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Sample records for cytotoxic molten globules

  1. Structural characterization of the molten globule of alpha-lactalbumin by solution X-ray scattering.

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, M.; Kuwajima, K.; Tokunaga, F.; Goto, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A compact denatured state is often observed under a mild denaturation condition for various proteins. A typical example is the alpha-lactalbumin molten globule. Although the molecular compactness and shape are the essential properties for defining the molten globule, there have been ambiguities of these properties for the molten globule of alpha-lactalbumin. Using solution X-ray scattering, we have examined the structural properties of two types of molten globule of alpha-lactalbumin, the apo-protein at neutral pH and the acid molten globule. The radius of gyration for the native holo-protein was 15.7 A, but the two different molten globules both had a radius of gyration of 17.2 A. The maximum dimension of the molecule was also increased from 50 A for the native state to 60 A for the molten globule. These values clearly indicate that the molten globule is not as compact as the native state. The increment in the radius of gyration was less than 10% for the alpha-lactalbumin molten globule, compared with up to 30% for the molten globules of other globular proteins. Intramolecular disulfide bonds restrict the molecular expansion of the molten globule. The distance distribution function of the alpha-lactalbumin molten globule is composed of a single peak suggesting a globular shape, which is simply swollen from the native state. The scattering profile in the high Q region of the molten globule indicates the presence of a significant amount of tertiary fold. Based on the structural properties obtained by solution X-ray scattering, general and conceptual structural images for the molten globules of various proteins are described and compared with the individual, detailed structural model obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance. PMID:9041645

  2. Electrochemical evidence on the molten globule conformation of cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Pineda, T; Sevilla, J M; Román, A J; Blázquez, M

    1997-12-05

    To explore a new approach for characterizing the molten globule conformation, cyclic voltammetric studies of salt induced transitions at acidic pH of cyt c have been carried out. The use of modified electrodes has made the observation of direct electrochemistry in native cyt c possible. However, most of these electrodes do not show reversible responses at acidic pH, due to the fact that, for this system, a deprotonated electrode surface is needed. In these studies, we have used a 6-mercaptopurine and cysteine-modified gold electrodes which are effective for direct rapid electron transfer to cyt c, even in acid solutions. The change in the absorption bands of cyt c are used to monitor the conformational states and, hence, to compare the voltammetric results. Under the experimental conditions where the A state of cyt c is obtained, a reversible voltammetric signal is observed. The midpoint peak potentials are found to be very close to the formal potential of native cyt c. Results are discussed in terms of a cooperative two-state transition between the acid unfolded and the globular acidic states of cyt c. This finding establishes, for the first time, the similarity of both the native and the molten globule-like conformations in terms of its redox properties.

  3. The Ribosome Restrains Molten Globule Formation in Stalled Nascent Flavodoxin*

    PubMed Central

    Houwman, Joseline A.; André, Estelle; Westphal, Adrie H.; van Berkel, Willem J. H.; van Mierlo, Carlo P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Folding of proteins usually involves intermediates, of which an important type is the molten globule (MG). MGs are ensembles of interconverting conformers that contain (non-)native secondary structure and lack the tightly packed tertiary structure of natively folded globular proteins. Whereas MGs of various purified proteins have been probed to date, no data are available on their presence and/or effect during protein synthesis. To study whether MGs arise during translation, we use ribosome-nascent chain (RNC) complexes of the electron transfer protein flavodoxin. Full-length isolated flavodoxin, which contains a non-covalently bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as cofactor, acquires its native α/β parallel topology via a folding mechanism that contains an off-pathway intermediate with molten globular characteristics. Extensive population of this MG state occurs at physiological ionic strength for apoflavodoxin variant F44Y, in which a phenylalanine at position 44 is changed to a tyrosine. Here, we show for the first time that ascertaining the binding rate of FMN as a function of ionic strength can be used as a tool to determine the presence of the off-pathway MG on the ribosome. Application of this methodology to F44Y apoflavodoxin RNCs shows that at physiological ionic strength the ribosome influences formation of the off-pathway MG and forces the nascent chain toward the native state. PMID:27784783

  4. The alkali molten globule state of horse ferricytochrome c: observation of cold denaturation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Prabhu, N Prakash; Rao, D Krishna; Bhuyan, Abani K

    2006-12-01

    Here, we present the basic structural properties and the thermodynamic description of a previously unknown alkali molten globule state of horse "ferricytochrome c". Both sodium and guanidinium cations stabilize the alkali-denatured state at pH 13, presumably by a charge screening mechanism. The Na(+)-stabilized conformation (B state) clearly meets with the molecular organizational definition of the generic molten globule state. The B state exhibits highly cooperative thermal unfolding transitions monitored by both near and far-UV CD. Analyses of these transitions show substantial heat capacity change, suggesting that the hydrophobic effect contributes considerably to its energetic stability. At low salt concentration where molten globules are less stable, the B state undergoes reversible cold denaturation.

  5. Multistage unfolding of an SH3 domain: an initial urea-filled dry molten globule precedes a wet molten globule with non-native structure.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amrita; Udgaonkar, Jayant B; Das, Payel

    2014-06-19

    The unfolding of the SH3 domain of the PI3 kinase in aqueous urea has been studied using a synergistic experiment-simulation approach. The experimental observation of a transient wet molten globule intermediate, IU, with an unusual non-native burial of the sole Trp residue, W53, provides the benchmark for the unfolding simulations performed (eight in total, each at least 0.5 μs long). The simulations reveal that the partially unfolded IU ensemble is preceded by an early native-like molten globule intermediate ensemble I*. In the very initial stage of unfolding, dry globule conformations with the protein core filled with urea instead of water are transiently observed within the I* ensemble. Water penetration into the urea-filled core of dry globule conformations is frequently accompanied by very transient burial of W53. Later during gradual unfolding, W53 is seen to again become transiently buried in the IU ensemble for a much longer time. In the structurally heterogeneous IU ensemble, conformational flexibility of the C-terminal β-strands enables W53 burial by the formation of non-native, tertiary contacts with hydrophobic residues, which could serve to protect the protein from aggregation during unfolding.

  6. Effect of galactose on acid induced molten globule state of Soybean Agglutinin: Biophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Parvez; Naseem, Farha; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the formation of molten globule-like unfolding intermediate Soybean Agglutinin (SBA) in acidic pH range has been established with the help of acrylamide quenching, intrinsic fluorescence, ANS fluorescence measurement, far UV CD and dynamic light scattering measurement. A marked increase in ANS fluorescence was observed at pH 2.2. Ksv of acrylamide quenching was found to be higher at pH 2.2 than that of native SBA at pH 7. Far UV CD spectra of pH induced state suggest that SBA shows significant retention of secondary structure closure to native. Hydrodynamic radius of SBA at pH 2.2 was found be more as compared to native state and also in other pH induced states. Further we checked the effect of galactose on the molten globule state of SBA. This study suggests that SBA exist as molten globule at pH 2.2 and this study will help in acid induced molten globule state of other proteins.

  7. The Herpes Simplex Virus Triplex Protein, VP23, Exists as a Molten Globule

    PubMed Central

    Kirkitadze, Marina D.; Barlow, Paul N.; Price, Nicholas C.; Kelly, Sharon M.; Boutell, Christopher J.; Rixon, Frazer J.; McClelland, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Two proteins, VP19C (50,260 Da) and VP23 (34,268 Da), make up the triplexes which connect adjacent hexons and pentons in the herpes simplex virus type 1 capsid. VP23 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by Ni-agarose affinity chromatography. In vitro capsid assembly experiments demonstrated that the purified protein was functionally active. Its physical status was examined by differential scanning calorimetry, ultracentrifugation, size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate binding studies. These studies established that the bacterially expressed VP23 exhibits properties consistent with its being in a partially folded, molten globule state. We propose that the molten globule represents a functionally relevant intermediate which is necessary to allow VP23 to undergo interaction with VP19C in the process of capsid assembly. PMID:9811746

  8. Molten globule precursor states are conformationally correlated to amyloid fibrils of human beta-2-microglobulin.

    PubMed

    Skora, Lukasz; Becker, Stefan; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2010-07-14

    Misfolding intermediates play a key role in defining aberrant protein aggregation and amyloid formation in more than 15 different human diseases. However, their experimental characterization is challenging due to the transient nature and conformational heterogeneity of the involved states. Here, we demonstrate that direct carbon-detected NMR experiments allow observation, assignment, and structural analysis of molten globule amyloid intermediates that are severely broadened by conformational exchange. The method is used to characterize the structure and dynamics of partially unfolded intermediates of the 99-residue protein beta-2-microglobulin, which is the major component of insoluble aggregates occurring in dialysis-related amyloidosis. Comparison of the conformational properties of the molten globule-like intermediates with levels of deuterium incorporation into amyloid fibrils of beta-2-microglobulin revealed a close relationship between the conformational properties of the metastable intermediates and the beta-sheet-rich insoluble aggregates of beta-2-microglobulin.

  9. Molten globule structures in milk proteins: implications for potential new structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Farrell, H M; Qi, P X; Brown, E M; Cooke, P H; Tunick, M H; Wickham, E D; Unruh, J J

    2002-03-01

    Recent advances in the field of protein chemistry have significantly enhanced our understanding of the possible intermediates that may occur during protein folding and unfolding. In particular, studies on alpha-lactalbumin have led to the theory that the molten globule state may be a possible intermediate in the folding of many proteins. The molten globule state is characterized by a somewhat compact structure, a higher degree of hydration and side chain flexibility, a significant amount of native secondary structure but little tertiary folds, and the ability to react with chaperones. Purified alpha(s1)- and kappa-caseins share many of these same properties; these caseins may thus occur naturally in a molten globule-like state with defined, persistent structures. The caseins appear to have defined secondary structures and to proceed to quaternary structures without tertiary folds. This process may be explained, in part, by comparison with the architectural concepts of tensegrity. By taking advantage of this "new view" of protein folding, and applying these concepts to dairy proteins, it may be possible to generate new and useful forms of proteins for the food ingredient market.

  10. Thermodynamic and structural properties of the acid molten globule state of horse cytochrome C.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shigeyoshi; Seki, Yasutaka; Katoh, Etsuko; Kidokoro, Shun-ichi

    2011-04-19

    To understand the stabilization, folding, and functional mechanisms of proteins, it is very important to understand the structural and thermodynamic properties of the molten globule state. In this study, the global structure of the acid molten globule state, which we call MG1, of horse cytochrome c at low pH and high salt concentrations was evaluated by solution X-ray scattering (SXS), dynamic light scattering, and circular dichroism measurements. MG1 was globular and slightly (3%) larger than the native state, N. Calorimetric methods, such as differential scanning calorimetry and isothermal acid-titration calorimetry, were used to evaluate the thermodynamic parameters in the transitions of N to MG1 and MG1 to denatured state D of horse cytochrome c. The heat capacity change, ΔC(p), in the N-to-MG1 transition was determined to be 2.56 kJ K(-1) mol(-1), indicating the increase in the level of hydration in the MG1 state. Moreover, the intermediate state on the thermal N-to-D transition of horse cytochrome c at pH 4 under low-salt conditions showed the same structural and thermodynamic properties of the MG1 state in both SXS and calorimetric measurements. The Gibbs free energy changes (ΔG) for the N-to-MG1 and N-to-D transitions at 15 °C were 10.9 and 42.2 kJ mol(-1), respectively.

  11. Enzymatic Detoxication, Conformational Selection, and the Role of Molten Globule Active Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Honaker, Matthew T.; Acchione, Mauro; Zhang, Wei; Mannervik, Bengt; Atkins, William M.

    2013-01-01

    The role of conformational ensembles in enzymatic reactions remains unclear. Discussion concerning “induced fit” versus “conformational selection” has, however, ignored detoxication enzymes, which exhibit catalytic promiscuity. These enzymes dominate drug metabolism and determine drug-drug interactions. The detoxication enzyme glutathione transferase A1–1 (GSTA1–1), exploits a molten globule-like active site to achieve remarkable catalytic promiscuity wherein the substrate-free conformational ensemble is broad with barrierless transitions between states. A quantitative index of catalytic promiscuity is used to compare engineered variants of GSTA1–1 and the catalytic promiscuity correlates strongly with characteristics of the thermodynamic partition function, for the substrate-free enzymes. Access to chemically disparate transition states is encoded by the substrate-free conformational ensemble. Pre-steady state catalytic data confirm an extension of the conformational selection model, wherein different substrates select different starting conformations. The kinetic liability of the conformational breadth is minimized by a smooth landscape. We propose that “local” molten globule behavior optimizes detoxication enzymes. PMID:23649628

  12. Evidence for close side-chain packing in an early protein folding intermediate previously assumed to be a molten globule

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Laura E.; Connell, Katelyn B.; Marqusee, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The molten globule, a conformational ensemble with significant secondary structure but only loosely packed tertiary structure, has been suggested to be a ubiquitous intermediate in protein folding. However, it is difficult to assess the tertiary packing of transiently populated species to evaluate this hypothesis. Escherichia coli RNase H is known to populate an intermediate before the rate-limiting barrier to folding that has long been thought to be a molten globule. We investigated this hypothesis by making mimics of the intermediate that are the ground-state conformation at equilibrium, using two approaches: a truncation to generate a fragment mimic of the intermediate, and selective destabilization of the native state using point mutations. Spectroscopic characterization and the response of the mimics to further mutation are consistent with studies on the transient kinetic intermediate, indicating that they model the early intermediate. Both mimics fold cooperatively and exhibit NMR spectra indicative of a closely packed conformation, in contrast to the hypothesis of molten tertiary packing. This result is important for understanding the nature of the subsequent rate-limiting barrier to folding and has implications for the assumption that many other proteins populate molten globule folding intermediates. PMID:25258414

  13. Stein and Moore Award address. The molten globule intermediate of apomyoglobin and the process of protein folding.

    PubMed Central

    Barrick, D.; Baldwin, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    The molten globule model for the beginning of the folding process, which originated with Kuwajima's studies of alpha-lactalbumin (Kuwajima, K., 1989, Proteins Struct. Funct. Genet. 6, 87-103, and references therein), states that, for those proteins that exhibit equilibrium molten globule intermediates, the molten globule is a major kinetic intermediate near the start of the folding pathway. Pulsed hydrogen-deuterium exchange measurements confirm this model for apomyoglobin (Jennings, P.A. & Wright, P.E., in prep.). The energetics of the acid-induced unfolding transition, which have been determined by fitting a minimal three-state model (N<-->I<-->U; N = native, I = molten globule intermediate, U = unfolded) show that I is more stable than U at neutral pH (Barrick, D. & Baldwin, R.L., 1993, Biochemistry 32, in press), which provides an explanation for why I is formed from U at the start of folding. Hydrogen exchange rates measured by two-dimensional NMR for individual peptide NH protons, taken together with the CD spectrum of I, indicate that moderately stable helices are present in I at the locations of the A, G, and H helices of native myoglobin (Hughson, F.M., Wright, P.E., & Baldwin, R.L., 1990, Science 249, 1544-1548). Directed mutagnesis experiments indicate that the interactions between the A, G, and H helices in I are loose (Hughson, F.M., Barrick, D., & Baldwin, R.L., 1991, Biochemistry 30, 4113-4118), which can explain why I is formed rapidly from U at the start of folding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8318892

  14. Specific molten globule conformation of stem bromelain at alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Dave, Sandeep; Mahajan, Sahil; Chandra, Vemika; Dkhar, H Kitdorlang; Sambhavi; Gupta, Pawan

    2010-07-01

    Stem bromelain (SBM), a therapeutic protein, is rapidly absorbed across the gut epithelium. Because SBM encounters an alkaline pH at its principal site of absorption, we investigated the alkaline-induced denaturation of SBM. From pH 7 to 10, the protein's secondary structure remained the same, although a slight loss of tertiary structure was observed. Above pH 10, there was a significant and irreversible loss of secondary and tertiary structure. At pH 10, SBM showed enhanced tryptophan fluorescence, however, the number of accessible tryptophans remained the same. The thermodynamics of temperature transition at pH 7 and 10 were strikingly different, with the former showing a two-phase transition endotherm, and the latter a broad non-two-state transition. At pH 10, SBM showed a significant increase in 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonate binding relative to the native state, suggestive of a specific molten globule (SMG) state. These studies suggest a distinct conformational rearrangement in SBM, at the protein's isoelectric point.

  15. Apo-azurin folds via an intermediate that resembles the molten-globule

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Anders; Leckner, Johan; Karlsson, B. Göran

    2004-01-01

    The folding of Pseudomonas aeruginosa apo-azurin was investigated with the intent of identifying putative intermediates. Two apo-mutants were constructed by replacing the main metal-binding ligand C112 with a serine (C112S) and an alanine (C112A). The guanidinium-induced unfolding free energies (ΔGU−NH2O) of the C112S and C112A mutants were measured to 36.8 ± 1 kJ mole−1 and 26.1 ± 1 kJ mole−1, respectively, and the m-value of the transition to 23.5 ± 0.7 kJ mole−1 M−1. The difference in folding free energy (ΔΔGU−NH2O) is largely attributed to the intramolecular hydrogen bonding properties of the serine Oγ in the C112S mutant, which is lacking in the C112A structure. Furthermore, only the unfolding rates differ between the two mutants, thus pointing to the energy of the native state as the source of the observed Δ ΔGU−NH2O. This also indicates that the formation of the hydrogen bonds present in C112S but absent in C112A is a late event in the folding of the apo-protein, thus suggesting that formation of the metal-binding site occurs after the rate-limiting formation of the transition state. In both mutants we also noted a burst-phase intermediate. Because this intermediate was capable of binding 1-anilinonaphtalene-8-sulfonate (ANS), as were an acid-induced species at pH 2.6, we ascribe it molten globule-like status. However, despite the presence of an intermediate, the folding of apo-azurin C112S is well approximated by a two-state kinetic mechanism. PMID:15388858

  16. Molten Globule of Hemoglobin Proceeds into Aggregates and Advanced Glycated End Products

    PubMed Central

    Iram, Afshin; Alam, Tauqeer; Khan, Javed M.; Khan, Taqi A.; Khan, Rizwan H.; Naeem, Aabgeena

    2013-01-01

    Conformational alterations of bovine hemoglobin (Hb) upon sequential addition of glyoxal over a range of 0–90% v/v were investigated. At 20% v/v glyoxal, molten globule (MG) state of Hb was observed by altered tryptophan fluorescence, high ANS binding, existence of intact heme, native-like secondary structure as depicted by far-UV circular dichroism (CD) and ATR-FTIR spectra as well as loss in tertiary structure as confirmed by near-UV CD spectra. In addition, size exclusion chromatography analysis depicted that MG state at 20% v/v glyoxal corresponded to expanded pre-dissociated dimers. Aggregates of Hb were detected at 70% v/v glyoxal. These aggregates of Hb had altered tryptophan environment, low ANS binding, exposed heme, increased β-sheet secondary structure, loss in tertiary structure, enhanced thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and red shifted Congo Red (CR) absorbance. On incubating Hb with 30% v/v glyoxal for 0–20 days, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were detected on day 20. These AGEs were characterised by enhanced tryptophan fluorescence at 450 nm, exposure of heme, increase in intermolecular β-sheets, enhanced ThT fluorescence and red shift in CR absorbance. Comet assay revealed aggregates and AGEs to be genotoxic in nature. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the amorphous structure of aggregates and branched fibrils of AGEs. The transformation of α-helix to β-sheet usually alters the normal protein to amyloidogenic resulting in a variety of protein conformational disorders such as diabetes, prion and Huntington's. PMID:23991043

  17. The folding kinetics of the SDS-induced molten globule form of reduced cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Chen, Eefei; Van Vranken, Vanessa; Kliger, David S

    2008-05-13

    The folding of reduced cytochrome c (redcyt c) is increasingly being recognized as undergoing a mechanism that deviates from a two-state process. In previous far-UV TRORD studies of redcyt c folding, a rapidly forming intermediate was attributed to the appearance of a molten-globule-like (MG) state [Chen, E., Goldbeck, R. A., and Kliger, D. S. (2003) J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 8149-8155]. A slow folding phase (>1 ms) was identified with the formation of native (N) secondary structure from that MG form. Here, using 0.65 mM SDS to induce the MG state in oxidized cytochrome c, folding of redcyt c was triggered with fast photoreduction and probed from early microseconds to milliseconds using far-UV TRORD spectroscopy. The kinetics of the reaction are described with a time constant of 50 +/- 16 ms, which corresponds to 1 +/- 0.6 ms upon extrapolation of the data to zero SDS concentration. The latter folding time is about 5 times faster than the calculated GuHCl-free time constant of 5.5 +/- 1.4 ms for slow-phase folding obtained in our previous study. This ratio of rates would be consistent with a scenario in which 20-30% MG that is suggested to form in the fast phase of redcyt c folding in GuHCl is an obligatory intermediate. The native state forms from this obligatory intermediate with an observed rate, k(f) = fk(G-->N) where f is the fractional population of MG and k(G-->N) is the microscopic rate for MG --> N. Calculation and comparison of the m(#)/m values show agreement within the uncertainties between the SDS ( approximately 0.5) and GuHCl ( approximately 0.3) based redcyt c folding experiments, suggesting that the two experiments report on comparable intermediates. The m values were obtained from far-UV CD SDS titration experiments, from which calculated thermodynamic parameters allowed estimation of the reduction potential for the MG state to be approximately 155 mV (-15 kJ/mol) vs NHE which, like the reduction potential for the native state, is more favorable than

  18. Trifluoroethanol stabilizes the molten globule state and induces non-amyloidic turbidity in stem bromelain near its isoelectric point.

    PubMed

    Dave, Sandeep; Mahajan, Sahil; Chandra, Vemika; Gupta, Pawan

    2011-11-01

    Stem bromelain (SBM) is a therapeutic protein that has been studied for alkaline denaturation in the intestines, the principal site of its absorption. In this study, we investigated fluorinated alcohol 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE)-induced conformational changes in the specific/pre-molten globule (SMG) state of SBM observed at pH 10 by spectroscopic methods. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that the protein retained its native-like secondary structure at TFE concentrations of up to 30% with a pronounced minimum at 222 nm, characteristic of a helix. However, addition of slightly higher TFE concentrations (≥40%) resulted in an ∼2.5-fold induction of this helical feature and a time-dependent increase in non-amyloidic turbidity as evidenced by turbidometric, Congo red-binding, and Thioflavin T (ThT)-binding studies. Near-UV CD spectra suggested a gradual but significant loss of tertiary structure at 10-30% TFE. Tryptophan studies showed blue-shifted fluorescence, although the number of accessible tryptophans remained the same up to 30% TFE. The SMG showed enhanced binding of the fluorescent probe 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS) up to 30% TFE, beyond which binding plateaued. Thermal and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) transition studies in the near-UV range indicated a single cooperative transition for the SMG state in the presence of 30% TFE, similar to that observed for native SBM at pH 7.0 (although with different T(m)s), unlike the SMG state. TFE (30%) appeared to induce native-like stability to the original SMG. These observations suggest a transformation of the SMG to a characteristic molten globule (MG) conformation at 30% TFE, possibly due to TFE-induced rearrangement of hydrophobic interactions at the protein's isoelectric point.

  19. 1-Anilino-8-Naphthalene Sulfonate (ANS) Is Not a Desirable Probe for Determining the Molten Globule State of Chymopapain

    PubMed Central

    Qadeer, Atiyatul; Rabbani, Gulam; Zaidi, Nida; Ahmad, Ejaz; Khan, Javed M.; Khan, Rizwan H.

    2012-01-01

    The molten globule (MG) state of proteins is widely detected through binding with 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulphonate (ANS), a fluorescent dye. This strategy is based upon the assumption that when in molten globule state, the exposed hydrophobic clusters of protein are readily bound by the nonpolar anilino-naphthalene moiety of ANS molecules which then produce brilliant fluorescence. In this work, we explored the acid-induced unfolding pathway of chymopapain, a cysteine proteases from Carica papaya, by monitoring the conformational changes over a pH range 1.0–7.4 by circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence, ANS binding, acrylamide quenching, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The spectroscopic measurements showed that although maximum ANS fluorescence intensity was observed at pH 1.0, however protein exhibited ∼80% loss of secondary structure which does not comply with the characteristics of a typical MG-state. In contrast at pH 1.5, chymopapain retains substantial amount of secondary structure, disrupted side chain interactions, increased hydrodynamic radii and nearly 30-fold increase in ANS fluorescence with respect to the native state, indicating that MG-state exists at pH 1.5 and not at pH 1.0. ITC measurements revealed that ANS molecules bound to chymopapain via hydrophobic interaction were more at pH 1.5 than at pH 1.0. However, a large number of ANS molecules were also involved in electrostatic interaction with protein at pH 1.0 which, together with hydrophobically interacted molecules, may be responsible for maximum ANS fluorescence. We conclude that maximum ANS-fluorescence alone may not be the criteria for determining the MG of chymopapain. Hence a comprehensive structural analysis of the intermediate is essentially required. PMID:23209794

  20. Evidence that StAR and MLN64 act on the outer mitochondrial membrane as molten globules.

    PubMed

    Bose, H S; Baldwin, M A; Miller, W L

    2000-11-01

    StAR increases the flow of cholesterol from the outer to inner mitochondrial membrane (OMM to IMM), but its mechanism of action remains unclear. MLN64 is a 445 amino acid protein of unknown function that has four N-terminal transmembrane domains and whose C-terminal domain from 218-445 is 37% identical to StAR. N-62 StAR is as active as wild-type StAR, and N-234 MLN64 has 1/3 to 1/2 of StAR's activity. N-62 StAR lacks a mitochondrial leader and is confined to the cytoplasm, indicating that it acts on the OMM. Bacterially expressed N-62 StAR and N-218 MLN64 are active with isolated MA-10 cell mitochondria, indicating the proteins were properly folded. Far-UV CD spectroscopy, unfolding in urea, and fluorescence spectroscopy indicate that StAR undergoes a pH-dependent transition to a molten globule (retained secondary structure, partially lost tertiary structure) and stabilizes in mildly acid conditions. Far-UV CD data indicate that MLN64 undergoes a much less pronounced transition. Western blotting shows that normal human placenta has abundant N-terminally-cleaved 30 kDa MLN64. Partial proteolysis followed by mass spectrometry shows that the C-termini of StAR and MLN64 are sensitive to proteolysis, indicating looser folding. Our model of StAR action is that the protease-resistant domain unfolds slowly during normal mitochondrial entry, keeping StAR in contact with the OMM longer, increasing activity. The transition to the molten globule may be related to interaction with the OMM. These data are consistent with the recent crystallographic structure of N-216 MLN64 in which MLN64 binds cholesterol one molecule at a time, but are not consistent with the suggestion that StAR/MLN64 must reside in the intramembraneous space to transfer cholesterol form the OMM to the IMM.

  1. Circularly permuted dihydrofolate reductase possesses all the properties of the molten globule state, but can resume functional tertiary structure by interaction with its ligands.

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, V. N.; Kutyshenko, V. P.; Protasova NYu; Rogov, V. V.; Vassilenko, K. S.; Gudkov, A. T.

    1996-01-01

    It is obvious that functional activity of a protein molecule is closely related to its structure. On the other hand, the understanding of structure-function relationship still remains one of the intriguing problems of molecular biology. There is widespread belief that mutagenesis presents a real way to solve this problem. Following this assumption, we have investigated the effect of circular permutation in dihydrofolate reductase from E. coli on protein structure and functioning. It has been shown that in the absence of ligands two circularly permuted variants of dihydrofolate reductase possess all the properties of the molten globule state. However, after addition of ligands they gain the native-like structural properties and specific activity. This means that the in vitro folding of permuted dihydrofolate reductase is terminated at the stage of the molten globule formation. Interaction of permuted protein with ligands leads to the structural adjustment and formation of active protein molecules. PMID:8880908

  2. Detecting equilibrium cytochrome c folding intermediates by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: Two partially folded forms populate the molten-globule state

    PubMed Central

    Grandori, Rita

    2002-01-01

    Nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-MS) is applied to the characterization of ferric cytochromec (cytc) conformational states under different solvent conditions. The methanol-induced molten-globule state in the pH range 2.6–3.0 is found to be populated by two distinct, partially folded conformers IA and IB. The more compact intermediate IB resembles that induced by glycerol in acid-unfolded cytc. The less compact one, IA, also can be induced by destabilization of the native structure by trifluoroethanol. IA and IB can be detected, in the absence of additives, around the midpoint of the acid-induced unfolding transition, providing direct evidence for involvement of equilibrium folding intermediates in cytc conformational transitions at low pH. This study shows that mass spectrometry can contribute to the characterization of molten-globule states of proteins by detection of distinct, although poorly populated, conformations involved in a dynamic equilibrium. PMID:11847268

  3. Two-state transition between molten globule and unfolded states of acetylcholinesterase as monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Kreimer, D I; Szosenfogel, R; Goldfarb, D; Silman, I; Weiner, L

    1994-01-01

    Cys-231 of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) was selectively labeled with the mercury derivative of a stable nitroxyl radical. In 1.5 M guanidinium chloride, this conjugate exists in a molten globule state (MG), whereas in 5 M denaturant, it is in an unfolded state (U). The transition between the two states is reversible. In the MG, the label is highly immobilized, whereas in the U, it is almost freely rotating. The clearly distinct electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the two states permits the study of this transition. Upon elevating the guanidinium chloride concentration, a decrease in the EPR signal of the MG occurs concomitantly with an increase in the U signal, the total intensity of the EPR spectra remaining constant. This behavior is characteristic of a two-state transition. The thermodynamic characteristics of this transition (delta G0 and m), whether estimated directly from the EPR data or from both CD and fluorescence data analyzed by assuming a two-state scheme, are in good agreement. PMID:7991597

  4. Characterization of a molten globule intermediate during GdnHCl-induced unfolding of RTEM beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, D; DasGupta, C

    1996-08-15

    GdnHCl-induced unfolding and reversible folding of beta-lactamase from E. coli have been investigated by measuring enzymatic activity, fluorescence emission and far-UV circular dichroism as indices of the extent of denaturation. The non-coincidence of far-UV CD and fluorescence data and existence of an inflection point clearly suggest the presence of an equilibrium intermediate. The existence of the equilibrium intermediate at around 1 M is corroborated by its enhanced binding of fluorophobic probe 1,8-ANS. The intermediate was found to have a compact shape as measured by its Stokes radius by size-exclusion chromatography. Furthermore, near-UV CD analysis of this enzymatically inactive intermediate showed a significantly disrupted tertiary structure with only a minor change in the secondary structure, which is a characteristic of typical molten globule states. Estimation of the activation energy from the kinetics of unfolding of the protein monitored by fluorescence and CD suggests that the intermediate may be separated from the native and the unfolded state by a high activation-energy barrier.

  5. A two-process model describes the hydrogen exchange behavior of cytochrome c in the molten globule state with various extents of acetylation.

    PubMed

    Szewczuk, Z; Konishi, Y; Goto, Y

    2001-08-14

    Acetylation of Lys residues of horse cytochrome c steadily stabilizes the molten globule state in 18 mM HCl as more Lys residues are acetylated [Goto and Nishikiori (1991) J. Mol. Biol. 222, 679-686]. The dynamic features of the molten globule state were characterized by hydrogen/deuterium exchange of amide protons, monitored by mass spectrometry as each deuteration increased the protein mass by 1 Da. Electrospray mass spectrometry enabled us to monitor simultaneously the exchange kinetics of more than seven species with a different number of acetyl groups. One to four Lys residue-acetylated cytochrome c showed almost no protection of the amide protons from rapid exchange. The transition from the unprotected to the protected state occurred between five and eight Lys residue-acetylated species. For species with more than nine acetylated Lys residues, the exchange kinetics were independent of the extent of acetylation, and 26 amide protons were protected at 60 min of exchange, indicating the formation of a rigid hydrophobic core with hydrogen-bonded secondary structures. The apparent transition to the protected state required a higher degree of acetylation than the conformational transition measured by circular dichroism, which had a midpoint at about four acetylated residues. This difference in the transitions suggested a two-process model in which the exchange occurs either from the protected folded state or from the unprotected unfolded state through global unfolding. On the basis of a two-process model and with the reported values of the exchange and stability parameters, we simulated the exchange kinetics of a series of acetylated cytochrome c species. The simulated kinetics reproduced the observed kinetics well, indicating validity of this model for hydrogen exchange of the molten globule state.

  6. Heterogeneity of equilibrium molten globule state of cytochrome c induced by weak salt denaturants under physiological condition.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Hamidur; Alam Khan, Md Khurshid; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Islam, Asimul; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ahmad, Faizan

    2015-01-01

    While many proteins are recognized to undergo folding via intermediate(s), the heterogeneity of equilibrium folding intermediate(s) along the folding pathway is less understood. In our present study, FTIR spectroscopy, far- and near-UV circular dichroism (CD), ANS and tryptophan fluorescence, near IR absorbance spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were used to study the structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the native (N), denatured (D) and intermediate state (X) of goat cytochorme c (cyt-c) induced by weak salt denaturants (LiBr, LiCl and LiClO4) at pH 6.0 and 25°C. The LiBr-induced denaturation of cyt-c measured by Soret absorption (Δε400) and CD ([θ]409), is a three-step process, N ↔ X ↔ D. It is observed that the X state obtained along the denaturation pathway of cyt-c possesses common structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the molten globule (MG) state. The MG state of cyt-c induced by LiBr is compared for its structural and thermodynamic parameters with those found in other solvent conditions such as LiCl, LiClO4 and acidic pH. Our observations suggest: (1) that the LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c retains the native Met80-Fe(III) axial bond and Trp59-propionate interactions; (2) that LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c is more compact retaining the hydrophobic interactions in comparison to the MG states induced by LiCl, LiClO4 and 0.5 M NaCl at pH 2.0; and (3) that there exists heterogeneity of equilibrium intermediates along the unfolding pathway of cyt-c as highly ordered (X1), classical (X2) and disordered (X3), i.e., D ↔ X3 ↔ X2 ↔ X1 ↔ N.

  7. A single mutation induces molten globule formation and a drastic destabilization of wild-type cytochrome c at pH 6.0.

    PubMed

    Alam Khan, Md Khurshid; Das, Utpal; Rahaman, Md Hamidur; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Srinivasan, A; Singh, Tej P; Ahmad, Faizan

    2009-06-01

    Amino acid sequences of seven subfamilies of cytochromes c show that other than heme binding residues there are only four positions which are conserved in all subfamilies: Gly/Ala6, Phe/Tyr10, Leu/Val/Phe94, and Tyr/Trp/Phe97. These residues are 90% conserved in all sequences reported and are also considered to be involved in a common folding nucleus. To determine the importance of conserved interactions offered by the side chain of Leu94, we made an L94G mutant of horse cytochrome c. Characterization of this mutant by the far-UV, near-UV, and Soret circular dichroism, intrinsic and 1-Anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate fluorescence, and dynamic light scattering measurements led to the conclusion that the L94G mutant has all the common structural characteristics of a molten globule at pH 6.0 and 25 degrees C. NaCl induces a cooperative transition between the acid-denatured state and a state of L94G having all the common structural characteristics of a pre-molten-globule state at pH 2 and 25 degrees C. Thermal denaturation studies showed that the midpoint of denaturation of the mutant is 28 degrees C less than that of the wild-type protein. Interestingly, the structure analysis using the coordinates given in the Protein Data Bank (1hrc) also suggested that the L94G mutant would be less stable than the wild-type protein.

  8. The existence of a hexameric intermediate with molten-globule-like properties in the thermal denaturation of bovine-liver glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Singh, N; Liu, Z; Fisher, H F

    1996-12-10

    We have studied the thermal denaturation of hexameric beef-liver glutamate dehydrogenase by itself and in the presence of ADP and guanidine-HCl by a variety of techniques. In differential scanning calorimetry studies, the observed melting temperature and total enthalpy of denaturation show no dependence on protein concentration, but do show significant dependence on the scan rate. This suggests that the overall denaturation process is irreversible and kinetically controlled. Isothermal unfolding kinetics from spectrophotometry confirm this result. The size of the protein, as shown by quasi-elastic light scattering measurements, does not change during the denaturation process. We interpret these results in terms of the following model: N6 reversible N'6-->6U(-->F) where N6 and N'6 are, respectively, the native hexamer and a hexameric, highly folded high-enthalpy species, U is the unfolded monomer and F is some final aggregated state. The kinetic intermediate, N'6, possesses the properties of one definition of a molten globule, having a very high enthalpy and a hexameric compact structured form. This "molten globule" is an obligatory intermediate in the unfolding pathway of the protein. The stabilization of the protein by ADP is due to the modulation of the high-enthalpy two-state predenaturational E reversible E' transition, resulting in the lowering of the energy of the native state of the protein.

  9. Triple point mutation Asp10-->His, Asn101-->Asp, Arg148-->Ser in T4 phage lysozyme leads to the molten globule.

    PubMed

    Uversky, V N; Leontiev, V V; Gudkov, A T

    1992-12-01

    The triple amino acid replacement (Asp10-->His, Asn101-->Asp, Arg148-->Ser) in T4 phage lysozyme was carried out by site-directed mutagenesis. At acid pH (2.7) the mutant is in a conformational state with the properties of the molten globule: (i) the mutant protein molecule is essentially compact; (ii) its CD spectrum in the near UV region is drastically reduced in intensity as compared with the wild type protein spectrum; (iii) the CD spectrum in the far UV region indicates the presence of pronounced secondary structure in the mutant; (iv) unlike the wild type protein the mutant protein can bind the hydrophobic fluorescent probe, ANS.

  10. The p53 core domain is a molten globule at low pH: functional implications of a partially unfolded structure.

    PubMed

    Bom, Ana Paula D Ano; Freitas, Monica S; Moreira, Flavia S; Ferraz, Danielly; Sanches, Daniel; Gomes, Andre M O; Valente, Ana Paula; Cordeiro, Yraima; Silva, Jerson L

    2010-01-22

    p53 is a transcription factor that maintains genome integrity, and its function is lost in 50% of human cancers. The majority of p53 mutations are clustered within the core domain. Here, we investigate the effects of low pH on the structure of the wild-type (wt) p53 core domain (p53C) and the R248Q mutant. At low pH, the tryptophan residue is partially exposed to the solvent, suggesting a fluctuating tertiary structure. On the other hand, the secondary structure increases, as determined by circular dichroism. Binding of the probe bis-ANS (bis-8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate) indicates that there is an increase in the exposure of hydrophobic pockets for both wt and mutant p53C at low pH. This behavior is accompanied by a lack of cooperativity under urea denaturation and decreased stability under pressure when p53C is in acidic pH. Together, these results indicate that p53C acquires a partially unfolded conformation (molten-globule state) at low pH (5.0). The hydrodynamic properties of this conformation are intermediate between the native and denatured conformation. (1)H-(15)N HSQC NMR spectroscopy confirms that the protein has a typical molten-globule structure at acidic pH when compared with pH 7.2. Human breast cells in culture (MCF-7) transfected with p53-GFP revealed localization of p53 in acidic vesicles, suggesting that the low pH conformation is present in the cell. Low pH stress also tends to favor high levels of p53 in the cells. Taken together, all of these data suggest that p53 may play physiological or pathological roles in acidic microenvironments.

  11. Induction of 'molten globule' like state in acid-denatured state of unmodified preparation of stem bromelain: implications of disulfides in protein folding.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pawan; Khan, Rizwan H; Saleemuddin, M

    2003-12-01

    A denatured state of unmodified preparation of stem bromelain representing a structureless form has been characterized at pH 2.0 and the effect of increasing concentration of TFE on the acid-denatured state has been investigated by circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence emission spectroscopy and binding of the hydrophobic dye, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS). Far-UV CD spectra show considerable accumulation of secondary structure when the acid-denatured bromelain is subjected to 70% (v/v) TFE and exhibited close resemblance to spectral features of those of pH 7.0 preparation. Interestingly, the acid-denatured state also regained some tertiary structure/interactions, with increasing concentration of TFE and at 60% (v/v) TFE, these approached almost those of the native like state. However, further increase to 70% (v/v) TFE resulted in complete loss of tertiary structure/interactions. Tryptophan fluorescence emission studies also suggested the induction of significant compact structure at 60% (v/v) concentration of TFE. In addition the acid-denatured state showed enhanced binding of ANS in presence of 60% (v/v) TFE. Taken together these observations suggest the existence of a molten globule state in acid-denatured bromelain between 60 and 70% (v/v) TFE. A similar molten globule state under identical conditions has been identified in reduced and carboxymethylated preparation of stem bromelain as reported in our earlier communication [Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 413 (2003) 199]. Comparison suggests unfolding/folding behavior of the bromelain to be independent of the intactness of the disulfide bonds.

  12. Fluorinated alcohol, the third group of cosolvents that stabilize the molten-globule state relative to a highly denatured state of cytochrome c.

    PubMed Central

    Konno, T.; Iwashita, J.; Nagayama, K.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-isopropanol (HFIP) on the conformation of cytochrome c (cyt c) at pH 1.9 were studied using a combination of spectroscopic and physical methods. Analysis varying the HFIP concentration showed that a compact denatured conformation (M(HF)) accumulates in a low concentration range of HFIP in the middle of structural transition from the highly unstructured acid-denatured state to the highly helical alcohol-denatured state of cyt c. This contrasts clearly with the effect of isopropanol (IP), in which no compact conformation accompanied with the transition. Analysis varying concentrations of HFIP and NaCl concurrently showed that the M(HF) state of cyt c is essentially identical to the salt-induced molten-globule (M(G)) state, and the M(G) state in the presence of salt was also stabilized by a low concentration of HFIP. Furthermore, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol stabilized M(HF) similarly to HFIP, supporting the proposition that the specific effect observed for HFIP is caused by fluorination of alcohol. The mechanism stabilizing compact conformation by HFIP remains unclear, but is probably distinct from that of salts and polyols, which are also known to stabilize the M(G)-like state. PMID:10752618

  13. Interaction of insulin with methyl tert-butyl ether promotes molten globule-like state and production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Valipour, Masoumeh; Maghami, Parvaneh; Habibi-Rezaei, Mehran; Sadeghpour, Mostafa; Khademian, Mohamad Ali; Mosavi, Khadijeh; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2015-09-01

    Interaction of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) with proteins is a new look at its potential adverse biological effects. When MTBE is released to the environment it enters the blood stream through inhalation, and could affect the properties of various proteins. Here we investigated the interaction of MTBE with insulin and its effect on insulin structural changes. Our results showed that insulin formed a molten globule (MG)-like structure in the presence of 8 μM MTBE under physiological pH. The insulin structural changes were studied using spectroscopy methods, viscosity calculation, dynamic light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. To delineate the mechanisms involved in MTBE-protein interactions, the formation of reactive oxygen specious (ROS) and formation of protein aggregates were measured. The chemiluminscence experiments revealed an increase in ROS production in the presence of MTBE especially in the MG-like state. These results were further confirmed by the aggregation tests, which indicated more aggregation of insulin at 40 μM MTBE compared with 8 μM. Thus, the formation of initial aggregates and exposure of the hydrophobic patches upon formation of the MG-like state in the presence of MTBE drives protein oxidation and ROS generation.

  14. Mechanistic Insight into the Reactivation of BCAII Enzyme from Denatured and Molten Globule States by Eukaryotic Ribosomes and Domain V rRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Biprashekhar; Bhakta, Sayan; Sengupta, Jayati

    2016-01-01

    In all life forms, decoding of messenger-RNA into polypeptide chain is accomplished by the ribosome. Several protein chaperones are known to bind at the exit of ribosomal tunnel to ensure proper folding of the nascent chain by inhibiting their premature folding in the densely crowded environment of the cell. However, accumulating evidence suggests that ribosome may play a chaperone role in protein folding events in vitro. Ribosome-mediated folding of denatured proteins by prokaryotic ribosomes has been studied extensively. The RNA-assisted chaperone activity of the prokaryotic ribosome has been attributed to the domain V, a span of 23S rRNA at the intersubunit side of the large subunit encompassing the Peptidyl Transferase Centre. Evidently, this functional property of ribosome is unrelated to the nascent chain protein folding at the exit of the ribosomal tunnel. Here, we seek to scrutinize whether this unique function is conserved in a primitive kinetoplastid group of eukaryotic species Leishmania donovani where the ribosome structure possesses distinct additional features and appears markedly different compared to other higher eukaryotic ribosomes. Bovine Carbonic Anhydrase II (BCAII) enzyme was considered as the model protein. Our results manifest that domain V of the large subunit rRNA of Leishmania ribosomes preserves chaperone activity suggesting that ribosome-mediated protein folding is, indeed, a conserved phenomenon. Further, we aimed to investigate the mechanism underpinning the ribosome-assisted protein reactivation process. Interestingly, the surface plasmon resonance binding analyses exhibit that rRNA guides productive folding by directly interacting with molten globule-like states of the protein. In contrast, native protein shows no notable affinity to the rRNA. Thus, our study not only confirms conserved, RNA-mediated chaperoning role of ribosome but also provides crucial insight into the mechanism of the process. PMID:27099964

  15. Mechanistic Insight into the Reactivation of BCAII Enzyme from Denatured and Molten Globule States by Eukaryotic Ribosomes and Domain V rRNAs.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Biprashekhar; Bhakta, Sayan; Sengupta, Jayati

    2016-01-01

    In all life forms, decoding of messenger-RNA into polypeptide chain is accomplished by the ribosome. Several protein chaperones are known to bind at the exit of ribosomal tunnel to ensure proper folding of the nascent chain by inhibiting their premature folding in the densely crowded environment of the cell. However, accumulating evidence suggests that ribosome may play a chaperone role in protein folding events in vitro. Ribosome-mediated folding of denatured proteins by prokaryotic ribosomes has been studied extensively. The RNA-assisted chaperone activity of the prokaryotic ribosome has been attributed to the domain V, a span of 23S rRNA at the intersubunit side of the large subunit encompassing the Peptidyl Transferase Centre. Evidently, this functional property of ribosome is unrelated to the nascent chain protein folding at the exit of the ribosomal tunnel. Here, we seek to scrutinize whether this unique function is conserved in a primitive kinetoplastid group of eukaryotic species Leishmania donovani where the ribosome structure possesses distinct additional features and appears markedly different compared to other higher eukaryotic ribosomes. Bovine Carbonic Anhydrase II (BCAII) enzyme was considered as the model protein. Our results manifest that domain V of the large subunit rRNA of Leishmania ribosomes preserves chaperone activity suggesting that ribosome-mediated protein folding is, indeed, a conserved phenomenon. Further, we aimed to investigate the mechanism underpinning the ribosome-assisted protein reactivation process. Interestingly, the surface plasmon resonance binding analyses exhibit that rRNA guides productive folding by directly interacting with molten globule-like states of the protein. In contrast, native protein shows no notable affinity to the rRNA. Thus, our study not only confirms conserved, RNA-mediated chaperoning role of ribosome but also provides crucial insight into the mechanism of the process.

  16. Partial phase diagram of aqueous bovine carbonic anhydrase: analyses of the pressure-dependent temperatures of the low- to physiological-temperature nondenaturational conformational change and of unfolding to the molten globule state.

    PubMed

    McNevin, Stacey L; Nguyen, Duong T; Britt, B Mark

    2008-10-01

    At 1.0 atm pressure and in 150 mM sodium phosphate (pH=7.0), bovine carbonic anhydrase undergoes a nondenaturational conformational change at 30.3 degrees C and an unfolding transition from the physiological conformer to the molten globule state at 67.4 degrees C. The pressure dependences of the temperatures of these transitions have been studied under reversible conditions for the purpose of understanding DeltaH degrees, DeltaS degrees, and DeltaV for each conformational change. Temperatures for the low-temperature to physiological-temperature conformational change TL-->P are obtained from physiologically relevant conditions using slow-scan-rate differential scanning calorimetry. Temperatures for the physiological-temperature conformation to molten globule state conversion TP-->MG are obtained from differential scanning calorimetry measurements of the apparent transition temperature in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride extrapolated to zero molar denaturant. The use of slow-scan-rate differential scanning calorimetry permits the calculation of the activation volume for the conversion of the low-temperature conformer to the physiological-temperature conformer DeltaVL-->P. At 1.0 atm pressure, the transition from the low-temperature conformer to the physiological-temperature conformer involves a volume change DeltaVL-->P=15+/-2 L/mole, which contrasts with the partial unfolding of the physiological-temperature conformer to the molten globule state (DeltaVP-->MG=26+/-9 L/mole). The activation volume for this process DeltaVL-->P=51+/-9 L/mole and is consistent with a prior thermodynamic analysis that suggests the conformational transition from the low-temperature conformation to the physiological-temperature conformation possesses a substantial unfolding quality. These results provide further evidence the structure of the enzyme obtained from crystals grown below 30 degrees C should not be regarded as the physiological structure (the normal bovine body

  17. Structural and thermal stability analysis of Escherichia coli and Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius thioredoxin revealed a molten globule-like state in thermal denaturation pathway of the proteins: an infrared spectroscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Pedone, Emilia; Bartolucci, Simonetta; Rossi, Mosè; Pierfederici, Francesco Maria; Scirè, Andrea; Cacciamani, Tiziana; Tanfani, Fabio

    2003-01-01

    The structure of thioredoxin from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (previously named Bacillus acidocaldarius ) (BacTrx) and from Escherichia coli ( E. coli Trx) was studied by Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy. Two mutants of BacTrx [Lys(18)-->Gly (K18G) and Arg(82)-->Glu (R82E)] were also analysed. The data revealed similar secondary structures in all proteins, but BacTrx and its mutants showed a more compact structure than E. coli Trx. In BacTrx and its mutants, the compactness was p(2)H-dependent. All proteins revealed the existence of a molten globule-like state. At p(2)H 5.8, the temperature at which this state was detected was higher in BacTrx and decreased in the different proteins in the following order: BacTrx>R82E>K18G> E. coli Trx. At neutral or basic p(2)H, the molten globule-like state was detected at the same temperature in both BacTrx and R82E, whereas it was found at the same temperature in all p(2)Hs tested for E. coli Trx. The thermal stability of the proteins was in the following order at all p(2)Hs tested: BacTrx>R82E>K18G> E. coli Trx, and was lower for each protein at p(2)H 8.4 than at neutral or acidic p(2)Hs. The formation of protein aggregates, brought about by thermal denaturation, were observed for BacTrx and K18G at all p(2)Hs tested, whereas they were present in R82E and E. coli Trx samples only at p(2)H 5.8. The results indicated that a single mutation might affect the structural properties of a protein, including its propensity to aggregate at high temperatures. The data also indicated a possible application of Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy for assessing molten globule-like states in small proteins. PMID:12733987

  18. Thackeray's Globules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Strangely glowing, floating dark clouds are silhouetted against nearby bright stars in a busy star-forming region viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

    The image showing dense, opaque dust clouds - known as globules - in the star-forming region IC 2944 is available online at http://heritage.stsci.edu or http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/01 or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . It was taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    Little is known about the origin and nature of these globules in IC 2944, which were first found by astronomer A.D. Thackeray in 1950. Globules are generally associated with large hydrogen-emitting star-formation regions, which give off the glowing light of hydrogen gas.

    The largest globule in this image consists of two separate clouds that gently overlap along our line of sight. Each cloud is nearly 1.4 light-years along its longest dimension. Collectively, they contain enough material to equal more than 15 times the mass of our Sun. The surrounding hydrogen-rich region, IC 2944, is filled with gas and dust illuminated and heated by a loose cluster of stars that are much hotter and more massive than our Sun. IC 2944 is relatively close by, only 5,900 light-years away in the constellation Centaurus.

    Using the remarkable resolution of Hubble, astronomers can for the first time study the intricate structure of these globules. They appear to be heavily fractured, as if major forces were tearing them apart. When radio astronomers observed the faint hiss of molecules within the globules, they realized that the globules are actually in constant, churning motion, moving supersonically among each other. This may be caused by powerful ultraviolet radiation from the luminous, massive stars, which heat up hydrogen gas in the region. The gas expands and streams against the globules, leading to their destruction. Despite their serene appearance

  19. Radial systems of dark globules

    SciTech Connect

    Gyul'budagyn, A.L.

    1986-03-01

    The author gives examples of radial systems consisting of dark globules and ''elephant trunks''. Besides already known systems, which contain hot stars at their center, data are given on three radial systems of a new kind, at the center of which there are stars of spectral types later than B. Data are given on 32 globules of radial systems of the association Cep OB2. On the basis of the observational data, it is concluded that at least some of the isolated Bok globules derive from elephant trunks and dark globules forming radial systems around hot stars. It is also suggested that the two molecular clouds situated near the Rosette nebula and possessing velocities differing by ca 20 km/sec from the velocity of the nebula could have been ejected in opposite directions from the center of the nebula. One of these clouds consists of dark globules forming the radial system of the Rosette nebula.

  20. The numerical analysis of the rotational theory for the formation of lunar globules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J.; Bastin, J.; Stewart, K.

    1982-01-01

    The morphology of lunar globules is studied through the application of a numerical analysis of their rotation in space during cooling. It is assumed that molten rock is shot from the surface of the moon, solidifies in space above the moon and then falls back to the surface. The rotational theory studied makes the following assumptions: the volume of the molten rock does not change during cooling; the angular momentum is conserved; there are no internal motions because of the high viscosity of the molten rock, i.e., in equilibrium the globule is rotating as a rigid body; finally, the kinetic reaction of the globule to the forces is fast relative to the rate of cooling, i.e., the globule reaches equilibrium at constant energy. These assumptions are subjected to numerical analysis yielding good agreement between the actual globule shapes and the numerical results, but leaving some doubt as to the validity of the rotational theory due to the failure to establish the existence of true local minima and an incomplete understanding of the thermokentics.

  1. Thackeray's Globules in IC 2944

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Strangely glowing dark clouds float serenely in this remarkable and beautiful image taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. These dense, opaque dust clouds - known as 'globules' - are silhouetted against nearby bright stars in the busy star-forming region, IC 2944. These globules were first found in IC 2944 by astronomer A.D. Thackeray in 1950. Although globules like these have been known since Dutch-American astronomer Bart Bok first drew attention to such objects in 1947, little is still known about their origin and nature, except that they are generally associated with areas of star formation, called 'HII regions' due to the presence of hydrogen gas. The largest of the globules in this image is actually two separate clouds that gently overlap along our line of sight. Each cloud is nearly 1.4 light-years (50 arcseconds) along its longest dimension, and collectively, they contain enough material to equal over 15 solar masses. IC 2944, the surrounding HII region, is filled with gas and dust that is illuminated and heated by a loose cluster of O-type stars. These stars are much hotter and much more massive than our Sun. IC 2944 is relatively close by, located only 5900 light-years (1800 parsecs) away in the constellation Centaurus. Thanks to the remarkable resolution offered by the Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers can for the first time study the intricate structure of these globules. The globules appear to be heavily fractured, as if major forces were tearing them apart. When radio astronomers observed the faint hiss of molecules within the globules, they realized that the globules are actually in constant, churning motion, moving supersonically among each other. This may be caused by the powerful ultraviolet radiation from the luminous, massive stars, which also heat up the gas in the HII region, causing it to expand and stream against the globules, leading to their destruction. Despite their serene appearance, the globules may actually be likened to clumps

  2. Fractal globule as a molecular machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetisov, V. A.; Ivanov, V. A.; Meshkov, D. A.; Nechaev, S. K.

    2013-10-01

    A fractal (crumpled) polymer globule, which is an unusual equilibrium state of a condensed unknotted macromolecule that is experimentally found in the DNA folding in human chromosomes, has been formed through the hierarchical collapse of a polymer chain. The relaxation dynamics of the elastic network constructed through the contact matrix of the fractal globule has been studied. It has been found that the fractal globule in its dynamic properties is similar to a molecular machine.

  3. Molecular mechanisms of the cytotoxicity of human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) and other protein-oleic acid complexes.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Kariya, Ryusho; Okada, Seiji; Demura, Makoto; Kawano, Keiichi; Makabe, Koki; Kuwajima, Kunihiro

    2013-05-17

    Although HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells), a complex formed by human α-lactalbumin and oleic acid, has a unique apoptotic activity for the selective killing of tumor cells, the molecular mechanisms of expression of the HAMLET activity are not well understood. Therefore, we studied the molecular properties of HAMLET and its goat counterpart, GAMLET (goat α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells), by pulse field gradient NMR and 920-MHz two-dimensional NMR techniques. We also examined the expression of HAMLET-like activities of complexes between oleic acid and other proteins that form a stable molten globule state. We observed that both HAMLET and GAMLET at pH 7.5 were heterogeneous, composed of the native protein, the monomeric molten globule-like state, and the oligomeric species. At pH 2.0 and 50 °C, HAMLET and GAMLET appeared in the monomeric state, and we identified the oleic acid-binding site in the complexes by two-dimensional NMR. Rather surprisingly, the binding site thus identified was markedly different between HAMLET and GAMLET. Furthermore, canine milk lysozyme, apo-myoglobin, and β2-microglobulin all formed the HAMLET-like complex with the anti-tumor activity, when the protein was treated with oleic acid under conditions in which their molten globule states were stable. From these results, we conclude that the protein portion of HAMLET, GAMLET, and the other HAMLET-like protein-oleic acid complexes is not the origin of their cytotoxicity to tumor cells and that the protein portion of these complexes plays a role in the delivery of cytotoxic oleic acid molecules into tumor cells across the cell membrane.

  4. Presolar Organic Globules in Astromaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Presolar grains were identified in meteorite residues 20 years ago based on their exotic isotopic compositions [1]. Their study has provide new insights into stellar evolution and the first view of the original building blocks of the solar system. Organic matter in meteorites and IDPs is highly enriched in D/H and N-15/N-14 at micron scales, possibly due to presolar organic grains [2-4]. These anomalies are ascribed to the partial preservation of presolar cold molecular cloud material. Identifying the carriers of these anomalies and elucidating their physical and chemical properties may give new views of interstellar chemistry and better understanding of the original components of the protosolar disk. However, identifying the carriers has been hampered by their small size and the inability to chemically isolate them. Thanks to major advances in nano-scale analytical techniques and advanced sample preparation, we were able to show that in the Tagish Lake meteorite, the principle carriers of these isotopic anomalies are sub-microns, hollow organic globules [5]. The organic globules likely formed by photochemical processing of organic ices in a cold molecular cloud or the outermost regions of the protosolar disk [5]. Organic globules with similar physical, chemical, and isotopic properties are also recently found from Bells CM2 carbonaceous chondrite, in IDPs [6] and in the comet Wild-2 samples returned by Stardust [7]. These results support the view that microscopic organic grains were widespread constituents of the protoplanetary disk. Their exotic isotopic compositions trace their origins to the outermost portions of the protosolar disk or a presolar cold molecular cloud.

  5. Dusty globules in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenman, T.; Gahm, G. F.; Elfgren, E.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Dust grains are widespread in the Crab Nebula. A number of small, dusty globules, are visible as dark spots against the background of continuous synchrotron emission in optical images. Aims: Our aim is to catalogue such dusty globules and investigate their properties. Methods: From existing broad-band images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, we located 92 globules, for which we derived positions, dimensions, orientations, extinctions, masses, proper motions, and their distributions. Results: The globules have mean radii ranging from 400 to 2000 AU and are not resolved in current infrared images of the nebula. The extinction law for dust grains in these globules matches a normal interstellar extinction law. Derived masses of dust range from 1 to 60 × 10-6M⊙, and the total mass contained in globules constitute a fraction of approximately 2% or less of the total dust content of the nebula. The globules are spread over the outer part of the nebula, and a fraction of them coincide in position with emission filaments, where we find elongated globules that are aligned with these filaments. Only 10% of the globules are coincident in position with the numerous H2-emitting knots found in previous studies. All globules move outwards from the centre with transversal velocities of 60 to 1600 km s-1, along with the general expansion of the remnant. We discuss various hypotheses for the formation of globules in the Crab Nebula. Based on observations collected with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  6. Oleic acid is a key cytotoxic component of HAMLET-like complexes.

    PubMed

    Permyakov, Sergei E; Knyazeva, Ekaterina L; Khasanova, Leysan M; Fadeev, Roman S; Zhadan, Andrei P; Roche-Hakansson, Hazeline; Håkansson, Anders P; Akatov, Vladimir S; Permyakov, Eugene A

    2012-01-01

    HAMLET is a complex of α-lactalbumin (α-LA) with oleic acid (OA) that selectively kills tumor cells and Streptococcus pneumoniae. To assess the contribution of the proteinaceous component to cytotoxicity of HAMLET, OA complexes with proteins structurally and functionally distinct from α-LA were prepared. Similar to HAMLET, the OA complexes with bovine β-lactoglobulin (bLG) and pike parvalbumin (pPA) (bLG-OA-45 and pPA-OA-45, respectively) induced S. pneumoniae D39 cell death. The activation mechanisms of S. pneumoniae death for these complexes were analogous to those for HAMLET, and the cytotoxicity of the complexes increased with OA content in the preparations. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration for HEp-2 cells linearly decreased with rise in OA content in the preparations, and OA concentration in the preparations causing HEp-2 cell death was close to the cytotoxicity of OA alone. Hence, the cytotoxic action of these complexes against HEp-2 cells is induced mostly by OA. Thermal stabilization of bLG upon association with OA implies that cytotoxicity of bLG-OA-45 complex cannot be ascribed to molten globule-like conformation of the protein component. Overall, the proteinaceous component of HAMLET-like complexes studied is not a prerequisite for their activity; the cytotoxicity of these complexes is mostly due to the action of OA.

  7. Nanophase Iron Globules in Lunar Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, C. L.; Letsinger, S. L.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Basu, A.

    2003-01-01

    Micrometeoritic impacts on lunar soils produce melt and vapor. A patina of condensed vapor is deposited on lunar grains, the melt forms agglutinitic glass. In lunar soils, agglutinitic glass and rinds of grains host submicron-sized globules of pure Fe0 (Fe-rich globules larger than 1 micron usually contain other elements such as Ni, P, and S). Observation and measurement of such small size requires either back scattered electron (BSE) imaging with a high-resolution SEM or transmitted electron imaging with a TEM. The two techniques impose different limitations on the size-range of measurements. Resolution of BSE imaging of polished thin sections or grain mounts of lunar soils is at best around 4-5nm (JEOL 6340F field-emission (FE)-SEM at JSC). Therefore, Fe0 globules below 10nm in cross-sectional diameter are not truly measured. The upper limit of a millimeter or so is not a hindrance. In fact, it is an advantage because whole grains can be observed and mapped at varying magnifications. Angstrom-scale resolution of TEM images is more than sufficient to observe and measure the smallest of Fe0 globules that are about 1nm in cross-section. Microtoming edges of lunar grains; however, puts an upper size limitation of 50nm, at best, on the wafer, which more or less limits measuring Fe0 globules up to 30nm or so. Clearly, SEM and TEM techniques complement each other in obtaining the complete range of size distribution of Fe0 globules in lunar soils. Below we describe, in brief, our method of determining the size distribution of Fe0 globules in agglutinitic glass using BSE-SEM imaging and size measurement. Although our work is incomplete, we also include a table of results obtained so far, which understandably would be refined as we collect more data.

  8. Dark Globule in IC 1396 (IRAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view of inset

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope image of a glowing stellar nursery provides a spectacular contrast to the opaque cloud seen in visible light (inset). The Elephant's Trunk Nebula is an elongated dark globule within the emission nebula IC 1396 in the constellation of Cepheus. Located at a distance of 2,450 light-years, the globule is a condensation of dense gas that is barely surviving the strong ionizing radiation from a nearby massive star. The globule is being compressed by the surrounding ionized gas. The dark globule is seen in silhouette at visible-light wavelengths, backlit by the illumination of a bright star located to the left of the field of view.

    The Spitzer Space Telescope pierces through the obscuration to reveal the birth of new protostars, or embryonic stars, and previously unseen young stars. The infrared image was obtained by Spitzer's infrared array camera. The image is a four-color composite of invisible light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8.0 microns (red). The filamentary appearance of the globule results from the sculpting effects of competing physical processes. The winds from a massive star, located to the left of the image, produce a dense circular rim comprising the 'head' of the globule and a swept-back tail of gas.

    A pair of young stars (LkHa 349 and LkHa 349c) that formed from the dense gas has cleared a spherical cavity within the globule head. While one of these stars is significantly fainter than the other in the visible-light image, they are of comparable brightness in the infrared Spitzer image. This implies the presence of a thick and dusty disc around LkHa 349c. Such circumstellar discs are the precursors of planetary systems. They are much thicker in the early stages of stellar formation when the placental planet-forming material (gas and dust) is still

  9. LIGHT-INDUCED OIL GLOBULE MIGRATION IN HAEMATOCOCCUS PLUVIALIS (CHLOROPHYCEAE).

    PubMed

    Peled, Ehud; Pick, Uri; Zarka, Aliza; Shimoni, Eyal; Leu, Stefan; Boussiba, Sammy

    2012-10-01

    Astaxanthin-rich oil globules in Haematococcus pluvialis display rapid light-induced peripheral migration that is unique to this organism and serves to protect the photosynthetic system from excessive light. We observed rapid light-induced peripheral migration that is associated with chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, whereas the recovery was slow. A simple assay to follow globule migration, based on chlorophyll fluorescence level has been developed. Globule migration was induced by high intensity blue light, but not by high intensity red light. The electron transport inhibitor dichlorophenyl-dimethylurea did not inhibit globule migration, whereas the quinone analog (dibromo-methyl-isopropylbenzoquinone), induced globule migration even at low light. Actin microfilament-directed toxins, such as cytochalasin B and latrunculin A, inhibited the light-induced globule migration, whereas toxins against microtubules were ineffective. Electron microscopic (EM) imaging confirmed the cytoplasmic localization and peripheral migration of globules upon exposure to very high light (VHL). Scanning EM of freeze-fractured cells also revealed globules within cytoplasmic bridges traversing the chloroplast, presumably representing the pathway of migration. Close alignments of globules with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes were also observed following VHL illumination. We propose that light-induced globule migration is regulated by the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport system. Possible mechanisms of actin-based globule migration are discussed.

  10. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  11. Interstellar organic globules in meteorites and comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messenger, Scott; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Keller, Lindsay

    Organic matter in primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) is often enriched in D/H and 15N/14N relative to terrestrial values [1-3] due to preservation of interstellar cold molecular cloud material [1]. Some meteorites and IDPs contain micrometer-size inclusions with extreme H and N isotopic anomalies [2-4], possibly due to preserved primordial organic grains. In the Tagish Lake meteorite the main carriers of these anomalies are sub-micrometer, hollow organic globules [5]. Similar objects have been observed in extracts of other chondritic meteorites, but little is known about their N and H isotopic compositions [6-8]. We have measured the H, C, and N isotopic compositions of organic globules in the Bells CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteorite, NASA Stardust (comet Wild-2) mission samples, and in ‘cometary' IDPs. High-resolution TEM imaging and EELS show that the globules consist of structurally amorphous carbon lacking long range order or development of graphite-like domains. In almost all cases the organic globules have strong enrichments in D/H and 15N/14N. These isotopic anomalies likely resulted from low temperature ( 10 K) chemical reactions in a cold molecular cloud or at the outer regions of the protosolar nebula. These results show that microscopic organic grains were widespread constituents of the protoplanetary disk. Microscopic organic globules may thus have been a common form of prebiotic organic matter delivered to the early Earth by comets and meteorites. References: [1] Messenger S. and Walker R.M. in Astrophysical Implications of the Laboratory Study of Presolar Materials (1997), p.545. [2] Messenger S. (2000) Nature 404, 968. [3] Busemann H. et al. (2006), Science 312, 727. [4] Floss C. et al. (2004) Science 303, 1355. [5] Nakamura-Messenger K. et al. (2006) Science, 314, 1439. [6] Claus G. and Nagy B., (1961) Nature 192, 594 [7] Aoki T., Akai J., Makino K. (2003) Int Symp.Evol. of Solar System Materials 5 [8] Garvie L

  12. Cometary globules in the southeast quadrant of the Rosette nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Nimesh A.; Xie, Taoling; Goldsmith, Paul F.

    1993-01-01

    We present a study of newly identified cometary globules in the southeast quadrant of the Rosette nebula using the J = 1-0 transition of carbon monoxide. The globules are found to be blueshifted by about 6 km/s with respect to the adjacent Rosette molecular cloud. The masses of the globules vary from 50 to 300 solar masses, and their sizes are between 1 and 3 pc. Two of the globules have cometary morphology and show velocity gradients of about 1.5 km/s/pc along their symmetry axes. These globules are associated with the IRAS sources 06314+0421, X0632+043, 06322+0427, and 06327+0423 which coincide with local maxima in the (C-13)O emission. The derived physical parameters of the globules are found to be consistent with those predicted by recent theoretical models of photoevaporating cometary clouds. We suggest that star formation induced by radiation driven implosion has occurred.

  13. Interactions between milk fat globules and green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Rashidinejad, Ali; Birch, E John; Everett, David W

    2016-05-15

    The determination of putative chemical interactions between the milk fat globule membrane and green tea catechins provided useful information about the role of milk fat globules (MFGs) in high-fat dairy systems, such as cheese, and containing bioactive compounds, such as tea catechins. Catechins from green tea (125-1,000 ppm), including (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, and green tea extract were added to washed MFGs to examine possible interactions. The addition of catechins gave a significant change in the size and ζ-potential of MFGs. The recovery of different catechins from the milk fat globule suspensions was found to vary, suggesting selective association with the milk fat globule membranes. The interactions were further investigated using transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. It is suggested that catechins are localised in association with milk fat globule membrane domains as they contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties with potential points of molecular interaction.

  14. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  15. Electrodeposition of molten silicon

    DOEpatents

    De Mattei, Robert C.; Elwell, Dennis; Feigelson, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    Silicon dioxide is dissolved in a molten electrolytic bath, preferably comprising barium oxide and barium fluoride. A direct current is passed between an anode and a cathode in the bath to reduce the dissolved silicon dioxide to non-alloyed silicon in molten form, which is removed from the bath.

  16. Case Report: Floating fat globule within an arachnoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sudhir, Jayanand; Gopalakrishnan, Chittur Viswanathan; Prabhu, Sathia; Chinchure, Swati

    2011-01-01

    Intralesional floating fat globules have been reported in cystic lesions such as teratoma of the ovary and dermoid of the head and neck but not within intracranial lesions. Fat globules dispersed within the subarachnoid space are a known imaging finding of ruptured intracranial dermoid. We report a unique case of an intralesional solitary floating fat globule within a multicompartmental arachnoid cyst, with varying locations on serial imaging. We also put forward a hypothesis for the pathogenesis of fat within an arachnoid cyst. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such report in the literature. PMID:22013301

  17. Fractal Globules: A New Approach to Artificial Molecular Machines

    PubMed Central

    Avetisov, Vladik A.; Ivanov, Viktor A.; Meshkov, Dmitry A.; Nechaev, Sergei K.

    2014-01-01

    The over-damped relaxation of elastic networks constructed by contact maps of hierarchically folded fractal (crumpled) polymer globules was investigated in detail. It was found that the relaxation dynamics of an anisotropic fractal globule is very similar to the behavior of biological molecular machines like motor proteins. When it is perturbed, the system quickly relaxes to a low-dimensional manifold, M, with a large basin of attraction and then slowly approaches equilibrium, not escaping M. Taking these properties into account, it is suggested that fractal globules, even those made by synthetic polymers, are artificial molecular machines that can transform perturbations into directed quasimechanical motion along a defined path. PMID:25418305

  18. Organic Globules in Carbonaceous Chondrites: An Experimental Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, C.-C.; ten Kate, I. L.; Plümper, O.; King, H. E.; Geisler, T.; Lenting, C.; Tielens, X.

    2016-08-01

    PAHs have been considered as material composing organic globules in CCs. In order to test the PAH precursor hypothesis, we conducted hydrothermal as well as melting experiments with two different types of PAHs.

  19. Molten Salt Electrochemical Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-31

    metal tetrafluoroborates were examined for similar behavior. Commercial samples of the lithium, sodium and potassium salts were used, while the...REPORT a PERID C £0 inal, 1 June 1980-31 March Molten Salt Electrochemical Systems 1983 6 PERFORMING OŘG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a) I CONTRACT OR...dilfferent from Reporl) IS. KEY WORDS (Continue ora ow... side 55 n~cssay and Identify by block number ) Molten Salt , Phase Diagram, Electrolyte 30

  20. Molten metal reactors

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  1. On the origins of polarization holes in Bok globules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, R.; Wolf, S.; Reissl, S.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Polarimetric observations of Bok globules frequently show a decrease in the degree of polarization towards their central dense regions (polarization holes). This behaviour is usually explained with increased disalignment owing to high density and temperature, or insufficient angular resolution of a possibly complex magnetic field structure. Aims: We investigate whether a significant decrease in polarized emission of dense regions in Bok globules is possible under certain physical conditions. For instance, we evaluate the impact of optical depth effects and various properties of the dust phase. Methods: We use radiative transfer modelling to calculate the temperature structure of an analytical Bok globule model and simulate the polarized thermal emission of elongated dust grains. For the alignment of the dust grains, we consider a magnetic field and include radiative torque and internal alignment. Results: Besides the usual explanations, selected conditions of the temperature and density distribution, the dust phase and the magnetic field are also able to significantly decrease the polarized emission of dense regions in Bok globules. Taking submm/mm grains and typical column densities of existing Bok globules into consideration, the optical depth is high enough to decrease the degree of polarization by up to ΔP ~ 10%. If limited to the densest regions, dust grain growth to submm/mm size and accumulated graphite grains decrease the degree of polarization by up to ΔP ~ 10% and ΔP ~ 5%, respectively. However, the effect of the graphite grains occurs only if they do not align with the magnetic field.

  2. Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the photoionization of magnetized globules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henney, William J.; Arthur, S. Jane; de Colle, Fabio; Mellema, Garrelt

    2009-09-01

    We present the first three-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the photoionization of a dense, magnetized molecular globule by an external source of ultraviolet radiation. We find that, for the case of a strong ionizing field, significant deviations from the non-magnetic evolution are seen when the initial magnetic field threading the globule has an associated magnetic pressure that is greater than 100 times the gas pressure. In such a strong-field case, the photoevaporating globule will adopt a flattened or `curled up' shape, depending on the initial field orientation, and magnetic confinement of the ionized photoevaporation flow can lead to recombination and subsequent fragmentation during advanced stages of the globule evolution. We find suggestive evidence that such magnetic effects may be important in the formation of bright, bar-like emission features in HII regions. We include simple but realistic fits to heating and cooling rates in the neutral and molecular gas in the vicinity of a high-mass star cluster, and show that the frequently used isothermal approximation can lead to an overestimate of the importance of gravitational instability in the radiatively imploded globule. For globules within 2 pc of a high-mass star cluster, we find that heating by stellar X-rays prevents the molecular gas from cooling below 50 K. Based in part on numerical simulations carried out using the Kan Balam supercomputer, operated by the Departamento de Supercómputo, Dirección General de Servicios de Cómputo Académico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. E-mail: w.henney@astrosmo.unam.mx

  3. Hydrothermal Origin for Carbonate Globules in ALH84001 by Analogy with Similar Carbonates from Spitsbergen (Norway)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, A. H.; Amundsen, H. E. F.; Blake, D. F.; Bunch, T.

    2002-01-01

    Basalts and xenoliths from Spitsbergen (Norway) contain carbonate globules nearly identical to those in ALH84001. The Spitsbergen globules formed from hydrothermal waters by analogy, so did those in ALH84001. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. ISO Observations of Starless Bok Globules: Usually No Embedded Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemens, D.; Byrne, A.; Yun, J.; Kane, B.

    1996-01-01

    We have used ISOCAM to search the cores of a sample of small Bok globules previously classified to be mostly starless based on analysis of IRAS data. The ISO observations at 6.75microns (LW2 filter) and 14.5microns (LW3 filter) were sufficiently deep to enable detection of any low-mass hydrogen burning star or young stellar object (YSO) embedded in these globules. Of the 20 Bok globules observed by ISOCAM to date, we have reduced the data for 14. Of these, 13 show no evidence for faint red (S(sub v)(LW3) greater than S(sub v)(LW2)) stars missed by IRAS. One (CB68) does show the first mid-infrared detection of the very cool IRAS source toward this cloud, and may be a Class I or 0 YSO. We conclude, based on these new ISO observations, that Bok globules which have no IRAS sources are in general bona fide starless molecular clouds.

  5. The Bok globule BHR 160: structure and star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haikala, L. K.; Reipurth, B.

    2017-01-01

    Context. BHR 160 is a virtually unstudied cometary globule within the Sco OB4 association in Scorpius at a distance of 1600 pc. It is part of a system of cometary clouds which face the luminous O star HD 155806. BHR 160 is special because it has an intense bright rim. Aims: We attempt to derive physical parameters for BHR 160 and to understand its structure and the origin of its peculiar bright rim. Methods: BHR 160 was mapped in the , and C18O(2-1) and (1-0) and CS (3-2) and (2-1) lines. These data, augmented with stellar photometry derived from the ESO VVV survey, were used to derive the mass and distribution of molecular material in BHR 160 and its surroundings. Archival mid-infrared data from the WISE satellite was used to find IR excess stars in the globule and its neighbourhood. Results: An elongated 1' by 0.´6 core lies adjacent to the globule bright rim. emission covers the whole globule, but the , C18Oand CS emission is more concentrated to the core. The line profiles indicate the presence of outflowing material near the core, but the spatial resolution of the mm data is not sufficient for a detailed spatial analysis. The BHR 160 mass estimated from the C18Omapping is100 ± 50 M⊙ (d/1.6 kpc)2 where d is the distance to the globule. Approximately 70% of the mass lies in the dense core. The total mass of molecular gas in the direction of BHR 160 is 210 ± 80 (d/1.6 kpc)2 M⊙ when estimated from the more extended VVV near-infrared photometry. We argue that the bright rim of BHR 160 is produced by a close-by early B-type star, HD 319648, that was likely recently born in the globule. This star is likely to have triggered the formation of a source, IRS 1, that is embedded within the core of the globule and detected only in Ks and by WISE and IRAS. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla or Paranal Observatories.Reduced molecular line spectra (The SEST spectra as FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  6. Microstructure of fat globules in whole milk after thermosonication treatment.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez-Aguirre, D; Mawson, R; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V

    2008-09-01

    The structure of fat globules in whole milk was studied after heat and thermosonication treatments to observe what happens during these processes at the microscopic level using scanning electron microscopy. Raw whole milk was thermosonicated in an ultrasonic processor-Hielscher UP400S (400 W, 24 kHz, 120 microm amplitude), using a 22-mm probe at 63 degrees C for 30 min. Heat treatment involved heating the milk at 63 degrees C for 30 min. Color and fat content were measured to correlate the images with analytical measurements. The results showed that the surface of the fat globule was completely roughened after thermosonication. Ultrasound waves were responsible for disintegrating the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) by releasing the triacylglycerols. Furthermore, the overall structure of milk after sonication showed smaller fat globules (smaller than 1 microm) and a granular surface. This was due to the interaction between the disrupted MFGM and some casein micelles. Minor changes in the aspect of the globules between thermal and raw milks were detected. Color measurements showed higher L* values for sonicated samples. Sonicated milk was whiter (92.37 +/- 0.20) and generally showed a better degree of luminosity and homogenization compared to thermal treated milk (88.25 +/- 0.67) and raw milk (87.82 +/- 0.18). Fat content analysis yielded a higher value after sonication (4.24%) compared to untreated raw milk (4.04%) because fat extraction is more efficient after sonication. The advantages of thermosonicated milk are that it can be pasteurized and homogenized in just 1 step, it can be produced with important cost savings, and it has better characteristics, making thermosonication a potential processing method for milk and most other dairy products.

  7. Molten core retention assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1976-06-22

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical, imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods.

  8. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established.

  9. Facilitated diffusion of proteins through crumpled fractal DNA globules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smrek, Jan; Grosberg, Alexander Y.

    2015-07-01

    We explore how the specific fractal globule conformation, found for the chromatin fiber of higher eukaryotes and topologically constrained dense polymers, affects the facilitated diffusion of proteins in this environment. Using scaling arguments and supporting Monte Carlo simulations, we relate DNA looping probability distribution, fractal dimension, and protein nonspecific affinity for the DNA to the effective diffusion parameters of the proteins. We explicitly consider correlations between subsequent readsorption events of the proteins, and we find that facilitated diffusion is faster for the crumpled globule conformation with high intersegmental surface dimension than in the case of dense fractal conformations with smooth surfaces. As a byproduct, we obtain an expression for the macroscopic conductivity of a hypothetic material consisting of conducting fractal nanowires immersed in a weakly conducting medium.

  10. Ionization front interactions and the formation of globules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, P. W. J. L.

    1981-10-01

    It is assumed that an H II region has evolved inside a molecular cloud. The interactions that result from the expanding shell of compressed molecular gas reaching the edge of the cloud are calculated, and the instability of the ionization front to the formation of globules is investigated. The rarefaction wave which is reflected from the contact discontinuity as the leading shock passes through the edge of the cloud accelerates the ionization front, and since conditions at the front satisfy Capriotti's criterion for instability, the shell breaks up. The size of the fragment so created is determined by the thickness of the compressed shell. If the shell phase of H II region evolution has proceeded significantly, then globules of up to a fraction of a solar mass may be formed in an H II region caused by a star with an ionizing luminosity of 10 to the 49th photons/sec in a molecular cloud of density 1000/cu cm. These globules may survive the ionizing flux from the star, and will be driven from the cloud by the rocket effect.

  11. Magnetic field geometry of the large globule CB 34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, A.; Das, H. S.; Medhi, Biman J.; Wolf, S.

    2016-12-01

    We report the results of optical polarimetric observations of a Bok globule CB34 to study magnetic field structure on large scales (105-106 AU), which is combined with archival sub-mm observations to characterize the magnetic field structure of CB34 on small scales (104-105 AU). The optical polarization measurements indicate that the magnetic field in the globule is constrained to a maximum radius of 105 AU around the core, out to densities not smaller than 104 cm^{-3}. Our study is mainly concentrated on two submillimeter cores C1 and C2 of CB34. The direction of magnetic field of core C2 is found to be nearly perpendicular to the CO outflow direction of the globule. The magnetic field of core C1 is almost aligned with the minor axis of the core which is typical for magnetically dominated star formation models. The mean value of offset between the minor axis of core C2 and the outflow direction is found to be 14° which suggests that the direct ion of the outflow is almost aligned with the minor axis of core C2. The magnetic field strength in the plane-of-sky for cores C1 and C2 is estimated to be ≈ 34 μG and ≈ 70 μG.

  12. 13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT EXTRACTION LINE. THE MOLTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT EXTRACTION LINE. THE MOLTEN SALT EXTRACTION PROCESS WAS USED TO PURIFY PLUTONIUM BY REMOVING AMERICIUM, A DECAY BY-PRODUCT OF PLUTONIUM. (1/98) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Detection and removal of molten salts from molten aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    K. Butcher; D. Smith; C. L. Lin; L. Aubrey

    1999-08-02

    Molten salts are one source of inclusions and defects in aluminum ingots and cast shapes. A selective adsorption media was used to remove these inclusions and a device for detection of molten salts was tested. This set of experiments is described and the results are presented and analyzed.

  14. Catalytically active alkaline molten globular enzyme: Effect of pH and temperature on the structural integrity of 5-aminolevulinate synthase.

    PubMed

    Stojanovski, Bosko M; Breydo, Leonid; Hunter, Gregory A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Ferreira, Gloria C

    2014-12-01

    5-Aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS), a pyridoxal-5'phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the first step of heme biosynthesis in mammals. Circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopies were used to examine the effects of pH (1.0-3.0 and 7.5-10.5) and temperature (20 and 37°C) on the structural integrity of ALAS. The secondary structure, as deduced from far-UV CD, is mostly resilient to pH and temperature changes. Partial unfolding was observed at pH2.0, but further decreasing pH resulted in acid-induced refolding of the secondary structure to nearly native levels. The tertiary structure rigidity, monitored by near-UV CD, is lost under acidic and specific alkaline conditions (pH10.5 and pH9.5/37°C), where ALAS populates a molten globule state. As the enzyme becomes less structured with increased alkalinity, the chiral environment of the internal aldimine is also modified, with a shift from a 420nm to 330nm dichroic band. Under acidic conditions, the PLP cofactor dissociates from ALAS. Reaction with 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid corroborates increased exposure of hydrophobic clusters in the alkaline and acidic molten globules, although the reaction is more pronounced with the latter. Furthermore, quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of ALAS with acrylamide at pH1.0 and 9.5 yielded subtly different dynamic quenching constants. The alkaline molten globule state of ALAS is catalytically active (pH9.5/37°C), although the kcat value is significantly decreased. Finally, the binding of 5-aminolevulinate restricts conformational fluctuations in the alkaline molten globule. Overall, our findings prove how the structural plasticity of ALAS contributes to reaching a functional enzyme.

  15. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  16. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  17. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  18. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  19. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Smith, James L.

    1987-01-01

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas, the cell enclosures collectively providing an enclosure for the array and effectively avoiding the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components, the fuel cell further including an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  20. PIG (partially ionized globule) anatomy - Density and temperature structure of the bright-rimmed globule IC 1396E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabyn, E.; Guesten, R.; Mundy, L.

    1993-01-01

    The density and temperature structure of the bright-rimmed cometary globule IC 1396E is estimated, and the possibility that recent internal star formation was triggered by the ionization front in its southern surface is assessed. On the basis of NH3 data, gas temperatures in the globule are found to increase outward from the center, from a minimum of 17 K in its tail to a maximum of 26 K on the surface most directly facing the stars ionizing IC 1396. On the basis of a microturbulent radiative transfer code to model the radial dependence of the CS line intensities, and also the intensities of the optically thin 2-1 and 5-4 lines toward the cloud center, a radial density dependence of r exp -1.55 to r exp -1.75 is found.

  1. Cathode for molten salt batteries

    DOEpatents

    Mamantov, Gleb; Marassi, Roberto

    1977-01-01

    A molten salt electrochemical system for battery applications comprises tetravalent sulfur as the active cathode material with a molten chloroaluminate solvent comprising a mixture of AlCl.sub.3 and MCl having a molar ratio of AlCl.sub.3 /MCl from greater than 50.0/50.0 to 80/20.

  2. Globules and pillars in Cygnus X. II. Massive star formation in the globule IRAS 20319+3958

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djupvik, A. A.; Comerón, F.; Schneider, N.

    2017-02-01

    Globules and pillars, impressively revealed by the Spitzer and Herschel satellites, for example, are pervasive features found in regions of massive star formation. Studying their embedded stellar populations can provide an excellent laboratory to test theories of triggered star formation and the features that it may imprint on the stellar aggregates resulting from it. We studied the globule IRAS 20319+3958 in Cygnus X by means of visible and near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy, complemented with mid-infrared Spitzer/IRAC imaging, in order to obtain a census of its stellar content and the nature of its embedded sources. Our observations show that the globule contains an embedded aggregate of about 30 very young (≲1 Myr) stellar objects, for which we estimate a total mass of 90 M⊙. The most massive members are three systems containing early B-type stars. Two of them most likely produced very compact H II regions, one of them being still highly embedded and coinciding with a peak seen in emission lines characterising the photon dominated region (PDR). Two of these three systems are resolved binaries, and one of those contains a visible Herbig Be star. An approximate derivation of the mass function of the members of the aggregate gives hints of a slope at high masses shallower than the classical Salpeter slope, and a peak of the mass distribution at a mass higher than that at which the widely adopted log-normal initial mass function peaks. The emission distribution of H2 and Brγ, tracing the PDR and the ionised gas phase, respectively, suggests that molecular gas is distributed as a shell around the embedded aggregate, filled with centrally-condensed ionised gas. Both, the morphology and the low excitation of the H II region, indicate that the sources of ionisation are the B stars of the embedded aggregate, rather than the external UV field caused by the O stars of Cygnus OB2. The youth of the embedded cluster, combined with the isolation of the globule

  3. Presolar Organic Globules in Tagish Lake Meteorite, and other Astromaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    Presolar grains were identified in meteorite residues 20 years ago based on their exotic isotopic compositions. Their study has provide new insights into stellar evolution and the first view of the original building blocks of the solar system. Organic matter in meteorites and IDPs is highly enriched in D/H and N-15/N-14 at micrometer scales, possibly due to presolar organic grains. These anomalies are ascribed to the partial preservation of presolar cold molecular cloud material. Identifying the carriers of these anomalies and elucidating their physical and chemical properties may give new views of interstellar chemistry and better understanding of the original components of the protosolar disk. However, identifying the carriers has been hampered by their small size and the inability to chemically isolate them. Thanks to immediate careful collection of Tagish Lake meteorite specimen, as well as major advances in nano-scale analytical techniques and advanced sample preparation, we were able to show that in the Tagish Lake meteorite, the principle carriers of these isotopic anomalies are sub-micrometer, hollow organic globules. The organic globules likely formed by photochemical processing of organic ices in a cold molecular cloud or the outermost regions of the protosolar disk. Organic globules with similar physical, chemical, and isotopic properties are also recently found from Bells CM2 carbonaceous chondrite, in IDPs and in the comet Wild-2 samples returned by Stardust. These results support the view that microscopic organic grains were widespread constituents of the protoplanetary disk. Their exotic isotopic compositions trace their origins to the outermost portions of the protosolar disk or a presolar cold molecular cloud.

  4. Mars Life? - Orange-colored Carbonate Mineral Globules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photograph shows orange-colored carbonate mineral globules found in a meteorite, called ALH84001, believed to have once been a part of Mars. These carbonate minerals in the meteorite are believed to have been formed on Mars more than 3.6 billion years ago. Their structure and chemistry suggest that they may have been formed with the assistance of primitive, bacteria-like living organisms. A two-year investigation by a NASA research team found organic molecules, mineral features characteristic of biological activity and possible microscopic fossils inside of carbonate minerals such as these in the meteorite.

  5. In situ observation of D-rich carbonaceous globules embedded in NWA 801 CR2 chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiguchi, Minako; Kobayashi, Sachio; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2013-12-01

    Eighty-five D-rich carbonaceous particles were identified in the matrix of the NWA 801 CR2 chondrite using isotope microscopy. The occurrence of 67 D-rich carbonaceous particles was characterized using secondary electron microscopy combined with X-ray elemental mapping. The close association of H and C, and D-enrichment suggests that the D-rich carbonaceous particles correspond to organic matter. The D-rich organic particles were scattered ubiquitously throughout the matrix at a concentration of approximately 660 ppm. The morphology of the D-rich carbonaceous particles is globular up to about 1 μm in diameter and is classified into four types: ring globules, round globules, irregular-shaped globules, and globule aggregates. The ring globules are ring-shaped organic matter containing silicate and/or oxide, with or without a void in the center. This is the first report of silicate and oxide grains surrounded by D-rich organic matter. The globule aggregates are composed of several D-rich organic globules mixed with silicates. Morphology of ring globules is very similar to core-mantle grain produced in the molecular cloud or in the outer solar nebula inferring by astronomy, suggesting that the organic globules have formed by UV photolysis in the ice mantle. Silicates or oxides attached to D-rich organic globules are the first observation among chondrites so far and may be unique nature of CR2 chondrites. The hydrogen isotopic compositions of the ring globules, round globules, irregular-shaped globules, and globule aggregates are δD = 3000-4800, 2900-8100, 2700-11,000, and 2500-11,000‰, respectively. Variations of D/H ratio of these organic globules seemed to be attributed to variations of D/H ratio of the organic radicals or differences of content of the D-rich organic radicals. There are no significant differences in the hydrogen isotopic compositions among the four types of D-rich carbonaceous matter. The D-enrichments suggest that these organic globules have

  6. Isolation of a novel oil globule protein from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Peled, Ehud; Leu, Stefan; Zarka, Aliza; Weiss, Meira; Pick, Uri; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Boussiba, Sammy

    2011-09-01

    Cytoplasmic oil globules of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae) were isolated and analyzed for pigments, lipids and proteins. Astaxanthin appeared to be the only pigment deposited in the globules. Triacyglycerols were the main lipids (more than 90% of total fatty acids) in both the cell-free extract and in the oil globules. Lipid profile analysis of the oil globules showed that relative to the cell-free extract, they were enriched with extraplastidial lipids. A fatty acids profile revealed that the major fatty acids in the isolated globules were oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2). Protein extracts from the globules revealed seven enriched protein bands, all of which were possible globule-associated proteins. A major 33-kDa globule protein was partially sequenced by MS/MS analysis, and degenerate DNA primers were prepared and utilized to clone its encoding gene from cDNA extracted from cells grown in a nitrogen depleted medium under high light. The sequence of this 275-amino acid protein, termed the Haematococcus Oil Globule Protein (HOGP), revealed partial homology with a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii oil globule protein and with undefined proteins from other green algae. The HOGP transcript was barely detectable in vegetative cells, but its level increased by more than 100 fold within 12 h of exposure to nitrogen depletion/high light conditions, which induced oil accumulation. HOGP is the first oil-globule-associated protein to be identified in H. pluvialis, and it is a member of a novel gene family that may be unique to green microalgae.

  7. Electrolysis of a molten semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Huayi; Chung, Brice; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2016-08-01

    Metals cannot be extracted by electrolysis of transition-metal sulfides because as liquids they are semiconductors, which exhibit high levels of electronic conduction and metal dissolution. Herein by introduction of a distinct secondary electrolyte, we reveal a high-throughput electro-desulfurization process that directly converts semiconducting molten stibnite (Sb2S3) into pure (99.9%) liquid antimony and sulfur vapour. At the bottom of the cell liquid antimony pools beneath cathodically polarized molten stibnite. At the top of the cell sulfur issues from a carbon anode immersed in an immiscible secondary molten salt electrolyte disposed above molten stibnite, thereby blocking electronic shorting across the cell. As opposed to conventional extraction practices, direct sulfide electrolysis completely avoids generation of problematic fugitive emissions (CO2, CO and SO2), significantly reduces energy consumption, increases productivity in a single-step process (lower capital and operating costs) and is broadly applicable to a host of electronically conductive transition-metal chalcogenides.

  8. Proteomics of the milk fat globule membrane from Camelus dromedarius.

    PubMed

    Saadaoui, Besma; Henry, Céline; Khorchani, Touhami; Mars, Mohamed; Martin, Patrice; Cebo, Christelle

    2013-04-01

    Camel milk has been widely characterized with regards to casein and whey proteins. However, in camelids, almost nothing is known about the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), the membrane surrounding fat globules in milk. The purpose of this study was thus to identify MFGM proteins from Camelus dromedarius milk. Major MFGM proteins (namely, fatty acid synthase, xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin, lactadherin, and adipophilin) already evidenced in cow milk were identified in camel milk using MS. In addition, a 1D-LC-MS/MS approach led us to identify 322 functional groups of proteins associated with the camel MFGM. Dromedary MFGM proteins were then classified into functional categories using DAVID (the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) bioinformatics resources. More than 50% of MFGM proteins from camel milk were found to be integral membrane proteins (mostly belonging to the plasma membrane), or proteins associated to the membrane. Enriched GO terms associated with MFGM proteins from camel milk were protein transport (p-value = 1.73 × 10(-14)), translation (p-value = 1.08 × 10(-11)), lipid biosynthetic process (p-value = 6.72 × 10(-10)), hexose metabolic process (p-value = 1.89 × 10(-04)), and actin cytoskeleton organization (p-value = 2.72 × 10(-04)). These findings will help to contribute to a better characterization of camel milk. Identified MFGM proteins from camel milk may also provide new insight into lipid droplet formation in the mammary epithelial cell.

  9. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  10. A Study of the Cometary Globules in the GUM Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, T. K.

    1994-09-01

    The first part of the thesis deals with the development of a wide-band mechanically tuned local oscillator using the Gunn diode for use with the 10.4m millimeter-wave radio telescope at the Raman Research Institute. This provides sufficient power to efficiently operate two cryogenic Schottky mixers (dual polarisation) and tunes over the frequency range 75-115 GHz covering most of the 3-mm atmospheric transmission window (W-band). Rotational transitions of many astrophysically important molecules including CO fall in this range. A study of the cometary globules(CGs) in the Gum Nubula forms the second part. The CGs are characterised by compact, dusty heads with long faintly luminous tails extending on one side and narrow bright rims on the other side. There exists a significant population of such CGs in the Gum Nebula, distributed over a region ~80 parsec in radius with their tails pointing away from an apparent common center. Some of the heads have embedded young stars. In the region bounded by the CGs there are a few massive hot stars including zeta Puppis believed to be the most luminous star in the southern sky. It has been suspected that the morphological appearance of the CGs may be due to the influence of these stars. In order to understand the kinematics and the origin of the system, a study was undertaken using the first rotational transition of the carbon monoxide molecule. The study consisted of ^12CO observations of the heads and the tails of the CGs. In addition, the Globule No.22 was mapped in both ^12CO and ^13CO. An analysis of this data has led to the following findings: 1. The system of CGs is expanding with respect to a common morphological center at ~12 kms^-1. The expansion age is ~6 Myr. 2. Some of the tails observed show systematic velocity gradients. If the tails were formed due to the elongation resulting from these velocity gradients then the estimated stretching age is ~3 Myr. In order to clarify if externally triggered star formation is

  11. Milk fat globules: fatty acid composition, size and in vivo regulation of fat liquidity.

    PubMed

    Timmen, H; Patton, S

    1988-07-01

    Populations of large and small milk fat globules were isolated and analyzed to determine differences in fatty acid composition. Globule samples were obtained by centrifugation from milks of a herd and of individual animals produced under both pasture and barn feeding. Triacylglycerols of total globule lipids were prepared by thin layer chromatography and analyzed for fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Using content of the acids in large globules as 100%, small globules contained fewer short-chain acids, -5.9%, less stearic acid, -22.7%, and more oleic acids, +4.6%, mean values for five trials. These differences are consistent with alternative use of short-chain acids or oleic acid converted from stearic acid to maintain liquidity at body temperature of milk fat globules and their precursors, intracellular lipid droplets. Stearyl-CoA desaturase (EC 1.14.99.5), which maintains fluidity of cellular endoplasmic reticulum membrane, is suggested to play a key role in regulating globule fat liquidity. Possible origins of differences between individual globules in fatty acid composition of their triacylglycerols are discussed.

  12. Molten metal injector system and method

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Thomas N.; Kinosz, Michael J.; Bigler, Nicolas; Arnaud, Guy

    2003-04-01

    Disclosed is a molten metal injector system including a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and a molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal having a metal oxide film surface. The bottom side of the mold faces the holder furnace. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The injector projects into the holder furnace and is in fluid communication with the mold cavity. The injector includes a piston positioned within a piston cavity defined by a cylinder for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace and injecting the molten metal into the mold cavity under pressure. The piston and cylinder are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder further includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity. The molten metal intake is located below the metal oxide film surface of the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. A method of injecting molten metal into a mold cavity of a casting mold is also disclosed.

  13. A chemically modified [alpha]-amylase with a molten-globule state has entropically driven enhanced thermal stability

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail; Poljak, Anne; De Francisci, Davide; Guerriero, Gea; Pilak, Oliver; Burg, Dominic; Raftery, Mark J.; Parkin, Don M.; Trewhella, Jill; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2010-11-15

    The thermostability properties of TAA were investigated by chemically modifying carboxyl groups on the surface of the enzyme with AMEs. The TAA{sub MOD} exhibited a 200% improvement in starch-hydrolyzing productivity at 60 C. By studying the kinetic, thermodynamic and biophysical properties, we found that TAA{sub MOD} had formed a thermostable, MG state, in which the unfolding of the tertiary structure preceded that of the secondary structure by at least 20 C. The X-ray crystal structure of TAA{sub MOD} revealed no new permanent interactions (electrostatic or other) resulting from the modification. By deriving thermodynamic activation parameters of TAA{sub MOD}, we rationalised that thermostabilisation have been caused by a decrease in the entropy of the transition state, rather than being enthalpically driven. Far-UV CD shows that the origin of decreased entropy may have arisen from a higher helical content of TAA{sub MOD}. This study provides new insight into the intriguing properties of an MG state resulting from the chemical modification of TAA.

  14. Electrophoresis of small particles and fluid globules in weak electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baygents, J. C.; Saville, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    An examination is conducted of the influence of partial ionization on the electrophoresis of small particles and fluid globules, with a view to the nature of conditions under which dissociation-association (D-A) alters electrokinetics. It is found that, since D-A processes are important in cases where double-layer polarization and relaxation would otherwise prevail, the predicted effect on electrophoretic mobility is greatest for the drops and bubbles whose surfaces are fluid and convection within the interface is significant. While the computation scheme used applies only to situations where forcing-field magnitude is small, the results obtained indicate that D-A processes involving ionogenic solutes may be significant in apolar liquids where electrokinetic phenomena are driven by strong forcing fields.

  15. The fractal globule as a model of chromatin architecture in the cell.

    PubMed

    Mirny, Leonid A

    2011-01-01

    The fractal globule is a compact polymer state that emerges during polymer condensation as a result of topological constraints which prevent one region of the chain from passing across another one. This long-lived intermediate state was introduced in 1988 (Grosberg et al. 1988) and has not been observed in experiments or simulations until recently (Lieberman-Aiden et al. 2009). Recent characterization of human chromatin using a novel chromosome conformational capture technique brought the fractal globule into the spotlight as a structural model of human chromosome on the scale of up to 10 Mb (Lieberman-Aiden et al. 2009). Here, we present the concept of the fractal globule, comparing it to other states of a polymer and focusing on its properties relevant for the biophysics of chromatin. We then discuss properties of the fractal globule that make it an attractive model for chromatin organization inside a cell. Next, we connect the fractal globule to recent studies that emphasize topological constraints as a primary factor driving formation of chromosomal territories. We discuss how theoretical predictions, made on the basis of the fractal globule model, can be tested experimentally. Finally, we discuss whether fractal globule architecture can be relevant for chromatin packing in other organisms such as yeast and bacteria.

  16. Supported molten-metal catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Datta, Ravindra; Singh, Ajeet; Halasz, Istvan; Serban, Manuela

    2001-01-01

    An entirely new class of catalysts called supported molten-metal catalysts, SMMC, which can replace some of the existing precious metal catalysts used in the production of fuels, commodity chemicals, and fine chemicals, as well as in combating pollution. SMMC are based on supporting ultra-thin films or micro-droplets of the relatively low-melting (<600.degree. C.), inexpensive, and abundant metals and semimetals from groups 1, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16, of the periodic table, or their alloys and intermetallic compounds, on porous refractory supports, much like supported microcrystallites of the traditional solid metal catalysts. It thus provides orders of magnitude higher surface area than is obtainable in conventional reactors containing molten metals in pool form and also avoids corrosion. These have so far been the chief stumbling blocks in the application of molten metal catalysts.

  17. Ceramics for Molten Materials Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, Evan; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews the main issues associated with molten materials transfer and handling on the lunar surface during the operation of a hig h temperature electrowinning cell used to produce oxygen, with molten iron and silicon as byproducts. A combination of existing technolog ies and purposely designed technologies show promise for lunar exploi tation. An important limitation that requires extensive investigation is the performance of refractory currently used for the purpose of m olten metal containment and transfer in the lunar environment associa ted with electrolytic cells. The principles of a laboratory scale uni t at a scale equivalent to the production of 1 metric ton of oxygen p er year are introduced. This implies a mass of molten materials to be transferred consistent with the equivalent of 1kg regolithlhr proces sed.

  18. Dual intercalating molten electrolyte batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, R.T.; Long, H.C. De; Fuller, J.; Lauderdale, W.J.; Naughton, T.; Trulove, P.C.; Bahn, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    Dual Intercalating Molten Electrolyte (DIME) electrodes and cells have been examined using a number of low-melting and room-temperature molten salts. A cell with a chloroaluminate melt achieved a cycling efficiency of 85% with a discharge voltage of 2.92 V. Coke-elastomer composite electrodes underwent cation reductive intercalation without experiencing the exfoliation and degradation seen for graphite rods. Theoretical studies for an imidazolium-graphite intercalate predicted the graphite layer spacing expands between 5.18 and 8.01 {angstrom} upon insertion of the imidazolium molecule into the graphite lattice.

  19. Molten carbonate fuel cell improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blurton, K. F.; Marianowski, L. G.

    It is noted that a molten carbonate fuel cell integrated with a coal gasification power plant is one of the most promising coal-using technologies because of its high efficiency, acceptable cost, and environmental acceptability. For the molten carbonate system to achieve these goals, however, continued development is required which must take into account the operating conditions of the application. The progress made in improving cell performance and life is surveyed, evaluating the effect of contaminants on cell performance and the design of multicell stacks and identifying alternative electrolyte compositions. Also discussed is the status of research on other major areas.

  20. Electrolysis of a molten semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Huayi; Chung, Brice; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Metals cannot be extracted by electrolysis of transition-metal sulfides because as liquids they are semiconductors, which exhibit high levels of electronic conduction and metal dissolution. Herein by introduction of a distinct secondary electrolyte, we reveal a high-throughput electro-desulfurization process that directly converts semiconducting molten stibnite (Sb2S3) into pure (99.9%) liquid antimony and sulfur vapour. At the bottom of the cell liquid antimony pools beneath cathodically polarized molten stibnite. At the top of the cell sulfur issues from a carbon anode immersed in an immiscible secondary molten salt electrolyte disposed above molten stibnite, thereby blocking electronic shorting across the cell. As opposed to conventional extraction practices, direct sulfide electrolysis completely avoids generation of problematic fugitive emissions (CO2, CO and SO2), significantly reduces energy consumption, increases productivity in a single-step process (lower capital and operating costs) and is broadly applicable to a host of electronically conductive transition-metal chalcogenides. PMID:27553525

  1. Stability of Molten Core Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Layne Pincock; Wendell Hintze

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document a literature and data search for data and information pertaining to the stability of nuclear reactor molten core materials. This includes data and analysis from TMI-2 fuel and INL’s LOFT (Loss of Fluid Test) reactor project and other sources.

  2. Modern terrestrial analogues for the carbonate globules in Martian meteorite ALH84001.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, Józef; Kempe, Stephan

    2003-04-01

    Modern carbonate globules, located in cracks of submerged volcanic rocks and in calcareous pinnacles in alkaline (sodic) Lake Van, Turkey, appear to be analogues for the approximately 3.9 billion-year-old carbonate globules in Martian meteorite ALH84001. These terrestrial globules have similar diameters and are chemically and mineralogically zoned. Furthermore, they display surface and etching structures similar to those described from ALH84001, which were interpreted as fossilized microbial forms. These terrestrial carbonates formed at low temperatures where Ca-rich groundwaters enter the lake. Chemical, mineralogical, microbiological, and biomolecular methods were used in an attempt to decipher the process responsible for the genesis of these structures. Although the exact mode of formation of Lake Van carbonates remains an enigma, their similarity to the Martian globules indicates that the ALH84001 carbonates may have formed in similar setting on ancient Mars.

  3. The endoplasmic reticulum and casein-containing vesicles contribute to milk fat globule membrane

    PubMed Central

    Honvo-Houéto, Edith; Henry, Céline; Chat, Sophie; Layani, Sarah; Truchet, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    During lactation, mammary epithelial cells secrete huge amounts of milk from their apical side. The current view is that caseins are secreted by exocytosis, whereas milk fat globules are released by budding, enwrapped by the plasma membrane. Owing to the number and large size of milk fat globules, the membrane surface needed for their release might exceed that of the apical plasma membrane. A large-scale proteomics analysis of both cytoplasmic lipid droplets and secreted milk fat globule membranes was used to decipher the cellular origins of the milk fat globule membrane. Surprisingly, differential analysis of protein profiles of these two organelles strongly suggest that, in addition to the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum and the secretory vesicles contribute to the milk fat globule membrane. Analysis of membrane-associated and raft microdomain proteins reinforces this possibility and also points to a role for lipid rafts in milk product secretion. Our results provide evidence for a significant contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum to the milk fat globule membrane and a role for SNAREs in membrane dynamics during milk secretion. These novel aspects point to a more complex model for milk secretion than currently envisioned. PMID:27535430

  4. Possible oriented transition of multiple-emulsion globules with asymmetric internal structures in a microfluidic constriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingtao; Li, Xiaoduan; Wang, Xiaoyong; Guan, Jing

    2014-05-01

    When a globule with a complete symmetry (such as simple spherical droplets and concentric double emulsions) is transiting in a constriction tube, there is only one pattern of the transition. However, for a multiple-emulsion globule with asymmetric internal structures, there are many possible patterns with different pressure drops Δp due to various initial orientations of the inner droplets. In this paper, a boundary integral method developed recently is employed to investigate numerically the possible oriented transition of a globule with two unequal inner droplets in an axisymmetric microfluidic constriction. The transition is driven by an axisymmetric Poiseuille flow with a fixed volume flow rate, and the rheological behaviors of the globule are observed carefully. When the big inner droplet is initially located in the front of the globule, the maximum pressure drop during the transition is always lower than that when it is initially placed in the rear. Thus, a tropism—whereby a globule more easily gets through the constriction when its bigger inner droplet locates in its front initially—might exist, in which the orientating stimulus is the required pressure drops. The physical explanation of this phenomenon has also been analyzed in this paper.

  5. MOLTEN FLUORIDE NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Barton, C.J.; Grimes, W.R.

    1960-01-01

    Molten-salt reactor fuel compositions consisting of mixtures of fluoride salts are reported. In its broadest form, the composition contains an alkali fluoride such as sodium fluoride, zirconium tetrafluoride, and a uranium fluoride, the latter being the tetrafluoride or trifluoride or a mixture of the two. An outstanding property of these fuel compositions is a high coeffieient of thermal expansion which provides a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity in reactors in which they are used.

  6. Molten carbonate fuel cell matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, W. M.; Smith, S. W.

    1985-04-16

    A molten carbonate fuel cell including a cathode electrode of electrically conducting or semiconducting lanthanum containing material and an electrolyte containing matrix of an electrically insulating lanthanum perovskite. In addition, in an embodiment where the cathode electrode is LaMnO/sub 3/, the matrix may include LaA1O/sub 3/ or a lithium containing material such as LiA1O/sub 2/ or Li/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/.

  7. Molten carbonate fuel cell matrices

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Wolfgang M.; Smith, Stanley W.

    1985-04-16

    A molten carbonate fuel cell including a cathode electrode of electrically conducting or semiconducting lanthanum containing material and an electrolyte containing matrix of an electrically insulating lanthanum perovskite. In addition, in an embodiment where the cathode electrode is LaMnO.sub.3, the matrix may include LaAlO.sub.3 or a lithium containing material such as LiAlO.sub.2 or Li.sub.2 TiO.sub.3.

  8. Molten nitrate salt materials studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, R. M.

    1981-03-01

    An overview of the experimental programs underway in support of the Thermal Energy Storage for Solar Thermal Applications (TESSTA) program is presented. The experimental programs are concentrating on molten nitrate salts which were proposed as heat transfer and energy storage medium. The experimental programs involve corrosion, decomposition, physical properties, and environmental cracking. Summaries of each project and how they impact central receiver applications are presented.

  9. Partially molten magma ocean model

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, D.N.

    1983-02-15

    The properties of the lunar crust and upper mantle can be explained if the outer 300-400 km of the moon was initially only partially molten rather than fully molten. The top of the partially molten region contained about 20% melt and decreased to 0% at 300-400 km depth. Nuclei of anorthositic crust formed over localized bodies of magma segregated from the partial melt, then grew peripherally until they coverd the moon. Throughout most of its growth period the anorthosite crust floated on a layer of magma a few km thick. The thickness of this layer is regulated by the opposing forces of loss of material by fractional crystallization and addition of magma from the partial melt below. Concentrations of Sr, Eu, and Sm in pristine ferroan anorthosites are found to be consistent with this model, as are trends for the ferroan anorthosites and Mg-rich suites on a diagram of An in plagioclase vs. mg in mafics. Clustering of Eu, Sr, and mg values found among pristine ferroan anorthosites are predicted by this model.

  10. Carbonate Globules from Spitsbergen, Norway: Terrestrial Analogs of the Carbonates in Martian Meteorite ALH84001?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De, Subarnarek; Bunch, Ted; Treiman, Allan H.; Amundsen, Hans E. F.; Blake, David F.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Pleistocene volcanic centers in NW Spitsbergen, Norway host one of the world's richest occurrences of mantle xenoliths. The xenoliths comprise varieties of spinel lherzolites and pyroxenites. Some of these xenoliths (and their host basalts) contain 10-100 micrometer globules of ankedtic-magnesitic carbonates (AMC). In composition, mineralogy and petrology the AMC globules from Spitsbergen are strikingly similar to the carbonate globules in ALH84001. The AMC globules occur within interstitial quenched glass and as fracture fillings, although we have not seen replacement fabrics analogous to carbonate rosettes replacing glass in ALH84001. Siderite/ankerite forms the core of these concentrically zoned globules while rims are predominantly magnesite. Clay minerals can occasionally be found within and around the globules. Aside from the clay minerals, the principal mineralogical difference between the AMCs and the ALH84001 carbonate rosettes is the presence of concentrated zones of nanophase magnetite in the rosettes, notably absent in the AMCs. However, carbonate globules containing nanophase magnetite have been produced inorganically by hydrothermal precipitation of carbonates and subsequent heating. We heated Spitsbergen AMC at 585 C in a reducing atmosphere to determine whether magnetite could be produced. Optical micrographs of the heated Spitsbergen AMC show dark concentric zones within the AMC. High resolution SEM images of those areas reveal 150-200 nm euhedral crystals that exhibit various morphologies including octahedra and elongated prisms. EDS analyses of areas where the crystals occur contain Fe, O, and minor Si, and P. However, the probe integrates over volumes of material, which also include the surrounding matrix. We have begun TEM observations of both the heated and unheated Spitsbergen AMC to characterize the microstructures of the carbonates, establish the presence/absence of magnetite and determine the relationship of the clay minerals to the

  11. Dietary milk fat globule membrane improves endurance capacity in mice.

    PubMed

    Haramizu, Satoshi; Ota, Noriyasu; Otsuka, Atsuko; Hashizume, Kohjiro; Sugita, Satoshi; Hase, Tadashi; Murase, Takatoshi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2014-10-15

    Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) comprises carbohydrates, membrane-specific proteins, glycoproteins, phospholipids, and sphingolipids. We evaluated the effects of MFGM consumption over a 12-wk period on endurance capacity and energy metabolism in BALB/c mice. Long-term MFGM intake combined with regular exercise improved endurance capacity, as evidenced by swimming time until fatigue, in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of dietary MFGM plus exercise was accompanied by higher oxygen consumption and lower respiratory quotient, as determined by indirect calorimetry. MFGM intake combined with exercise increased plasma levels of free fatty acids after swimming. After chronic intake of MFGM combined with exercise, the triglyceride content in the gastrocnemius muscle increased significantly. Mice given MFGM combined with exercise had higher mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (Pgc1α) and CPT-1b in the soleus muscle at rest, suggesting that increased lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle contributes, in part, to improved endurance capacity. MFGM treatment with cyclic equibiaxial stretch consisting of 10% elongation at 0.5 Hz with 1 h on and 5 h off increased the Pgc1α mRNA expression of differentiating C2C12 myoblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Supplementation with sphingomyelin increased endurance capacity in mice and Pgc1α mRNA expression in the soleus muscle in vivo and in differentiating myoblasts in vitro. These results indicate that dietary MFGM combined with exercise improves endurance performance via increased lipid metabolism and that sphingomyelin may be one of the components responsible for the beneficial effects of dietary MFGM.

  12. Metal Oxide Solubility and Molten Salt Corrosion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-29

    METAL OXIDE SOLUBILITY AND MOLTEN SALT CORROSION.(U) MAR 82 K H STERN UNCLASSI E DL R L-4772NL EL .2. MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BURALU...METAL OXIDE SOLUBILITY AND MOLTEN SALT Interim report on a continuing CORROSION NRL problem. S. PERFORMING a4. REPORT NUMlER 7. AuTtwORr) S. CONTRACT OR...EQUILIBRIA AND OXIDE SOLUTION RELATIONS IN MOLTEN SALTS ............................................. 2 IV. METHODS FOR DETERMINING SOLUBILITIES

  13. Contribution of osmotic changes to disintegrative globulization of single cortical fibers isolated from rat lens.

    PubMed

    Wang, L F; Dhir, P; Bhatnagar, A; Srivastava, S K

    1997-08-01

    In this study the contribution of osmotic changes to disintegrative globulization of lens cortical fibers was examined. Single fiber cells were isolated by trypsinization of adult rat lens cortex, and morphological changes elicited by exposure to different external solutions were monitored optically. The survival of the fiber-shaped cells was analysed in accordance with the Weibull distribution. Changes in [Ca2+]i were measured using the fluorescent calcium-sensitive dye-Fluo-3. Exposure of isolated fiber cells to Ringer's solution (containing 2 mm Ca2+) led to an exponential increase in [Ca2+]i with a time constant of 10.2+/-0.8 min, and caused disintegrative globulization in 25+/-4 min (=Tg). The process of globulization as well as the rate of increase in [Ca2+]i was delayed by removing Cl- ions from the external media. Globulization was also delayed by adding 20% bovine serum albumin (Tg=107+/-3 min) or chloride channel inhibitors 5, nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoate (NPPB), dideoxyforskolin, niflumic acid, and tamoxifen. When the fiber cells were suspended in isotonic (280 mm sucrose) HEPES-sucrose (HS) or HEPES-EDTA-sucrose (HES) solution, no globulization was observed for an observation time of 120 min. However, exposure to hypotonic (180 mm) HES solution led to disintegration of fiber cells in 75+/-7 min. Disintegration of the fiber induced by hypotonic HES solution could be delayed by either 0. 05 mm leupeptin (Tg=97+/-6 min) or by pre-loading the fibers with BAPTA (Tg=100+/-4 min). Inhibition of membrane calcium transport by 0.5 mm La3+ had no effect on Tg in hypotonic HES. Addition of 2 mm Ca2+ to HES solution accelerated globulization, and Tg was 57+/-4, 69+/-5 and 102+/-6 min for hypo-, iso- and hyper- tonic solutions, respectively. Transient exposure to calcium also accelerated disintegrative globulization of fiber cells exposed subsequently to HES solution. These results suggest that in ionic media, part of the calcium influx in isolated fiber

  14. A novel infant milk formula concept: Mimicking the human milk fat globule structure.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Vocking, Karin; Post, Jan Andries; Van De Heijning, Bert; Acton, Dennis; Van Der Beek, Eline M; Van Baalen, Ton

    2015-12-01

    Human milk (HM) provides all nutrients to support an optimal growth and development of the neonate. The composition and structure of HM lipids, the most important energy provider, have an impact on the digestion, uptake and metabolism of lipids. In HM, the lipids are present in the form of dispersed fat globules: large fat droplets enveloped by a phospholipid membrane. Currently, infant milk formula (Control IMF) contains small fat droplets primarily coated by proteins. Recently, a novel IMF concept (Concept IMF) was developed with a different lipid architecture, Nuturis(®), comprising large fat droplets with a phospholipid coating. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), with appropriate fluorescent probes, and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine and compare the interfacial composition and structure of HM fat globules, Concept IMF fat droplets and Control IMF fat droplets. The presence of a trilayer-structured HM fat globule membrane, composed of phospholipids, proteins, glycoproteins and cholesterol, was confirmed; in addition exosome-like vesicles are observed within cytoplasmic crescents. The Control IMF fat droplets had a thick protein-only interface. The Concept IMF fat droplets showed a very thin interface composed of a mixture of phospholipids, proteins and cholesterol. Furthermore, the Concept IMF contained fragments of milk fat globule membrane, which has been suggested to have potential biological functions in infants. By mimicking more closely the structure and composition of HM fat globules, this novel IMF concept with Nuturis(®) may have metabolic and digestive properties that are more similar to HM compared to Control IMF.

  15. Bok globules in the far infrared: Constraining the origin of polarization holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Robert

    Polarimetric observations of Bok globules at submm/mm wavelengths frequently show a decrease in the degree of polarization towards their central dense regions ("polarization holes", Henning et al. 2001; Vallee et al. 2003; Wolf et al. 2003). This behavior can be explained by multiple physical conditions and effects (Brauer et al. 2016). For instance, a high optical depth in the core of Bok globules is expected to significantly reduce the degree of polarization. However, the relative importance of the various effects has not been confirmed quantitatively. We investigate the influence of the optical depth on the occurrence of polarization holes in observations of Bok globules at 850 microns by comparing these with polarimetric observations at 154 microns and 214 microns. We will make use of HAWC+ polarimetric observations at 154 microns (D) and 214 microns (E) to obtain the orientation and degree of linear polarization in the central regions of the Bok globules CB199 (B335), CB68, and CB54. We will obtain the Stokes parameter I, Q and U of the central regions of the Bok globules B335, CB68, and CB54 to calculate the orientation and degree of the linear polarization. Taking these polarization observations and those already obtained at 850 microns into account, the relative importance of the optical depth effect can be estimated. In addition, we will compare the direction of the polarization vectors with observations of dichroic extinction of background stars to enhance our constraints on the optical depth (Bertrang et al. 2014).

  16. Bile Duct Ligation Induces ATZ Globule Clearance In a Mouse Model of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zahida; Yokota, Shinichiro; Ono, Yoshihiro; Bell, Aaron W.; Stolz, Donna B.; Michalopoulos, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; however, not all patients are susceptible to severe liver disease. In A1ATD, a toxic gain-of-function mutation generates insoluble ATZ “globules” in hepatocytes, overwhelming protein clearance mechanisms. The relationship between bile acids and hepatocytic autophagy is less clear, but may involve altered gene expression pathways. Based on previous findings that bile duct ligation (BDL) induces autophagy, we hypothesized that retained bile acids may have hepatoprotective effects in PiZZ transgenic mice, which model A1ATD. Methods We performed BDL and partial BDL (pBDL) in PiZZ mice, followed by analysis of liver tissues. Results PiZZ liver subjected to BDL showed up to 50% clearance of ATZ globules, with increased expression of autophagy proteins. Analysis of transcription factors revealed significant changes. Surprisingly nuclear TFEB, a master regulator of autophagy, remained unchanged. pBDL confirmed that ATZ globule clearance was induced by localized stimuli rather than diet or systemic effects. Several genes involved in bile metabolism were over-expressed in globule-devoid hepatocytes, compared to globule-containing cells. Conclusions Retained bile acids led to a dramatic reduction of ATZ globules, with enhanced hepatocyte regeneration and autophagy. These findings support investigation of synthetic bile acids as potential autophagy-enhancing agents. PMID:27938510

  17. Organic globules in the Tagish Lake meteorite: remnants of the protosolar disk.

    PubMed

    Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Messenger, Scott; Keller, Lindsay P; Clemett, Simon J; Zolensky, Michael E

    2006-12-01

    Coordinated transmission electron microscopy and isotopic measurements of organic globules in the Tagish Lake meteorite shows that they have elevated ratios of nitrogen-15 to nitrogen-14 (1.2 to 2 times terrestrial) and of deuterium to hydrogen (2.5 to 9 times terrestrial). These isotopic anomalies are indicative of mass fractionation during chemical reactions at extremely low temperatures (10 to 20 kelvin), characteristic of cold molecular clouds and the outer protosolar disk. The globules probably originated as organic ice coatings on preexisting grains that were photochemically processed into refractory organic matter. The globules resemble cometary carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (CHON) particles, suggesting that such grains were important constituents of the solar system starting materials.

  18. Thermal and ignition type steam explosions of single drops of molten aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, L.S.; Duda, P.M.; Hyndman, D.A.; Allison, D.K.; Hyder, M.L.

    1995-07-01

    Seventeen steam explosion experiments were performed with 2 to 10 g drops of molten, high-purity Al. Seven were successfully initiated with underwater exploding bridgewires. At melt release temperatures up to 1400{degrees}C (1673 K) only moderate thermal-type explosions occurred that produced bubbles with volumes up to approximately 1 L. Bubble growth intensified in the melt temperature range 1400-1525{degrees}C (1673--1798 K) as threshold ignition of Al set in. In this range, one of the explosions emitted a flash of light and generated a bubble that grew very rapidly to approximately 14 L, broke through the water surface, and destroyed the test chamber. We attribute the behavior of this latter bubble, which grew as fast as one produced by the underwater firing of a 0.6 g explosive detonator, to an ignition-type steam explosion. Aluminum oxides could not be detected visually in the debris recovered from either typical thermal-type or the ignition-type explosions, and only traces could be detected by X-ray diffraction. In the ignition-type explosion, it is possible however that some oxidic material, probably the smaller particles, was lost during the flooding that occurred as the chamber failed. Both bubble analyses and the absence of appreciable oxide in the debris suggest that the ignition-type steam explosion was not very efficient, probably involving the combustion of only a small fraction of the original molten aluminum globule.

  19. Olivine and Carbonate Globules in ALH84001: A Terrestrial Analog, and Implications for Water on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Carbonate globules in ALH84001 are associated with small olivine grains an unexpected finding because the olivines equilibrated at high T while the carbonate is chemically zoned and unequilibrated. A possible explanation comes from a terrestrial analog on Spitsbergen (Norway), where some carbonate globules grew in cavities left by aqueous dissolution of olivine. For ALH84001, the same process may have acted, with larger olivines dissolved out and smaller ones shielded inside orthopyroxene. Carbonate would have been deposited in holes where the olivine had been. Later shocks crushed remaining void space, and mobilized feldspathic glass around the carbonates.

  20. Coil-globule transition of a single short polymer chain: An exact enumeration study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponmurugan, M.; Narasimhan, S. L.; Krishna, P. S. R.; Murthy, K. P. N.

    2007-04-01

    The authors present an exact enumeration study of short self-avoiding walks in two as well as in three dimensions that addresses the question, "what is the shortest walk for which the existence of all the three scaling regimes—coil, globule, and the theta—could be demonstrated." Even though they could easily demonstrate the coil and the globule phase from free energy considerations, they could demonstrate the existence of a theta temperature only by using a scaling form for the distribution of gyration radius. That even such short walks have a scaling behavior is an unexpected result of this work.

  1. Hyaline globules in fine-needle aspiration smears of salivary gland neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mayank; Bindra, Mandeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Most salivary gland neoplasms can be accurately diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Few cases present with overlapping cytomorphological features, so accurate distinction in these cases may be difficult. We describe a case of pleomorphic adenoma that had a close resemblance to adenoid cystic carcinoma on smears due to presence of numerous hyaline globules and bare nuclei. Careful analysis of cellular details along with corroborative clinical evidence clinched the correct diagnosis. This article discusses cytological features of salivary gland tumours in which hyaline globules can be seen on smears. PMID:25750224

  2. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    DOEpatents

    Nickols, R.C.

    1984-10-17

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  3. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    DOEpatents

    Nickols, Richard C.

    1986-09-02

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  4. Effects of Size and Stability of Native Fat Globules on the Formation of Milk Gel Induced by Rennet.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Wang, Yuhan; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng

    2017-03-01

    Rennet-induced gelation crucially impacts cheese structure. In this study, effects of the size and stability of native fat globules on the kinetics of rennet-induced coagulation were revealed by determining the caseinomacropeptide release rate and rheological properties of milk. Moreover, the mobility and stability of fat globules during renneting was revealed using diffusing wave spectroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. By use of a 2-stage gravity separation combined centrifugation scheme, native fat globules were selectively separated into small (SFG, D4,3 = 1.87 ± 0.02 μm) and large fat globules (LFG, D4,3 = 5.65 ± 0.03 μm). The protein and fat content of SFG and LFG milk were then standardized to 3.2 g/100 mL and 1.2 g/100 mL, respectively. The milk containing different sized globules were then subjected to renneting experiments in the laboratory. Reduction of globule size accelerated the aggregation of casein micelles during renneting, giving a shorter gelation time and earlier 1/l(*) change. The gel produced from LFG milk was broken due to coalescent fat globules and generated coarser gel strands compared to the finer strands formed with SFG milk. Structural differences were also confirmed with a higher final storage modulus of the curd made from SFG milk than that from the LFG. In conclusion, the size of fat globules affects the aggregation of casein micelles. Moreover, fat globule coalescence and creaming during renneting, also affects the structure of the rennet gel. A better understanding of the size of globules effect on milk gelation could lead to the development of cheese with specific properties.

  5. Silicate globules in kyanite from grospydites of the Zagadochnaya kimberlite pipe, Yakutia: The problem of the origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomilenko, A. A.; Kovyazin, S. V.; Pokhilenko, L. N.; Sobolev, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    The results of complex study of silicate globules and α-quartz paramorphs after coesite in kyanite from grospydites from the Zagadochnaya kimberlite pipe, Yakutia, using optical and scanning electron spectroscopy, electron and ion microprobes, LA ICP MS and Raman spectroscopy, are presented. The existence of radial fractures diverging from silicate globules into the matrix (kyanite) attests to the fact that the content of the globules is extremely condensed. A zonal structure is usually typical for globules: a coat and a core, which can be explicitly distinguished under the electron microscope, can be differentiated in them. Compositionally, the coat of the globule corresponds to potassium feldspar (wt %: 66.4 SiO2; 16.9 Al2O3; 0.4 FeO; 0.1 CaO; 0.2 Na2O; 14.7 K2O). The globules were also detected in which along with K, a high content of Na and Ca was also ascertained in the silicate coat. The globule coat is considerably enriched with Ba, La, Ce, Nb, and a number of other noncompatible elements as compared with xenolith minerals. The water content in globules is ˜0.6 wt %. As compared with the host mineral (kyanite), the core part of the globules is also enriched with Co, Ni, Zn, and Cu; their content in kyanite is negligibly low. The entire data collection attests to the fact that the formation of silicate globules could have been caused by interaction of the conservated fluid and/or water-silicate melt with the host mineral and crystalline inclusions of clinopyroxene and garnet with decreasing pressure during the transportation of grospydite xenoliths by the kimberlite melt to the Earth's surface.

  6. Separation of milk fat globules via microfiltration: Effect of diafiltration media and opportunities for stream valorization.

    PubMed

    Jukkola, A; Partanen, R; Rojas, O J; Heino, A

    2016-11-01

    Milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) sourced in buttermilk have gained recent interest given their nutritional value and functional properties. However, production of isolated MFGM has been challenging given their size similarity with casein micelles, which limits attempts toward fractionation by size exclusion techniques. Therefore, the hypothesis underpinning this study is that the removal of proteins from cream before butter-making facilitates MFGM isolation. As such, milk fat globules were separated from raw whole milk via microfiltration (1.4-µm pore diameter and 0.005-m(2) filtration surface area) by using 3 diafiltration media; namely, skim milk ultrafiltration permeate, saline, and water. Their effects on the stability of the milk fat globules and protein permeation was elucidated. Whereas a substantial reduction in protein concentration was achieved with all diafiltration media (~90% reduction), water and saline produced negligible membrane fouling with better filtration performance. Moreover, diafiltration with skim milk ultrafiltration permeate exhibited reduced permeate flux. Colloidal stability of the resultant milk decreased with all diafiltration solutions due to changing composition and reduced apparent viscosity. Overall, microfiltration was found to be an efficient method for separation of milk fat globules from whole milk, leading to increased MFGM fragment concentration in buttermilk dry matter, thus making it more suitable for industrial utilization.

  7. Coil–globule transition of a polymer involved in excluded-volume interactions with macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Odagiri, Kenta; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2015-10-07

    Polymers adopt extended coil and compact globule states according to the balance between entropy and interaction energies. The transition of a polymer between an extended coil state and compact globule state can be induced by changing thermodynamic force such as temperature to alter the energy/entropy balance. Previously, this transition was theoretically studied by taking into account the excluded-volume interaction between monomers of a polymer chain using the partition function. For binary mixtures of a long polymer and short polymers, the coil-globule transition can be induced by changing the concentration of the shorter polymers. Here, we investigate the transition caused by short polymers by generalizing the partition function of the long polymer to include the excluded-volume effect of short polymers. The coil-globule transition is studied as a function of the concentration of mixed polymers by systematically varying Flory’s χ-parameters. We show that the transition is caused by the interplay between the excluded-volume interaction and the dispersion state of short polymers in the solvent. We also reveal that the same results can be obtained by combining the mixing entropy and elastic energy if the volume of a long polymer is properly defined.

  8. Ordered water within the collapsed globules of an amyloidogenic intrinsically disordered protein.

    PubMed

    Arya, Shruti; Mukhopadhyay, Samrat

    2014-08-07

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) confront the traditional sequence-structure-function paradigm and are associated with important functions and amyloid disorders. Water molecules residing in the vicinity of the polypeptide chain play potentially important roles in directing the course of binding-induced folding and amyloid aggregation of IDP. Here we characterized the nature of water molecules entrapped within the collapsed globules of an amyloidogenic IDP, namely, κ-casein. These globules can undergo further compaction in the presence of an anionic detergent that is capable of diminishing the intrachain repulsion from the positively charged glutamine/asparagine-rich amyloidogenic N-terminal domain comprising 100 residues. Using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, we estimated the longer component of the solvation time to be ∼1.4 ns, which is 3 orders of magnitude slower than that in bulk water and more than an order of magnitude slower than the "biological water" present at the protein surface. Profoundly restrained water within the collapsed IDP globules resembles the ordered water cluster found under nanoconfinement. We suggest that the association of these globules would result in the release of ordered water molecules into the bulk milieu causing an entropic gain that would eventually drive the formation of the key (obligatory) oligomeric intermediates on the pathway to amyloids via nucleation-dependent polymerization.

  9. Beryllium Interactions in Molten Salts

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Smolik; M. F. Simpson; P. J. Pinhero; M. Hara; Y. Hatano; R. A. Anderl; J. P. Sharpe; T. Terai; S. Tanaka; D. A. Petti; D.-K. Sze

    2006-01-01

    Molten flibe (2LiF·BeF2) is a candidate as a cooling and tritium breeding media for future fusion power plants. Neutron interactions with the salt will produce tritium and release excess free fluorine ions. Beryllium metal has been demonstrated as an effective redox control agent to prevent free fluorine, or HF species, from reacting with structural metal components. The extent and rate of beryllium solubility in a pot design experiments to suppress continuously supplied hydrogen fluoride gas has been measured and modeled[ ]. This paper presents evidence of beryllium loss from specimens, a dependence of the loss upon bi-metal coupling, i.e., galvanic effect, and the partitioning of the beryllium to the salt and container materials. Various posttest investigative methods, viz., scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to explore this behavior.

  10. Molten nitrate salt technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, R. W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the experimental programs underway in support of the Thermal Energy Storage for Solar Thermal Applications (TESSTA) program. The experimental programs are concentrating on molten nitrate salts which have been proposed as heat transfer and energy storage medium. The salt composition of greatest interest is drawsalt, nominally a 50-50 molar mixture of NaNO3 and KNO3 with a melting point of 220 C. Several technical uncertainties have been identified that must be resolved before nitrate based solar plants can be commercialized. Research programs at Sandia National Laboratories, universities, and industrial suppliers have been implemented to resolve these technical uncertainties. The experimental programs involve corrosion, decomposition, physical properties, and environmental cracking. Summaries of each project and how they impact central receiver applications such as the repowering/industrial retrofit and cogeneration program are presented.

  11. Molten nitrate salt technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, R. W.; Kramer, C. M.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Nissen, D. A.; Goods, S. H.; Mar, R. W.; Munford, J. W.; Karnowsky, M. M.; Biefeld, R. N.; Norem, N. J.

    1981-03-01

    Of the fluids proposed for heat transfer and energy storage, molten nitrate salts offer significant economic advantages. The nitrate salt of most interest is a binary mixture of NaNO3 and KNO3. Although nitrate/nitrite mixtures were used for decades as heat transfer and heat treatment fluids the use was at temperatures of about 4500 C and lower. In solar thermal power systems the salts will experience a temperature range of 350 to 6000 C. Because central receiver applications place more rigorous demands and higher temperatures on nitrate salts a comprehensive experimental program was developed to examine what effects, if any, the new demands and temperatures have on the salts. The experiments include corrosion testing, environmental cracking of containment materials, and determinations of physical properties and decomposition mechanisms.

  12. Sulfur globule oxidation in green sulfur bacteria is dependent on the dissimilatory sulfite reductase system.

    PubMed

    Holkenbrink, Carina; Barbas, Santiago Ocón; Mellerup, Anders; Otaki, Hiroyo; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik

    2011-04-01

    Green sulfur bacteria (GSB) oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to sulfate, with extracellular globules of elemental sulfur as an intermediate. Here we investigated which genes are involved in the formation and consumption of these sulfur globules in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum. We show that sulfur globule oxidation is strictly dependent on the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) system. Deletion of dsrM/CT2244 or dsrT/CT2245, or the two dsrCABL clusters (CT0851-CT0854, CT2247-2250), abolished sulfur globule oxidation and prevented formation of sulfate from sulfide, whereas deletion of dsrU/CT2246 had no effect. The DSR system also seems to be involved in the formation of thiosulfate, because thiosulfate was released from wild-type cells during sulfide oxidation, but not from the dsr mutants. The dsr mutants incapable of complete substrate oxidation oxidized sulfide and thiosulfate about twice as fast as the wild-type, while having only slightly lower growth rates (70-80 % of wild-type). The increased oxidation rates seem to compensate for the incomplete substrate oxidation to satisfy the requirement for reducing equivalents during growth. A mutant in which two sulfide : quinone oxidoreductases (sqrD/CT0117 and sqrF/CT1087) were deleted exhibited a decreased sulfide oxidation rate (~50 % of wild-type), yet formation and consumption of sulfur globules were not affected. The observation that mutants lacking the DSR system maintain efficient growth suggests that the DSR system is dispensable in environments with sufficiently high sulfide concentrations. Thus, the DSR system in GSB may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer as a response to a need for enhanced substrate utilization in sulfide-limiting habitats.

  13. Cathode for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Mrazek, Franklin C.

    1990-01-01

    A porous sintered cathode for a molten carbonate fuel cell and method of making same, the cathode including a skeletal structure of a first electronically conductive material slightly soluble in the electrolyte present in the molten carbonate fuel cell covered by fine particles of a second material of possibly lesser electronic conductivity insoluble in the electrolyte present in the molten carbonate fuel cell, the cathode having a porosity in the range of from about 60% to about 70% at steady-state cell operating conditions consisting of both macro-pores and micro-pores.

  14. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1995-01-01

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

  15. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-07-18

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

  16. Molten Hydroxide Trapping Process for Radioiodine

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    2003-01-28

    A molten hydroxide trapping process has been considered for removing radioiodine species from off-gas streams whereby iodine is reacted directly with molten hydroxides such as NaOH or KOH. The resulting product is the corresponding iodide, which can be separated by simple cooling of the molten mixture to grow the iodide primary phase once the mixture reaches 70-80 mol% in the iodide component. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that such a chemical process is highly favorable. Experimental testing of the trapping process using molecular iodine showed trapping of up to 96% of the volatile iodine. The trapping efficiency was dependent on operational parameters such as temperature and gas-melt contact efficiency, and higher efficiencies are expected as the process is further developed. While an iodide phase could be effectively isolated by slow cooling of a molten iodide-hydroxide mixture, the persistent appearance of hydroxide indicated that an appreciable solubility of hydroxide occurred in the iodide phase.

  17. Corrosion of Mullite by Molten Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lee, Kang N.; Yoshio, Tetsuo

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of molten salts of different Na2O activities and mullite is examined with furnace and burner tests. The more-acidic molten salts form small amounts of Al2O3; the more-basic molten salts form various Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds. The results are interpreted using the Na2O-Al203-SiO2 ternary phase diagram, and some possible diffusion paths are discussed. The generally higher melting points of Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds lead to better behavior of mullite in molten salts, as compared to SiO2-protected ceramics such as SiC. Mullite-coated SiC is discussed, and the corrosion behavior is evaluated.

  18. Electrode for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Zarnoch, Kenneth P.

    1983-01-01

    A sintered porous electrode useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell is produced which is composed of a plurality of 5 wt. % to 95 wt. % nickel balance copper alloy encapsulated ceramic particles sintered together by the alloy.

  19. Recirculating Molten Metal Supply System And Method

    DOEpatents

    Kinosz, Michael J.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2003-07-01

    The melter furnace includes a heating chamber (16), a pump chamber (18), a degassing chamber (20), and a filter chamber (22). The pump chamber (18) is located adjacent the heating chamber (16) and houses a molten metal pump (30). The degassing chamber (20) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the pump chamber (18), and houses a degassing mechanism (36). The filter chamber (22) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the degassing chamber (20). The filter chamber (22) includes a molten metal filter (38). The melter furnace (12) is used to supply molten metal to an externally located holder furnace (14), which then recirculates molten metal back to the melter furnace (12).

  20. Molten carbonate fuel cell matrix tape

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, R.W.; Schroll, C.R.; Reiser, C.A.

    1986-04-08

    A matrix material for a molten carbonate fuel cell is described comprising particles inert to molten carbonate electrolyte having a particle size less than about 1 micron, ceramic particles having a particle size greater than about 25 microns, and an organic polymeric binder material, the binder material being present in an amount at least about 35% by volume, the matrix material being flexible, pliable, and compliant at room temperature.

  1. Structure of molten titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderman, O. L. G.; Skinner, L. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Tamalonis, A.; Weber, J. K. R.

    2014-09-01

    The x-ray structure factor of molten TiO2 has been measured, enabled by the use of aerodynamic levitation and laser beam heating, to a temperature of T=2250(30)K. The Ti-O coordination number in the melt is close to nTiO=5.0(2), with modal Ti-O bond length rTiO=1.881(5)Å, both values being significantly smaller than for the high temperature stable rutile crystal structure (nTiO=6.0,rTiO=1.959Å). The structural differences between melt and crystal are qualitatively similar to those for alumina, which is rationalized in terms of the similar field strengths of Ti4+ and Al3+. The diffraction data are used to generate physically and chemically reasonable structural models, which are then compared to the predictions based on various classical molecular dynamics (MD) potentials. Interatomic potentials, suitable for modeling molten TiO2, are introduced, given the inability of existing MD models to reproduce the diffraction data. These potentials have the additional advantage of being able to predict the density and thermal expansion of the melt, as well as solid amorphous TiO2, in agreement with published results. This is of critical importance given the strong correlation between density and structural parameters such as nTiO. The large thermal expansion of the melt is associated with weakly temperature dependent structural changes, whereby simulations show that nTiO=5.85(2)-[3.0(1)×10-4]T(K ,2.75Åcutoff). The TiO2 liquid is structurally analogous to the geophysically relevant high pressure liquid silica system at around 27 GPa. We argue that the predominance of fivefold polyhedra in the melt implies the existence of as-yet-undiscovered TiO2 polymorphs, based on lower-than-octahedral coordination numbers, which are likely to be metastable under ambient conditions. Given the industrial importance of titanium oxides, experimental and computational searches for such polymorphs are well warranted.

  2. Structure of molten titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Alderman, O. L. G.; Skinner, L. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Tamalonis, A.; Weber, J. K. R.

    2014-09-01

    The x-ray structure factor of molten TiO2 has been measured for the first time, enabled by the use of aerodynamic levitation and laser beam heating, to a temperature of T = 2250(30) K. Ti-O coordination number in the melt is close to nTiO = 5.0(2), with modal Ti-O bond length rTiO = 1.881(5) Å, both values being significantly smaller than for the high temperature stable Rutile crystal structure (nTiO = 6.0, rTiO = 1.959 Å). The structural differences between melt and crystal are qualitatively similar to those for alumina, which is rationalized in terms of the similar field strengths of Ti4+ and Al3+. The diffraction data are used to generate physically and chemically reasonable structural models, which are then compared to the predictions based on various classical molecular dynamics (MD) potentials. New interatomic potentials, suitable for modelling molten TiO2, are introduced, given the inability of existing MD models to reproduce the diffraction data. These new potentials have the additional great advantage of being able to predict the density and thermal expansion of the melt, as well as solid amorphous TiO2, in agreement with published results. This is of critical importance given the strong correlation between density and structural parameters such as nTiO. The large thermal expansion of the melt is associated with weakly temperature dependent structural changes, whereby simulations show that nTiO = 5.85(2) – (3.0(1) x 10-4 )T (K, 2.75 Å cut-off). The TiO2 liquid is structurally analogous to the geophysically relevant high pressure liquid silica system at around 27 GPa. We argue that the predominance of 5-fold polyhedra in the melt implies the existence of as yet undiscovered TiO2 polymorphs, based on lowerthan-octahedral coordination numbers, which are likely to be metastable under ambient conditions. Given the industrial importance of titanium oxides, experimental and computational searches for such polymorphs are well warranted.

  3. Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Anterior Chamber Ointment Globule after Phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Ahmad M.; Haddad, Randa S.; Salti, Haytham I.; Habbal, Zuhair

    2015-01-01

    We present 2 cases of anterior chamber ointment with evidence of progressive endothelial cell loss. In both cases, an anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) was similar to an OCT of a tobramycin-dexamethasone ointment placed on a pen tip. An anterior segment OCT also demonstrated the direct contact of the globule with the corneal endothelium. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis documented the similarity to tobramycin-dexamethasone ointment in 1 case. Anterior segment OCT can help in confirming the diagnosis. Corneal endothelial injury is a continuous process, and its clinical manifestation is related to the size of the globule, the initial endothelium count, and the duration of ointment contact, which is related to supine positioning. It is advisable to avoid ointments in the immediate postoperative period, especially in corneal wounds larger than 3 mm. PMID:26955351

  4. First-order coil-globule transition driven by vibrational entropy.

    PubMed

    Maffi, Carlo; Baiesi, Marco; Casetti, Lapo; Piazza, Francesco; De Los Rios, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    By shifting the balance between conformational entropy and internal energy, polymers modify their shape under external stimuli, such as changes in temperature. Prominent among such transformations is the coil-globule transition, whereby a polymer can switch from an entropy-dominated coil conformation to a globular one, governed by energy. The nature of the coil-globule transition has remained elusive, with evidence for both continuous and discontinuous transitions, with the two-state behaviour of proteins as an instance of the latter. Theoretical models mostly predict second-order transitions. Here we introduce a model that takes into consideration hitherto neglected features common to any polymer. We show that a first-order phase transition smoothly appears as a function of the model parameters. Our results can relieve part of the conflicts between theory and experiments in the field of protein folding, in the wake of recent studies tracing back the remarkable properties of proteins to basic polymer physics.

  5. Histochemical and biochemical observations on milk-fat-globule membranes from several mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Welsch, U; Schumacher, U; Buchheim, W; Schinko, I; Jenness, P; Patton, S

    1990-01-01

    A specific secretory product of the lactating mammary gland are triglyceride fat globules which are enveloped by a very complex membrane, the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). In different mammalian species (man, rhesus monkey, horse, goat, sheep, cow, grey seal, camel, alpaka) the glycoproteins of this membrane have been analyzed by gel electrophoresis, Western blotting and lectin histochemistry. A remarkable intra- and interspecific variability of these glycoproteins has been detected pointing to so far unknown physiological adaptions, which may play a role in the intestine of the new born. High molecular weight glycoproteins, with a very high degree of glycosilation have been found only in primates, horse and camel; the MFGMs of the true ruminants (cow, sheep, goat) are characterized by specific glycoproteins of a lower molecular weight range.

  6. Proteomic characterization of human milk fat globule membrane proteins during a 12 month lactation period.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yalin; Alvarado, Rudy; Phinney, Brett; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-08-05

    The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) contains proteins which have been implicated in a variety of health benefits. Milk fat globule membrane proteins were isolated from human milk during a 12 month lactation period and subjected to in-solution digestion and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Data were pooled, and our results showed that 191 proteins were identified. Relative quantification of the identified MFGM proteins during the course of lactation was performed by label free spectral counting and differentiation expression analysis, which showed some proteins decreasing during the course of lactation whereas some increased or remained at a relatively constant level. The human MFGM proteins are distributed between intracellular, extracellular, and membrane-associated proteins, and they are mainly involved in cell communication and signal transduction, immune function, metabolism and energy production. This study provides more insights into the dynamic composition of human MFGM proteins, which in turn will enhance our understanding of the physiological significance of MFGM proteins.

  7. Coil-globule transition of a single semiflexible chain in slitlike confinement

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Liang; Renner, C. Benjamin; Yan, Jie; Doyle, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Single polymer chains undergo a phase transition from coiled conformations to globular conformations as the effective attraction between monomers becomes strong enough. In this work, we investigated the coil-globule transition of a semiflexible chain confined between two parallel plates, i.e. a slit, using the lattice model and Pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM) algorithm. We find that as the slit height decreases, the critical attraction for the coil-globule transition changes non-monotonically due to the competition of the confinement free energies of the coiled and globular states. In wide (narrow) slits, the coiled state experiences more (less) confinement free energy, and hence the transition becomes easier (more difficult). In addition, we find that the transition becomes less sharp with the decreasing slit height. Here, the sharpness refers to the sensitivity of thermodynamic quantities when varying the attraction around the critical value. The relevant experiments can be performed for DNA condensation in microfluidic devices. PMID:26679086

  8. Preparation of monoclonal antibodies to xanthine oxidase and other proteins of bovine milk-fat-globule membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Mather, I H; Nace, C S; Johnson, V G; Goldsby, R A

    1980-01-01

    Nine hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibody to proteins of bovine milk-fat-globule membrane were isolated. All nine cell lines continued to secrete monoclonal antibody after serial transfer in culture and after passage as solid tumours in Balb/cJ mice. Four of the cell lines secreted monoclonal antibody specific for xanthine oxidase, one of the major proteins of milk-fat-globule membrane. PMID:6894088

  9. Spitzer Observations of a 24 μm Shadow: Bok Globule CB 190

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, Amelia M.; Bieging, John H.; Rieke, George H.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Balog, Zoltan; Gordon, Karl D.; Green, Elizabeth M.; Keene, Jocelyn; Kelly, Brandon C.; Rubin, Mark; Werner, Michael W.

    2007-08-01

    We present Spitzer observations of the dark globule CB 190 (LDN 771). We observe a roughly circular 24 μm shadow with a 70" radius. The extinction profile of this shadow matches the profile derived from 2MASS photometry at the outer edges of the globule and reaches a maximum of ~32 visual magnitudes at the center. The corresponding mass of CB 190 is ~10 Msolar. Our 12CO and 13CO J=2-1 data over a 10'×10' region centered on the shadow show a temperature ~10 K. The thermal continuum indicates a similar temperature for the dust. The molecular data also show evidence of freezeout onto dust grains. We estimate a distance to CB 190 of 400 pc using the spectroscopic parallax of a star associated with the globule. Bonnor-Ebert fits to the density profile, in conjunction with this distance, yield ξmax=7.2, indicating that CB 190 may be unstable. The high temperature (56 K) of the best-fit Bonnor-Ebert model is in contradiction with the CO and thermal continuum data, leading to the conclusion that the thermal pressure is not enough to prevent free-fall collapse. We also find that the turbulence in the cloud is inadequate to support it. However, the cloud may be supported by the magnetic field, if this field is at the average level for dark globules. Since the magnetic field will eventually leak out through ambipolar diffusion, it is likely that CB 190 is collapsing or in a late precollapse stage. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under NASA contract 1407.

  10. Milk fat content and DGAT1 genotype determine lipid composition of the milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Argov-Argaman, Nurit; Mida, Kfir; Cohen, Bat-Chen; Visker, Marleen; Hettinga, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    During secretion of milk fat globules, triacylglycerol (TAG) droplets are enveloped by a phospholipid (PL) trilayer. Globule size has been found to be related to polar lipid composition and fat content, and milk fat content and fatty acid composition have been associated with the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism; however, the association between the DGAT1 polymorphism and fat globule size and polar lipid composition has not been studied. The ratio between polar and neutral lipids as well as the composition of the polar lipids in milk has industrial as well as nutritional and health implications. Understanding phenotypic and genotypic factors influencing these parameters could contribute to improving milk lipid composition for dairy products. The focus of the present study was to determine the effect of both fat content and DGAT1 polymorphism on PL/TAG ratio, as a marker for milk fat globule size, and detailed PL composition. Milk samples were selected from 200 cows such that there were equal numbers of samples for the different fat contents as well as per DGAT1 genotype. Samples were analyzed for neutral and polar lipid concentration and composition. PL/TAG ratio was significantly associated with both fat content and DGAT1 genotype. Phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine concentrations were associated with fat content*DGAT1 genotype with a stronger association for the AA than the KK genotype. Sphingomyelin concentration tended to interact with fat content*DGAT1 genotype. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) concentration showed a biphasic response to fat content, suggesting that multiple biological processes influence its concentration. These results provide a new direction for controlling polar lipid concentration and composition in milk through selective breeding of cows.

  11. Melt globules as micro-magmachambers: Extreme fractionation in peralkaline nephelinite at Nyiragongo, East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Tom; Elburg, Marlina; Erambert, Muriel

    2014-05-01

    Highly peralkaline leucite nephelinite from the active volcano Nyiragongo in the Virunga province of the East African Rift contains globules of iron- and volatile-rich, highly peralkaline silicate glass with (Na+K)/Al up to 18, which has formed as a late differentiate of less peralkaline precursors, probably by fractional crystallization at a shallow level in the volcanic system. Several uncommon minerals coexist with this glass (kalsilite, kirschsteinite, chlorbartonite, götzenite, delhayelite, zirconian cuspidine, rare alkali-barium minerals), while combeite is a near-solidus mineral. Low-variance mineral assemblages define a cooling trend from eruptive temperatures ≥980 ºC to the solidus of extremely peralkaline residual liquids at 600 ºC. Oxygen fugacities well below the QFM buffer (QFM-2 to-3) persisted throughout the magmatic crystallization stage. The oxygen fugacity increased to QFM+1 or higher during the final stage of postmagmatic recrystallization. Highly alkaline, volatile-rich minerals such as delhayelite, götzenite and cuspidine were stabilized by a combination of high peralkalinity and elevated activity of chlorine and fluorine; these conditions persisted to sub-solidus temperatures. The exotic mineralogy in these melt globules is similar to mineral assemblages in agpaitic nepheline syenites. The crystallization hisotory of these globules may be an analogue to fractionation processes in large, agpaitic intrusions (e.g. Ilímaussaq, Greenland), including the interplay of the controlling factors peralkalinity, oxygen- and volatile fugacity.

  12. Formation of globules and aggregates of DNA chains in DNA/polyethylene glycol/monovalent salt aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Kawakita, H; Uneyama, T; Kojima, M; Morishima, K; Masubuchi, Y; Watanabe, H

    2009-09-07

    It has been known that giant DNA shows structural transitions in aqueous solutions under the existence of counterions and other polymers. However, the mechanism of these transitions has not been fully understood. In this study, we directly observed structures of probed (dye-labeled), dilute DNA chains in unprobed DNA/polyethylene glycol (PEG)/monovalent salt (NaCl) aqueous solutions with fluorescent microscopy to examine this mechanism. Specifically, we varied the PEG molecular weight and salt concentration to investigate the effect of competition between the depletion and electrostatic interactions on the coil-globule transition and the aggregate formation. It was found that the globules coexist with the aggregates when the unprobed DNA chains have a concentration higher than their overlap concentration. We discuss the stability of the observed structures on the basis of a free energy model incorporating the attractive depletion energy, the repulsive electrostatic energy, and the chain bending energy. This model suggested that both of the globules and aggregates are more stable than the random coil at high salt concentrations/under existence of PEG and the transition occurs when the depletion interaction overwhelms the electrostatic interaction. However, the coexistence of the globule and aggregate was not deduced from the thermodynamic model, suggesting a nonequilibrium aspect of the DNA solution and metastabilities of these structures. Thus, the population ratio of globules and aggregates was also analyzed on the basis of a kinetic model. The analysis suggested that the depletion interaction dominates this ratio, rationalizing the coexistence of globules and aggregates.

  13. Changes in the surface protein of the fat globules during homogenization and heat treatment of concentrated milk.

    PubMed

    Ye, Aiqian; Anema, Skelte G; Singh, Harjinder

    2008-08-01

    The changes in milk fat globules and fat globule surface proteins of both low-preheated and high-preheated concentrated milks, which were homogenized at low or high pressure, were examined. The average fat globule size decreased with increasing homogenization pressure. The total surface protein (mg m-2) of concentrated milk increased after homogenization, the extent of the increase being dependent on the temperature and the pressure of homogenization, as well as on the preheat treatment. The concentrates obtained from high-preheated milks had higher surface protein concentration than the concentrates obtained from low-preheated milks after homogenization. Concentrated milks heat treated at 79 degrees C either before or after homogenization had greater amounts of fat globule surface protein than concentrated milks heat treated at 50 or 65 degrees C. This was attributed to the association of whey protein with the native MFGM (milk fat globule membrane) proteins and the adsorbed skim milk proteins. Also, at the same homogenization temperature and pressure, the amount of whey protein on the fat globule surface of the concentrated milk that was heated after homogenization was greater than that of the concentrated milk that was heated before homogenization. The amounts of the major native MFGM proteins did not change during homogenization, indicating that the skim milk proteins did not displace the native MFGM proteins but adsorbed on to the newly formed surface.

  14. Method and apparatus for atomization and spraying of molten metals

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

    1988-07-19

    A method and device for dispersing molten metal into fine particulate spray, the method comprises applying an electric current through the molten metal and simultaneously applying a magnetic field to the molten metal in a plane perpendicular to the electric current, whereby the molten metal is caused to form into droplets at an angle perpendicular to both the electric current and the magnetic field. The device comprises a structure for providing a molten metal, appropriately arranged electrodes for applying an electric current through the molten metal, and a magnet for providing a magnetic field in a plane perpendicular to the electric current. 11 figs.

  15. A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M., Donaldson, A.D.

    1990-12-12

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figs.

  16. Physical properties of molten carbonate electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, T.; Yanagida, M.; Tanimoto, K.

    1996-12-31

    Recently many kinds of compositions of molten carbonate electrolyte have been applied to molten carbonate fuel cell in order to avoid the several problems such as corrosion of separator plate and NiO cathode dissolution. Many researchers recognize that the addition of alkaline earth (Ca, Sr, and Ba) carbonate to Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} eutectic electrolytes is effective to avoid these problems. On the other hand, one of the corrosion products, CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion is found to dissolve into electrolyte and accumulated during the long-term MCFC operations. This would affect the performance of MCFC. There, however, are little known data of physical properties of molten carbonate containing alkaline earth carbonates and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. We report the measured and accumulated data for these molten carbonate of electrical conductivity and surface tension to select favorable composition of molten carbonate electrolytes.

  17. Dynamics of the Molten Contact Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonin, Ain A.; Schiaffino, Stefano

    1996-01-01

    In contrast to the ordinary contact line problem, virtually no information is available on the similar problem associated with a molten material spreading on a solid which is below the melt's fusion point. The latter is a more complex problem which heat transfer and solidification take place simultaneously with spreading, and requires answers not only for the hot melt's advance speed over the cold solid as a function of contact angle, but also for how one is to predict the point of the molten contact line's arrest by freezing. This issues are of importance in evolving methods of materials processing. The purpose of our work is to develop, based on both experiments and theory, an understanding of the dynamic processes that occur when a molten droplet touches a subcooled solid, spreads partly over it by capillary action, and freezes. We seek answers to the following basic questions. First, what is the relationship between the melt's contact line speed and the apparent (dynamic) contact angle? Secondly, at what point will the contact line modon be arrested by freezing? The talk will describe three components of our work: (1) deposition experiments with small molten droplets; (2) investigation of the dynamics of the molten contact line by means of a novel forced spreading method; and (3) an attempt to provide a theoretical framework for answering the basic questions posed above.

  18. Sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell

    DOEpatents

    Mamantov, Gleb

    1985-04-02

    A sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell with a .beta."-alumina sodium ion conductor having a S-Al mole ratio of above about 0.15 in an acidic molten chloroaluminate cathode composition is disclosed. The cathode composition has an AlCl.sub.3 -NaCl mole percent ratio of above about 70-30 at theoretical full charge. The cell provides high energy densities at low temperatures and provides high energy densities and high power densities at moderate temperatures.

  19. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Cathodes for molten-salt batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argade, Shyam D.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of the discussion on cathodes for molten-salt batteries are presented. For the cathode reactions in molten-salt cells, chlorine-based and sulfur-based cathodes reactants have relatively high exchange current densities. Sulfur-based cathodes, metal sulfides, and disulfides have been extensively investigated. Primary thermal batteries of the Li-alloy/FeS2 variety have been available for a number of years. Chlorine based rechargable cathodes were investigated for the pulse power application. A brief introduction is followed by the experimental aspects of research, and the results obtained. Performance projections to the battery system level are discussed and the presentation is summarized with conclusions.

  1. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  2. The Dynamical State of the Starless Dense Core FeSt 1-457: A Pulsating Globule?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguti, E. D.; Lada, C. J.; Bergin, E. A.; Alves, J. F.; Birkinshaw, M.

    2007-08-01

    High-resolution molecular line observations of CS (J=2-->1), HCO+ (J=1-->0), C18O (J=1-->0), C18O (J=2-->1), and N2H+ (J=1-->0) were obtained toward the starless globule FeSt 1-457 in order to investigate its kinematics and chemistry. The HCO+ and CS spectra show clear self-reversed and asymmetric profiles across the face of the globule. The sense of the observed asymmetry is indicative of the global presence of expansion motions in the outer layers of the globule. These motions appear to be subsonic and significantly below the escape velocity of the globule. Comparison of our observations with near-infrared extinction data indicate that the globule is gravitationally bound. Taken together, these considerations lead us to suggest that the observed expansion has its origin in an oscillatory motion of the outer layers of the globule, which itself is likely in a quasi-stable state near hydrostatic equilibrium. Analysis of the observed line widths of C18O and N2H+ (J=1-->0) confirm that thermal pressure is the dominant component of the cloud's internal support. A simple calculation suggests that the dominant mode of pulsation would be an l=2 mode with a period of ~3×105 yr. Deformation of the globule due to the large amplitude l=2 oscillation may be responsible for the double-peaked structure of the core detected in high-resolution extinction maps. Detailed comparison of the molecular-line observations and extinction data provides evidence for significant depletion of C18O and perhaps HCO+, while N2H+ (J=1-->0) may be undepleted to a cloud depth of ~40 mag of visual extinction.

  3. Method for recovering hydrocarbons from molten metal halides

    DOEpatents

    Pell, Melvyn B.

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy carbonaceous materials by contacting such carbonaceous materials with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst to produce hydrocarbons having lower molecular weights and thereafter recovering the hydrocarbons so produced from the molten metal halide, an improvement comprising injecting into the spent molten metal halide, a liquid low-boiling hydrocarbon stream is disclosed.

  4. Interactions between drops of molten Al-Li alloys and liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.; Nelson, L.S.; Duda, P.M.; Hyndman, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, at the request of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), studied the interactions between single drops of molten aluminum-lithium alloys and water. Most experiments were performed with ``B`` alloy (3.1 w/o Li, balance A1). Objectives were to develop experimental procedures for preparing and delivering the melt drops and diagnostics for characterizing the interactions, measure hydrogen generated by the reaction between melt and water, examine debris recovered after the interaction, determine changes in the aqueous phase produced by the melt-water chemical reactions, and determine whether steam explosions occur spontaneously under the conditions studied. Although many H{sub 2} bubbles were generated after the drops entered the water, spontaneous steam explosions never occurred when globules of the ``B`` alloy at temperatures between 700 and 1000C fell freely through water at room temperature, or upon or during subsequent contact with submerged aluminum or stainless steel surfaces. Total amounts of H{sub 2} (STP) increased from about 2 to 9 cm{sup 3}/per gram of melt as initial melt temperature increased over this range of temperatures.

  5. MOLTEN PLUTONIUM FUELED FAST BREEDER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kiehn, R.M.; King, L.D.P.; Peterson, R.E.; Swickard, E.O. Jr.

    1962-06-26

    A description is given of a nuclear fast reactor fueled with molten plutonium containing about 20 kg of plutonium in a tantalum container, cooled by circulating liquid sodium at about 600 to 650 deg C, having a large negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, and control rods and movable reflector for criticality control. (AEC)

  6. Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Roland

    2011-08-03

    Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

  7. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, Robert D; Miller, Laurence F

    2014-04-01

    Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

  8. Oxygen electrode in molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, B.B.; White, R.E. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Srinivasan, S; Appleby, A.J. . Center for Electrochemical Systems and Hydrogen Research)

    1990-01-01

    During this quarter, impedance data were analyzed for oxygen reduction process in molten carbonate electrolyte and a manuscript, Impedance Analysis for Oxygen Reduction in a Lithium Carbonate Melt: Effects of Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide and Temperature,'' was prepared which will be submitted to Journal of the Electrochemical Society for publication. 31 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  10. Triggered star-formation in the bright rimmed globule IC1396A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Nimesh A.; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Goldsmith, Paul

    2015-01-01

    IC1396 is a well known HII region and molecular cloud complex surrounding the Trumpler 37 cluster of OB stars in the Cepheus OB2 association. The dense, elephant trunk shaped globules in this region typically show bright rims facing the central exciting O6 star HD~206267. This region, at a distance of 870 pc, is an excellent astrophysical laboratory for studying the feedback effects of massive stars on neighboring molecular clouds. Triggered star formation occurs when dense cores (which would otherwise remain stable) are compressed and made unstable by the sustained energy input from the OB association. Observationally it remains challenging to prove whether the onset of star-formation in such globules is triggered or spontaneous.Using the Submillimeter Array (SMA), we observed IC1396 globule A (Pottasch 1958 nomenclature), targeting four newly discovered protostars from recent Herschel PACS observations. Here we present 230 GHz molecular line (CO, 13CO, C18O, N2D+ and H2CO) and continuum results for the source IC1396A-PACS-1 (Sicilia-Aguilar et al. 2014). This is a Class 0 source very close to the edge of the ionization front and Herschel observations show this to be a most promisingcase of triggered star-formation. The SMA 230 GHz continuum source has a flux density of 280 mJy. We estimate a dust mass of about 0.1 Msun in this source which appears very compact in our 5" beam. CO, 13CO and C18O emission is largely resolved out by the interferometer and will require combined imaging with single-dish observations. (We have a parallel ongoing study being carried out with the IRAM 30m telescope). SMA N2D+ emission peaks on the continuum sourceand is partially resolved. H2CO emission appears to avoid the peak of continuum and N2D+, suggesting depletion. Both the morphology and kinematics in H2CO emission are indicative of internal disturbance, away from the PDR region into the globule.

  11. Invited review: Bovine milk fat globule membrane as a potential nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Spitsberg, V L

    2005-07-01

    For the last 15 yr, a great deal of knowledge has been accumulated on health beneficial factors, protein and nonprotein, of bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Among the health-beneficial components of the MFGM are cholesterolemia-lowering factor, inhibitors of cancer cell growth, vitamin binders, inhibitor of Helicobacter pylori, inhibitor of beta-glucuronidase of the intestinal Escherichia coli, xanthine oxidase as a bactericidal agent, butyrophilin as a possible suppressor of multiple sclerosis, and phospholipids as agents against colon cancer, gastrointestinal pathogens, Alzheimer's disease, depression, and stress. All of the above compel us to consider bovine MFGM as a potential nutraceutical.

  12. X-ray microprobe measurements of the chemical compositions of ALH84001 carbonate globules

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.J.; Sutton, S.R.; Keller, L.P.

    2004-01-28

    We measured minor element contents of carbonate from ALH84001 and report trends in tbe Ca, V, Mn and Sr in carbonate and the associated magnetite bands. McKay et al. suggested that carbonate globules in the ALH84001 meteorite from Mars contained evidence consistent with the development of bacterial life early in the history of Mars. This result provoked an extensive study of the ALH84001 meteorite. More recently Thomas-Keprta et al. have published a study showing that the magnetite associated with carbonate rims are of the size and shape produced by terrestrial bacteria. This paper has revived interest in ALH84001. The typical ALH84001 carbonate globule consists of four regions: a core of Fe-rich carbonate, a thin magnetite-rich band, a rim of Mn-rich carbonate, and another thin magnetite-rich band. Trace element analysis of each of these phases may allow us to address several important questions about these carbonates: (1) The origin of the magnetite-rich bands in the ALH84001 carbonate globules. If the magnetites are derived from the underlying carbonate through thermal decomposition (as proposed by Golden et al.), then we expect to see 'inherited' trace elements in these magnetite bands. (2) The origin of the rim carbonate, by determining whether the carbonate in the core has the same trace elements as the rim carbonates. (3) The age of the rim carbonate. Borg et al. dated the formation of the rim carbonate using the Rb/Sr chronometer. Borg et al. performed their measurements on an aliquot of what they called a high-Rb, low-Sr carbonate separate from the rim. We previously measured the trace element contents of chips from core and rim carbonates from an ALH84001 carbonate globule using an X-Ray Microprobe on Beamline X26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source. These measurements showed the rim carbonate had a very low Rb content, with Sr>>Rb, inconsistent with the {approx}5 ppm Rb reported by Borg et al. in the sample they dated by the Rb/Sr chronometer. The

  13. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention.

  14. The dynamics of the biological membrane surrounding the buffalo milk fat globule investigated as a function of temperature.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hanh T H; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Ong, Lydia; Kentish, Sandra E; Gras, Sally L; Lopez, Christelle

    2016-08-01

    The biological membrane surrounding fat globules in milk (the MFGM) is poorly understood, despite its importance in digestion and in determining the properties of fat globules. In this study, in situ structural investigations of buffalo MFGM were performed as a function of temperature (4-60°C), using confocal microscopy. We demonstrate that temperature and rate of temperature change affected the lipid domains formed in the MFGM with the lateral segregation (i) of high Tm lipids and cholesterol in a Lo phase for both TTm and (ii) of high Tm lipids in a gel phase for Tglobules during processing and digestion.

  15. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. I. Gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Cui, Jack; Olson, Trent D; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to study the in vivo gastric digestion of fat globules in bovine cream from raw, pasteurised or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Fasted rats were gavaged once and chyme samples were collected after 30, 120 and 180 min post-gavage. Proteins from raw (RC) and pasteurised (PC) creams appeared to be digested faster and to a greater extent. Free fatty acids (FAs) increased throughout the 3h postprandial period. Short and medium chain FAs were released more rapidly than long chain FAs which were hydrolysed to a greater degree from PC. The size of the fat globules of all creams increased in the stomach. Protein aggregates were observed in pasteurised and homogenised cream chyme. Protrusions, probably caused by the accumulation of insoluble lipolytic products, appeared at the surface of the globules in RC and PC chyme. Overall, PC proteins and lipids appeared to be digested to a greater extent.

  16. LOOKING INTO THE HEARTS OF BOK GLOBULES: MILLIMETER AND SUBMILLIMETER CONTINUUM IMAGES OF ISOLATED STAR-FORMING CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Launhardt, R.; Henning, Th.; Khanzadyan, T.; Schmalzl, M.; Wolf, S.; Nutter, D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bourke, T. L.; Zylka, R.

    2010-05-15

    We present the results of a comprehensive infrared, submillimeter, and millimeter continuum emission study of isolated low-mass star-forming cores in 32 Bok globules, with the aim to investigate the process of star formation in these regions. The submillimeter and millimeter dust continuum emission maps together with the spectral energy distributions are used to model and derive the physical properties of the star-forming cores, such as luminosities, sizes, masses, densities, etc. Comparisons with ground-based near-infrared and space-based mid- and far-infrared images from Spitzer are used to reveal the stellar content of the Bok globules, association of embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) with the submillimeter dust cores, and the evolutionary stages of the individual sources. Submillimeter dust continuum emission was detected in 26 out of the 32 globule cores observed. For 18 globules with detected (sub)millimeter cores, we derive evolutionary stages and physical parameters of the embedded sources. We identify nine starless cores, most of which are presumably prestellar, nine Class 0 protostars, and twelve Class I YSOs. Specific source properties like bolometric temperature, core size, and central densities are discussed as a function of evolutionary stage. We find that at least two thirds (16 out of 24) of the star-forming globules studied here show evidence of forming multiple stars on scales between 1000 and 50,000 AU. However, we also find that most of these small prototstar and star groups are comprised of sources with different evolutionary stages, suggesting a picture of slow and sequential star formation in isolated globules.

  17. Size-dependent lipid content of bovine milk fat globule and membrane phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Mesilati-Stahy, Ronit; Mida, Kfir; Argov-Argaman, Nurit

    2011-07-13

    The mammary epithelial cell produces unique structures and a range of diversely sized lipid particles from tens of micrometers to less than 1 μm. The physical, chemical, and biological properties of the differently sized milk fat globules (MFGs) and their complex membranes are not well described. Six size fractions of MFGs were obtained by gravity-based separation and analyzed, and their partial lipidome was determined. The smallest MFGs had a higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs). The FAs indicative of elongase activity were highest in the smallest MFGs, whereas those FAs indicative of desaturase activity did not differ between size groups. The phosphatidylinositol concentration was highest whereas the phosphatidylserine concentration was lowest in MFGs with an average diameter of 2 μm. Phosphatidylethanolamine and cholesterol concentrations were highest whereas that of sphingomyelin was lowest in MFGs with an average diameter of 3 μm. Phosphatidylcholine concentrations did not vary between the size groups. Results suggest that the assembly of milk fat globules that differ in size is not a homogeneous nor random process and that the differences in composition may reflect discrete biosynthetic routes.

  18. Fitting a Turbulent Cloud Model to CO Observations of Starless Bok Globules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegmann, M.; Hengel, C.; Röllig, M.; Kegel, W. H.

    We present observations of five starless Bok globules in transitions of 12CO (J=2-1 and {J=3-2}), 13CO (J=2-1), and C18O (J=2-1) which have been obtained at the Heinrich-Hertz-Telescope. For an analysis of the data we use the model of Kegel et al. (see e.g. Piehler & Kegel 1995, A&A 297, 841; Hegmann & Kegel 2000, A&A 359, 405) which describes an isothermal sphere stabilized by turbulent and thermal pressure. This approach deals with the full NLTE radiative transfer problem and accounts for a turbulent velocity field with finite correlation length. By a comparison of observed and calculated line profiles we are able not only to determine the kinetic temperature, hydrogen density and CO coloumn density of the globules, but also to study the properties of the turbulent velocity field, i.e. the variance of its one-point-distribution and its correlation length. We consider our model to be an alternative tool for the evaluation of molecular lines emitted by molecular clouds. The model assumptions are certainly closer to reality than the assumptions behind the standard evaluation models, as for example the LVG model. Our current study shows that that the results obtained from our model can differ significantly from those obtained from a LVG analysis.

  19. N-15-Rich Organic Globules in a Cluster IDP and the Bells CM2 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2008-01-01

    Organic matter in primitive meteorites and chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) is commonly enriched in D/H and 15N/14N relative to terrestrial values [1-3]. These anomalies are ascribed to the partial preservation of presolar cold molecular cloud material [1]. Some meteorites and IDPs contain m-size inclusions with extreme H and N isotopic anomalies [2-4], possibly due to preserved pristine primordial organic grains. We recently showed that the in the Tagish Lake meteorite, the principle carriers of these anomalies are sub- m, hollow organic globules [5]. The globules likely formed by photochemical processing of organic ices in a cold molecular cloud or the outermost regions of the protosolar disk [5]. We proposed that similar materials should be common among primitive meteorites, IDPs, and comets. Similar objects have been observed in organic extracts of carbonaceous chondrites [6-8], however their N and H isotopic compositions are generally unknown. Bulk H and N isotopic compositions may indicate which meteorites best preserve interstellar organic compounds. Thus, we selected the Bells CM2 carbonaceous chondrites for study based on its large bulk 15N (+335 %) and D (+990 %) [9].

  20. Dynamics of the Molten Contact Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonin, Ain A.; Duthaler, Gregg; Liu, Michael; Torresola, Javier; Qiu, Taiqing

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a basic understanding of how a molten material front spreads over a solid that is below its melting point, arrests, and freezes. Our hope is that the work will contribute toward a scientific knowledge base for certain new applications involving molten droplet deposition, including the "printing" of arbitrary three-dimensional objects by precise deposition of individual molten microdrops that solidify after impact. Little information is available at this time on the capillarity-driven motion and arrest of molten contact line regions. Schiaffino and Sonin investigated the arrest of the contact line of a molten microcrystalline wax spreading over a subcooled solid "target" of the same material. They found that contact line arrest takes place at an apparent liquid contact angle that depends primarily on the Stefan number S=c(T(sub f) -T(sub t)/L based on the temperature difference between the fusion point and the target temperature, and proposed that contact line arrest occurs when the liquid's dynamic contact angle approaches the angle of attack of the solidification front just behind the contact line. They also showed, however, that the conventional continuum equations and boundary conditions have no meaningful solution for this angle. The solidification front angle is determined by the heat flux just behind the contact line, and the heat flux is singular at that point. By comparing experiments with numerical computations, Schiaffino and Sonin estimated that the conventional solidification model must break down within a distance of order 0.1 - 1 microns of the contact line. The physical mechanism for this breakdown is as yet undetermined, and no first-principles theory exists for the contact angle at arrest. Schiaffino and Sonin also presented a framework for understanding how to moderate Weber number molten droplet deposition in terms of similarity laws and experimentation. The study is based on experiments with three molten

  1. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; ...

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. Onmore » melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.« less

  2. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; Leibowitz, L.

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  3. Pulsed power molten salt battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argade, S. D.; Boos, D. L.; Ryan, D. M.

    The authors describe a program aimed at developing a primary-reserve pulse-power battery design. The program focus at the present time is on developing high-rate chlorine cathodes for the lithium-aluminum/chlorine system. A novel activation treatment has been developed to use porous carbon and graphite materials as chlorine cathodes in this battery system. Results obtained with these electrodes in molten-salt cells are discussed. In molten LiCl-KCl at 450 C, these chlorine electrodes deliver remarkable pulse-power performance, 20-25 W/cm2. The IR-free cell polarization with Li-Al/chlorine cells appears to be ohmic, which is desirable for the pulse power application.

  4. Microphase segregation in molten randomly grafted copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shuyan; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2001-08-01

    We study microphase ordering of molten randomly grafted copolymers (RGCs) by using a mean field theory and the replica method to calculate the quenched average. Our results illustrate that in the weak segregation limit (WSI), the optimal wave vector q* of the lamellar phase formed by molten RGCs, has a temperature dependence different from either linear random copolymers (LRCs) or diblock copolymers (DCPs): when close, but below the microphase separation transition (MST) temperature, q* increases sharply with decreasing temperature; then q* gradually acquires an asymptotic value determined by the length of the branch and the average distance between branch points on the backbone. Our results are compared with recent experiments, and the effects of chain architecture on the microphase separation characteristics of RGCs are delineated. Our results suggest a new method for controlling the microphase spacing by exploiting quenched disorder.

  5. Method and apparatus for spraying molten materials

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, R.J.; Tierney, J.C.; McLean, L.L.; Johnson, L.L.; Nelson, G.L.; Lee, Y.M.

    1996-06-25

    A metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments. 12 figs.

  6. Molten Glass for Thermal Storage: Advanced Molten Glass for Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: Halotechnics is developing a high-temperature thermal energy storage system using a new thermal-storage and heat-transfer material: earth-abundant and low-melting-point molten glass. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Halotechnics new thermal storage material targets a price that is potentially cheaper than the molten salt used in most commercial solar thermal storage systems today. It is also extremely stable at temperatures up to 1200°C—hundreds of degrees hotter than the highest temperature molten salt can handle. Being able to function at high temperatures will significantly increase the efficiency of turning heat into electricity. Halotechnics is developing a scalable system to pump, heat, store, and discharge the molten glass. The company is leveraging technology used in the modern glass industry, which has decades of experience handling molten glass.

  7. Molten metal holder furnace and casting system incorporating the molten metal holder furnace

    DOEpatents

    Kinosz, Michael J.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2003-02-11

    A bottom heated holder furnace (12) for containing a supply of molten metal includes a storage vessel (30) having sidewalls (32) and a bottom wall (34) defining a molten metal receiving chamber (36). A furnace insulating layer (42) lines the molten metal receiving chamber (36). A thermally conductive heat exchanger block (54) is located at the bottom of the molten metal receiving chamber (36) for heating the supply of molten metal. The heat exchanger block (54) includes a bottom face (65), side faces (66), and a top face (67). The heat exchanger block (54) includes a plurality of electrical heaters (70) extending therein and projecting outward from at least one of the faces of the heat exchanger block (54), and further extending through the furnace insulating layer (42) and one of the sidewalls (32) of the storage vessel (30) for connection to a source of electrical power. A sealing layer (50) covers the bottom face (65) and side faces (66) of the heat exchanger block (54) such that the heat exchanger block (54) is substantially separated from contact with the furnace insulating layer (42).

  8. Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Jr., Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or a fiber-powder mixture.

  9. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    DOE PAGES

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; ...

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700°C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet materialmore » in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850°C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <10 mils per year. For materials of construction, nickel and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of contaminant type and alloy composition with respect to chromium and carbon to better define the optimal chromium and carbon composition, independent of galvanic or differential solubility effects. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high temperature components per ASME standards, along with design requirements for a subcritical Rankine power cycle heat exchanger that has to overcome pressure difference of about 17 MPa.« less

  10. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700°C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850°C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <10 mils per year. For materials of construction, nickel and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of contaminant type and alloy composition with respect to chromium and carbon to better define the optimal chromium and carbon composition, independent of galvanic or differential solubility effects. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high temperature components per ASME standards, along with design requirements for a subcritical Rankine power cycle heat exchanger that has to overcome pressure difference of about 17 MPa.

  11. Molten-Caustic-Leaching System Integration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to modify an existing molten-caustic-leaching (MCL) system for coal upgrading so that it operates in an integrated continuous manner. The overall strategy consists of several tasks, but only a few are discussed here. Tasks discussed are: MCL circuit component testing (coal sample procurement), final circuit modifications for integrated operation, coal product handling/waste disposal (coal inventory disposal, MCL solid waste disposal), project management and control. (VC)

  12. A Molten Salt Lithium-Oxygen Battery.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Vincent; Tozier, Dylan; Tan, Hongjin; Burke, Colin M; Gallant, Betar M; Uddin, Jasim; Greer, Julia R; McCloskey, Bryan D; Chase, Gregory V; Addison, Dan

    2016-03-02

    Despite the promise of extremely high theoretical capacity (2Li + O2 ↔ Li2O2, 1675 mAh per gram of oxygen), many challenges currently impede development of Li/O2 battery technology. Finding suitable electrode and electrolyte materials remains the most elusive challenge to date. A radical new approach is to replace volatile, unstable and air-intolerant organic electrolytes common to prior research in the field with alkali metal nitrate molten salt electrolytes and operate the battery above the liquidus temperature (>80 °C). Here we demonstrate an intermediate temperature Li/O2 battery using a lithium anode, a molten nitrate-based electrolyte (e.g., LiNO3-KNO3 eutectic) and a porous carbon O2 cathode with high energy efficiency (∼95%) and improved rate capability because the discharge product, lithium peroxide, is stable and moderately soluble in the molten salt electrolyte. The results, supported by essential state-of-the-art electrochemical and analytical techniques such as in situ pressure and gas analyses, scanning electron microscopy, rotating disk electrode voltammetry, demonstrate that Li2O2 electrochemically forms and decomposes upon cycling with discharge/charge overpotentials as low as 50 mV. We show that the cycle life of such batteries is limited only by carbon reactivity and by the uncontrolled precipitation of Li2O2, which eventually becomes electrically disconnected from the O2 electrode.

  13. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  14. Supported Molten Metal Membranes for Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Ravindra; Ma, Yi Hua; Yen, Pei-Shan; Deveau, Nicholas; Fishtik, Ilie; Mardilovich, Ivan

    2013-09-30

    We describe here our results on the feasibility of a novel dense metal membrane for hydrogen separation: Supported Molten Metal Membrane, or SMMM.1 The goal in this work was to develop these new membranes based on supporting thin films of low-melting, non- precious group metals, e.g., tin (Sn), indium (In), gallium (Ga), or their alloys, to provide a flux and selectivity of hydrogen that rivals the conventional but substantially more expensive palladium (Pd) or Pd alloy membranes, which are susceptible to poisoning by the many species in the coal-derived syngas, and further possess inadequate stability and limited operating temperature range. The novelty of the technology presented numerous challenges during the course of this project, however, mainly in the selection of appropriate supports, and in the fabrication of a stable membrane. While the wetting instability of the SMMM remains an issue, we did develop an adequate understanding of the interaction between molten metal films with porous supports that we were able to find appropriate supports. Thus, our preliminary results indicate that the Ga/SiC SMMM at 550 ºC has a permeance that is an order of magnitude higher than that of Pd, and exceeds the 2015 DOE target. To make practical SMM membranes, however, further improving the stability of the molten metal membrane is the next goal. For this, it is important to better understand the change in molten metal surface tension and contact angle as a function of temperature and gas-phase composition. A thermodynamic theory was, thus, developed, that is not only able to explain this change in the liquid-gas surface tension, but also the change in the solid-liquid surface tension as well as the contact angle. This fundamental understanding has allowed us to determine design characteristics to maintain stability in the face of changing gas composition. These designs are being developed. For further progress, it is also important to understand the nature of solution and

  15. Variation in fat globule size in bovine milk and its prediction using mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A; Schenkel, F S; Chen, J; Malchiodi, F; Ali, R A; Mallard, B; Sargolzaei, M; Corredig, M; Miglior, F

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the sources of variation in milk fat globule (MFG) size in bovine milk and its prediction using mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. Mean MFG size was measured in 2,076 milk samples from 399 Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey cows, and expressed as volume moment mean (D[4,3]) and surface moment mean (D[3,2]). The mid-infrared spectra of the samples and milk performance data were also recorded during routine milk recording and testing. The effects of breed, herd nested within breed, days in milk, season, milking period, age at calving, parity, and individual animal on the variation observed in MFG size were investigated. Breed, herd nested within breed, days in milk, season, and milking period significantly affected mean MFG size. Milk fat globule size was the largest at the beginning of lactation and subsequently decreased. Milk samples with the smallest MFG on average came from Holstein cows, and those with the largest were from Jersey and Brown Swiss cows. Partial least squares regression was used to predict MFG size from MIR spectra of samples with a calibration data set containing 2,034 and 2,032 samples for D[4,3] and D[3,2], respectively. Coefficients of determination of cross validation for D[4,3] and D[3,2] prediction models were 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. The associated ratio of performance deviation values were 1.43 and 1.48 for D[4,3] and D[3,2], respectively. With these models, individual mean MFG size could not be accurately predicted, but results may be sufficient to screen samples for having either small or large MFG on average. Significant but low correlations of D[4,3] and D[3,2] with milk fat yield were estimated (0.16 and 0.21, respectively). Significant and moderate Pearson correlation coefficients for fat percent with D[4,3] and D[3,2] were assessed (0.34 and 0.36, respectively). This correlation was greater between milk fat percentage and predicted MFG size than with measured MFG size

  16. Removal of milk fat globules from whey protein concentrate 34% to prepare clear and heat-stable protein dispersions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-10-01

    Whey protein concentrates (WPC) are low-cost protein ingredients, but their application in transparent ready-to-drink beverages is limited due to turbidity caused by fat globules and heat instability. In this work, fat globules were removed from WPC 34% (WPC-34) to prepare heat-stable ingredients via the Maillard reaction. The removal of fat globules by acid precipitation and centrifugation was observed to be the most complete at pH 4.0, and the loss of protein was caused by micrometer-sized fat globules and protein aggregates. Spray-dried powder prepared from the transparent supernatant was glycated at 130°C for 20 and 30min or 60°C for 24 and 48h. The 2 groups of samples had comparable heat stability and degree of glycation, evaluated by free amino content and analytical ultracentrifugation, but high-temperature, short-time treatment reduced the color formation during glycation. Therefore, WPC-34 can be processed for application in transparent beverages.

  17. Effect of homogenization and heat treatment on the behavior of protein and fat globules during gastric digestion of milk.

    PubMed

    Ye, Aiqian; Cui, Jian; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder

    2017-01-01

    The effects of homogenization and heat treatment on the formation and the breakdown of clots during gastric digestion of whole milk were investigated using a human gastric simulator. Homogenization and heat treatment led to formation of coagula with fragmented and crumbled structures compared with the coagulum formed from raw whole milk, but a larger fraction of the protein and more fat globules were incorporated into the coagula induced by action of the milk-clotting enzyme pepsin. The fat globules in the whole milk appeared to be embedded in the clots as they formed. After formation of the clot, the greater numbers of pores in the structures of the clots formed with homogenized milk and heated whole milk led to greater rates of protein hydrolysis by pepsin, which resulted in faster release of fat globules from the clots into the digesta. Coalescence of fat globules occurred both in the digesta and within the protein clots no matter whether they were in homogenized or heated milk samples. The formation of clots with different structures and hence the changes in the rates of protein hydrolysis and the release of milk fat into the digesta in the stomach provide important information for understanding the gastric emptying of milk and the potential to use this knowledge to manipulate the bioavailability of fat and other fat-soluble nutrients in dairy products.

  18. Low temperature oxidation using support molten salt catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Weimer, Alan W.; Czerpak, Peter J.; Hilbert, Patrick M.

    2003-05-20

    Molten salt reactions are performed by supporting the molten salt on a particulate support and forming a fluidized bed of the supported salt particles. The method is particularly suitable for combusting hydrocarbon fuels at reduced temperatures, so that the formation NO.sub.x species is reduced. When certain preferred salts are used, such as alkali metal carbonates, sulfur and halide species can be captured by the molten salt, thereby reducing SO.sub.x and HCl emissions.

  19. Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Squire, Dwight V.; Robinson, Jeffrey A.; House, Palmer A.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

  20. Interaction between Oxygen and Molten Carbonate: A DFT Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    REPORT Interaction between Oxygen and Molten Carbonate : A DFT Study 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Student Senior Thesis by Gladney...Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Oxygen, Molten Carbonate , DFT, Molecular Modeling Arianna Gladney...Molten Carbonate : A DFT Study Report Title ABSTRACT Student Senior Thesis by Gladney Arianna Chemistry Major Class of 2012, Benedict College 1

  1. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, Robert K.; LaCamera, Alfred F.; Troup, R. Lee; Ray, Siba P.; Hosler, Robert B.

    1999-01-01

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride.

  2. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

    1999-08-17

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

  3. Behavior of Stabilized Zirconia in Molten Sodium Sulfate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ZIRCONIUM OXIDES, *CHEMICAL ATTACK(DEGRADATION), *MOLTEN SALTS , MICROSTRUCTURE, MICROSCOPY, ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, ADDITIVES, SULFATES, YTTRIUM OXIDES, CALCIUM OXIDES, MAGNESIUM OXIDES, SODIUM COMPOUNDS.

  4. Compatibility of molten salts with advanced solar dynamic receiver materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Perry, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    Metal-coated graphite fibers are being considered as a thermal conductivity enhancement filler material for molten salts in solar dynamic thermal energy storage systems. The successful metal coating chosen for this application must exhibit acceptable wettability and must be compatible with the molten salt environment. Contact angle values between molten lithium fluoride and several metal, metal fluoride, and metal oxide substrates have been determined at 892 C using a modification of the Wilhelmy plate technique. Reproducible contact angles with repeated exposure to the molten LiF indicated compatibility.

  5. Electrochemical cell utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Virkar, Anil V.; Miller, Gerald R.

    1983-11-04

    An improved electrochemical cell comprising an additive-modified molten alkali metal electrode-reactant and/or electrolyte is disclosed. Various electrochemical cells employing a molten alkali metal, e.g., sodium, electrode in contact with a cationically conductive ceramic membrane experience a lower resistance and a lower temperature coefficient of resistance whenever small amounts of selenium are present at the interface of the electrolyte and the molten alkali metal. Further, cells having small amounts of selenium present at the electrolyte-molten metal interface exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte under long term cycling conditions.

  6. Crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability

    SciTech Connect

    Park, R.J.; Lee, S.J.; Sim, S.K.

    1995-09-01

    Experimental and analytical studies of the crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability have been performed to examine the crust formation process as a function of boundary temperatures as well as to investigate heat transfer characteristics between molten pool and overlying water in order to evaluate coolability of the molten pool. The experimental test results have shown that the surface temperature of the bottom plate is a dominant parameter in the crust formation process of the molten pool. It is also found that the crust thickness of the case with direct coolant injection into the molten pool is greater than that of the case with a heat exchanger. Increasing mass flow rate of direct coolant injection to the molten pool does not affect the temperature of molten pool after the crust has been formed in the molten pool because the crust behaves as a thermal barrier. The Nusselt number between the molten pool and the coolant of the case with no crust formation is greater than that of the case with crust formation. The results of FLOW-3D analyses have shown that the temperature distribution contributes to the crust formation process due to Rayleigh-Benard natural convection flow.

  7. T helper cell cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Penna, A.; Glasebrook, A.

    1986-03-01

    It has recently been shown that helper T cells (Lyt2/sup -/, L3T4/sup +/) can express cytolytic activity when activated by antigen (Ag). The authors have studied the phenomenon of T helper cell cytotoxicity using cloned lines of Ag-reactive T cells and T hybrids. Cytotoxicity was determined by coculture of T cells with /sup 51/Cr-labelled Ag presenting cells (APC) and/or non-APC (bystander cells). A high frequency of Ag-specific L3T4/sup +/ T cell clones (> 90%) and hybrids (> 50%) were found to be cytotoxic. Cytotoxicity as determined by /sup 51/Cr release was maximal at 20 hr with little or no cytotoxicity detectable at 6 hr. Target cells, either APC or bystander cells, were killed provided the T cells were stimulated by Ag. Not all of the B cells used as APC were susceptible targets even if able to promote bystander killing. Monoclonal antibodies directed against L3T4, LFA-1 and T cell receptor molecules were able to block the cytotoxicity indicating a requirement for specific activation of the T cells. Cyclosporin A (CsA) reduced the cytotoxic activity of helper T hybrids and clones, while it did not affect the cytotoxic activity of Lyt2/sup +/, L3T4/sup -/ cytolytic T cell (CTL) clones. The delayed expression of cytotoxic activity, the lysis of bystander cells and inhibition by CsA suggest that the cytolytic mechanism is mediated by a soluble factor and different from the cytolytic mechanism of CTL. The phenomenon of cytotoxic T helper cells may be relevant to suppression of B cell immune responses in vivo.

  8. Phase transitions of a polymer threading a membrane coupled to coil-globule transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Akihiko

    2004-07-01

    We theoretically study phase transitions of a polymer threading through a pore imbedded in a membrane. We focus on the coupling between a partition of the polymer segments through the membrane and a coil-globule transition of the single polymer chain. Based on the Flory model for collapse transitions of a polymer chain, we calculate the fraction of polymer segments and the expansion factor of a polymer coil on each side of the membrane. We predict a first-order phase transition of a polymer threading a membrane; polymer segments in one side are discontinuously translocated into the other side, depending on solvent conditions and molecular weight of the polymer. We also discuss the equilibrium conformation of the polymer chain on each side of the membrane.

  9. Jeans analysis of Bok globules in {\\varvec{f(R)}} gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainio, Jaakko; Vilja, Iiro

    2016-10-01

    We examine the effects of f( R) gravity on Jeans analysis of collapsing dust clouds. We provide a method for testing modified gravity models by their effects on star formation as the presence of f(R) gravity is found to modify the limit for collapse. In this analysis we add perturbations to a de Sitter background. As the standard Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian is modified, new types of dynamics emerge. Depending on the characteristics of a chosen f( R) model, the appearance of new limits is possible. The physicality of these limits is further examined. We find the asymptotic Jeans masses for f( R) theories compared to standard Jeans mass. Through this ratio, the effects of the f( R) modified Jeans mass for viable theories are examined in molecular clouds. Bok globules have a mass range comparable to Jeans masses in question and are therefore used for comparing different f( R) models. Viable theories are found to assist in star formation.

  10. The Thumbprint nebula: The distribution of molecular gas and dust in a regular BOK globule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, K.; Mattila, K.; Schnur, G. F. O.; Prusti, T.

    1995-03-01

    We have studied a regular bright-rimmed globule called Thumbprint Nebula, TPN, (size approximately 0.18 pc, distance approximately 200 pc) in millimeter molecular lines (CO isotopic lines), at optical wavelengths (scanned Schmidt plates) and at infrared wavelengths (IRAS maps and scans). The molecular line observations have been made with the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope (SEST) in (12)CO (J = 1-0) and (J = 2-1), (13)CO (J = 1-0) and (J = 2-1), C(18)O (J = 1-0), C(17)O (J = 1-0), CS (J = 2-1) and HNC (J = 1-0) transitions. These observations reveal a centrally condensed cloud with an excitation temperature of Tex approximately equal to 6.6 K, and a mass of 6 solar mass. There is indication of a cloud rotation with a rotation rate of approximately 0.6 km/s/pc, as measured using (13)CO lines. Optical surface brightness distribution as measured from blue and red European Southern Observatory (ESO/SRC) Schmidt plates has been used to determine the distribution of the dust particles in comparison with the distribution of the gas component. The position of the surface brightness minimum, which corresponds to the dust density maximum, is found to be about 40 sec to 50 sec north of the (13)CO and C(18)O column density maximum. We have made infrared surface brightness maps using the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) survey plates at 12, 25, 60 and 100 micrometers and extracted individual IRAS scans crossing the TPN. The globule is seen at 100 and 60 micrometers but the dust is apparently too cold to be visible at shorter wavelengths.

  11. Relationships between milks differentiated on native milk fat globule characteristics and fat, protein and calcium compositions.

    PubMed

    Couvreur, S; Hurtaud, C

    2017-03-01

    Many studies have shown that milk fat globule (MFG) diameter varies in dairy cows in relation to diet and/or breed. However, the mechanisms governing the size of the fat globules remain hypothetical. Our objective was to determine the variable biochemical characteristics (fat, protein, fatty acids (FA), casein and calcium (Ca) contents) between individual milk which differed in both MFG diameter and membrane content, in order to speculate about the links between milk synthesis and MFG secretion. With this aim, we built five databases of individual milk samples from 21 experiments performed between 2003 and 2011. Three of them grouped data from trials dealing with breed/diet effects and included information about: (i) MFG size/membrane, fat and protein contents (n=982), (ii) previous parameters plus FA profile (n=529) and (iii) previous parameters plus true protein composition and calcium contents (n=101). A hierarchical clustering analysis performed on these three databases yielded four groups differing in the MFG characteristics. We observed significant differences among groups for the following parameters: (i) fat content and fat : protein ratio; (ii) de novo and polyunsaturated FA contents; (iii) Ca contents. These relationships could result from potential process regulating the synthesis and secretion of MFG: (i) the apical membrane turnover for MFG secretion and (ii) cytoplasmic lipid droplet formation in the lactocyte during its migration from the basal to the apical pole. The two other databases grouped data from trials dealing with milking frequency (n=211), milking kinetics and milk type (residual v. cisternal) (n=224). They were used to study the relationships between the size of the MFG and milk composition for high native fat contents (from 60 up to 100 g/kg in residual milks). We observed curvilinear relationships between the size of the MFG and fat content, as well as with the fat : protein ratio. This result suggests that MFG diameter reaches a

  12. Dietary milk fat globule membrane reduces the incidence of aberrant crypt foci in Fischer-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Snow, Dallin R; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Ward, Robert E; Cambell, Jesse; Young, Michael J; Nemere, Ilka; Hintze, Korry J

    2010-02-24

    Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is a biopolymer composed primarily of membrane proteins and lipids that surround the fat globules in milk. Although it is considered to have potential as a bioactive ingredient, few feeding studies have been conducted to measure its potential benefits. The aim of this investigation was to determine if dietary MFGM confers protection against colon carcinogenesis compared to diets containing corn oil (CO) or anhydrous milk fat (AMF). Male, weanling Fischer-344 rats were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments that differed only in the fat source: (1) AIN-76A diet, corn oil; (2) AIN-76A diet, AMF; and (3) AIN-76A diet, 50% MFGM, 50% AMF. Each diet contained 50 g/kg diet of fat. With the exception of the fat source, diets were formulated to be identical in macro and micro nutrient content. Animals were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine once per week at weeks 3 and 4, and fed experimental diets for a total of 13 weeks. Over the course of the study dietary treatment did not affect food consumption, weight gain or body composition. After 13 weeks animals were sacrificed, colons were removed and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were counted by microscopy. Rats fed the MFGM diet (n = 16) had significantly fewer ACF (20.9 +/- 5.7) compared to rats fed corn oil (n = 17) or AMF (n = 16) diets (31.3 +/- 9.5 and 29.8 +/- 11.4 respectively; P < 0.05). Gene expression analysis of colonic mucosa did not reveal differential expression of candidate colon cancer genes, and the sphingolipid profile of the colonic mucosa was not affected by diet. While there were notable and significant differences in plasma and red blood cell lipids, there was no relationship to the cancer protection. These results support previous findings that dietary sphingolipids are protective against colon carcinogenesis yet extend this finding to MFGM, a milk fat fraction available as a food ingredient.

  13. Hyaline globules in neuroendocrine and solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas: a clue to the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Meriden, Zina; Shi, Chanjuan; Edil, Barish H; Ellison, Trevor; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Cornish, Toby C; Schulick, Richard D; Hruban, Ralph H

    2011-07-01

    Distinguishing between solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) may pose a diagnostic dilemma. Both can demonstrate solid growth patterns, and both can be immunoreactive with neuroendocrine markers such as synaptophysin and CD56. One well-established feature of SPNs is the presence of hyaline globules, which in contrast has only rarely been reported in PanNETs. Clinicopathologic features of 361 cases originally classified as PanNETs were examined. Of these, 24 tumors (6.6%) had hyaline globules, raising the possibility of SPN. Immunohistochemistry for β-catenin was performed on these 24 neoplasms, and showed nuclear labeling in 6 cases. These 6 cases, which also demonstrated cytoplasmic CD10 staining, were reclassified as SPNs. The remaining 18 cases maintained their original diagnosis as PanNETs, and the hyaline globules in these cases were periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive, diastase resistant, and immunoreactive with α-1-antitrypsin. All 24 cases were histologically re-evaluated, and the pattern of invasion, presence of clear cells, and nuclear grooves were found to be helpful in distinguishing SPNs from PanNETs. We conclude that the presence of hyaline globules should raise SPNs in the differential diagnosis of a solid cellular neoplasm of the pancreas. However, this should not be used as the sole criterion in the diagnosis of SPNs, as hyaline globules may also be seen in 5% of PanNETs. Immunohistochemical and histologic features supporting the diagnosis of SPNs over PanNETs include CD10 and nuclear β-catenin labeling, an insidious pattern of invasion, clear cells, and nuclear grooves.

  14. Molten nitrate salt technology development status report

    SciTech Connect

    Carling, R.W.; Kramer, C.M.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.; Goods, S.H.; Mar, R.W.; Munford, J.W.; Karnowsky, M.M.; Biefeld, R.N.; Norem, N.J.

    1981-03-01

    Recognizing thermal energy storage as potentially critical to the successful commercialization of solar thermal power systems, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established a comprehensive and aggressive thermal energy storage technology development program. Of the fluids proposed for heat transfer and energy storage molten nitrate salts offer significant economic advantages. The nitrate salt of most interest is a binary mixture of NaNO/sub 3/ and KNO/sub 3/. Although nitrate/nitrite mixtures have been used for decades as heat transfer and heat treatment fluids the use has been at temperatures of about 450/sup 0/C and lower. In solar thermal power systems the salts will experience a temperature range of 350 to 600/sup 0/C. Because central receiver applications place more rigorous demands and higher temperatures on nitrate salts a comprehensive experimental program has been developed to examine what effects, if any, the new demands and temperatures have on the salts. The experiments include corrosion testing, environmental cracking of containment materials, and determinations of physical properties and decomposition mechanisms. This report details the work done at Sandia National Laboratories in each area listed. In addition, summaries of the experimental programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of New York, EIC Laboratories, Inc., and the Norwegian Institute of Technology on molten nitrate salts are given. Also discussed is how the experimental programs will influence the near-term central receiver programs such as utility repowering/industrial retrofit and cogeneration. The report is designed to provide easy access to the latest information and data on molten NaNO/sub 3//KNO/sub 3/ for the designers and engineers of future central receiver projects.

  15. Apparatus for controlling molten core debris

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P. [Trafford, PA; Tilbrook, Roger W. [Monroeville, PA; Heylmun, Neal F. [Pittsburgh, PA

    1977-07-19

    Apparatus for containing, cooling, diluting, dispersing and maintaining subcritical the molten core debris assumed to melt through the bottom of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in the unlikely event of a core meltdown. The apparatus is basically a sacrificial bed system which includes an inverted conical funnel, a core debris receptacle including a spherical dome, a spherically layered bed of primarily magnesia bricks, a cooling system of zig-zag piping in graphite blocks about and below the bed and a cylindrical liner surrounding the graphite blocks including a steel shell surrounded by firebrick. Tantalum absorber rods are used in the receptacle and bed.

  16. Apparatus for controlling molten core debris. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Golden, M.P.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Heylmun, N.F.

    1977-07-19

    Disclosed is an apparatus for containing, cooling, diluting, dispersing and maintaining subcritical the molten core debris assumed to melt through the bottom of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in the unlikely event of a core meltdown. The apparatus is basically a sacrificial bed system which includes an inverted conical funnel, a core debris receptacle including a spherical dome, a spherically layered bed of primarily magnesia bricks, a cooling system of zig-zag piping in graphite blocks about and below the bed and a cylindrical liner surrounding the graphite blocks including a steel shell surrounded by firebrick. Tantalum absorber rods are used in the receptacle and bed. 9 claims, 22 figures.

  17. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Scott, D.G.

    1984-06-25

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal 10 borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  18. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Scott, Donald G.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  19. Thermal-hydraulics of internally heated molten salts and application to the Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorina, Carlo; Cammi, Antonio; Luzzi, Lelio; Mikityuk, Konstantin; Ninokata, Hisashi; Ricotti, Marco E.

    2014-04-01

    The Molten Salt Reactors (MSR) are an innovative kind of nuclear reactors and are presently considered in the framework of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF-IV) for their promising performances in terms of low resource utilization, waste minimization and enhanced safety. A unique feature of MSRs is that molten fluoride salts play the distinctive role of both fuel (heat source) and coolant. The presence of an internal heat generation perturbs the temperature field and consequences are to be expected on the heat transfer characteristics of the molten salts. In this paper, the problem of heat transfer for internally heated fluids in a straight circular channel is first faced on a theoretical ground. The effect of internal heat generation is demonstrated to be described by a corrective factor applied to traditional correlations for the Nusselt number. It is shown that the corrective factor can be fully characterized by making explicit the dependency on Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. On this basis, a preliminary correlation is proposed for the case of molten fluoride salts by interpolating the results provided by an analytic approach previously developed at the Politecnico di Milano. The experimental facility and the related measuring procedure for testing the proposed correlation are then presented. Finally, the developed correlation is used to carry out a parametric investigation on the effect of internal heat generation on the main out-of-core components of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR), the reference circulating-fuel MSR design in the GIF-IV. The volumetric power determines higher temperatures at the channel wall, but the effect is significant only in case of large diameters and/or low velocities.

  20. Pendant-Drop Surface-Tension Measurement On Molten Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man, Kin Fung; Thiessen, David

    1996-01-01

    Method of measuring surface tension of molten metal based on pendant-drop method implemented in quasi-containerless manner and augmented with digital processing of image data. Electrons bombard lower end of sample rod in vacuum, generating hanging drop of molten metal. Surface tension of drop computed from its shape. Technique minimizes effects of contamination.

  1. Production of Oxygen from Lunar Regolith using Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Sadoway, Donald R.; Sirk, Aislinn; Tripathy, Prabhat; Melendez, Orlando; Standish, Evan; Dominquez, Jesus A.; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Poizeau, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the possible use of molten oxide electrolysis to extract oxygen from the Lunar Regolith. The presentation asserts that molten regolith electrolysis has advanced to be a useful method for production of oxygen and metals in situ on the Moon. The work has demonstrated an 8 hour batch of electrolysis at 5 amps using Iridium inert anodes.

  2. Molten iron containing vessel with improved refractory lining

    SciTech Connect

    Coordes, H.; Oberbach, M.

    1984-02-21

    A molten iron containing vessel includes a refractory fireproof inner lining of dolomite bricks and bauxite bricks. The lining includes magnesia bricks positioned between the dolomite and bauxite bricks, thereby avoiding contact reactions between the dolomite and bauxite. A gas permeable brick member extends through an end portion of the vessel for injecting a gas into the molten iron contained therein.

  3. Method of making molten carbonate fuel cell ceramic matrix tape

    DOEpatents

    Maricle, Donald L.; Putnam, Gary C.; Stewart, Jr., Robert C.

    1984-10-23

    A method of making a thin, flexible, pliable matrix material for a molten carbonate fuel cell is described. The method comprises admixing particles inert in the molten carbonate environment with an organic polymer binder and ceramic particle. The composition is applied to a mold surface and dried, and the formed compliant matrix material removed.

  4. 46 CFR 151.50-55 - Sulfur (molten).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sulfur (molten). 151.50-55 Section 151.50-55 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-55 Sulfur (molten). (a... depositing of sulfur within the system. (b) Void spaces: (1) Openings to void spaces adjacent to cargo...

  5. 46 CFR 151.50-55 - Sulfur (molten).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sulfur (molten). 151.50-55 Section 151.50-55 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-55 Sulfur (molten). (a... depositing of sulfur within the system. (b) Void spaces: (1) Openings to void spaces adjacent to cargo...

  6. 46 CFR 151.50-55 - Sulfur (molten).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfur (molten). 151.50-55 Section 151.50-55 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-55 Sulfur (molten). (a... depositing of sulfur within the system. (b) Void spaces: (1) Openings to void spaces adjacent to cargo...

  7. 46 CFR 151.50-55 - Sulfur (molten).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sulfur (molten). 151.50-55 Section 151.50-55 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-55 Sulfur (molten). (a... depositing of sulfur within the system. (b) Void spaces: (1) Openings to void spaces adjacent to cargo...

  8. 46 CFR 151.50-55 - Sulfur (molten).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sulfur (molten). 151.50-55 Section 151.50-55 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-55 Sulfur (molten). (a... depositing of sulfur within the system. (b) Void spaces: (1) Openings to void spaces adjacent to cargo...

  9. Pump for molten metal or other fluid

    DOEpatents

    Horton, James A.; Brown, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    A pump having no moving parts which can be used to pump high temperature molten metal or other fluids in a vacuum or low pressure environment, and a method for pumping such fluids. The pump combines elements of a bubble pump with a trap which isolates the vacuum or low pressure region from the gas used to create the bubbles. When used in a vacuum the trap prevents the pumping gas from escaping into the isolated region and thereby reducing the quality of the vacuum. The pump includes a channel in which a pumping gas is forced under pressure into a cavity where bubbles are formed. The cavity is in contact with a reservoir which contains the molten metal or other fluid which is to be pumped. The bubbles rise up into a column (or pump tube) carrying the fluid with them. At the top of the column is located a deflector which causes the bubbles to burst and the drops of pumped fluid to fall into a trap. The fluid accumulates in the trap, eventually forcing its way to an outlet. A roughing pump can be used to withdraw the pumping gas from the top of the column and assist with maintaining the vacuum or low pressure environment.

  10. Transient simulation of molten salt central receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doupis, Dimitri; Wang, Chuan; Carcorze-Soto, Jorge; Chen, Yen-Ming; Maggi, Andrea; Losito, Matteo; Clark, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing concentrated solar power (CSP) utilizing 60/40wt% NaNO3-KNO3 molten salt as the working fluid in a tower receiver for the global renewable energy market. In the CSP power generation cycle, receivers undergo a daily cyclic operation due to the transient nature of solar energy. Development of robust and efficient start-up and shut-down procedures is critical to avoiding component failures due to mechanical fatigue resulting from thermal transients, thus maintaining the performance and availability of the CSP plant. The Molten Salt Central Receiver (MSCR) is subject to thermal transients during normal daily operation, a cycle that includes warmup, filling, operation, draining, and shutdown. This paper describes a study to leverage dynamic simulation and finite element analysis (FEA) in development of start-up, shutdown, and transient operation concepts for the MSCR. The results of the FEA also verify the robustness of the MSCR design to the thermal transients anticipated during the operation of the plant.

  11. Simple shear deformation of partially molten aplite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stipp, Michael; Tullis, Jan; Berger, Alfons

    2013-04-01

    The tectonic processes which are important for melt distribution and transport in the intermediate and lower crust and which can result in crustal weakening are not yet well understood. Natural migmatites are usually overprinted by annealing and retrogression during uplift and exhumation, largely obliterating the deformation structures and microstructures of their partially molten history. Deformation experiments on partially molten crustal rocks have so far been conducted in pure shear geometry and mostly under low confining pressures in the brittle deformation field, both of which are not representative of nature. We carried out deformation experiments in simple shear that predominates in the crust and especially crustal shear zones. Undrained experiments were carried out on Enfield aplite at ~1.5 GPa, 900° -1000° C, and ˜ 5*10-6 s-1, conditions which favor crystal plastic deformation of quartz and feldspar (Dell'Angelo and Tullis, 1988). Sample slices 1.0-1.5 mm thick were placed between the shear pistons with the shear plane at a 45° -angle to the compression direction. Maximum shear strain in the experiments is ? ?2.8. Despite difficulties in controlling the melt content by varying the amount of added water, we were able to achieve the full range of brittle to crystal plastic deformation mechanisms. With decreasing melt content Enfield aplite displays a transition from discrete fracturing at a high angle (~70-90° ) to the shear plane (>20 vol.% melt), to cataclastic shearing (10-20 vol.% melt) and to crystal plastic deformation (

  12. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2017-02-01

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other. Electrostatic stabilization of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute–solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute–solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  13. Breakdown of interlocking domains may contribute to formation of membranous globules and lens opacity in ephrin-A5(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sondip; Son, Alexander; Yu, Qili; Zhou, Renping; Lo, Woo-Kuen

    2016-04-01

    Ephrin-A5, a ligand of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases, plays a key role in lens fiber cell packing and cell-cell adhesion, with approximately 87% of ephrin-A5(-/-) mice develop nuclear cataracts. Here, we investigated the extensive formation of light-scattering globules associated with breakdown of interlocking protrusions during lens opacification in ephrin-A5(-/-) mice. Lenses from wild-type (WT) and ephrin-A5(-/-) mice between 2 and 21 weeks old were studied with light and electron microscopy, immunofluorescence labeling, freeze-fracture TEM and filipin cytochemistry for membrane cholesterol detection. Lens opacities with various densities were first observed in ephrin-A5(-/-) mice at around 60 days old. Dense cataracts in the mutant lenses were seen primarily in the nuclear region surrounded by transparent cortices from all eyes examined. We confirmed that a majority of nuclear cataracts were dislocated posteriorly and ruptured the thinner posterior lens capsule. SEM analysis indicated that numerous interlocking protrusions and wavy ridge-and-valley membrane surfaces in deep cortical and nuclear fibers did not cause lens opacity in both transparent ephrin-A5(-/-) and WT mice. In contrast, abundant isolated membranous globules of approximately 1000 nm in size were distributed randomly along the intact fiber cells during early stage of all ephrin-A5(-/-) cataracts examined. A further examination using both SEM and TEM revealed that isolated globules were generated from the disintegrated interlocking protrusions originally located along the corners of hexagonal fiber cells. Freeze-fracture TEM further revealed the association of square-array aquaporin junctions with both isolated globules and interlocking membrane domains. This study reports for the first time that disrupted interlocking protrusions are the source of numerous large membranous globules that contribute to light scattering and nuclear cataracts in the ephrin-A5(-/-) mice. Our results

  14. A characterization of young stellar objects in BOK globules: Infrared imaging, spectral energy distributions, and molecular outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Joao Lin

    1993-09-01

    A large-scale observational study of star formation in Bok globules is presented. A sample of 248 optically selected, small molecular clouds (mostly Bok globules) was probed using IRAS co-added images to search for associated young stellar objects (YSO's). Fifty-seven of the globules show evidence for a total of 72 point sources near locations of local dust heating. A sub-sample of 41 globules was observed, in the CO J = 1-0 line, to search for molecular outflows associated with the YSO's. Outflows were found in about one-third of the sample (14 of 41). The presence of an outflow was found to be correlated with the value of the IRAS-based spectral index (between 12 and 25 microns) of the YSO's. A near-infrared imaging survey of 34 globules containing YSO-candidates was conducted in the J, H, and K bands using infrared arrays. Eleven YSO-candidates displayed near-infrared nebulosities. This group of objects, when ordered by their values of the 12/25 microns spectral index, seems to form an evolutionary sequence, from younger objects with negative (red) indices and whose nebulosities are brighter in the K-band, to objects in later stages of pre-main-sequence evolution with positive (bluer) indices and whose nebular emission is brighter in the J-band. Comparison of the morphology of the infrared nebulae with the corresponding CO outflow morphology supports the idea that infrared reflection nebulae, seen at 2.2 microns, are good morphological tracers of CO mass outflow, and that CO outflows occur during the earliest YSO phases. Photometry of the near-infrared counterparts of the YSO-candidates was combined with their IRAS fluxes to yield broad-band spectral energy distributions (SED's). The broadness and steepness of the SED's indicated clear evidence of the evolutionary stage of the objects confirming their youth. Given all of the new information obtained, a firm conclusion emerged, namely that Bok globules are active sites of low-mass star formation.

  15. Globules and pillars in Cygnus X. I. Herschel far-infrared imaging of the Cygnus OB2 environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Motte, F.; Blazere, A.; André, Ph.; Anderson, L. D.; Arzoumanian, D.; Comerón, F.; Didelon, P.; Di Francesco, J.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Guarcello, M. G.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Marston, A.; Minier, V.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Röllig, M.; Roy, A.; Spinoglio, L.; Tremblin, P.; White, G. J.; Wright, N. J.

    2016-06-01

    The radiative feedback of massive stars on molecular clouds creates pillars, globules and other features at the interface between the H II region and molecular cloud. Optical and near-infrared observations from the ground as well as with the Hubble or Spitzer satellites have revealed numerous examples of such cloud structures. We present here Herschel far-infrared observations between 70 μm and 500 μm of the immediate environment of the rich Cygnus OB2 association, performed within the Herschel imaging survey of OB Young Stellar objects (HOBYS) program. All of the observed irradiated structures were detected based on their appearance at 70 μm, and have been classified as pillars, globules, evaporating gasous globules (EGGs), proplyd-like objects, and condensations. From the 70 μm and 160 μm flux maps, we derive the local far-ultraviolet (FUV) field on the photon dominated surfaces. In parallel, we use a census of the O-stars to estimate the overall FUV-field, that is 103-104 G0 (Habing field) close to the central OB cluster (within 10 pc) and decreases down to a few tens G0, in a distance of 50 pc. From a spectral energy distribution (SED) fit to the four longest Herschel wavelengths, we determine column density and temperature maps and derive masses, volume densities and surface densities for these structures. We find that the morphological classification corresponds to distinct physical properties. Pillars and globules are massive (~500 M⊙) and large (equivalent radius r ~ 0.6 pc) structures, corresponding to what is defined as "clumps" for molecular clouds. EGGs and proplyd-likeobjects are smaller (r ~ 0.1 and 0.2 pc) and less massive (~10 and ~30 M⊙). Cloud condensations are small (~0.1 pc), have an average mass of 35 M⊙, are dense (~6 × 104 cm-3), and can thus be described as molecular cloud "cores". All pillars and globules are oriented toward the Cyg OB2 association center and have the longest estimated photoevaporation lifetimes, a few million

  16. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  17. Impact, thermal, and shock sensitivity of molten TNT and of asphalt-contaminated molten TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Mainiero, R.J.; Miron, Y.; Kwak, S.S.W.; Kopera, L.H.; Wheeler, J.Q.

    1996-12-01

    The research reported here was part of an effort to evaluate the safety of a process to recover TNT from MK-9 depth bombs by the autoclave meltout process. In this process the depth bombs are heated to 121 C so that the TNT will melt and run into a vat. Unfortunately, asphalt lining the inside surface of the bomb also melts and flows out with the TNT. Testing was conducted on molten TNT and molten TNT contaminated with 2 pct asphalt at 90, 100, 110, 120, 125, and 130 C. In the liquid drop test apparatus with a 2-kg weight, the molten TNT yielded a 50 pct probability of initiation at a drop height of 6.5 cm at 110 C, decreasing to 4.5 cm at 130 C. Asphalt-contaminated TNT was somewhat less impact-sensitive than pure TNT at temperatures of 110 to 125 C, but became more sensitive at 130 C. There is a 50 pct probability of initiation at a drop height of 7.8 cm at 110 C, decreasing to 3.3 cm at 130 C. In the card gap test, the molten TNT detonated at high velocity for a gap of 0.25 inches at 90 to 125 C and detonated at high velocity for a gap of 0.5 inches at 130 C. For gaps of 0.5 to 3 inches at 90 to 125 C and 0.75 inches to 3 inches at 130 C, the TNT did not detonate at high velocity but produced a violent explosion that caused significant damage to the test fixture. The thermal analysis test results showed that when asphalt is present in TNT, it greatly accelerates the exothermic decomposition of TNT, starting at temperatures near 200 C. It appears that at relatively low shock stimulus levels, the molten TNT may be undergoing a low velocity detonation, wherein the shock wave traveling through the gap test pipe cavitates the molten TNT, greatly increasing its sensitivity. These results are crucial for assuring continued safety in recovering TNT from munitions through the autoclave meltout process.

  18. The effects of low-molecular-weight emulsifiers in O/W-emulsions on microviscosity of non-solidified oil in fat globules and the mobility of emulsifiers at the globule surfaces.

    PubMed

    Munk, Merete B; Erichsen, Henriette R; Andersen, Mogens L

    2014-04-01

    Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was used to measure the mobility of the spin probe TEMPO in O/W-emulsions. This allowed determination of temperature-dependent microviscosity of the liquid fraction in lipid globules. Six hydrogenated palm kernel oil (HPKO) based emulsions containing caseinate and different combinations of lactic acid ester of monoglyceride (LACTEM), unsaturated monoglycerides (GMU) or saturated monoglyceride (GMS) were studied. The non-solidified oil in emulsions made with LACTEM+GMU had a high microviscosity, whereas the emulsion made with GMS had a low microviscosity. Also the partitioning of TEMPO between the lipid and aqueous phases was found to be highly temperature dependent, most likely due to the change of solid fat content with temperature. This behaviour may mimic the partitioning of aroma compounds in emulsions. The spin probe 5-doxylstearic acid was used to study the mobility of the components at the lipid globule surfaces. At 5°C all emulsions had a very low surface mobility. At 25°C the mobility of the spin probe was found to be correlated to the surface protein load. Emulsions with GMU had a high protein surface coverage and low mobility of the spin probe on the droplet surfaces. Conversely, in presence of LACTEM and GMS, the protein surface loads decreased and high surface mobilities were observed. Based on these results it is argued that the high macroscopic viscosity and lipid agglomeration of emulsions containing GMU is due to a lipid globule-protein-network where the lipid globules are connected via caseinate.

  19. Casting Apparatus Including A Gas Driven Molten Metal Injector And Method

    DOEpatents

    Trudel, David R.; Meyer, Thomas N.; Kinosz, Michael J.; Arnaud, Guy; Bigler, Nicolas

    2003-06-17

    The filtering molten metal injector system includes a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and at least one molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the casting mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The molten metal injector projects into the holder furnace. The molten metal injector includes a cylinder defining a piston cavity housing a reciprocating piston for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace to the mold cavity. The cylinder and piston are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder or the piston includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity when the holder furnace contains molten metal. A conduit connects the piston cavity to the mold cavity. A molten metal filter is located in the conduit for filtering the molten metal passing through the conduit during the reciprocating movement of the piston. The molten metal intake may be a valve connected to the cylinder, a gap formed between the piston and an open end of the cylinder, an aperture defined in the sidewall of the cylinder, or a ball check valve incorporated into the piston. A second molten metal filter preferably covers the molten metal intake to the injector.

  20. Prediction of fat globule particle size in homogenized milk using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Di Marzo, Larissa; Cree, Patrick; Barbano, David M

    2016-11-01

    Our objective was to develop partial least square models using data from Fourier transform mid-infrared (MIR) spectra to predict the particle size distributions d(0.5) and d(0.9), surface volume mean diameter D[3,2], and volume moment mean diameter D[4,3] of milk fat globules and validate the models. The goal of the study was to produce a method built into the MIR milk analyzer that could be used to warn the instrument operator that the homogenizer is near failure and needs to be replaced to ensure quality of results. Five homogenizers with different homogenization efficiency were used to homogenize pasteurized modified unhomogenized milks and farm raw bulk milks. Homogenized milks were collected from the homogenizer outlet and then run through an MIR milk analyzer without an in-line homogenizer to collect a MIR spectrum. A separate portion of each homogenized milk was analyzed with a laser light-scattering particle size analyzer to obtain reference values. The study was replicated 3 times with 3 independent sets of modified milks and bulk tank farm milks. Validation of the models was done with a set of 34 milks that were not used in the model development. Partial least square regression models were developed and validated for predicting the following milk fat globule particle size distribution parameters from MIR spectra: d(0.5) and d(0.9), surface volume mean diameter D[3,2], and volume moment mean diameter D[4,3]. The basis for the ability to model particle size distribution of milk fat emulsions was hypothesized to be the result of the partial least square modeling detecting absorbance shifts in MIR spectra of milk fat due to the Christiansen effect. The independent sample validation of particle size prediction methods found more variation in d(0.9) and D[4,3] predictions than the d(0.5) and D[3,2] predictions relative to laser light-scattering reference values, and this may be due to variation in particle size among different pump strokes. The accuracy of the

  1. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (P<0.05) more longer chain (C≥10) fatty acids were present in the digesta of rats gavaged with raw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent.

  2. The relationship between size and lipid composition of the bovine milk fat globule is modulated by lactation stage.

    PubMed

    Mesilati-Stahy, Ronit; Argov-Argaman, Nurit

    2014-02-15

    The effect of lactation stage and size on the lipid composition of bovine milk fat globules (MFG) and their membranes (MFGM) was investigated. MFG were separated into six size groups (1-3 μm) from samples collected in early, mid and late lactation stages (10-250 days postpartum). Fatty acid and polar lipid composition was determined in each size group, at each lactation stage. PUFA concentration was affected by lactation stage but not MFG size. Saturated fatty acid concentration at 60 days postpartum was 10% higher in small vs. large globules. Phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol followed the same concentration pattern throughout lactation in all MFG size groups. From day 100 postpartum on, phosphatidylethanolamine concentration was constant in the large MFG, but dropped twofold in the small MFG. Results suggest distinct compositional regulation for large and small MFG at different lactation stages. Such interactions between structure, composition and lactation stage may be exploited for human milk and dairy product consumption.

  3. Grain boundary wetness of partially molten dunite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, S.; Faul, U.

    2013-12-01

    The grain scale melt distribution plays a key role for physical properties of partially molten regions in Earth's upper mantle, but our current understanding of the distribution of basaltic melt at the grain scale is still incomplete. A recent experimental study shows that wetted two-grain boundaries are a common feature of partially molten dunite at small melt fractions (Garapic et al., G3, 2013). In early ideal models which assume isotropic surface energy, the grain scale melt distribution is uniquely determined by knowing the melt fraction and the dihedral angle between two crystalline grains and the melt (von Bargen and Waff, JGR, 1986). Olivine is anisotropic in surface energy, hence the grain scale melt distribution at given melt fraction cannot be characterized by the dihedral angle alone. The grain boundary wetness, which is defined as the ratio of solid-liquid boundary area over the total interfacial area (Takei, JGR, 1998), is a more objective measure of the grain scale melt distribution. The aim of this study is to quantify the relationship between grain size, melt fraction, temperature and grain boundary wetness of partially molten dunite under dry conditions. We annealed olivine-basalt aggregates with melt fractions from 0.03% to 6% at a range of temperatures and 1 GPa in a piston cylinder for 1 to 336 hours, with resulting mean grain sizes of 10 to 60 μm. The samples were sectioned, polished and imaged at high resolution by using a field emission SEM. Each image had a size of 2048 x 1536 pixels with a resolution of 0.014 to 0.029 μm/pixel, depending on magnification. For each sample, depending on grain sizes, we made mosaics of 3 x 3 or 6 x 6 overlapping images. Measurements of melt fraction, grain boundary wetness and grain size were carried out on these high resolution mosaics by using ImageJ software. Analyses of mosaics show that grain boundary wetness increases with increasing melt fraction at constant grain size to values well above those

  4. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Cioncolini, Andrea; Iacovides, Hector

    2015-04-29

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015.

  5. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Cioncolini, Andrea; Iacovides, Hector

    2015-04-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015.

  6. Les transfusions de globules rouges chez le nouveau-né : Des directives révisées

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    En général, depuis dix ans, les professionnels de la santé qui soignent des nouveau-nés à haut risque dans des unités de soins intensifs néonatals sont plus restrictifs dans leur utilisation de transfusions de globules rouges. Le présent énoncé est conçu pour ceux qui soignent des nouveau-nés à haut risque (des prématurés aux nouveau-nés d’un mois). Il vise à fournir des directives pour réduire l’incidence d’anémie chez les nourrissons prématurés et à terme, à repérer des stratégies pour réduire le besoin de transfusions de globules rouges et à limiter l’exposition à des donneurs au sein de cette population. Des recommandations portant sur les transfusions de globules rouges sont incluses.

  7. Configuration of a polymer chain in bulk and close to surfaces near the coil-to-globule transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissanou, Anastassia N.; Bitsanis, Ioannis A.; Anastasiadis, Spiros H.

    2003-03-01

    The coil to globule transition of polymer chains in bulk solution or attached onto a surface is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations on a cubic lattice as a function of MW, solvent quality and interfacial energy. Monte Carlo results for an isolated chain in bulk solution show an anomalous dependence of RG on the MW as the solvent becomes poorer: it exhibits a N-independent regime for intermediate MWs where there is a qualitative change in the form of the density distribution in the inner part of the chain. The coil to globule transition is in accord with Khokhlov's theoretical predictions. The coupling between the coil to globule transition and the adsorption of the chain onto attractive surfaces is investigated as a function of the surface energy. The adsorbed chain in poor solvent tends to a pancake-like conformation for very attractive surfaces. The whole behavior is not controlled by the bulk Θ temperature but by a new temperature Θ^', which depends strongly on the surface energy and tends to the value of the Θ temperature in two-dimensions.

  8. Castable cements to prevent corrosion of metals in molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Vidal, J. C.; Morton, E.

    2016-08-01

    Castable cements on metals form a protective barrier that is able to prevent permeation of molten salts towards metallic surfaces. Silica-based castable cements are capable of protecting containment metallic alloys from the corrosive attack of molten chlorides at temperatures as high as 650 degrees C. Boron nitride (BN) blocking the pores in the cured cement prevents permeation of the molten chloride towards the metal surface. The cements tested are not chemically stable in molten carbonates, because the bonding components dissolved into molten carbonates salt. The corrosion rate is 7.72+/-0.32 mm/year for bare stainless steel 347 in molten eutectic NaCl - 65.58 wt% LiCl at 650 degrees C, which is the baseline used for determining how well the cement protects the metallic surfaces from corrosion. In particular the metal fully encapsulated with Aremco 645-N with pores filled with boron nitride immersed in molten eutectic NaCl - 65.58 wt% LiCl at 650 degrees C shows a corrosion rate of 9E-04 mm/year. The present study gives initial corrosion rates. Long-term tests are required to determine if Aremco 645-N with BN coating on metal has long term chemical stability for blocking salt permeation through coating pores.

  9. Molten salt eutectics from atomistic simulations.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Saivenkataraman; Thompson, Aidan P; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole

    2011-09-01

    Despite their importance for solar thermal power applications, phase-diagrams of molten salt mixture heat transfer fluids (HTFs) are not readily accessible from first principles. We present a molecular dynamics scheme general enough to identify eutectics of any HTF candidate mixture. The eutectic mixture and temperature are located using the liquid mixture free energy and the pure component solid-liquid free energy differences. The liquid mixture free energy is obtained using thermodynamic integration over particle identity transmutations sampled with molecular dynamics at a single temperature. Drawbacks of conventional phase diagram mapping methodologies are avoided by not considering solid mixtures, thereby evading expensive computations of solid phase free energies. Numerical results for binary and ternary mixtures of alkali nitrates agree well with experimental measurements.

  10. Undercooling of acoustically levitated molten drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.; Glicksman, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    It was observed that the acoustically levitated molten SCN (succinonitrile) drops can generally be undercooled to a degree where the impurities in the drop are responsible for the nucleation of the solid phase. However, it was also observed that ultrasound occasionally terminates undercooling of the levitated drops by initiating the nucleation of the solid at an undercooling level which is lower than that found for the nucleation catalyzed by the impurities in the drop. This premature nucleation can be explained by thermodynamic considerations which predict an increase in effective undercooling of the liquid upon the collapse of cavities. Pre-existing gas microbubbles which grow under the influence of ultrasound are suggested as the source of cavitation. The highly undercooled SCN drops can be utilized to measure the growth velocity of the solid in the deeply undercooled region including the hypercooled region.

  11. Molten Composition B Viscosity at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerkle, David K.; Núñez, Marcel P.; Zucker, Jonathan M.

    2016-10-01

    A shear-thinning viscosity model is developed for molten Composition B at elevated temperature from analysis of falling ball viscometer data. Results are reported with the system held at 85, 110, and 135°C. Balls of densities of 2.7, 8.0, and 15.6 g/cm3 are dropped to generate a range of strain rates in the material. Analysis of video recordings gives the speed at which the balls fall. Computer simulation of the viscometer is used to determine parameters for a non-Newtonian model calibrated to measured speeds. For the first time, viscosity is shown to be a function of temperature and strain rate-dependent maximum RDX (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine) particle volume fraction.

  12. Electrolyte paste for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bregoli, Lawrance J.; Pearson, Mark L.

    1995-01-01

    The electrolyte matrix and electrolyte reservoir plates in a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant stack are filled with electrolyte by applying a paste of dry electrolyte powder entrained in a dissipatable carrier to the reactant flow channels in the current collector plate. The stack plates are preformed and solidified to final operating condition so that they are self sustaining and can be disposed one atop the other to form the power plant stack. Packing the reactant flow channels with the electrolyte paste allows the use of thinner electrode plates, particularly on the anode side of the cells. The use of the packed electrolyte paste provides sufficient electrolyte to fill the matrix and to entrain excess electrolyte in the electrode plates, which also serve as excess electrolyte reservoirs. When the stack is heated up to operating temperatures, the electrolyte in the paste melts, the carrier vaporizes, or chemically decomposes, and the melted electrolyte is absorbed into the matrix and electrode plates.

  13. The removal of iron from molten aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Donk, H.M. van der; Nijhof, G.H.; Castelijns, C.A.M.

    1995-12-31

    In this work an overview is given about the techniques available for the removal of metallic impurities from molten aluminium. The overview is focused on the removal of iron. Also, some experimental results are given about the creation of iron-rich intermetallic compounds in an aluminium system, which are subsequently removed by gravity segregation and filtration techniques. This work is part of an ongoing research project of three major European aluminium companies who are co-operating on the subject of recycling of aluminium packaging materials recovered from household waste by means of Eddy-Current techniques. Using this technique the pick-up of some contaminating metals, particularly iron, is almost unavoidable.

  14. Single ion dynamics in molten sodium bromide

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, O.; Trullas, J.; Demmel, F.

    2014-12-28

    We present a study on the single ion dynamics in the molten alkali halide NaBr. Quasielastic neutron scattering was employed to extract the self-diffusion coefficient of the sodium ions at three temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations using rigid and polarizable ion models have been performed in parallel to extract the sodium and bromide single dynamics and ionic conductivities. Two methods have been employed to derive the ion diffusion, calculating the mean squared displacements and the velocity autocorrelation functions, as well as analysing the increase of the line widths of the self-dynamic structure factors. The sodium diffusion coefficients show a remarkable good agreement between experiment and simulation utilising the polarisable potential.

  15. Molten carbonate fuel cells - Technology status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, R. D.

    The functional principles, components, operating conditions, and problems in prototype molten carbonate fuel cell plants are described. Centralized carbonate fuel cells consist of four subsystems: a coal gasifier and gas cleanup system, fuel cell stacks, heat removal and recovery system, and a power conditioner to convert dc to ac current. The fuel in the cells comprises hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and produces current by means of completion of an electrical circuit through transfer of carbonate ions through the electrolyte and electrons from cell to cell and eventually into the external circuit. Electrodes are porous sheets which provide sites for the electrochemical reaction and conduction paths for the reactants and products. The construction of LiAlO2-carbonate electrolyte structures is noted, and the electrolyte distribution and structures, the anodes, cathodes, separator plate, and operational problems are considered.

  16. Energetic materials destruction using molten salt

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

    1994-04-29

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. LLNL has built a small-scale unit to test the destruction of HE using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process. In addition to the high explosive HMX, destruction has been carried out on RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine, and TATB. Also destroyed was a liquid gun propellant comprising hydroxyammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate and water. In addition to these pure components, destruction has been carried out on a number of commonly used formulations, such as LX-10, LX-16, LX-17, and PBX-9404.

  17. Identification of Escherichia coli F4ac-binding proteins in porcine milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Novakovic, Predrag; Huang, Yanyun Y; Lockerbie, Betty; Shahriar, Farshid; Kelly, John; Gordon, John R; Middleton, Dorothy M; Loewen, Matthew E; Kidney, Beverly A; Simko, Elemir

    2015-04-01

    F4ac-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) must attach to the intestinal mucosa to cause diarrhea in piglets. Prevention of bacterial attachment to the intestinal mucosa is the most effective defense against ETEC-induced diarrhea. Porcine milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) were shown to be able to inhibit attachment of ETEC to the intestinal brush border; however, the specific components of porcine MFGM that inhibited attachment of ETEC to enterocytes were not identified. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to identify F4ac-binding MFGM proteins by overlay Western blot and affinity chromatography. The proteome of porcine MFGM was characterized and the following F4ac-binding proteins were detected by overlay Western blot and affinity chromatography: lactadherin, butyrophilin, adipophilin, acyl-CoA synthetase 3, and fatty acid-binding protein 3. The biological function of these proteins was not investigated but it is possible that their interaction with F4ac fimbria interferes with bacterial attachment and colonization.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Bok globule BHR 160 radio lines spectra (Haikala+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haikala, L. K.; Reipurth, B.

    2016-11-01

    Radio spectral lines in maps covering approximately 2' by 2' with 20" spacing and a tilt of 60 degrees of the Bok globule BHR160 are presented. The spectra were obtained at Swedish ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) in 1999. The observed molecular lines were 12CO(1-0), 12CO(2-1), 13CO(1-0), 13CO (2-1), C18O(1-0), C18O(2-1), CS(2-1) and CS(3-2). The SEST 2 and 3mm SESIS and 1 and 3mm IRAM dual SIS SSB receivers and the high resolution 2000 channel AOS spectrometer (channel spacing 41.711kHz) were used. The spectrometer was split into two to observe both channels simultaneously. The observations were made in the frequency switch mode. The switch was 5MHz (the 3mm channels) and 15MHz (the 1 and 2mm channels). The calibration was obtained using the chopper wheel method. The temperature scale of the spectra is in Ta* units, i.e. corrected to outside of the atmosphere but not for beam coupling. The 12CO spectra have been processed to correct for the artefact produced by the frequency switching method by the atmospheric CO and the -5km/s component (12CO (1-0)) and the -5km/s velocity component (12CO(2-1). The spectra are presented in 9 binary table FITS files. (10 data files).

  19. Quantification of milk fat globule membrane proteins using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fong, Bertram Y; Norris, Carmen S

    2009-07-22

    Although some of the physiological roles of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins are still unclear, there is increasing evidence that the consumption of bovine MFGM proteins has significant nutritional health benefits for humans; therefore, it may be important to be able to estimate the MFGM proteins in complex ingredients. In this study, the absolute quantification (AQUA) technique, which is typically used for the quantification of proteins in proteomic studies, was applied for the quantification of bovine MFGM proteins in butter milk protein concentrate. Six MFGM proteins (fatty acid binding protein, butyrophilin, PAS 6/7, adipophilin, xanthine oxidase, and mucin 1) were simultaneously quantified using high-resolution selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Samples were rehydrated in 6.7 M urea buffer prior to dilution to 2.2 M before tryspin digestion. Direct rehydration in 2.2 M urea buffer or 2.2 M urea/20% acetonitilrile buffer reduced peptide yield digestion. Isotopically labeled peptides were used as internal standards. The coefficient of variation ranged from 5 to 15%, with a recovery of 84-105%. The limit of detection was in the range of 20-40 pg.

  20. Radiation-MHD models of elephant trunks and globules in HII regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Lim, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation and evolution of pillars of dense gas, known as elephant trunks, at the boundaries of HII regions, formed by shadowing of ionising radiation by dense clumps. The effects of magnetic fields on this process are investigated using 3D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics simulations. For a simulation in which an initially uniform magnetic field of strength \\vert B\\vert≃50 μG is oriented perpendicular to the radiation propagation direction, the field is swept into alignment with the pillar during its dynamical evolution, in agreement with observations of the ``Pillars of Creation'' in M16, and of some cometary globules. This effect is significantly enhanced when the simulation is re-run with a weaker field of ≃18 μG. A stronger field with \\vert B\\vert≃ 160 μG is sufficient to prevent this evolution completely, also significantly affecting the photoionisation process. Using a larger simulation domain it is seen that the pillar formation models studied in Mackey & Lim (2010) ultimately evolve to cometary structures in the absence of dense gas further from the star.

  1. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 mediates the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance by glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Lauber, K; Keppeler, H; Munoz, L E; Koppe, U; Schröder, K; Yamaguchi, H; Krönke, G; Uderhardt, S; Wesselborg, S; Belka, C; Nagata, S; Herrmann, M

    2013-01-01

    The phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is essential to prevent chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. The phosphatidylserine-binding protein milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a major opsonin for apoptotic cells, and MFG-E8−/− mice spontaneously develop a lupus-like disease. Similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the murine disease is associated with an impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. SLE is routinely treated with glucocorticoids (GCs), whose anti-inflammatory effects are consentaneously attributed to the transrepression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that the GC-mediated transactivation of MFG-E8 expression and the concomitantly enhanced elimination of apoptotic cells constitute a novel aspect in this context. Patients with chronic inflammation receiving high-dose prednisone therapy displayed substantially increased MFG-E8 mRNA levels in circulating monocytes. MFG-E8 induction was dependent on the GC receptor and several GC response elements within the MFG-E8 promoter. Most intriguingly, the inhibition of MFG-E8 induction by RNA interference or genetic knockout strongly reduced or completely abolished the phagocytosis-enhancing effect of GCs in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MFG-E8-dependent promotion of apoptotic cell clearance is a novel anti-inflammatory facet of GC treatment and renders MFG-E8 a prospective target for future therapeutic interventions in SLE. PMID:23832117

  2. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 mediates the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance by glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Lauber, K; Keppeler, H; Munoz, L E; Koppe, U; Schröder, K; Yamaguchi, H; Krönke, G; Uderhardt, S; Wesselborg, S; Belka, C; Nagata, S; Herrmann, M

    2013-09-01

    The phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is essential to prevent chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. The phosphatidylserine-binding protein milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a major opsonin for apoptotic cells, and MFG-E8(-/-) mice spontaneously develop a lupus-like disease. Similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the murine disease is associated with an impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. SLE is routinely treated with glucocorticoids (GCs), whose anti-inflammatory effects are consentaneously attributed to the transrepression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that the GC-mediated transactivation of MFG-E8 expression and the concomitantly enhanced elimination of apoptotic cells constitute a novel aspect in this context. Patients with chronic inflammation receiving high-dose prednisone therapy displayed substantially increased MFG-E8 mRNA levels in circulating monocytes. MFG-E8 induction was dependent on the GC receptor and several GC response elements within the MFG-E8 promoter. Most intriguingly, the inhibition of MFG-E8 induction by RNA interference or genetic knockout strongly reduced or completely abolished the phagocytosis-enhancing effect of GCs in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MFG-E8-dependent promotion of apoptotic cell clearance is a novel anti-inflammatory facet of GC treatment and renders MFG-E8 a prospective target for future therapeutic interventions in SLE.

  3. Molecular Dynamics Study on Nucleation Behavior and Lamellar Mergence of Polyethylene Globule Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaozhen; Wang, Simiao

    2012-02-01

    The site order parameter (SOP) has been adopted to analyze various order structure formation and distribution during the crystallization of a multi-chain polyethylene globule simulated by molecular dynamics. We found that the nucleation relies on crystallinity fluctuation with increase of amplitude, and the baby nucleus in the fluctuation suddenly appears with different shape and increasing size. In the growth stage, a number of lamellar mergence was observed and their selective behaviors were suggested to be related to the orientation difference between the merging lamellae. We obtained that SOP distribution of all atoms in the system during crystallization appears with two peaks: one for the amorphous phase and the other for the crystalline phase. Mesomorphic structures with medium orders locate between the two peaks as an order promotion pathway. Obtained data show that the medium order structure fluctuates at the growth front and does not always be available; the medium order structure existing at the front is not always good for developing. It is possibly caused by chain entanglement.

  4. ARE LARGE, COMETARY-SHAPED PROPLYDS REALLY (FREE-FLOATING) EVAPORATING GAS GLOBULES?

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, R.; Guesten, R.; Morris, M. R.

    2012-12-20

    We report the detection of strong and compact molecular line emission (in the CO J = 3-2, 4-3, 6-5, 7-6, {sup 13}CO J = 3-2, HCN, and HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 transitions) from a cometary-shaped object (Carina-frEGG1) in the Carina star-forming region (SFR) previously classified as a photoevaporating protoplanetary disk (proplyd). We derive a molecular mass of 0.35 M{sub Sun} for Carina-frEGG1, which shows that it is not a proplyd, but belongs to a class of free-floating evaporating gas globules (frEGGs) recently found in the Cygnus SFR by Sahai et al. Archival adaptive optics near-IR (Ks) images show a central hourglass-shaped nebula. The derived source luminosity (about 8-18 L{sub Sun }), the hourglass morphology, and the presence of collimated jets seen in Hubble Space Telescope images imply the presence of a jet-driving, young, low-mass star deeply embedded in the dust inside Carina-frEGG1. Our results suggest that the true nature of many or most such cometary-shaped objects seen in massive SFRs and previously labeled as proplyds has been misunderstood, and that these are really frEGGs.

  5. Discovery of a Hot Corino in the Bok Globule B335

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Muneaki; Sakai, Nami; Oya, Yoko; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Lefloch, Bertrand; Caux, Emmanuel; Vastel, Charlotte; Kahane, Claudine; Sakai, Takeshi; Hirota, Tomoya; Aikawa, Yuri; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    We report the first evidence of a hot corino in a Bok globule. This is based on ALMA observations in the 1.2 mm band toward the low-mass Class 0 protostar IRAS 19347+0727 in B335. Saturated complex organic molecules (COMs), CH3CHO, HCOOCH3, and NH2CHO, are detected in a compact region within a few 10 au around the protostar. Additionally, CH3OCH3, C2H5OH, C2H5CN, and CH3COCH3 are tentatively detected. Carbon-chain related molecules, CCH and c-C3H2, are also found in this source, whose distributions are extended over a scale of a few 100 au. On the other hand, sulfur-bearing molecules CS, SO, and SO2 have both compact and extended components. Fractional abundances of the COMs relative to H2 are found to be comparable to those in known hot corino sources. Though the COMs lines are as broad as 5-8 km s-1, they do not show obvious rotation motion in the present observation. Thus, the COMs mainly exist in a structure whose distribution is much smaller than the synthesized beam (0.″58 × 0.″52).

  6. Curcumin liposomes prepared with milk fat globule membrane phospholipids and soybean lecithin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Hao; Lu, Qun; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-01

    Using thin film ultrasonic dispersion method, the curcumin liposomes were prepared with milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) phospholipids and soybean lecithins, respectively, to compare the characteristics and stability of the 2 curcumin liposomes. The processing parameters of curcumin liposomes were investigated to evaluate their effects on the encapsulation efficiency. Curcumin liposomes were characterized in terms of size distribution, ζ-potential, and in vitro release behavior, and then their storage stability under various conditions was evaluated. The curcumin liposomes prepared with MFGM phospholipids had an encapsulation efficiency of about 74%, an average particle size of 212.3 nm, and a ζ-potential of -48.60 mV. The MFGM liposomes showed higher encapsulation efficiency, smaller particle size, higher absolute value of ζ-potential, and slower in vitro release than soybean liposomes. The retention rate of liposomal curcumin was significantly higher than that of free curcumin. The stability of the 2 liposomes under different pH was almost the same, but MFGM liposomes displayed a slightly higher stability than soybean liposomes under the conditions of Fe(3+), light, temperature, oxygen, and relative humidity. In conclusion, MFGM phospholipids have potential advantages in the manufacture of curcumin liposomes used in food systems.

  7. Milk Fat Globule Membrane Supplementation in Formula Modulates the Neonatal Gut Microbiome and Normalizes Intestinal Development

    PubMed Central

    Bhinder, Ganive; Allaire, Joannie M.; Garcia, Cyrielle; Lau, Jennifer T.; Chan, Justin M.; Ryz, Natasha R.; Bosman, Else S.; Graef, Franziska A.; Crowley, Shauna M.; Celiberto, Larissa S.; Berkmann, Julia C.; Dyer, Roger A.; Jacobson, Kevan; Surette, Michael G.; Innis, Sheila M.; Vallance, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Breast milk has many beneficial properties and unusual characteristics including a unique fat component, termed milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). While breast milk yields important developmental benefits, there are situations where it is unavailable resulting in a need for formula feeding. Most formulas do not contain MFGM, but derive their lipids from vegetable sources, which differ greatly in size and composition. Here we tested the effects of MFGM supplementation on intestinal development and the microbiome as well as its potential to protect against Clostridium difficile induced colitis. The pup-in-a-cup model was used to deliver either control or MFGM supplemented formula to rats from 5 to 15 days of age; with mother’s milk (MM) reared animals used as controls. While CTL formula yielded significant deficits in intestinal development as compared to MM littermates, addition of MFGM to formula restored intestinal growth, Paneth and goblet cell numbers, and tight junction protein patterns to that of MM pups. Moreover, the gut microbiota of MFGM and MM pups displayed greater similarities than CTL, and proved protective against C. difficile toxin induced inflammation. Our study thus demonstrates that addition of MFGM to formula promotes development of the intestinal epithelium and microbiome and protects against inflammation. PMID:28349941

  8. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, Jess C; Holcomb, David Eugene; Flanagan, George F; Patton, Bruce W; Howard, Rob L; Harrison, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  9. Molten carbonate fuel cell technology improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-09-01

    The overall objective of this program is to define a competitive CG/MCFC (Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell) power plant and the associated technology development requirements and to develop an improved cell configuration for molten carbonate fuel cells which has improved performance, has reduced cell creep and electrolyte management consistent with 40,000 hour projected life, reduces existing cell cost, and is adaptable to a range of power plant applications. Component design specifications for the end-cells of the alternative cell configuration were completed. Testing to evaluate new components was performed on 14 cells during this reporting period with eight tests started and terminated, and six tests continuing into the next reporting period. A test and performance summary of all the single cell tests conducted to date on this program is presented. A single cell test to qualify new matrix materials and matrix reinforcement was successfully completed. Integrated cell testing of new anode- and cathode-side components was completed. Single cell tests were conducted to identify the electrolyte fill procedure for the new cell configuration. Methods of fabricating manifold seals from the new candidate materials are being developed. Preparation of construction drawings for the 1-ft(sup 2) short stack was continued. Fabrication of repeating cell components for the 1-ft(sup 2) short stack was initiated. Trials to tape cast electrodes and matrices were initiated, tooling to form current collectors is being fabricated, and existing tooling to form separator plates is being modified. Non-repeat components from the previous 1-ft(sup 2) short stack that are acceptable for re-use were identified. New non-repeat components that are required have been ordered. Preparation of the test stand for the 1-ft(sup 2) short stack test was initiated.

  10. Production of Lunar Concrete Using Molten Sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1993-01-01

    The United States has made a commitment to go back to the moon to stay in the early part of the next century. In order to achieve this objective it became evident to NASA that a Lunar Outpost will be needed to house scientists and astronauts who will be living on the moon for extended periods of time. A study has been undertaken by the authors and supported by NASA to study the feasibility of using lunar regolith with different binders such as molten sulfur, epoxy or hydraulic cement as a construction material for different lunar structures. The basic premise of this study is that it will be more logical and cost effective to manufacture lunar construction materials utilizing indigenous resources rather than transporting needed materials from earth. Lunar concrete (made from Hydraulic Cement and lunar soil) has been studied and suggested as the construction material of choice for some of the lunar projects. Unfortunately, its hydration requires water which is going to be a precious commodity on the moon. Therefore this study explores the feasibility of using binders other than hydraulic cement such as sulfur or epoxy with lunar regolith as a construction material. This report describes findings of this study which deals specifically with using molten sulfur as a binder for Lunar concrete. It describes laboratory experiments in which the sulfur to lunar soil simulant ratios by weight were varied to study the minimum amount of sulfur required to produce a particular strength. The compressive and tensile strengths of these mixes were evaluated. Metal and fiber glass fibers were added to some of the mixes to study their effects on the compressive and tensile strengths. This report also describes experiments where the sulfur is melted and mixed with the lunar regolith in a specially designed vacuum chamber. The properties of the produced concrete were compared to those of concrete produced under normal pressure.

  11. Fast Thorium Molten Salt Reactors Started with Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Heuer, D.; Le Brun, C.; Brissot, R.; Liatard, E.; Meplan, O.; Nuttin, A.

    2006-07-01

    One of the pending questions concerning Molten Salt Reactors based on the {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U fuel cycle is the supply of the fissile matter, and as a consequence the deployment possibilities of a fleet of Molten Salt Reactors, since {sup 233}U does not exist on earth and is not yet produced in the current operating reactors. A solution may consist in producing {sup 233}U in special devices containing Thorium, in Pressurized Water or Fast Neutrons Reactors. Two alternatives to produce {sup 233}U are examined here: directly in standard Molten Salt Reactors started with Plutonium as fissile matter and then operated in the Th/{sup 233}U cycle; or in dedicated Molten Salt Reactors started and fed with Plutonium as fissile matter and Thorium as fertile matter. The idea is to design a critical reactor able to burn the Plutonium and the minor actinides presently produced in PWRs, and consequently to convert this Plutonium into {sup 233}U. A particular reactor configuration is used, called 'unique channel' configuration in which there is no moderator in the core, leading to a quasi fast neutron spectrum, allowing Plutonium to be used as fissile matter. The conversion capacities of such Molten Salt Reactors are excellent. For Molten Salt Reactors only started with Plutonium, the assets of the Thorium fuel cycle turn out to be quickly recovered and the reactor's characteristics turn out to be equivalent to Molten Salt Reactors operated with {sup 233}U only. Using a combination of Molten Salt Reactors started or operated with Plutonium and of Molten Salt Reactors started with {sup 233}U, the deployment capabilities of these reactors fully satisfy the condition of sustainability. (authors)

  12. Mercury's Core Molten, Radar Study Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    Scientists using a high-precision planetary radar technique for the first time have discovered that the innermost planet Mercury probably has a molten core, resolving a mystery of more than three decades. The discovery, which used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia and Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, and NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory antennas in California, is an important step toward a better understanding of how planets form and evolve. Planetary Radar High-precision planetary radar technique sent signal to Mercury, received reflection. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file (447 KB) "For a long time it was thought we'd have to land spacecraft on Mercury to learn if its core is solid or molten. Now we've answered that question using ground-based telescopes," said Jean-Luc Margot, of Cornell University, leader of the research team, which published its results in the May 4 issue of the journal Science. Mercury is one of the least-understood of the planets in our Solar System. Its distance from the Sun is just over one-third that of the Earth, and it contains a mass just 5½ percent that of Earth. Only about half of Mercury's surface has been photographed by a spacecraft, Mariner 10, back in 1974. Mariner 10 also discovered that Mercury has a weak magnetic field, about one percent as strong as Earth's. That discovery spurred a scientific debate about the planet's core. Scientists normally expect a rocky planet's magnetic field to be caused by an electromagnetic dynamo in a molten core. However, Mercury is so small that most scientists expected its core to have cooled and solidified long ago. Those scientists speculated that the magnetic field seen today may have been "frozen" into the planet when the core cooled. "Whether the core is molten or solid today depends greatly on the chemical composition of the core. That chemical composition can provide important clues about the

  13. Apparatus and method for stripping tritium from molten salt

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David E.; Wilson, Dane F.

    2017-02-07

    A method of stripping tritium from flowing stream of molten salt includes providing a tritium-separating membrane structure having a porous support, a nanoporous structural metal-ion diffusion barrier layer, and a gas-tight, nonporous palladium-bearing separative layer, directing the flowing stream of molten salt into contact with the palladium-bearing layer so that tritium contained within the molten salt is transported through the tritium-separating membrane structure, and contacting a sweep gas with the porous support for collecting the tritium.

  14. A Possible Regenerative, Molten-Salt, Thermoelectric Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Jacob; Thaller, Lawrence H.; Weber, Donald E.

    1964-01-01

    Molten or fused salts have been evaluated as possible thermoelectric materials because of the relatively good values of their figures of merit, their chemical stability, their long liquid range, and their ability to operate in conjunction with a nuclear reactor to produce heat. In general, molten salts are electrolytic conductors; therefore, there will be a transport of materials and subsequent decomposition with the passage of an electric current. It is possible nonetheless to overcome this disadvantage by using the decomposition products of the molten-salt electrolyte in a fuel cell. The combination of a thermoelectric converter and a fuel cell would lead to a regenerative system that may be useful.

  15. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Rosenhoover, William A.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  16. Control strategies in a thermal oil - Molten salt heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, Lidia; Bonilla, Javier; Rodríguez-García, Margarita M.; Palenzuela, Patricia; de la Calle, Alberto; Valenzuela, Loreto

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a preliminary control scheme for a molten salt - thermal oil heat exchanger. This controller regulates the molten salt mass flow rate to reach and maintain the desired thermal oil temperature at the outlet of the heat exchanger. The controller architecture has been tested using an object-oriented heat exchanger model that has been validated with data from a molten salt testing facility located at CIEMAT-PSA. Different simulations are presented with three different goals: i) to analyze the controller response in the presence of disturbances, ii) to demonstrate the benefits of designing a setpoint generator and iii) to show the controller potential against electricity price variations.

  17. Molten salt electrolyte battery cell with overcharge tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Nelson, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte battery having an increased overcharge tolerance employs a negative electrode with two lithium alloy phases of different electrochemical potential, one of which allows self-discharge rates which permits battery cell equalization.

  18. WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ELECTRIC FURNACE AFTER ADDING A CHEMICAL COAGULANT TO FORCE IT TO THE SURFACE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  19. Separation of actinides from lanthanides utilizing molten salt electrorefining

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmett, D.L.; Fusselman, S.P.; Roy, J.J.; Gay, R.L.; Krueger, C.L.; Storvick, T.S.; Inoue, T.; Hijikata, T.; Takahashi, N.

    1996-10-01

    TRUMP-S (TRansUranic Management through Pyropartitioning Separation) is a pyrochemical process being developed to separate actinides form fission products in nuclear waste. A key process step involving molten salt electrorefining to separate actinides from lanthanides has been studied on a laboratory scale. Electrorefining of U, Np, Pu, Am, and lanthanide mixtures from molten cadmium at 450 C to a solid cathode utilizing a molten chloride electrolyte resulted in > 99% removal of actinides from the molten cadmium and salt phases. Removal of the last few percent of actinides is accompanied by lowered cathodic current efficiency and some lanthanide codeposition. Actinide/lanthanide separation ratios on the cathode are ordered U > Np > Pu > Am and are consistent with predictions based on equilibrium potentials.

  20. 19. Inside the cast house at Furnace A. Molten iron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Inside the cast house at Furnace A. Molten iron flowed into eight ladles. The furnace was cast (or tapped) six times each day. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. Polymers' surface interactions with molten iron: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assadi, M. Hussein N.; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2014-10-01

    Environmental concerns are the chief drive for more innovative recycling techniques for end-of-life polymeric products. One attractive option is taking advantage of C and H content of polymeric waste in steelmaking industry. In this work, we examined the interaction of two high production polymers i.e. polyurethane and polysulfide with molten iron using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. We demonstrate that both polymers can be used as carburizers for molten iron. Additionally, we found that light weight H2 and CHx molecules were released as by-products of the polymer-molten iron interaction. The outcomes of this study will have applications in the carburization of molten iron during ladle metallurgy and waste plastic injection in electric arc furnace.

  2. Boric Ester-Type Molten Salt via Dehydrocoupling Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Matsumi, Noriyoshi; Toyota, Yoshiyuki; Joshi, Prerna; Puneet, Puhup; Vedarajan, Raman; Takekawa, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Novel boric ester-type molten salt was prepared using 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride as a key starting material. After an ion exchange reaction of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride with lithium (bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide) (LiNTf2), the resulting 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium NTf2 was reacted with 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN) to give the desired boric ester-type molten salt in a moderate yield. The structure of the boric ester-type molten salt was supported by 1H-, 13C-, 11B- and 19F-NMR spectra. In the presence of two different kinds of lithium salts, the matrices showed an ionic conductivity in the range of 1.1 × 10−4–1.6 × 10−5 S cm−1 at 51 °C. This was higher than other organoboron molten salts ever reported. PMID:25405738

  3. Degassing of molten alloys with the assistance of ultrasonic vibration

    DOEpatents

    Han, Qingyou; Xu, Hanbing; Meek, Thomas T.

    2010-03-23

    An apparatus and method are disclosed in which ultrasonic vibration is used to assist the degassing of molten metals or metal alloys thereby reducing gas content in the molten metals or alloys. High-intensity ultrasonic vibration is applied to a radiator that creates cavitation bubbles, induces acoustic streaming in the melt, and breaks up purge gas (e.g., argon or nitrogen) which is intentionally introduced in a small amount into the melt in order to collect the cavitation bubbles and to make the cavitation bubbles survive in the melt. The molten metal or alloy in one version of the invention is an aluminum alloy. The ultrasonic vibrations create cavitation bubbles and break up the large purge gas bubbles into small bubbles and disperse the bubbles in the molten metal or alloy more uniformly, resulting in a fast and clean degassing.

  4. Selenium cytotoxicity in cancer.

    PubMed

    Wallenberg, Marita; Misra, Sougat; Björnstedt, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element with growth-modulating properties. Decades of research clearly demonstrate that selenium compounds inhibit the growth of malignant cells in diverse experimental model systems. However, the growth-modulating and cytotoxic mechanisms are diverse and far from clear. Lately, a remarkable tumour selective cytotoxicity of selenium compounds has been shown, indicating the potential of selenium in the treatment of cancer. Of particular interest are the redox-active selenium compounds exhibiting cytotoxic potential to tumour cells. These selenium compounds elicit complex patterns of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, leading to cell death pathways that differ among compounds. Modern oncology often focuses on targeted ligand-based therapeutic strategies that are specific to their molecular targets. These drugs are initially efficient, but the tumour cells often rapidly develop resistance against these drugs. In contrast, certain redox-active selenium compounds induce complex cascades of pro-death signalling at pharmacological concentrations with superior tumour specificity. The target molecules are often the ones that are important for the survival of cancer cells and often implicated in drug resistance. Therefore, the chemotherapeutic applications of selenium offer great possibilities of multi-target attacks on tumour cells. This MiniReview focuses on the tumour-specific cytotoxic effects of selenium, with special emphasis on cascades of cellular events induced by the major groups of pharmacologically active selenium compounds. Furthermore, the great pharmacological potential of selenium in the treatment of resistant cancers is discussed.

  5. Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, T.W.; Hamill, P.E. Jr.; Ozgu, M.R.; Padfield, R.C.; Rego, D.N.; Brita, G.P.

    1990-07-24

    A pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal is characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate. 1 fig.

  6. Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Thomas W.; Hamill, Jr., Paul E.; Ozgu, Mustafa R.; Padfield, Ralph C.; Rego, Donovan N.; Brita, Guido P.

    1990-01-01

    A pressurized tundish for controlling a continous flow of molten metal characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate.

  7. Milk fat globule E-8 and interleukin 17 in systemic lupus erythematosus: partners in crime?

    PubMed Central

    Elgengehy, Fatema; Niazy, Marwa; Ghoneim, Shada

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-factorial, autoimmune disease with a wide array of manifestations. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17 has been implicated in the inflammatory response and tissue damage in SLE; however, its correlation with disease activity is still questionable. Meanwhile, efficient clearance of apoptotic cells is required for immune tolerance. An abnormally low or high level of milk fat globule (MFG-E8) can result in impaired apoptotic cell clearance and the subsequent autoimmune response. In this study, we endeavoured to compare the levels of MFG-E8 and IL-17 in SLE patients and healthy controls and to reveal the alleged association of these levels with SLE disease activity. Material and methods Serum samples from 57 SLE patients and 30 healthy control subjects were examined for quantitation of MFG-E8 and IL-17 levels using ELISA. Systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity was calculated using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of the patients were also recorded. Results We report that serum MFG-E8 levels were significantly elevated in the sera of SLE patients compared to healthy controls (p-value = 0.019). Likewise, IL-17 levels were higher in SLE patients (p-value < 0.001). A positive correlation was revealed between MFG-E8 level and proteinuria. Surprisingly, there was a poor correlation between disease activity and the levels of either IL-17 or MFG-E8. Conclusions Although serum MFG-E8 and IL-17 levels were higher in SLE patients than in normal controls, our results indicate that they cannot accurately reflect the disease activity. Meanwhile, further studies are needed to assess MFG-E8 and IL-17 as potential therapeutic targets in SLE patients. PMID:27407263

  8. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOK GLOBULE CB 17: A CANDIDATE FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xuepeng; Arce, Hector G.; Dunham, Michael M.; Zhang Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L.; Launhardt, Ralf; Schmalzl, Markus; Henning, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We present high angular resolution Submillimeter Array (SMA) and Spitzer observations toward the Bok globule CB 17. SMA 1.3 mm dust continuum images reveal within CB 17 two sources with an angular separation of {approx}21'' ({approx}5250 AU at a distance of {approx}250 pc). The northwestern continuum source, referred to as CB 17 IRS, dominates the infrared emission in the Spitzer images, drives a bipolar outflow extending in the northwest-southeast direction, and is classified as a low-luminosity Class 0/I transition object (L{sub bol} {approx} 0.5 L{sub Sun }). The southeastern continuum source, referred to as CB 17 MMS, has faint dust continuum emission in the SMA 1.3 mm observations ({approx}6{sigma} detection; {approx}3.8 mJy), but is not detected in the deep Spitzer infrared images at wavelengths from 3.6 to 70 {mu}m. Its bolometric luminosity and temperature, estimated from its spectral energy distribution, are {<=}0.04 L{sub Sun} and {<=}16 K, respectively. The SMA CO (2-1) observations suggest that CB 17 MMS may drive a low-velocity molecular outflow ({approx}2.5 km s{sup -1}), extending in the east-west direction. Comparisons with prestellar cores and Class 0 protostars suggest that CB 17 MMS is more evolved than prestellar cores but less evolved than Class 0 protostars. The observed characteristics of CB 17 MMS are consistent with the theoretical predictions from radiative/magnetohydrodynamical simulations of a first hydrostatic core, but there is also the possibility that CB 17 MMS is an extremely low luminosity protostar deeply embedded in an edge-on circumstellar disk. Further observations are needed to study the properties of CB 17 MMS and to address more precisely its evolutionary stage.

  9. Effect of variations in peptide sequence on anti-human milk fat globule membrane antibody reactions.

    PubMed

    Xing, P X; Reynolds, K; Pietersz, G A; McKenzie, I F

    1991-02-01

    Monoclonal anti-mucine antibodies BC1, BC2 and BC3 produced using human milk fat globule membrane react with a synthetic peptide p1-24 (PDTRPAPGSTAPPAHGVTSAPDTR) representing the repeating amino acid sequence of the mucin core protein. The minimum epitope recognized by these three monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in p1-24 was contained in the five amino acids APDTR. To analyse the variation of position of the epitope, various modifications of the APDTR sequence were made by synthesizing peptides and testing by direct binding and inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Firstly, peptides p13-32 and C-p13-32, in which the epitope APDTR was placed in the middle instead of the C-terminal as in p1-24, were examined. These peptides had a greater reaction with mAb BC1, BC2 and BC3 compared with the reaction with p1-24. Secondly, A-p1-24 and TSA-p1-24 were made wherein two APDTR epitopes were present--these peptides were shown to bind two IgG antibody molecules. Finally, the contribution of each amino acid in the APDTR epitope was studied using the pepscan polyethylene rods, making all 20 of the amino acid substitutions in each position for SAPDTR (the minimum epitope APDTR with an adjacent amino acid S). In the 120 peptides examined there were some 'permissible' substitutions in A, D and T but not in P or R for BC1 and BC2; there were more 'permissible' substitutions for BC3; different substitution patterns were found with each antibody and some substitutions gave an increased reaction compared with the native peptide SAPDTR. The studies are of value in analysing the reaction of antibodies with epitopes expressed in breast cancer and in determining the antigenicity of synthetic peptides.

  10. High-Mr glycoprotein profiles in human milk serum and fat-globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, M; Yamauchi, K; Miyauchi, Y; Sakurai, T; Tokugawa, K; McIlhinney, R A

    1986-02-01

    Gradient-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of human milk serum separated three high-Mr glycoprotein bands. The properties of the components corresponding to the three bands (tentatively termed 'Components C, B and A' in their order of migration) were compared by staining with four monoclonal antibodies and lectins. Components B and C both reacted with the four antibodies, but Component A did not. Components B and C were stained with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin (PNA) and wheat (Triticum)-germ agglutinin (WGA), Component A being stained with soya-bean (Glycine max) agglutinin as well as PNA and WGA. These results suggest that Components B and C were related molecules, whereas Component A was markedly different from them. The reactivities of Components B and C were the same as those of PAS-0, a high-Mr periodate/Schiff (PAS)-positive glycoprotein previously isolated from human milk fat-globule membrane (MFGM). Component C, whose electrophoretic mobility was the same as PAS-0, could have been a soluble form of PAS-0. A high-Mr glycoprotein having the same properties as Component A was also observed in MFGM. The amino acid composition of the isolated Component A was significantly different from that of Component C and PAS-0, high threonine and serine contents being characteristic of Component A. The carbohydrate content of Component A was 65-80%, and was much higher than that of Component C and PAS-0. Fucose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine and sialic acid were each detected as constituent sugars of Component A. Component A represents, therefore, a new high-Mr glycoprotein species in human milk serum and MFGM. Since these glycoproteins were high-Mr mucin-like glycoproteins, the names 'HM glycoprotein-A' and 'HM glycoprotein-C' were proposed for Component A and Component C (PAS-O) respectively.

  11. Comparative proteomics of milk fat globule membrane proteins from transgenic cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Sui, Shunchao; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Jianwu; Zhang, Ran; Guo, Chengdong; Yu, Tian; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    The use of transgenic livestock is providing new methods for obtaining pharmaceutically useful proteins. However, the protein expression profiles of the transgenic animals, including expression of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins, have not been well characterized. In this study, we compared the MFGM protein expression profile of the colostrum and mature milk from three lines of transgenic cloned (TC) cattle, i.e., expressing recombinant human α-lactalbumin (TC-LA), lactoferrin (TC-LF) or lysozyme (TC-LZ) in the mammary gland, with those from cloned non-transgenic (C) and conventionally bred normal animals (N). We identified 1, 225 proteins in milk MFGM, 166 of which were specifically expressed only in the TC-LA group, 265 only in the TC-LF group, and 184 only in the TC-LZ group. There were 43 proteins expressed only in the transgenic cloned animals, but the concentrations of these proteins were below the detection limit of silver staining. Functional analysis also showed that the 43 proteins had no obvious influence on the bovine mammary gland. Quantitative comparison revealed that MFGM proteins were up- or down-regulated more than twofold in the TC and C groups compared to N group: 126 in colostrum and 77 in mature milk of the TC-LA group; 157 in colostrum and 222 in mature milk of the TC-LF group; 49 in colostrum and 98 in mature milk of the TC-LZ group; 98 in colostrum and 132 in mature milk in the C group. These up- and down-regulated proteins in the transgenic animals were not associated with a particular biological function or pathway, which appears that expression of certain exogenous proteins has no general deleterious effects on the cattle mammary gland.

  12. Study of magnetic field geometry and extinction in Bok globule CB130

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, A.; Das, H. S.

    2016-09-01

    We trace the peripheral magnetic field structure of Bok globule CB130 by estimating the linear polarization of its field stars in the R band. The magnetic field orientation sampled by these stars, aligned on average among themselves, and the polarization produced within the cloud has a different direction from that of Galactic plane with an offset of 53°. The offset between minor axis and the mean magnetic field of CB130 is found to be 80°. The estimated strength of the magnetic field in the plane-of-the-sky is ˜116±19 μG. We constructed the visual extinction map using the Near Infrared Color Excess (NICE) method to see the dust distribution around CB130. Contours of Herschel (Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA) SPIRE 500 μm dust continuum emission map of this cloud is over-plotted on the visual extinction map, which shows that the regions having higher optical extinction correspond to higher densities of dust. Three distinct high dust density cores (named as C1, C2, and C3) are identified in the extinction map. It is observed that the cores C1 and C3 are located close to two previously known cores CB130-1 and CB130-2, respectively. Estimates of visual extinction of some moderately obscured stars of CB130 are made utilizing near-infrared photometry. It is observed that there is a feeble dependence of polarization on extinction, and the polarization efficiency (defined as p/AV) of the dust grains decreases with the increase in extinction.

  13. The freeze-thaw process and long intervals after fortification denature human milk fat globules.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kenichiro; Mizuno, Katsumi; Itabashi, Kazuo

    2012-04-01

    Although mother's milk is the optimal nutrition for preterm infants, the amount of protein, calcium, and phosphorus become inadequate for the growth of preterm infants, such that fortification is recommended when enteral feeding is established. Recently, intestinal obstruction due to calcium soap formation has been reported. All the reported cases were fed fortified thawed human milk. It has not been elucidated how human milk fortifier reacts with milk fat globules (MFGs) in thawed human milk. Therefore, we investigated whether freezing durations and time between fortification and enteral feeding denatured MFGs. Six samples of preterm mothers' milk of each type (fresh unfrozen, 1-month frozen, and 12-month frozen) were analyzed. Fortifier was not added to the control. The samples were measured at 1, 12, and 24 hours after fortification. The MFG size distribution of each milk sample was measured. The freezing process enlarged the mode diameter (4.0 ± 0.4, 4.3 ± 0.7, and 4.5 ± 0.9 in fresh unfrozen milk, 1-month frozen, and 12-month frozen milk, respectively, p < 0.001). Fortification itself did not significantly alter the MFG size in thawed mother's milk. However, a time lag of 12 hours after fortification enlarged the MFG size and resulted in smaller surface area per unit (3.6 ± 0.2, 3.3 ± 0.1, and 3.3 ± 0.1 m(2)/g, fresh unfrozen, 1-month frozen, and 12-month frozen, respectively) compared with 0 hours of time lag (3.8 ± 0.2, 3.5 ± 0.1, and 3.4 ± 0.2 m(2)/g, fresh unfrozen, 1-month frozen, and 12-month frozen, respectively). Not only the freeze-thaw procedure but also time lag after fortification affected MFG size. We recommend using fortified thawed human milk within 12 hours.

  14. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt.

    PubMed

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450-470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl-KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. •The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept.•This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L.•The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going.

  15. Melt segregation during Poiseuille flow of partially molten rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintanilla-Terminel, A.; Dillman, A. M.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of the dynamics of partially molten regions of the Earth's mantle provide the basis necessary for understanding the chemical and physical evolution of our planet. Since we cannot directly observe processes occurring at depth, we rely on models and experiments to constrain the rheological behavior of partially molten rocks. Here, we present the results of an experimental investigation of the role of viscous anisotropy on melt segregation in partially molten rocks through Poiseuille flow experiments. Partially molten rock samples with a composition of either forsterite or anorthite plus a few percent melt were prepared from vacuum sintered powders and taken to 1200ºC at 0.1 MPa. The partially molten samples were then extruded through a channel of circular cross section under a fixed pressure gradient at 1200o to 1500oC. The melt distribution in the channel was subsequently mapped through image analyses of optical and backscattered electron microscopy images. In these experiments, melt segregates from the center toward the outer radius of the channel with the melt fraction at the outer radius increasing to twice that at the center. These results are consistent with base-state melt segregation as predicted by Takei and Holtzman (JGR, 2009), Takei and Katz (JFM, 2013) and Allwright and Katz (GJI, 2014) for sheared partially molten rocks for which viscosity is anisotropic due to the stress-induced, grain-scale alignment of melt.

  16. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt

    PubMed Central

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450–470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl–KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. • The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept. • This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L. • The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going. PMID:26150977

  17. Next-Generation Electrochemical Energy Materials for Intermediate Temperature Molten Oxide Fuel Cells and Ion Transport Molten Oxide Membranes.

    PubMed

    Belousov, Valery V

    2017-02-21

    High temperature electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and oxygen separators based on ceramic materials are used for efficient energy conversion. These devices generally operate in the temperature range of 800-1000 °C. The high operating temperatures lead to accelerated degradation of the SOFC and oxygen separator materials. To solve this problem, the operating temperatures of these electrochemical devices must be lowered. However, lowering the temperature is accompanied by decreasing the ionic conductivity of fuel cell electrolyte and oxygen separator membrane. Therefore, there is a need to search for alternative electrolyte and membrane materials that have high ionic conductivity at lower temperatures. A great many opportunities exist for molten oxides as electrochemical energy materials. Because of their unique electrochemical properties, the molten oxide innovations can offer significant benefits for improving energy efficiency. In particular, the newly developed electrochemical molten oxide materials show high ionic conductivities at intermediate temperatures (600-800 °C) and could be used in molten oxide fuel cells (MOFCs) and molten oxide membranes (MOMs). The molten oxide materials containing both solid grains and liquid channels at the grain boundaries have advantages compared to the ceramic materials. For example, the molten oxide materials are ductile, which solves a problem of thermal incompatibility (difference in coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE). Besides, the outstanding oxygen selectivity of MOM materials allows us to separate ultrahigh purity oxygen from air. For their part, the MOFC electrolytes show the highest ionic conductivity at intermediate temperatures. To evaluate the potential of molten oxide materials for technological applications, the relationship between the microstructure of these materials and their transport and mechanical properties must be revealed. This Account summarizes the latest results on

  18. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  19. Was the early Earth completely molten?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, D. L.; Pflugrath, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of the interior of the primitive Earth was examined. The question is posted: was the Earth a cold solid or was it a hot liquid, much like a lava lakes seen in today's volcanic cauldrons. The various energy sources available to heat the primitive Earth to see if they are sufficient to cause melting were analyzed. The two largest contributors to the Earth's early heat appear to be the heat due to accretion and the heat of core formation. The Earth formed by the accretion of particles ranging in size from millimeters to hundreds of kilometers and each impact into the protoearth provided more energy to heat the body. It is found that early in the Earth's history, the sinking of iron to the center of the Earth to form the core released a substantial amount of energy; enough to heat the entire Earth an average 2000 deg C. Mechanisms for the removal of such a large amount of heat appear inadequate to prevent substantial melting, and it is assumed that the Earth was completely molten, i.e., a magma ocean at one time early in its history.

  20. Evaporation of Molten Salts by Plasma Torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putvinski, S.; Agnew, S. F.; Chamberlain, F.; Freeman, R. L.; Litvak, A.; Meekins, M.; Schwedock, T.; Umstadter, K. R.; Yung, S.; Bakharev, V.; Dresvin, S.; Egorov, S.; Feygenson, O.; Gabdullin, P.; Ivanov; Kizevetter, D.; Kostrukov, A.; Kuteev, B.; Malugin, V.; Zverev, S.

    2003-10-01

    Archimedes Technology Group is developing a plasma nuclear waste separation technology, called the Plasma Mass Filter. The experimental results on thermal evaporation of molten NaOH based surrogates for the Filter are presented. The main goal of the experiments was the study of high-density plasma discharges in NaOH vapor with the aim to minimize injection of additional working gas in the plasma torch. In these experiments NaOH vapor has been produced either by evaporation of the melt from a crucible introduced inside the plasma torch, or by injection of the melt droplets inside the torch. In the latter case, the melt was first atomized by an ultrasonic nebulizer at a flow rate of up to 2g/s with a droplet size of ˜50um. Plasma composition has been monitored by optical measurements. An optical diagnostic for droplet size measurement is presented together with results of the measurements of the size spectrum of the NaOH droplets.

  1. Carbonate- and silicate-rich globules in the kimberlitic rocks of northwestern Tarim large igneous province, NW China: Evidence for carbonated mantle source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhiguo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; Hou, Tong; Zhang, Dongyang

    2014-12-01

    We report carbonate- and silicate-rich globules and andradite from the Wajilitage kimberlitic rocks in the northwestern Tarim large igneous province, NW China. The carbonate-rich globules vary in size from 1 to 3 mm, and most have ellipsoidal or round shape, and are composed of nearly pure calcite. The silicate-rich globules are elliptical to round in shape and are typically larger than the carbonate-rich globules ranging from 2 to several centimeters in diameter. They are characterized by clear reaction rims and contain several silicate minerals such as garnet, diopside and phlogopite. The silicate-rich globules, reported here for the first time, are suggested to be related to the origin of andradite within the kimberlitic rocks. Our results show that calcite in the carbonate-rich globules has a high XCa (>0.97) and is characterized by extremely high concentrations of the total rare earth elements (up to 1500 ppm), enrichment in Sr (8521-10,645 ppm) and LREE, and remarkable depletion in Nd, Ta, Zr, Hf and Ti. The calcite in the silicate-rich globules is geochemically similar to those in the carbonate-rich globules except the lower trace element contents. Garnet is dominantly andradite (And59.56-92.32Grs5.67-36.03Pyr0.36-4.61Spe0-0.33) and is enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and relatively depleted in Rb, Ba, Th, Pb, Sr, Zr and Hf. Phlogopite in the silicate-rich globules has a high Mg# ranging from 0.93 to 0.97. The composition of the diopside is Wo45.82-51.39En39.81-49.09Fs0.88-0.95 with a high Mg# ranging from 0.88 to 0.95. Diopside in the silicate-rich globules has low total rare earth element (REE) contents (14-31 ppm) and shows middle REE- (Eu to Gd), slight light REE- and heavy REE-enrichment with elevated Zr, Hf and Sr contents and a negative Nb anomaly in the normalized diagram. The matrix of the kimberlitic rocks are silica undersaturated (27.92-29.31 wt.% SiO2) with low Al2O3 (4.51-5.15 wt.%) and high CaO (17.29-17.77 wt.%) contents. The

  2. Fluorinated Nanocarbons Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Teo, Wei Zhe; Chua, Chun Kiang; Sofer, Zdenek; Pumera, Martin

    2015-09-07

    As the research in nanotechnology progresses, there will eventually be an influx in the number of commercial products containing different types of nanomaterials. This phenomenon might damage our health and environment if the nanomaterials used are found to be toxic and they are released into the waters when the products degrade. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of fluorinated nanocarbons (CXFs), a group of nanomaterials which can find applications in solid lubricants and lithium primary batteries. Our cell viability findings indicated that the toxicological effects induced by the CXF are dependent on the dose, size, shape, and fluorine content of the CXF. In addition, we verified that CXFs have insignificant interactions with the cell viability assays-methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-8), thus suggesting that the cytotoxicity data obtained are unlikely to be affected by CXF-induced artifacts and the results will be reliable.

  3. Dissipative particle dynamics simulations of the viscosities of molten TNT and molten TNT suspensions containing nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Yixue; Qian, Wen; He, Bi

    2016-09-01

    Based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) methods and experimental data, we used an empirical relationship between the DPD temperature and the real temperature to build a model that describes the viscosity of molten TNT fluids. The errors in the predicted viscosity based on this model were no more than 2.3 %. We also studied the steady-state shear rheological behavior of molten TNT fluids containing nanoparticles ("nanofluids"). The dependence of the nanofluid viscosity on the temperature was found to satisfy an Arrhenius-type equation, η = Ae (B/T) , where B, the flow activation energy, depends on particle content, size, and shape. We modified the Einstein-type viscosity model to account for the effects of nanoparticle solvation in TNT nanofluids. The resulting model was able to correctly predict the viscosities of suspensions containing nano- to microsized particles, and did not require any changes to the physical background of Einstein's viscosity theory. Graphical Abstract The revised Einstein viscosity model that correctly predict the viscosity of TNT suspensions containing nanoparticles.

  4. On-chip controlled surfactant-DNA coil-globule transition by rapid solvent exchange using hydrodynamic flow focusing.

    PubMed

    Iliescu, Ciprian; Mărculescu, Cătălin; Venkataraman, Shrinivas; Languille, Baptiste; Yu, Hanry; Tresset, Guillaume

    2014-11-11

    This paper presents a microfluidic method for precise control of the size and polydispersity of surfactant-DNA nanoparticles. A mixture of surfactant and DNA dispersed in 35% ethanol is focused between two streams of pure water in a microfluidic channel. As a result, a rapid change of solvent quality takes place in the central stream, and the surfactant-bound DNA molecules undergo a fast coil-globule transition. By adjusting the concentrations of DNA and surfactant, fine-tuning of the nanoparticle size, down to a hydrodynamic diameter of 70 nm with a polydispersity index below 0.2, can be achieved with a good reproducibility.

  5. Use of antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen and human milk fat globule to distinguish carcinoma, mesothelioma, and reactive mesothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, R J; Herbert, A; Braye, S G; Jones, D B

    1984-01-01

    Antibodies raised against human milk fat globule (HMFG 1 and 2) and carcinoembryonic antigen were used in an immunoperoxidase technique to differentiate mesothelioma, carcinoma, and benign, reactive mesothelium. Sixteen mesotheliomas, 27 lung carcinomas, and 13 specimens of reactive mesothelium were examined. Staining for carcinoembryonic antigen was not seen in reactive mesothelium or mesothelioma but was present in 22 of 27 carcinomas. Mesothelioma and carcinoma usually stained with HMFG 1 and 2; reactive mesothelium did not. These three antibodies may help to distinguish carcinoma, mesothelioma, and reactive mesothelium. Images PMID:6094617

  6. Cytotoxicity of organophosphate anticholinesterases.

    PubMed

    Cao, C J; Mioduszewski, R J; Menking, D E; Valdes, J J; Katz, E J; Eldefrawi, M E; Eldefrawi, A T

    1999-10-01

    Organophosphate (OP) anticholinesterases were found to modulate metabolic activities of human neuroblastoma cells and hepatocytes, which was detectable by the Cytosensor microphysiometer. The nerve gas ethyl-S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphorothiolate (VX), at 10 microM, produced significant reduction in cell metabolism within 2 min, as measured by changes in the acidification rate of the medium. The reduction was dose- and time-dependent and irreversible after 4 h of exposure. Two alkaline degradation products of VX produced no cytotoxicity. Exposure for 24 h to 3 microM VX caused 36% and 94% irreversible loss of metabolism in hepatocytes and neuroblastoma cells, respectively. The insecticides parathion and chlorpyrifos stimulated hepatocyte metabolism but inhibited neuroblastoma cells. Their oxons were more active. Exposure of neuroblastoma cells for 4 h to VX, parathion, paraoxon, diisopropylfluorophosphate or chlorpyrifos gave an LC50 of 65, 775, 640, 340, or 672 microM, respectively, whereas 24 h gave an LC50 of 0.7, 3.7, 2.5, 29, and 31 microM, respectively. Preincubation of hepatocytes with phenobarbital enhanced their response to parathion and VX due to metabolic bioactivation. Atropine partially blocked the effects of VX and paraoxon on both cell types, which suggests the involvement of a muscarinic receptor as the target for cytotoxicity. There was no correlation between OP in vivo neurotoxicity and in vitro cytotoxicity. It is suggested that the former results from their cholinesterase inhibition, while the latter results from action on different targets and requires much higher concentrations.

  7. Supported Molten Metal Catalysis. A New Class of Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra Datta; Ajeet Singh; Manuela Serban; Istvan Halasz

    2006-06-02

    We describe a new class of heterogeneous catalysts called supported molten metal catalysis (SMMC), in which molten metal catalysts are dispersed as nanodroplets on the surface of porous supports, allowing much larger active surface area than is possible in conventional contacting techniques for catalytic metals that are molten under reaction conditions, thus greatly enhancing their activity and potential utility. Specific examples of different types of reactions are provided to demonstrate the broad applicability of the technique in designing active, selective, and stable new catalysts. It is shown that dispersing the molten metal on a support in the suggested manner can enhance the rate of a reaction by three to four orders of magnitude as a result of the concomitant increase in the active surface area. New reaction examples include {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported molten Te (melting point 450 C) and Ga (MP 30 C) catalysts for bifunctional methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation. These catalysts provide activity similar to conventional Pt-based catalysts for this with better resistance to coking. In addition, results are described for a controlled pore glass supported molten In (MP 157 C) catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with ethanol in the presence of water, demonstrating activities superior to conventional catalysts for this reaction. A discussion is also provided on the characterization of the active surface area and dispersion of these novel supported catalysts. It is clear based on the results described that the development of new active and selective supported molten metal catalysts for practical applications is entirely plausible.

  8. Shear rheology of molten crumb chocolate.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J E; Van Damme, I; Johns, M L; Routh, A F; Wilson, D I

    2009-03-01

    The shear rheology of fresh molten chocolate produced from crumb was studied over 5 decades of shear rate using controlled stress devices. The Carreau model was found to be a more accurate description than the traditional Casson model, especially at shear rates between 0.1 and 1 s(-1). At shear rates around 0.1 s(-1) (shear stress approximately 7 Pa) the material exhibited a transition to a solid regime, similar to the behavior reported by Coussot (2005) for other granular suspensions. The nature of the suspension was explored by investigating the effect of solids concentration (0.20 < phi < 0.75) and the nature of the particles. The rheology of the chocolate was then compared with the rheology of (1) a synthetic chocolate, which contained sunflower oil in place of cocoa butter, and (2) a suspension of sugar of a similar size distribution (volume mean 15 mum) in cocoa butter and emulsifier. The chocolate and synthetic chocolate showed very similar rheological profiles under both steady shear and oscillatory shear. The chocolate and the sugar suspension showed similar Krieger-Dougherty dependency on volume fraction, and a noticeable transition to a stiff state at solids volume fractions above approximately 0.5. Similar behavior has been reported by Citerne and others (2001) for a smooth peanut butter, which had a similar particle size distribution and solids loading to chocolate. The results indicate that the melt rheology of the chocolate is dominated by hydrodynamic interactions, although at high solids volume fractions the emulsifier may contribute to the departure of the apparent viscosity from the predicted trend.

  9. LIFE Materails: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R; Brown, N; Caro, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Kaufman, L; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Powers, J; Shaw, H; Turchi, P

    2008-12-11

    The goals of the Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) is to use fusion neutrons to fission materials with no enrichment and minimum processing and have greatly reduced wastes that are not of interest to making weapons. Fusion yields expected to be achieved in NIF a few times per day are called for with a high reliable shot rate of about 15 per second. We have found that the version of LIFE using TRISO fuel discussed in other volumes of this series can be modified by replacing the molten-flibe-cooled TRISO fuel zone with a molten salt in which the same actinides present in the TRISO particles are dissolved in the molten salt. Molten salts have the advantage that they are not subject to radiation damage, and hence overcome the radiation damage effects that may limit the lifetime of solid fuels such as TRISO-containing pebbles. This molten salt is pumped through the LIFE blanket, out to a heat exchanger and back into the blanket. To mitigate corrosion, steel structures in contact with the molten salt would be plated with tungsten or nickel. The salt will be processed during operation to remove certain fission products (volatile and noble and semi-noble fission products), impurities and corrosion products. In this way neutron absorbers (fission products) are removed and neutronics performance of the molten salt is somewhat better than that of the TRISO fuel case owing to the reduced parasitic absorption. In addition, the production of Pu and rare-earth elements (REE) causes these elements to build up in the salt, and leads to a requirement for a process to remove the REE during operation to insure that the solubility of a mixed (Pu,REE)F3 solid solution is not exceeded anywhere in the molten salt system. Removal of the REE will further enhance the neutronics performance. With molten salt fuels, the plant would need to be safeguarded because materials of interest for weapons are produced and could potentially be removed.

  10. Gasification characteristics of organic waste by molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Kimihiko; Minami, Keishi; Yamauchi, Makoto; Morimitsu, Shinsuke; Tanimoto, Kazumi

    Recently, along with the growth in economic development, there has been a dramatic accompanying increase in the amount of sludge and organic waste. The disposal of such is a significant problem. Moreover, there is also an increased in the consumption of electricity along with economic growth. Although new energy development, such as fuel cells, has been promoted to solve the problem of power consumption, there has been little corresponding promotion relating to the disposal of sludge and organic waste. Generally, methane fermentation comprises the primary organic waste fuel used in gasification systems. However, the methane fermentation method takes a long time to obtain the fuel gas, and the quality of the obtained gas is unstable. On the other hand, gasification by molten salt is undesirable because the molten salt in the gasification gas corrodes the piping and turbine blades. Therefore, a gasification system is proposed by which the sludge and organic waste are gasified by molten salt. Moreover, molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are needed to refill the MCFC electrolyte volatilized in the operation. Since the gasification gas is used as an MCFC fuel, MCFC electrolyte can be provided with the fuel gas. This paper elucidates the fundamental characteristics of sludge and organic waste gasification. A crucible filled with the molten salt comprising 62 Li 2CO 3/38 K 2CO 3, is installed in the reaction vessel, and can be set to an arbitrary temperature in a gas atmosphere. In this instance, the gasifying agent gas is CO 2. Sludge or the rice is supplied as organic waste into the molten salt, and is gasified. The chemical composition of the gasification gas is analyzed by a CO/CO 2 meter, a HC meter, and a SO x meter gas chromatography. As a result, although sludge can generate CO and H 2 near the chemical equilibrium value, all of the sulfur in the sludge is not fixed in the molten salt, because the sludge floats on the surface of the carbonate by the specific

  11. Viscosity of molten lithium, thorium and beryllium fluorides mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzlyakov, Alexander V.; Ignatiev, Victor V.; Abalin, Sergei S.

    2011-12-01

    Considering development of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) concept, following Molten Salt fluorides mixtures have been chosen as an object for viscosity studies in this work (in mol%): 78LiF-22ThF 4; 71LiF-27ThF 4-2BeF 2 and 75LiF-20ThF 4-5BeF 2. Additionally, the effect of the 3 mol% CeF 3 additives on viscosity of the molten 75LiF-20ThF 4-5BeF 2 (mol%) salt mixture has been investigated experimentally. The method of torsional oscillations of cylindrical crucible filled by molten fluorides mixture has been chosen for kinematic viscosity measurement at temperatures up to 800-850 °C. In temperature ranges, where melts behave as normal liquids, dependences on viscosity vs. temperature are received: ν = А exp [B/T(K)], where ν - kinematic viscosity, m 2/s; T - temperature, K. The kinematic viscosity Rout mean squares (RMS) estimated in the assumption about dispersion homoscedasticity is (0.04-0.12) × 10 -6 (m 2/s). Discrepancies left in the data of viscosity for molten mixtures of LiF, BeF 2 and ThF 4 received by different researchers need further investigations in this area to be continued.

  12. Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gourishankar, K. V.

    1998-11-11

    Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes.

  13. A lattice model Monte Carlo study of coil-to-globule and other conformational transitions of polymer, amphiphile, and solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Deirdre E.; Kuznetsov, Yuri A.; Timoshenko, Edward G.; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2000-05-01

    A model of polymer-amphiphile-solvent systems on a cubic lattice is used to investigate the phase diagram of such systems. The polymer is treated within the canonical ensemble (T,V,N) and the amphiphile and solvent are treated within the grand canonical ensemble (T,V,μ). Using a range of Monte Carlo moves the phase diagram of polymer-amphiphile-solvent mixtures, as a function of solvent quality (parametrized by χ) and relative chemical potential, μ, is studied for the dilute polymer limit. The effect of increasing the polymer chain length, N, on the critical aggregation concentration (CAC), and the type of polymer-amphiphile complex formed above the CAC are also examined. For some parameters, it is found that the polymer and amphiphile form a polymer-micelle complex at low amphiphile concentrations, and that the polymer coil-to-globule transition point increases with increasing amphiphile concentration. The resulting collapsed globule has a solvent core and is surrounded by a layer of amphiphile. These results are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results for the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) system. At higher amphiphile concentrations, the polymer and amphiphile form several layered structures depending on the strength of the three-body amphiphilic interactions, l. Finally, the effect of the polymer chain length, N, and the strength of the three-body amphiphilic interactions, l, on the stability of the polymer-amphiphile structures is investigated.

  14. Autoxidation and cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, D C; Schaich, K M; Elmore, Jr, J J

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive synthesis, or reaction schema, to relate autoxidations of non-lipid compounds to lipid chain peroxidation in vivo is presented. This is done in the context of cytotoxic autoxidation reactions, and it is concluded that hydroxyl radicals produced by iron-dependent Fenton reactions serve as both primary toxicants and as sources of secondary toxicants. The latter stem from lipid chain peroxidation initiated by the Fenton-derived hydroxyl radicals, which are visualized as the obligate coupling step linking enzyme-dependent and non-enzymic autoxidations to potentially toxic outcomes.

  15. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.

    1996-02-13

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath. 2 figs.

  16. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    1996-01-01

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

  17. Modelling of molten fuel/concrete interactions. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, J. F.; Benjamin, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program modelling the interaction between molten core materials and structural concrete (CORCON) is being developed to provide quantitative estimates of fuel-melt accident consequences suitable for risk assessment of light water reactors. The principal features of CORCON are reviewed. Models developed for the principal interaction phenomena, inter-component heat transfer, concrete erosion, and melt/gas chemical reactions, are described. Alternative models for the controlling phenomenon, heat transfer from the molten pool to the surrounding concrete, are presented. These models, formulated in conjunction with the development of CORCON, are characterized by the presence or absence of either a gas film or viscous layer of molten concrete at the melt/concrete interface. Predictions of heat transfer based on these models compare favorably with available experimental data.

  18. Primary and secondary room temperature molten salt electrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, G. F.; Dymek, C. J., Jr.

    1985-07-01

    Three novel primary cells which use room temperature molten salt electrolytes are examined and found to have high open circuit potentials in the 1.75-2.19 V range, by comparison with the Al/AlCl3-MEICl concentration cell; their cathodes were of FeCl3-MEICl, WCl6-MEICl, and Br2/reticulated vitreous carbon together with Pt. Also, secondary electrochemical cell candidates were examined which combined the reversible Al/AlCl3-MEICl electrode with reversible zinc and cadmium molten salt electrodes to yield open circuit potentials of about 0.7 and 1.0 V, respectively. Room temperature molten salts' half-cell reduction potentials are given.

  19. Presence of Li Clusters in Molten LiCl-Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.; Motsegood, Perry N.; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-05-01

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. In the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. This observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8 in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.

  20. Presence of Li Clusters in Molten LiCl-Li.

    PubMed

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L; Motsegood, Perry N; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-05-05

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. In the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. This observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8 in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.

  1. Presence of Li clusters in molten LiCl-Li

    SciTech Connect

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.; Motsegood, Perry N.; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-05-05

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. ln the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. Furthermore, this observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8, in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.

  2. Presence of Li clusters in molten LiCl-Li

    DOE PAGES

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; ...

    2016-05-05

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. ln the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. Furthermore, this observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8, in a molten salt matrix.more » It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.« less

  3. Presence of Li Clusters in Molten LiCl-Li

    PubMed Central

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.; Motsegood, Perry N.; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-01-01

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. In the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. This observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8 in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable. PMID:27145895

  4. Fabrication of catalytic electrodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.

    1988-01-01

    A porous layer of catalyst material suitable for use as an electrode in a molten carbonate fuel cell includes elongated pores substantially extending across the layer thickness. The catalyst layer is prepared by depositing particulate catalyst material into polymeric flocking on a substrate surface by a procedure such as tape casting. The loaded substrate is heated in a series of steps with rising temperatures to set the tape, thermally decompose the substrate with flocking and sinter bond the catalyst particles into a porous catalytic layer with elongated pores across its thickness. Employed as an electrode, the elongated pores provide distribution of reactant gas into contact with catalyst particles wetted by molten electrolyte.

  5. Porous electrolyte retainer for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Raj N.; Dusek, Joseph T.

    1983-06-21

    A porous tile for retaining molten electrolyte within a fuel cell is prepared by sintering particles of lithium aluminate into a stable structure. The tile is assembled between two porous metal plates which serve as electrodes with fuels gases such as H.sub.2 and CO opposite to oxidant gases such as O.sub.2 and CO.sub.2. The tile is prepared with a porosity of 55-65% and a pore size distribution selected to permit release of sufficient molten electrolyte to wet but not to flood the adjacent electrodes.

  6. Porous electrolyte retainer for molten carbonate fuel cell. [lithium aluminate

    DOEpatents

    Singh, R.N.; Dusek, J.T.

    1979-12-27

    A porous tile for retaining molten electrolyte within a fuel cell is prepared by sintering particles of lithium aluminate into a stable structure. The tile is assembled between two porous metal plates which serve as electrodes with fuels gases such as H/sub 2/ and CO opposite to oxidant gases such as O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/. The tile is prepared with a porosity of 55 to 65% and a pore size distribution selected to permit release of sufficient molten electrolyte to wet but not to flood the adjacent electrodes.

  7. Renewing Liquid Fueled Molten Salt Reactor Research and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towell, Rusty; NEXT Lab Team

    2016-09-01

    Globally there is a desperate need for affordable, safe, and clean energy on demand. More than anything else, this would raise the living conditions of those in poverty around the world. An advanced reactor that utilizes liquid fuel and molten salts is capable of meeting these needs. Although, this technology was demonstrated in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL in the 60's, little progress has been made since the program was cancelled over 40 years ago. A new research effort has been initiated to advance the technical readiness level of key reactor components. This presentation will explain the motivation and initial steps for this new research initiative.

  8. Metals processing control by counting molten metal droplets

    DOEpatents

    Schlienger, Eric; Robertson, Joanna M.; Melgaard, David; Shelmidine, Gregory J.; Van Den Avyle, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Apparatus and method for controlling metals processing (e.g., ESR) by melting a metal ingot and counting molten metal droplets during melting. An approximate amount of metal in each droplet is determined, and a melt rate is computed therefrom. Impedance of the melting circuit is monitored, such as by calculating by root mean square a voltage and current of the circuit and dividing the calculated current into the calculated voltage. Analysis of the impedance signal is performed to look for a trace characteristic of formation of a molten metal droplet, such as by examining skew rate, curvature, or a higher moment.

  9. Castable Cement Can Prevent Molten-Salt Corrosion in CSP

    SciTech Connect

    2016-09-01

    NREL's study demonstrated that castable cements on metals are a protective barrier that can prevent permeation of molten salts toward metallic surfaces. The silica-based castable cement Aremco 645-N, when sprayed with boron nitride, can protect containment metallic alloys from attack by molten chlorides at high temperatures (650 degrees C) in short-term tests. Improved thermal energy storage technology could increase the performance of CSP and reduce costs, helping to reach the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative to make solar cost-competitive with other non-renewable sources of electricity by 2020.

  10. Cytotoxicity of denture adhesives.

    PubMed

    de Gomes, Pedro Sousa; Figueiral, Maria Helena; Fernandes, Maria Helena R; Scully, Crispian

    2011-12-01

    Ten commercially available denture adhesives, nine soluble formulations (six creams, three powders) and one insoluble product (pad), were analyzed regarding the cytotoxicity profile in direct and indirect assays using L929 fibroblast cells. In the direct assay, fibroblasts were seeded over the surface of a thick adhesive gel (5%, creams; 2.5%, powders and pad). In the indirect assay, cells were cultured in the presence of adhesive extracts prepared in static and dynamic conditions (0.5-2%, creams; 0.25-1%, powders and pad). Cell toxicity was assessed for cell viability/proliferation (MTT assay) and cell morphology (observation of the F-actin cytoskeleton organization by confocal laser scanning microscopy). Direct contact of the L929 fibroblasts with the thick adhesive gels caused no, or only a slight, decrease in cell viability/proliferation. The adhesive extracts (especially those prepared in dynamic conditions) caused significantly higher growth inhibition of fibroblasts and, in addition, caused dose- and time-dependent effects, throughout the 6-72 h exposure time. Also, dose-dependent effects on cell morphology, with evident disruption of the F-actin cytoskeleton organization, were seen in the presence of most adhesives. In conclusion, the adhesives possessed different degrees of cytotoxicity, but similar dose- and time-dependent biological profiles.

  11. Molten metal containment vessel with rare earth oxysulfide protective coating thereon and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Curtis, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    An improved molten metal containment vessel is disclosed in which wetting of the vessel's inner wall surfaces by molten metal is inhibited by coating at least the inner surfaces of the containment vessel with one or more rare earth oxysulfide or rare earth sulfide compounds to inhibit wetting and or adherence by the molten metal to the surfaces of the containment vessel.

  12. Cytotoxicity of halogenated graphenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Wei Zhe; Khim Chng, Elaine Lay; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Graphene and its family of derivatives possess unique and remarkable physicochemical properties which make them valuable materials for applications in many areas like electronics, energy storage and biomedicine. In response to the possibility of its large-scale manufacturing as commercial products in the future, an investigation was conducted to determine the cytotoxicity of one particular family of graphene derivatives, the halogenated graphenes, for the first time. Halogenated graphenes were prepared through thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide in gaseous chlorine, bromine or iodine atmospheres to yield chlorine- (TRGO-Cl), bromine- (TRGO-Br) and iodine-doped graphene (TRGO-I) respectively. 24 h exposure of human lung carcinoma epithelial cells (A549) to the three halogenated graphenes and subsequent cell viability assessments using methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assays revealed that all the halogenated graphenes examined are rather cytotoxic at the concentrations tested (3.125 μg mL-1 to 200 μg mL-1) and the effects are dose-dependent, with TRGO-Cl reducing the cell viability to as low as 25.7% at the maximum concentration of 200 μg mL-1. Their levels of cytotoxicity can be arranged in the order of TRGO-Cl > TRGO-Br > TRGO-I, and it is suggested that the amount of halogen present in the graphene material is the determining factor for the observed trend. Control experiments were carried out to test for possible nanomaterial-induced interference as a consequence of reaction between the halogenated graphenes and the viability markers (MTT/WST-8 reagent) or binding of the formazan products under cell-free conditions. The data obtained eliminate the probability of significant influence by these interferents as the change in the normalized percentage of formazan formed is relatively small and thorough washings were performed prior to the viability assessments to reduce the amount of halogenated

  13. Gold Nanoparticles Cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironava, Tatsiana

    Over the last two decades gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been used for many scientific applications and have attracted attention due to the specific chemical, electronic and optical size dependent properties that make them very promising agents in many fields such as medicine, imagine techniques and electronics. More specifically, biocompatible gold nanoparticles have a huge potential for use as the contrast augmentation agent in X-ray Computed Tomography and Photo Acoustic Tomography for early tumor diagnostic as well these nanoparticles are extensively researched for enhancing the targeted cancer treatment effectiveness such as photo-thermal and radiotherapy. In most biomedical applications biocompatible gold nanoparticles are labeled with specific tumor or other pathology targeting antibodies and used for site specific drug delivery. However, even though gold nanoparticles poses very high level of anti cancer properties, the question of their cytotoxicity ones they are released in normal tissue has to be researched. Moreover, the huge amount of industrially produced gold nanoparticles raises the question of these particles being a health hazard, since the penetration is fairly easy for the "nano" size substances. This study focuses on the effect of AuNPs on a human skin tissue, since it is fall in both categories -- the side effects for biomedical applications and industrial workers and users' exposure during production and handling. Therefore, in the present project, gold nanoparticles stabilized with the biocompatible agent citric acid were generated and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The cytotoxic effect of AuNPs release to healthy skin tissue was modeled on 3 different cell types: human keratinocytes, human dermal fibroblasts, and human adipose derived stromal (ADS) cells. The AuNPs localization inside the cell was found to be cell type dependent. Overall cytotoxicity was found to be dependent

  14. Effects of emulsifying components in the continuous phase of cream on the stability of fat globules and the physical properties of whipped cream.

    PubMed

    Ihara, K; Hirota, M; Akitsu, T; Urakawa, K; Abe, T; Sumi, M; Okawa, T; Fujii, T

    2015-05-01

    The emulsifying components in cream are very important in controlling the physical characteristics of whipped cream. The effects of those components on the stability of fat globules and the physical characteristics of whipped cream were investigated. A low-molecular-weight emulsifier, and protein ingredients such as sodium caseinate and a casein partial hydrolysate (casein peptides), were used as emulsifying components in this investigation. The viscosity of deaerated whipped cream (called the serum viscosity) was measured to evaluate the degree of fat-globule aggregation. Furthermore, the shape-retention ability, which is the degree of reduction in the firmness of whipped cream between immediately after whipping and after 1d of refrigeration, was explored. The addition of the low-molecular-weight emulsifier in the continuous phase of dairy cream, which does not contain added low-molecular-weight emulsifiers, increased the stability of the fat globules and reduced the shape-retention ability of the whipped cream. The addition of protein ingredients (sodium caseinate and casein peptides) to the continuous phase of dairy cream had little effect. However, the addition of casein peptide in the continuous phase of dairy cream together with the low-molecular-weight emulsifier reduced the effect of the low-molecular-weight emulsifier on the stabilization of fat globules and the shape-retention ability of the whipped cream. The addition of casein peptide did not recover the serum viscosity; thus, other mechanisms might underlie this phenomenon.

  15. Bovine milk proteome: Quantitative changes in normal milk exosomes, milk fat globule membranes and whey proteomes resulting from Staphylococcus aureus mastitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of milk protein composition/expression in healthy cows and cows with mastitis will provide information important for the dairy food industry, mammary biology and immune function in the mammary gland. To facilitate maximum protein discovery, milk was fractioned into whey, milk fat globule ...

  16. Microstructural changes of globules in calcium-silicate-hydrate gels with and without additives determined by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wei-Shan; Fratini, Emiliano; Ridi, Francesca; Lim, Sung-Hwan; Yeh, Yi-Qi; Baglioni, Piero; Choi, Sung-Min; Jeng, U-Ser; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2013-05-15

    The microstructure of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gel, a major hydrated phase of Ordinary Portland Cement, with and without polycarboxylic ether (PCE) additives is investigated by combined analyses of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data. The results show that these comb-shaped polymers tend to increase the size of the disk-like globules but have little influence on the thickness of the water and calcium silicate layers within the globules. As a result, the fractal packing of the globules becomes more open in the range of a few hundred nanometers, in the sense that the mass fractal dimension diminishes, since the PCE adsorption on the globules increases the repulsive force between and polydispersity of the C-S-H units. Moreover, scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of the synthesized C-S-H gels in the micrometer range shows that the PCEs depress the formation of fibrils while enhancing the foil-like morphology.

  17. Molten-Salt-Based Growth of Group III Nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Waldrip, Karen E.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Kerley, Thomas M.

    2008-10-14

    A method for growing Group III nitride materials using a molten halide salt as a solvent to solubilize the Group-III ions and nitride ions that react to form the Group III nitride material. The concentration of at least one of the nitride ion or Group III cation is determined by electrochemical generation of the ions.

  18. Oxygen electrode reaction in molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Appleby, A.J.; White, R.E.

    1992-07-07

    Molten carbonate fuel cell system is a leading candidate for the utility power generation because of its high efficiency for fuel to AC power conversion, capability for an internal reforming, and a very low environmental impact. However, the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction and the cell life time is limited by the stability of the cathode material. An elucidation of oxygen reduction reaction in molten alkali carbonate is essential because overpotential losses in the molten carbonate fuel cell are considerably greater at the oxygen cathode than at the fuel anode. Oxygen reduction on a fully-immersed gold electrode in a lithium carbonate melt was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to determine electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters. The dependences of electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters on gas composition and temperature were examined to determine the reaction orders and the activation energies. The results showed that oxygen reduction in a pure lithium carbonate melt occurs via the peroxide mechanism. A mass transfer parameter, D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O}, estimated by the cyclic voltammetry concurred with that calculated by the EIS technique. The temperature dependence of the exchange current density and the product D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O} were examined and the apparent activation energies were determined to be about 122 and 175 kJ/ mol, respectively.

  19. Chemical Safety: Molten Salt Baths Cited as Lab Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Rudy

    1982-01-01

    Discusses danger of explosions with molten salts baths, commonly used as heat-transfer media. One such explosion involved use of a bath containing 3-lb sodium nitrite and 1-lb potassium thiocyanate. Although most commercially available mixtures for heat transfer contain oxidizers, a reducer (thiocyanate) was included which possibly triggered the…

  20. [Bio-oil production from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt].

    PubMed

    Ji, Dengxiang; Cai, Tengyue; Ai, Ning; Yu, Fengwen; Jiang, Hongtao; Ji, Jianbing

    2011-03-01

    In order to investigate the effects of pyrolysis conditions on bio-oil production from biomass in molten salt, experiments of biomass pyrolysis were carried out in a self-designed reactor in which the molten salt ZnCl2-KCl (with mole ratio 7/6) was selected as heat carrier, catalyst and dispersion agent. The effects of metal salt added into ZnCl2-KCl and biomass material on biomass pyrolysis were discussed, and the main compositions of bio-oil were determined by GC-MS. Metal salt added into molten salt could affect pyrolysis production yields remarkably. Lanthanon salt could enhance bio-oil yield and decrease water content in bio-oil, when mole fraction of 5.0% LaCl3 was added, bio-oil yield could reach up to 32.0%, and water content of bio-oil could reduce to 61.5%. The bio-oil and char yields were higher when rice straw was pyrolysed, while gas yield was higher when rice husk was used. Metal salts showed great selectivity on compositions of bio-oil. LiCl and FeCl2 promoted biomass to pyrolyse into smaller molecular weight compounds. CrCl3, CaCl2 and LaCl3 could restrain second pyrolysis of bio-oil. The research provided a scientific reference for production of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt.

  1. Research and development issues for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes issues pertaining to the development of molten carbonate fuel cells. In particular, the corrosion resistance and service life of nickel oxide cathodes is described. The resistivity of lithium oxide/iron oxides and improvement with doping is addressed.

  2. Radiative and gas cooling of falling molten drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, M. B.

    1978-01-01

    The supercooling rate and solidification time for molten drops of niobium, copper, and lead are calculated. Calculations for both radiation and helium gas cooling are presented in order to estimate the influence that the presence of helium gas would have upon the cooling rate of falling drops in the Marshall Space Flight Center space processing drop tube.

  3. Two techniques enable sampling of filtered and unfiltered molten metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burris, L., Jr.; Pierce, R. D.; Tobias, K. R.; Winsch, I. O.

    1967-01-01

    Filtered samples of molten metals are obtained by filtering through a plug of porous material fitted in the end of a sample tube, and unfiltered samples are obtained by using a capillary-tube extension rod with a perforated bucket. With these methods there are no sampling errors or loss of liquid.

  4. Structural change in molten basalt at deep mantle conditions.

    PubMed

    Sanloup, Chrystèle; Drewitt, James W E; Konôpková, Zuzana; Dalladay-Simpson, Philip; Morton, Donna M; Rai, Nachiketa; van Westrenen, Wim; Morgenroth, Wolfgang

    2013-11-07

    Silicate liquids play a key part at all stages of deep Earth evolution, ranging from core and crust formation billions of years ago to present-day volcanic activity. Quantitative models of these processes require knowledge of the structural changes and compression mechanisms that take place in liquid silicates at the high pressures and temperatures in the Earth's interior. However, obtaining such knowledge has long been impeded by the challenging nature of the experiments. In recent years, structural and density information for silica glass was obtained at record pressures of up to 100 GPa (ref. 1), a major step towards obtaining data on the molten state. Here we report the structure of molten basalt up to 60 GPa by means of in situ X-ray diffraction. The coordination of silicon increases from four under ambient conditions to six at 35 GPa, similar to what has been reported in silica glass. The compressibility of the melt after the completion of the coordination change is lower than at lower pressure, implying that only a high-order equation of state can accurately describe the density evolution of silicate melts over the pressure range of the whole mantle. The transition pressure coincides with a marked change in the pressure-evolution of nickel partitioning between molten iron and molten silicates, indicating that melt compressibility controls siderophile-element partitioning.

  5. Oxygen from the lunar soil by molten silicate electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, Russell O.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    Accepting that oxygen, rather than gigantic gems or gold, is likely to make the Moon's Klondike, the extraction of oxygen from the lunar soil by molten silicate electrolysis has chosen to be investigated. Process theory and proposed lunar factory are addressed.

  6. Liquid surface skimmer apparatus for molten lithium and method

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Samuel C.; Pollard, Roy E.; Thompson, William F.; Stark, Marshall W.; Currin, Jr., Robert T.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus for separating two fluids having different specific gravities. The invention also relates to a method for using the separating apparatus of the present invention. This invention particularly relates to the skimming of molten lithium metal from the surface of a fused salt electrolyte in the electrolytic production of lithium metal from a mixed fused salt.

  7. Method for preventing sulfur emissions from vessels containing molten sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Hass, R. H.

    1984-10-23

    Emissions from sulfur pits or other vessels containing molten sulfur are prevented or minimized by use of an air purge drawn into the vessel from the atmosphere and subsequently utilized as a portion of the oxidant required in a process for oxidizing hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur.

  8. INTERIOR VIEW OF IRON TREATMENT (DESULPHURIZATION) AREA. MOLTEN IRON PROCEEDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF IRON TREATMENT (DESULPHURIZATION) AREA. MOLTEN IRON PROCEEDS FROM CUPOLA TO IRON TREATMENT AREAS BEFORE BEING TRANSFERRED TO PIPE CASTING MACHINES. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Melting & Treatment Areas, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  9. Impact of corrosion test container material in molten fluorides

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Luke C.; Fuentes, Roderick E.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; Ambrosek, James W.; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark H.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Gray, Joshua; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-10-15

    The effects of crucible material choice on alloy corrosion rates in immersion tests in molten LiF–NaF–KF (46.5–11.5-42 mol. %) salt held at 850 °C for 500 hrs are described. Four crucible materials were studied. Molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in graphite, Ni, Incoloy-800H, and pyrolytic boron nitride (PyBN) crucibles all led to weight-loss in the Incoloy-800H coupons. Alloy weight loss was ~30 times higher in the graphite and Ni crucibles in comparison to the Incoloy-800H and PyBN crucibles. It is hypothesized galvanic coupling between the alloy coupons and crucible materials contributed to the higher corrosion rates. Alloy salt immersion in graphite and Ni crucibles had similar weight-loss hypothesized to occur due to the rate limiting out diffusion of Cr in the alloys to the surface where it reacts with and dissolves into the molten salt, followed by the reduction of Cr from solution at the molten salt and graphite/Ni interfaces. As a result, both the graphite and the Ni crucibles provided sinks for the Cr, in the formation of a Ni–Cr alloy in the case of the Ni crucible, and Cr carbide in the case of the graphite crucible.

  10. X-Ray Investigations on Molten Cu-Sb Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halm, Th.; Neumann, H.; Hoyer, W.

    1994-05-01

    Using X-ray diffraction, structure factors and pair correlation functions of several molten Cu-Sb alloys and pure antimony were determined and compared with published structural, thermodynamic and electronic properties. The eutectic concentration Cu37Sb63 was investigated in dependence on temperature, and a model structure factor was calculated applying a segregation model.

  11. Molten metal feed system controlled with a traveling magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1991-01-01

    A continuous metal casting system in which the feed of molten metal is controlled by means of a linear induction motor capable of producing a magnetic traveling wave in a duct that connects a reservoir of molten metal to a caster. The linear induction motor produces a traveling magnetic wave in the duct in opposition to the pressure exerted by the head of molten metal in the reservoir so that p.sub.c =p.sub.g -p.sub.m where p.sub.c is the desired pressure in the caster, p.sub.g is the gravitational pressure in the duct exerted by the force of the head of molten metal in the reservoir, and p.sub.m is the electromagnetic pressure exerted by the force of the magnetic field traveling wave produced by the linear induction motor. The invention also includes feedback loops to the linear induction motor to control the casting pressure in response to measured characteristics of the metal being cast.

  12. Impact of corrosion test container material in molten fluorides

    DOE PAGES

    Olson, Luke C.; Fuentes, Roderick E.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; ...

    2015-10-15

    The effects of crucible material choice on alloy corrosion rates in immersion tests in molten LiF–NaF–KF (46.5–11.5-42 mol. %) salt held at 850 °C for 500 hrs are described. Four crucible materials were studied. Molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in graphite, Ni, Incoloy-800H, and pyrolytic boron nitride (PyBN) crucibles all led to weight-loss in the Incoloy-800H coupons. Alloy weight loss was ~30 times higher in the graphite and Ni crucibles in comparison to the Incoloy-800H and PyBN crucibles. It is hypothesized galvanic coupling between the alloy coupons and crucible materials contributed to the higher corrosion rates. Alloy salt immersion inmore » graphite and Ni crucibles had similar weight-loss hypothesized to occur due to the rate limiting out diffusion of Cr in the alloys to the surface where it reacts with and dissolves into the molten salt, followed by the reduction of Cr from solution at the molten salt and graphite/Ni interfaces. As a result, both the graphite and the Ni crucibles provided sinks for the Cr, in the formation of a Ni–Cr alloy in the case of the Ni crucible, and Cr carbide in the case of the graphite crucible.« less

  13. 13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY AND QUICKLY HEAT METALS PRIOR TO WORKING (ROLLING). (9/16/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES BEING INSTALLED ON THE WEST SIDE (SIDE B) OF BUILDING 883. SIDE B OF BUILDING 883 WAS USED TO PROCESS ENRICHED URANIUM FROM 1957-66. (1/23/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiegl, George (Inventor); Torbet, Walter (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material consists of a composite structure incorporating a quartz transfer tube as the innermost member, with an outer thermally insulating layer designed to serve the dual purposes of minimizing heat losses from the quartz tube and maintaining mechanical strength and rigidity of the conduit at the elevated temperatures encountered. The composite structure ensures that the molten semiconductor material only comes in contact with a material (quartz) with which it is compatible, while the outer layer structure reinforces the quartz tube, which becomes somewhat soft at molten semiconductor temperatures. To further aid in preventing cooling of the molten semiconductor, a distributed, electric resistance heater is in contact with the surface of the quartz tube over most of its length. The quartz tube has short end portions which extend through the surface of the semiconductor melt and which are lef bare of the thermal insulation. The heater is designed to provide an increased heat input per unit area in the region adjacent these end portions.

  16. 30 CFR 56.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 56.16013 Section 56.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials...

  17. 30 CFR 57.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 57.16013 Section 57.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  18. 30 CFR 56.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 56.16013 Section 56.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials...

  19. 30 CFR 57.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 57.16013 Section 57.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  20. 30 CFR 56.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 56.16013 Section 56.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials...

  1. 30 CFR 56.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 56.16013 Section 56.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials...

  2. 30 CFR 57.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 57.16013 Section 57.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  3. 30 CFR 56.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 56.16013 Section 56.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials...

  4. 30 CFR 57.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 57.16013 Section 57.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  5. 30 CFR 57.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 57.16013 Section 57.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  6. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOEpatents

    Remick, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  7. Corrosion Behavior of Alloys in Molten Fluoride Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guiqiu

    The molten fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature nuclear reactor (FHR) has been proposed as a candidate Generation IV nuclear reactor. This reactor combines the latest nuclear technology with the use of molten fluoride salt as coolant to significantly enhance safety and efficiency. However, an important challenge in FHR development is the corrosion of structural materials in high-temperature molten fluoride salt. The structural alloys' degradation, particularly in terms of chromium depletion, and the molten salt chemistry are key factors that impact the lifetime of nuclear reactors and the development of future FHR designs. In support of materials development for the FHR, the nickel base alloy of Hastelloy N and iron-chromium base alloy 316 stainless steel are being actively considered as critical structural alloys. Enriched 27LiF-BeF2 (named as FLiBe) is a promising coolant for the FHR because of its neutronic properties and heat transfer characteristics while operating at atmospheric pressure. In this study, the corrosion behavior of Ni-5Cr and Ni-20Cr binary model alloys, and Hastelloy N and 316 stainless steel in molten FLiBe with and without graphite were investigated through various microstructural analyses. Based on the understanding of the corrosion behavior and data of above four alloys in molten FLiBe, a long-term corrosion prediction model has been developed that is applicable specifically for these four materials in FLiBe at 700ºC. The model uses Cr concentration profile C(x, t) as a function of corrosion distance in the materials and duration fundamentally derived from the Fick's diffusion laws. This model was validated with reasonable accuracy for the four alloys by fitting the calculated profiles with experimental data and can be applied to evaluate corrosion attack depth over the long-term. The critical constant of the overall diffusion coefficient (Deff) in this model can be quickly calculated from the experimental measurement of alloys' weight

  8. Star formation, structure, and formation mechanism of cometary globules: near-infrared observations of CG 1 and CG 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, M. M.; Haikala, L. K.

    2013-02-01

    Context. Cometary globule (CG) 1 and CG 2 are "classic" cometary globules in the Gum Nebula. They have compact heads and long dusty tails that point away from the centre of the Gum Nebula. Aims: We study the structure of CG 1 and CG 2 and the star formation in them to find clues to the CG formation mechanism. The two possible CG formation mechanisms, radiation-driven implosion (RDI) and a supernova blast wave, produce a characteristic mass distribution where the major part of the mass is situated in either the head (RDI) or the tail (supernova blast). Methods: CG 1 and CG 2 were imaged in the near infrared (NIR) JsHKs bands. NIR photometry was used to locate NIR excess objects and to create visual extinction maps of the CGs. The AV maps allow us to analyse the large-scale structure of CG 1 and CG 2. Archival images from the WISE and Spitzer satellites and HIRES-processed IRAS images were used to study the globule's small-scale structure. Fits were made to the spectral energy distribution plots of the NIR-excess stars to estimate their age and mass. Results: In addition to the previously known CG 1 IRS 1 we discovered three new NIR-excess objects in IR imaging, two in CG 1 and one in CG 2. CG 2 IRS 1 is the first detection of star formation in CG 2. The objects are young low-mass stars. CG 1 IRS 1 is probably a class I protostar in the head of CG 1. CG 1 IRS 1 drives a bipolar outflow, which is very weak in CO, but the cavity walls are seen in reflected light in our NIR and in the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 μm images. Strong emission from excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon particles and very small grains were detected in the CG 1 tail. The total mass of CG 1 in the observed area is 41.9 M⊙ of which 16.8 M⊙ lies in the head. For CG 2 these values are 31.0 M⊙ total and 19.1 M⊙ in the head. The observed mass distribution does not offer a firm conclusion for the formation mechanism of the two CGs: CG 1 is in too evolved a state, and in CG 2 part of the globule

  9. Fundamental study of molten pool depth measurement method using an ultrasonic phased array system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizota, Hirohisa; Nagashima, Yoshiaki; Obana, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    The molten pool depth measurement method using an ultrasonic phased array system has been developed. The molten pool depth distribution is evaluated by comparing the times taken by the ultrasonic wave to propagate through a molten pool and a solid-phase and through only the solid-phase near the molten pool. Maximum molten pool depths on a flat type-304 stainless-steel plate, formed with a gas tungsten arc welding machine for different welding currents from 70 to 150 A, were derived within an error of ±0.5 mm.

  10. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human and murine milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Erick R; Ciferri, Claudio; Phung, Wilson; Sandoval, Wendy; Matsumoto, Marissa L

    2016-08-01

    Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8), as its name suggests, is a major glycoprotein component of milk fat globules secreted by the mammary epithelium. Although its role in milk fat production is unclear, MFG-E8 has been shown to act as a bridge linking apoptotic cells to phagocytes for removal of these dying cells. MFG-E8 is capable of bridging these two very different cell types via interactions through both its epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain(s) and its lectin-type C domains. The EGF-like domain interacts with αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins on the surface of phagocytes, whereas the C domains bind phosphatidylserine found on the surface of apoptotic cells. In an attempt to purify full-length, recombinant MFG-E8 expressed in either insect cells or CHO cells, we find that it is highly aggregated. Systematic truncation of the domain architecture of MFG-E8 indicates that the C domains are mainly responsible for the aggregation propensity. Addition of Triton X-100 to the conditioned cell culture media allowed partial recovery of non-aggregated, full-length MFG-E8. A more comprehensive detergent screen identified CHAPS as a stabilizer of MFG-E8 and allowed purification of a significant portion of non-aggregated, full-length protein. The CHAPS-stabilized recombinant MFG-E8 retained its natural ability to bind both αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins and phosphatidylserine suggesting that it is properly folded and active. Herein we describe an efficient purification method for production of non-aggregated, full-length MFG-E8.

  11. Casting Apparatus Including A Gas Driven Molten Metal Injector And Method

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Thomas N.

    2004-06-01

    The casting apparatus (50) includes a holding vessel (10) for containing a supply of molten metal (12) and a casting mold (52) located above the holding vessel (10) and having a casting cavity (54). A molten metal injector (14) extends into the holding vessel (10) and is at least partially immersed in the molten metal (12) in the holding vessel (10). The molten metal injector (14) is in fluid communication with the casting cavity (54). The molten metal injector (14) has an injector body (16) defining an inlet opening (24) for receiving molten metal into the injector body (16). A gas pressurization source (38) is in fluid communication with the injector body (16) for cyclically pressurizing the injector body (16) and inducing molten metal to flow from the injector body (16) to the casting cavity (54). An inlet valve (42) is located in the inlet opening (24) in the injector body (16) for filling molten metal into the injector body (16). The inlet valve (42) is configured to prevent outflow of molten metal from the injector body (16) during pressurization and permit inflow of molten metal into the injector body (16) after pressurization. The inlet valve (42) has an inlet valve actuator (44) located above the surface of the supply of molten metal (12) and is operatively connected to the inlet valve (42) for operating the inlet valve (42) between open and closed positions.

  12. CYTOTOXIC PHOSPHOLIPID OXIDATION PRODUCTS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Yang, Lili; McIntyre, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    Phospholipid oxidation products accumulate in the necrotic core of atherosclerotic lesions, in apoptotic cells, and circulate in oxidized LDL. Phospholipid oxidation generates toxic products, but little is known about which specific products are cytotoxic, their receptors, or the mechanism(s) that induces cell death. We find the most common phospholipid oxidation product of oxidized LDL, phosphatidylcholine with esterified sn-2 azelaic acid, induced apoptosis at low micromolar concentrations. The synthetic ether phospholipid hexadecyl azelaoyl phosphatidylcholine (HAzPC) was rapidly internalized, and over-expression of PLA2g7 (PAF acetylhydrolase) that specifically hydrolyzes such oxidized phospholipids suppressed apoptosis. Internalized HAzPC associated with mitochondria, and cytochrome C and apoptosis-inducing factor escaped from mitochondria to the cytoplasm and nucleus, respectively, in cells exposed to HAzPC. Isolated mitochondria exposed to HAzPC rapidly swelled, and released cytochrome C and apoptosis-inducing factor. Other phospholipid oxidation products induced swelling, but HAzPC was the most effective and was twice as effective as its diacyl homolog. Cytoplasmic cytochrome C completes the apoptosome, and activated caspase 9 and 3 were present in cells exposed to HAzPC. Irreversible inhibition of caspase 9 blocked downstream caspase 3 activation, and prevented apoptosis. Mitochondrial damage initiated this apoptotic cascade because over-expression of Bcl-XL, an anti-apoptotic protein localized to mitochondria, blocked cytochrome C escape, and apoptosis. Thus, exogenous phospholipid oxidation products target intracellular mitochondria to activate the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. PMID:17597068

  13. Cytotoxicity of Hymenocallis expansa alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Antoun, M D; Mendoza, N T; Ríos, Y R; Proctor, G R; Wickramaratne, D B; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D

    1993-08-01

    From the bulbs and leaves of Hymenocallis expansa (Amaryllidaceae), three alkaloid constituents were identified: (+)-tazettine, (+)-hippeastrine, and (-)-haemanthidine. These alkaloids demonstrated significant cytotoxicity when tested against a panel of human and murine tumor cell lines.

  14. Molten Salts for High Temperature Reactors: University of Wisconsin Molten Salt Corrosion and Flow Loop Experiments -- Issues Identified and Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Matt Ebner; Manohar Sohal; Phil Sharpe; Thermal Hydraulics Group

    2010-03-01

    Considerable amount of work is going on regarding the development of high temperature liquid salts technology to meet future process needs of Next Generation Nuclear Plant. This report identifies the important characteristics and concerns of high temperature molten salts (with lesson learned at University of Wisconsin-Madison, Molten Salt Program) and provides some possible recommendation for future work

  15. Steam methane reforming in molten carbonate salt. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the work accomplished on the project {open_quotes}Steam Methane Reforming in Molten Carbonate Salt.{close_quotes}. This effort has established the conceptual basis for molten carbonate-based steam reforming of methane. It has not proceeded to prototype verification, because corrosion concerns have led to reluctance on the part of large hydrogen producers to adopt the technology. Therefore the focus was shifted to a less corrosive embodiment of the same technology. After considerable development effort it was discovered that a European company (Catalysts and Chemicals Europe) was developing a similar process ({open_quotes}Regate{close_quotes}). Accordingly the focus was shifted a second time, to develop an improvement which is generic to both types of reforming. That work is still in progress, and shows substantial promise.

  16. Electrochemical Synthesis of Magnesium Hexaboride by Molten Salt Technique

    PubMed Central

    Angappan, S.; Kalaiselvi, N.; Sudha, R.; Visuvasam, A.

    2014-01-01

    The present work reports electrochemical synthesis of MgB6 from molten salts using the precursor consists of LiF–B2O3–MgCl2. An attempt has been made to synthesize metastable phase MgB6 crystal by electrolysis method. DTA/TGA studies were made to determine the eutectic point of the melt and it was found to be around 900°C. The electrolysis was performed at 900°C under argon atmosphere, at current density of 1.5 A/cm2. The electrodeposited crystals were examined using XRD, SEM, and XPS. From the above studies, the electrochemical synthesis method for hypothetical MgB6 from chloro-oxy-fluoride molten salt system is provided. Mechanism for the formation of magnesium hexaboride is discussed. PMID:27350961

  17. Structure Formation Mechanisms during Solid Ti with Molten Al Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, L.; Pronichev, D.; Trunov, M.

    2016-02-01

    The study discuses advantages and disadvantages of previously proposed mechanisms of the formation of structure between solid Ti and molten Al and presents a new mechanism based on the reviewed and experimental data. The previously proposed mechanisms were classified into three groups: mechanisms of precipitation, mechanisms of destruction and mechanisms of chemical interaction between intermetallics and melt. The reviewed mechanisms did not explain the formation of heterogeneous interlayer with globular aluminide particles and thin layers of pure Al, while the present study reveals variation in the solid Ti/molten Al reaction kinetics during various phases of laminated metal-intermetallic composite formation. The proposed mechanism considers formed during composite fabrication thin oxide interlayers between Ti and Al evolution and its impact on the intermetallic compound formation and explains the initial slow rate of intermetallic interlayer formation and its subsequent acceleration when the oxide foils are ruptured.

  18. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  19. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Laplace, Annabelle; Renard, Catherine; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Abraham, Francis

    2016-06-01

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl2 (30-70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10-4.0, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl3 precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO2 powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation.

  20. Electromagnetic valve for controlling the flow of molten, magnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Richter, T.

    1998-06-16

    An electromagnetic valve for controlling the flow of molten, magnetic material is provided, which comprises an induction coil for generating a magnetic field in response to an applied alternating electrical current, a housing, and a refractory composite nozzle. The nozzle is comprised of an inner sleeve composed of an erosion resistant refractory material (e.g., a zirconia ceramic) through which molten, magnetic metal flows, a refractory outer shell, and an intermediate compressible refractory material, e.g., unset, high alumina, thermosetting mortar. The compressible refractory material is sandwiched between the inner sleeve and outer shell, and absorbs differential expansion stresses that develop within the nozzle due to extreme thermal gradients. The sandwiched layer of compressible refractory material prevents destructive cracks from developing in the refractory outer shell. 5 figs.

  1. Electromagnetic valve for controlling the flow of molten, magnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Richter, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    An electromagnetic valve for controlling the flow of molten, magnetic material is provided, which comprises an induction coil for generating a magnetic field in response to an applied alternating electrical current, a housing, and a refractory composite nozzle. The nozzle is comprised of an inner sleeve composed of an erosion resistant refractory material (e.g., a zirconia ceramic) through which molten, magnetic metal flows, a refractory outer shell, and an intermediate compressible refractory material, e.g., unset, high alumina, thermosetting mortar. The compressible refractory material is sandwiched between the inner sleeve and outer shell, and absorbs differential expansion stresses that develop within the nozzle due to extreme thermal gradients. The sandwiched layer of compressible refractory material prevents destructive cracks from developing in the refractory outer shell.

  2. MAG-GATE System for Molten metal Flow Control

    SciTech Connect

    Richard D. Nathenson, P.E.

    2004-05-15

    The need for improved active flow control has been recognized as part of the Steel Industry Technology Roadmap. Under TRP 9808 for the American Iron and Steel Institute and the Department of Energy, Concept Engineering Group Inc. has developed MAG-GATE{trademark}, an electromagnetic system for active molten metal flow control. Two hot steel tests were successfully conducted in 2003 at the Whemco Foundry Division, Midland, PA. Approximately 110,000 pounds of 0.2% carbon steel were poured through the device subject to electromagnetic flow control. Excellent agreement between predicted and actual flow control was found. A survey of the molten metal flow control practices at 100 continuous casters in North America was also conducted in 2003. This report summarizes the results of the development program to date. Preliminary designs are described for the next step of a beta test at an operating billet/bloom or slab caster.

  3. Review of literature surface tension data for molten silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, S.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the surface tension of molten silicon are reported. For marangoni flow, the important parameter is the variation of surface tension with temperature, not the absolute value of the surface tension. It is not possible to calculate temperature coefficients using surface tension measurements from different experiments because the systematic errors are usually larger than the changes in surface tension because of temperature variations. The lack of good surface tension data for liquid silicon is probably due to its extreme chemical reactivity. A material which resists attack by molten silicon is not found. It is suggested that all of the sessile drip surface tension measurements are probably for silicon which is contaminated by the substrate materials.

  4. Secretory Defect and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Songhua; Yang, Zhihui; Hu, Jane; Gordon, William C.; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Haas, Arthur L.; Bok, Dean; Jin, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) secreted by photoreceptors plays a pivotal role in photoreceptor survival and function. Recently, a D1080N mutation in IRBP was found in patients with retinitis pigmentosa, a frequent cause of retinal degeneration. The molecular and cellular bases for pathogenicity of the mutation are unknown. Here, we show that the mutation abolishes secretion of IRBP and results in formation of insoluble high molecular weight complexes via disulfide bonds. Co-expression of protein disulfide isomerase A2 that regulates disulfide bond formation or introduction of double Cys-to-Ala substitutions at positions 304 and 1175 in D1080N IRBP promoted secretion of the mutated IRBP. D1080N IRBP was not transported to the Golgi apparatus, but accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), bound with the ER-resident chaperone proteins such as BiP, protein disulfide isomerase, and heat shock proteins. Splicing of X-box-binding protein-1 mRNA, expression of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and cleavage of ATF6 were significantly increased in cells expressing D1080N IRBP. Moreover, D1080N IRBP induced up-regulation and nuclear translocation of the C/EBP homologous protein, a proapoptotic transcription factor associated with the unfolded protein response. These results indicate that loss of normal function (nonsecretion) and gain of cytotoxic function (ER stress) are involved in the disease mechanisms of D1080N IRBP. Chemical chaperones and low temperature, which help proper folding of many mutated proteins, significantly rescued secretion of D1080N IRBP, suggesting that misfolding is the molecular basis for pathogenicity of D1080N substitution and that chemical chaperones are therapeutic candidates for the mutation-caused blinding disease. PMID:23486466

  5. Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Investigation of Molten Chloroaluminates and Related Solvents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-07

    melts. A test cell using molten FeC13 -NaCl in contact with a P"-alumina separator performed very poorly; the internal resistance rose rapidly and...such operations. Results of these preliminary investigations indicate that reduction of the NiF2 to metallic Ni is a reversible, diffusion- controlled...respectively, are probably indicative of an ohmic potential drop across the OTE due to the high resistance of the thin solution layer (5). Peak current ratios

  6. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Operation With Dual Fuel Flexibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    160, pp 827-834. FuelCell Energy, Inc. March 2005. Final Technical Progress Report , “Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Product Design Improvement...Corporation 100 CTC Drive Johnstown, PA 15904-1935 Final Report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Prepared for U.S. Army... FuelCell Energy (FCE) to test an internally reforming 250 kW carbonate direct fuel cell using HD-5 propane. This fuel cell power plant, originally

  7. Non-segregating electrolytes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.; Kaun, T.; Lanagan, M.

    1996-08-01

    Current MCFCs use a Li/K carbonate mixture; the segregation increases the K concentration near the cathode, leading to increase cathode solubility and performance decline. ANL is developing molten carbonates that have minimal segregation; the approach is using Li-Na carbonates. In screening tests, fully developed potential distributions were obtained for 4 Li/Na compositions, and performance data were used to compare these.

  8. Polaron theory of electrons solvated in molten salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malescio, G.; Parrinello, M.

    1987-01-01

    A suitably modified version of the polaron theory of Chandler et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 81, 1975 (1984)] is applied to the study of the solvation of electrons in molten salts. The results obtained compare favorably with recent numerical simulations and confirm the picture of the formation in the melt of an F-center analog. A novel expression for the explicit evaluation of the electron kinetic energy is given.

  9. Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M.

    1996-12-31

    Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

  10. Molten-Caustic-Leaching (Gravimelt) System Integration Project, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This is a report of the maintenance, refurbishment, modifications, and off-line circuit component testing of the integrated test circuit of the Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) process for the desulfurization and demineralization of coal. The project is sponsored by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC22-86-PC91257.

  11. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    DOEpatents

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  12. High current density cathode for electrorefining in molten electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Li, Shelly X.

    2010-06-29

    A high current density cathode for electrorefining in a molten electrolyte for the continuous production and collection of loose dendritic or powdery deposits. The high current density cathode eliminates the requirement for mechanical scraping and electrochemical stripping of the deposits from the cathode in an anode/cathode module. The high current density cathode comprises a perforated electrical insulated material coating such that the current density is up to 3 A/cm.sup.2.

  13. Molten carbonate fuel cell reduction of nickel deposits

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.; Zwick, Stanley A.

    1987-01-01

    A molten carbonate fuel cell with anode and cathode electrodes and an eleolyte formed with two tile sections, one of the tile sections being adjacent the anode and limiting leakage of fuel gas into the electrolyte with the second tile section being adjacent the cathode and having pores sized to permit the presence of oxygen gas in the electrolyte thereby limiting the formation of metal deposits caused by the reduction of metal compositions migrating into the electrolyte from the cathode.

  14. METHOD OF PROTECTING TANTALUM CRUCIBLES AGAINST REACTION WITH MOLTEN URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Chellew, N.R.

    1960-08-16

    Tantalum crucibles against reaction with molten uranium by contacting the surfaces to be protected with metallic boron (as powder, vapor, or suspension in a liquid-volatilenonreacting medium, such as acetone and petroleum oil) at about 1800 deg C in vacuum, discontinuing contact with the boron, and heating the crucibles to a temperature of between 1800 aad 2000 deg C, whereby the tantalum boride formed in the first heating step is converted to tantalum monoboride.

  15. Prebiotic formation of polyamino acids in molten urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mita, H.; Nomoto, S.; Terasaki, M.; Shimoyama, A.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2005-04-01

    It is important for research into the origins of life to elucidate polyamino acid formation under prebiotic conditions. Only a limited set of amino acids has been reported to polymerize thermally. In this paper we demonstrate a novel thermal polymerization mechanism in a molten urea of alkylamino acids (i.e. glycine, alanine, β-alanine, α-aminobutyric acid, valine, norvaline, leucine and norleucine), which had been thought to be incapable of undergoing thermal polymerization. Also, aspartic acid was found to polymerize in molten urea at a lower temperature than that at which aspartic acid alone had previously been thermally polymerized. Individual oligomers produced in heating experiments on urea-amino acid mixtures were analysed using a liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer. Major products in the reaction mixture were three different types of polyamino acid derivatives: N-carbamoylpolyamino acids, polyamino acids containing a hydantoin ring at the N-terminal position and unidentified derivatives with molecular weights that were greater by 78 than those of the corresponding peptide forms. The polymerization reaction occurred by taking advantage of the high polarity of molten urea as well as its dehydrating ability. Under the presumed prebiotic conditions employed here, many types of amino acids were thus revealed to undergo thermal polymerization.

  16. Electromagnetic confinement for vertical casting or containing molten metal

    DOEpatents

    Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and method adapted to confine a molten metal to a region by means of an alternating electromagnetic field. As adapted for use in the present invention, the alternating electromagnetic field given by B.sub.y =(2.mu..sub.o .rho.gy).sup.1/2 (where B.sub.y is the vertical component of the magnetic field generated by the magnet at the boundary of the region; y is the distance measured downward form the top of the region, .rho. is the metal density, g is the acceleration of gravity and .mu..sub.o is the permeability of free space) induces eddy currents in the molten metal which interact with the magnetic field to retain the molten metal with a vertical boudnary. As applied to an apparatus for the continuous casting of metal sheets or rods, metal in liquid form can be continuously introduced into the region defined by the magnetic field, solidified and conveyed away from the magnetic field in solid form in a continuous process.

  17. Removal of Inclusions from Molten Aluminum by Supergravity Filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Gaoyang; Song, Bo; Yang, Zhanbing; Yang, Yuhou; Zhang, Jing

    2016-12-01

    A new approach to removing inclusions from aluminum melt by supergravity filtration was investigated. The molten aluminum containing MgAl2O4 spinel and coarse Al3Ti particles was isothermally filtered with different gravity coefficients, different filtering times, and various filtering temperatures under supergravity field. When the gravity coefficient G ≥ 50, the alloy samples were divided automatically into two parts: the upper residue and the lower filtered aluminum. All inclusions (MgAl2O4 and Al3Ti particles) were nearly intercepted in the upper residue by filter felt with average pore size of 44.78 μm. The removal efficiencies of oxide inclusions and Al3Ti particles exceeded 98 and 90 pct, respectively, at G ≥ 50, t = 2 minutes, T = 973 K (700 °C). Besides, the yield of purified aluminum was up to 92.1 pct at G = 600, t = 2 minutes, and T = 973 K (700 °C). The calculations of centrifugal pressure indicated that supergravity filtration could effectively overcome the pressure drop without meeting the rigorous requirement of height of molten metal, especially for using the fine-pore filter medium. Moreover, cake-mode filtration was the major mechanism of supergravity filtration of molten metal in this work.

  18. CO2 decomposition using electrochemical process in molten salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Koya; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2012-08-01

    The electrochemical decomposition of CO2 gas to carbon and oxygen gas in LiCl-Li2O and CaCl2-CaO molten salts was studied. This process consists of electrochemical reduction of Li2O and CaO, as well as the thermal reduction of CO2 gas by the respective metallic Li and Ca. Two kinds of ZrO2 solid electrolytes were tested as an oxygen ion conductor, and the electrolytes removed oxygen ions from the molten salts to the outside of the reactor. After electrolysis in both salts, the aggregations of nanometer-scale amorphous carbon and rod-like graphite crystals were observed by transmission electron microscopy. When 9.7 %CO2-Ar mixed gas was blown into LiCl-Li2O and CaCl2-CaO molten salts, the current efficiency was evaluated to be 89.7 % and 78.5 %, respectively, by the exhaust gas analysis and the supplied charge. When a solid electrolyte with higher ionic conductivity was used, the current and carbon production became larger. It was found that the rate determining step is the diffusion of oxygen ions into the ZrO2 solid electrolyte.

  19. Pipe Poiseuille flow of viscously anisotropic, partially molten rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allwright, Jane; Katz, Richard F.

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory experiments in which synthetic, partially molten rock is subjected to forced deformation provide a context for testing hypotheses about the dynamics and rheology of the mantle. Here our hypothesis is that the aggregate viscosity of partially molten mantle is anisotropic, and that this anisotropy arises from deviatoric stresses in the rock matrix. We formulate a model of pipe Poiseuille flow based on theory by Takei & Holtzman and Takei & Katz. Pipe Poiseuille is a configuration that is accessible to laboratory experimentation but for which there are no published results. We analyse the model system through linearized analysis and numerical simulations. This analysis predicts two modes of melt segregation: migration of melt from the centre of the pipe towards the wall and localization of melt into high-porosity bands that emerge near the wall, at a low angle to the shear plane. We compare our results to those of Takei & Katz for plane Poiseuille flow; we also describe a new approximation of radially varying anisotropy that improves the self-consistency of models over those of Takei & Katz. This study provides a set of baseline, quantitative predictions to compare with future laboratory experiments on forced pipe Poiseuille flow of partially molten mantle.

  20. Molten salt processing of mixed wastes with offgas condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Brummond, W.; Celeste, J.; Farmer, J.; Hoenig, C.; Krikorian, O.H.; Upadhye, R. ); Gay, R.L.; Stewart, A.; Yosim, S. . Energy Systems Group)

    1991-05-13

    We are developing an advanced process for treatment of mixed wastes in molten salt media at temperatures of 700--1000{degrees}C. Waste destruction has been demonstrated in a single stage oxidation process, with destruction efficiencies above 99.9999% for many waste categories. The molten salt provides a heat transfer medium, prevents thermal surges, and functions as an in situ scrubber to transform the acid-gas forming components of the waste into neutral salts and immobilizes potentially fugitive materials by a combination of particle wetting, encapsulation and chemical dissolution and solvation. Because the offgas is collected and assayed before release, and wastes containing toxic and radioactive materials are treated while immobilized in a condensed phase, the process avoids the problems sometimes associated with incineration processes. We are studying a potentially improved modification of this process, which treats oxidizable wastes in two stages: pyrolysis followed by catalyzed molten salt oxidation of the pyrolysis gases at ca. 700{degrees}C. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Density functional theory study of oxygen migration in molten carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Xueling; Haines, Kahla; Huang, Kevin; Qin, Changyong

    2016-02-01

    The process of oxygen migration in alkali molten carbonate salts has been examined using density functional theory method. All geometries were optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level, while single point energy corrections were performed using MP4 and CCSD(T). At TS, a O-O-O linkage is formed and O-O bond forming and breaking is concerted. A cooperative "cogwheel" mechanism as described in the equation of CO42- + CO32- → CO32- ⋯O ⋯ CO32- → CO32- + CO42- is involved. The energy barrier is calculated to be 103.0, 136.3 and 127.9 kJ/mol through an intra-carbonate pathway in lithium, sodium and potassium carbonate, respectively. The reliability and accuracy of B3LYP/6-31G(d) were confirmed by CCSD(T). The calculated low values of activation energy indicate that the oxygen transfer in molten carbonate salts is fairly easy. In addition, it is found that lithium carbonate is not only a favorable molten carbonate salt for better cathode kinetics, but also it is widely used for reducing the melting point of Li/Na and Li/K eutectic MC mixtures. The current results imply that the process of oxygen reduction in MC modified cathodes is facilitated by the presence of MC, resulting in an enhancement of cell performance at low operating temperatures.

  2. Design of a helium-cooled molten salt fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Fulton, F.J.; Huegel, F.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Sherwood, A.E.; Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Wong, C.P.C.; DeVan, J.H.

    1985-02-01

    A new conceptual blanket design for a fusion reactor produces fissile material for fission power plants. Fission is suppressed by using beryllium, rather than uranium, to multiply neutrons and also by minimizing the fissile inventory. The molten-salt breeding media (LiF + BeF/sub 2/ + TghF/sub 4/) is circulated through the blanket and on to the online processing system where /sup 233/U and tritium are continuously removed. Helium cools the blanket including the steel pipes containing the molten salt. Austenitic steel was chosen because of its ease of fabrication, adequate radiation-damage lifetime, and low corrosion rate by molten salt. We estimate the breeder, having 3000 MW of fusion power, produces 6400 kg of /sup 233/U per year, which is enough to provide make up for 20 GWe of LWR per year (or 14 LWR plants of 4440 MWt) or twice that many HTGRs or CANDUs. Safety is enhanced because the afterheat is low and the blanket materials do not react with air or water. The fusion breeder based on a pre-MARS tandem mirror is estimated to cost $4.9B or 2.35 times an LWR of the same power. The estimated present value cost of the /sup 2/anumber/sup 3/U produced is $40/g if utility financed or $16/g if government financed.

  3. Determination of the physical parameters of Bok-globules by means of a stochastical radiative transfer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengel, C.; Hegmann, M.; Röllig, M.; Kegel, W. H.

    During the last years, one of the key projects of the Astrophysics group at the University of Frankfurt was the theoretical examination of the influence of turbulence and density fluctuations on the formation of interstellar molecular lines, especially CO lines (Albrecht & Kegel 1987, Kegel et al. 1993, Piehler & Kegel 1995, Hegmann 1999). Based on an approach by G. Traving and collaborators (cf. Gail et al. 1974), a numerical code has been developed to deal with the NLTE problem in an isothermal spherical cloud being stabelized by turbulent and thermal pressure, considering the turbulent velocity field to be stochastic. Our model has been primarily constructed to achieve theoretical insight in the fundamental mechanisms of line formation under more realistic conditions. In view of the stage of development, the model has actually reached, we seriously think of it as an alternative tool for the evaluation of molecular lines emitted by molecular clouds, especially as the model assumptions are certainly closer to reality than the assumptions behind the standard evaluation methods such as e. g. LVG analysis. The objects the physics of which we believe to be closest to our model assumptions are starless Bok globules. We thus have performed observations at the HHT, where we have collected data of five Bok globules in the CO(2-1), CO(3-2), 13CO(2-1) and C18O(2-1) lines. In my contribution I will adress the question, if and how the physical parameters derived by our analysis of the observational data (central H2 density, temperature, correlation length of the turbulent velocity field, and mean square turbulent velocity) differ from the results of an LVG analysis (they do!) and what these findings imply from a physical point of view as well as from a critical viewpoint on the practice of data evaluation. I will talk about problems of our model at its current stage and possible consequences for an improvement of the model, and I will finally give an outlook, how, with

  4. Dissolution of Si in Molten Al with Gas Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed Ahmadi, Mehran

    Silicon is an essential component of many aluminum alloys, as it imparts a range of desirable characteristics. However, there are considerable practical difficulties in dissolving solid Si in molten Al, because the dissolution process is slow, resulting in material and energy losses. It is thus essential to examine Si dissolution in molten Al, to identify means of accelerating the process. This thesis presents an experimental study of the effect of Si purity, bath temperature, fluid flow conditions, and gas stirring on the dissolution of Si in molten Al, plus the results of physical and numerical modeling of the flow to corroborate the experimental results. The dissolution experiments were conducted in a revolving liquid metal tank to generate a bulk velocity, and gas was introduced into the melt using top lance injection. Cylindrical Si specimens were immersed into molten Al for fixed durations, and upon removal the dissolved Si was measured. The shape and trajectory of injected bubbles were examined by means of auxiliary water experiments and video recordings of the molten Al free surface. The gas-agitated liquid was simulated using the commercial software FLOW-3D. The simulation results provide insights into bubble dynamics and offer estimates of the fluctuating velocities within the Al bath. The experimental results indicate that the dissolution rate of Si increases in tandem with the melt temperature and bulk velocity. A higher bath temperature increases the solubility of Si at the solid/liquid interface, resulting in a greater driving force for mass transfer, and a higher liquid velocity decreases the resistance to mass transfer via a thinner mass boundary layer. Impurities (with lower diffusion coefficients) in the form of inclusions obstruct the dissolution of the Si main matrix. Finally, dissolution rate enhancement was observed by gas agitation. It is postulated that the bubble-induced fluctuating velocities disturb the mass boundary layer, which

  5. Distribution of melt during Poiseuille flow of partially molten rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintanilla-Terminel, Alejandra; Dillman, Amanda; Kohlstedt, David

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms of melt extraction from the Earth's partially molten mantle are a key factor in the chemical and physical evolution of our planet and therefore are the topic of intense research. Since such processes cannot be observed directly, most of our understanding of the dynamics of partially molten rock relies on numerical models. Laboratory experiments are important for testing the validity of models at scales that we can observe. We designed a set of experiments to investigate the role of viscous anisotropy on melt segregation in partially molten rocks through Poiseuille flow. Partially molten rock samples composed of forsterite plus a few percent melt of different composition (anorthite, albite or lithium silicate) were prepared from high-purity nano-powders and taken to T = 1300oC at P = 0.1 MPa. The melt composition was varied in order to vary its viscosity. The partially molten samples were then extruded through a channel of circular cross section under a fixed pressure gradient. Different extrusion assemblies and consequently different flow geometries were explored. The melt distribution in the channel was subsequently mapped using image analysis on backscattered electron microscopy images and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy maps. In all experiments, melt segregates from the center toward the outer radius of the channel with the melt fraction at the outer radius increasing to at least twice that at the center. Furthermore, melt enriched areas are also observed in the center of the channel. The shape of the melt distribution depends on the extrusion geometry and on the melt viscosity. The segregation of melt toward the outer radius of the channel is consistent with the base-state melt segregation as predicted by viscous anisotropy theory developed by Takei and Holtzman (2009) and Takei and Katz (2014). However, the melt distribution profiles observed in our experiments have steeper gradients than the base-state melt segregation profiles described

  6. Hyaline globules and papillary fragments in cytologic smears from two intra-abdominal tumors (ovarian and hepatic) in female patients: A diagnostic pitfall with histologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Machado, Isidro; López-Soto, María Victoria; Pérez-López, Albadio Samir; Domínguez-Álvarez, Carlos; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Hyaline globules and papillary fragments in cytologic samples from two intra-abdominal tumors in young females are presented including the cytological features and the correlation with the histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings. In the first case a cytologic study from an ovarian mass showed papillary structures and isolated tumor cells with epithelioid morphology, irregular reniform-like nuclear contour, pale or vacuolated cytoplasm, abundant hyaline globules and occasional glomeruloid structures resembling Schiller-Duval bodies. Yolk sac tumor (YST) was the diagnosis on the histological slides. Tumor cells showed positivity for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4). In case number two the cytologic study from a liver metastasis displayed papillary and rosette-like clusters composed of uniform and bland cells showing occasional long cytoplasmic tails, hyaline globules and nuclear grooves. A diagnosis of hepatic metastasis from solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPNP) was rendered from the histology. Tumor cells revealed immunoreactivity for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), Vimentin, Galectin-1 (GAL-1), Neuron specific-enolase, CD10, progesterone and β-catenin (nuclear stain). Regarding differential diagnosis, in the patient with the ovarian mass an ovarian clear cell carcinoma was considered, as well as other germ cell tumors or metastatic carcinoma, while in the patient with a liver metastasis a neuroendocrine carcinoma was taken into account. YST and SPNP share some cytological findings, including hyaline globules, papillary structures, clear cells and intercellular eosinophilic basement membrane deposits. Thus, a detailed study and careful interpretation of the cytological, histological and immunohistochemical findings may be worthwhile to avoid a potential misdiagnosis, particularly in the cytologic specimens of the ovarian and/or intra-abdominal mass, when involving young

  7. Permeability of Partially Molten Rocks from Lattice-Boltzmann Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garapic, G.; Faul, U.

    2013-12-01

    Timescales of melt transport at mid-ocean ridges from mantle source to the surface depend on permeability of the partially molten mantle. The permeability is usually predicted indirectly from experimental observations based on porosities that are much higher than the porosities inferred for the partially molten mantle. Low porosities are for example predicted by geochemical models from the onset of melt migration. Since melting starts at the grain scale, permeability of the partially molten mantle will depend on the grain-scale melt distribution. We reconstructed a 3-D view of melt geometry of two experimentally produced samples of partially molten olivine which demonstrates that melt exists in thin layers on two-grain boundaries (Garapić et al.,G3, 2013). The wetted two-grain boundaries have a width about 100 times smaller than the average grain size. Additionally, the pore space consists of a network of triple-junction tubules at all porosities, and large 'melt pools'. Due to the relative size of the wetted two-grain boundaries as well as the size of the triple-junction network compared to the grain size imagining and numerical analyses of partially molten samples require high resolution. Since no direct experimental permeability measurements are possible on partially molten aggregates, we investigate numerically the permeability as a function of porosity for this system. We simulate porous flow through an artificial pore volume using the lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) and Palabos LB code. Flow simulations were done on a computer cluster on three or four 125 GB nodes with 16 processors per node. With the available memory and allowed run time the maximum size of our pore structure was 1100 voxels per edge. In its simplest form the pore structure consists of a network of cylinders within a matrix of cubic grains. To approximate the observed 3-D melt geometry we added randomly distributed sheets on cube faces ('wetted two-grain boundaries') as well as randomly

  8. Oxidation of hydrogen halides to elemental halogens with catalytic molten salt mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1978-01-01

    A process for oxidizing hydrogen halides by means of a catalytically active molten salt is disclosed. The subject hydrogen halide is contacted with a molten salt containing an oxygen compound of vanadium and alkali metal sulfates and pyrosulfates to produce an effluent gas stream rich in the elemental halogen. The reduced vanadium which remains after this contacting is regenerated to the active higher valence state by contacting the spent molten salt with a stream of oxygen-bearing gas.

  9. Lifetime of Sodium Beta-Alumina Membranes in Molten Sodium Hydroxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 1 April 2007 – 01 April 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lifetime of Sodium Beta-alumina Membranes in Molten Sodium ...ABSTRACT Summary: Sodium metal can be made by electrolysis of molten sodium hydroxide in sodium beta-alumina membrane electrolysis cells...However, there are some uncertainties about the lifetime of the sodium beta-alumina membranes in contact with molten sodium hydroxide. The main objective

  10. Stabilization of 238Pu-contaminated combustible waste by molten salt oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimmel, Jay J.; Remerowski, Mary Lynn; Ramsey, Kevin B.; Heslop, J. Mark

    2000-07-01

    Surrogate studies were conducted using the molten salt oxidation system at the Naval Surface Warfare Center-Indian Head Division. This system uses a rotary feed system and an alumina molten salt oxidation vessel. The combustible materials were tested individually and together in a homogenized mixture. A slurry containing pyrolyzed cheesecloth ash spiked with cerium oxide, which is used as a surrogate for plutonium, and ethylene glycol were also treated in the molten salt oxidation vessel.

  11. Chronopotentiometry of refractory metals, actinides and oxyanions in molten salts: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1992-01-01

    The applications of chronopotentiometry to the study of electrochemical behavior of three technologically important areas of refractory metals, actinides, and oxyanions in molten salts are critically reviewed. Chronopotentiometry is a very versatile diagnostic tool to understand the reaction mechanism of the electrode processes for the electrochemical reduction/oxidation of these electroactive species in molten salt solutions. Well adherent, compact, and uniformly thick coatings of refractory metals may be electrodeposited from their solutions in molten salts.

  12. Maintaining molten salt electrolyte concentration in aluminum-producing electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2005-01-04

    A method of maintaining molten salt concentration in a low temperature electrolytic cell used for production of aluminum from alumina dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte contained in a cell free of frozen crust wherein volatile material is vented from the cell and contacted and captured on alumina being added to the cell. The captured volatile material is returned with alumina to cell to maintain the concentration of the molten salt.

  13. Short communication: Annatto in Cheddar cheese-derived whey protein concentrate is primarily associated with milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhu, D; Damodaran, S

    2012-02-01

    The yellow color of Cheddar cheese whey arises from a residual amount of annatto that partitions into the whey during Cheddar cheese manufacture. Bleaching of the color using hydrogen peroxide or benzoyl peroxide is often a prerequisite to produce an acceptable neutral-colored whey protein concentrate and isolate. However, the use of these strong oxidizing agents often generates off-flavors as a result of lipid oxidation and results in loss of nutritive value due to protein oxidation. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of partitioning of annatto between protein, milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), and aqueous (serum) phases of cheese whey so that a simple method can be developed to remove annatto from cheese whey. The MFGM was separated from Cheddar cheese whey using a recently developed novel method. Quantitative analysis of the distribution of annatto in the fat-free whey protein isolate (WPI), the MFGM fractions, and the serum phase revealed that annatto was not bound to the protein fraction but was mostly distributed between the serum phase and the MFGM fraction. The results showed that a colorless WPI or whey protein concentrate could be produced from Cheddar cheese whey by separation of MFGM from the whey, followed by diafiltration. This approach will negate the need for using bleaching agents.

  14. Chemical changes in bovine milk fat globule membrane caused by heat treatment and homogenization of whole milk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Je; Sherbon, John W

    2002-11-01

    The effects of heat treatment and homogenization of whole milk on chemical changes in the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) were investigated. Heating at 80 degrees C for 3-18 min caused an incorporation of whey proteins, especially beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Ig), into MFGM, thus increasing the protein content of the membrane and decreasing the lipid. SDS-PAGE showed that membrane glycoproteins, such as PAS-6 and PAS-7, had disappeared or were weakly stained in the gel due to heating of the milk. Heating also decreased free sulphydryl (SH) groups in the MFGM and increased disulphide (SS) groups, suggesting that incorporation of beta-Ig might be due to association with membrane proteins via disulphide bonds. In contrast, homogenization caused an adsorption of caseins to the MFGM but no binding of whey proteins to the MFGM without heating. Binding of caseins and whey proteins and loss of membrane proteins were not significantly different between milk samples that were homogenized before and after heating. Viscosity of whole milk was increased when milk was treated with both homogenization and heating.

  15. Dust evolution, a global view: III. Core/mantle grains, organic nano-globules, comets and surface chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of The Heterogeneous dust Evolution Model for Interstellar Solids (THEMIS), this work explores the surface processes and chemistry relating to core/mantle interstellar and cometary grain structures and their influence on the nature of these fascinating particles. It appears that a realistic consideration of the nature and chemical reactivity of interstellar grain surfaces could self-consistently and within a coherent framework explain: the anomalous oxygen depletion, the nature of the CO dark gas, the formation of ‘polar ice’ mantles, the red wing on the 3 μm water ice band, the basis for the O-rich chemistry observed in hot cores, the origin of organic nano-globules and the 3.2 μm ‘carbonyl’ absorption band observed in comet reflectance spectra. It is proposed that the reaction of gas phase species with carbonaceous a-C(:H) grain surfaces in the interstellar medium, in particular the incorporation of atomic oxygen into grain surfaces in epoxide functional groups, is the key to explaining these observations. Thus, the chemistry of cosmic dust is much more intimately related with that of the interstellar gas than has previously been considered. The current models for interstellar gas and dust chemistry will therefore most likely need to be fundamentally modified to include these new grain surface processes. PMID:28083090

  16. N-glycosylation proteomic characterization and cross-species comparison of milk fat globule membrane proteins from mammals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Weiyu; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Ma, Lu; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-11-01

    Glycosylation of proteins has been implicated in various biological functions and has received much attention; however, glycoprotein components and inter-species complexity have not yet been elucidated fully in milk proteins. N-linked glycosylation sites and glycoproteins in milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fractions were investigated by combining N-glycosylated peptides enrichment and high-accuracy Q Exactive identification, to map the N-glycoproteome profiles in Holstein and Jersey cows, buffaloes, yaks, goats, camels, horses, and humans. A total of 399 N-glycoproteins with 677 glycosylation sites were identified in the MFGM fractions of the studied mammals. Most glycosylation sites in humans were classified as known and those in the other studied mammals as unknown, according to Swiss-Prot annotations. Functionally, most of the identified glycoproteins were associated with the 'response to stimulus' GO category. N-glycosylated protein components of MFGM fractions from Holstein and Jersey cows, buffaloes, yaks, and goats were more similar to each other compared with those of camels, horses and human. The findings increased the number of known N-glycosylation sites in the milk from dairy animal species, revealed the complexity of the MFGM glycoproteome, and provided useful information to further explore the mechanism of MFGM glycoproteins biosynthesis among the studied mammals.

  17. Process analytical approaches for the coil-to-globule transition of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) in a concentrated aqueous suspension.

    PubMed

    Werner, Peter; Münzberg, Marvin; Hass, Roland; Reich, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    The coil-to-globule transition of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgel particles suspended in water has been investigated in situ as a function of heating and cooling rate with four optical process analytical technologies (PAT), sensitive to structural changes of the polymer. Photon Density Wave (PDW) spectroscopy, Focused Beam Reflectance Measurements (FBRM), turbidity measurements, and Particle Vision Microscope (PVM) measurements are found to be powerful tools for the monitoring of the temperature-dependent transition of such thermo-responsive polymers. These in-line technologies allow for monitoring of either the reduced scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient, the chord length distribution, the reflected intensities, or the relative backscatter index via in-process imaging, respectively. Varying heating and cooling rates result in rate-dependent lower critical solution temperatures (LCST), with different impact of cooling and heating. Particularly, the data obtained by PDW spectroscopy can be used to estimate the thermodynamic transition temperature of PNIPAM for infinitesimal heating or cooling rates. In addition, an inverse hysteresis and a reversible building of micrometer-sized agglomerates are observed for the PNIPAM transition process.

  18. Dust evolution, a global view: III. Core/mantle grains, organic nano-globules, comets and surface chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    Within the framework of The Heterogeneous dust Evolution Model for Interstellar Solids (THEMIS), this work explores the surface processes and chemistry relating to core/mantle interstellar and cometary grain structures and their influence on the nature of these fascinating particles. It appears that a realistic consideration of the nature and chemical reactivity of interstellar grain surfaces could self-consistently and within a coherent framework explain: the anomalous oxygen depletion, the nature of the CO dark gas, the formation of `polar ice' mantles, the red wing on the 3 μm water ice band, the basis for the O-rich chemistry observed in hot cores, the origin of organic nano-globules and the 3.2 μm `carbonyl' absorption band observed in comet reflectance spectra. It is proposed that the reaction of gas phase species with carbonaceous a-C(:H) grain surfaces in the interstellar medium, in particular the incorporation of atomic oxygen into grain surfaces in epoxide functional groups, is the key to explaining these observations. Thus, the chemistry of cosmic dust is much more intimately related with that of the interstellar gas than has previously been considered. The current models for interstellar gas and dust chemistry will therefore most likely need to be fundamentally modified to include these new grain surface processes.

  19. Dust evolution, a global view: III. Core/mantle grains, organic nano-globules, comets and surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Jones, A P

    2016-12-01

    Within the framework of The Heterogeneous dust Evolution Model for Interstellar Solids (THEMIS), this work explores the surface processes and chemistry relating to core/mantle interstellar and cometary grain structures and their influence on the nature of these fascinating particles. It appears that a realistic consideration of the nature and chemical reactivity of interstellar grain surfaces could self-consistently and within a coherent framework explain: the anomalous oxygen depletion, the nature of the CO dark gas, the formation of 'polar ice' mantles, the red wing on the 3 μm water ice band, the basis for the O-rich chemistry observed in hot cores, the origin of organic nano-globules and the 3.2 μm 'carbonyl' absorption band observed in comet reflectance spectra. It is proposed that the reaction of gas phase species with carbonaceous a-C(:H) grain surfaces in the interstellar medium, in particular the incorporation of atomic oxygen into grain surfaces in epoxide functional groups, is the key to explaining these observations. Thus, the chemistry of cosmic dust is much more intimately related with that of the interstellar gas than has previously been considered. The current models for interstellar gas and dust chemistry will therefore most likely need to be fundamentally modified to include these new grain surface processes.

  20. Role of molten salt flux in melting of used beverage container (UBC) scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, J.; Sahai, Y.

    1995-12-31

    Recycling of aluminum scrap, such as Used Beverage Container (UBC) scrap is steadily increasing. In secondary remelting of such scrap, it is a common practice to use protective molten salt cover. An appropriate salt protects metal from oxidation, promotes coalescence of the suspended metal droplets, and separates clean metal from the oxide contamination. The molten salt also reacts with metal. This causes metal loss and change of resulting metal composition. In this paper, role of molten salt fluxes in melting of UBC scrap is discussed, and selection criteria for molten salt are provided.

  1. Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Bagshaw, Gary H.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

  2. Summary of the Workshop on Molten Salt Reactor Technologies Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Startup of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Betzler, Benjamin R; Mays, Gary T

    2016-01-01

    A workshop on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) technologies commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on October 15 16, 2015. The MSRE represented a pioneering experiment that demonstrated an advanced reactor technology: the molten salt eutectic-fueled reactor. A multinational group of more than 130 individuals representing a diverse set of stakeholders gathered to discuss the historical, current, and future technical challenges and paths to deployment of MSR technology. This paper provides a summary of the key messages from this workshop.

  3. Tunable molten oxide pool assisted plasma-melter vitrification systems

    DOEpatents

    Titus, Charles H.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides tunable waste conversion systems and apparatus which have the advantage of highly robust operation and which provide complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The systems provide the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced use or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a net energy or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production. Methods and apparatus for converting metals, non-glass forming waste streams and low-ash producing inorganics into a useful gas are also provided. The methods and apparatus for such conversion include the use of a molten oxide pool having predetermined electrical, thermal and physical

  4. Tiny Molten Droplets, Dusty Clouds, and Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2008-11-01

    Chondrules, millimeter-sized spherules that formed as rapidly-cooled molten droplets, are characteristic of chondrite meteorites. If they formed at low pressure in the solar nebula (the cloud of gas and dust surrounding the infant Sun and from which the planets formed), then they should have lost almost all their inventories of volatile elements, such as sodium, because volatile elements would have boiled off the chondrules when they were molten. Conel Alexander (Carnegie Institution of Washington) and colleagues at Carnegie, the U.S. Geological Survey (Reston), and the American Museum of Natural History (New York) show that there was little sodium loss. They measured the sodium concentrations in numerous crystals of olivine inside chondrules in the Semarkona meteorite. The results show that the variations in concentrations from the centers of crystals to their edges are consistent with crystallization in a molten droplet that was not losing sodium to the surrounding gas. These results are supported by independent measurements by Alexander Borisov (Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) and colleagues at the University of Hannover, Georg-August-University Goettingen, and Koln University, all in Germany. Sodium loss could have been suppressed if the gas surrounding each chondrule had a much higher pressure of sodium than that expected for the solar nebula. Such a high pressure of sodium is most easily explained if chondrules formed in a region with a high density of solids. Alexander and his co-workers argue that such dense regions could have enough mass in a small space to collapse by gravity, perhaps forming planetesimals, the first step in constructing the inner planets.

  5. Developments in Molten Salt and Liquid-Salt-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2006-07-01

    In the last 5 years, there has been a rapid growth in interest in the use of high-temperature (700 to 1000 deg C) molten and liquid fluoride salts as coolants in nuclear systems. This renewed interest is a consequence of new applications for high-temperature heat and the development of new reactor concepts. Fluoride salts have melting points between 350 and 500 deg C; thus, they are of use only in high-temperature systems. Historically, steam cycles with temperature limits of {approx}550 deg C have been the only efficient method to convert heat to electricity. This limitation produced few incentives to develop high-temperature reactors for electricity production. However, recent advances in Brayton gas turbine technology now make it possible to convert higher-temperature heat efficiency into electricity on an industrial scale and thus have created the enabling technology for more efficient nuclear reactors. Simultaneously, there is a growing interest in using high-temperature nuclear heat for the production of hydrogen and shale oil. Five nuclear-related applications are being investigated: (1) liquid-salt heat-transport systems in hydrogen and shale oil production systems; (2) the advanced high-temperature reactor, which uses a graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel and a liquid salt coolant; (3) the liquid-salt-cooled fast reactor which uses metal-clad fuel and a liquid salt coolant; (4) the molten salt reactor, with the fuel dissolved in the molten salt coolant; and (5) fusion energy systems. The reasons for the new interest in liquid salt coolants, the reactor concepts, and the relevant programs are described. (author)

  6. Helium-cooled molten-salt fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Fulton, F.J.; Huegel, F.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Sherwood, A.E.; Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Wong, C.P.C.; Devan, J.H.

    1984-12-01

    We present a new conceptual design for a fusion reactor blanket that is intended to produce fissile material for fission power plants. Fast fission is suppressed by using beryllium instead of uranium to multiply neutrons. Thermal fission is suppressed by minimizing the fissile inventory. The molten-salt breeding medium (LiF + BeF/sub 2/ + ThF/sub 4/) is circulated through the blanket and to the on-line processing system where /sup 233/U and tritium are continuously removed. Helium cools the blanket and the austenitic steel tubes that contain the molten salt. Austenitic steel was chosen because of its ease of fabrication, adequate radiation-damage lifetime, and low corrosion by molten salt. We estimate that a breeder having 3000 MW of fusion power will produce 6500 kg of /sup 233/U per year. This amount is enough to provide makeup for 20 GWe of light-water reactors per year or twice that many high-temperature gas-cooled reactors or Canadian heavy-water reactors. Safety is enhanced because the afterheat is low and blanket materials do not react with air or water. The fusion breeder based on a pre-MARS tandem mirror is estimated to cost $4.9B or 2.35 times a light-water reactor of the same power. The estimated cost of the /sup 233/U produced is $40/g for fusion plants costing 2.35 times that of a light-water reactor if utility owned or $16/g if government owned.

  7. All ceramic structure for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.; Kucera, Eugenia H.

    1992-01-01

    An all-ceramic molten carbonate fuel cell having a composition formed of a multivalent metal oxide or oxygenate such as an alkali metal, transition metal oxygenate. The structure includes an anode and cathode separated by an electronically conductive interconnect. The electrodes and interconnect are compositions ceramic materials. Various combinations of ceramic compositions for the anode, cathode and interconnect are disclosed. The fuel cell exhibits stability in the fuel gas and oxidizing environments. It presents reduced sealing and expansion problems in fabrication and has improved long-term corrosion resistance.

  8. Cathode preparation method for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.; Sim, James W.; Kucera, Eugenia H.

    1988-01-01

    A method of preparing a porous cathode structure for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell begins by providing a porous integral plaque of sintered nickel oxide particles. The nickel oxide plaque can be obtained by oxidizing a sintered plaque of nickel metal or by compacting and sintering finely divided nickel oxide particles to the desired pore structure. The porous sintered nickel oxide plaque is contacted with a lithium salt for a sufficient time to lithiate the nickel oxide structure and thus enhance its electronic conductivity. The lithiation can be carried out either within an operating fuel cell or prior to assembling the plaque as a cathode within the fuel cell.

  9. Lithium-ferrate-based cathodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lanagan, M.T.; Bloom, I.; Kaun, T.D.

    1996-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing advanced cathodes for pressurized operation of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) at {approximately}650{degrees}C. To be economically viable for stationary power generation, molten carbonate fuel cells must have lifetimes of more than 25,000 h while exhibiting superior cell performance. In the present technology, lithiated NiO is used as the cathode. Over the lifetime of the cell, however, N{sup 2+} ions tend to transport to the anode, where they are reduced to metallic Ni. With increased CO{sub 2} partial pressure, the transport of Ni increases because of the increased solubility of NiO in the carbonate electrolyte. Although this process is slow in MCFCs operated at 1 atm and a low CO{sub 2} partial pressure (about 0.1 atm), transport of nickel to the anode may be excessive at a higher pressure (e.g., 3 atm) and a high CO{sub 2} partial pressure (e.g., about 0.3 arm). This transport is expected to lead eventually to poor MCFC performance and/or short circuiting. Several alternative cathode compositions have been explored to reduce cathode solubility in the molten salt electrolyte. For example, LiCoO{sub 2} has been studied extensively as a potential cathode material. The LiCoO{sub 2} cathode has a low resistivity, about 10-cm, and can be used as a direct substitute for NiO. Argonne is developing advanced cathodes based on lithium ferrate (LiFeO{sub 2}), which is attractive because of its very low solubility in the molten (Li,K){sub 2}CO{sub 3} electrolyte. Because of its high resistivity (about 3000-cm), however, LiFeO{sub 2} cannot be used as a direct substitute for NiO. Cation substitution is, therefore, necessary to decrease resistivity. We determined the effect of cation substitution on the resistivity and deformation of LiFeO{sub 2}. The substituents were chosen because their respective oxides as well as LiFeO{sub 2} crystallize with the rock-salt structure.

  10. Precipitation of lamellar gold nanocrystals in molten polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomba, M.; Carotenuto, G.

    2016-05-01

    Non-aggregated lamellar gold crystals with regular shape (triangles, squares, pentagons, etc.) have been produced by thermal decomposition of gold chloride (AuCl) molecules in molten amorphous polymers (polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)). Such covalent inorganic gold salt is high soluble into non-polar polymers and it thermally decomposes at temperatures compatible with the polymer thermal stability, producing gold atoms and chlorine radicals. At the end of the gold precipitation process, the polymer matrix resulted chemically modified because of the partial cross-linking process due to the gold atom formation reaction.

  11. Corrosion-Resistant Container for Molten-Material Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Theodore G.; McNaul, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In a carbothermal process, gaseous methane is passed over molten regolith, which is heated past its melting point to a temperature in excess of 1,625 C. At this temperature, materials in contact with the molten regolith (or regolith simulant) corrode and lose their structural properties. As a result, fabricating a crucible to hold the molten material and providing a method of contact heating have been problematic. Alternative containment approaches use a large crucible and limit the heat zone of the material being processed, which is inefficient because of volume and mass constraints. Alternative heating approaches use non-contact heating, such as by laser or concentrated solar energy, which can be inefficient in transferring heat and thus require higher power heat sources to accomplish processing. The innovation is a combination of materials, with a substrate material having high structural strength and stiffness and high-temperature capability, and a coating material with a high corrosion resistance and high-temperature capability. The material developed is a molybdenum substrate with an iridium coating. Creating the containment crucible or heater jacket using this material combination requires only that the molybdenum, which is easily processed by conventional methods such as milling, electric discharge machining, or forming and brazing, be fabricated into an appropriate shape, and that the iridium coating be applied to any surfaces that may come in contact with the corrosive molten material. In one engineering application, the molybdenum was fashioned into a container for a heat pipe. Since only the end of the heat pipe is used to heat the regolith, the container has a narrowing end with a nipple in which the heat pipe is snugly fit, and the external area of this nipple, which contacts the regolith to transfer heat into it, is coated with iridium. At the time of this reporting, no single material has been found that can perform the functions of this combination

  12. Electrostatic levitation technology for thermophysical properties of molten materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of thermophysical properties of undercooled liquids often require some kind of levitator which isolates samples from container walls. We introduce in this presentation a high temperature/high vacuum electrostatic levitator (HTHVESL) which promises some unique capabilities for the studies of thermophysical properties of molten materials. Although substantial progress has been made in the past several months, this technology is still in the development stage, therefore, in this presentation we only focus on the present state of the HTHVESL(1) and point out other capabilities which might be realized in the near future.

  13. High-temperature molten salt solar thermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, R. J.; Leach, J. W.; Stern, G.

    Conceptual designs of a solar thermal central receiver and a thermal storage subsystem were analyzed to estimate thermal losses and to assess the economics of high-temperature applications with molten salt transport fluids. Modifications to a receiver design being developed by the Martin Marietta Corporation were studied to investigate possible means for improving efficiency at high temperatures. Computations were made based on conceptual design of internally insulated high temperature storage tanks to estimate cost and performance. A study of a potential application of the system for thermochemical production of hydrogen indicates that thermal storage at 1100 C will be economically attractive.

  14. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Hitchcock, David C.; Mailhe, Catherine C.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    1986-01-01

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  15. Electrolytic Reduction of Titania Slag in Molten Calcium Chloride Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Jayashree

    2012-05-01

    Ferro-titanium is prepared by direct electrolytic reduction of titania-rich slag obtained from plasma smelting of ilmenite in molten CaCl2. The product after electro-reduction is characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. The electrolysis is carried out at a cell voltage of 3.0 V, taking graphite as the electrolysis cell as well as the anode, and a titania-rich slag piece wrapped by a nichrome wire is used as the cathode.

  16. Recovery of protactinium from molten fluoride nuclear fuel compositions

    DOEpatents

    Baes, C.F. Jr.; Bamberger, C.; Ross, R.G.

    1973-12-25

    A method is provided for separating protactinium from a molten fluonlde salt composition consisting essentially of at least one alkali and alkaline earth metal fluoride and at least one soluble fluoride of uranium or thorium which comprises oxidizing the protactinium in said composition to the + 5 oxidation state and contacting said composition with an oxide selected from the group consisting of an alkali metal oxide, an alkaline earth oxide, thorium oxide, and uranium oxide, and thereafter isolating the resultant insoluble protactinium oxide product from said composition. (Official Gazette)

  17. INTERIOR OVERVIEW OF CONTINUOUS CASTER WITH NO. 12 LADLE. MOLTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OVERVIEW OF CONTINUOUS CASTER WITH NO. 12 LADLE. MOLTEN STEEL IS POURED FROM LADLE THROUGH SHROUD TO TUNDISH. FROM TUNDISH STEEL ENTERS MOLD THROUGH SHROUD AND FORMATION OF SLAB SHELL BEGINS. AS SLAB PROGRESSES THROUGH CONTAINMENT SECTION IT IS COOLED WITH AIR MIST SPRAYS AND CONTINUES SOLIDIFICATION. UPON EXITING THE MACHINE THE SLABS ARE CUT TO DESIRED LENGTH AND IDENTIFIED. THE SLABS ARE STACKED, REMOVED FROM MACHINE AND PREPARED FOR SHIPMENT TO HOT STRIP MILL. CASTER HAS ABILITY TO PRODUCE SINGLE OR TWIN CASTS. SINGLE SLABS PRODUCED MAY BE UP TO 102 INCHES; DOUBLE SLABS UP TO 49 INCHES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  18. Liquid fuel molten salt reactors for thorium utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, Jess C.; Powers, Jeffrey J.

    2016-04-08

    Molten salt reactors (MSRs) represent a class of reactors that use liquid salt, usually fluoride- or chloride-based, as either a coolant with a solid fuel (such as fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactors) or as a combined coolant and fuel with fuel dissolved in a carrier salt. For liquid-fuelled MSRs, the salt can be processed online or in a batch mode to allow for removal of fission products as well as introduction of fissile fuel and fertile materials during reactor operation. The MSR is most commonly associated with the 233U/thorium fuel cycle, as the nuclear properties of 233U combined with the online removal of parasitic absorbers allow for the ability to design a thermal-spectrum breeder reactor; however, MSR concepts have been developed using all neutron energy spectra (thermal, intermediate, fast, and mixed-spectrum zoned concepts) and with a variety of fuels including uranium, thorium, plutonium, and minor actinides. Early MSR work was supported by a significant research and development (R&D) program that resulted in two experimental systems operating at ORNL in the 1960s, the Aircraft Reactor Experiment and the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment. Subsequent design studies in the 1970s focusing on thermal-spectrum thorium-fueled systems established reference concepts for two major design variants: (1) a molten salt breeder reactor (MSBR), with multiple configurations that could breed additional fissile material or maintain self-sustaining operation; and (2) a denatured molten salt reactor (DMSR) with enhanced proliferation-resistance. T MSRs has been selected as one of six most promising Generation IV systems and development activities have been seen in fast-spectrum MSRs, waste-burning MSRs, MSRs fueled with low-enriched uranium (LEU), as well as more traditional thorium fuel cycle-based MSRs. This study provides an historical background of MSR R&D efforts, surveys and summarizes many of the recent development, and provides

  19. Effects of H2S on molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remick, R. J.; Anderson, G. L.

    1984-04-01

    The results of a literature survey conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) under Phase 1 of a multiphase program to investigate and identify the mechanism(s) responsible for molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) performance losses when operating on sulfur containing gases are discussed. The objective was twofold: to review the reported data on the interaction of H2S with nickel containing materials; and to review reported investigations on the specific effects of H2S on the electrochemical oxidation of H2 in MCFC. The ultimate goal of the literature review was to determine the poisoning mechanism.

  20. Liquid fuel molten salt reactors for thorium utilization

    DOE PAGES

    Gehin, Jess C.; Powers, Jeffrey J.

    2016-04-08

    Molten salt reactors (MSRs) represent a class of reactors that use liquid salt, usually fluoride- or chloride-based, as either a coolant with a solid fuel (such as fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactors) or as a combined coolant and fuel with fuel dissolved in a carrier salt. For liquid-fuelled MSRs, the salt can be processed online or in a batch mode to allow for removal of fission products as well as introduction of fissile fuel and fertile materials during reactor operation. The MSR is most commonly associated with the 233U/thorium fuel cycle, as the nuclear properties of 233U combined with themore » online removal of parasitic absorbers allow for the ability to design a thermal-spectrum breeder reactor; however, MSR concepts have been developed using all neutron energy spectra (thermal, intermediate, fast, and mixed-spectrum zoned concepts) and with a variety of fuels including uranium, thorium, plutonium, and minor actinides. Early MSR work was supported by a significant research and development (R&D) program that resulted in two experimental systems operating at ORNL in the 1960s, the Aircraft Reactor Experiment and the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment. Subsequent design studies in the 1970s focusing on thermal-spectrum thorium-fueled systems established reference concepts for two major design variants: (1) a molten salt breeder reactor (MSBR), with multiple configurations that could breed additional fissile material or maintain self-sustaining operation; and (2) a denatured molten salt reactor (DMSR) with enhanced proliferation-resistance. T MSRs has been selected as one of six most promising Generation IV systems and development activities have been seen in fast-spectrum MSRs, waste-burning MSRs, MSRs fueled with low-enriched uranium (LEU), as well as more traditional thorium fuel cycle-based MSRs. This study provides an historical background of MSR R&D efforts, surveys and summarizes many of the recent development, and provides analysis comparing

  1. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Hitchcock, D.C.; Mailhe, C.C.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1985-07-10

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  2. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia; Piyush Sabharwall

    2012-09-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 °C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700

  3. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia

    2012-05-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 C

  4. Solid-electrolyte oxide-ion electrode for molten nitrates

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, D.A.

    1981-10-01

    An oxide ion sensitive electrode of the type Pb, PbO/ZrO/sub 2/(Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/)// was constructed and its performance tested in the binary, equimolar molten salt NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ over the temperature range 336 to 350/sup 0/C. The response of this electrode to oxide ion concentrations over the range 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -10/ moles/kg is linearly dependent upon log (0/sup =/), and dE/dlog(0/sup =/) corresponds to a two-electron process.

  5. Large longitude libration of Mercury reveals a molten core.

    PubMed

    Margot, J L; Peale, S J; Jurgens, R F; Slade, M A; Holin, I V

    2007-05-04

    Observations of radar speckle patterns tied to the rotation of Mercury establish that the planet occupies a Cassini state with obliquity of 2.11 +/- 0.1 arc minutes. The measurements show that the planet exhibits librations in longitude that are forced at the 88-day orbital period, as predicted by theory. The large amplitude of the oscillations, 35.8 +/- 2 arc seconds, together with the Mariner 10 determination of the gravitational harmonic coefficient C22, indicates that the mantle of Mercury is decoupled from a core that is at least partially molten.

  6. Cytotoxic activity of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed Central

    Donta, S T; Haddow, A D

    1978-01-01

    Most strains of Aeromonas hydrophila tested demonstrated cytotoxic activity on several tissue-cultured cell lines. The cytotoxin is heat-labile, non-dialyzable, and immunologically distinct from that of Shigella dysenteriae and Clostridium perfringens. None of the aeromonas isolates was found to be enterotoxigenic by either tissue culture or rabbit ileal loop assays. Images PMID:711344

  7. Milk fat globule membrane isolated from buttermilk or whey cream and their lipid components inhibit infectivity of rotavirus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fuller, K L; Kuhlenschmidt, T B; Kuhlenschmidt, M S; Jiménez-Flores, R; Donovan, S M

    2013-06-01

    Milk fat is encapsulated in a milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) that contains bioactive glycoproteins and glycolipids. The MFGM inhibits infectivity of rotavirus (RV), activity that has been attributed to its glycoprotein and carbohydrate components. However, previous studies of proteins and oligosaccharides in the MGFM have not accounted for all the bioactivity associated with the complete MFGM. The lipid fraction of the MFGM accounts for half of its composition by weight, and we postulate that this fraction should be tested by itself to determine if it plays a role in antiviral activity. Herein, the anti-RV activity of an organic extract of MFGM was tested. Natural and whey buttermilk powders containing bovine MFGM enriched in polar lipids were prepared by microfiltration and supercritical fluid extraction treatment to reduce the triglyceride content of the powders. Lipid fractions were then extracted from the MFGM using both single- and dual-phase extraction methods. Whole MFGM and organic extracts were screened in MA-104 cells for anti-infective activity against a neuraminidase-sensitive rotavirus using a focus-forming unit assay. Dose-dependent inhibition was observed for whole buttermilk and cheese whey MFGM against the rotavirus. In general, buttermilk MFGM exhibited greater RV percentage inhibition than cheese whey MFGM. Organic-soluble anti-RV compounds were identified in bovine MFGM. The most active fraction, isolated by dual-phase extraction and iatrobead chromatography, was free of proteins and highly nonpolar. Further separation of this fraction in a less polar solvent (30:1 chloroform:methanol) resolved at least 5 lipid-containing compounds, which likely contribute to the anti-RV activity associated with bovine MFGM. In summary, lipid components associated with MFGM appear to contribute in large part to the anti-RV activity associated with the bovine MFGM.

  8. Sub-micrometer-scale mapping of magnetite crystals and sulfur globules in magnetotactic bacteria using confocal Raman micro-spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Eder, Stephan H K; Gigler, Alexander M; Hanzlik, Marianne; Winklhofer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The ferrimagnetic mineral magnetite Fe3O4 is biomineralized by magnetotactic microorganisms and a diverse range of animals. Here we demonstrate that confocal Raman microscopy can be used to visualize chains of magnetite crystals in magnetotactic bacteria, even though magnetite is a poor Raman scatterer and in bacteria occurs in typical grain sizes of only 35-120 nm, well below the diffraction-limited optical resolution. When using long integration times together with low laser power (<0.25 mW) to prevent laser induced damage of magnetite, we can identify and map magnetite by its characteristic Raman spectrum (303, 535, 665 cm(-1)) against a large autofluorescence background in our natural magnetotactic bacteria samples. While greigite (cubic Fe3S4; Raman lines of 253 and 351 cm(-1)) is often found in the Deltaproteobacteria class, it is not present in our samples. In intracellular sulfur globules of Candidatus Magnetobacterium bavaricum (Nitrospirae), we identified the sole presence of cyclo-octasulfur (S8: 151, 219, 467 cm(-1)), using green (532 nm), red (638 nm) and near-infrared excitation (785 nm). The Raman-spectra of phosphorous-rich intracellular accumulations point to orthophosphate in magnetic vibrios and to polyphosphate in magnetic cocci. Under green excitation, the cell envelopes are dominated by the resonant Raman lines of the heme cofactor of the b or c-type cytochrome, which can be used as a strong marker for label-free live-cell imaging of bacterial cytoplasmic membranes, as well as an indicator for the redox state.

  9. Oral Microbiota in Infants Fed a Formula Supplemented with Bovine Milk Fat Globule Membranes - A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Timby, Niklas; Domellöf, Magnus; Holgerson, Pernilla Lif; West, Christina E.; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2017-01-01

    Background In a recent study, supplementation of infant formula with milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) decreased the incidence of otitis media in infants <6 months of age. Objectives The aim of the present study was to characterize the oral microbiota in infants fed MFGM-supplemented formula and compare it to that of infants fed standard formula or breast milk. Methods In a prospective double-blinded randomized controlled trial, exclusively formula-fed infants <2 months of age were randomized to be fed experimental formula (EF, n = 80) with reduced energy and protein and supplemented with a bovine MFGM concentrate, or standard formula (SF, n = 80) until 6 months of age. A breast-fed reference (BFR, n = 80) group was also recruited. The oral microbiota was analyzed at 4 (n = 124) and 12 (n = 166) months of age using Illumina MiSeq multiplex sequencing and taxonomic resolution against the HOMD 16S rDNA database of oral bacteria. Results Species richness in the oral samples did not differ between the EF and SF groups, but partial least square modeling identified a few taxa that were significantly associated with being in either group, e.g. lower level of Moraxella catarrhalis in the EF group. Infants in the BFR group had significantly lower species richness at 4 months of age and their microbiota pattern differed markedly from the formula-fed groups. Conclusions Supplementation of infant formula with MFGM yielded moderate effects on the oral microbiome. Moraxella catarrhalis was less prevalent in infants fed EF than in those fed SF and may be associated with the decrease in otitis media seen in the same group. PMID:28099499

  10. MUC-1 expression in pleomorphic adenomas using two human milk fat globule protein membrane antibodies (HMFG-1 and HMFG-2)

    PubMed Central

    PONCE-BRAVO, Santa; LEDESMA-MONTES, Constantino; GARCÉS-ORTÍZ, Maricela

    2015-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common salivary gland tumor and its microscopic features and histogenesis are a matter of debate. Human milk fat globule protein membrane (HMFG) monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) comprise a set of antibodies against the mucin 1 (MUC-1) protein detected in several salivary gland tumors. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the immunoexpression of the PA neoplastic cells to MUC-1 protein using HMFG-1 and HMFG-2 MoAbs, contrasting these results with those from normal salivary gland tissue. Material and Methods Immunohistochemical detection of MUC-1 protein using HMFG-1 and HMFG-2 MoAbs was made in 5 mm thick, paraffin embedded slides, and the avidin-biotin method was used. Results Positivity to HMFG-1 and HMFG-2 MoAbs was found in ductal, squamous metaplastic and neoplastic myoepithelial cells, keratin pearls and intraductal mucous material. Two kinds of myoepithelial cells were identified: classic myoepithelial cells around ducts were negative to both MoAbs, and modified myoepithelial cells were positive to both MoAbs. This last cellular group of the analyzed tumors showed similar MUC-1 immunoexpression to ductal epithelial cells using both HMFG antibodies. Intraductal mucous secretion was also HMFG-1 and HMFG-2 positive. Conclusions Our results showed there are two kinds of myoepithelial cells in PA. The first cellular group is represented by the different kinds of neoplastic myoepithelial cells and is HMFG-positive. The second one is HMFG-negative and represented by the neoplastic myoepithelial cells located around the ducts. PMID:26221920

  11. Compatibility Studies of Various Refractory Materials in Contact with Molten Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, T.; Leipold, M. H.; Hagan, M.

    1978-01-01

    The production of low cost, efficient solar cells for terrestrial electric power generation involves the manipulation of molten silicon with a present need for noncontaminating, high temperature refractories to be used as containment vessels, ribbon-production dies, and dip-coated substrates. Studies were conducted on the wetting behavior and chemical/physical interactions between molten silicon and various refractory materials.

  12. Removal of H2S using molten carbonate at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Makoto; Otaka, Maromu

    2013-12-01

    Gasification is considered to be an effective process for energy conversion from various sources such as coal, biomass, and waste. Cleanup of the hot syngas produced by such a process may improve the thermal efficiency of the overall gasification system. Therefore, the cleanup of hot syngas from biomass gasification using molten carbonate is investigated in bench-scale tests. Molten carbonate acts as an absorbent during desulfurization and dechlorination and as a thermal catalyst for tar cracking. In this study, the performance of molten carbonate for removing H2S was evaluated. The temperature of the molten carbonate was set within the range from 800 to 1000 °C. It is found that the removal of H2S is significantly affected by the concentration of CO2 in the syngas. When only a small percentage of CO2 is present, desulfurization using molten carbonate is inadequate. However, when carbon elements, such as char and tar, are continuously supplied, H2S removal can be maintained at a high level. To confirm the performance of the molten carbonate gas-cleaning system, purified biogas was used as a fuel in power generation tests with a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The fuel cell is a high-performance sensor for detecting gaseous impurities. When purified gas from a gas-cleaning reactor was continuously supplied to the fuel cell, the cell voltage remained stable. Thus, the molten carbonate gas-cleaning reactor was found to afford good gas-cleaning performance.

  13. Reactive collisions of sulfur dioxide with molten carbonates

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Thomas; Nathanson, Gilbert M.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular beam scattering experiments are used to investigate reactions of SO2 at the surface of a molten alkali carbonate eutectic at 683 K. We find that two-thirds of the SO2 molecules that thermalize at the surface of the melt are converted to gaseous CO2 via the reaction . The CO2 product is formed from SO2 in less than 10-6 s, implying that the reaction takes place in a shallow liquid region less than 100 Å deep. The reaction probability does not vary between 683 and 883 K, further implying a compensation between decreasing SO2 residence time in the near-interfacial region and increasing reactivity at higher temperatures. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency of SO2 → CO2 conversion by molten carbonates, which appear to be much more reactive than dry calcium carbonate or wet slurries commonly used for flue gas desulfurization in coal-burning power plants. PMID:20133648

  14. Low-Dimensional Network Formation in Molten Sodium Carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Wilding, Martin C.; Wilson, Mark; Alderman, Oliver L. G.; Benmore, Chris; Weber, J. K. R.; Parise, John B.; Tamalonis, Anthony; Skinner, Lawrie

    2016-01-01

    Molten carbonates are highly inviscid liquids characterized by low melting points and high solubility of rare earth elements and volatile molecules. An understanding of the structure and related properties of these intriguing liquids has been limited to date. We report the results of a study of molten sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) which combines high energy X-ray diffraction, containerless techniques and computer simulation to provide insight into the liquid structure. Total structure factors (Fx(Q)) are collected on the laser-heated carbonate spheres suspended in flowing gases of varying composition in an aerodynamic levitation furnace. The respective partial structure factor contributions to Fx(Q) are obtained by performing molecular dynamics simulations treating the carbonate anions as flexible entities. The carbonate liquid structure is found to be heavily temperature-dependent. At low temperatures a low-dimensional carbonate chain network forms, at T = 1100 K for example ~55% of the C atoms form part of a chain. The mean chain lengths decrease as temperature is increased and as the chains become shorter the rotation of the carbonate anions becomes more rapid enhancing the diffusion of Na+ ions. PMID:27080401

  15. Molten-salt fuel cells-Technical and economic challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selman, J. Robert

    This paper presents a personal view of the status and research needs of the MCFC and other molten-salt fuel cells. After an overview of current MCFC performance, compared with performance and cost of other fuel cells, improvements in power density and lifetime as well as cost reduction are identified as key priorities to accelerate the commercialization of the MCFC. In spite of its unfavorable public image (compared to, in particular, PEMFC and planar SOFC) MCFC technology has progressed steadily and cost reduction has been significant. Large-scale commercialization, especially in the distributed generation and cogeneration market, remains a possibility but its chances are highly dependent on a forceful and consistent energy policy, for example taking into account the externalities associated with various modes of electric power production from fossil fuels. In spite of steady improvements in performance, important defects in fundamental knowledge remain about wetting properties, oxygen reduction kinetics, corrosion paths and control mechanisms. These must be addressed to stimulate further simplification of design and find solutions to lifetime issues. Recently, alternative concepts of molten-salt fuel cells have been capturing attention. The direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC), reviving an old concept, has caught the attention of energy system analysts and some important advances have been made in this technology. Direct CO and CH 4 oxidation have also been a focus of study. Finally, the potential of nanotechnology for high-temperature fuel cells should not be a priori excluded.

  16. Electrochemical Deoxidation of Solid Zirconium Dioxide in Molten Calcium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohandas, K. S.; Fray, D. J.

    2009-10-01

    The reduction of zirconium dioxide pellets by electro-deoxidation in molten calcium chloride-calcium oxide (900 °C) has been studied. In this technique, the solid oxide is cathodically polarized against a graphite counter electrode under a constant applied potential. Unlike other metal oxides that have been reduced by this technique, only a small area around the cathodic current-collector wire was reduced to zirconium metal with zirconia pellets sintered at ~1100 °C; the rest of the sample was largely calcium zirconate. Pellets sintered above 1200 °C showed better reduction near the cathode wire and the reduction extended to the entire surface of the pellet with the passage of time. However, reduction of the inner core was found to be increasingly difficult, because the surface metal layer thickened on continuous electro-deoxidation. An analysis of the experimental results showed that the poor electrical conductivity of the intermediate compound, CaZrO3 and its blocky morphology inhibited the electro-deoxidation process. The increase in the sintering temperature of the pellet made it better conducting. However, the pores formed in the thick zirconium metal layer in such samples were too small for an ideal contact between the inner core and the molten electrolyte and hence the reduction of the inner core remained incomplete. Within the scope of this study, it is concluded that preforms with good grain growth and porosity are necessary for the electro-deoxidation of solid zirconium oxide.

  17. An SPH Study of Molten Matte-Slag Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsui, Shungo; Nashimoto, Ryota; Kumagai, Takehiko; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2017-02-01

    The transient behaviors of two immiscible liquids, namely, molten matte and molten slag, with a high interfacial tension were investigated using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics model. Numerical simulations were performed using a discrete-element-type method that could track the movement of both the continuous liquid phase and the dispersed one directly. Numerical simulations were also performed for conditions corresponding to different interfacial tension and density values. Further, the predicted topological changes as well as the relationship between the physical properties and the droplet size distribution were investigated. It was found that, with an increase in the interfacial tension, the large droplets formed aggregate quickly with the bulk phase, owing to the buoyancy force. It was also found that the absolute value of the interfacial tension determines the interfacial area, suggesting that it also affects the droplet settling time. As such, we can conclude that the nonlinearly changed interface shape can easily become unstable as a result of only a slight change in the curvature.

  18. Reactive collisions of sulfur dioxide with molten carbonates.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Thomas; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2010-04-13

    Molecular beam scattering experiments are used to investigate reactions of SO(2) at the surface of a molten alkali carbonate eutectic at 683 K. We find that two-thirds of the SO(2) molecules that thermalize at the surface of the melt are converted to gaseous CO(2) via the reaction SO(2)(g) + CO(3)(2-) --> CO(2)(g) + SO(3)(-2). The CO(2) product is formed from SO(2) in less than 10(-6) s, implying that the reaction takes place in a shallow liquid region less than 100 A deep. The reaction probability does not vary between 683 and 883 K, further implying a compensation between decreasing SO(2) residence time in the near-interfacial region and increasing reactivity at higher temperatures. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency of SO(2) --> CO(2) conversion by molten carbonates, which appear to be much more reactive than dry calcium carbonate or wet slurries commonly used for flue gas desulfurization in coal-burning power plants.

  19. A Direct Carbon Fuel Cell with a Molten Antimony Anode

    SciTech Connect

    Jayakumar, Abhimanyu; Kungas, Rainer; Roy, Sounak; Javadekar, Ashay; Buttrey, Douglas J.; Vohs, John M.; Gorte, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    The direct utilization of carbonaceous fuels is examined in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten Sb anode at 973 K. It is demonstrated that the anode operates by oxidation of metallic Sb at the electrolyte interface, with the resulting Sb₂O₃ being reduced by the fuel in a separate step. Although the Nernst Potential for the Sb-Sb₂O₃ mixture is only 0.75 V, the electrode resistance associated with molten Sb is very low, approximately 0.06 Ωcm², so that power densities greater than 350 mW cm⁻² were achieved with an electrolyte-supported cell made from Sc-stabilized zirconia (ScSZ). Temperature programmed reaction measurements of Sb₂O₃ with sugar char, rice starch, carbon black, and graphite showed that the Sb₂O₃ is readily reduced by a range of carbonaceous solids at typical SOFC operating conditions. Finally, stable operation with a power density of 300 mW cm⁻² at a potential of 0.5 V is demonstrated for operation on sugar char.

  20. Applications of molten salts in reactive metals processing

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Averill, W.A.

    1993-12-31

    Pyrochemical processes using molten salts provide a unique opportunity for the extraction and refining of many reactive and valuable metals either directly from the beneficiated ore or from other process effluent that contain reactive metal compounds. This research program is aimed at developing a process for the production and recovery of reactive and valuable metals, such as zinc, tin, lead, bismuth and silver, in a hybrid reactor combining electrolytic production of the calcium reductant and in-situ utilization of this reductant for pyrochemical reduction of the metal compounds, such as halide or oxides. The process is equally suitable for producing other low melting metals, such as cadmium and antimony. The cell is typically operated below 1000C temperature. Attempts have been made to produce silver, lead, bismuth, tin and cerium by calciothermic reduction in a molten salt media. In a separate effort, calcium has been produced by an electrolytic dissociation of lime in a calcium chloride medium. The most important characteristic of the hybrid technology is its ability to produce metals under ``zero-waste`` conditions.

  1. Low-Dimensional Network Formation in Molten Sodium Carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilding, Martin C.; Wilson, Mark; Alderman, Oliver L. G.; Benmore, Chris; Weber, J. K. R.; Parise, John B.; Tamalonis, Anthony; Skinner, Lawrie

    2016-04-01

    Molten carbonates are highly inviscid liquids characterized by low melting points and high solubility of rare earth elements and volatile molecules. An understanding of the structure and related properties of these intriguing liquids has been limited to date. We report the results of a study of molten sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) which combines high energy X-ray diffraction, containerless techniques and computer simulation to provide insight into the liquid structure. Total structure factors (Fx(Q)) are collected on the laser-heated carbonate spheres suspended in flowing gases of varying composition in an aerodynamic levitation furnace. The respective partial structure factor contributions to Fx(Q) are obtained by performing molecular dynamics simulations treating the carbonate anions as flexible entities. The carbonate liquid structure is found to be heavily temperature-dependent. At low temperatures a low-dimensional carbonate chain network forms, at T = 1100 K for example ~55% of the C atoms form part of a chain. The mean chain lengths decrease as temperature is increased and as the chains become shorter the rotation of the carbonate anions becomes more rapid enhancing the diffusion of Na+ ions.

  2. Iron-Catalyzed Boron Removal from Molten Silicon in Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Morita, Kazuki

    2016-12-01

    A high-temperature process of refining metallurgical-grade silicon to solar-grade silicon was developed. In this gas purging treatment, boron impurity in silicon reacts with ammonia and the products are removed as volatiles at high temperature. 1 mass pct metallic iron was added to molten silicon as a catalyst, improving the boron removal ratio from 14 to 80 pct at 1723 K (1450 °C). At 1823 K (1550 °C), this reaction could reduce boron concentration from more than 120 ppmw to <1 ppmw within 6 hours, meeting the purity requirement of solar-grade silicon. Nickel was tested in place of iron but showed no catalytic effect on boron removal. The result confirmed the catalytic role of iron in boron removal from molten silicon in ammonia. Possible mechanisms of catalysis, influence from iron concentration, and temperature effect on the catalytic reaction were explored. An apparent activation energy of 329 ± 129 kJ mol-1 was calculated from experimental data.

  3. Motion and Arrest of a Molten Liquid on Cold Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli-Dastjerdi, Faryar

    Spreading of liquid drop on cold solid substrates followed by solidification involves heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and phase change physics. Coupling of these physical phenomena, although present in many industrial applications and nature, renders the physical understanding of the process challenging. Here, the key aspects of molten liquid spreading and solidifying on cold solid substrate are examined experimentally and theoretically. A novel hypothesis of spreading solidifying drops on cold solid substrates is introduced that emphasizes on early stages of the drop solidification at the solid-liquid-gas interface. The derived equations of the drop motion and arrest, stemmed from the development of the presented hypothesis, are in accord with obtained empirical results. The hypothesis is then thoroughly tested with new sets of experiments: i) Drop impact experiments, ii) Inclined plate experiments. In addition, the solidification of static supercooled drops and the initiation mechanism of an intermittent stage (recalescence) are addressed. Also, a peculiar delay-freezing property of hydrophobic surfaces is examined under varying liquid flow rates and substrate temperatures. Moreover, a new phenomenon of cold-induced spreading of water drops on hydrophobic surfaces due to premature condensation followed by thin-film formation at the trijunction is explored and the effect of physical parameters such as relative humidity, the substrate temperature, initial contact angle, surface roughness, and drop volume are investigated. This study will significantly advance the current understanding of dynamic interaction between molten liquid and cold solid substrates.

  4. Saponins as cytotoxic agents: a review

    PubMed Central

    Galanty, Agnieszka; Sobolewska, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    Saponins are natural glycosides which possess a wide range of pharmacological properties including cytotoxic activity. In this review, the recent studies (2005–2009) concerning the cytotoxic activity of saponins have been summarized. The correlations between the structure and the cytotoxicity of both steroid and triterpenoid saponins have been described as well as the most common mechanisms of action. PMID:20835386

  5. Electrical conductivity anisotropy of partially molten peridotite under shear deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Yoshino, T.; Yamazaki, D.; Manthilake, G. M.; Katsura, T.

    2013-12-01

    Recent ocean bottom magnetotelluric investigations have revealed a high-conductivity layer (HCL) with high anisotropy characterized by higher conductivity values in the direction parallel to the plate motion beneath the southern East Pacific Rise (Evans et al., 2005) and beneath the edge of the Cocos plate at the Middle America trench offshore of Nicaragua (Naif et al., 2013). These geophysical observations have been attributed to either hydration (water) of mantle minerals or the presence of partial melt. Currently, aligned partial melt has been regarded as the most preferable candidate for explaining the conductivity anisotropy because of the implausibility of proton conduction (Yoshino et al., 2006). In this study, we report development of the conductivity anisotropy between parallel and normal to shear direction on the shear plane in partial molten peridotite as a function of time and shear strain. Starting samples were pre-synthesized partial molten peridotite, showing homogeneous melt distribution. The partially molten peridotite samples were deformed in simple shear geometry at 1 GPa and 1723 K in a DIA-type apparatus with uniaxial deformation facility. Conductivity difference between parallel and normal to shear direction reached one order, which is equivalent to that observed beneath asthenosphere. In contrast, such anisotropic behavior was not found in the melt-free samples, suggesting that development of the conductivity anisotropy was generated under shear stress. Microstructure of the deformed partial molten peridotite shows partial melt tends to preferentially locate grain boundaries parallel to shear direction, and forms continuously thin melt layer sub-parallel to the shear direction, whereas apparently isolated distribution was observed on the section perpendicular to the shear direction. The resultant melt morphology can be approximated by tube like geometry parallel to the shear direction. This observation suggests that the development of

  6. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., cutting, or working with molten metal. 56.15007 Section 56.15007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields, or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  7. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., cutting, or working with molten metal. 57.15007 Section 57.15007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  8. Cytotoxicity of zinc in vitro.

    PubMed

    Borovanský, J; Riley, P A

    1989-01-01

    The effect of zinc ions on B16 mouse melanoma lines, HeLa cells and I-221 epithelial cells was investigated in vitro in order to ascertain whether sensitivity to Zn2+ is a general feature of cells in vitro and in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism(s) of zinc cytotoxicity. The proliferation of B16, HeLa and I-221 cell lines was inhibited by 1.25 x 10(-4), 1.50 x 10(-4) and 1.50 x 10(-4) mol/l Zn2+, respectively. The free radical scavengers, methimazole and ethanol, did not suppress the toxicity of Zn2+, neither did superoxide dismutase or catalase. The addition of the chelating agent EDTA reduced the zinc cytotoxicity. It was possible to suppress the cytotoxicity of zinc by increasing the concentration of either Fe2+ or Ca2+ but not Mg2+, which suggests that a prerequisite for the toxic action of zinc is entry into cells using channels that are shared with iron or calcium. This view was supported by experiments in which transferrin intensified the cytotoxic action of zinc in serum-free medium. Another agent facilitating zinc transport, prostaglandin E2, inhibited the proliferation of the B16 melanoma cell line. There were no conspicuous differences in zinc toxicity to pigmented and unpigmented cells. The toxic effect of zinc in the cell systems studied exceeded that of iron, copper, manganese and cobalt in the same concentration range. In vitro, Zn2+ should be regarded as a dangerous cation.

  9. Cytotoxic geranylflavonoids from Bonannia graeca

    PubMed Central

    Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Raccuglia, Rosa Angela; Safder, Muhammad; Lai, Chin-Yu; Bastow, Kenneth F.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the aerial parts of Bonannia graeca led to the isolation and characterization of two new polar geranylated flavonoids (6 and 7). The structure elucidation was performed by extensive spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with literature data. All natural flavonoids isolated from B. graeca (1–7) and some synthetic derivatives (8–11) were tested for cytotoxic activity against four human tumor cell lines. Preliminary structure-activity relationship correlations are discussed. PMID:21459391

  10. Cytotoxic coumarins from Mammea harmandii.

    PubMed

    Reutrakul, Vichai; Leewanich, Pornsiri; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Pohmakotr, Manat; Jaipetch, Thaworn; Sophasan, Samaisukh; Santisuk, Thawatchai

    2003-11-01

    Two new naturally occurring coumarins, isomesuol (1) and mammearin A (2), together with nine known Mammea coumarins 3-11 were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the leaves and twigs of Mammea harmandii. Coumarins 1, 3 and 4 showed cytotoxicity against a panel of mammalian cancer cell lines. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The assignments of 13C-NMR signals of isomesuol (1), which was isolated for the first time as a natural product, have been revised.

  11. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System: Molten Salt Energy Storage (Summer Report 2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwall, Piyush; mckellar, Michael George; Yoon, Su-Jong

    2013-11-01

    Effective energy use is a main focus and concern in the world today because of the growing demand for energy. The nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) is a valuable technical concept that can potentially diversify and leverage existing energy technologies. This report considers a particular NHES design that combines multiple energy systems including a nuclear reactor, energy storage system (ESS), variable renewable generator (VRG), and additional process heat applications. Energy storage is an essential component of this particular NHES because its design allows the system to produce peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant power output. Many energy storage options are available, but this study mainly focuses on a molten salt ESS. The primary purpose of the molten salt ESS is to enable the nuclear reactor to be a purely constant heat source by acting as a heat storage component for the reactor during times of low demand, and providing additional capacity for thermo-electric power generation during times of peak electricity demand. This report will describe the rationale behind using a molten salt ESS and identify an efficient molten salt ESS configuration that may be used in load following power applications. Several criteria are considered for effective energy storage and are used to identify the most effective ESS within the NHES. Different types of energy storage are briefly described with their advantages and disadvantages. The general analysis to determine the most efficient molten salt ESS involves two parts: thermodynamic, in which energetic and exergetic efficiencies are considered; and economic. Within the molten salt ESS, the two-part analysis covers three major system elements: molten salt ESS designs (two tank direct and thermocline), the molten salt choice, and the different power cycles coupled with the molten salt ESS. Analysis models are formulated and analyzed to determine the most effective ESS. The results show that the most

  12. Cell Proliferation and Cytotoxicity Assays.

    PubMed

    Adan, Aysun; Kiraz, Yağmur; Baran, Yusuf

    Cell viability is defined as the number of healthy cells in a sample and proliferation of cells is a vital indicator for understanding the mechanisms in action of certain genes, proteins and pathways involved cell survival or death after exposing to toxic agents. Generally, methods used to determine viability are also common for the detection of cell proliferation. Cell cytotoxicity and proliferation assays are generally used for drug screening to detect whether the test molecules have effects on cell proliferation or display direct cytotoxic effects. Regardless of the type of cell-based assay being used, it is important to know how many viable cells are remaining at the end of the experiment. There are a variety of assay methods based on various cell functions such as enzyme activity, cell membrane permeability, cell adherence, ATP production, co-enzyme production, and nucleotide uptake activity. These methods could be basically classified into different categories: (I) dye exclusion methods such as trypan blue dye exclusion assay, (II) methods based on metabolic activity, (III) ATP assay, (IV) sulforhodamine B assay, (V) protease viability marker assay, (VI) clonogenic cell survival assay, (VII) DNA synthesis cell proliferation assays and (V) raman micro-spectroscopy. In order to choose the optimal viability assay, the cell type, applied culture conditions, and the specific questions being asked should be considered in detail. This particular review aims to provide an overview of common cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assays together with their own advantages and disadvantages, their methodologies, comparisons and intended purposes.

  13. Cytotoxic Compounds from Brucea mollis

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Mai Hung Thanh; Đuc, Ho Viet; Huong, Tran Thu; Duong, Nguyen Thanh; Phuong, Do Thi; Thao, Do Thi; Tai, Bui Huu; Kim, Young Ho; Bach, Tran The; Cuong, Nguyen Manh

    2013-01-01

    Ten compounds, including soulameanone (1), isobruceine B (2), 9-methoxy-canthin-6-one (3), bruceolline F (4), niloticine (5), octatriacontan-1-ol (6), bombiprenone (7), α-tocopherol (8), inosine (9), and apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), were isolated from the leaves, stems, and roots of Brucea mollis Wall. ex Kurz. Their structures were determined using one-and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against KB (human carcinoma of the mouth), LU-1 (human lung adenocarcinoma), LNCaP (human prostate adeno-carcinoma), and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) cancer cell lines. Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values of 0.39, 0.40, 0.34, and 0.23 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, compounds 3 and 5 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values around 1–4 μg/mL. Compounds 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (3) and niloticine (5) have been discovered for the first time from the Brucea genus. PMID:24106661

  14. Comparative cytotoxicity of periodontal bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.H.; Hammond, B.F.

    1988-11-01

    The direct cytotoxicity of sonic extracts (SE) from nine periodontal bacteria for human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was compared. Equivalent dosages (in terms of protein concentration) of SE were used to challenge HGF cultures. The cytotoxic potential of each SE was assessed by its ability to (1) inhibit HGF proliferation, as measured by direct cell counts; (2) inhibit 3H-thymidine incorporation in HGF cultures; or (3) cause morphological alterations of the cells in challenged cultures. The highest concentration (500 micrograms SE protein/ml) of any of the SEs used to challenge the cells was found to be markedly inhibitory to the HGFs by all three of the criteria of cytotoxicity. At the lowest dosage tested (50 micrograms SE protein/ml); only SE from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum caused a significant effect (greater than 90% inhibition or overt morphological abnormalities) in the HGFs as determined by any of the criteria employed. SE from Capnocytophaga sputigena, Eikenella corrodens, or Wolinella recta also inhibited cell proliferation and thymidine incorporation at this dosage; however, the degree of inhibition (5-50%) was consistently, clearly less than that of the first group of three organisms named above. The SE of the three other organisms tested (Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides intermedius, and Streptococcus sanguis) had little or no effect (0-10% inhibition) at this concentration. The data suggest that the outcome of the interaction between bacterial components and normal resident cells of the periodontium is, at least in part, a function of the bacterial species.

  15. Molten Chloride Salts for Heat Transfer in Nuclear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosek, James Wallace

    2011-12-01

    A forced convection loop was designed and constructed to examine the thermal-hydraulic performance of molten KCl-MgCl2 (68-32 at %) salt for use in nuclear co-generation facilities. As part of this research, methods for prediction of the thermo-physical properties of salt mixtures for selection of the coolant salt were studied. In addition, corrosion studies of 10 different alloys were exposed to the KCl-MgCl2 to determine a suitable construction material for the loop. Using experimental data found in literature for unary and binary salt systems, models were found, or developed to extrapolate the available experimental data to unstudied salt systems. These property models were then used to investigate the thermo-physical properties of the LINO3-NaNO3-KNO 3-Ca(NO3), system used in solar energy applications. Using these models, the density, viscosity, adiabatic compressibility, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and melting temperatures of higher order systems can be approximated. These models may be applied to other molten salt systems. Coupons of 10 different alloys were exposed to the chloride salt for 100 hours at 850°C was undertaken to help determine with which alloy to construct the loop. Of the alloys exposed, Haynes 230 had the least amount of weight loss per area. Nickel and Hastelloy N performed best based on maximum depth of attack. Inconel 625 and 718 had a nearly uniform depletion of Cr from the surface of the sample. All other alloys tested had depletion of Cr along the grain boundaries. The Nb in Inconel 625 and 718 changed the way the Cr is depleted in these alloys. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. A high temperature pump, thermal flow meter, and pressure differential device was designed, constructed and tested for use in the loop, The heat transfer of the molten chloride salt was found to

  16. Production of Oxygen from Lunar Regolith by Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the use of the molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) process for the extraction of oxygen for life support and propellant, and silicon and metallic elements for use in fabrication on the Moon. The Moon is rich in mineral resources, but it is almost devoid of chemical reducing agents, therefore, molten oxide electrolysis is ideal for extraction, since the electron is the only practical reducing agent. MOE has several advantages over other extraction methods. First, electrolytic processing offers uncommon versatility in its insensitivity to feedstock composition. Secondly, oxide melts boast the twin key attributes of highest solubilizing capacity for regolith and lowest volatility of any candidate electrolytes. The former is critical in ensuring high productivity since cell current is limited by reactant solubility, while the latter simplifies cell design by obviating the need for a gas-tight reactor to contain evaporation losses as would be the case with a gas or liquid phase fluoride reagent operating at such high temperatures. Alternatively, MOE requires no import of consumable reagents (e.g. fluorine and carbon) as other processes do, and does not rely on interfacing multiple processes to obtain refined products. Electrolytic processing has the advantage of selectivity of reaction in the presence of a multi-component feed. Products from lunar regolith can be extracted in sequence according to the stabilities of their oxides as expressed by the values of the free energy of oxide formation (e.g. chromium, manganese, Fe, Si, Ti, Al, magnesium, and calcium). Previous work has demonstrated the viability of producing Fe and oxygen from oxide mixtures similar in composition to lunar regolith by molten oxide electrolysis (electrowinning), also called magma electrolysis having shown electrolytic extraction of Si from regolith simulant. This paper describes recent advances in demonstrating the MOE process by a joint project with participation by NASA KSC and

  17. Behavior of Po-210 in molten Pb-17Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerstein, H.; Oschinski, J.; Horn, S.

    1992-09-01

    The behavior of Po-210 in molten Pb-17Li was investigated in evaporation experiments. It was found that polonium evaporates in form of an intermetallic compound PbPo. Because of the low vapor pressure of this polonide, evaporation rates are small. The activity coefficient for Po in Pb-17Li is given by ln γ = -4.77-(1329/T). Under conditions of a fusion reactor blanket with helium as cover gas, the evaporating fraction will be 10 6 times smaller than that estimated assuming ideal solution and vacuum. In agreement with observations at a Bi-inpile loop, only a very small fraction of the total polonium will be found in cover gas spaces.

  18. Molten salt thermal energy storage for utility peaking loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrara, A.; Haslett, R.; Joyce, J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers the use of thermal energy storage (TES) in molten salts to increase the capacity of power plants. Five existing fossil and nuclear electric utility plants were selected as representative of current technology. A review of system load diagrams indicated that TES to meet loads over 95% of peak was a reasonable goal. Alternate TES heat exchanger locations were evaluated, showing that the stored energy should be used either for feedwater heating or to generate steam for an auxiliary power cycle. Specific salts for each concept are recommended. Design layouts were prepared for one plant, and it was shown that a TES tube/shell heat exchanger system could provide about 7% peaking capability at lower cost than adding steam generation capacity. Promising alternate heat exchanger concepts were also identified.

  19. Remote system for the monitoring of molten waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K.K.; Schneider, A.; Schumacher, R.F.

    1991-12-31

    Leachability of a radioactive waste glass, the property of paramount concern, is affected by glass composition and operating conditions during vitrification. The current control system for a vitrification facility lacks the means for continuous monitoring of the glass composition. A remote and near-continuous method has been developed which is based upon the ability to correlate two ore more physical properties of the molten glass with its composition. Bubble-Rise-Velocity (BRV) viscometry was employed for the determination of the viscosity and differential pressure measurement was used for the determination of density. An empirical equation, which allows the calculation of viscosity of a Newtonian fluid from measured parameters, was developed. The remote and continuous monitoring of glass composition was successfully demonstrated.

  20. Remote system for the monitoring of molten waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K.K.; Schneider, A. . Nuclear Engineering Program); Schumacher, R.F. )

    1991-01-01

    Leachability of a radioactive waste glass, the property of paramount concern, is affected by glass composition and operating conditions during vitrification. The current control system for a vitrification facility lacks the means for continuous monitoring of the glass composition. A remote and near-continuous method has been developed which is based upon the ability to correlate two ore more physical properties of the molten glass with its composition. Bubble-Rise-Velocity (BRV) viscometry was employed for the determination of the viscosity and differential pressure measurement was used for the determination of density. An empirical equation, which allows the calculation of viscosity of a Newtonian fluid from measured parameters, was developed. The remote and continuous monitoring of glass composition was successfully demonstrated.

  1. Industry support for molten carbonate fuel cell commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmons, J.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Alliance to Commercialize Carbonate Technology (ACCT) is a working alliance of utilities and industry, created to help bring molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) technology into commercial markets by the year 2000. Its principal focus is the IMHEX{reg_sign} MCFC power plant under development by the team of M-C Power Corporation, the Institute of Gas Technology, The Bechtel Corporation, and Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc. (the {open_quotes}Development Team{close_quotes}), although many ACCT members are also interested in other fuel cell technologies. This paper will describe ACCT`s background, mission, approach and activities, as well as opportunities for those interested to join in ACCT`s ongoing work toward MCFC commercialization.

  2. Natural gas anodes for aluminium electrolysis in molten fluorides.

    PubMed

    Haarberg, Geir Martin; Khalaghi, Babak; Mokkelbost, Tommy

    2016-08-15

    Industrial primary production of aluminium has been developed and improved over more than 100 years. The molten salt electrolysis process is still suffering from low energy efficiency and considerable emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 and PFC). A new concept has been suggested where methane is supplied through the anode so that the CO2 emissions may be reduced significantly, the PFC emissions may be eliminated and the energy consumption may decrease significantly. Porous carbon anodes made from different graphite grades were studied in controlled laboratory experiments. The anode potential, the anode carbon consumption and the level of HF gas above the electrolyte were measured during electrolysis. In some cases it was found that the methane oxidation was effectively participating in the anode process.

  3. The jet impingement phase of molten core-concrete interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    Scoping calculations have been carried out demonstrating that a significant and abrupt reduction in the corium temperature may be realized when molten corium drains as a jet from a localized breach in the RPV lower head to impinge upon the concrete basemat. The temperature decrease may range from a value of approx.170 K (approx.140 K) for limestone (basaltic) aggregate concrete to a value approaching the initial corium superheat depending upon whether the forced convection impingement heat flux is assumed to be controlled by either thermal conduction across a slag film layer or the temperature boundary condition represented by a corium crust. The magnitude of the temperature reduction remains significant as the initial corium temperature, impinging corium mass, and initial localized breach size are varied over their range of potential values.

  4. Cooling molten salt reactors using “gas-lift”

    SciTech Connect

    Zitek, Pavel E-mail: klimko@kke.zcu.cz; Valenta, Vaclav E-mail: klimko@kke.zcu.cz; Klimko, Marek E-mail: klimko@kke.zcu.cz

    2014-08-06

    This study briefly describes the selection of a type of two-phase flow, suitable for intensifying the natural flow of nuclear reactors with liquid fuel - cooling mixture molten salts and the description of a “Two-phase flow demonstrator” (TFD) used for experimental study of the “gas-lift” system and its influence on the support of natural convection. The measuring device and the application of the TDF device is described. The work serves as a model system for “gas-lift” (replacing the classic pump in the primary circuit) for high temperature MSR planned for hydrogen production. An experimental facility was proposed on the basis of which is currently being built an experimental loop containing the generator, separator bubbles and necessary accessories. This loop will model the removal of gaseous fission products and tritium. The cleaning of the fuel mixture of fluoride salts eliminates problems from Xenon poisoning in classical reactors.

  5. Experimental Compressibility of Molten Hedenbergite at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agee, C. B.; Barnett, R. G.; Guo, X.; Lange, R. A.; Waller, C.; Asimow, P. D.

    2010-12-01

    Experiments using the sink/float method have bracketed the density of molten hedenbergite (CaFeSi2O6) at high pressures and temperatures. The experiments are the first of their kind to determine the compressibility of molten hedenbergite at high pressure and are part of a collaborative effort to establish a new database for an array of silicate melt compositions, which will contribute to the development of an empirically based predictive model that will allow calculation of silicate liquid density and compressibility over a wide range of P-T-X conditions where melting could occur in the Earth. Each melt composition will be measured using: (i) double-bob Archimedean method for melt density and thermal expansion at ambient pressure, (ii) sound speed measurements on liquids to constrain melt compressibility at ambient pressure, (iii) sink/float technique to measure melt density to 15 GPa, and (iv) shock wave measurements of P-V-E equation of state and temperature between 10 and 150 GPa. Companion abstracts on molten fayalite (Waller et al., 2010) and liquid mixes of hedenbergite-diopside and anorthite-hedenbergite-diopside (Guo and Lange, 2010) are also presented at this meeting. In the present study, the hedenbergite starting material was synthesized at the Experimental Petrology Lab, University of Michigan, where melt density, thermal expansion, and sound speed measurements were also carried out. The starting material has also been loaded into targets at the Caltech Shockwave Lab, and experiments there are currently underway. We report here preliminary results from static compression measurement performed at the Department of Petrology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, and the High Pressure Lab, Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico. Experiments were carried out in Quick Press piston-cylinder devices and a Walker-style multi-anvil device. Sink/float marker spheres implemented were gem quality synthetic forsterite (Fo100), San Carlos olivine (Fo90), and

  6. Molten Salt Fuel Cycle Requirements for ADTT Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D. F.; Del Cul, G. D.; Toth, L. M.

    1999-06-07

    The operation of an ADT system with the associated nuclear reactions has a profound effect upon the chemistry of the fuel - especially with regards to container compatibility and the chemical separations that may be required. The container can be protected by maintaining the redox chemistry within a relatively narrow, non-corrosive window. Neutron economy as well as other factors require a sophisticated regime of fission product separations. Neither of these control requirements has been demonstrated on the scale or degree of sophistication necessary to support an ADT device. We review the present situation with respect to fluoride salts, and focus on the critical issues in these areas which must be addressed. One requirement for advancement in this area - a supply of suitable materials - will soon be fulfilled by the remediation of ORNL's Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, and the removal of a total of 11,000 kg of enriched (Li-7 > 99.9%) coolant, flush, and fuel salts.

  7. Molten Materials Transfer and Handling on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Sen, Subhayu

    2008-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction processes as a means to provide pure elements for lunar resource utilization have many advantages. Such processes have. the potential of removing all the oxygen from the lunar soil for use in life support and for propellant. Electrochemical reduction also provides a direct path for the. production of pure metals and silicon which can be utilized for in situ manufacturing and power production. Some of the challenges encountered in the electrolytic reduction processes include the feeding of the electrolytic cell (the transfer of electrolyte containing lunar soil), the withdrawal of reactants and refined products such as the liquidironsiliconalloy with a number of impurities, and the spent regolith slag, produced in the hot electrolytic cell for the reduction of lunar regolith. The paper will discuss some of the possible solutions to the challenges of handling molten materials on the lunar surface, as well as the path toward the construction and testing of a proof-of-concept facility.

  8. Electrochemical Deoxidation of Titanium Foam in Molten Calcium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Prabhat K.; Gauthier, Maxime; Fray, Derek J.

    2007-12-01

    Titanium foam, prepared by using a patented powder-metallurgy based process involving a powder blend that was molded, foamed, and sintered using a three-step thermal treatment, was deoxidized in a molten CaCl2 bath. The polarization experiments were carried out by cathodically polarizing the foam (working electrode) against a counter (graphite) electrode. Under constant potential (polarization) mode, the dominant mechanism of deoxidation was the ionization of oxygen, present in the foam, and its subsequent discharge, as CO2/CO, at the anode surface. More than ˜85 pct oxygen could be effectively removed by carrying out the electro-deoxidation experiments in fresh and pre-electrolyzed melt(s) at an electrolyte temperature of 950 °C. Scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) detection of the deoxidized foams did not show a presence of any inclusion(s) or secondary phase(s).

  9. Industrial use of molten nitrate/nitrite salts

    SciTech Connect

    Carling, R.W.; Mar, R.W.

    1981-12-01

    Nitrate salts have been used for years as a high-temperature heat transfer medium in the chemical and metal industries. This experience is often cited as an argument for the use of these salts in large-scale solar energy systems. However, this industrial experience has not been well documented and a study was carried out to provide such information to the solar community and to determine the applicability of this data base. Seven different industrial plants were visited and the plant operators were interviewed with regard to operating history and experience. In all cases the molten salt systems operate without problems. However, it is not possible to apply the base of industrial experience directly to solar thermal energy applications because of differences in operating temperature, salt composition, alloys used, and thermal/mechanical conditions.

  10. Relaxation of the bulk modulus in partially molten dunite?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, C. J.; Jackson, I.

    2016-11-01

    To address the possibility of melt-related bulk modulus relaxation, a forced oscillation experiment was conducted at seismic frequencies on a partially molten synthetic dunite specimen (melt fraction = 0.026) utilizing the enhanced capacity of the Australian National University attenuation apparatus to operate in both torsional and flexural oscillation modes. Shear modulus and dissipation data are consistent with those for melt-bearing olivine specimens previously tested in torsion, with a pronounced dissipation peak superimposed on high-temperature background. Flexural data exhibit a monotonic decrease in complex Young's modulus with increasing temperature under transsolidus temperatures. The observed variation of Young's modulus is well described by the relationship 1/E 1/3G, without requiring relaxation of the bulk modulus. At high homologous temperatures, when shear modulus is low, extensional and flexural oscillation measurements have little resolution of bulk modulus, and thus, only pressure oscillation measurements can definitively constrain bulk properties at these conditions.

  11. Structure of molten iron chloride: Neutron scattering and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.; Badyal, Y.S.; Wang, J.; Moss, S.C.; Leheny, R.L.

    1998-05-01

    Neutron-diffraction measurements of molten FeCl{sub 3}, combined with model calculations and computer simulations, show that on melting the local structure of Fe changes from an octahedral to a tetrahedral environment. A similar change is observed in AlCl{sub 3}, in contrast to YCl{sub 3}, for example, where the octahedral coordination of Y is preserved on melting. The local structure of the liquid can be described in terms of Fe{sub 2}Cl{sub 6} molecular units, similar to those observed in the vapor phase but with strong intermolecular interactions. Detailed information about the orientational correlations between molecules is derived from the simulations and compared with recent results on another molecular liquid, propylene glycol. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Physicochemical processes on the solid metal-molten metal interface

    SciTech Connect

    Eremenko, V.N.; Dybkov, V.I.; Natanzon, Y.V.

    1985-05-01

    The authors present a method of dissolution by which bimetalspecimens of St3 and 45 steels, 12Kh18N1OT stainless steel with A995 aluminum, ADl and silumin were obtained. Tests showed high mechanical strength of the bimetals and good resistance under thermal shock conditions. The authors further conclude that the method of creation of permanent joints of metals by holding the solid, more refractory metal with a liquid low-melting one is most suitable for the production of cylindrical bimetal blanks since in this case it is easy to agitate the molten metal by rotation of the original blank of the solid metal in it. By simple machining from such a bimetal, it is possible to obtain tubes, butt joints or concentric two- and three-layer sleeves.

  13. Observations of impact-induced molten metal-silicate partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, Linda R.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of molten mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-molybdenum (Mo) interactions produced by shock experiments provide insight into impact and differentiation processes involving metal-silicate partitioning. Analysis of fragments recovered from experiments (achieving MORB liquid shock pressures from 0.8 to 6 GPa) revealed significant changes in the composition of the MORB and Mo due to reaction of the silicate and metal liquids on a short time scale (less than 13 s). The FeO concentration of the shocked liquid decreases systematically with increasing pressure. In fact, the most highly shocked liquid (6 GPa) contains only 0.1 wt% FeO compared to an initial concentration of 9 wt% in the MORB. We infer from the presence of micrometer-sized Fe-, Si- and Mo-rich metallic spheres in the shocked glass that the Fe and Si oxides in the MORB were reduced in an estimated oxygen fugacity of 10(exp -17) bar and subsequently alloyed with the Mo. The in-situ reduction of FeO in the shocked molten basalt implies that shock-induced reduction of impact melt should be considered a viable mechanism for the formation of metallic phases. Similar metallic phases may form during impact accretion of planets and in impacted material found on the lunar surface and near terrestrial impact craters. In particular, the minute, isolated Fe particles found in lunar soils may have formed by such a process. Furthermore, the metallic spheres within the shocked glass have a globular texture similar to the textures of metallic spheroids from lunar samples and the estimated, slow cooling rate of less than or equal to 140 C/s for our spheres is consistent with the interpretation that the lunar spheroids formed by slow cooling within a melted target.

  14. Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system customer interface document.

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald D.

    2013-09-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL is a test capability that allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt. The components tested can range from materials samples, to individual components such as flex hoses, ball joints, and valves, up to full solar collecting systems such as central receiver panels, parabolic troughs, or linear Fresnel systems. MSTL provides realistic conditions similar to a portion of a concentrating solar power facility. The facility currently uses 60/40 nitrate %E2%80%9Csolar salt%E2%80%9D and can circulate the salt at pressure up to 40 bar (600psi), temperature to 585%C2%B0C, and flow rate of 44-50kg/s(400-600GPM) depending on temperature. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for customers to evaluate the applicability to their testing needs, and to provide an outline of expectations for conducting testing on MSTL. The document can serve as the basis for testing agreements including Work for Others (WFO) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA). While this document provides the basis for these agreements and describes some of the requirements for testing using MSTL and on the site at Sandia, the document is not sufficient by itself as a test agreement. The document, however, does provide customers with a uniform set of information to begin the test planning process.

  15. Viscosity Relaxation in Molten HgZnTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Kim, Yeong Woo; Baird, James K.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rotating cup measurements of the viscosity of the pseudo-binary melt, HgZnTe have shown that the isothermal liquid with zinc mole fraction 0.16 requires tens of hours of equilibration time before a steady viscous state can be achieved. Over this relaxation period, the viscosity at 790 C increases by a factor of two, while the viscosity at 810 C increases by 40%. Noting that the Group VI elements tend to polymerize when molten, we suggest that the viscosity of the melt is enhanced by the slow formation of Te atom chains. To explain the build-up of linear Te n-mers, we propose a scheme, which contains formation reactions with second order kinetics that increase the molecular weight, and decomposition reactions with first order kinetics that inactivate the chains. The resulting rate equations can be solved for the time dependence of each molecular weight fraction. Using these molecular weight fractions, we calculate the time dependence of the average molecular weight. Using the standard semi-empirical relation between polymer average molecular weight and viscosity, we then calculate the viscosity relaxation curve. By curve fitting, we find that the data imply that the rate constant for n-mer formation is much smaller than the rate constant for n-mer deactivation, suggesting that Te atoms only weakly polymerize in molten HgZnTe. The steady state toward which the melt relaxes occurs as the rate of formation of an n-mer becomes exactly balanced by the sum of the rate for its deactivation and the rate for its polymerization to form an (n+1)-mer.

  16. High stress shallow moonquakes - Evidence for an initially totally molten moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, A. B.; Oberst, J.

    1985-01-01

    Thermoelastic stress calculations show that if the moon was initially molten only in the outer few hundred kilometers, as in the magma ocean model of the moon, the highlands crust should be aseismic. In contrast, if the moon was initially totally molten, high stress (1 to more than about 3 kbar), shallow (0 to about 6 km deep), compressional moonquakes should be occurring in the highlands crust. Calculations of the minimum stress drops made for the 28 observed shallow moonquakes suggest that 3 of them probably have stress drops in the kbar range. Thus, these very limited seismic data are consistent with the model that the moon was initially totally molten.

  17. Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Eddie C.

    1995-01-01

    An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500.degree. C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

  18. Fragment structure from vapor explosions during the impact of molten metal droplets into a liquid pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouraytem, Nadia; Li, Er Qiang; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2015-11-01

    High-speed video imaging is used in order to look at the impact of a molten metal drop falling into a liquid pool. The interaction regimes are three: film boiling, nucleate boiling or vapor explosion. Following the vapor explosion, the metal fragments and different textures are observed. It was seen that, using a tin alloy, a porous structure results whereas using a distinctive eutectic metal, Field's metal, micro beads are formed. Different parameters such as the metal type, molten metal temperature, pool surface tension and pool boiling temperature have been altered in order to assess the role they play on the explosion dynamics and the molten metal's by product.

  19. Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by use of molten metal halide catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating at least a substantial portion of the carbonaceous material associated with the reaction mixture from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the metal halide catalyst, an improvement comprising contacting the spent molten metal halide catalyst after removal of a major portion of the carbonaceous material therefrom with an additional quantity of hydrogen is disclosed.

  20. Magneto-hydrodynamic detection of vortex shedding for molten salt flow sensing.

    SciTech Connect

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Crocker, Robert W.

    2012-09-01

    High temperature flow sensors must be developed for use with molten salts systems at temperatures in excess of 600ÀC. A novel magneto-hydrodynamic sensing approach was investigated. A prototype sensor was developed and tested in an aqueous sodium chloride solution as a surrogate for molten salt. Despite that the electrical conductivity was a factor of three less than molten salts, it was found that the electrical conductivity of an electrolyte was too low to adequately resolve the signal amidst surrounding noise. This sensor concept is expected to work well with any liquid metal application, as the generated magnetic field scales proportionately with electrical conductivity.