) method at three variable loci (V1, V2 and V3) located delin the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of genomic RNA. This genotyping procedure is new, simple and practical. Two characteristics of the base pairings common to BVDV-2 species, a C-G or U-A pairing at the V1 locus, and a G*U pairing at the V2 locus, were observed in isolates tested. The PNS method showed six genotypes: BVDV-2a, BVDV-2b, BVDV-2c, BVDV- 2d, BVDV-2e and BVDV-2f. Twenty-five strains showed the BVDV-2a genotype specific combination of three base pairings (A-U in position 1 and C-G or U*G in position 18 in V1 and U-A or U*G in position 4 in V2). Ten strains were identified by a single C-G pairing in position 4 from the bottom of the V2 stem region, characteristic to genotype BVDV-2b. Three strains were assigned to genotype BVDV-2c, due to their recognition by a G*U pairing at the bottom of the V1 stem region. A U-A pairing, characteristic of the BVDV-2d genotype when found in position 18 of the V1 stem region, was observed in fourteen strains. Genotype BVDV- 2e, present in only six South American cattle isolates, was characterized by G-C pairing in position 12, by U-A pairing in position 16 and G_G or G-_A bulges in position 18 in the V1 region. One strain from Argentina was classified as genotype BVDV-2f, showing: A-U pairing in position 9 and 12, U-A in position 16 and G_A bulge in position 18 in V1 region. Two strains were not characterized due to incomplete sequence of V1 locus.
Crandell, R A; Mansfield, M E; Melloh, A J
Calves were inoculated with a bovine para-influenza-3 variant to determine its pathogenicity and the stability of its cytopathic feature and its inability to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes. The inoculated calves and one contact animal developed an immune response without significant clinical illness. The clinical response in calves was similar to that induced by the parent virus strain. The variant was shown to retain its characteristic cytopathic effect for Madin Darby bovine kidney cells and its property of hemagglutination following one passage in the natural host. PMID:163127
The inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) are involved in immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway restores anti-virus immune responses, with concomitant reduction in viral load. In a previous report, we showed that, in bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, the expression of bovine PD-1 is closely associated with disease progression. However, the functions of bovine PD-L1 are still unknown. To investigate the role of PD-L1 in BLV infection, we identified the bovine PD-L1 gene, and examined PD-L1 expression in BLV-infected cattle in comparison with uninfected cattle. The deduced amino acid sequence of bovine PD-L1 shows high homology to the human and mouse PD-L1. The proportion of PD-L1 positive cells, especially among B cells, was upregulated in cattle with the late stage of the disease compared to cattle at the aleukemic infection stage or uninfected cattle. The proportion of PD-L1 positive cells correlated positively with prediction markers for the progression of the disease such as leukocyte number, virus load and virus titer whilst on the contrary, it inversely correlated with the degree of interferon-gamma expression. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in vitro by PD-L1-specific antibody upregulated the production of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma, and correspondingly, downregulated the BLV provirus load and the proportion of BLV-gp51 expressing cells. These data suggest that PD-L1 induces immunoinhibition in disease progressed cattle during chronic BLV infection. Therefore, PD-L1 would be a potential target for developing immunotherapies against BLV infection. PMID:21943148
Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Konnai, Satoru; Shirai, Tatsuya; Sunden, Yuji; Murata, Shiro; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko
The inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) are involved in immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway restores anti-virus immune responses, with concomitant reduction in viral load. In a previous report, we showed that, in bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, the expression of bovine PD-1 is closely associated with disease progression. However, the functions of bovine PD-L1 are still unknown. To investigate the role of PD-L1 in BLV infection, we identified the bovine PD-L1 gene, and examined PD-L1 expression in BLV-infected cattle in comparison with uninfected cattle. The deduced amino acid sequence of bovine PD-L1 shows high homology to the human and mouse PD-L1. The proportion of PD-L1 positive cells, especially among B cells, was upregulated in cattle with the late stage of the disease compared to cattle at the aleukemic infection stage or uninfected cattle. The proportion of PD-L1 positive cells correlated positively with prediction markers for the progression of the disease such as leukocyte number, virus load and virus titer whilst on the contrary, it inversely correlated with the degree of interferon-gamma expression. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in vitro by PD-L1-specific antibody upregulated the production of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma, and correspondingly, downregulated the BLV provirus load and the proportion of BLV-gp51 expressing cells. These data suggest that PD-L1 induces immunoinhibition in disease progressed cattle during chronic BLV infection. Therefore, PD-L1 would be a potential target for developing immunotherapies against BLV infection.
Juliano, C; Monaco, G; Bandiera, P; Tedde, G; Cappuccinelli, P
The cytopathic effects of Trichomonas vaginalis treated with inhibitory concentrations of anticytoskeletal compounds (mebendazole, griseofulvin, colchicine, taxol, and cytochalasin B) were studied in mouse CLID fibroblast cultures. The evaluation, at different times, of cell numbers and morphological alterations showed that cytopathic effect was considerably reduced when protozoa were pretreated with mebendazole and griseofulvin, whereas colchicine, taxol, and cytochalasin B had less effect. Furthermore, treatment with mebendazole, griseofulvin, and colchicine decreased adhesiveness of the protozoan, whereas treatment with cytochalasin B and colchicine completely inhibited its phagocytic activity. From these results it may be concluded that alterations induced in the trichomonal cytoskeleton may affect its adhesiveness and its in vitro cytopathic effect, but there is no direct correlation between protozoan phagocytosis and its in vitro pathogenic effect. Images PMID:2888725
Accumulating evidence implicates Zika virus (ZIKV) in pathogenesis of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. However, it remains unclear which viral proteins are responsible for these effects and what are the underlying mechanisms of their pathogenic activity. A recent paper by Drs. Zhao and Gallo, and their colleagues at University of Maryland in Baltimore used fission yeast for genome-wide analysis of ZIKV proteins. They demonstrated cytopathogenic activity for seven ZIKV proteins, anaC, C, prM, M, E, NS2B and NS4A. This activity was shown to be dependent on oxidative stress, and for NS4A they demonstrated involvement of the TOR stress-response pathway. Taken together, the findings presented in this paper provide the basis for further mechanistic studies that potentially can identify therapeutic means to treat neuro and immune complications of ZIKV infection.
Cheng, Ming Soon; Lau, Suk Hiang; Chan, Kwai Peng; Toh, Chee-Seng; Chow, Vincent T
We describe an impedimetric cell-based biosensor constructed from poly-l-lysine (PLL)-modified screen-printed carbon electrode for real-time monitoring of dengue virus (DENV) infection of surface-immobilized baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) fibroblast cells. Cytopathic effects (CPE) induced by DENV-2 New Guinea C strain (including degenerative morphological changes, detachment, membrane degradation and death of host cells), were reflected by drastic decrease in impedance signal response detected as early as ~30 hours post-infection (hpi). In contrast, distinct CPE by conventional microscopy was evident only at ~72 hpi at the corresponding multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10. A parameter that describes the kinetics of cytopathogenesis, CIT50, which refers to the time taken for 50% reduction in impedance signal response, revealed an inverse linear relationship with virus titer and MOI. CIT50 values were also delayed by 31.5h for each order of magnitude decrease in MOI. Therefore, based on the analysis of CIT50, the virus titer of a given sample can be determined from the measured impedance signal response. Furthermore, consistent impedance results were also obtained with clinical isolates of the four DENV serotypes verified by RT-PCR and cycle sequencing. This impedimetric cell-based biosensor represents a label-free and continuous approach for the dynamic measurement of cellular responses toward DENV infection, and for detecting the presence of infectious viral particles.
Sato, Ko; Watanabe, Oshi; Ohmiya, Suguru; Chiba, Fumiko; Suzuki, Akira; Okamoto, Michiko; Younghuang, Jiang; Hata, Akihiro; Nonaka, Hiroyuki; Kitaoka, Setsuko; Nagai, Yukio; Kawamura, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Masahiro; Kumaki, Satoru; Suzuki, Tamio; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi; Nishimura, Hidekazu
Isolation of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) from clinical specimens is currently inefficient due to the lack of a cell culture system exhibiting a distinct cytopathic effect (CPE). The cell lines LLC-MK2, Vero, and Vero E6 are used for isolation of HMPV; however, the CPE in these cell lines is subtle and usually requires a long observation period and sometimes blind passages. Thus, a cell line that exhibits an early and distinct CPE following HMPV inoculation is highly desired by clinical virology laboratories. We demonstrate that the human malignant melanoma cell line MNT-1 shows obvious syncytium formation shortly after inoculation with HMPV-positive clinical specimens. In addition, the growth and isolation efficiency of HMPV was higher using MNT-1 than any other conventional cell line. Addition of this cell line to our routine viral isolation system for clinical specimens markedly enhanced isolation frequency, allowing isolation-based surveillance. MNT-1 has the potential to facilitate clinical and epidemiological studies of HMPV. © 2017 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Ficken, Martin D; Ellsworth, Michael A; Tucker, Cassius M
This study demonstrated that the modified-live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 and 2 fractions of a multivalent vaccine protected pregnant heifers and their fetuses against virulent BVDV types 1 and 2 challenge exposures at 370 days after vaccination. All BVDV vaccinated heifers inoculated with either BVDV type 1 or 2 at approximately 62 to 94 days of gestation delivered fetuses or calves that were negative for BVDV by ear-notch immunohistochemistry and virus isolation and serum neutralization on a prenursing serum sample. In comparison, eight of nine and 10 of 10 fetuses or calves from non-BVDV-vaccinated heifers were considered persistently infected following exposure to BVDV type 1 and type 2, respectively.
Hanon, J-B; Van der Stede, Y; Antonissen, A; Mullender, C; Tignon, M; van den Berg, T; Caij, B
Control of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in Belgium is currently implemented on a voluntary basis at herd level and mainly relies on detection and culling of persistently infected (PI) animals. The present field study was conducted during the winter of 2010/2011 to assess the performances of diagnostic assays used in the testing scheme for BVD as proposed by the two Belgian regional laboratories. Individual blood samples were collected from 4972 animals, and individual samples from the same herd were pooled (maximum of 30 individual samples per pool) and screened for the presence of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV)-specific RNA using a commercial real-time RT-PCR test (ADIAGENE). Individual samples from positive pools were then tested in parallel with the same RT-PCR test and with an antigen-capture ELISA test (IDEXX) to detect viremic animals. This study demonstrated that individual results differed according to the type of assay used (P < 0.001): 140 animals (2.8%) were positive by RT-PCR and 72 (1.4%) by antigen-ELISA. A second blood sample was taken 40 days later from 74 PCR positive animals to detect persistent viremia: 17 (23%) of these were still PCR positive and considered to be PI and the 57 that no longer tested positive were assumed to be transiently infected (TI) animals. All PI animals were positive also by antigen-ELISA at both time points. Among TI animals, 10 (16%) were positive by antigen-ELISA at the first but none at the second sampling. A highly significant difference in cycle threshold (Ct ) values obtained by RT-PCR was observed between PI and TI animals. ROC analysis was performed to establish thresholds to confirm with high probability that an animal is PI, based on the result of RT-PCR test performed on a single individual blood sample.
Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus in commercial dairy and beef cattle in eastern, northern and northeastern China.
Sun, Wu-Wen; Meng, Qing-Feng; Cong, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong
Although the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle have been reported in some areas in China, most of them were conducted with small number of cattle samples and very limited districts and neglected the assessment of herd management factors associated with herd-level prevalence of these pathogen infections. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the animal-level and herd-level seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with these pathogen infections in 4487 cattle from 134 herds in five provinces (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. At animal level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was 10.48, 17.14, 11.92 and 50.10%, respectively. At herd level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV was 27.16, 29.10, 37.31 and 40.30%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of these characteristics showed that source of water and presence of felids were significantly associated with T. gondii infection in the studied cattle herds. Source of water was significantly associated with N. caninum infection in the studied cattle herds. While herd size and management system were significantly associated with BVDV infection in the studied cattle herds, this is the first report of herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors of T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV infection in cattle in China.
Ou, Tong; Lei, Xiao-Ying; He, Li-Bo; Zhou, Feng-Jian; Zhang, Qi-Ya
An Ussuri catfish Pseudobagrus ussuriensis skin (UCS) cell line was developed and subcultured for more than 60 passages. UCS cells consisted of mostly epithelial-like cells and multiplied well in TC199 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 25°C. Chromosome analysis revealed that most UCS cells had a normal diploid karyotype with 2n=52. UCS cells showed differential cytopathic effects (CPEs) after inoculation of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV, a negative-strand RNA virus), grass carp reovirus (GCRV, a multi-segmented double-stranded RNA virus) and Rana grylio virus (RGV, a large double-stranded DNA virus), and were indicative of high sensitivities to these three aquatic animal viruses by a virus titration study. The CPE caused by SVCV appeared as rounded and granular cells, grape-like clusters and small lytic plaques. Characteristic CPE containing plaque-like syncytia was induced by GCRV. RGV-infected cells produced typical CPE characterized by cells shrinkage and aggregation, formation of clear plaques and cell sheet detachment. Furthermore, significant fluorescent signals were observed after UCS cells were transfected with green fluorescent protein reporter plasmids, and the development of CPE induced by a recombinant RGV, ΔTK-RGV, in UCS cells was illustrated using a combination of light and fluorescence microscopy. The data from this study suggested that UCS cell line can potentially serve as a useful tool for the comparison study of different aquatic animal viruses and the isolation of some newly emerging viruses in Ussuri catfish farming.
Dillon, Patrick J; Wansley, Elizabeth K; Young, Virginia A; Alexander-Miller, Martha A; Parks, Griffith D
The paramyxovirus Simian virus 5 (SV5) is largely non-cytopathic in human epithelial and fibroblast cells. WF-PIV has been described previously as a naturally occurring SV5 variant that encodes P and V proteins differing from the wild-type (WT) SV5 proteins in eight and five amino acid positions, respectively. In this study, it is shown that WF-PIV is like WT SV5 by being largely non-cytopathic in A549 lung epithelial cells. However, substitution of the WF-PIV P/V gene into the background of WT SV5 resulted in a hybrid virus (P/V-WF) that induced apoptotic cell death not seen with either of the parental viruses. The kinetics of HeLa cell killing and induction of apoptosis by the P/V-WF chimera differed from those of the previously described P/V-CPI- chimera by being slower and less extensive. HeLa cell killing by the P/V-WF chimera was effectively reduced by inhibitors of caspase-9, but not of caspase-8. These results demonstrate that an exchange of P/V genes from two non-cytopathic SV5 variants can produce apoptosis-inducing chimeras, and that the role of the SV5 P/V gene products in limiting apoptosis can be dependent on expression in the context of a native viral genome.
Eaton, Monroe D.; Farnham, Ann E.; Levinthal, Jeana D.; Scala, Anthony R.
Eaton, Monroe D. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.), Ann E. Farnham, Jeana D. Levinthal, and Anthony R. Scala. Cytopathic effect of the atypical pneumonia organism in cultures of human tissue. J. Bacteriol. 84:1330–1337. 1962.—Three strains of the atypical pneumonia agent were adapted to grow in continuous cell cultures of human amnion or human embryonic lung, with production of initial increased acidity followed by destruction of the cells. Evidence is presented that cytopathic effects of the organism were associated with intracellular growth and formation of microcolonies. Clumps of organisms stained specifically with fluorescein-labeled antibody, and showed distinctive tinctorial reactions with the May Grünwald-Giemsa stain. The cytopathic effect was prevented by fresh serum from a rabbit immunized with an egg-passage strain of the atypical pneumonia agent. Heating the immune serum to 56 C for 30 min abolished the neutralizing effect. The significance of heat-labile serum constituents in killing or inhibition of mycoplasma is discussed. Images PMID:16561984
Analysis of a pair of END+ and END- viruses derived from the same bovine viral diarrhea virus stock reveals the amino acid determinants in Npro responsible for inhibition of type I interferon production.
Kozasa, Takashi; Abe, Yuri; Mitsuhashi, Kazuya; Tamura, Tomokazu; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ishimaru, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Shigeyuki; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro
The Exaltation of Newcastle disease virus (END) phenomenon is induced by the inhibition of type I interferon in pestivirus-infected cells in vitro, via proteasomal degradation of cellular interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 with the property of the viral autoprotease protein N(pro). Reportedly, the amino acid residues in the zinc-binding TRASH motif of N(pro) determine the difference in characteristics between END-phenomenon-positive (END(+)) and END-phenomenon-negative (END(-)) classical swine fever viruses (CSFVs). However, the basic mechanism underlying this function in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has not been elucidated from the genomic differences between END(+) and END(-) viruses using reverse genetics till date. In the present study, comparison of complete genome sequences of a pair of END(+) and END(-) viruses isolated from the same virus stock revealed that there were only four amino acid substitutions (D136G, I2623V, D3148G and D3502Y) between two viruses. Based on these differences, viruses with and without mutations at these positions were generated using reverse genetics. The END assay, measurements of induced type I interferon and IRF-3 detection in cells infected with these viruses revealed that the aspartic acid at position 136 in the zinc-binding TRASH motif of N(pro) was required to inhibit the production of type I interferon via the degradation of cellular IRF-3, consistently with CSFV.
Analysis of a pair of END+ and END− viruses derived from the same bovine viral diarrhea virus stock reveals the amino acid determinants in Npro responsible for inhibition of type I interferon production
KOZASA, Takashi; ABE, Yuri; MITSUHASHI, Kazuya; TAMURA, Tomokazu; AOKI, Hiroshi; ISHIMARU, Masatoshi; NAKAMURA, Shigeyuki; OKAMATSU, Masatoshi; KIDA, Hiroshi; SAKODA, Yoshihiro
The Exaltation of Newcastle disease virus (END) phenomenon is induced by the inhibition of type I interferon in pestivirus-infected cells in vitro, via proteasomal degradation of cellular interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 with the property of the viral autoprotease protein Npro. Reportedly, the amino acid residues in the zinc-binding TRASH motif of Npro determine the difference in characteristics between END-phenomenon-positive (END+) and END-phenomenon-negative (END−) classical swine fever viruses (CSFVs). However, the basic mechanism underlying this function in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has not been elucidated from the genomic differences between END+ and END− viruses using reverse genetics till date. In the present study, comparison of complete genome sequences of a pair of END+ and END− viruses isolated from the same virus stock revealed that there were only four amino acid substitutions (D136G, I2623V, D3148G and D3502Y) between two viruses. Based on these differences, viruses with and without mutations at these positions were generated using reverse genetics. The END assay, measurements of induced type I interferon and IRF-3 detection in cells infected with these viruses revealed that the aspartic acid at position 136 in the zinc-binding TRASH motif of Npro was required to inhibit the production of type I interferon via the degradation of cellular IRF-3, consistently with CSFV. PMID:25648277
Comparison of single vaccination versus revaccination with a modified-live virus vaccine containing bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus (types 1a and 2a), parainfluenza type 3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the prevention of bovine respiratory disease in cattle.
Step, Douglas L; Krehbiel, Clinton R; Burciaga-Robles, Luis O; Holland, Ben P; Fulton, Robert W; Confer, Anthony W; Bechtol, David T; Brister, David L; Hutcheson, John P; Newcomb, Harold L
Objective-To compare effects of administration of a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine once with administration of the same vaccine twice on the health and performance of cattle. Design-Randomized, controlled trial. Animals-612 mixed-breed male cattle with unknown health histories. Procedures-Cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (single vaccination treatment group [SVAC group] vs revaccination treatment group [REVAC group]) during the preconditioning phase of production. All cattle were given a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine. Eleven days later, REVAC group cattle received a second injection of the same vaccine. During the finishing phase of production, cattle from each treatment group were either vaccinated a third time with the modified-live respiratory virus vaccine or given no vaccine. Health observations were performed daily. Blood and performance variables were measured throughout the experiment. Results-During preconditioning, no significant differences were observed in performance or antibody production between groups. Morbidity rate from bovine respiratory disease was lower for SVAC group cattle; however, days to first treatment for bovine respiratory disease were not different between groups. No significant differences in body weights, daily gains, or dry-matter intake between groups were observed during the finishing phase. Revaccination treatment group cattle had improved feed efficiency regardless of vaccination protocol in the finishing phase. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Vaccination once with a modified-live respiratory virus vaccine was as efficacious as vaccination twice in the prevention of bovine respiratory disease of high-risk cattle, although feed efficiency was improved in REVAC group cattle during the finishing period.
Analysis of mRNA expression for genes associated with regulatory T lymphocytes (CD25, FoxP3, CTLA4, and IDO) after experimental infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus of low or high virulence in beef calves.
Palomares, Roberto A; Hurley, David J; Woolums, Amelia R; Parrish, Jacqueline E; Brock, Kenny V
Immunosuppression caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been associated with lymphocyte depletion, leukopenia and impairment of leukocyte function; however, no work has been done on the relationship between BVDV and regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs). The objective of this study was to compare the mRNA expression of genes associated with Tregs (CD25, FoxP3, CTLA4, and IDO), after experimental infection of beef calves with low (LV) or high (HV) virulence BVDV. Thirty BVDV-naïve calves were randomly assigned to three groups. Calves were intra-nasally inoculated with LV (n=10, strain SD-1) or HV (n=10, strain 1373) BVDV or BVDV-free cell culture medium (control, n=10). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the expression of target genes in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes and spleen on day 5 post-infection. The mRNA expression of CD25 was up-regulated in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes of LV (P<0.05), but not in HV compared to the control group. The expression of FoxP3 and CTLA4 was not increased in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes of either of the BVDV-inoculated groups. A dramatic up-regulation of IDO mRNA was observed in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes of LV (P<0.05), but not HV compared to the control calves. In conclusion, experimental infection with BVDV did not provide evidence of Treg activation based on expression of FoxP3 and CTL4. Differential expression of CD25 and IDO mRNA on day 5 post-infection with HV or LV BVDV might reflect temporal differences in transcription occurring during the immune response elicited by these viral strains, or differences in viral infectivity of the host cells.
AD_______________ DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF ADENO- HTLV -III HYBRID VIRUS AND NON- (V) CYTOPATHIC HTLV -III MUTANT FOR VACCINE USE Lf In Annual...Development and Evaluation of Adeno- HTLV -III Hybrid Virus and Non-Cytopathic HTLV -III Mutant for Vaccine Use 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Lubet, Martha Turner...HIV virus. Assessment of vaccine efficacy against the virus challenge will include T4/T8 ratios, Interleukin-2 production, HTLV -IJT serology and ability
Sciortino, M T; Perri, D; Medici, M A; Foti, M; Orlandella, B M; Mastino, A
Increasing evidence suggests that regulation of apoptosis in infected cells is associated with several viral infections. The gammaherpesvirus bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) has been shown to harbor genes with antiapoptotic potentialities. However, here we have demonstrated that productive infection of adherent, permissive cell lines by BHV-4 resulted in a cytopathic effect characterized by induction of apoptosis. This phenomenon was confirmed using different techniques to detect apoptosis and using different virus strains and cell targets. Apoptosis induced by BHV-4 was inhibited by (1) treatment with doses of heparin, which completely inhibited virus attachment and infectivity; (2) UV treatment, which completely abrogated infectivity; and (3) treatment with a dose of phosphonoacetic acid, which blocked virus replication. Virus-induced apoptosis was associated with a down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and was reduced by Z-VAD-FMK, but not by Z-DEVD-FMK (caspase-3-specific) caspase inhibitors. Inhibition of apoptosis by Z-VAD-FMK treatment during infection did not modify virus yield. Therefore, despite the presence of antiapoptotic genes in its genoma, BHV-4 could complete its cycle of productive infection while inducing apoptosis of infected cells. This finding might have implications for the pathobiology of BHV-4 and other gammaherpesviruses in vivo. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Yan, Lifang; Pace, Lanny W; Baughman, Brittany; Wilson, Floyd D; Zhang, Shuping; Zhang, Michael Z
Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is associated with mild or subclinical infections, whereas BVDV-2 is frequently implicated in outbreaks of severe thrombocytopenia and acute fatal disease. In the present study, the carcass of a beef breed cow and tissue samples of a beef calf were received for laboratory diagnosis. Both animals exhibited severe clinical signs compatible with thrombocytopenia or hemorrhagic syndrome. Direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) failed to detect BVDV antigen in the tissue specimens of both cases. However, immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed the presence of BVDV antigen in oral and esophageal mucosa and Peyer patches of the beef breed cow. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) detected BVDV-2 in selected tissues of both animals. Subsequently, BVDV was isolated from both cases and subjected to genetic and serologic characterizations. Mutations in the 5'-untranslated genomic region (5'-UTR) primer and probe binding sites and the E2 gene were associated with reduced efficiency of an established real-time RT-PCR assay and amino acid alterations in the E2 glycoprotein, respectively. Both viral isolates were classified by real-time RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis as BVDV-2 subgenotype a. Unlike BVDV reference strains Singer and 125c, the isolates cross-reacted with anti-BVDV-1 and anti-BVDV-2 reference sera, indicating antigenic variations in field isolates. The isolates also showed reduced reactivity to porcine anti-BVDV antiserum (the raw serum used to produce BVDV DFA conjugate). In summary, data from the present investigation indicated that genetic and antigenic variations affected the performance of detection assays, especially DFAT, highlighting the need for regular evaluation and modification of BVDV tests.
Zhang, Peng; Xue, Qinghong; Ma, Jing; Ren, Jingjing; Xia, Shuili; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Wenbin; Tikoo, Suresh K; Du, Enqi
Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAdV3) is being used in the development of potential vehicles for gene therapy and vectored vaccine. To that end, a more comprehensive description of BAdV3 biology is essential. In this study, we focused on the role of pIX in BAdV3 virion rescue after full-length BAdV3 genome transfection. Initially, pIX deletion or initiation codon mutation abolished the production of progeny virions, which suggested that pIX was essential for the rescue of BAdV3 containing a full-length genome. Moreover, through transfection of a panel of pIX mutant BAdV3 genomes, we observed that the conserved N-terminus and the putative leucine zipper element (PLZP) were essential for virion rescue, whereas the C-terminus following the coiled-coil domain was non-essential. In addition, swap of the PLZP element and its following region of BAdV3 pIX to corresponding domains of human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5) did not affect virion production, whereas swap of the entire pIX abolished production of progeny virions. We suggest that failure of the full-length BAdV3 pIX swap might be due to species specificity of its N-terminus region before the PLZP element.
Zhang, Peng; Xue, Qinghong; Ma, Jing; Ren, Jingjing; Xia, Shuili; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Wenbin
Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAdV3) is being used in the development of potential vehicles for gene therapy and vectored vaccine. To that end, a more comprehensive description of BAdV3 biology is essential. In this study, we focused on the role of pIX in BAdV3 virion rescue after full-length BAdV3 genome transfection. Initially, pIX deletion or initiation codon mutation abolished the production of progeny virions, which suggested that pIX was essential for the rescue of BAdV3 containing a full-length genome. Moreover, through transfection of a panel of pIX mutant BAdV3 genomes, we observed that the conserved N-terminus and the putative leucine zipper element (PLZP) were essential for virion rescue, whereas the C-terminus following the coiled-coil domain was non-essential. In addition, swap of the PLZP element and its following region of BAdV3 pIX to corresponding domains of human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5) did not affect virion production, whereas swap of the entire pIX abolished production of progeny virions. We suggest that failure of the full-length BAdV3 pIX swap might be due to species specificity of its N-terminus region before the PLZP element. PMID:27586461
Mitsuya, H; Broder, S
Human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III)/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) is a a newly discovered lymphotropic retrovirus that is cytopathic for helper/inducer T cells in vitro. This virus is the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and related diseases. In the current study, we tested the capacity of purine and pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives to inhibit the infectivity and cytopathic effect of human T-lymphotropic virus type III in vitro. With the ribose moiety of the molecule in a 2',3'-dideoxy configuration, every purine (adenosine, guanosine, and inosine) and pyrimidine (cytidine and thymidine) nucleoside tested suppressed the virus, although the thymidine derivative seemed to have substantially less activity in our system than the others. In general, we observed essentially complete suppression of the virus at doses that were lower by a factor of 10 to 20 than those needed to inhibit the proliferation of the target T cells and the immune reactivity of normal T cells in vitro. An analysis of five adenosine congeners, which differed only in the sugar moiety, revealed that reduction (an absence of hydroxyl determinants) at both the 2' and 3' carbons of the ribose was necessary for an anti-viral effect, and an additional reduction at the 5' carbon nullified the anti-viral activity. These observations may be of value in developing a new class of experimental drugs for the therapy of human T-lymphotropic virus type III infections. PMID:3006077
Kaneshima, H; Su, L; Bonyhadi, M L; Connor, R I; Ho, D D; McCune, J M
Clinical deterioration in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease is associated with an increased viral burden in the peripheral blood and a loss of circulating CD4+ T cells. HIV-1 isolates obtained prior to this stage of disease often have a "slow-low," non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) phenotype, whereas those obtained afterwards are often characterized as "rapid-high" and syncytium inducing (SI). Paired NSI and SI isolates from two different patients were inoculated into the human thymus implants of SCID-hu mice. The two slow-low, NSI isolates replicated to minimal levels in the grafts and did not induce thymocyte depletion. In contrast, the two SI isolates from the same patients showed high levels of viral replication and induced a marked degree of thymocyte depletion, accompanied by evidence of programmed cell death. These observations reveal a correlation between the replicative and cytopathic patterns of HIV-1 isolates in vitro and in the SCID-hu mouse in vivo and provide direct evidence that the biological phenotype of HIV-1 switch may be a causal and not a derivative correlate of HIV-1 disease progression. PMID:7966610
Abente, Eugenio J.; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Parra, Gabriel I.; Bok, Karin
Open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of the feline calicivirus (FCV) genome encodes a capsid precursor that is posttranslationally processed to release the mature capsid protein (VP1) and a small protein of 124 amino acids, designated the leader of the capsid (LC). To investigate the role of the LC protein in the virus life cycle, mutations and deletions were introduced into the LC coding region of an infectious FCV cDNA clone. Three cysteine residues that are conserved among all vesivirus LC sequences were found to be critical for the recovery of FCV with a characteristic cytopathic effect in feline kidney cells. A cell-rounding phenotype associated with the transient expression of wild-type and mutagenized forms of the LC correlated with the cytopathic and growth properties of the corresponding engineered viruses. The host cellular protein annexin A2 was identified as a binding partner of the LC protein, consistent with a role for the LC in mediating host cell interactions that alter the integrity of the cell and enable virus spread. PMID:23269802
González-Robles, Arturo; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Reyes-Batlle, Maria; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M.; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob
Light and transmission electron microscopy observations are reported on the structure and in vitro cytopathic effect of Acanthamoeba griffini trophozoites isolated from a clinical case. Live trophozoites were moderately active with a remarkable pleomorphism which changed from ovoid to quite elongated shapes. When moving, amoebae formed cytoplasmic projections such as wide lamellae and acanthopodia of diverse size and thickness which contain a significant amount of actin. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasm showed the main organelles found in other free-living amoebae. Coincubation of trophozoites with MDCK cell monolayers resulted in a local damage to target cells after 24 h of interaction, suggesting that the cytopathic effect is contact-dependent. By transmission electron microscopy, amoebae appeared to engulf small portions of the MDCK cells; however, the cells that were not in contact with trophozoites had an unaltered morphology. When epithelial monolayers were incubated with conditioned medium for 24 h, small areas of cell injury were also observed. The phylogenetical analysis as well as the sequencing of the acquired amplified product for the DF3 region of the amoebae isolate confirmed that it belongs to genotype T3, which includes other pathogenic amoebae; besides the activity of two drugs currently used against Acanthamoeba was tested on A. griffini. PMID:25313337
Abente, Eugenio J; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Parra, Gabriel I; Bok, Karin; Green, Kim Y
Open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of the feline calicivirus (FCV) genome encodes a capsid precursor that is posttranslationally processed to release the mature capsid protein (VP1) and a small protein of 124 amino acids, designated the leader of the capsid (LC). To investigate the role of the LC protein in the virus life cycle, mutations and deletions were introduced into the LC coding region of an infectious FCV cDNA clone. Three cysteine residues that are conserved among all vesivirus LC sequences were found to be critical for the recovery of FCV with a characteristic cytopathic effect in feline kidney cells. A cell-rounding phenotype associated with the transient expression of wild-type and mutagenized forms of the LC correlated with the cytopathic and growth properties of the corresponding engineered viruses. The host cellular protein annexin A2 was identified as a binding partner of the LC protein, consistent with a role for the LC in mediating host cell interactions that alter the integrity of the cell and enable virus spread.
Shin, Ho-Joon; Cho, Myung-Soo; Jung, Suk-Yul; Kim, Hyung-Il; Park, Sun; Seo, Jang-Hoon; Yoo, Jung-Chil; Im, Kyung-Il
To determine whether pathogenic Acanthamoeba culbertsoni trophozoites and lysate can induce cytopathic changes in primary-culture microglial cells, morphological changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, the secretion of two kinds of cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), from microglial cells was observed. Trophozoites of pathogenic A. culbertsoni made contact with microglial cells and produced digipodia. TEM revealed that microglial cells cocultured with amoebic trophozoites underwent a necrotic process, accompanied by lysis of the cell membrane. TEM of microglial cells cocultured with amoebic lysate showed that the membranes of the small cytoplasmic vacuoles as well as the cell membrane were lysed. The amounts of TNF-α secreted from microglial cells cocultured with A. culbertsoni trophozoites or lysate increased at 6 h of incubation. The amounts of IL-1β secreted from microglial cells cocultured with A. culbertsoni trophozoites at 6 h of incubation was similar to those secreted from the control group, but the amounts decreased during cultivation with A. culbertsoni lysate. These results suggest that pathogenic A. culbertsoni induces the cytopathic effects in primary-culture rat microglial cells, with the effects characterized by necrosis of microglial cells and changes in levels of secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β from microglial cells. PMID:11427438
This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected fro...
Effects of modified-live bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccines containing either type 1 or types 1 and 2 BVDV on heifers and their offspring after challenge with noncytopathic type 2 BVDV during gestation.
Ficken, Martin D; Ellsworth, Michael A; Tucker, Cassius M; Cortese, Victor S
To compare the efficacy of modified-live virus (MLV) vaccines containing either type 1 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) or types 1 and 2 BVDV in protecting heifers and their offspring against infection associated with heterologous noncytopathic type 2 BVDV challenge during gestation. Randomized controlled study. 160 heifers and their offspring. After inoculation with a placebo vaccine, 1 or 2 doses of an MLV vaccine containing type 1 BVDV, or 1 dose of an MLV vaccine containing both types 1 and 2 BVDV, heifers were bred naturally and challenge exposed with a type 2 BVDV field isolate between 62 and 104 days of gestation. Pregnancies were monitored; after parturition, virus isolation and immunohistochemical analyses of ear-notch specimens were used to determine whether calves were persistently infected. Blood samples were collected at intervals from heifers for serologic evaluation and virus isolation. Persistent infection was detected in 18 of 19 calves from heifers in the control group and in 6 of 18 calves and 7 of 19 calves from heifers that received 1 or 2 doses of the type 1 BVDV vaccine, respectively. None of the 18 calves from heifers that received the type 1-type 2 BVDV vaccine were persistently infected. Results suggest that the incidence of persistent BVDV infection among offspring from dams inoculated with 1 dose of the MLV vaccine containing types 1 and 2 BVDV was decreased, compared with 1 or 2 doses of the MLV vaccine containing only type 1 BVDV.
Bielanski, A; Algire, J; Lalonde, A; Garceac, A
Bovine diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes a variety of economically important enteric and infertility problems in cattle. For that reason, several countries have eradicated the disease, and some others have schemes in progress to achieve freedom. Although there is a considerable amount of information about the risk of BVDV transmission through contaminated semen used for artificial insemination (AI), there is no evidence to indicate whether the resulting embryos, when used for embryo transfer, can lead to the transmission of BVDV to recipients or offspring. For this experiment, semen from a bull persistently infected with BVDV (10(5) 50% tissue culture infective doses/mL NY strain) was used for insemination (two times at estrus) of BVDV-seronegative, superovulated cows (N = 35). Embryos were collected 7 days after insemination and subsequently were washed according to the International Embryo Transfer Society recommendations or left unwashed. Out of 302 collected oocytes and embryos, 173 (57%) were fertilized and the remaining 129 (43%) had degenerated. Infectious BVDV was detected in 24% (17/71) of unwashed and 10% (8/77) of washed embryos, and in all (N = 11) follicular fluid samples, oviductal epithelial cells, endometrium, and corpora lutea tissues as determined by the virus isolation test. After transfer of 39 washed embryos to 27 BVDV-seronegative recipients, 12 (44%) cows became pregnant and 17 calves free of BVDV and BVDV antibodies, including five sets of twins, were born. After embryo transfer, all pregnant and nonpregnant recipients remained free of BVDV and antibodies. In conclusion, results herein suggest that BVDV can be transmitted by AI resulting in the production of some proportion of contaminated embryos. However, it appears that such embryos, when washed according to International Embryo Transfer Society and the World Organization for Animal Health guidelines do not cause BVDV transmission to recipients or their offspring. Crown Copyright © 2013
Wernicki, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Stęgierska, D; Adaszek, Ł; Kalinowski, M; Puchalski, A; Dec, M
In view of the scarcity of information concerning viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections in beef cattle in Poland, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the BVDV in young beef cattle from selected herds in eastern and south-eastern regions of Poland. The material consisted of 78 sera obtained from beef cattle from 15 farms, aged 6-12 months. The anti-BVDV antibody level in the sera was estimated with an ELISA kit, and detection of the BVDV was carried out by standard PCR and one step Real-Time RT-PCR. The ELISA results showed a high degree (80%) of positivity in 5 of the 78 samples. In 7 samples the degree of positivity was in the very low range: < 40%. Of the 78 cDNA samples, the presence of genetic material with a length of 288 bp was found by standard PCR in 3 sera. The genetic material of BVDV was also found in the sera of the same three calves by Real-Time HRM PCR. BVDV infection in young beef cattle in south-eastern Poland is not a significant problem. This was confirmed by the positive ELISA results for 6.4% of the animals and the positive PCR results for 3.9%. The percentage of positive beef herds was about 8.6%. However, due to the severe nature of the disease and rapid transmission of the virus, regular monitoring of BVDV should be carried out.
Dufour, B; Repiquet, D; Touratier, A
To help livestock production groups to rationalise health decisions, and at the request of the Association for the certification of livestock health (Association pour la certification de la santé animale en élevage: ACERSA), an economic study was conducted to assess the possible cost-effectiveness of the eradication of bovine virus diarrhoea in France. The study was performed using a fictitious average region comprising 235,000 cattle belonging to 3,300 farms, which corresponds to one-eighty-fifth of the total cattle population of France. In the first phase of the study, the cost of the disease in this region was estimated to be approximately six million French francs (US$989,937) per year. Subsequently, the cost of an eradication strategy based on the inspection of all animals when introduced into a herd, the screening of permanently-infected immunotolerant animals (IPI) and the elimination of these animals, was evaluated at nearly eleven million francs (US$1,814,884) during the first year. Theories were then formulated regarding the time required to achieve eradication (twenty years) and to reduce the epidemiological parameters (development curve of the eradication of IPI animals and of animals which had given positive results to serological tests). The reduction in the cost of the disease as a result of the eradication policy was then simulated in accordance with the evolution of the epidemiological parameters. Finally, the cost of controlling the disease, together with the residual cost of the disease, were compared with the cost of the disease without control measures. This demonstrated that such an eradication policy would, in theory, only begin to become cost-effective after approximately fifteen years. In view of the long period required to achieve cost-effectiveness, the considerable complexity of implementing an eradication programme and imponderables (particularly concerning virus spread), the recommendation of such a course of action to cattle
... to fight it off. For most viral infections, treatments can only help with symptoms while you wait ... for viral infections. There are antiviral medicines to treat some viral infections. Vaccines can help prevent you ...
Effect of copper, manganese, and zinc supplementation on the performance, clinical signs, and mineral status of calves following exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1b and subsequent infection.
Wilson, B K; Vazquez-Anon, M; Step, D L; Moyer, K D; Haviland, C L; Maxwell, C L; O'Neill, C F; Gifford, C A; Krehbiel, C R; Richards, C J
Research has indicated that trace mineral (TM) supplementation may alter immune function and reduce morbidity associated with bovine respiratory disease. The objective of this experiment was to determine the influence of dietary Cu, Mn, and Zn supplementation on the performance, clinical signs, and TM balance of calves following a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and (MH) combination respiratory pathogen challenge. Steers ( = 16; 225 ± 20 kg BW) from a single ranch were processed, weaned, and randomly pairwise assigned to either the TM-supplemented (MIN) or the control (CON) experimental treatments. The MIN calves received an additional 150 mg of Cu, 130 mg of Mn, and 320 mg of Zn daily and the CON calves received the basal diet with no additional Cu, Mn, or Zn supplementation. The basal diet contained sufficient Mn and Zn but inadequate Cu based on published nutrient requirements. After 46 d on the experimental treatments, all calves were naturally exposed to a heifer persistently infected with BVDV type 1b for 4 d and then subsequently intratracheally challenged with MH. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS with sampling time serving as a repeated measure and calf serving as the experimental unit. The respiratory challenge was validated via increased BVDV type 1b antibody concentrations, MH whole cell and leukotoxin antibody concentrations, rectal temperatures (TEMP), and subjective clinical severity scores (CS). Calf performance ( ≥ 0.48) was not affected by TM supplementation. Mineral supplementation also did not impact the CS or TEMP of calves ( ≥ 0.53). There was a treatment × time ( < 0.001) interaction observed for liver Cu concentrations. The concentrations of Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe within the liver; Cu, Mn, and Zn within the muscle; and Cu, Zn, and Fe within the serum were all impacted by time ( ≤ 0.03). Calves receiving the MIN treatment had greater ( < 0.01) liver Cu and Mn concentrations compared with CON calves. In contrast
Effects of on-arrival versus delayed clostridial or modified live respiratory vaccinations on health, performance, bovine viral diarrhea virus type I titers, and stress and immune measures of newly received beef calves.
Richeson, J T; Kegley, E B; Gadberry, M S; Beck, P A; Powell, J G; Jones, C A
Stress, commonly associated with weaning, marketing, and shipment of feeder cattle, can compromise immune function, and vaccine administration during immunosuppression may reduce vaccine efficacy and calf growth. Four treatments were compared in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement to evaluate the effect of on-arrival (d 0) vs. delayed (d 14) administration of clostridial (CLOS) and respiratory (RESP) vaccines on health, performance, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antibody titers, and physiological immune measurements of high-risk, newly received calves. Crossbred bull and steer calves (n = 263) were weighed (239 +/- 1.2 kg), stratified by sex, and randomly assigned to vaccination treatment: 1) arrival CLOS, arrival RESP (ACAR); 2) arrival CLOS, delayed RESP (ACDR); 3) delayed CLOS, arrival