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Sample records for cytotoxic nucleoside analogues

  1. Design and synthesis of novel distamycin-modified nucleoside analogues as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Ma, Chunying; Zhang, Jin; Qian, Ning; Ding, Jingjing; Qiao, Renzhong; Zhao, Yufen

    2014-02-01

    Design and synthesis of nucleoside analogues have persistently attracted extensive interest because of their potential application in the field of antiviral therapy, and its study also receives additional impetus for improvement in the ProTide technology. Previous studies have made great strides in the design and discovery of monophosphorylated nucleoside analogues as potential kinase-independent antiretrovirals. In this work, a series of nucleoside phosphoramidates modified by distamycin analogues was synthesized and evaluated as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in HIV-1-infected MT-4 and CEM cells, including variations in nucleoside, alkyl moiety, and the structure of distamycin analogues. These compounds exhibited modest potency with the EC50 value in the range of 1.3- to 6.5-fold lower than their corresponding parent drugs in MT-4 cells, which may be attributed to increasing intracellular availability due to the existence of distamycin analogue with favorable hydrophilic-lipophilic equilibrium. Meanwhile, the length of distamycin analogue was considered and assessed as an important factor that could affect antiviral activity and cytotoxicity. Enzymatic and metabolic stability studies have been performed in order to better understand the antiviral behavior of these compounds. The present work revealed the compounds to have a favorable and selective anti-HIV-1 activity in MT-4 and CEM cells, and helped to develop strategies for design and synthesis of effective monophosphorylated nucleoside analogues, which may be applied to antiretroviral research as NRTIs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Aberrant Apoptotic Response of Colorectal Cancer Cells to Novel Nucleoside Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Harmse, Leonie; Dahan-Farkas, Nurit; Panayides, Jenny-Lee; van Otterlo, Willem; Penny, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased understanding of colorectal cancer and the introduction of targeted drug therapy, the metastatic phase of the disease remains refractory to treatment. Since the deregulation of normal apoptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, novel nucleoside analogues were synthesized here and evaluated for their ability to induce apoptosis and cause cell death in two colorectal adeno-carcinoma cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29. Three novel nucleoside analogues assessed here showed cytotoxic activity, as measured by the MTT assay against both cell lines: the IC50 values ranged between 3 and 37 μM, with Caco-2 cells being more sensitive than HT-29 cells. Compared to camptothecin, the positive control, the nucleoside analogues were significantly less toxic to normal unstimulated leukocytes (p>0.05). Moreover, the nucleosides were able to induce apoptosis as measured by an increase in caspase 8 and caspase 3 activity above that of the control. This was additionally supported by data derived from Annexin V-FITC assays. Despite marginal changes to the mitochondrial membrane potential, all three nucleosides caused a significant increase in cytosolic cytochrome c (p>0.05), with a corresponding decrease in mitochondrial cytochrome c. Morphological analysis of both cell lines showed the rapid appearance of vacuoles following exposure to two of the nucleosides, while a third caused cellular detachment, delayed cytoplasmic vacuolisation and nuclear abnormalities. Preliminary investigations, using the autophagic indicator monodansylcadaverine and chloroquine as positive control, showed that two of the nucleosides induced the formation of autophagic vacuoles. In summary, the novel nucleoside analogues showed selective cytotoxicity towards both cancer cell lines and are effective initiators of an unusual apoptotic response, demonstrating their potential to serve as structural scaffolds for more potent analogues. PMID:26390405

  3. Synthesis of novel 2'-fluoro-3'-hydroxymethyl-5'-deoxythreosyl phosphonic acid nucleoside analogues as antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Mi; Hong, Joon Hee

    2014-01-01

    A series of purine 5'-deoxyphosphonate analogues were designed and synthesized to mimic naturally occurring purine monophosphate from 1,3-dihydroxyacetone as starting material. The discovery of threosyl phosphonate nucleoside (PMDTA, EC50 = 2.53 μM) as a potent anti-HIV agent has led to the synthesis and biological evaluation of 2',3'-modified 5'-deoxyversions of the threosyl phosphonate nucleosides. The synthesized 2'-fluoro-3'-hydroxymethyl 5'-deoxythreosyl phosphonic acid nucleoside analogues 14, 18, 23, and 27 were tested for anti-HIV activity as well as cytotoxicity. The adenine analogue 18 exhibits weak in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity (EC50 = 19.2 μM).

  4. Bis(benzoyloxybenzyl)-DiPPro nucleoside diphosphates of anti-HIV active nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Weinschenk, Lina; Gollnest, Tristan; Schols, Dominique; Balzarini, Jan; Meier, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Nucleoside analogues are extensively used as antiviral and anticancer agents. Their efficiency is dependent on their metabolism into the ultimately active nucleoside triphosphates. Often one step or even more in the metabolism of the nucleoside to the triphosphate is inefficient. To overcome this hurdle, prodrugs of the nucleotides are needed. Bis(acyloxybenzyl)nucleoside diphosphates have been reported by us as a first example of an efficient nucleoside diphosphate prodrug (DiPPro nucleotides). Here, the synthesis and the properties of bis(benzoyloxybenzyl)nucleoside diphosphates of the nucleoside analogues d4T and AZT are disclosed. The synthesis was achieved by using a phosphoramidite/oxidation route. In chemical hydrolysis studies, most of the compounds formed a nucleoside diphosphate. This was confirmed in CEM cell extracts, although the prodrug stability in extracts was lower than in phosphate buffer. Furthermore, the stability and the amount of nucleoside diphosphate formed were dependent on the substituent in the benzoyl moiety. Some of the compounds were more active against HIV in thymidine kinase-deficient CEM/TK(-) cells than were d4T or AZT. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Synthesis and anticancer activity of novel C6-piperazine substituted purine steroid-nucleosides analogues.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Hua; Xu, Hong-De; Yang, Zhuo-Ya; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Liu, Hong-Min

    2014-04-01

    Novel C6-piperazine substituted purine nucleoside analogues (2-9) bearing a modified pyranose-like D ring of the 4-azasteroid moiety were efficiently synthesized through nucleophilic substitution at C6 position of the steroid-nucleoside precursors (1) with versatile piperazines. All newly-synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anticancer activity in vitro against Hela, PC-3 and MCF-7 cell lines. Among them, compounds 8b and 9b exhibited significant cytotoxicity on PC-3 cell lines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Revaluation of biomass-derived furfuryl alcohol derivatives for the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues

    PubMed Central

    Sidi Mohamed, Bemba; Périgaud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The racemic synthesis of new carbocyclic nucleoside methylphosphonate analogues bearing purine bases (adenine and guanine) was accomplished using bio-sourced furfuryl alcohol derivatives. All compounds were prepared using a Mitsunobu coupling between the heterocyclic base and an appropriate carbocyclic precursor. After deprotection, the compounds were evaluated for their activity against a large number of viruses. However, none of them showed significant antiviral activity or cytotoxicity. PMID:28326134

  7. Revaluation of biomass-derived furfuryl alcohol derivatives for the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues.

    PubMed

    Sidi Mohamed, Bemba; Périgaud, Christian; Mathé, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    The racemic synthesis of new carbocyclic nucleoside methylphosphonate analogues bearing purine bases (adenine and guanine) was accomplished using bio-sourced furfuryl alcohol derivatives. All compounds were prepared using a Mitsunobu coupling between the heterocyclic base and an appropriate carbocyclic precursor. After deprotection, the compounds were evaluated for their activity against a large number of viruses. However, none of them showed significant antiviral activity or cytotoxicity.

  8. Thermus thermophilus nucleoside phosphorylases active in the synthesis of nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Almendros, Marcos; Berenguer, José; Sinisterra, Jose-Vicente

    2012-05-01

    Cells extracts from Thermus thermophilus HB27 express phosphorolytic activities on purines and pyrimidine nucleosides. Five putative encoding genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding recombinant proteins were purified and studied. Two of these showed phosphorolytic activities against purine nucleosides, and third one showed phosphorolytic activity against pyrimidine nucleosides in vitro, and the three were named TtPNPI, TtPNPII, and TtPyNP, respectively. The optimal temperature for the activity of the three enzymes was beyond the water boiling point and could not be measured accurately, whereas all of them exhibited a wide plateau of optimal pHs that ranged from 5.0 to 7.0. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments revealed that TtPNPI was a homohexamer, TtPNPII was a monomer, and TtPyNP was a homodimer. Kinetic constants were determined for the phosphorolysis of the natural substrates of each enzyme. Reaction tests with nucleoside analogues revealed critical positions in the nucleoside for its recognition. Activities with synthetic nucleobase analogues, such as 5-iodouracil or 2,6-diaminopurine, and arabinosides were detected, supporting that these enzymes could be applied for the synthesis of new nucleoside analogs with pharmacological activities.

  9. Thermus thermophilus Nucleoside Phosphorylases Active in the Synthesis of Nucleoside Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Almendros, Marcos; Sinisterra, Jose-Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Cells extracts from Thermus thermophilus HB27 express phosphorolytic activities on purines and pyrimidine nucleosides. Five putative encoding genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding recombinant proteins were purified and studied. Two of these showed phosphorolytic activities against purine nucleosides, and third one showed phosphorolytic activity against pyrimidine nucleosides in vitro, and the three were named TtPNPI, TtPNPII, and TtPyNP, respectively. The optimal temperature for the activity of the three enzymes was beyond the water boiling point and could not be measured accurately, whereas all of them exhibited a wide plateau of optimal pHs that ranged from 5.0 to 7.0. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments revealed that TtPNPI was a homohexamer, TtPNPII was a monomer, and TtPyNP was a homodimer. Kinetic constants were determined for the phosphorolysis of the natural substrates of each enzyme. Reaction tests with nucleoside analogues revealed critical positions in the nucleoside for its recognition. Activities with synthetic nucleobase analogues, such as 5-iodouracil or 2,6-diaminopurine, and arabinosides were detected, supporting that these enzymes could be applied for the synthesis of new nucleoside analogs with pharmacological activities. PMID:22344645

  10. Membrane-permeable Triphosphate Prodrugs of Nucleoside Analogues.

    PubMed

    Gollnest, Tristan; Dinis de Oliveira, Thiago; Rath, Anna; Hauber, Ilona; Schols, Dominique; Balzarini, Jan; Meier, Chris

    2016-04-18

    The metabolic conversion of nucleoside analogues into their triphosphates often proceeds insufficiently. Rate-limitations can be at the mono-, but also at the di- and triphosphorylation steps. We developed a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) delivery system (TriPPPro-approach). In this approach, NTPs are masked by two bioreversible units at the γ-phosphate. Using a procedure involving H-phosphonate chemistry, a series of derivatives bearing approved, as well as potentially antivirally active, nucleoside analogues was synthesized. The enzyme-triggered delivery of NTPs was demonstrated by pig liver esterase, in human T-lymphocyte cell extracts and by a polymerase chain reaction using a prodrug of thymidine triphosphate. The TriPPPro-compounds of some HIV-inactive nucleoside analogues showed marked anti-HIV activity. For cellular uptake studies, a fluorescent TriPPPro-compound was prepared that delivered the triphosphorylated metabolite to intact CEM cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Cladribine Analogues via O6-(Benzotriazolyl) Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Satishkumar, Sakilam; Vuram, Prasanna K.; Relangi, Siva Subrahmanyam; Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Zhou, Hong; Kreitman, Robert J.; Montemayor, Michelle M. Martínez; Yang, Lijia; Kaliyaperumal, Muralidharan; Sharma, Somesh; Pottabathini, Narender; Lakshman, Mahesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Cladribine, 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest on the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O6-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL), T-cell lymphoma (TCL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribo analogue of cladribine possessed activity, but was least active among the C6-NH2-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, only cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active. PMID:26556315

  12. Cladribine Analogues via O⁶-(Benzotriazolyl) Derivatives of Guanine Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Satishkumar, Sakilam; Vuram, Prasanna K; Relangi, Siva Subrahmanyam; Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Zhou, Hong; Kreitman, Robert J; Montemayor, Michelle M Martínez; Yang, Lijia; Kaliyaperumal, Muralidharan; Sharma, Somesh; Pottabathini, Narender; Lakshman, Mahesh K

    2015-10-09

    Cladribine, 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine, is a highly efficacious, clinically used nucleoside for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. It is also being evaluated against other lymphoid malignancies and has been a molecule of interest for well over half a century. In continuation of our interest in the amide bond-activation in purine nucleosides via the use of (benzotriazol-1yl-oxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, we have evaluated the use of O⁶-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-2'-deoxyguanosine as a potential precursor to cladribine and its analogues. These compounds, after appropriate deprotection, were assessed for their biological activities, and the data are presented herein. Against hairy cell leukemia (HCL), T-cell lymphoma (TCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), cladribine was the most active against all. The bromo analogue of cladribine showed comparable activity to the ribose analogue of cladribine against HCL, but was more active against TCL and CLL. The bromo ribose analogue of cladribine showed activity, but was the least active among the C6-NH₂-containing compounds. Substitution with alkyl groups at the exocyclic amino group appears detrimental to activity, and only the C6 piperidinyl cladribine analogue demonstrated any activity. Against adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, cladribine and its ribose analogue were most active.

  13. Evaluation of Anti-HIV-1 Mutagenic Nucleoside Analogues*

    PubMed Central

    Vivet-Boudou, Valérie; Isel, Catherine; El Safadi, Yazan; Smyth, Redmond P.; Laumond, Géraldine; Moog, Christiane; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Because of their high mutation rates, RNA viruses and retroviruses replicate close to the threshold of viability. Their existence as quasi-species has pioneered the concept of “lethal mutagenesis” that prompted us to synthesize pyrimidine nucleoside analogues with antiviral activity in cell culture consistent with an accumulation of deleterious mutations in the HIV-1 genome. However, testing all potentially mutagenic compounds in cell-based assays is tedious and costly. Here, we describe two simple in vitro biophysical/biochemical assays that allow prediction of the mutagenic potential of deoxyribonucleoside analogues. The first assay compares the thermal stabilities of matched and mismatched base pairs in DNA duplexes containing or not the nucleoside analogues as follows. A promising candidate should display a small destabilization of the matched base pair compared with the natural nucleoside and the smallest gap possible between the stabilities of the matched and mismatched base pairs. From this assay, we predicted that two of our compounds, 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine, should be mutagenic. The second in vitro reverse transcription assay assesses DNA synthesis opposite nucleoside analogues inserted into a template strand and subsequent extension of the newly synthesized base pairs. Once again, only 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine are predicted to be efficient mutagens. The predictive potential of our fast and easy first line screens was confirmed by detailed analysis of the mutation spectrum induced by the compounds in cell culture because only compounds 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine were found to increase the mutation frequency by 3.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively. PMID:25398876

  14. An adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008 inhibits EV71 proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shang, Luqing; Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Shu, Bo; Cao, Lin; Lou, Zhiyong; Gong, Peng; Sun, Yuna; Yin, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major causative agents of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD), causes severe pandemics and hundreds of deaths in the Asia-Pacific region annually and is an enormous public health threat. However, effective therapeutic antiviral drugs against EV71 are rare. Nucleoside analogues have been successfully used in the clinic for the treatment of various viral infections. We evaluated a total of 27 nucleoside analogues and discovered that an adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008, which has been reported to be an antiviral reagent that specifically inhibits flaviviruses, effectively suppressed the propagation of different strains of EV71 in RD, 293T and Vero cells with a relatively high selectivity index. Triphosphorylated NITD008 (ppp-NITD008) functions as a chain terminator to directly inhibit the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of EV71, and it does not affect the EV71 VPg uridylylation process. A significant synergistic anti-EV71 effect of NITD008 with rupintrivir (AG7088) (a protease inhibitor) was documented, supporting the potential combination therapy of NITD008 with other inhibitors for the treatment of EV71 infections.

  15. Magnetic chitosan beads for covalent immobilization of nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase: application in nucleoside analogues synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Lucas, Jesús; Harris, Ruth; Mata-Casar, Iria; Heras, Angeles; de la Mata, Isabel; Arroyo, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    Cross-linked magnetic chitosan beads were prepared in presence of epichlorohydrin under alkaline conditions, and subsequently incubated with glutaraldehyde in order to obtain an activated support for covalent attachment of nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase from Lactobacillus reuteri (LrNDT). Changing the amount of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) and epichlorohydrin (EPI) led to different macroscopic beads to be used as supports for enzyme immobilization, whose morphology and properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, spin electron resonance (ESR), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Once activated with glutaraldehyde, the best support was chosen after evaluation of immobilization yield and product yield in the synthesis of thymidine from 2'-deoxyuridine and thymine. In addition, optimal conditions for highest activity of immobilized LrNDT on magnetic chitosan were determined by response surface methodology (RSM). Immobilized biocatalyst retained 50 % of its maximal activity after 56.3 h at 60 °C, whereas 100 % activity was observed after storage at 40 °C for 144 h. This novel immobilized biocatalyst has been successfully employed in the enzymatic synthesis of 2'-deoxyribonucleoside analogues as well as arabinosyl-nucleosides such as vidarabine (ara-A) and cytarabine (ara-C). Furthermore, this is the first report which describes the enzymatic synthesis of these arabinosyl-nucleosides catalyzed by an immobilized nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase. Finally, the attached enzyme to magnetic chitosan beads could be easily recovered and recycled for 30 consecutive batch reactions with negligible loss of catalytic activity in the synthesis of 2,6-diaminopurine-2'-deoxyriboside and 5-trifluorothymidine.

  16. A general approach to the synthesis of 5-S-functionalized pyrimidine nucleosides and their analogues.

    PubMed

    Kananovich, Dzmitry G; Reino, Alli; Ilmarinen, Kaja; Rõõmusoks, Marko; Karelson, Mati; Lopp, Margus

    2014-08-14

    A general and efficient approach was developed for the introduction of S-functionality at the C-5 position of cytosine and uracil nucleosides and their analogues. The key step is a palladium-catalyzed C-S coupling of the corresponding 5-bromo nucleoside derivative and alkyl thiol. The butyl 3-mercaptopropionate coupling products were further converted to the corresponding disulphides, the stable precursors of 5-mercaptopyrimidine nucleosides.

  17. Seven-Membered Ring Nucleoside Analogues: Stereoselective Synthesis and Studies on Their Conformational Properties.

    PubMed

    Habibian, Maryam; Martínez-Montero, Saúl; Portella, Guillem; Chua, Zhijie; Bohle, D Scott; Orozco, Modesto; Damha, Masad J

    2015-11-06

    The synthesis of a novel series of seven-membered ring nucleoside analogues as candidates for biological screening and gene silencing applications is described. The key step in the synthetic approach is a stereoselective synthesis of an epoxide that is used as a common synthetic intermediate to prepare functionalized oxepane nucleoside derivatives. The conformational landscape and preferred ring-puckering of selected oxepane nucleosides was also studied by NMR, X-ray crystallography, and quantum mechanical calculations.

  18. Structure-activity relationships of β-hydroxyphosphonate nucleoside analogues as cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase II potential inhibitors: synthesis, in vitro evaluation and molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Meurillon, Maïa; Marton, Zsuzsanna; Hospital, Audrey; Jordheim, Lars Petter; Béjaud, Jérôme; Lionne, Corinne; Dumontet, Charles; Périgaud, Christian; Chaloin, Laurent; Peyrottes, Suzanne

    2014-04-22

    The cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase II (cN-II) has been proposed as an attractive molecular target for the development of novel drugs circumventing resistance to cytotoxic nucleoside analogues currently used for treating leukemia and other malignant hemopathies. In the present work, synthesis of β-hydroxyphosphonate nucleoside analogues incorporating modifications either on the sugar residue or the nucleobase, and their in vitro evaluation towards the purified enzyme were carried out in order to determine their potency towards the inhibition of cN-II. In addition to the biochemical investigations, molecular modeling studies revealed important structural features for binding affinities towards the target enzyme.

  19. Nucleoside H-boranophosphonates: a new class of boron-containing nucleotide analogues.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Renpei; Oka, Natsuhisa; Kawanaka, Toshihide; Wada, Takeshi

    2009-05-14

    A study on the synthesis of nucleoside H-boranophosphonates, a new class of nucleotide analogues having a P-->BH(3) and a P-H group, via condensation of the corresponding nucleosides with H-boranophosphonate derivatives is described.

  20. Novel inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth based on modified pyrimidine nucleosides and their analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmalenyuk, E. R.; Kochetkov, S. N.; Alexandrova, L. A.

    2013-09-01

    The review summarizes data on the synthesis and antituberculosis activity of pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives and their analogues. Enzymes from M. tuberculosis as promising targets for prototypes of new-generation drugs are considered. Nucleosides as inhibitors of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains are characterized. The bibliography includes 101 references.

  1. Synthesis and cytotoxicity properties of amiodarone analogues.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Laurent; Spirli, Carlo; Fiorotto, Romina; Pettenazzo, Andrea; Duner, Elena; Baritussio, Aldo; Follath, Ferenc; Ha, Huy Riem

    2007-06-01

    Amiodarone (AMI) is a potent antiarrhythmic agent; however, its clinical use is limited due to numerous side effects. In order to investigate the structure--cytotoxicity relationship, AMI analogues were synthesized, and then, using rabbit alveolar macrophages, were tested for viability and for the ability to interfere with the degradation of surfactant protein A (SP-A) and with the accumulation of an acidotropic dye. Our data revealed that modification of the diethylamino-beta-ethoxy group of the AMI molecule may affect viability, the ability to degrade SP-A and vacuolation differently. In particular, PIPAM (2d), an analogue with a piperidyl moiety, acts toward the cells in a similar manner to AMI, but is less toxic. Thus, it would be possible to reduce the cytotoxicity of AMI by modifying its chemical structure.

  2. Carbocyclic nucleoside analogues: classification, target enzymes, mechanisms of action and synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyugina, E. S.; Khandazhinskaya, A. P.; Kochetkov, Sergei N.

    2012-08-01

    Key biological targets (S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, telomerase, human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase, herpes virus DNA polymerase and hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase) and the mechanisms of action of carbocyclic nucleoside analogues are considered. Structural types of analogues are discussed. Methods of synthesis for the most promising compounds and the spectrum of their biological activities are described. The bibliography includes 126 references.

  3. Synthesis and Anti-HIV Activity of Novel 2'-Deoxy-2'-β-Fluoro-Threosyl Nucleoside Phosphonic Acid Analogues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seyeon; Hong, Joon Hee

    2015-01-01

    Novel 2'-deoxy-2'-β-fluoro-threose purine phosphonic acid analogues were designed and racemically synthesized from 2-propanone-1,3-diacetate. Condensation successfully proceeded from a glycosyl donor 9 under Vorbrüggen conditions. Cross-metathesis of vinyl analogues 13 and 23 with diethyl vinylphosphonate yielded the desired nucleoside phosphonate analogues 14 and 24, respectively. Ammonolysis and hydrolysis of phosphonates yielded the nucleoside phosphonic acid analogues 16, 19, 26, and 29. The synthesized nucleoside analogues were subjected to antiviral screening against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. Adenine analogue 18 exhibited weak in vitro activities against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1.

  4. Analogues of uracil nucleosides with intrinsic fluorescence (NIF-analogues): synthesis and photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Segal, Meirav; Fischer, Bilha

    2012-02-28

    Uridine cannot be utilized as fluorescent probe due to its extremely low quantum yield. For improving the uracil fluorescence characteristics we extended the natural chromophore at the C5 position by coupling substituted aromatic rings directly or via an alkenyl or alkynyl linker to create fluorophores. Extension of the uracil base was achieved by treating 5-I-uridine with the appropriate boronic acid under the Suzuki coupling conditions. Analogues containing an alkynyl linker were obtained from 5-I-uridine and the suitable boronic acid in a Sonogashira coupling reaction. The uracil fluorescent analogues proposed here were designed to satisfy the following requirements: a minimal chemical modification at a position not involved in base-pairing, resulting in relatively long absorption and emission wavelengths and high quantum yield. 5-((4-Methoxy-phenyl)-trans-vinyl)-2'-deoxy-uridine, 6b, was found to be a promising fluorescent probe. Probe 6b exhibits a quantum yield that is 3000-fold larger than that of the natural chromophore (Φ 0.12), maximum emission (478 nm) which is 170 nm red shifted as compared to uridine, and a Stokes shift of 143 nm. In addition, since probe 6b adopts the anti conformation and S sugar puckering favored by B-DNA, it makes a promising nucleoside analogue to be incorporated in an oligonucleotide probe for detection of genetic material.

  5. A convenient synthesis of a novel nucleoside analogue: 4-(alpha-diformyl-methyl)-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyrimidinone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, K.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The nucleoside analogue 4-(alpha-diformyl-methyl)-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyrimidinone (5) was prepared from the corresponding 4-methyl pyrimidinone nucleoside by means of the Vilsmeier reaction. The unprotected nucleoside can be phosphorylated directly with phosphorus oxychloride in triethyl phosphate.

  6. A convenient synthesis of a novel nucleoside analogue: 4-(alpha-diformyl-methyl)-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyrimidinone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, K.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The nucleoside analogue 4-(alpha-diformyl-methyl)-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyrimidinone (5) was prepared from the corresponding 4-methyl pyrimidinone nucleoside by means of the Vilsmeier reaction. The unprotected nucleoside can be phosphorylated directly with phosphorus oxychloride in triethyl phosphate.

  7. Synthesis and photophysical characterisation of a fluorescent nucleoside analogue that signals the presence of an abasic site in RNA.

    PubMed

    Tanpure, Arun A; Srivatsan, Seergazhi G

    2012-11-05

    The synthesis and site-specific incorporation of an environment-sensitive fluorescent nucleoside analogue (2), based on a 5-(benzofuran-2-yl)pyrimidine core, into DNA oligonucleotides (ONs), and its photophysical properties within these ONs are described. Interestingly and unlike 2-aminopurine (a widely used nucleoside analogue probe), when incorporated into an ON and hybridised with a complementary ON, the emissive nucleoside 2 displays significantly higher emission intensity than the free nucleoside. Furthermore, photophysical characterisation shows that the fluorescence properties of the nucleoside analogue within ONs are significantly influenced by flanking bases, especially by guanosine. By utilising the responsiveness of the nucleoside to changes in base environment, a DNA ON reporter labelled with the emissive nucleoside 2 was constructed; this signalled the presence of an abasic site in a model depurinated sarcin/ricin RNA motif of a eukaryotic 28S rRNA.

  8. Flaviviridae viruses use a common molecular mechanism to escape nucleoside analogue inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Valdés, James J; Butterill, Philip T; Růžek, Daniel

    2017-03-18

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of Flaviviridae viruses are crucial for replication. The Flaviviridae polymerase is organized into structural motifs (A-G), with motifs F, A, C and E containing interrogating, priming and catalytic substrate-interacting sites. Modified nucleoside analogues act as antiviral drugs by targeting Flaviviridae polymerases and integrating into the synthesized product causing premature termination. A threonine mutation of a conserved serine residue in motif B of Flaviviridae polymerases renders resistance to 2'-C-methylated nucleoside analogues. The mechanism how this single mutation causes Flaviviridae viruses to escape nucleoside analogues is not yet known. Given the pivotal position of the serine residue in motif B that supports motif F, we hypothesized the threonine mutation causes alterations in nucleoside exploration within the entry tunnel. Implementing a stochastic molecular software showed the all-atom 2'-C-methylated analogue reaction within the active sites of wild type and serine-threonine mutant polymerases from Hepacivirus and Flavivirus. Compared with the wild type, the serine-threonine mutant polymerases caused a significant decrease of analogue contacts with conserved interrogating residues in motif F and a displacement of metal ion cofactors. The simulations significantly showed that during the analogue exploration of the active site the hydrophobic methyl group in the serine-threonine mutant repels water-mediated hydrogen bonds with the 2'-C-methylated analogue, causing a concentration of water-mediated bonds at the substrate-interacting sites. Collectively, the data are an insight into a molecular escape mechanism by Flaviviridae viruses from 2'-C-methylated nucleoside analogue inhibitors.

  9. Synthesis of some novel hydrazono acyclic nucleoside analogues

    PubMed Central

    Khalafi-Nezhad, Ali; Behrouz, Somayeh

    2010-01-01

    Summary The syntheses of novel hydrazono acyclic nucleosides similar to miconazole scaffolds are described. In this series of acyclic nucleosides, pyrimidine as well as purine and other azole derivatives replaced the imidazole function in miconazole and the ether group was replaced with a hydrazone moiety using phenylhydrazine. To interpret the dominant formation of (E)-hydrazone derivatives rather than (Z)-isomers, PM3 semiempirical quantum mechanic calculations were carried out which indicated that the (E)-isomers had the lower heats of formation. PMID:20563270

  10. L-Enantiomers of Transition State Analogue Inhibitors Bound to Human Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldo-Matthis,A.; Murkin, A.; Ramagopal, U.; Clinch, K.; Mee, S.; Evans, G.; Tyler, P.; Furneaux, R.; Almo, S.; Schramm, v.

    2008-01-01

    Human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) was crystallized with transition-state analogue inhibitors Immucillin-H and DADMe-Immucillin-H synthesized with ribosyl mimics of l-stereochemistry. The inhibitors demonstrate that major driving forces for tight binding of these analogues are the leaving group interaction and the cationic mimicry of the transition state, even though large geometric changes occur with d-Immucillins and l-Immucillins bound to human PNP.

  11. Quantitative Detection of Nucleoside Analogues by Multi-enzyme Biosensors using Time-Resolved Kinetic Measurements.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Pravin; Lutz, Stefan

    2016-04-05

    Fast, simple and cost-effective methods for detecting and quantifying pharmaceutical agents in patients are highly sought after to replace equipment and labor-intensive analytical procedures. The development of new diagnostic technology including portable detection devices also enables point-of-care by non-specialists in resource-limited environments. We have focused on the detection and dose monitoring of nucleoside analogues used in viral and cancer therapies. Using deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) as biosensors, our chemometric model compares observed time-resolved kinetics of unknown analytes to known substrate interactions across multiple enzymes. The resulting dataset can simultaneously identify and quantify multiple nucleosides and nucleoside analogues in complex sample mixtures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of novel cyclopentenyl nucleoside analogues of 8-azapurine.

    PubMed

    Canoa, Pilar; González-Moa, María J; Teijeira, Marta; Terán, Carmen; Uriarte, Eugenio; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik

    2006-10-01

    Novel nucleoside analogues of structure 3-5 were synthesized starting from (+/-)-cis-2-amino-3-cyclopentenylmethanol (1). The chlorine derivative 3 inhibited both HIV-1 and HIV-2 replication in MT-4 cells with IC(50) values of 10.67 microM and of 13.79 microM, respectively.

  13. [Synthesis, conformation, and spectroscopy of nucleoside analogues concerning their antiviral activity].

    PubMed

    Kuśmierek, Jarosław T; Stolarski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Chemically modified analogues of nucleosides and nucleotides, have been thoroughly investigated since the discovery of DNA double helix by Watson and Crick in 1953 (Nature 171: 737). Chemical structures, first of all tautomerism, of the nucleic acid bases, as well as the conformations of the nucleic acids constituents, determine the secondary and tertiary structures of DNA and RNA polymers. Similarly, structural and dynamic parameters of nucleoside derivatives determine their biological activity in mutagenesis, neoplastic transformation, as well as antiviral or anticancer properties. In this review, a multidisciplinary approach of Prof. David Shugar's group is presented in the studies on nucleosides and nucleotides. It consists in chemical syntheses of suitable analogues, measurements of physicochemical and spectral parameters, conformational analysis by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray diffraction, as well as characteristics of the nucleoside analogues as inhibitors of some selected, target enzymes, crucial in respect to antiviral activity of the analogues. These long-lasting studies follows upon the line of the main paradigm of molecular biophysics, i. e. structure-activity relationship.

  14. Solution conformations of nucleoside analogues exhibiting antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Sandra; Benevides, James M.; Thomas, George J.

    1991-01-01

    The molecular-conformational basis for HIV-1 antiviral activity of dideoxynucleoside analogues is unknown. A recent proposal by van Roey [1] that furanose sugar puckering in the C2' -endo family (namely C3' -exo) may account for the enhanced anti-HIV-1 activity of azidothymidine (AZT), dideoxythymidine (ddT) and dideoxycytidine (ddC) has been tested by conformational analysis of these and related agents, using laser Raman spectroscopy of their solutions and crystal structures. The results show that nucleoside analogues exhibiting anti-HIV-1 activity, including AZT, ddT and ddC, exist in solution with C3' -endo as the predominating sugar pucker. The C3' -endo solution conformations differ fundamentally from the C3' -exo conformations observed in the corresponding crystal structures. Accordingly, the crystal conformation cannot be responsible for enhanced recognition of these agents, either by nucleoside kinase or reverse transcriptase, as a mechanism to explain antiviral activity. The present findings suggest that C3' -endo sugear pucker, rather than C3' -exo pucker, or other puckers of the C2' -endo family, is more probably the required conformation for antivaral activity. The present work also shows that nucleoside phosphorylation does not, in general, change the preferred solution conformation of a nucleoside. Therefore, C3' -endo sugar pucker is likely to be the preferred conformation for both nucleoside kinase and reverse transcriptase recognition. In this study, the list of thymidine nucleoside conformation markers available from Raman spectra is extended and additional group frequency assignments for C3' -azido, C3' -deoxy and related nucleoside derivatives are provided.

  15. Carbacaprazamycins: Chemically Stable Analogues of the Caprazamycin Nucleoside Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Mayumi; Hsuan, Lee Shang; Kato, Yuta; Matsuda, Akira

    2015-04-10

    Carbacaprazamycins, which are chemically stable analogues of caprazamycins, were designed and synthesized. These analogues were active against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and their activities were comparable to those of the parent caprazamycins. The effect of treatment with carbacaprazamycin on morphological changes in S. aureus indicated that the mode of action was completely different from those of existing peptidoglycan inhibitors.

  16. Polymerization of the cyclic pyrophosphates of nucleosides and their analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tohidi, Mahrokh; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    When 2-prime-deoxythymidine 3-prime, 5-prime-cyclic diphosphate, or the cyclic pyrophosphates of the acyclic nucleoside analogs II and IV are heated to 65-85 C in the presence of imidazole, oligomers with lengths up to 20-30 are formed in excellent yield. This reaction provides a useful source of oligomers for use as templates in aqueous condensation reactions. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, it is assumed that the oligomers are atactic. The potential significance of this reaction in prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

  17. Polymerization of the cyclic pyrophosphates of nucleosides and their analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tohidi, Mahrokh; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    When 2-prime-deoxythymidine 3-prime, 5-prime-cyclic diphosphate, or the cyclic pyrophosphates of the acyclic nucleoside analogs II and IV are heated to 65-85 C in the presence of imidazole, oligomers with lengths up to 20-30 are formed in excellent yield. This reaction provides a useful source of oligomers for use as templates in aqueous condensation reactions. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, it is assumed that the oligomers are atactic. The potential significance of this reaction in prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

  18. The chemistry of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) analogues containing C-nucleosides related to nicotinamide riboside.

    PubMed

    Pankiewicz, Krzysztof W; Watanabe, Kyoichi A; Lesiak-Watanabe, Krystyna; Goldstein, Barry M; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N

    2002-04-01

    Oncolytic C-nucleosides, tiazofurin (2-beta-D-ribofuranosylthiazole-4-carboxamide) and benzamide riboside (3-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzamide) are converted in cell into active metabolites thiazole-4-carboxamide- and benzamide adenine dinucleotide, TAD and BAD, respectively. TAD and BAD as NAD analogues were found to bind at the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (cofactor NAD) site of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), an important target in cancer treatment. The synthesis and evaluation of anticancer activity of a number of C-nucleosides related to tiazofurin and nicotinamide riboside then followed and are reviewed herein. Interestingly, pyridine C-nucleosides (such as C-nicotinamide riboside) are not metabolized into the corresponding NAD analogues in cell. Their conversion by chemical methods is described. As dinucleotides these compounds show inhibition of IMPDH in low micromolar level. Also, the synthesis of BAD in metabolically stable bis(phosphonate) form is discussed indicating the usefulness of such preformed inhibitors in drug development. Among tiazofurin analogues, Franchetti and Grifantini found, that the replacement of the sulfur by oxygen (as in oxazafurin) but not the removal of nitrogen (tiophenfurin) of the thiazole ring resulted in inactive compounds. The anti cancer activity of their synthetic dinucleotide analogues indicate that inactive compounds are not only poorly metabolized in cell but also are weak inhibitors of IMPDH as dinucleotides.

  19. Synthesis of (carbo)nucleoside analogues by [3+2] annulation of aminocyclopropanes.

    PubMed

    Racine, Sophie; de Nanteuil, Florian; Serrano, Eloisa; Waser, Jérôme

    2014-08-04

    (Carbo)nucleoside derivatives constitute an important class of pharmaceuticals, yet there are only few convergent methods to access new analogues. Here, we report the first synthesis of thymine-, uracil-, and 5-fluorouracil-substituted diester donor-acceptor cyclopropanes and their use in the indium- and tin-catalyzed [3+2] annulations with aldehydes, ketones, and enol ethers. The obtained diester products could be easily decarboxylated and reduced to the corresponding alcohols. The method gives access to a broad range of new (carbo)nucleoside analogues in only four or five steps and will be highly useful for the synthesis of libraries of bioactive compounds. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Stereoselective synthesis of carbocyclic analogues of the nucleoside Q precursor (PreQ0)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary A convergent and stereoselective synthesis of chiral cyclopentyl- and cyclohexylamine derivatives of nucleoside Q precursor (PreQ0) has been accomplished. This synthetic route allows for an efficient preparation of 4-substituted analogues with interesting three-dimensional character, including chiral cyclopentane-1,2-diol and -1,2,3-triol derivatives. This unusual substitution pattern provides a useful starting point for the discovery of novel bioactive molecules. PMID:24991286

  1. Antibody mediated fluorescence enhancement of nucleoside analogue 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine (tC°).

    PubMed

    Sellrie, Frank; Lenz, Christine; Andersson, Anika; Wilhelmsson, L Marcus; Schenk, Jörg A

    2014-06-01

    We report on the generation and analytical application of the monoclonal antibody G93-ED2 raised against the tricyclic fluorescent nucleoside analogue 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine (tC°). G93-ED2 is specifically binding this deoxycytidine analogue and was found to raise its fluorescence intensity by a factor of 5. This unique feature makes it a valuable tool in fluorescence dependent immunoassays. G93-ED2 was successfully applied in a homogeneous fluorescence quenching immunoassay (DNA-Q) for the sequence specific determination of DNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Squalenoyl nucleoside monophosphate nanoassemblies: new prodrug strategy for the delivery of nucleotide analogues.

    PubMed

    Caron, Joachim; Reddy, L Harivardhan; Lepêtre-Mouelhi, Sinda; Wack, Séverine; Clayette, Pascal; Rogez-Kreuz, Christine; Yousfi, Rahima; Couvreur, Patrick; Desmaële, Didier

    2010-05-01

    4-(N)-1,1',2-trisnor-squalenoyldideoxycytidine monophosphate (SQddC-MP) and 4-(N)-1,1',2-trisnor-squalenoylgemcitabine monophosphate (SQdFdC-MP) were synthesized using phosphoramidite chemistry. These amphiphilic molecules self-assembled to about hundred nanometers size nanoassemblies in aqueous medium. Nanoassemblies of SQddC-MP displayed significant anti-HIV activity whereas SQdFdC-MP nanoassemblies displayed promising anticancer activity on leukemia cells. These results suggested that squalene conjugate of negatively charged nucleotide analogues efficiently penetrated within cells. Thus, we propose a new prodrug strategy for improved delivery of nucleoside analogues to ameliorate their biological efficacy.

  3. A New Alkylation-Elimination Method for Synthesis of Antiviral Fluoromethylenecyclopropane Analogues of Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shaoman; Zemlicka, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    A new method for the synthesis of fluoromethylenecyclopropane nucleosides by alkylation-elimination procedure is described. Fluorination of methylenecyclopropane carboxylate 6 gave fluoroester 7. Treatment of 7 with phenylselenenyl bromide afforded the desired ethyl (E)-2-bromomethyl-1-fluoro-2-phenylselenenylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate 11 in 85% yield. DIBALH reduction of 11 gave 13, which after acetylation to 14 was reacted with 2-amino-6-chloropurine to give the 9-alkylated product 15 in 87% yield. Se-oxydation of 15 with hydrogen peroxide afforded 16, which underwent smooth elimination in a mixture of THF-DMF at 60 °C giving rise to a Z,E mixture of protected nucleosides 17. Deacetylation gave Z-1a and E-1a which were separated on a silica gel column. Both Z-1a and E-1a were converted into the respective guanine analogues Z-1b and E-1b. PMID:16801980

  4. Intracellular Metabolism of Nucleoside/Nucleotide Analogues: a Bottleneck to Reach Active Drugs on HIV Reverse Transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Varga, Andrea; Lionne, Corinne; Roy, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    To date, the most effective way to treat HIV is to use a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) that combines three or more different drugs. The usual regimen consists of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and either a protease inhibitor, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or an integrase strand transfer inhibitor. Due to the emerging resistance against the nucleoside analogues in use, there is a continuous need for the development of such therapeutic molecules with different structural features. In this review, we would like to summarize the state of knowledge of the antiretroviral nucleoside analogues intracellular metabolism. Indeed, these molecules have to be phosphorylated in the cell, a process that is often a bottleneck, to produce their pharmacologically active triphosphorylated forms. These forms can be used by the HIV reverse transcriptase. Because they lack a 3'-hydroxyl group, they block further extension of the viral DNA, and finally lead to early chain termination. Several kinases can act on the phosphorylation of these drugs; most of them have low nucleoside/nucleotide specificity. On the other hand, there are also nucleotidases in the cell, which can reverse the phosphorylation process, thus shifting the equilibrium from the active triphosphorylated state to the non-active (not-, mono- or di-phosphorylated) states of these analogues. Here, we would like to bring to the attention of the medicinal chemists that they have to take into account the limitation of the intracellular phosphorylation machinery when designing new nucleoside analogue drugs.

  5. Potent and selective inhibition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) by nucleoside analogues with an unusual bicyclic base.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, C; Yarnold, C J; Jones, G; Velázquez, S; Barucki, H; Brancale, A; Andrei, G; Snoeck, R; De Clercq, E; Balzarini, J

    1999-11-04

    We herein report the discovery of an entirely new category of potent antiviral agents based on novel deoxynucleoside analogues with unusual bicyclic base moieties. Target structures, previously known as byproducts in Pd-catalyzed coupling of terminal alkynes with 5-iodo-nucleosides, are recognized herein for the first time to be potent and selective inhibitors of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in vitro. As an unusual structure-activity relationship we noted the absolute requirement of a long alkyl side chain, with an optimum length of C(8)-C(10), for antiviral activity. We thus report the synthesis and characterization of a series of chain-modified analogues and their extensive in vitro evaluation. The lead compounds have a ca. 300-fold enhancement in anti-VZV activity over the reference compound acyclovir, with no detectable in vitro cytotoxicity. The novel structure of these compounds, coupled with their ease of synthesis, excellent antiviral profile, and promising physical properties, makes them of great interest for possible antiviral drug development.

  6. Design and synthesis of α-carboxy nucleoside phosphonate analogues and evaluation as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase-targeting agents.

    PubMed

    Keane, Sarah J; Ford, Alan; Mullins, Nicholas D; Maguire, Nuala M; Legigan, Thibaut; Balzarini, Jan; Maguire, Anita R

    2015-03-06

    The synthesis of the first series of a new class of nucleoside phosphonate analogues is described. Addition of a carboxyl group at the α position of carbocyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues leads to a novel class of potent HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors, α-carboxy nucleoside phosphonates (α-CNPs). Key steps in the synthesis of the compounds are Rh-catalyzed O-H insertion and Pd-catalyzed allylation reactions. In cell-free assays, the final products are markedly inhibitory against HIV RT and do not require phosphorylation to exhibit anti-RT activity, which indicates that the α-carboxyphosphonate function is efficiently recognized by HIV RT as a triphosphate entity, an unprecedented property of nucleoside monophosph(on)ates.

  7. Ring Expanded Nucleoside Analogues Inhibit RNA Helicase and Intracellular Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Yedavalli, Venkat S.R.K; Zhang, Ning; Cai, Hongyi; Zhang, Peng; Starost, Matthew F.; Hosmane, Ramachandra S.; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2008-01-01

    A series of ring expanded nucleoside (REN) analogues were synthesized and screened for inhibition of cellular RNA helicase activity and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We identified two compounds 1 and 2 that inhibited the ATP dependent activity of human RNA helicase DDX3. Compounds 1 and 2 also suppressed HIV-1 replication in T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Neither compound at therapeutic doses was significantly toxic in ex vivo cell culture or in vivo in mice. Our findings provide proof-of-concept that a cellular factor, an RNA helicase, could be targeted for inhibiting HIV-1 replication. PMID:18680273

  8. Synthesis of cyclobutane nucleosides 2-preparation of thymine and uracil analogues.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Hanan; Ebead, Abdelaziz; Pignatelli, Joseph; Lee-Ruff, Edward

    2015-01-01

    1-(2-Oxocyclobutyl-4-benzoyloxymethyl)-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione and 1-(2-oxocyclobutyl-4-benzoyloxymethyl)-5-methyl-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione can be prepared by reaction of uracil and thymine, respectively, with 3-benzoyloxymethyl-2-bromocyclobutanone. The N-alkylation gave both cis and trans isomers with the trans isomer predominating for uracil whereas the trans isomer was the only product which could be isolated for thymine. Both series were subjected to borohydride reduction followed by transesterification with methoxide giving the corresponding uracil and thymine nucleoside analogues. The uracil derivative 1-(2-oxocyclobutyl-4-benzoyloxymethyl)-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione was irradiated in aqueous acetonitrile to generate isonucleoside analogues.

  9. Environment-responsive fluorescent nucleoside analogue probe for studying oligonucleotide dynamics in a model cell-like compartment.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Maroti G; Srivatsan, Seergazhi G

    2013-11-21

    The majority of fluorescent nucleoside analogue probes that have been used in the in vitro study of nucleic acids are not suitable for cell-based biophysical assays because they exhibit excitation maxima in the UV region and low quantum yields within oligonucleotides. Therefore, we propose that the photophysical characterization of oligonucleotides labeled with a fluorescent nucleoside analogue in reverse micelles (RM), which are good biological membrane models and UV-transparent, could provide an alternative approach to studying the properties of nucleic acids in a cell-like confined environment. In this context, we describe the photophysical properties of an environment-sensitive fluorescent uridine analogue (1), based on the 5-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)pyrimidine core, in micelles and RM. The emissive nucleoside, which is polarity- and viscosity-sensitive, reports the environment of the surfactant assemblies via changes in its fluorescence properties. The nucleoside analogue, incorporated into an RNA oligonucleotide and hybridized to its complementary DNA and RNA oligonucleotides, exhibits a significantly higher fluorescence intensity, lifetime, and anisotropy in RM than in aqueous buffer, which is consistent with the environment of RM. Collectively, our results demonstrate that nucleoside 1 could be utilized as a fluorescent label to study the function of nucleic acids in a model cellular milieu.

  10. Studies on yeast nucleoside triphosphate-nucleoside diphosphate transphosphorylase (nucleoside diphosphokinase). IV. Steady-state kinetic properties with thymidine nucleotides (including 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine analogues).

    PubMed

    Kuby, S A; Fleming, G; Alber, T; Richardson, D; Takenaka, H; Hamada, M

    1991-01-01

    A study of the steady-state kinetics of the crystalline brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces carlsbergensis) nucleoside diphosphokinase, with the magnesium complexes of the adenine and thymidine nucleotides as reactants, has led to a postulated kinetic mechanism which proceeds through a substituted enzyme. This agrees with the earlier conclusions of Garces and Cleland [Biochemistry 1969; 8:633-640] who characterized a reaction between the magnesium complexes of the adenine and uridine nucleotides. An advantage of using thymidine nucleotides as reactants is that they permit accurate, rapid and continuous assays of the enzymatic activity in coupled-enzymatic tests. Through measurements of the initial velocities and product inhibition studies, the Michaelis constants, maximum velocities, and inhibition constants could be evaluated for the individual substrates. Competitive substrate inhibition was encountered at relatively high substrate concentrations, which also permitted an evaluation of their ability to act as 'dead-end' inhibitors. The Michaelis constants for the 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AzT) analogues were also evaluated and, although these values were only somewhat higher than those of their natural substrates, the Km's for the adenine nucleotides as paired substrates were lower and the Vmax's were drastically reduced. The pharmacological implications of these observations are touched upon and extrapolated to the cases where therapeutic doses of AzT may be employed.

  11. Emerging role of riboflavin in the treatment of nucleoside analogue-induced type B lactic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Dalton, S D; Rahimi, A R

    2001-12-01

    Type B lactic acidosis is a rare and often fatal complication seen in patients receiving the nucleotide analogues zidovudine, stavudine, didanosine, and lamivudine. We describe a case of a 51-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive woman receiving three nucleotide analogues. She presented with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and hepatic steatosis. Signs of mitochondrial toxicity were demonstrated by diffuse myopathy and pancreatitis. Serum riboflavin levels documented a deficiency that was treated with 50 mg of riboflavin daily. Immediately after treatment, serum blood urea nitrogen level, lactic acid levels, and arterial blood pH all returned to normal values. Her signs of mitochondrial toxicity also improved after treatment with riboflavin. Successful reversal of the patient's type B lactic acidosis after riboflavin therapy suggested that riboflavin deficiency plays a direct role in the development of nucleotide analogue-induced lactic acidosis. It is impossible to predict which patients are predisposed to the development of this syndrome. For this reason, it may be important to screen and treat riboflavin deficiency in patients on nucleoside analogues.

  12. Reactions of β-Propiolactone with Nucleobase Analogues, Nucleosides, and Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Uittenbogaard, Joost P.; Zomer, Bert; Hoogerhout, Peter; Metz, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    β-Propiolactone is often applied for inactivation of viruses and preparation of viral vaccines. However, the exact nature of the reactions of β-propiolactone with viral components is largely unknown. The purpose of the current study was to elucidate the chemical modifications occurring on nucleotides and amino acid residues caused by β-propiolactone. Therefore, a set of nucleobase analogues was treated with β-propiolactone, and reaction products were identified and quantified. NMR revealed at least one modification in either deoxyguanosine, deoxyadenosine, or cytidine after treatment with β-propiolactone. However, no reaction products were found from thymidine and uracil. The most reactive sides of the nucleobase analogues and nucleosides were identified by NMR. Furthermore, a series of synthetic peptides was used to determine the conversion of reactive amino acid residues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. β-Propiolactone was shown to react with nine different amino acid residues. The most reactive residues are cysteine, methionine, and histidine and, to a lesser degree, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, tyrosine, lysine, serine, and threonine. Remarkably, cystine residues (disulfide groups) do not react with β-propiolactone. In addition, no reaction was observed for β-propiolactone with asparagine, glutamine, and tryptophan residues. β-Propiolactone modifies proteins to a larger extent than expected from current literature. In conclusion, the study determined the reactivity of β-propiolactone with nucleobase analogues, nucleosides, and amino acid residues and elucidated the chemical structures of the reaction products. The study provides detailed knowledge on the chemistry of β-propiolactone inactivation of viruses. PMID:21868382

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of thymidine kinase 1-targeting carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues for boron neutron capture therapy of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Hitesh K.; Khalil, Ahmed; Ishita, Keisuke; Yang, Weilian; Nakkula, Robin J.; Wu, Lai-Chu; Ali, Tehane; Tiwari, Rohit; Byun, Youngjoo; Barth, Rolf F.; Tjarks, Werner

    2015-01-01

    A library of sixteen 2nd generation amino- and amido-substituted carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues, designed as substrates and inhibitors of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) for potential use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer, was synthesized and evaluated in enzyme kinetic-, enzyme inhibition-, metabolomic-, and biodistribution studies. One of these 2nd generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues (YB18A [3]), having an amino group directly attached to a meta-carborane cage tethered via ethylene spacer to the 3-position of thymidine, was approximately 3–4 times superior as a substrate and inhibitor of hTK1 than N5-2OH (2), a 1st generation carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogue. Both 2 and 3 appeared to be 5′-monophosphorylated in TK1(+) RG2 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution studies in rats bearing intracerebral RG2 glioma resulted in selective tumor uptake of 3 with an intratumoral concentration that was approximately 4 times higher than that of 2. The obtained results significantly advance the understanding of the binding interactions between TK1 and carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues and will profoundly impact future design strategies for these agents. PMID:26087030

  14. Four Generations of Transition State Analogues for Human Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, M.; Shi, W; Rinaldo-Mathis, A; Tyler, P; Evans, G; Almo, S; Schramm, V

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) stops growth of activated T-cells and the formation of 6-oxypurine bases, making it a target for leukemia, autoimmune disorders, and gout. Four generations of ribocation transition-state mimics bound to PNP are structurally characterized. Immucillin-H (K*{sub i} = 58 pM, first-generation) contains an iminoribitol cation with four asymmetric carbons. DADMe-Immucillin-H (K*{sub i} = 9 pM, second-generation), uses a methylene-bridged dihydroxypyrrolidine cation with two asymmetric centers. DATMe-Immucillin-H (K*{sub i} = 9 pM, third-generation) contains an open-chain amino alcohol cation with two asymmetric carbons. SerMe-ImmH (K*{sub i} = 5 pM, fourth-generation) uses achiral dihydroxyaminoalcohol seramide as the ribocation mimic. Crystal structures of PNPs establish features of tight binding to be; (1) ion-pair formation between bound phosphate (or its mimic) and inhibitor cation, (2) leaving-group interactions to N1, O6, and N7 of 9-deazahypoxanthine, (3) interaction between phosphate and inhibitor hydroxyl groups, and (4) His257 interacting with the 5{prime}-hydroxyl group. The first generation analogue is an imperfect fit to the catalytic site with a long ion pair distance between the iminoribitol and bound phosphate and weaker interactions to the leaving group. Increasing the ribocation to leaving-group distance in the second- to fourth-generation analogues provides powerful binding interactions and a facile synthetic route to powerful inhibitors. Despite chemical diversity in the four generations of transition-state analogues, the catalytic site geometry is almost the same for all analogues. Multiple solutions in transition-state analogue design are available to convert the energy of catalytic rate enhancement to binding energy in human PNP.

  15. SAMHD1 enhances nucleoside-analogue efficacy against HIV-1 in myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Paula; Kunzelmann, Simone; Groom, Harriet C. T.; Yap, Melvyn W.; Weising, Simon; Meier, Chris; Bishop, Kate N.; Taylor, Ian A.; Stoye, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    SAMHD1 is an intracellular enzyme that specifically degrades deoxynucleoside triphosphates into component nucleoside and inorganic triphosphate. In myeloid-derived dendritic cells and macrophages as well as resting T-cells, SAMHD1 blocks HIV-1 infection through this dNTP triphosphohydrolase activity by reducing the cellular dNTP pool to a level that cannot support productive reverse transcription. We now show that, in addition to this direct effect on virus replication, manipulating cellular SAMHD1 activity can significantly enhance or decrease the anti-HIV-1 efficacy of nucleotide analogue reverse transcription inhibitors presumably as a result of modulating dNTP pools that compete for recruitment by viral polymerases. Further, a variety of other nucleotide-based analogues, not normally considered antiretrovirals, such as the anti-herpes drugs Aciclovir and Ganciclovir and the anti-cancer drug Clofarabine are now revealed as potent anti-HIV-1 agents, under conditions of low dNTPs. This in turn suggests novel uses for nucleotide analogues to inhibit HIV-1 in differentiated cells low in dNTPs. PMID:28220857

  16. Synthesis and Potent Anti-HCMV Activity of 2',5',5'-trifluoro-3'-hydroxy-apiosyl Nucleoside Phosphonic Acid Analogues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seyeon; Hong, Joon Hee

    2016-01-01

    As antiviral nucleosides containing a fluorine atom at 2'-position are endowed with increased stabilization of glycosyl bond, it was of interest to investigate the influence of three fluorine atoms at 2'- and 5'-positions of apiosyl nucleoside phosphonate analogues. Various pyrimidine and purine 2',5',5'-trifluoro-3'-hydroxy-apiose nucleoside phosphonic acid analogues were synthesized from 1,3-dihydroxyacetone. Electrophilic fluorination of lactone was performed using N-fluorodibenzenesulfonimide. Difluorophosphonation was performed by direct displacement of triflate intermediate with diethyl(lithiodifluoromethyl) phosphonate to give the corresponding (α,α-difluoroalkyl) phosphonate. Condensation successfully proceeded from a glycosyl donor with persilylated bases to yield nucleoside phosphonate analogues. Deprotection of diethyl phosphonates provided the final phosphonic acid sodium salts. The synthesized nucleoside analogues were subjected to antiviral screening against various viruses.

  17. Induction of Epstein-Barr virus kinases to sensitize tumor cells to nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Moore, S M; Cannon, J S; Tanhehco, Y C; Hamzeh, F M; Ambinder, R F

    2001-07-01

    The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the tumor cells of some EBV-associated malignancies may facilitate selective killing of these tumor cells. We show that treatment of an EBV(+) Burkitt's lymphoma cell line with 5-azacytidine led to a dose-dependent induction of EBV lytic antigen expression, including expression of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) and phosphotransferase (PT). Azacytidine treatment for 24 h modestly sensitized the cell line to all nucleosides tested. To better characterize EBV TK with regard to various nucleoside analogues, we expressed EBV TK in stable cell clones. Two EBV TK-expressing clones were moderately sensitive to high doses of acyclovir and penciclovir (PCV) (62.5 to 500 microM) and to lower doses of ganciclovir (GCV) and bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVdU) (10 to 100 microM) compared to a control clone and were shown to phosphorylate GCV. Similar experiments in a transient overexpression system showed more killing of cells transfected with the EBV TK expression vector than of cells transfected with the control mutant vector (50 microM GCV for 4 days). A putative PT was also studied in the transient transfection system and appeared similar to the TK in phosphorylating GCV and conferring sensitivity to GCV, but not in BVdU- or PCV-mediated cell killing. Induction of EBV kinases in combination with agents such as GCV merits further evaluation as an alternative strategy to gene therapy for selective killing of EBV-infected cells.

  18. Induction of Epstein-Barr Virus Kinases To Sensitize Tumor Cells to Nucleoside Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Stacy M.; Cannon, Jennifer S.; Tanhehco, Yvette C.; Hamzeh, Fayez M.; Ambinder, Richard F.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the tumor cells of some EBV-associated malignancies may facilitate selective killing of these tumor cells. We show that treatment of an EBV+ Burkitt's lymphoma cell line with 5-azacytidine led to a dose-dependent induction of EBV lytic antigen expression, including expression of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) and phosphotransferase (PT). Azacytidine treatment for 24 h modestly sensitized the cell line to all nucleosides tested. To better characterize EBV TK with regard to various nucleoside analogues, we expressed EBV TK in stable cell clones. Two EBV TK-expressing clones were moderately sensitive to high doses of acyclovir and penciclovir (PCV) (62.5 to 500 μM) and to lower doses of ganciclovir (GCV) and bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVdU) (10 to 100 μM) compared to a control clone and were shown to phosphorylate GCV. Similar experiments in a transient overexpression system showed more killing of cells transfected with the EBV TK expression vector than of cells transfected with the control mutant vector (50 μM GCV for 4 days). A putative PT was also studied in the transient transfection system and appeared similar to the TK in phosphorylating GCV and conferring sensitivity to GCV, but not in BVdU- or PCV-mediated cell killing. Induction of EBV kinases in combination with agents such as GCV merits further evaluation as an alternative strategy to gene therapy for selective killing of EBV-infected cells. PMID:11408227

  19. A luciferase-based screening method for inhibitors of alphavirus replication applied to nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Pohjala, Leena; Barai, Vladimir; Azhayev, Alex; Lapinjoki, Seppo; Ahola, Tero

    2008-06-01

    Several members of the widespread alphavirus group are pathogenic, but no therapy is available to treat these RNA virus infections. We report here a quantitative assay to screen for inhibitors of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replication, and demonstrate the effects of 29 nucleosides on SFV and Sindbis virus replication. The anti-SFV assay developed is based on a SFV strain containing Renilla luciferase inserted after the nsP3 coding region, yielding a marker virus in which the luciferase is cleaved out during polyprotein processing. The reporter-gene assay was miniaturized, automated and validated, resulting in a Z' value of 0.52. [3H]uridine labeling for 1 h at the maximal viral RNA synthesis time point was used as a comparative method. Anti-SFV screening and counter-screening for cell viability led to the discovery of several new SFV inhibitors. 3'-amino-3'-deoxyadenosine was the most potent inhibitor in this set, with an IC50 value of 18 microM in the reporter-gene assay and 2 microM in RNA synthesis rate detection. Besides the 3'-substituted analogues, certain N6-substituted nucleosides had similar IC50 values for both SFV and Sindbis replication, suggesting the applicability of this methodology to alphaviruses in general.

  20. Direct synthesis of imino-C-nucleoside analogues and other biologically active iminosugars

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron-Brlek, Milan; Meanwell, Michael; Britton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Iminosugars have attracted increasing attention as chemical probes, chaperones and leads for drug discovery. Despite several clinical successes, their de novo synthesis remains a significant challenge that also limits their integration with modern high-throughput screening technologies. Herein, we describe a unique synthetic strategy that converts a wide range of acetaldehyde derivatives into iminosugars and imino-C-nucleoside analogues in two or three straightforward transformations. We also show that this strategy can be readily applied to the rapid production of indolizidine and pyrrolizidine iminosugars. The high levels of enantio- and diastereoselectivity, excellent overall yields, convenience and broad substrate scope make this an appealing process for diversity-oriented synthesis, and should enable drug discovery efforts. PMID:25903019

  1. Synthesis and cytotoxicity assay of four ganglioside GM3 analogues.

    PubMed

    Qu, Huanhuan; Liu, Jian-Miao; Wdzieczak-Bakala, Joanna; Lu, Dan; He, Xianran; Sun, Wenji; Sollogoub, Matthieu; Zhang, Yongmin

    2014-03-21

    A concise and efficient synthetic route for preparation of four ganglioside GM3 analogues was described. The key step is a highly regioselective and stereoselective α-sialylation from a suitably protected glycoside acceptor with a sialyl xanthate to provide the sialo-oligosaccharide in good yield. The cytotoxic properties of the synthetic gangliosides were evaluated against normal human keratinocytes and human HCT116 and K562 cancer cells. Two of them exhibited good antiproliferative activity and displayed a better cytotoxicity against cancer cell than HaCaT normal cell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Methanocarba Analogues of Purine Nucleosides as Potent and Selective Adenosine Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Ji, Xiao-duo; Li, An-Hu; Melman, Neli; Siddiqui, Maqbool A.; Shin, Kye-Jung; Marquez, Victor E.; Ravi, R. Gnana

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine receptor agonists have cardioprotective, cerebroprotective, and antiinflammatory properties. We report that a carbocyclic modification of the ribose moiety incorporating ring constraints is a general approach for the design of A1 and A3 receptor agonists having favorable pharmacodynamic properties. While simple carbocyclic substitution of adenosine agonists greatly diminishes potency, methanocarba-adenosine analogues have now defined the role of sugar puckering in stabilizing the active adenosine receptor-bound conformation and thereby have allowed identification of a favored isomer. In such analogues a fused cyclopropane moiety constrains the pseudosugar ring of the nucleoside to either a Northern (N) or Southern (S) conformation, as defined in the pseudorotational cycle. In binding assays at A1, A2A, and A3 receptors, (N)-methanocarba-adenosine was of higher affinity than the (S)-analogue, particularly at the human A3 receptor (N/S affinity ratio of 150). (N)-Methanocarba analogues of various N6-substituted adenosine derivatives, including cyclopentyl and 3-iodobenzyl, in which the parent compounds are potent agonists at either A1 or A3 receptors, respectively, were synthesized. The N6-cyclopentyl derivatives were A1 receptor-selective and maintained high efficacy at recombinant human but not rat brain A1 receptors, as indicated by stimulation of binding of [35S]GTP-γ-S. The (N)-methanocarba-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine and its 2-chloro derivative had Ki values of 4.1 and 2.2 nM at A3 receptors, respectively, and were highly selective partial agonists. Partial agonism combined with high functional potency at A3 receptors (EC50 < 1 nM) may produce tissue selectivity. In conclusion, as for P2Y1 receptors, at least three adenosine receptors favor the ribose (N)-conformation. PMID:10841798

  3. The thiopurine nucleoside analogue 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6MMPr) effectively blocks zika virus replication.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Otavio Valério; Félix, Daniele Mendes; de Mendonça, Leila Rodrigues; de Araújo, Catarina Maria Cataldi Sabino; Franca, Rafael Freitas de Oliveira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Júnior, Abelardo Silva; Pena, Lindomar José

    2017-08-10

    Since the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil in 2015, 48 countries and territories in the Americas have confirmed autochthonous cases of the disease caused by the virus. The ZIKV-associated neurological manifestations and congenital defects make the development of safe and effective antivirals against ZIKV of utmost importance. Here, we evaluated the antiviral activity of 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6MMPr), a thiopurine nucleoside analog derived from the prodrug azathioprine (AZA), against the epidemic ZIKV strain circulating in Brazil. In all the assays, an epithelial (Vero) and an human neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cell line were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity and the effective concentrations of 6MMPr against ZIKV. The levels of ZIKV RNA, viral infectious titer and the percentage of infected cells at the presence or absence of 6MMPr was used to determine the antiviral efficacy. We show that 6MMPr decreased ZIKV production by more than 99% in both cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent way. Interestingly, 6MMPr was 1.6 times less toxic to SH-SY5Y cells compared to Vero cells, presenting a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 460.3 µM and 291 µM, respectively. The selectivity index of 6MMPr for Vero and SH-SY5Y cells was 11.9 and 22.7, respectively, highlighting the safety profile of the drug to neuronal cells. Taken together, our results identify, for the first time, the thiopurine nucleoside analog 6MMPr as promising antiviral candidate against ZIKV that warrants further in vivo evaluation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Ameliorated or Acquired Cytostatic/Cytotoxic Properties of Nucleosides by Lipophilization.

    PubMed

    Knies, Christine; Bonaterra, Gabriel; Hammerbacher, Katharina; Cordes, Andrea; Kinscherf, Ralf; Rosemeyer, Helmut

    2015-12-01

    A series of nucleolipids, containing one of the β-D-ribonucleosides 5-fluorouridine, 6-azauridine, uridine, or 5-methyluridine were lipophilized, either at the O-2',3'-position and/or at N(3) of the nucleobase with a large variety of hydrophobic residues. The resulting nucleolipids as well as the parent nucleosides and the lipid precursors were investigated in vitro with respect to their antitumor activity towards i) ten human tumor cell lines from the NCI 60 panel and ii) partly against three further tumor cell lines, namely a) human astrocytoma/oligodendro glioma GOs-3, b) rat malignantneuroectodermal BT4Ca, and c) differentiated human THP-1 macrophages. Inspection of the doseresponse curves allows two main conclusions concerning lipid determinants lending the corresponding nucleoside an ameliorated or an acquired antitumor activity: i) introduction of either a symmetrical O-2',3'-nonadecylidene ketal group or introduction of an O-2',3'-ethyl levulinate moiety plus an N(3)-farnesyl group leads often to nucleolipids with significant cytostatic/cytotoxic properties; ii) for the two canonical and non-toxic nucleosides uridine and 5-methyluridine, the condensation with also non-toxic lipids gives nucleolipids with a pronounced antitumor activity. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  5. Targeting glucose consumption and autophagy in myeloma with the novel nucleoside analogue 8-aminoadenosine.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Mala; McBrayer, Samuel K; Qian, Jun; Raikoff, Kiril; Avram, Michael J; Singhal, Seema; Gandhi, Varsha; Schumacker, Paul T; Krett, Nancy L; Rosen, Steven T

    2009-09-25

    Multiple myeloma, an incurable plasma cell malignancy, is characterized by altered cellular metabolism and resistance to apoptosis. Recent connections between glucose metabolism and resistance to apoptosis provide a compelling rationale for targeting metabolic changes in cancer. In this study, we have examined the ability of the purine analogue 8-aminoadenosine to acutely reduce glucose consumption by regulating localization and expression of key glucose transporters. Myeloma cells counteracted the metabolic stress by activating autophagy. Co-treatment with inhibitors of autophagy results in marked enhancement of cell death. Glucose consumption by drug-resistant myeloma cells was unaffected by 8-aminoadenosine, and accordingly, no activation of autophagy was observed. However, these cells can be sensitized to 8-aminoadenosine under glucose-limiting conditions. The prosurvival autophagic response of myeloma to nutrient deprivation or to nucleoside analogue treatment has not been described previously. This study establishes the potential of metabolic targeting as a broader means to kill and sensitize myeloma and identifies a compound that can achieve this goal.

  6. Synthesis of purine and 7-deazapurine nucleoside analogues of 6-N-(4-Nitrobenzyl)adenosine; inhibition of nucleoside transport and proliferation of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rayala, Ramanjaneyulu; Theard, Patricia; Ortiz, Heysell; Yao, Sylvia; Young, James D; Balzarini, Jan; Robins, Morris J; Wnuk, Stanislaw F

    2014-09-01

    Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) is a prototypical nucleoside transporter protein ubiquitously expressed on the cell surface of almost all human tissue. Given the role of hENT1 in the transport of nucleoside drugs, an important class of therapeutics in the treatment of various cancers and viral infections, efforts have been made to better understand the mechanisms by which hENT1 modulates nucleoside transport. To that end, we report here the design and synthesis of novel tool compounds for the further study of hENT1. The 7-deazapurine nucleoside antibiotic tubercidin was converted into its 4-N-benzyl and 4-N-(4-nitrobenzyl) derivatives by alkylation at N3 followed by a Dimroth rearrangement to the 4-N-isomer or by fluoro-diazotization followed by SN Ar displacement of the 4-fluoro group by a benzylamine. The 4-N-(4-nitrobenzyl) derivatives of sangivamycin and toyocamycin antibiotics were prepared by the alkylation approach. Cross-membrane transport of labeled uridine by hENT1 was inhibited to a weaker extent by the 4-nitrobenzylated tubercidin and sangivamycin analogues than was observed with 6-N-(4-nitrobenzyl)adenosine. Type-specific inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was observed at micromolar concentrations with the 4-N-(4-nitrobenzyl) derivatives of sangivamycin and toyocamycin, and also with 4-N-benzyltubercidin. Treatment of 2',3',5'-O-acetyladenosine with aryl isocyanates gave the 6-ureido derivatives but none of them exhibited inhibitory activity against cancer cell proliferation or hENT1. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Synergistic cytotoxicity of the DNA alkylating agent busulfan, nucleoside analogs and SAHA in lymphoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Benigno C.; Murray, David; Nieto, Yago; Li, Yang; Wang, Guiyun; Champlin, Richard E.; Andersson, Borje S.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a promising treatment for lymphomas. Its success depends on effective pre-transplant conditioning regimens. We previously reported on the efficacy of DNA alkylating agent-nucleoside analog (NA) combinations for conditioning in AML. We hypothesized that a similar combinatory approach can be used for lymphomas. A combination of busulfan (Bu) with two NAs – clofarabine (Clo), fludarabine (Flu) or gemcitabine (Gem) – resulted in synergistic cytotoxicity in lymphoma cell lines. We demonstrated that the [2 NAs+Bu] combination activates a DNA damage response through the ATM-CHK2 and ATM-CHK1 pathways, leading to cell cycle checkpoint activation and apoptosis. Histone modifications and KAP1 phosphorylation are indicative of chromatin relaxation mediated by the nucleoside analogs which sequentially increase Bu alkylation. Addition of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) enhanced chromatin relaxation through increased histone acetylation and further augmented the cytotoxicity of [2 NAs+Bu]. Our results provide a preclinical basis for a clinical trial on using [2 NAs+Bu±SAHA] combinations as conditioning therapy for chemotherapy-refractory lymphoma patients undergoing HSCT. PMID:22023523

  8. Synthesis of novel 2',3'-difluorinated 5'-deoxythreosyl phosphonic acid nucleosides as antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunae; Kim, Seyeon; Hong, Joon Hee

    2015-01-01

    A novel route for the synthesis of 2',3'-difluorinated 5'-deoxythreosyl phosphonic acid nucleosides from glyceraldehyde using the Horner-Emmons reaction in the presence of triethyl α-fluorophosphonoacetate is described. The second fluorination at the 2'-position was an electrophilic reaction performed using N-fluorodibenzenesulfonimide. Glycosylation reactions between the nucleosidic bases and glycosyl donor 9 generated nucleosides that were further phosphonated and hydrolyzed to produce the desired nucleoside analogues. The synthesized nucleoside analogues 13, 16, 20, and 23 were tested for anti- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity as well as cytotoxicity. Adenine derivative 16 showed significant anti-HIV activity up to 100 μM.

  9. Design, synthesis and evaluation of a series of acyclic fleximer nucleoside analogues with anti-coronavirus activity.

    PubMed

    Peters, Hannah L; Jochmans, Dirk; de Wilde, Adriaan H; Posthuma, Clara C; Snijder, Eric J; Neyts, Johan; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L

    2015-08-01

    A series of doubly flexible nucleoside analogues were designed based on the acyclic sugar scaffold of acyclovir and the flex-base moiety found in the fleximers. The target compounds were evaluated for their antiviral potential and found to inhibit several coronaviruses. Significantly, compound 2 displayed selective antiviral activity (CC50 >3× EC50) towards human coronavirus (HCoV)-NL63 and Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus, but not severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus. In the case of HCoV-NL63 the activity was highly promising with an EC50 <10 μM and a CC50 >100 μM. As such, these doubly flexible nucleoside analogues are viewed as a novel new class of drug candidates with potential for potent inhibition of coronaviruses.

  10. The synthesis and antiviral properties of acyclic nucleoside analogues with a phosphonomethoxy fragment in the side chain.

    PubMed

    Khandazhinskaya, A; Yasko, M; Shirokova, E

    2006-01-01

    Acyclic nucleoside analogues bearing phosphonomethoxy residues in the side chain (ANP) attract much attention due to a very beneficial combination of biological properties. Intensive work of organic chemists during the last two decades resulted in a large panel of new compounds that were evaluated as potential antiviral drugs. Herein, we present an overview of major chemical structures within the group of acyclic nucleoside analogues containing phosphonomethoxy side fragments and describe main aspects of their synthesis and antiviral potential. We also describe progress in "prodrug" approaches applied to this chemical group to improve pharmacokinetic profiles of the potential candidates. Chemical modifications in the molecule of parental ANP aimed at blocking of phosphonate charges resulted in a set of promising derivatives, two of which have been recently approved for treatment of hepatits B (Hepsera) and HIV (Viread). The preparation, antiviral properties and some aspects of metabolic transformations and pharmacokinetics of ANP prodrugs are discussed.

  11. Function-Oriented Synthesis: How to Design Simplified Analogues of Antibacterial Nucleoside Natural Products?

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    It is important to pursue function-oriented synthesis (FOS), a strategy for the design of less structurally complex targets with comparable or superior activity that can be made in a practical manner, because compared to synthetic drugs, many biologically relevant natural products possess large and complex chemical structures that may restrict chemical modifications in a structure-activity relationship study. In this account, we describe recent efforts to simplify complex nucleoside natural products including caprazamycins. Considering the structure-activity relationship study with several truncated analogues, three types of simplified derivatives, namely, oxazolidine, isoxazolidine, and lactam-fused isoxazolidine-containing uridine derivatives, were designed and efficiently synthesized. These simplified derivatives have exhibited promising antibacterial activities. A significant feature of our studies is the rational and drastic simplification of the molecular architecture of caprazamycins. This study provides a novel strategy for the development of a new type of antibacterial agent effective against drug-resistant bacteria. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Isomeric effects on the self-assembly of a plausible prebiotic nucleoside analogue: A theoretical study

    DOE PAGES

    Vallejo, Emmanuel; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Sumpter, Bobby G.; ...

    2016-10-22

    For this study, the self-assembly properties of N(9)-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl adenine) (DHPA), a plausible prebiotic nucleoside analogue of adenosine, were investigated using density functional theory. Two different isomers were considered, and it is found that while both isomers can form a variety of structures, including chains, one of them is also able to form cages and helixes. When these results were put in the context of substrate supported molecular self-assembly, it is concluded that gas-phase self-assembly studies that consider isomer identity and composition not only can aid interpreting the experimental results, but also reveal structures that might be overlooked otherwise. In particular,more » this study suggest that a double-helical structure made of DHPA molecules which could have implications in prebiotic chemistry and nanotechnology, is stable even at room temperature. For example electrical properties (energy gap of 4.52eV) and a giant permanent electrical dipole moment (49.22 Debye) were found in our larger double-helical structure (3.7 nm) formed by 14 DHPA molecules. Lastly, the former properties could be convenient for construction of organic dielectric-based devices.« less

  13. Isomeric effects on the self-assembly of a plausible prebiotic nucleoside analogue: A theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Vallejo, Emmanuel; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Rangel Cortes, Eduardo

    2016-10-22

    For this study, the self-assembly properties of N(9)-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl adenine) (DHPA), a plausible prebiotic nucleoside analogue of adenosine, were investigated using density functional theory. Two different isomers were considered, and it is found that while both isomers can form a variety of structures, including chains, one of them is also able to form cages and helixes. When these results were put in the context of substrate supported molecular self-assembly, it is concluded that gas-phase self-assembly studies that consider isomer identity and composition not only can aid interpreting the experimental results, but also reveal structures that might be overlooked otherwise. In particular, this study suggest that a double-helical structure made of DHPA molecules which could have implications in prebiotic chemistry and nanotechnology, is stable even at room temperature. For example electrical properties (energy gap of 4.52eV) and a giant permanent electrical dipole moment (49.22 Debye) were found in our larger double-helical structure (3.7 nm) formed by 14 DHPA molecules. Lastly, the former properties could be convenient for construction of organic dielectric-based devices.

  14. Application of nucleoside analogues to liver transplant recipients with hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhuo-Lun; Cui, Yu-Jun; Zheng, Wei-Ping; Teng, Da-Hong; Zheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a common yet serious infectious disease of the liver, affecting millions of people worldwide. Liver transplantation is the only possible treatment for those who advance to end-stage liver disease. Donors positive for hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antibody (HBcAb) have previously been considered unsuitable for transplants. However, those who test negative for the more serious hepatitis B surface antigen can now be used as liver donors, thereby reducing organ shortages. Remarkable improvements have been made in the treatment against HBV, most notably with the development of nucleoside analogues (NAs), which markedly lessen cirrhosis and reduce post-transplantation HBV recurrence. However, HBV recurrence still occurs in many patients following liver transplantation due to the development of drug resistance and poor compliance with therapy. Optimized prophylactic treatment with appropriate NA usage is crucial prior to liver transplantation, and undetectable HBV DNA at the time of transplantation should be achieved. NA-based and hepatitis B immune globulin-based treatment regimens can differ between patients depending on the patients’ condition, virus status, and presence of drug resistance. This review focuses on the current progress in applying NAs during the perioperative period of liver transplantation and the prophylactic strategies using NAs to prevent de novo HBV infection in recipients of HBcAb-positive liver grafts. PMID:26576094

  15. Radiolabeled nucleoside analogues for PET imaging of HSV1-tk gene expression.

    PubMed

    Alauddin, Mian M; Gelovani, Juri G

    2010-01-01

    The HSV1-tk gene has been explored as a reporter and/or suicide gene in molecular imaging of gene expression. Gene therapy with HSV1-tk and the use of this gene as a marker have been applied in patients with various forms of cancer. However, the conditions for clinical gene therapy protocols have yet to be optimized. A method to monitor the activity of HSV-tk in vivo would be extremely useful to optimize clinical gene therapy protocols. Positron emission tomography (PET) with a suitable probe can offer information about both the extent of gene expression and its distribution, provided that an appropriate reporter gene is included in the therapeutic cassette. PET imaging provides higher resolution and sensitivity and allows noninvasive quantification of biological processes. Several radiolabeled pyrimidine (thymidine) and purine (acycloguanosine) derivatives have been developed as reporter probes for imaging of HSV-TK enzyme activity with PET. In this review, information on radiolabeling and PET imaging of HSV1-tk gene expression with various nucleoside analogues is presented.

  16. Cytogenetic genotoxicity of antiherpes virostatics in Chinese hamster V79-E cells. I. Purine nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Thust, R; Schacke, M; Wutzler, P

    1996-06-01

    The antiherpes virostatics acyclovir (ACV), valaciclovir (VACV), penciclovir (PCV), famciclovir (FCV) and ganciclovir (GCV), which belong to the group of purine acyclic nucleoside analogues, were tested for clastogenic and sister chromatid exchange (SCE)-inducing activity in Chinese hamster V79-E cells upon chronic application with and without a recovery period. ACV induced borderline effects in both cytogenetic assays, a dose-dependent reduction of the mitotic index and an increasing cell cycle delay. With VACV and PCV only a decrease of the mitotic index and an increase of cell cycle delay were observed. FCV was negative with respect to the four parameters studied, presumably due to the incapacity of the target cells of metabolizing FCV to PCV. GCV was a very potent genotoxin in both assays. It induced a statistically significant SCE response even in the range of the cytomegalovirus IC50 of < 10 microM. By variation of the experimental protocol it was shown that SCEs are induced in the second cell cycle following exposure to GCV but not in the first one. It is assumed that the drugs under study are metabolized to their respective triphosphates and then inhibit DNA replication as detected by decreasing mitotic index and increasing cell cycle delay. In the case of GCV it is suggested that GCV-TP is incorporated into the target cell DNA and that chromosomal aberrations and SCEs are secondary lesions due to repair processes at the substituted template.

  17. Sinefungin, a natural nucleoside analogue of S-adenosylmethionine, inhibits Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm growth.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Park, Seok-Won; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Pneumococcal colonization and disease is often associated with biofilm formation, in which the bacteria exhibit elevated resistance both to antibiotics and to host defense systems, often resulting in infections that are persistent and difficult to treat. We evaluated the effect of sinefungin, a nucleoside analogue of S-adenosylmethionine, on pneumococcal in vitro biofilm formation and in vivo colonization. Sinefungin is bacteriostatic to pneumococci and significantly decreased biofilm growth and inhibited proliferation and structure of actively growing biofilms but did not alter growth or the matrix structure of established biofilms. Sinefungin significantly reduced pneumococcal colonization in rat middle ear. The quorum sensing molecule (autoinducer-2) production was significantly reduced by 92% in sinefungin treated samples. The luxS, pfs, and speE genes were downregulated in biofilms grown in the presence of sinefungin. This study shows that sinefungin inhibits pneumococcal biofilm growth in vitro and colonization in vivo, decreases AI-2 production, and downregulates luxS, pfs, and speE gene expressions. Therefore, the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) inhibitors could be used as lead compounds for the development of novel antibiofilm agents against pneumococci.

  18. Effect of purine nucleoside analogue-acyclovir on the sperm parameters and testosterone production in rats.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Elham; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Ahmadi, Abbas; Nejati, Vahid; Zamani, Zahra

    2013-04-01

    Acyclovir (ACV), a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue derived from guanosine, is known to be toxic to gonads and the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ACV on the sperm parameters and testosterone production in rat. In this experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats (220 ± 20 g) were randomly divided into five groups (n=8 for each group). One group served as control and one group served as sham control [distilled water was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected]. ACV was administered intraperitoneally in the drug treatment groups (4, 16 and 48 mg/kg/day) for 15 days. Eighteen days after the last injection, rats were sacrificed by CO2 inhalation. After that, cauda epididymides were removed surgically. At the end, sperm concentrations in the cauda epididymis, sperm motility, morphology, viability, chromatin quality and DNA integrity were analyzed. Serum testosterone concentrations were determined. The results showed that ACV did not affect sperm count, but decreased sperm motility and sperm viability at 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels. Sperm abnormalities increased at 48 mg/kg dose-level of ACV. Further, ACV significantly increases DNA damage at 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels and chromatin abnormality at all doses. Besides, a significant decrease in serum testosterone concentrations was observed at 16 and 48 mg/ kg doses. The present results highly support the idea that ACV induces testicular toxicity by adverse effects on the sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in male rats.

  19. The mechanism of phosphorylation of natural nucleosides and anti-HIV analogues by nucleoside diphosphate kinase is independent of their sugar substituents.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Michael C; Helms, Volkhard

    2002-07-02

    The reaction mechanism of the phosphoryl transfer catalyzed by dinucleoside diphosphate kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum is investigated by semiempirical AM1 molecular orbital computation of an active site model system on the basis of various X-ray crystallographic structures. The computational results suggest that the phosphoryl transfer from adenosine triphosphate to the His122 residue is accompanied by the simultaneous shift of a proton from the histidine residue to one of the oxygen atoms of the gamma phosphate group. This involves a doubly protonated His122 residue whilst this residue is neutral in its ternary complex with ADP and the transition state analogue AlF(3). The proposed mechanism is thus analogous to that of phosphoryl transfer by cyclic adenosine monophosphate dependent protein kinase and uridine/cytidine monophosphate kinase as found in our earlier work and clarifies the role of the ribose 3'-OH group. Furthermore, the energetics of phosphoryl transfer onto other nucleoside analogues such as 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine-diphosphate and 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydro-thymidine-diphosphate are investigated. The calculated reaction barriers for the phosphorylation of the diphosphates by the enzyme are all within a range of 13.1 kJ mol(-1), which suggests that variations in the activation energies alone cannot account for the experimentally observed differences in enzymatic activity. Consequences for the design of new anti-HIV nucleoside analogues are discussed. Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under http://www.wiley-vch.de/contents/jc_2268/2002/f360_s.pdf or from the author.

  20. Synthesis and cytotoxic potential of heterocyclic cyclohexanone analogues of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Babasaheb; Taurin, Sebastien; Rosengren, Rhonda J; Schumacher, Marc; Diederich, Marc; Somers-Edgar, Tiffany J; Larsen, Lesley

    2010-09-15

    A series of 18 heterocyclic cyclohexanone analogues of curcumin have been synthesised and screened for their activity in both adherent and non-adherent cancer cell models. Cytotoxicity towards MBA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, as well as ability to inhibit NF-kappaB transactivation in non-adherent K562 leukemia cells were investigated. Three of these analogues 3,5-bis(pyridine-4-yl)-1-methylpiperidin-4-one B1, 3,5-bis(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene)-1-methylpiperidin-4-one B10, and 8-methyl-2,4-bis((pyridine-4-yl)methylene)-8-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-one C1 showed potent cytotoxicity towards MBA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and SkBr3 cell lines with EC50 values below 1 microM and inhibition of NF-kappaB activation below 7.5 microM. The lead drug candidate, B10, was also able to cause 43% of MDA-MB-231 cells to undergo apoptosis after 18 h. This level of activity warrants further investigation for the treatment of ER-negative breast cancer and/or chronic myelogenous leukemia as prototypical cellular models for solid and liquid tumors.

  1. Synthesis of Pyridone-based Nucleoside Analogues as Substrates or Inhibitors of DNA Polymerases.

    PubMed

    Tauraitė, Daiva; Ražanas, Rytis; Mikalkėnas, Algirdas; Serva, Saulius; Meškys, Rolandas

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of novel acyclic and cyclic pyridone-based nucleosides and nucleotides is described. In total, seven nucleosides and four nucleotides were synthesized. None of the tested nucleosides showed inhibitory properties against Klenow exo- polymerase and M.MuLV and HIV-1 reverse transcriptases. The nucleotides containing 4-chloro- and 4-bromo-2-pyridone as a nucleobase were accepted by the Klenow fragment, but at the expense of fidelity and extension efficiency.

  2. Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) participates in the cytotoxic response to nucleoside-derived drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nucleoside analogs used in the chemotherapy of solid tumors, such as the capecitabine catabolite 5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5′-DFUR) trigger a transcriptomic response that involves the aquaglyceroporin aquaporin 3 along with other p53-dependent genes. Here, we examined whether up-regulation of aquaporin 3 (AQP3) mRNA in cancer cells treated with 5′-DFUR represents a collateral transcriptomic effect of the drug, or conversely, AQP3 participates in the activity of genotoxic agents. Methods The role of AQP3 in cell volume increase, cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest was analyzed using loss-of-function approaches. Results 5′-DFUR and gemcitabine, but not cisplatin, stimulated AQP3 expression and cell volume, which was partially and significantly blocked by knockdown of AQP3. Moreover, AQP3 siRNA significantly blocked other effects of nucleoside analogs, including G1/S cell cycle arrest, p21 and FAS up-regulation, and cell growth inhibition. Short incubations with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) also induced AQP3 expression and increased cell volume, and the inhibition of AQP3 expression significantly blocked growth inhibition triggered by this drug. To further establish whether AQP3 induction is related to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, cells were exposed to long incubations with escalating doses of 5-FU. AQP3 was highly up-regulated at doses associated with cell cycle arrest, whereas at doses promoting apoptosis induction of AQP3 mRNA expression was reduced. Conclusions Based on the results, we propose that the aquaglyceroporin AQP3 is required for cytotoxic activity of 5’-DFUR and gemcitabine in the breast cancer cell line MCF7 and the colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29, and is implicated in cell volume increase and cell cycle arrest. PMID:23017148

  3. Mechanism of Action and In Vitro Activity of 1′,3′-Dioxolanylpurine Nucleoside Analogues against Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Variants

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhengxian; Wainberg, Mark A.; Nguyen-Ba, Nghe; L’Heureux, Lucille; de Muys, Jean-Marc; Bowlin, Terry L.; Rando, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    (−)-β-d-1′,3′-Dioxolane guanosine (DXG) and 2,6-diaminopurine (DAPD) dioxolanyl nucleoside analogues have been reported to be potent inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We have recently conducted experiments to more fully characterize their in vitro anti-HIV-1 profiles. Antiviral assays performed in cell culture systems determined that DXG had 50% effective concentrations of 0.046 and 0.085 μM when evaluated against HIV-1IIIB in cord blood mononuclear cells and MT-2 cells, respectively. These values indicate that DXG is approximately equipotent to 2′,3′-dideoxy-3′-thiacytidine (3TC) but 5- to 10-fold less potent than 3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxythymidine (AZT) in the two cell systems tested. At the same time, DAPD was approximately 5- to 20-fold less active than DXG in the anti-HIV-1 assays. When recombinant or clinical variants of HIV-1 were used to assess the efficacy of the purine nucleoside analogues against drug-resistant HIV-1, it was observed that AZT-resistant virus remained sensitive to DXG and DAPD. Virus harboring a mutation(s) which conferred decreased sensitivity to 3TC, 2′,3′-dideoxyinosine, and 2′,3′-dideoxycytidine, such as a 65R, 74V, or 184V mutation in the viral reverse transcriptase (RT), exhibited a two- to fivefold-decreased susceptibility to DXG or DAPD. When nonnucleoside RT inhibitor-resistant and protease inhibitor-resistant viruses were tested, no change in virus sensitivity to DXG or DAPD was observed. In vitro drug combination assays indicated that DXG had synergistic antiviral effects when used in combination with AZT, 3TC, or nevirapine. In cellular toxicity analyses, DXG and DAPD had 50% cytotoxic concentrations of greater than 500 μM when tested in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and a variety of human tumor and normal cell lines. The triphosphate form of DXG competed with the natural nucleotide substrates and acted as a chain terminator of the nascent DNA. These data suggest that DXG

  4. Extrahepatic effects of nucleoside and nucleotide analogues in chronic hepatitis B treatment.

    PubMed

    Fung, James; Seto, Wai-Kay; Lai, Ching-Lung; Yuen, Man-Fung

    2014-03-01

    Oral nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs) are the mainstay of therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis B and are generally well tolerated. Despite this, the safety profile of NAs is of paramount importance since the majority of patients will require long-term treatment. All NAs can potentially affect human DNA polymerase with decrease in mitochondrial DNA, leading to manifestations of mitochondrial toxicity. As a class effect, therefore, NAs can potentially cause extrahepatic conditions, such as myopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and lactic acidosis. Indeed, effects on muscles, including myopathy and creatine kinase elevations, have been described with clevudine and telbivudine use. Both adefovir and tenofovir are associated with dose-dependent nephropathy, predominantly affecting the proximal renal tubules. Neuropathy appears to be rare, and most commonly reported in patients receiving combination therapy with telbivudine and interferon. Increased risk of lactic acidosis has also been described for those with impaired liver and renal function taking entecavir. Loss of bone mineral density and hypophosphatemia have been described with the use of NAs, although the overwhelming studies have been with human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. However, not all extrahepatic effects are detrimental. Recent evidence has suggested a potential renal beneficial effect with the use of telbivudine. The effect of NAs on pregnancy appears to be minimal for all NAs, with telbivudine and tenofovir having a more favorable category B rating. Ongoing pharmacovigilance is essential to identify new and monitor existing extrahepatic effects associated with NA use. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Short Communication: Transplacental Nucleoside Analogue Exposure and Mitochondrial Parameters in HIV-Uninfected Children

    PubMed Central

    Brogly, Susan B.; DiMauro, Salvatore; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Williams, Paige L.; Naini, Ali; Libutti, Daniel E.; Choi, Julia; Chung, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Transplacental nucleoside analogue exposure can affect infant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We evaluated mitochondria in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children with and without clinical signs of mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) and antiretroviral (ARV) exposure. We previously identified 20 children with signs of MD (cases) among 1037 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected women. We measured mtDNA copies/cell and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) NADH dehydrogenase (complex I) and cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) protein levels and enzyme activities, determined mtDNA haplogroups and deletions in 18 of 20 cases with stored samples and in sex- and age-matched HIV-uninfected children, both ARV exposed and unexposed, (1) within 18 months of birth and (2) at the time of presentation of signs of MD. In specimens drawn within 18 months of birth, mtDNA levels were higher and OXPHOS protein levels and enzyme activities lower in cases than controls. In contrast, at the time of MD presentation, cases and ARV-exposed controls had lower mtDNA levels, 214 and 215 copies/cell, respectively, than ARV-unexposed controls, 254 copies/cell. OXPHOS protein levels and enzyme activities were lower in cases than exposed controls, and higher in cases than unexposed controls, except for complex IV activity, which was higher in cases. Haplotype H was less frequent among cases (6%) than controls (31%). No deletions were found. The long-term significance of these small but potentially important alterations should continue to be studied as these children enter adolescence and adulthood. PMID:21142587

  6. Off-treatment durability of antiviral response to nucleoside analogues in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Naruhiko; Kagawa, Tatehiro; Hirose, Shunji; Arase, Yoshitaka; Tsuruya, Kota; Anzai, Kazuya; Shiraishi, Koichi; Mine, Tetsuya

    2016-03-17

    Off-treatment durability of nucleoside analogue (NA) therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B has not been well investigated. In this study we monitored antiviral effect of NA therapy and evaluated off-treatment durability after NA cessation in patients with chronic hepatitis B. A total of 94 consecutive patients (39 HBeAg-negative and 55 HBeAg-positive patients) who received NA therapy were followed up for approximately 9 years. We discontinued NA according to the following criteria; undetectable serum HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on three separate occasions at least 6 months apart in HBeAg-negative patients (APASL stopping recommendation), and seroconversion from HBeAg-positive to HBeAb-positive and undetectable serum HBV-DNA by PCR for at least 12 months in HBeAg-positive patients. The cumulative rate of relapse after NA cessation was 48 % and 40 % in HBeAg-negative and -positive patients, respectively. Higher baseline serum alanine aminotransferase level was the only significant predictor for maintaining remission. No patients experienced decompensation after relapse. HBsAg loss occurred at an annual rate of 1.4 % and 0.4 % in HBeAg-negative and -positive patients, respectively. Hepatocellular carcinoma developed at an annual rate of 0.6 % in both HBeAg-negative and -positive patients. Almost half of the patients did not relapse after cessation of NA therapy in both HBeAg-negative and -positive patients. Therefore, NA therapy could be discontinued with close monitoring if the APASL stopping recommendation is satisfied even in HBeAg-negative patients.

  7. Virological efficacy of combination therapy with corticosteroid and nucleoside analogue for severe acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Yasui, S; Fujiwara, K; Nakamura, M; Miyamura, T; Yonemitsu, Y; Mikata, R; Arai, M; Kanda, T; Imazeki, F; Oda, S; Yokosuka, O

    2015-02-01

    The short-term prognosis of patients with severe acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) leading to acute liver failure is extremely poor. We have reported the efficacy of corticosteroid in combination with nucleoside analogue in the early stages, but virological efficacy has not been documented. Our aim was to elucidate the virological efficacy of this approach. Thirteen patients defined as severe acute exacerbation of CHB by our uniform criteria were prospectively examined for virological responses to treatment. Nucleoside analogue and sufficient dose of corticosteroids were introduced as soon as possible after the diagnosis of severe disease. Of the 13 patients, 7 (54%) survived, 5 (38%) died and 1 (8%) received liver transplantation. The decline of HBV DNA was significant between the first 2 weeks (P = 0.02) and 4 weeks (P < 0.01). Mean reduction in HBV DNA during the first 2 weeks was 1.7 ± 0.9 log copies per mL in overall patients, 2.1 ± 0.8 in survived patients and 1.2 ± 0.9 in dead/transplanted patients. The decline of HBV DNA was significant between the first 2 weeks (P = 0.03) and 4 weeks (P = 0.02) in survived patients, but not in dead/transplanted patients. Our study shows that corticosteroid treatment in combination with nucleotide analogue has sufficient virological effect against severe acute exacerbation of CHB, and a rapid decline of HBV DNA is conspicuous in survived patients.

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-oxo-pyrazine-3-carboxamide-yl nucleoside analogues and their epimers as inhibitors of influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingjing; Luo, Xianjin; Li, Yuhuan; Gao, Rongmei; Chen, Haifeng; Ji, Dingjue

    2015-03-01

    Novel 2-oxo-pyrazine-3-carboxamide-yl nucleoside analogues and their epimers were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their activities against influenza A viruses H1N1 and H3N2 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. All the compounds showed low cytotoxicities in these anti-influenza tests. One of the epimers, 4-[(1S, 3R, 4R, 7R)-7-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2,5-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-3-yl]-3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrazine-2-carboxamide 8a, with high antiviral activities (IC50 = 7.41, 5.63 μm for H3N2 and H1N1, respectively) and remarkable low cytotoxicity (TC50 > 200 μm), has great potential for further development as a novel anti-influenza A agent. Molecular docking of compound 8a with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase was performed to understand the binding mode between these inhibitors and the active site of RdRp and to rationalize some SARs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Synthesis of substituted mono- and diindole C-nucleoside analogues from sugar terminal alkynes by sequential sonogashira/heteroannulation reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuyi; Mu, Delong; Wang, Liming; Du, Pengfei; Han, Fen; Zhao, Yufen

    2014-10-17

    The synthesis of substituted mono- and diindole C-nucleoside analogues has been achieved in good to excellent yields by sequential Sonogashira coupling/NaAuCl4-catalyzed heteroannulation reactions of substituted 2-iodoanilines with various sugar terminal alkynes in one pot. The method is general, mild, and efficient and suitable for a wide range of sugar substrates, and 42 examples are given. The amino group of the substituted 2-iodoanilines is unprotected. The sugar terminal alkynes include furanosides, pyranosides, and acyclic glycosides with free hydroxyl groups, sensitive functional subtituents, and various protecting groups having different steric hindrance.

  10. The Convenient Synthesis of Unsaturated Nucleoside Analogues in Water under Microwave Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ran; Sun, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A convenient method for the regioselective synthesis of unsaturated nucleoside analogs in water under microwave irradiation was developed. All pyrimidine and purine nucleoside derivatives were exclusively alkylated at N1 and N9 respectively in good to excellent yields. In addition, this system could tolerate a broad range of functional groups, such as chloro, bromo, iodo, alkyl, amino, and hydroxyl groups. More importantly, the reaction scale could be enlarged to 50 mmol which made this route attractive for industrial application.

  11. Nucleoside analogue therapy following one-year course of hepatitis B immunoglobulin in preventing hepatitis B virus reactivation after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kawagishi, Naoki; Takeda, Ikuo; Miyagi, Shigehito; Satoh, Kazushige; Akamatsu, Yorihiro; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Satomi, Susumu

    2010-12-01

    The combination therapy with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and nucleoside analogue is well tolerated for the hepatitis B recipients after liver transplantation, but its cost is an important problem in these days. Here we report the efficacy of nucleoside analogue therapy following one-year course of HBIG plus nucleoside analogue after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Out of 103 LDLTs, we selected 14 recipients who received the post-transplant therapy against reactivation of hepatitis B virus for more than 30 months. Those were eight patients with chronic hepatitis B, three with fulminant hepatitis, and three whose donors were positive for antibody to HB core antigen (HBc). During two days after the operation, HBIG (40,000 units) was administered, and the serum level of antibody to HB surface antigen (HBs) was maintained at around 150 IU/L for one year by monthly administration of HBIG. After one year, HBIG was withdrawn. A nucleoside analogue was administered daily from just after LDLT, and it was continued up to the present. Among the 14 patients, two recipients had recurrence of hepatitis B. Three patients, including one patient with recurrence of hepatitis B, died due to hepatocellular carcinoma or its associated cirrhosis; namely, their deaths are unrelated to hepatitis B-related diseases. The remaining 11 patients are leading normal lives. In conclusion, nucleoside analogue therapy after one-year course of HBIG plus nucleoside analogue is feasible and cost-effective in preventing HBV reactivation. But the patients are still at risk of breakthrough and some patients may need continued prophylaxis with HBIG.

  12. A putative nucleoside triphosphate-binding domain in the nonstructural protein of B19 parvovirus is required for cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Momoeda, M; Wong, S; Kawase, M; Young, N S; Kajigaya, S

    1994-01-01

    Cytotoxicity secondary to B19 parvovirus infection is due to expression of the viral nonstructural protein. Nonstructural proteins of many parvoviruses contain a well-conserved nucleoside triphosphate (NTP)-binding motif, which has been shown to be essential for a variety of protein functions. We show here that cytotoxicity of the B19 parvovirus nonstructural protein was abolished by single mutations of amino acids within the NTP-binding domain, especially within the A motif, implicating NTP-binding in virus-induced cell death. Images PMID:7966641

  13. Conformational analysis of a nucleoside of 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccur Leal, Kátia; Rudolf Seidl, Peter; Diniz Yoneda, Julliane; Santos, CarlaV. B.; Marques, Isakelly P.; Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Francisco Ferreira, Vitor

    2005-06-01

    The synthesis of new ribonucleosides is an essential research area in the investigation of new therapeutically useful agents, particularly those used in the treatment of HIV infection. The conformation of these nucleosides may have direct implications for their ability to bind to receptor targets. We have prepared the 7-methoxy-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives and used the ensemble of low-energy minima to develop conformational profiles of quinolonic nucleosides and verify their accuracy in different calculations of structural parameters. Results are compared with experimental data obtained by X-ray and NMR analysis. Finally, we intend to test the applicability of these methods to conformational analysis of other nucleosides and verify if the preferential conformation is the one which gives the best anti-HIV or antiviral activity.

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of nucleoside analogues than contain silatrane on the basis of the structure of acyclovir (ACV) as novel inhibitors of hepatitis B virus (HBV).

    PubMed

    Han, Anyue; Li, Lingna; Qing, Kuiyou; Qi, Xiaolu; Hou, Leping; Luo, Xintong; Shi, Shaohua; Ye, Faqing

    2013-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes major public health problems worldwide. Acyclovir (ACV) is mainly used to inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV) rather than HBV. In this study, we used the combination principle to design and synthesize nucleoside analogues that contain silatrane on the basis of the structure of ACV. We found that the compounds were effective inhibitors of HBV, both in vitro and in vivo. All of the compounds showed suppressive activity on the expression of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV e antigen (HBeAg) in the HepG2.2.15 cell line with low cytotoxicity. One of compounds was studied in HBV transgenic mice model, and the test results showed its ability to reduce the levels of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA by ELASE and qPCR. Furthermore, significant improvement of T lymphocyte was observed after treatment, as evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of germyldesulfonylation reactions to the synthesis of germanium-containing nucleoside analogues

    PubMed Central

    Wnuk, Stanislaw F.; Sacasa, Pablo R.; Restrepo, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of the protected (E)-5′-deoxy-5′-[(p-toluenesulfonyl)methylene]uridine and adenosine derivatives with tributyl- or triphenylgermane hydride (AIBN/toluene/Δ) effected radical-mediated germyldesulfonylations to give 5′-(tributyl- or triphenylgermyl)methylene-5′-deoxyuridine and adenosine derivatives as single (E)-isomers. Analogous treatment of 2′-deoxy-2′-[(phenylsulfonyl)methylene]uridine with Ph3GeH afforded the corresponding vinyl triphenylgermane product. Stereoselective halodegermylation of the (E)-5′-(tributylgermyl)methylene-5′-deoxy nucleosides with N-iodosuccinimide or N-bromosuccinimide provided the Wittig-type (E)-5′-deoxy-5′-(halomethylene) nucleosides quantitatively, while no halodegermylations was observed with the 5′-deoxy-5′-(triphenylgermyl)methylene counterparts. Treatment of the vinyl trialkylgermanes with aqueous trifluoroacetic acid effected protiodegermylation, while vinyl triarylgermanes were stable under the acidic conditions. PMID:20183601

  16. Effect of nucleoside analogue antimetabolites on the structure of PEO–PPO–PEO micelles investigated by SANS

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Youngkyu; Zhang, Zhe; Smith, Gregory S.; Do, Changwoo

    2017-01-01

    The effect of three nucleoside analogue antimetabolites (5-fluorouracil, floxuridine, and gemcitabine) on the structure of Pluronic L62 copolymer micelles was investigated using small-angle neutron scattering. These antimetabolites used for cancer chemotherapy have analogous molecular structures but different molecular sizes and aqueous solubilities. It was found that the addition of the three antimetabolites slightly reduced the micellar size and aggregation number, and the micellar anisotropy. The added antimetabolites also changed the internal molecular distribution of the micelles as measured by the scattering length densities, resulting in enhanced hydration of the hydrophobic core region of the micelle. The strength of the effect was found to correlate with the molecular properties of the model drugs, i.e. a larger molecular size and a higher aqueous solubility lead to enhanced hydration of the micellar core.

  17. Effect of nucleoside analogue antimetabolites on the structure of PEO–PPO–PEO micelles investigated by SANS

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Youngkyu; Zhang, Zhe; Smith, Gregory S.; ...

    2017-04-19

    In this work, the effect of three nucleoside analogue antimetabolites (5-fluorouracil, floxuridine, and gemcitabine) on the structure of Pluronic L62 copolymer micelles was investigated using small-angle neutron scattering. These antimetabolites used for cancer chemotherapy have analogous molecular structures but different molecular sizes and aqueous solubilities. It was found that the addition of the three antimetabolites slightly reduced the micellar size and aggregation number, and the micellar anisotropy. The added antimetabolites also changed the internal molecular distribution of the micelles as measured by the scattering length densities, resulting in enhanced hydration of the hydrophobic core region of the micelle. The strengthmore » of the effect was found to correlate with the molecular properties of the model drugs, i.e. a larger molecular size and a higher aqueous solubility lead to enhanced hydration of the micellar core.« less

  18. Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of novel 2',2'-difluoro 5'-norcarbocyclic phosphonic acid nucleosides as antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guang Huan; Hong, Joon Hee

    2014-01-01

    A very efficient synthetic route to novel 2',2'-difluoro 5'-norcarbocyclic phosphonic acid nucleosides from but-3-en-1-ol 5 is described. The discovery of 2'-fluorinated furanose nucleoside 1 as a potent anti-HIV-1 agent has led to the synthesis and biological evaluation of 2'-modified 5'-norversions of the carbocyclic phosphonate nucleosides. The synthesized nucleoside analogues 18, 19, 23a, 23b, and 24 were tested for anti-HIV activity as well as cytotoxicity. Adenine analogue 19 shows significant anti-HIV-1 activity (EC(50) = 13 μM).

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of novel 6',6'-difluoro 5'-deoxycarbocyclic phosphonic acid nucleosides as antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunae; Shen, Guang Huan; Kang, Lien; Hong, Joon Hee

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe highly efficient synthetic routes for the preparation of novel 6',6'-difluoro 5'-deoxycarbocyclic phosphonic acid nucleosides from 1,4-dihydroxy-2-butene. The discovery that the 6'-fluorinated carbocyclic nucleoside (2, EC₅₀ = 0.16 μM) is a potent anti-HSV-1 agent led to the syntheses and biological evaluations of 6'-modified 5'-deoxyversions of carbocyclic phosphonate nucleosides. The synthesized nucleoside analogues 15, 18, 22, and 25 were tested for anti-HIV activity and for cytotoxicity. However, none of them showed significant anti-HIV-1 activity or cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 100 μM.

  20. Integrative gene expression profiling reveals G6PD-mediated resistance to RNA-directed nucleoside analogues in B-cell neoplasms.

    PubMed

    McBrayer, Samuel K; Yarrington, Michael; Qian, Jun; Feng, Gang; Shanmugam, Mala; Gandhi, Varsha; Krett, Nancy L; Rosen, Steven T

    2012-01-01

    The nucleoside analogues 8-amino-adenosine and 8-chloro-adenosine have been investigated in the context of B-lineage lymphoid malignancies by our laboratories due to the selective cytotoxicity they exhibit toward multiple myeloma (MM), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cell lines and primary cells. Encouraging pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of 8-chloro-adenosine being documented in an ongoing Phase I trial in CLL provide additional impetus for the study of these promising drugs. In order to foster a deeper understanding of the commonalities between their mechanisms of action and gain insight into specific patient cohorts positioned to achieve maximal benefit from treatment, we devised a novel two-tiered chemoinformatic screen to identify molecular determinants of responsiveness to these compounds. This screen entailed: 1) the elucidation of gene expression patterns highly associated with the anti-tumor activity of 8-chloro-adenosine in the NCI-60 cell line panel, 2) characterization of altered transcript abundances between paired MM and MCL cell lines exhibiting differential susceptibility to 8-amino-adenosine, and 3) integration of the resulting datasets. This approach generated a signature of seven unique genes including G6PD which encodes the rate-determining enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Bioinformatic analysis of primary cell gene expression data demonstrated that G6PD is frequently overexpressed in MM and CLL, highlighting the potential clinical implications of this finding. Utilizing the paired sensitive and resistant MM and MCL cell lines as a model system, we go on to demonstrate through loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies that elevated G6PD expression is necessary to maintain resistance to 8-amino- and 8-chloro-adenosine but insufficient to induce de novo resistance in sensitive cells. Taken together, these results indicate that G6PD activity

  1. Conformation-sensitive nucleoside analogues as topology-specific fluorescence turn-on probes for DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes

    PubMed Central

    Tanpure, Arun A.; Srivatsan, Seergazhi G.

    2015-01-01

    Development of probes that can discriminate G-quadruplex (GQ) structures and indentify efficient GQ binders on the basis of topology and nucleic acid type is highly desired to advance GQ-directed therapeutic strategies. In this context, we describe the development of minimally perturbing and environment-sensitive pyrimidine nucleoside analogues, based on a 5-(benzofuran-2-yl)uracil core, as topology-specific fluorescence turn-on probes for human telomeric DNA and RNA GQs. The pyrimidine residues of one of the loop regions (TTA) of telomeric DNA and RNA GQ oligonucleotide (ON) sequences were replaced with 5-benzofuran-modified 2′-deoxyuridine and uridine analogues. Depending on the position of modification the fluorescent nucleoside analogues distinguish antiparallel, mixed parallel-antiparallel and parallel stranded DNA and RNA GQ topologies from corresponding duplexes with significant enhancement in fluorescence intensity and quantum yield. Further, these GQ sensors enabled the development of a simple fluorescence binding assay to quantify topology- and nucleic acid-specific binding of small molecule ligands to GQ structures. Together, our results demonstrate that these nucleoside analogues are useful GQ probes, which are anticipated to provide new opportunities to study and discover efficient G-quadruplex binders of therapeutic potential. PMID:26202965

  2. Synthesis of Norcarbovir Analogues, the First Examples of Cyclobutene Nucleosides Unsubstituted at the Vinylic Position.

    PubMed

    Gourdel-Martin, Marie-Edith; Huet, François

    1997-04-04

    Two cyclobutene nucleosides, 27 and 29, analogous to the yet unknown norcarbovir, and with adenine and hypoxanthine as the base moieties, respectively, were synthesized starting from cis-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (6). Its reduction to lactone 9 followed by reaction with ammonia and then Hofmann rearrangement led to cyclic carbamate 15 which was the key intermediate of these syntheses. Its tert-butoxycarbonyl derivative 17 led to the ring opening of the heterocyclic moiety at low temperature. Compound 18 was thus obtained, and the successive benzylation and then treatment with hydrochloric acid yielded hydrochloride 21. Construction of bases was achieved in satisfying overall yields provided that mild experimental conditions from 21 to 27 or 29 were used to restrict the unwanted electrocyclic ring opening. Nitropyrimidine 31 was also prepared from 21 via the intermediate 23.

  3. Base-pairing behavior of a carbocyclic Janus-AT nucleoside analogue capable of recognizing A and T within a DNA duplex.

    PubMed

    Largy, Eric; Liu, Wenbo; Hasan, Abid; Perrin, David M

    2013-11-04

    Janus-type nucleosides are heterocycles with two faces, each of which is designed to complement the H-bonding interactions of natural nucleosides comprising a canonical Watson-Crick base pair. By intercepting all of the hydrogen bonds contained within the base pair, oligomeric Janus nucleosides are expected to achieve sequence-specific DNA recognition through the formation of J-loops that will be more stable than D-loops, which simply replaces one base-pair with another. Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel Janus-AT nucleoside analogue, JAT , affixed on a carbocyclic analogue of deoxyribose that was converted to the corresponding phosphoramidite. A single JAT was successfully incorporated into a DNA strand by solid phase for targeting both A and T bases, and characterized through biophysical and computational methods. Experimental UV-melting and circular dichroism data demonstrated that within the context of a standard duplex, JAT associates preferentially with T over A, and much more poorly with C and G. Density functional theory calculations confirm that the JAT structure is well suited to associate only with A and T thereby highlighting the importance of the electronic structure in terms of H-bonding. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations validated the observation that JAT can substitute more effectively as an A-analogue than as a T-analogue without substantial distortion of the B-helix. Overall, this new Janus nucleotide is a promising tool for the targeting of A-T base pairs in DNA, and will lead to the development of oligo-Janus-nucleotide strands for sequence-specific DNA recognition.

  4. Curcumin and its cyclohexanone analogue inhibited human Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Revalde, Jezrael L; Li, Yan; Wijeratne, Tharaka S; Bugde, Piyush; Hawkins, Bill C; Rosengren, Rhonda J; Paxton, James W

    2017-03-29

    Our group investigated combining the phytochemical curcumin and gemcitabine in a liposome, to improve gemcitabine's activity against pancreatic tumours. While optimising the curcumin: gemcitabine ratio for co-encapsulation, we found that increasing curcumin concentrations relative to gemcitabine resulted in antagonistic interactions. As curcumin is a promiscuous transporter inhibitor; we suspected that increased resistance occurred via inhibition of Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1)-mediated gemcitabine uptake. To test our hypothesis, we determined whether curcumin and a related analogue, 2,6-bis((3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylene)-cyclohexanone (or A13), inhibited ENT1-mediated accumulation of [(3)H]uridine and [(3)H]gemcitabine into pancreatic cancer cells. We then confirmed the inhibition of gemcitabine accumulation by investigating whether curcumin/A13 could increase gemcitabine resistance in growth inhibition assays. We found that curcumin and A13 concentration-dependently inhibited the ENT1-mediated accumulation of both uridine and gemcitabine in MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells. We also found that non-toxic concentrations of curcumin and A13 significantly increased the resistance of both cell lines to gemcitabine. Increased resistance only occurred when curcumin/A13 was co-incubated with gemcitabine, and not with sequential exposure (i.e., curcumin first, followed by gemcitabine, or vice versa). We also found that the curcumin analogue (3E,5E)-3,5-bis[(2-fluorophenyl)methylene]-4-piperidinone (or EF24) did not inhibit gemcitabine accumulation, making it more suitable in combinations than curcumin/A13. From these results, we concluded that curcumin and A13 are inhibitors of the ENT1 transporter, but only at high concentrations (2-20µM). Curcumin is unlikely to inhibit gemcitabine uptake in tumours but may interfere with the oral absorption of ENT1 substrates due to high gut concentrations readily achievable from over-the-counter tablets/capsules.

  5. Radiosensitization by a new nucleoside analogue: 1-(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy)methyl-2-nitroimidazole (RP-170)

    SciTech Connect

    Murayama, C.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, T.; Miyata, Y.; Sakaguchi, M.; Tanabe, Y.; Tanaka, N.; Mori, T. )

    1989-09-01

    A new potent hypoxic cell sensitizer, a 2-nitroimidazole nucleoside analogue having methoxyglycerol as a sugar moiety at the N-1 position of the imidazole ring (RP-170), has been synthesized. Its radiosensitizing activities in vitro and in vivo were investigated and compared with those of misonidazole (MISO) and etanidazole (SR-2508). As might be expected from the almost identical electron affinities of the three compounds, they were equally effective against hypoxic EMT6 cells in vitro. The in vivo-in vitro excision analysis showed that RP-170 was also as effective as MISO and etanidazole to radiosensitize solid tumor cells in vivo. An intraperitoneal administration of 200 mg/kg of RP-170 and an intravenous administration of the same dose of etanidazole showed an equal sensitizer-enhancement ratio of 1.51 to solid EMT6/KU tumors. Its effectiveness was also demonstrated by growth delay assay using solid SCCVII tumors. As predicted from the low partition coefficient, RP-170 and etanidazole showed apparently lower toxicity in vivo than MISO; their LD50/14 were 4.3, 4.8, and 1.8 g/kg in our experiment, respectively. Moreover, RP-170 showed fast clearance from serum in mice (t1/2 = 10.24 min) and poor penetration into neural tissues. Although RP-170 does not show any advantages over etanidazole in terms of sensitization or toxicity, RP-170 might be preferable under certain circumstances because it can be given orally.

  6. Synthesis and Anti-Influenza Activity of Pyridine, Pyridazine, and Pyrimidine C-Nucleosides as Favipiravir (T-705) Analogues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangyi; Wan, Jinqiao; Hu, Yujian; Wu, Xiangyang; Prhavc, Marija; Dyatkina, Natalia; Rajwanshi, Vivek K; Smith, David B; Jekle, Andreas; Kinkade, April; Symons, Julian A; Jin, Zhinan; Deval, Jerome; Zhang, Qingling; Tam, Yuen; Chanda, Sushmita; Blatt, Lawrence; Beigelman, Leonid

    2016-05-26

    Influenza viruses are responsible for seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics which cause significant morbidity and mortality. Despite available vaccines, only partial protection is achieved. Currently, there are two classes of widely approved anti-influenza drugs: M2 ion channel blockers and neuraminidase inhibitors. However, the worldwide spread of drug-resistant influenza strains poses an urgent need for novel antiviral drugs, particularly with a different mechanism of action. Favipiravir (T-705), a broad-spectrum antiviral agent, has shown potent anti-influenza activity in cell-based assays, and its riboside (2) triphosphate inhibited influenza polymerase. In one of our approaches to treat influenza infection, we designed, prepared, and tested a series of C-nucleoside analogues, which have an analogy to 2 and were expected to act by a similar antiviral mechanism as favipiravir. Compound 3c of this report exhibited potent inhibition of influenza virus replication in MDCK cells, and its triphosphate was a substrate of and demonstrated inhibitory activity against influenza A polymerase. Metabolites of 3c are also presented.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum Parasites Are Killed by a Transition State Analogue of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase in a Primate Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Cassera, María B.; Hazleton, Keith Z.; Merino, Emilio F.; Obaldia, Nicanor; Ho, Meng-Chiao; Murkin, Andrew S.; DePinto, Richard; Gutierrez, Jemy A.; Almo, Steven C.; Evans, Gary B.; Babu, Yarlagadda S.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum causes most of the one million annual deaths from malaria. Drug resistance is widespread and novel agents against new targets are needed to support combination-therapy approaches promoted by the World Health Organization. Plasmodium species are purine auxotrophs. Blocking purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) kills cultured parasites by purine starvation. DADMe-Immucillin-G (BCX4945) is a transition state analogue of human and Plasmodium PNPs, binding with picomolar affinity. Here, we test BCX4945 in Aotus primates, an animal model for Plasmodium falciparum infections. Oral administration of BCX4945 for seven days results in parasite clearance and recrudescence in otherwise lethal infections of P. falciparum in Aotus monkeys. The molecular action of BCX4945 is demonstrated in crystal structures of human and P. falciparum PNPs. Metabolite analysis demonstrates that PNP blockade inhibits purine salvage and polyamine synthesis in the parasites. The efficacy, oral availability, chemical stability, unique mechanism of action and low toxicity of BCX4945 demonstrate potential for combination therapies with this novel antimalarial agent. PMID:22096507

  8. Inhibition and Structure of Trichomonas vaginalis Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase with Picomolar Transition State Analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldo-Matthis,A.; Wing, C.; Ghanem, M.; Deng, H.; Wu, P.; Gupta, A.; Tyler, P.; Evans, G.; Furneaux, R.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan purine auxotroph possessing a unique purine salvage pathway consisting of a bacterial type purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and a purine nucleoside kinase. Thus, T. vaginalis PNP (TvPNP) functions in the reverse direction relative to the PNPs in other organisms. Immucillin-A (ImmA) and DADMe-Immucillin-A (DADMe-ImmA) are transition stte mimics of adenosine with geometric and electrostatic features that resemble early and late transition states of adenosine at the transition state stabilized by TvPNP. ImmA demonstrates slow-onset tight-binding inhibition with TvPNP, to give an equilibrium dissociation constant of 87 pM, an inhibitor release half-time of 17.2 min, and a K{sub m}/K{sub d} ratio of 70,100. DADMe-ImmA resembles a late ribooxacarbenium ion transition state for TvPNP to give a dissociation constant of 30 pM, an inhibitor release half-time of 64 min, and a K{sub m}/K{sub d} ratio of 203,300. The tight binding of DADMe-ImmA supports a late S{sub N}1 transition state. Despite their tight binding to TvPNP, ImmA and DADMe-ImmA are weak inhibitors of human and P. falciparum PNPs. The crystal structures of the TvPNP-ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} and TvPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} ternary complexes differ from previous structures with substrate anologues. The tight binding with DADMe-ImmA is in part due to a 2.7 {angstrom} ionic interaction between a PO{sub 4} oxygen and the N1 cation of the hydroxypyrrolidine and is weaker in the TvPNP{center_dot}ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} structure at 3.5 {angstrom}. However, the TvPNP{center_dot}ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} structure includes hydrogen bonds between the 2'-hydroxyl and the protein that are not present in TvPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4}. These structures explain why DADMe-ImmA binds tighter than ImmA. Immucillin-H is a 12 nM inhibitor of TvPNP but a 56 pM inhibitor of human PNP. And this difference is explained by isotope

  9. Nucleoside-5'-phosphorothioate analogues are biocompatible antioxidants dissolving efficiently amyloid beta-metal ion aggregates.

    PubMed

    Amir, Aviran; Shmuel, Eran; Zagalsky, Rostislav; Sayer, Alon H; Nadel, Yael; Fischer, Bilha

    2012-07-28

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide is known to precipitate and form aggregates with zinc and copper ions in vitro and, in vivo in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Metal-ion-chelation was suggested as therapy for the metal-ion-induced Aβ aggregation, metal-ion overload, and oxidative stress. In a quest for biocompatible metal-ion chelators potentially useful for AD therapy, we tested a series of nucleoside 5'-phosphorothioate derivatives as re-solubilization agents of Cu(+)/Cu(2+)/Zn(2+)-induced Aβ-aggregates, and inhibitors of Fenton reaction in Cu(+) or Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) system. The most promising chelator in this series was found to be APCPP-γ-S. This nucleotide was found to be more efficient than EDTA in re-solubilization of Aβ(40)-Cu(2+) aggregates as observed by the lower diameter, d(H), (86 vs. 64 nm, respectively) obtained in dynamic light scattering measurements. Likewise, APCPP-γ-S dissolved Aβ(40)-Cu(+) and Aβ(42)-Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) aggregates, as monitored by (1)H-NMR and turbidity assays, respectively. Furthermore, addition of APCPP-γ-S to nine-day old Aβ(40)-Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) aggregates, resulted in size reduction as observed by transition electron microscopy (diameter reduction from 2.5 to 0.1 μm for Aβ(40)-Cu(2+) aggregates). APCPP-γ-S proved to be more efficient than ascorbic acid and GSH in reducing OH radical production in Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) system (IC(50) values 85, 216 and, 92 μM, respectively). Therefore, we propose APCPP-γ-S as a potential AD therapy capable of both reducing OH radical production and re-solubilization of Aβ(40/42)-M(n+) aggregates.

  10. Paper Synthesis, Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis Induction in Human Tumor Cells by Galaxamide and Its Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xi; Liao, Xiaojian; Qiu, Shaoling; Liu, Zihao; Du, Bin; Xu, Shihai

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study reported that galaxamide, which is a cyclo-pentapeptide containing five leucines that was extracted from Galaxaura filamentosa, displayed remarkable anticancer cytotoxicity. This novel cyclo-peptide provided a new skeleton for the structural modifications used in finding new drugs with better anticancer properties. In this study, five analogues were synthesized based on changing the number of d/l amino acids by adding a new amino acid, phenylalanine. Galaxamide and five of its analogues were evaluated through MTT assays to examine their cytotoxic activities. We found that modified analogue 5, which is referred to as A5, displayed broad spectrum cytotoxic activity toward every cell line tested; in addition, the IC50 of A5 was lower than that of galaxamide and the other analogues. Furthermore, we used flow cytometry and western blot assays to investigate whether galaxamide and A5 could induce cancer cell apoptosis. The flow cytometric studies showed that HepG2 cells treated with different concentrations of galaxamide or A5 over 72 h displayed significant and dose-dependent increases in the percentages of early-stage apoptotic cells. Western blotting revealed that both compounds induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in HepG2 cells through a mitochondria-mediated pathway. The results demonstrate that galaxamide and its analogues have potential applications as clinical anticancer drugs. PMID:25231922

  11. Resistance of Herpes Simplex Viruses to Nucleoside Analogues: Mechanisms, Prevalence, and Management ▿

    PubMed Central

    Piret, Jocelyne; Boivin, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) type 1 and type 2 are responsible for recurrent orolabial and genital infections. The standard therapy for the management of HSV infections includes acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV) with their respective prodrugs valacyclovir and famciclovir. These compounds are phosphorylated by the viral thymidine kinase (TK) and then by cellular kinases. The triphosphate forms selectively inhibit the viral DNA polymerase (DNA pol) activity. Drug-resistant HSV isolates are frequently recovered from immunocompromised patients but rarely found in immunocompetent subjects. The gold standard phenotypic method for evaluating the susceptibility of HSV isolates to antiviral drugs is the plaque reduction assay. Plaque autoradiography allows the associated phenotype to be distinguished (TK-wild-type, TK-negative, TK-low-producer, or TK-altered viruses or mixtures of wild-type and mutant viruses). Genotypic characterization of drug-resistant isolates can reveal mutations located in the viral TK and/or in the DNA pol genes. Recombinant HSV mutants can be generated to analyze the contribution of each specific mutation with regard to the drug resistance phenotype. Most ACV-resistant mutants exhibit some reduction in their capacity to establish latency and to reactivate, as well as in their degree of neurovirulence in animal models of HSV infection. For instance, TK-negative HSV mutants establish latency with a lower efficiency than wild-type strains and reactivate poorly. DNA pol HSV mutants exhibit different degrees of attenuation of neurovirulence. The management of ACV- or PCV-resistant HSV infections includes the use of the pyrophosphate analogue foscarnet and the nucleotide analogue cidofovir. There is a need to develop new antiherpetic compounds with different mechanisms of action. PMID:21078929

  12. Design, synthesis and cytotoxic evaluation of o-carboxamido stilbene analogues.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Mohamad Nurul; Din, Mohd Fadzli Md; Kee, Chin Hui; Suhaimi, Munirah; Ping, Ang Kheng; Ahmad, Kartini; Nafiah, Mohd Azlan; Thomas, Noel F; Mohamad, Khalit; Hoong, Leong Kok; Awang, Khalijah

    2013-11-27

    Resveratrol, a natural stilbene found in grapes and wines exhibits a wide range of pharmacological properties. Resveratrol is also known as a good chemopreventive agent for inhibiting carcinogenesis processes that target kinases, cyclooxygenases, ribonucleotide reductase and DNA polymerases. A total of 19 analogues with an amide moiety were synthesized and the cytotoxic effects of the analogues on a series of human cancer cell lines are reported. Three compounds 6d, 6i and 6n showed potent cytotoxicity against prostate cancer DU-145 (IC50=16.68 µM), colon cancer HT-29 (IC50=7.51 µM) and breast cancer MCF-7 (IC50=21.24 µM), respectively, which are comparable with vinblastine. The resveratrol analogues were synthesized using the Heck method.

  13. Imaging expression of adenoviral HSV1-tk suicide gene transfer using the nucleoside analogue FIRU.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Dharmin; de Jong, Marion; Vogels, Ronald; Havenga, Menzo; Driesse, Maarten; Bakker, Willem; Bijster, Magda; Avezaat, Cees; Cox, Peter; Morin, Kevin; Naimi, Ebrahim; Knaus, Edward; Wiebe, Leonard; Smitt, Peter Sillevis

    2002-07-01

    Substrates for monitoring HSV1-tk gene expression include uracil and acycloguanosine derivatives. The most commonly used uracil derivative to monitor HSV1-tk gene transfer is 1-(2-fluoro-2-deoxy--D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-[*I]iodouracil (fialuridine; I*-FIAU), where the asterisk denotes any of the radioactive iodine isotopes that can be used. We have previously studied other nucleosides with imaging properties as good as or better than FIAU, including 1-(2-fluoro-2-deoxy--D-ribofuranosyl)-5-[*I]iodouracil (FIRU). The first aim of this study was to extend the biodistribution data of 123I-labelled FIRU. Secondly, we assessed the feasibility of detecting differences in HSV1-tk gene expression levels following adenoviral gene transfer in vivo with 123I-FIRU. 9L rat gliosarcoma cells were stably transfected with the HSV1-tk gene (9L-tk+). 123I-FIRU was prepared by radioiodination of 1-(2-fluoro-2-deoxy--D-ribofuranosyl)-5-tributylstannyl uracil (FTMRSU; precursor compound) and purified using an activated Sep-Pak column. Incubation of 9L-tk+ cells and the parental 9L cells with 123I-FIRU resulted in a 100-fold higher accumulation of radioactivity in the 9L-tk+ cells after an optimum incubation time of 4 h. NIH-bg-nu-xid mice were then inoculated subcutaneously with HSV1-tk (-) 9L cells or HSV1-tk (+) 9L-tk+ cells into both flanks. Biodistribution studies and gamma camera imaging were performed at 15 min and 1, 2, 4 and 24 h p.i. At 15 min, the tumour/muscle, tumour/blood and tumour/brain ratios were 5.2, 1.0 and 30.3 respectively. Rapid renal clearance of the tracer from the body resulted in increasing tumour/muscle, tumour/blood and tumour/brain ratios, reaching values of 32.2, 12.5 and 171.6 at 4 h p.i. A maximum specific activity of 22%ID/g tissue was reached in the 9L-tk+ tumours 4 h after 123I-FIRU injection. Two Ad5-based adenoviral vectors containing the HSV1-tk gene were constructed: a replication-incompetent vector with the transgene in the former E1 region, driven

  14. Nucleoside analogues with a 1,3-diene-Fe(CO)3 substructure: stereoselective synthesis, configurational assignment, and apoptosis-inducing activity.

    PubMed

    Hirschhäuser, Christoph; Velcicky, Juraj; Schlawe, Daniel; Hessler, Erik; Majdalani, André; Neudörfl, Jörg-Martin; Prokop, Aram; Wieder, Thomas; Schmalz, Hans-Günther

    2013-09-23

    The synthesis and stereochemical assignment of two classes of iron-containing nucleoside analogues, both of which contain a butadiene-Fe(CO)3 substructure, is described. The first type of compounds are Fe(CO)3-complexed 3'-alkenyl-2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-dehydro nucleosides (2,5-dihydrofuran derivatives), from which the second class of compounds is derived by formal replacement of the ring oxygen atom by a CH2 group (carbocyclic nucleoside analogues). These compounds were prepared in a stereoselective manner through the metal-assisted introduction of the nucleobase. Whilst the furanoid intermediates were prepared from carbohydrates (such as methyl-glucopyranoside), the carbocyclic compounds were obtained by using an intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction. Stereochemical assignments based on NMR and CD spectroscopy were confirmed by X-ray structural analysis. Biological investigations revealed that several of the complexes exhibited pronounced apoptosis-inducing properties (through an unusual caspase 3-independent but ROS-dependent pathway). Furthermore, some structure-activity relationships were identified, also as a precondition for the design and synthesis of fluorescent and biotin-labeled conjugates. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Nucleoside Analogue Triphosphates Allosterically Regulate Human Ribonucleotide Reductase and Identify Chemical Determinants That Drive Substrate Specificity.

    PubMed

    Knappenberger, Andrew J; Ahmad, Md Faiz; Viswanathan, Rajesh; Dealwis, Chris G; Harris, Michael E

    2016-10-18

    Class I ribonucleotide reductase (RR) maintains balanced pools of deoxyribonucleotide substrates for DNA replication by converting ribonucleoside diphosphates (NDPs) to 2'-deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates (dNDPs). Binding of deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) effectors (ATP/dATP, dGTP, and dTTP) modulates the specificity of class I RR for CDP, UDP, ADP, and GDP substrates. Crystal structures of bacterial and eukaryotic RRs show that dNTP effectors and NDP substrates bind on either side of a flexible nine-amino acid loop (loop 2). Interactions with the effector nucleobase alter loop 2 geometry, resulting in changes in specificity among the four NDP substrates of RR. However, the functional groups proposed to drive specificity remain untested. Here, we use deoxynucleoside analogue triphosphates to determine the nucleobase functional groups that drive human RR (hRR) specificity. The results demonstrate that the 5-methyl, O4, and N3 groups of dTTP contribute to specificity for GDP. The O6 and protonated N1 of dGTP direct specificity for ADP. In contrast, the unprotonated N1 of adenosine is the primary determinant of ATP/dATP-directed specificity for CDP. Structural models from X-ray crystallography of eukaryotic RR suggest that the side chain of D287 in loop 2 is involved in binding of dGTP and dTTP, but not dATP/ATP. This feature is consistent with experimental results showing that a D287A mutant of hRR is deficient in allosteric regulation by dGTP and dTTP, but not ATP/dATP. Together, these data define the effector functional groups that are the drivers of human RR specificity and provide constraints for evaluating models of allosteric regulation.

  16. New Chiral Ebselen Analogues with Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potential.

    PubMed

    Pacuła, Agata J; Kaczor, Katarzyna B; Antosiewicz, Jędrzej; Janecka, Anna; Długosz, Angelika; Janecki, Tomasz; Wojtczak, Andrzej; Ścianowski, Jacek

    2017-03-20

    New chiral camphane-derived benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-ones and corresponding diselenides have been synthetized using a convenient one-pot procedure. Se-N bond was efficiently converted to an Se-Se bond, which could also be easily re-oxidized to the initial benzisoselenazolone moiety. The antioxidant activity of camphor derivatives was evaluated and compared to the reactivity of a series of N-amino acid benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-ones obtained by a modified procedure involving the improved synthesis and isolation of the diseleno bis(dibenzoic) acid. The most efficient peroxide scavengers, N-bornyl and N-leucine methyl ester benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-ones, were further evaluated as cytotoxic agents on four cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HEP G2, HL 6, and DU 145) and normal cell line PNT1A. The highest antiproliferative potential was evaluated for two compounds bearing a 3-methylbutyl carbon chain, N-leucine methyl ester and N-3-methylbutyl benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-ones.

  17. Antiviral therapy with nucleotide/nucleoside analogues in chronic hepatitis B: A meta-analysis of prospective randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Bedre, Renesh H; Raj, Utkarsh; Misra, Sri Prakash; Varadwaj, Pritish Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Nucleotide/nucleoside analogues (antiviral therapy) are used in the therapy of HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B. We analyzed ten selected randomized controlled with 2557 patients to estimate the effect of antiviral drugs in chronic hepatitis B with compared to placebo. Virological response, biochemical response, histological response, seroconversion of HBeAg, and loss of HBeAg were estimated as primary efficacy measures. The included studies were subjected for heterogeneity and publication bias. The heterogeneity was assessed with χ2 and I(2) statistics. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plot. Greater rates of improvement obtained in antiviral group for virological response [43.96 % vs. 3.15 %, RR = 0.57, 95 % CI = 0.54-0.61, p-value <0.00001], biochemical response [58.37 % vs. 21.87 %, RR = 0.52, 95 % CI = 0.48-0.56, p-value <0.00001], histological response [58.99 % vs. 27.13 %, RR = 0.56, 95 % CI = 0.50-0.63, p-value <0.0001], seroconversion of HBeAg [10.66 % vs. 5.56 %, RR = 0.94, 95 % CI = 0.91-0.97, p-value = 0.0005], and HBeAg loss [14.59 % vs. 9.64 %, RR = 0.92, 95 % CI = 0.88-0.96, p-value = 0.0002]. The safety analysis were carried out for adverse events such as headache [17.22 % vs. 17.34 %, OR = 1.09, 95 % CI = 0.81-1.46, p-value = 0.58], abdominal pain [16.46 % vs. 14.34 %, OR = 1.24, 95 % CI = 0.90-1.72, p-value = 0.19], and pharyngitis [22.22 % vs. 18.23 %, OR = 1.12, 95 % CI = 0.86-1.45, p-value = 0.40]. Excluding adverse events, all primary efficacy measures shown statistical significant result for chronic hepatitis treatment (p-value <0.05). Antiviral therapy provided significant benefit for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B with no measurable adverse effects.

  18. Design, structure activity relationship, cytotoxicity and evaluation of antioxidant activity of curcumin derivatives/analogues.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Pramod K

    2016-10-04

    New fourteen 3,4-dihydropyrimidine derivatives/analogues of curcumin (2a-2n) were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated for their cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity effect has been evaluated against three cell lines HeLa, HCT-116 and QG-56 by MTT assay method. From SAR study, it has been revealed that particularly, compound 2e and 2j (IC50 value 12.5 μM) have shown better cytotoxicity effect against three cell lines. According to results of SAR study, it was found that 3,4-dihydropyrimidines of curcumin, 2c, 2d, 2j and 2n exhibited better antioxidant activity than curcumin. A correlation of structure and activities relationship of these compounds with respect to drug score profiles and other physico-chemical properties of drugs are described and verified experimentally. Therefore, we conclude that physico-chemical analyses may prove structural features of curcumin analogues with their promising combined cytotoxicity/antioxidant activity and it is also concluded from virtual and practical screening that the compounds were varied to possess a broad range of lipophilic character, revealed by Log P values.

  19. Incorporation of 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleoside analogues into DNA of a thymidylate synthetase-deficient murine FM3A carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Balzarini, J; De Clercq, E; Ayusawa, D; Seno, T

    1985-01-01

    Various 5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridine (dUrd), 2'-deoxycytidine (dCyd), 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (araU) and 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (araC) analogues have been investigated for their stimulatory effect on the growth of a thymidylate (dTMP) synthetase-deficient murine mammary carcinoma cell line (FM3A/TS-) that is auxotrophic for thymidine (dThd). Such stimulatory effect may be considered as indicative for the incorporation of the nucleoside analogue into host cell DNA. Based on this premise, several dUrd analogues were found to be incorporated into FM3A/TS- cell DNA (in decreasing order of incorporation): 5-bromo-dUrd greater than 5-chloro-dUrd greater than 5-(3-hydroxy-1-propynyl)-dUrd greater greater than 5-(1-pentynyl)-dUrd approximately 5-(1-propynyl)-dUrd approximately 5-iodo-dUrd greater than 5-(5-carboxy-1-hexenyl)-dUrd greater than 5-(3,3-dimethyl-1-butynyl)-dUrd greater than 5-ethyl-dUrd greater than 5-(5-chloro-1-pentynyl)-dUrd greater than 5-ethynyl-dUrd approximately 5 vinyl-dUrd greater than 5-phenylethynyl-dUrd greater than 5-(5-cyano-1-pentenyl)-dUrd greater than 5-(1-propenyl)-dUrd greater than 5-(1-hexynyl)-dUrd greater than 5-(5-hexyn-1-enyl)-dUrd. Among the 5-substituted dCyd analogues, 5-methyl-dCyd, 5-chloro-dCyd, 5-bromo-dCyd and 5-iodo-dCyd were also found to stimulate cell growth, and are therefore assumed to be incorporated into FM3A/TS- cell DNA. Since the stimulatory effects of these compounds on FM3A/TS- cell proliferation were suppressed in the presence of a Cyd deaminase inhibitor (tetrahydrouridine) or dCMP deaminase inhibitor (2'-deoxytetrahydrouridine), it is surmised that the dCyd analogues are first deaminated to the corresponding dUrd analogues before they are incorporated into DNA. None of the 5-substituted araU or araC analogues tested were able to sustain the growth of FM3A/TS- cells. It is postulated, therefore, that these araU or araC analogues are not incorporated to any appreciable extent into the DNA of FM3

  20. Nucleoside kinases in adult Schistosoma mansoni: phosphorylation of pyrimidine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Fardos N M; El Kouni, Mahmoud H

    2014-01-01

    Competition studies and column chromatography demonstrated that adults Schistosoma mansoni contains three nucleoside kinases that can phosphorylate pyrimidine nucleosides; a non-specific deoxyriboside kinase (EC 2.7.1.145), a specific uridine kinase and a specific cytidine kinase. The non-specific deoxyriboside kinase can phosphorylate all naturally occurring pyrimidine and purine 2'-deoxyribosides. Uridine and cytidine kinases are specific for uridine and cytidine, respectively. Various nucleoside 5'-triphosphate act as phosphate donors for the three kinases albeit to different degrees. Nucleoside kinases are critical in the activation of potential anti-parasitic drugs which may be identified among the numerous available pyrimidine nucleoside analogues. The finding that S. mansoni have nucleoside kinases that differ from their host enzymes raises the possibilities that certain pyrimidine nucleoside analogues could be selectively toxic to schistosomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis of gem-difluorinated nucleoside analogues of the liposidomycins and evaluation as MraY inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiu-Hua; Trunkfield, Amy E; Bugg, Timothy D H; Qing, Feng-Ling

    2008-01-07

    Two gem-difluoromethylenated nucleoside moieties of liposidomycins, 3 and 4, were designed and synthesized. Compound 3 was assembled from lactol 5 and gem-difluoromethylenated nucleoside 6. In the synthesis of target molecule 4, the coupling of the trichloroacetimidate derivative of gem-difluoromethylenated furanose 7 with nucleoside 8 in the presence of TMSOTf gave the unexpected compound 16 when CH3CN was used as solvent. This results from acetonitrile acting as a nucleophile and participating in the glycosylation reaction. This unusual process may be correlated with the presence of the electron-withdrawing gem-difluoro substituents at the C-2 position of furanose. Compound 3 demonstrated 29% inhibition of MraY at 11.4 mM.

  2. C-Nucleosides To Be Revisited.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik

    2016-03-24

    Two new C-nucleoside analogues, BCX4430, an imino-C-nucleoside, and GS-6620, a phosphoramidate derivative of 1'-cyano-2'-C-methyl-4-aza-7,9-dideazaadenosine C-nucleoside, have been recently described as effective against filovirus infections (Marburg) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), respectively. The first C-nucleoside analogues were described about half a century ago. The C-nucleoside pseudouridine is a natural component of RNA, and various other C-nucleoside analogues have been reported previously for their antiviral and/or anticancer potential, the most prominent being pyrazofurin, tiazofurin, and selenazofurin. In the meantime, showdomycin, formycin, and various triazole, pyrazine, pyridine, dihydroxyphenyl, thienopyrimidine, pyrazolotriazine, and porphyrin C-nucleoside analogues have been described. It would be worth revisiting these C-nucleosides and derivatives thereof, including their phosphoramidates, for their therapeutic potential in the treatment of virus infections and, where appropriate, cancer as well.

  3. Synthesis, antiviral activity, cytotoxicity and cellular pharmacology of l-3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxypurine nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-wang; Detorio, Mervi; Herman, Brian D.; Solomon, Sarah; Bassit, Leda; Nettles, James H.; Obikhod, Aleksandr; Tao, Si-jia; Mellors, John W.; Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas; Coats, Steven J.; Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2011-01-01

    Microwave-assisted optimized transglycosylation reactions were used to prepare eleven modified l-3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxypurine nucleosides. These l-nucleoside analogs were evaluated against HIV and hepatitis B virus. The l-3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxypurines nucleosides were metabolized to nucleoside 5′-triphosphates in primary human lymphocytes, but exhibited weak or no antiviral activity against HIV-1. The nucleosides were also inactive against HBV in HepG2 cells. Pre-steady-state kinetic experiments demonstrated that the l-3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxypurine triphosphates could be incorporated by purified HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, although their catalytic efficiency (kpol/Kd) of incorporation was low. Interestingly, a phosphoramidate prodrug of l-3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxyadenosine exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity without significant toxicity. PMID:21700368

  4. A multi-step process of viral adaptation to a mutagenic nucleoside analogue by modulation of transition types leads to extinction-escape.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Rubén; Ferrer-Orta, Cristina; Arias, Armando; de la Higuera, Ignacio; Perales, Celia; Pérez-Luque, Rosa; Verdaguer, Nuria; Domingo, Esteban

    2010-08-26

    Resistance of viruses to mutagenic agents is an important problem for the development of lethal mutagenesis as an antiviral strategy. Previous studies with RNA viruses have documented that resistance to the mutagenic nucleoside analogue ribavirin (1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-1-H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide) is mediated by amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerase that either increase the general template copying fidelity of the enzyme or decrease the incorporation of ribavirin into RNA. Here we describe experiments that show that replication of the important picornavirus pathogen foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in the presence of increasing concentrations of ribavirin results in the sequential incorporation of three amino acid substitutions (M296I, P44S and P169S) in the viral polymerase (3D). The main biological effect of these substitutions is to attenuate the consequences of the mutagenic activity of ribavirin -by avoiding the biased repertoire of transition mutations produced by this purine analogue-and to maintain the replicative fitness of the virus which is able to escape extinction by ribavirin. This is achieved through alteration of the pairing behavior of ribavirin-triphosphate (RTP), as evidenced by in vitro polymerization assays with purified mutant 3Ds. Comparison of the three-dimensional structure of wild type and mutant polymerases suggests that the amino acid substitutions alter the position of the template RNA in the entry channel of the enzyme, thereby affecting nucleotide recognition. The results provide evidence of a new mechanism of resistance to a mutagenic nucleoside analogue which allows the virus to maintain a balance among mutation types introduced into progeny genomes during replication under strong mutagenic pressure.

  5. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors induce a mitophagy-associated endothelial cytotoxicity that is reversed by coenzyme Q10 cotreatment.

    PubMed

    Xue, Stephen Y; Hebert, Valeria Y; Hayes, Danicia M; Robinson, Corie N; Glover, Mitzi; Dugas, Tammy R

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular complications have been documented in HIV-1 infected populations, and antiretroviral therapy may play a role. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are antiretrovirals known to induce mitochondrial damage in endothelial cells, culminating in endothelial dysfunction, an initiating event in atherogenesis. Though the mechanism for NRTI-induced endothelial toxicity is not yet clear, our prior work suggested that a mitochondrial oxidative stress may be involved. To further delineate the mechanism of toxicity, endothelial cells were treated with NRTIs of varying subclasses, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial function were assessed. To test whether rescue of mitochondrial electron transport attenuated NRTI-induced endothelial cytotoxicity, in some cases, cells were cotreated with the electron transport cofactor coenzyme Q10 (Q10). At 4-6h, NRTIs increased levels of ROS but decreased the activities of electron transport chain complexes I-IV, levels of ATP and the NAD/NADH ratio. Moreover, nitric oxide levels were decreased, whereas endothelin-1 release was increased. Q10 abolished NRTI-induced mitochondria injury and effects on endothelial agonist production. Interestingly, in cells treated with NRTIs only, markers for mitochondrial toxicity returned to baseline levels by 18-24h, suggesting a compensatory mechanism for clearing damaged mitochondria. Using confocal microscopy, with confirmation utilizing the autophagy and mitophagy markers LC-3 and Nix, respectively, we observed autophagy of mitochondria at 8-10h after treatment. Q10 prevented NRTI-mediated increase in LC-3. These findings suggest that NRTI-induced mitophagy may be involved in NRTI-induced endothelial dysfunction and that this damage likely results from oxidant injury. Further, Q10 supplementation could potentially prevent NRTI-induced endothelial dysfunction.

  6. Analogues of acyclic nucleosides derived from tris-(hydroxymethyl)phosphine oxide or bis-(hydroxymethyl)phosphinic acid coupled to DNA nucleobases.

    PubMed

    Nawrot, Barbara; Michalak, Olga; De Clercq, Erik; Stec, Wojciech J

    2004-11-01

    A series of novel acyclic nucleoside analogues containing bis-(hydroxymethyl)phosphinic acid (BHPA) or tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine oxide (THPO) coupled with DNA nucleobases or with 5-fluorouracil were prepared and their antiviral activity was studied against cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), parainfluenza-virus type 3, reovirus-type 1, sindbis, coxsackie B4, punta toro, vesicular stomatitis and respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus-type 1 (KOS) and type 2 (G), vaccinia virus and herpes simplex virus-1 (TK- KOS ACVr). No specific antiviral effects were noted for any of test compounds against viruses evaluated, except thymine, cytosine and adenine derivatives of BHPA exerting borderline activity against respiratory syncytial virus at the 80 mg/ml concentration.

  7. Mutation V111I in HIV-2 Reverse Transcriptase Increases the Fitness of the Nucleoside Analogue-Resistant K65R and Q151M Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Deuzing, Ilona P.; Charpentier, Charlotte; Wright, David W.; Matheron, Sophie; Paton, Jack; Frentz, Dineke; van de Vijver, David A.; Coveney, Peter V.; Descamps, Diane; Boucher, Charles A. B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection with HIV-2 can ultimately lead to AIDS, although disease progression is much slower than with HIV-1. HIV-2 patients are mostly treated with a combination of nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NRTIs) and protease inhibitors designed for HIV-1. Many studies have described the development of HIV-1 resistance to NRTIs and identified mutations in the polymerase domain of RT. Recent studies have shown that mutations in the connection and RNase H domains of HIV-1 RT may also contribute to resistance. However, only limited information exists regarding the resistance of HIV-2 to NRTIs. In this study, therefore, we analyzed the polymerase, connection, and RNase H domains of RT in HIV-2 patients failing NRTI-containing therapies. Besides the key resistance mutations K65R, Q151M, and M184V, we identified a novel mutation, V111I, in the polymerase domain. This mutation was significantly associated with mutations K65R and Q151M. Sequencing of the connection and RNase H domains of the HIV-2 patients did not reveal any of the mutations that were reported to contribute to NRTI resistance in HIV-1. We show that V111I does not strongly affect drug susceptibility but increases the replication capacity of the K65R and Q151M viruses. Biochemical assays demonstrate that V111I restores the polymerization defects of the K65R and Q151M viruses but negatively affects the fidelity of the HIV-2 RT enzyme. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to analyze the structural changes mediated by V111I. This showed that V111I changed the flexibility of the 110-to-115 loop region, which may affect deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) binding and polymerase activity. IMPORTANCE Mutation V111I in the HIV-2 reverse transcriptase enzyme was identified in patients failing therapies containing nucleoside analogues. We show that the V111I change does not strongly affect the sensitivity of HIV-2 to nucleoside analogues but increases the fitness of viruses with drug

  8. Mechanistic studies on the synergistic cytotoxicity of the nucleoside analogs gemcitabine and clofarabine in multiple myeloma: relevance of p53 and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Benigno C; Wang, Guiyun; Murray, David; Nieto, Yago; Li, Yang; Shah, Jatin; Turturro, Francesco; Wang, Michael; Weber, Donna M; Champlin, Richard E; Qazilbash, Muzaffar H; Andersson, Borje S

    2013-08-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an established treatment for multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell malignancy. To identify an improved pretransplant conditioning regimen, we investigated the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine (Gem) and clofarabine (Clo) combinations toward MM cell lines and patient cell samples. A strong synergism of the two nucleoside analogs, when combined at their approximate IC10 concentrations, was observed. This synergism could be partly due to the observed Gem-mediated phosphorylation and activation of deoxycytidine kinase, resulting in enhanced phosphorylation of Gem and Clo. Their cytotoxicity correlated with a robust activation of the DNA damage response pathway. [Gem+Clo] decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential with a concomitant release of proapoptotic factors into the cytoplasm and nucleus and the activation of apoptosis. Exposure of MM cells to [Gem+Clo] also decreased the level of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which might have resulted in nucleolar stress, as reported previously, and caused a p53-dependent cell death. A reduction by approximately 50% in the cytotoxicity of Gem and Clo was observed in the presence of pifithrin α, a p53 inhibitor. Furthermore, MM cell lines with mutant p53 exhibited greater resistance to Gem and Clo, supporting a role for the p53 protein in these cytotoxic responses. Our results provide a rationale for clinical trials incorporating [Gem+Clo] combinations as part of conditioning therapy for high-risk patients with MM undergoing HSCT.

  9. Synthesis of new 2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-4′-azido nucleoside analogues as potent anti-HIV agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Hu, Weidong; Wang, Shuyang; Pan, Zhenliang; Tao, Le; Guo, Xiaohe; Qian, Keduo; Chen, Chin-Ho; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Chang, Junbiao

    2011-01-01

    We prepared 1-(4′-azido-2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-β -D-arabinofuranosyl)cytosine (10) and its hydrochloride salt (11) as potential antiviral agents based on the favorable antiviral profiles of 4′-substituted nucleosides. Compounds 10 and 11 were synthesized from 1,3,5-O-tribenzoyl-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-arabinofuranoside in multiple steps, and their structures were unequivocally established by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and 19F NMR spectroscopy, HRMS, and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 10 and 11 exhibited potent anti-HIV-1 activity (EC50: 0.3 and 0.13 nM, respectively) without significant cytotoxicity in concentrations up to 100 μM. Compound 11 exhibited extremely potent anti-HIV activity against NL4-3 (wild-type), NL4-3 (K101E), and RTMDR viral strains, with EC50 values of 0.086, 0.15, and 0.11 nM, respectively. Due to the high potency of 11, it was also screened against an NIH Reagent Program NRTI-resistant virus panel containing eleven mutated viral strains and for cytotoxicity against six different human cell lines. The results of this screening indicated that 11 is a novel NRTI that could be developed as an anti-AIDS clinical trial candidate to overcome drug-resistance issues. PMID:21745701

  10. Structure of a mutant human purine nucleoside phosphorylase with the prodrug, 2-fluoro-2-deoxyadenosine and the cytotoxic drug, 2-fluoroadenine

    SciTech Connect

    Afshar, Sepideh; Sawaya, Michael R.; Morrison, Sherie L.

    2009-06-30

    A double mutant of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (hDM) with the amino acid mutations Glu201Gln:Asn243Asp cleaves adenosine-based prodrugs to their corresponding cytotoxic drugs. When fused to an anti-tumor targeting component, hDM is targeted to tumor cells, where it effectively catalyzes phosphorolysis of the prodrug, 2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (F-dAdo) to the cytotoxic drug, 2-fluoroadenine (F-Ade). This cytotoxicity should be restricted only to the tumor microenvironment, because the endogenously expressed wild type enzyme cannot use adenosine-based prodrugs as substrates. To gain insight into the interaction of hDM with F-dAdo, we have determined the crystal structures of hDM with F-dAdo and F-Ade. The structures reveal that despite the two mutations, the overall fold of hDM is nearly identical to the wild type enzyme. Importantly, the residues Gln201 and Asp243 introduced by the mutation form hydrogen bond contacts with F-dAdo that result in its binding and catalysis. Comparison of substrate and product complexes suggest that the side chains of Gln201 and Asp243 as well as the purine base rotate during catalysis possibly facilitating cleavage of the glycosidic bond. The two structures suggest why hDM, unlike the wild-type enzyme, can utilize F-dAdo as substrate. More importantly, they provide a critical foundation for further optimization of cleavage of adenosine-based prodrugs, such as F-dAdo by mutants of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

  11. Compound A398, a Novel Podophyllotoxin Analogue: Cytotoxicity and Induction of Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Alethéia L.; Faheina-Martins, Glaúcia V.; Maia, Raquel C.; Araújo, Demetrius A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in oncology research, cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Thus, there is a demand for the development of more selective and effective antitumor agents. This study showed that A398, a novel podophyllotoxin analogue, was cytotoxic to the HT-29, MCF-7, MOLT-4 and HL-60 tumor cell lines, being less active in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and normal cell lines FGH and IEC-6. Tests using the HepG2 lineage indicated that its metabolites do not contribute to its cytotoxicity. In the HL-60 cells, A398 induced apoptosis in a time and concentration-dependent manner, promoting mitochondrial depolarization, inhibition of Bcl-2, phosphatidylserine exposure, activation of caspases -8, -9 and -3, and DNA fragmentation. The production of reactive oxygen species does not seem to be a crucial event for the apoptotic process. Pretreatment with specific inhibitors of kinases ERK1/2, JNK and p38 resulted in an increased percentage of death induced by A398. These results indicate that the compound induced apoptosis through activation of intrinsic and extrinsic death pathways with the mechanism involving the inhibition of the MAPKs and Bcl-2. Taken together, our findings suggest that A398 has an anticancer potential, proving itself to be a candidate for preclinical studies. PMID:25221997

  12. Dillapiole as antileishmanial agent: discovery, cytotoxic activity and preliminary SAR studies of dillapiole analogues.

    PubMed

    Parise-Filho, Roberto; Pasqualoto, Kerly Fernanda Mesquita; Magri, Fátima Maria Motter; Ferreira, Adilson Kleber; da Silva, Bárbara Athayde Vaz Galvão; Damião, Mariana Celestina Frojuello Costa Bernstorff; Tavares, Maurício Temotheo; Azevedo, Ricardo Alexandre; Auada, Aline Vivian Vatti; Polli, Michelle Carneiro; Brandt, Carlos Alberto

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the isolation of dillapiole (1) from Piper aduncum was reported as well as the semi-synthesis of two phenylpropanoid derivatives [di-hydrodillapiole (2), isodillapiole (3)], via reduction and isomerization reactions. Also, the compounds' molecular properties (structural, electronic, hydrophobic, and steric) were calculated and investigated to establish some preliminary structure-activity relationships (SAR). Compounds were evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity and cytotoxic effects on fibroblast cells. Compound 1 presented inhibitory activity against Leishmania amazonensis (IC(50)  = 69.3 µM) and Leishmania brasiliensis (IC(50)  = 59.4 µM) and induced cytotoxic effects on fibroblast cells mainly in high concentrations. Compounds 2 (IC(50)  = 99.9 µM for L. amazonensis and IC(50)  = 90.5 µM for L. braziliensis) and 3 (IC(50)  = 122.9 µM for L. amazonensis and IC(50)  = 109.8 µM for L. brasiliensis) were less active than dillapiole (1). Regarding the molecular properties, the conformational arrangement of the side chain, electronic features, and the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance seem to be relevant for explaining the antileishmanial activity of dillapiole and its analogues. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Synthesis of 1,N6-etheno-2-aza-adenosine (2-aza-ε-adenosine): a new cytotoxic fluorescent nucleoside

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, K.C.; Yip, K.F.; Miller, E.E.; Lo, K.W.

    1974-01-01

    1,N6-Etheno-2-aza-adenosine was synthesized by treating 1,N6-etheno-adenosine with alkali, followed by nitrosation. The mechanism of formation of this novel nucleoside was elucidated using adenosine tritiated at C-8 and C-2, and was found to deformylate exclusively at C-2. This new 2-aza nucleoside fluoresces at 494 nm when excited at 358 nm. Toxicity study showed the compound is active in a rat mammary tumor tissue culture line, but inactive in HeLa and Glioma 26 tissue culture lines. It was also found to selectively inhibit the thymidine incorporation into DNA in a rat mammary tumor, but exhibits no ill effect on normal proliferative tissue. The reactive intermediate 3-β-D-ribofuranosyl-4-amino-5-(imidazol-2-yl) imidazole was identified and was found to be an active agent in tissue culture. PMID:10793738

  14. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV-activated prodrugs of anti-varicella zoster virus bicyclic nucleoside analogues containing different self-cleavage spacer systems.

    PubMed

    Diez-Torrubia, Alberto; Cabrera, Silvia; De Meester, Ingrid; Camarasa, María-José; Balzarini, Jan; Velázquez, Sonsoles

    2012-09-01

    A new type of double prodrug of the antiviral family of bicyclic nucleoside analogues (BCNA) bearing cyclization self-cleavage spacers between the Val-Pro dipeptide sequence as well as the parent compound were synthesized and evaluated with regard to activation by the DPPIV/CD26 enzyme and for their stability in human and bovine serum. In buffer solution, carbamate and ester prodrugs were found to be chemically stable. Most prodrugs containing a dipeptidyl linker efficiently converted into the BCNA parent drug. In contrast, the Val-Pro alkyldiamino prodrugs converted predominantly into their alkyldiamino prodrug intermediates in the presence of CD26 and human serum. A marked increase in water solubility was observed for all prodrugs. In contrast to the parent compound, a tetrapeptide prodrug containing the Val-Val dipeptide as a self-cleavage spacer released substantial amounts of the BCNA parent drug at the basolateral side of Caco-2 cell cultures and exhibited 15- to 20-fold increased bioavailability in mice relative to the poorly bioavailable parent compound.

  15. Constrained nucleoside analogues - Crystal and molecular structure of 6,5‧-O-anhydrouridines fixed in the anti conformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, Roman; Bagiński, Maciej; Tomczyk, Ewelina; Mieczkowski, Adam; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2015-10-01

    A series of analogues of anhydrouridine have been synthesized and their crystal structures established using X-ray diffraction. For all cases, the ribose ring has O(4‧)-exo, C(4‧)-endo pucker and the pyrimidine base is in the anti conformation. Investigated compounds crystallize in different crystal systems (monoclinic, orthorhombic), have different space group symmetry (P21, P212121) and exhibit different intermolecular interactions (halogen and hydrogen bonds) among molecules in their crystal lattices. Moreover, in the case of the 5-benzyl-6,5‧-O-anhydrouridine a significant positional disorder is present with the phenyl rings existing in two orientations.

  16. Analogues of the epoxy resin monomer diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F: effects on contact allergenic potency and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    O'Boyle, Niamh M; Delaine, Tamara; Luthman, Kristina; Natsch, Andreas; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2012-11-19

    Diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and bisphenol F (DGEBF) are widely used as components in epoxy resin thermosetting products. They are known to cause occupational and nonoccupational allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of this study is to investigate analogues of DGEBF with regard to contact allergy and cytotoxicity. A comprehensive knowledge of the structural features that contribute to the allergenic and cytotoxic effects of DGEBF will guide the development of future novel epoxy resin systems with reduced health hazards for those coming into contact with them. It was found that the allergenic effects of DGEBF were dependent on its terminal epoxide groups. In contrast, it was found that the cytotoxicity in monolayer cell culture was dependent not only on the presence of epoxide groups but also on other structural features.

  17. Nucleoside Inhibitors of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Eyer, Luděk; Valdés, James J.; Gil, Victor A.; Nencka, Radim; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Šála, Michal; Salát, Jiří; Černý, Jiří; Palus, Martin; De Clercq, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a leading cause of human neuroinfections in Europe and Northeast Asia. There are no antiviral therapies for treating TBEV infection. A series of nucleoside analogues was tested for the ability to inhibit the replication of TBEV in porcine kidney cells and human neuroblastoma cells. The interactions of three nucleoside analogues with viral polymerase were simulated using advanced computational methods. The nucleoside analogues 7-deaza-2′-C-methyladenosine (7-deaza-2′-CMA), 2′-C-methyladenosine (2′-CMA), and 2′-C-methylcytidine (2′-CMC) inhibited TBEV replication. These compounds showed dose-dependent inhibition of TBEV-induced cytopathic effects, TBEV replication (50% effective concentrations [EC50]of 5.1 ± 0.4 μM for 7-deaza-2′-CMA, 7.1 ± 1.2 μM for 2′-CMA, and 14.2 ± 1.9 μM for 2′-CMC) and viral antigen production. Notably, 2′-CMC was relatively cytotoxic to porcine kidney cells (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50] of ∼50 μM). The anti-TBEV effect of 2′-CMA in cell culture diminished gradually after day 3 posttreatment. 7-Deaza-2′-CMA showed no detectable cellular toxicity (CC50 > 50 μM), and the antiviral effect in culture was stable for >6 days posttreatment. Computational molecular analyses revealed that compared to the other two compounds, 7-deaza-2′-CMA formed a large cluster near the active site of the TBEV polymerase. High antiviral activity and low cytotoxicity suggest that 7-deaza-2′-CMA is a promising candidate for further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent in treating TBEV infection. PMID:26124166

  18. A first-in-human phase I and pharmacokinetic study of CP-4126 (CO-101), a nucleoside analogue, in patients with advanced solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, B; Awada, A; Evans, T R J; Dueland, S; Hendlisz, A; Rasch, W; Hernes, K; Hagen, S; Aamdal, S

    2015-10-01

    CP-4126 (gemcitabine elaidate, previously CO-101) is a lipid-drug conjugate of gemcitabine designed to circumvent human equilibrative nucleoside transporter1-related resistance to gemcitabine. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of CP-4126, and to describe its pharmacokinetic profile. Eligible patients with advanced refractory solid tumours, and adequate performance status, haematological, renal and hepatic function, were treated with one of escalating doses of CP-4126 administered by a 30-min intravenous infusion on days 1, 8 and 15 of a 28-day cycle. Blood and urine samples were collected to determine the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of CP-4126. Forty-three patients, median age 59 years (range 18-76; male = 27, female = 16), received one of ten dose levels (30-1600 mg/m(2)). Dose-limiting toxicities included grade 3 anaemia, grade 3 fatigue and grade 3 elevation of transaminases. The MTD and RP2D were 1250 mg/m(2) on basis of the toxicity and PK data. CP-4126 followed dose-dependent kinetics and maximum plasma concentrations occurred at the end of CP-4126 infusion. Seven patients achieved stable disease sustained for ≥3 months, including two patients with pancreatic cancer who had progressed on or after gemcitabine exposure. CP-4126 was well tolerated with comparable toxicity profile to gemcitabine. Future studies are required to determine its anti-tumour efficacy, either alone or in combination with other cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens.

  19. Biocatalytic approaches applied to the synthesis of nucleoside prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Luis E; Lewkowicz, Elizabeth S; Medici, Rosario; Bianchi, Paola; Iribarren, Adolfo M

    2015-01-01

    Nucleosides are valuable bioactive molecules, which display antiviral and antitumour activities. Diverse types of prodrugs are designed to enhance their therapeutic efficacy, however this strategy faces the troublesome selectivity issues of nucleoside chemistry. In this context, the aim of this review is to give an overview of the opportunities provided by biocatalytic procedures in the preparation of nucleoside prodrugs. The potential of biocatalysis in this research area will be presented through examples covering the different types of nucleoside prodrugs: nucleoside analogues as prodrugs, nucleoside lipophilic prodrugs and nucleoside hydrophilic prodrugs.

  20. Aptamer-Drug Conjugates of Active Metabolites of Nucleoside Analogs and Cytotoxic Agents Inhibit Pancreatic Tumor Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sorah; Huang, Kai-Wen; Reebye, Vikash; Spalding, Duncan; Przytycka, Teresa M; Wang, Yijie; Swiderski, Piotr; Li, Lin; Armstrong, Brian; Reccia, Isabella; Zacharoulis, Dimitris; Dimas, Konstantinos; Kusano, Tomokazu; Shively, John; Habib, Nagy; Rossi, John J

    2017-03-17

    Aptamer-drug conjugates (ApDCs) have the potential to improve the therapeutic index of traditional chemotherapeutic agents due to their ability to deliver cytotoxic drugs specifically to cancer cells while sparing normal cells. This study reports on the conjugation of cytotoxic drugs to an aptamer previously described by our group, the pancreatic cancer RNA aptamer P19. To this end, P19 was incorporated with gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), or conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) and derivative of maytansine 1 (DM1). The ApDCs P19-dFdCMP and P19-5FdUMP were shown to induce the phosphorylation of histone H2AX on Ser139 (γ-H2AX) and significantly inhibited cell proliferation by 51%-53% in PANC-1 and by 54%-34% in the gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell line AsPC-1 (p ≤ 0.0001). P19-MMAE and P19-DM1 caused mitotic G2/M phase arrest and inhibited cell proliferation by up to 56% in a dose-dependent manner when compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.001). In addition, the cytotoxicity of P19-MMAE and P19-DM1 in normal cells and the control human breast cancer cell line MCF7 was minimal. These results suggest that this approach may be useful in decreasing cytotoxic side effects in non-tumoral tissue.

  1. Design and synthesis of pironetin analogue/combretastatin A-4 hybrids containing a 1,2,3-triazole ring and evaluation of their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Concepción; Torijano-Gutiérrez, Sandra; Díaz-Oltra, Santiago; Murga, Juan; Falomir, Eva; Carda, Miguel; Alberto Marco, J

    2014-11-24

    We here describe the preparation of a series of hybrid molecules containing a combretastatin A-4 moiety and a pironetin analogue fragment connected through a spacer of variable length which includes a 1,2,3-triazole ring. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds have been measured. Relations between structure and cytotoxicity are discussed. Some of the tested compounds showed cytotoxicity values of the same order of magnitude as combretastatin A-4 and were less toxic than the latter compound for normal cells.

  2. Disaccharide nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimtseva, Ekaterina V.; Mikhailov, Sergei N.

    2004-04-01

    Structural features and biological properties of natural disaccharide nucleosides and related compounds are considered. The main methods for the synthesis of these compounds are described and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. These methods include condensations of a protected disaccharide with a heterocyclic base or of a protected nucleoside with an activated monosaccharide.

  3. In silico Study of the Pharmacologic Properties and Cytotoxicity Pathways in Cancer Cells of Various Indolylquinone Analogues of Perezone.

    PubMed

    Escobedo-González, René; Vargas-Requena, Claudia Lucia; Moyers-Montoya, Edgar; Aceves-Hernández, Juan Manuel; Nicolás-Vázquez, María Inés; Miranda-Ruvalcaba, René

    2017-06-25

    Several indolylquinone analogues of perezone, a natural sesquiterpene quinone, were characterized in this work by theoretical methods. In addition, some physicochemical, toxicological and metabolic properties were predicted using bioinformatics software. The predicted physicochemical properties are in agreement with the solubility and cLogP values, the penetration across the cell membrane, and absorption values, as well as with a possible apoptosis-activated mechanism of cytotoxic action. The toxicological predictions suggest no mutagenic, tumorigenic or reproductive effects of the four target molecules. Complementarily, the results of a performed docking study show high scoring values and hydrogen bonding values in agreement with the cytotoxicity IC50 value ranking, i.e: indolylmenadione > indolylperezone > indolylplumbagine > indolylisoperezone. Consequently, it is possible to suggest an appropriate apoptotic pathway for each compound. Finally, potential metabolic pathways of the molecules were proposed.

  4. Fluorinated nucleosides as antiviral and antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wei-Dong; Qing, Feng-Ling

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of nucleosides and analogues with fluoride modifications on the surgar moiety are reviewed, and their biological activities as potential antiviral and anti-tumor agents are also discussed.

  5. Synthesis, conformational analysis, and cytotoxicity of conformationally constrained aplidine and tamandarin A analogues incorporating a spirolactam beta-turn mimetic.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Marta; Martín-Martínez, Mercedes; García-López, M Teresa; Herranz, Rosario; Cuevas, Félix; Polanco, Concepción; Rodríguez-Campos, Ignacio; Manzanares, Ignacio; Cárdenas, Francisco; Feliz, Miguel; Lloyd-Williams, Paul; Giralt, Ernest

    2004-11-04

    With the aim of studying the contribution of the beta II turn conformation at the side chain of didemnins to the bioactive conformation responsible for their antitumoral activity, conformationally restricted analogues of aplidine and tamandarin A, where the side chain dipeptide Pro8-N-Me-d-Leu7 is replaced with the spirolactam beta II turn mimetic (5R)-7-[(1R)-1-carbonyl-3-methylbutyl]-6-oxo-1,7-diazaspiro[4.4]nonane, were prepared. Additionally, restricted analogues, where the aplidine (pyruvyl9) or tamandarin A [(S)-Lac9] acyl groups are replaced with the isobutyryl, Boc, and 2-methylacryloyl groups, were also prepared. These structural modifications were detrimental to cytotoxic activity, leading to a decrease of 1-2 orders of magnitude with respect to that exhibited by aplidine and tamandarin A. The conformational analysis of one of these spirolactam aplidine analogues, by NMR and molecular modeling methods, showed that the conformational restriction caused by the spirolactam does not produce significant changes in the overall conformation of aplidine, apart from preferentially stabilizing the trans rotamer at the pyruvyl9-spirolactam amide bond, whereas in aplidine both cis and trans rotamers at the pyruvyl9-Pro8 amide bond are more or less equally stabilized. These results seem to indicate a preference for the cis form at that amide bond in the bioactive conformation of aplidine. The significant influence of this cis/trans isomerism upon the cytotoxicity suggests a possible participation of a peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase in the mechanism of action of aplidine.

  6. Cytotoxic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-alkylamphetamines, MDMA and its analogues, on isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshio; Suzuki, Toshinari; Tayama, Sumiko; Ishii, Hidemi; Ogata, Akio

    2009-01-01

    The amphetamine-derived designer drugs have been illegally used worldwide as recreational drugs, some of which are known to be hepatotoxic in humans. To compare their cytotoxic effects, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) and its related analogues, N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MBDB), 3,4-(methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (BDB) and 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-propane-1-one (methylone) were studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. MBDB caused not only concentration (0-4.0 mM)- and time (0-2 h)-dependent cell death accompanied by the formation of cell blebs, and the loss of cellular ATP and adenine nucleotide pools, and reduced glutathione levels, but also the accumulation of oxidized glutathione. Of the other analogues examined, the cytotoxicity of MBDB and BDB was greater than that of MDMA and methylone, suggesting that hepatotoxicity is generally induced by these drugs. In addition, DNA damage and the induction of reactive oxygen species were greater after the incubation of hepatocytes with MBDB (2 and 4 mM) than after that with MDMA. In isolated liver mitochondria, MBDB/BDB resulted in a greater increase in the rate of state 4 oxygen consumption than did MDMA/methylone, indicating an uncoupling effect and a decrease in the rate of state 3 oxygen consumption in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, MBDB resulted in mitochondrial swelling dependent on the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT); the effect of MDMA was less than that of MBDB. Taken collectively, these results suggest that (1) the onset of cytotoxicity caused by designer drugs such as MBDB and MDMA is linked to mitochondrial failure dependent upon the induction of the MPT accompanied by mitochondrial depolarization and depletion of ATP through uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in rat hepatocytes, and (2) MBDB and MDMA elicit DNA damage, suggesting that nuclei as well as mitochondria are target sites of these compounds.

  7. Synthesis of analogues of the O-beta-D-ribofuranosyl nucleoside moiety of liposidomycins. Part 2: role of the hydroxyl groups upon the inhibition of MraY.

    PubMed

    Dini, C; Drochon, N; Guillot, J C; Mauvais, P; Walter, P; Aszodi, J

    2001-02-26

    O-beta-D-ribofuranosyl nucleoside I is the minimal structural entity of liposidomycins that maintains enzyme inhibitory activity on MraY. A set of compounds with hydroxyl patterns different from I has been synthesized. The presence of a hydroxyl group in the 3" position is essential for the activity. The 3'-deoxy derivative (IV), however, shows a 5-fold improved potency.

  8. Nucleosides and nucleotides. 158. 1-(3-C-ethynyl-beta-D-ribo-pentofuranosyl)-cytosine, 1-(3-C-ethynyl-beta-D-ribo-pentofuranosyl)uracil, and their nucleobase analogues as new potential multifunctional antitumor nucleosides with a broad spectrum of activity.

    PubMed

    Hattori, H; Tanaka, M; Fukushima, M; Sasaki, T; Matsuda, A

    1996-12-06

    We previously designed 1-(3-C-ethynyl-beta-D-ribo-pentofuranosyl)uracil (EUrd) as a potential multifunctional antitumor nucleoside antimetabolite. It showed a potent and broad spectrum of antitumor activity against various human tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. To determine the structure-activity relationship, various nucleobase analogues of EUrd, such as 5-fluorouracil, thymine, cytosine, 5-fluorocytosine, adenine, and guanine derivatives, were synthesized by condensation of 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-3-C-ethynyl-alpha,beta-D-ribo-pentofur anose (6) and the corresponding pertrimethylsilylated nucleobases in the presence of SnCl4 or TMSOTf as a Lewis acid in CH3CN followed by debenzoylation. The in vitro tumor cell growth inhibitory activity of these 3'-C-ethynyl nucleosides against mouse leukemia L1210 and human nasopharyngeal KB cells showed that 1-(3-C-ethynyl-beta-D-ribo-pentofuranosyl)cytosine (ECyd) and EUrd were the most potent inhibitors in the series, with IC50 values for L1210 cells of 0.016 and 0.13 microM and for KB cells of 0.028 and 0.029 microM, respectively. 5-Fluorocytosine, 5-fluorouracil, and adenine nucleosides showed much lower activity, with IC50 values of 0.4-2.5 microM, while thymine and guanine nucleosides did not exhibit any activity up to 300 microM. We next evaluated the tumor cell growth inhibitory activity of ECyd and EUrd against 36 human tumor cell lines in vitro and found that they were highly effective against these cell lines with IC50 values in the nanomolar to micromolar range. These nucleosides have a similar inhibitory spectrum. The in vivo antitumor activities of ECyd and EUrd were compared to that of 5-fluorouracil against 11 human tumor xenografts including three stomach, three colon, two pancreas, one renal, one breast, and one bile duct cancers. ECyd and EUrd showed a potent tumor inhibition ratio (73-92% inhibition relative to the control) in 9 of 11 and 8 of 11 human tumors, respectively, when administered

  9. Replication inhibition by nucleoside analogues of a recombinant Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus harboring the herpes thymidine kinase gene driven by the IE-1(0) promoter: a new way to select recombinant baculoviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Godeau, F; Saucier, C; Kourilsky, P

    1992-01-01

    The expression of the thymidine-thymidylate kinase (HSV1-TK), (ATP: thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.1.21) of herpes simplex virus type 1 endows the host cell with a conditional lethal phenotype which depends on the presence of nucleoside analogues metabolized by this enzyme into toxic inhibitors of DNA replication. To generate a recombinant baculovirus that could be selected against by nucleoside analogs, the HSV1-tk coding sequence was placed under the control of the Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) immediate early promoterm IE-1(0), and this construction was introduced via homologous recombination into the polyhedrin locus of AcMNPV. Two recombinant baculoviruses harboring this gene construct at the polyhedrin locus were isolated and tested for their ability to replicate in the presence of various concentrations of the nucleoside analog 9-(1,3-Dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine (Ganciclovir). Neither Sf9 lepidopteran cell viability nor replication of wild type or beta-Galactosidase-expressing recombinant AcMNPVs were affected by concentrations of Ganciclovir up to 100 microM. In contrast, replication of the recombinant AcMNPV virus harboring the HSV1-tk gene was inhibited by Ganciclovir in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was detectable at 2 microM and complete at 100 microM. This property was exploited in model isolations aimed at purifying new recombinant viruses having lost this counter-selectable gene marker as a result of homologous recombination at the polyhedrin locus after cotransfection of the viral DNA with a replacement vector. After being propagated in the presence of Ganciclovir, the progeny of such co-transfections contained over 85% recombinant viruses, demonstrating that counter-selection of parental HSV1-tk-containing viruses by Ganciclovir constitutes a novel approach for recombinant baculovirus isolation. Images PMID:1335569

  10. 2-Aryl-8-aza-3-deazaadenosine Analogues of 5’-O-[N-(Salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine: Nucleoside Antibiotics that Block Siderophore Biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Krajczyk, Anna; Zeidler, Joanna; Januszczyk, Piotr; Dawadi, Surendra; Boshoff, Helena I.; Barry, Clifton E.; Ostrowski, Tomasz; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2016-01-01

    A series of 5’-O-[N-(salicyl)sulfamoyl]-2-aryl-8-aza-3-deazaadenosines were designed to block mycobactin biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) through inhibition of the essential adenylating enzyme MbtA. The synthesis of the 2-aryl-8-aza-3-deazaadenosine nucleosides featured sequential copper-free palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira coupling of a precursor 4-cyano-5-iodo-1,2,3-triazolonucleoside with terminal alkynes and Minakawa-Matsuda annulation reaction. These modified nucleosides were shown to inhibit MbtA with apparent Ki values ranging from 6.1 to 25 nM and to inhibit Mtb growth under iron-deficient conditions with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 12.5 to >50 μM. PMID:27265685

  11. Revision of absolute configuration of enantiomeric (methylenecyclopropyl)carbinols obtained from (R)-(-)- and (S)-(+)-epichlorohydrin and methylenetriphenylphosphorane. Implications for reaction mechanism and improved synthesis of antiviral methylenecyclopropane analogues of nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinchao; Zemlicka, Jiri

    2002-01-11

    Absolute configurations of enantiomeric methylenecyclopropanecarbinols obtained by reaction of (R)- and (S)-epichlorohydrin 5 with methylenetriphenylphosphorane or resolution of the corresponding oxaphospholane 6 via a salt with L-(+)-tartaric acid and subsequent Wittig transformation with formaldehyde were revised. The (-)-oxaphospholane 6 has the S,S and (-)-(methylenecyclopropyl)carbinol (4) the R configuration. The configurations of (+)-6 and (+)-4 are then R,R and S, respectively. These assignments are in accord with an initial attack of phosphorane at the oxirane ring of epichlorohydrin. An improved preparation of key enantiomeric intermediates (R)-1a and (S)-1a, important for synthesis of antiviral purine methylenecyclopropane analogues of nucleosides, is also described.

  12. In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of Fully Substituted (5-(3-Ethoxy-3-oxopropynyl)-4-(ethoxycarbonyl)-1,2,3-triazolyl-glycosides as Original Nucleoside Analogues to Circumvent Resistance in Myeloid Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Amdouni, Hella; Robert, Guillaume; Driowya, Mohsine; Furstoss, Nathan; Métier, Camille; Dubois, Alix; Dufies, Maeva; Zerhouni, Marwa; Orange, François; Lacas-Gervais, Sandra; Bougrin, Khalid; Martin, Anthony R; Auberger, Patrick; Benhida, Rachid

    2017-02-23

    A series of nucleoside analogues bearing a 1,4,5-trisubstituted-1,2,3-triazole aglycone was synthesized using a straightforward click/electrophilic addition or click/oxidative coupling tandem procedures. SAR analysis, using cell culture assays, led to the discovery of a series of compounds belonging to the 5-alkynyl-1,2,3-triazole family that exhibits potent antileukemic effects on several hematologic malignancies including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) either sensitive or resistant to their respective therapy. Compound 4a also proved efficient in vivo on mice xenografted with SKM1-R MDS cell line. Additionally, some insights in its mode of action revealed that this compound induced cell death by caspase and autophagy induction.

  13. Cytotoxic and NF-κB Inhibitory Constituents of the Stems of Cratoxylum cochinchinense and Their Semi-synthetic Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yulin; Matthew, Susan; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Ninh, Tran Ngoc; Chai, Heebyung; Fuchs, James R.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J.; Swanson, Steven M.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    A new caged xanthone (1), a new prenylxanthone (2), seven known xanthones, and a known sterol glucoside were isolated from the stems of Cratoxylum cochinchinense, collected in Vietnam. Compounds 1 and 2 were determined structurally by analysis of their spectroscopic data. In addition, five new (10 and 16–19) and eight known prenylated xanthone derivatives were synthesized from the known compounds, α-mangostin (3) and cochinchinone A (6). Several of these substances were found to be cytotoxic towards HT-29 human colon cancer cells, with the most potent being 3,6-di-O-acetyl-α-mangostin (8, ED50, 1.0 μM), which was tested further in an in vivo hollow fiber assay, but found to be inactive at the highest dose used (20 mg/kg; ip). Of the substances evaluated in a NF-κB p65 inhibition assay, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,4-diisoprenylxanthone (5) exhibited the most potent activity (IC50, 2.9 μM). In a mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) assay, two new compounds, 1 (IC50, 3.3 μM) and 10 (IC50, 1.4 μM), and two known compounds, 3 (α-mangostin, IC50, 0.2 μM) and 11 (3,6-di-O-methyl-α-mangostin, IC50, 0.9 μM), were active. A preliminary analogue development study showed that 3,6-di-acetylation and 6-benzoylation both slightly increased the cytotoxicity of α-mangostin (3), whereas methylation reduced such activity. In contrast, neither acetylation, benzoylation, nor methylation enhanced the cytotoxicity of cochinchinone A (6). PMID:21428375

  14. Cytotoxic effects of tetracycline analogues (doxycycline, minocycline and COL-3) in acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Hairong; Fares, Mona; Maguire, Kim R; Sidén, Ake; Potácová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Tetracycline analogues (TCNAs) have been shown to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases and to induce apoptosis in several cancer cell types. In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of TCNAs doxycycline (DOXY), minocycline (MINO) and chemically modified tetracycline-3 (COL-3) were investigated in the human acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cell line. Cells were incubated with TCNAs in final concentrations of 0.5-100 µg/ml for 24 h. Viability of the leukemic cells was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner using resazurin assay. The estimated IC50s were 9.2 µg/ml for DOXY, 9.9 µg/ml for MINO and 1.3 µg/ml for COL-3. All three TCNAs induced potent cytotoxic effects and cell death. Apoptosis, which was assessed by morphological changes and annexin V positivity, was concentration- and time-dependent following incubation with any one of the drugs. TCNAs induced DNA double strand breaks soon after treatment commenced as detected by γH2AX and western blot. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), caspase activation and cleavage of PARP and Bcl-2 were observed; however, the sequence of events differed among the drugs. Pancaspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK improved survival of TCNAs-treated cells and decreased TCNAs-induced apoptosis. In summary, we demonstrated that TCNAs had a cytotoxic effect on the HL-60 leukemic cell line. Apoptosis was induced via mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent pathways in HL-60 cells by all three TCNAs. COL-3 exerted the strongest anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in concentrations that have been achieved in human plasma in reported clinical trials. These results indicate that there is a therapeutic potential of TCNAs in leukemia.

  15. Evaluation Of Microdosing Strategies For Studies In Preclinical Drug Development: Demonstration Of Linear Pharmacokinetics In Dogs Of A Nucleoside Analogue Over A 50-Fold Dose Range

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, P; Vogel, J S; Rose, M J; Ubick, E A; Brunner, J E; Wallace, M A; Adelsberger, J K; Baker, M P; Henderson, P T; Pearson, P G; Baillie, T A

    2004-04-22

    (Stafford et al., 1984; Vogel et al., 1990; Smith et al., 1999) to its use as a bioanalytical tool for nutritional research (Buchholz et al., 1999; Deuker et al., 2000; Weaver and Liebman, 2002). Biomedical applications of AMS and its use in the arena of pharmaceutical research also have been detailed in review articles (Barker and Garner, 1999; Garner, 2000; Turteltaub and Vogel, 2000). To date, most studies on the metabolism and disposition of xenobiotics by AMS have focused on how carcinogens bind to DNA and proteins to form adducts (Turteltaub et al., 1990, 1997; Frantz et al., 1995; Dingley et al., 1999; Li et al., 2003). Its application to the field of pharmaceutical sciences has been limited to a few studies (Kaye et al., 1997; Young et al., 2001; Garner et al., 2002). However, the pharmaceutical industry is becoming increasingly aware of the potential benefits that may accrue from the ultra high sensitivity afforded by AMS in terms of evaluating the pharmacokinetics of lead drug candidates in early development. Specifically, AMS allows administration of sub-pharmacological doses (microdoses) of carbon-14 or tritium-labeled investigational drugs to animals or humans at radiologically insignificant levels with the goal of obtaining preliminary information regarding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of test compounds (Turteltaub and Vogel, 2000). An unresolved issue, however, is whether the pharmacokinetics determined following a microdose are representative of those following a conventional (pharmacological) dose (Lappin and Garner, 2003). This paper examines the linearity of kinetics of an antiviral nucleoside analogue, Compound A, across sub-pharmacological and pharmacological dose ranges in the dog prior to initiation of a human microdose study. The specific objectives of this study, therefore, were (1) to assess the pharmacokinetics of Compound A in dogs by a conventional dosing approach utilizing LC-MS/MS for sample analysis, (2) to assess

  16. Steroid hormones are novel nucleoside transport inhibitors by competition with nucleosides for their transporters.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Masahiro; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Chida, Kazuhiro; Minami, Shiro; Coe, Imogen R; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2014-01-10

    Nucleoside transport is important for nucleic acid synthesis in cells that cannot synthesize nucleosides de novo, and for entry of many cytotoxic nucleoside analog drugs used in chemotherapy. This study demonstrates that various steroid hormones induce inhibition of nucleoside transport in mammalian cells. We analyzed the inhibitory effects of estradiol (E2) on nucleoside transport using SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. We observed inhibitory effects after acute treatment with E2, which lasted in the presence of E2. However, when E2 was removed, the effect immediately disappeared, suggesting that E2 effects are not mediated through the canonical regulatory pathway of steroid hormones, such as transcriptional regulation. We also discovered that E2 could competitively inhibit thymidine uptake and binding of the labeled nucleoside transporter inhibitor, S-[4-nitrobenzyl]-6-thioinosine (NBTI), indicating that E2 binds to endogenous nucleoside transporters, leading to inhibition of nucleoside transport. We then tested the effects of various steroids on nucleoside uptake in NBTI-sensitive cells, SH-SY5Y and NBTI-insensitive cells H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts. We found E2 and progesterone clearly inhibited both NBTI-sensitive and insensitive uptake at micromolar concentrations. Taken together, we concluded that steroid hormones function as novel nucleoside transport inhibitors by competition with nucleosides for their transporters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of the Neolignan Analogue 2-(4-Nitrophenoxy)-1Phenylethanone and its Protective Effect Against DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Hanusch, Alex Lucas; de Oliveira, Guilherme Roberto; de Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Machado, Rafael Cosme; dos Anjos, Murilo Machado; Chen Chen, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Neolignans are secondary metabolites found in various groups of Angiosperms. They belong to a class of natural compounds with great diversity of chemical structures and pharmacological activities. These compounds are formed by linking two phenylpropanoid units. Several compounds that have ability to prevent genetic damage have been isolated from plants, and can be used to prevent or delay the development of tumor cells. Genetic toxicology evaluation is widely used in risk assessment of new drugs in preclinical screening tests. In this study, we evaluated the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the neolignan analogue 2-(4-nitrophenoxy)-1-phenylethanone (4NF) and its protective effect against DNA damage using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test and the comet assay in mouse peripheral blood. Our results showed that this neolignan analogue had no genotoxic activity and was able to reduce induced damage both in mouse bone marrow and peripheral blood. Although the neolignan analogue 4NF was cytotoxic, it reduced cyclophosphamide-induced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, it showed no genotoxic action, but exhibited cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic activities. PMID:26554835

  18. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of novel tubulysin U analogues--effect on cytotoxicity of structural variations in the tubuvaline fragment.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Sreejith P; Jagodzinska, Monika; Malpezzi, Luciana; Lazzari, Paolo; Manca, Ilaria; Greig, Iain R; Sani, Monica; Zanda, Matteo

    2013-04-14

    Tubulysins are cytotoxic natural products with promising anti-cancer properties, originally isolated from myxobacterial cultures. Structurally, tubulysins are tetrapeptides, incorporating three unusual (Mep, Tuv and Tup) and one proteinogenic amino acid (Ile). Here we describe the synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of novel tubulysin U and V analogues, with variations in the central Tuv fragment, which is known to be of paramount importance for tubulysins' potency and hence cytotoxicity, but has seldom been modified in previous studies. Specifically, we replaced the natural iso-propyl and acetoxy functionalities with other structurally related groups. In general, the new analogues showed much lower potency relative to native tubulysin U. However, one of the synthetic analogues (1f) having a MOM function replacing the acetyl group exhibited a 22 nM IC50 on the HT-29 cell line which is comparable to the IC(50) displayed by tubulysin U (3.8 nM). Furthermore, the synthetic methodology reported herein was found to be flexible enough to deliver different core-modified tubulysin analogues and hence may be regarded as a scalable and convenient strategy for the chemical generation of novel tubulysin analogues.

  19. Studies on the mechanisms of the radiosensitizing and cytotoxic properties of RSU-1069 and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Walling, J M; Stratford, I J; Adams, G E; Silver, A R; Ahmed, I; Jenkins, T C; Fielden, E M

    1986-07-01

    RSU 1069 is a substantially more efficient sensitizer than misonidazole when hypoxic Chinese hamster V79 cells are irradiated in vitro at room temperature; such that for 0.5 mmol dm-3 sensitizer an ER of 3.0 is obtained for RSU 1069 whereas an ER of only 1.6 is obtained for misonidazole. However, when irradiation is done at 4 degrees C, the radiosensitization caused by RSU 1069 is reduced to a level close to that obtained with misonidazole, the action remaining unaltered at the lower temperature. This temperature dependent component of sensitization for RSU 1069 suggests the involvement of a slow biochemical process that has an appreciable activation energy. The RSU 1069 analogue RB 7040 is a more efficient radiosensitizer than RSU 1069 particularly at lower concentrations. This compound has a pKa value of 8.45, in contrast to that of RSU 1069 which is 6.04. Weak bases with pKa values in excess of average intra-cellular pH can be taken up preferentially into cells from medium at pH 7.4. It is shown that RB 7040 has a 4 X higher intracellular concentration than RSU 1069 for a similar extracellular concentration. This will explain, at least in part, the greater sensitizing efficiency of this compound when compared to RSU 1069 in vitro.

  20. A bioactive peptide analogue for myxoma virus protein with a targeted cytotoxicity for human skin cancer in vitro.

    PubMed

    Almansour, Nahlah M; Pirogova, Elena; Coloe, Peter J; Cosic, Irena; Istivan, Taghrid S

    2012-07-17

    Cancer is an international health problem, and the search for effective treatments is still in progress. Peptide therapy is focused on the development of short peptides with strong tumoricidal activity and low toxicity. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a myxoma virus peptide analogue (RRM-MV) as a candidate for skin cancer therapy. RRM-MV was designed using the Resonant Recognition Model (RRM) and its effect was examined on human skin cancer and normal human skin cells in vitro. Cell cultures were treated with various concentrations of the peptides at different incubation intervals. Cellular morphological changes (apoptosis and necrosis) were evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The cytotoxic effects of RRM-MV on human skin cancer and normal human skin cells were quantitatively determined by cytotoxicity and cell viability assays. The effect on human erythrocytes was also determined using quantitative hemolysis assay. DNA fragmentation assay was performed to detect early apoptotic events in treated cancer cells. Furthermore, to investigate the possible cell signalling pathway targeted by the peptides treatment, the levels of p-Akt expression in skin cancer and normal cells were detected by immunoblotting. Our results indicate that RRM-MV has a dose-dependent toxic effect on cancer cells only up to 18 h. The immunoblotting results indicated that the RRM-MV slightly increased p-Akt expression in melanoma and carcinoma cells, but did not seem to affect p-Akt expression in normal skin cells. RRM-MV targets and lethally harms cancer cells and leaves normal cells unharmed. It is able to reduce the cancer cell viability, disrupting the LDH activity in cancer cells and can significantly affect cancer progression. Further investigation into other cell signalling pathways is needed in the process leading to the in vivo testing of this peptide to prove its safety as a possible effective treatment for skin cancer.

  1. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of fluorescent 4-aminoantipyrine analogues: Molecular docking and in vitro cytotoxicity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premnath, D.; Mosae Selvakumar, P.; Ravichandiran, P.; Tamil Selvan, G.; Indiraleka, M.; Jannet Vennila, J.

    2016-01-01

    Two substituted aromatic carbonyl compounds (compounds 1 and 2) of 4-aminoantipyrine were synthesized by condensation of fluorine substituted benzoyl chlorides and 4-aminoantipyrine. The structures of synthesized derivatives were established on the basis of UV-Vis, IR, and Mass, 1H, 13C NMR and Fluorescence spectroscopy. Both compounds showed significant fluorescence emission and two broad emission bands were observed in the region at 340 nm and 450 nm on excitation at 280 nm. Theoretically to prove that the molecule has anticancer activity against cervical cancer cells, the compounds were analyzed for molecular docking interactions with HPV16-E7 target protein by Glide protocol. Furthermore, 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against human cervical cancer cells (SiHa) by MTT assay. Compound 1 showed two fold higher activity (IC50 = 0.912 μM) over compound 2, and its activity was similar to that of Pazopanib, suggesting that although the two compounds were chemically very similar the difference in substituent on the phenyl moiety caused changes in properties.

  2. Sorbicillinoid Analogues with Cytotoxic and Selective Anti-Aspergillus Activities from Scytalidium album

    PubMed Central

    El-Elimat, Tamam; Raja, Huzefa A.; Figueroa, Mario; Swanson, Steven M.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Lucas, David M.; Grever, Michael R.; Wani, Mansukh C.; Pearce, Cedric J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2014-01-01

    As part of an ongoing project to explore filamentous fungi for anticancer and antibiotic leads, eleven compounds were isolated and identified from an organic extract of the fungus Scytalidium album (MSX51631) using bioactivity-directed fractionation against human cancer cell lines. Of these, eight were a series of sorbicillinoid analogues (1–8), of which four were new [scalbucillin A (2), scalbucillin B (3), scalbucillin C (6), and scalbucillin D (8)], two were phthalides (9–10), and one was naphthalenone (11). Compounds (1–11) were tested in the MDA-MB-435 (melanoma) and SW-620 (colon) cancer cell lines. Compound 1 was the most potent with IC50 values of 1.5 and 0.5 μM, respectively, followed by compound 5, with IC50 values of 2.3 and 2.5 μM at 72 h. Compound 1 showed a 48-h IC50 value of 3.1 μM when tested against the lymphocytic leukemia cell line OSU-CLL, while the nearly identical compound 5 had almost no activity in this assay. Compounds 1 and 5 showed selective and equipotent activity against Aspergillus niger with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 0.05 and 0.04 μg/ml (0.20 and 0.16 μM), respectively. The in vitro hemolytic activity against sheep erythrocytes of compounds 1 and 5 was investigated and were found to provoke 10% hemolysis at 52.5 and 45.0 μg/ml, respectively, indicative of a promising safety factor. PMID:25248727

  3. 5,7-Disubstituted analogues of the mixed topoisomerase I/II poison N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA): DNA binding and patterns of cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Spicer, J A; Finlay, G J; Baguley, B C; Velea, L; Graves, D E; Denny, W A

    1999-02-01

    DACA is a DNA-intercalating agent and dual topoisomerase (topo) I/II inhibitor currently in clinical trial as an anticancer drug. Substitutions in the acridine ring of DACA have significant effects on biological activity, with 5-substituted analogues being more potent but relatively less active against cell lines that underexpress topo II, and the converse for 7-substituted analogues. A small series of 5,7-disubstituted analogues was therefore prepared and evaluated. The compounds were prepared by CDI-assisted coupling of the appropriate acridine acids. When these contained no or only one halogen atom, they could be prepared by Al/Hg amalgam reduction of the corresponding acridine acids. However, this method could not be used to prepare dihalogen-substituted acridine acids due to substantial dehalogenation, and these intermediates were synthesized via cyclization of the appropriate aldehydes to give the acridines directly. These compounds showed enhanced DNA binding compared with the parent DACA, indicating that the known favourable influence of 5-substituents on DNA binding is retained. Cell line studies showed that the 5,7-disubstituted compounds retained both the broad-spectrum effectiveness of the 7-monosubstituted analogues and the higher cytotoxic potency of the 5-monosubstituted analogues. The 7-chloro-5-methyl and 5-chloro-7-methyl analogues showed comparable in vivo antitumour activity to DACA in the subcutaneous colon 38 model, but were substantially more potent (optimal doses of 60 mg/kg compared with 200 mg/kg for DACA).

  4. A novel biological role for nsLTP2 from Oriza sativa: Potential incorporation with anticancer agents, nucleosides and their analogues.

    PubMed

    Tousheh, Mojtaba; Darvishi, Fatemeh Zahra; Miroliaei, Mehran

    2015-10-01

    Development of a protein-based drug delivery system has major impact on the efficacy and bioavailability of unstable and water insoluble drugs. In the present study, the binding modes of a nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP2) from Oryza sativa with various nucleosides and analogous molecules were identified. The 3-D structure of the protein was designed and validated using modeler 9.13, Molegro virtual docker and procheck tool, respectively. The binding affinity and strength of interactions, key contributing residues and specificity toward the substrates were accomplished by computational docking and model prediction. The protein presented high affinity to acyclovir and vidarabine as purine-analogous drugs. Binding affinity is influenced by the core template and functional groups of the ligands which are structurally different cause the variation of interaction energies with nsLTP2. Nonetheless, all the evaluated analogous drugs occupy the proximity space at the nsLTP active site with high similarity in their binding modes. Our findings hold great promise for the future applications of nsLTPs in various aspects of pharmaceutical science and molecular biology.

  5. Design and divergent synthesis of aza nucleosides from a chiral imino sugar.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montero, Saúl; Fernández, Susana; Sanghvi, Yogesh S; Chattopadhyaya, Jyoti; Ganesan, Muthupandian; Ramesh, Namakkal G; Gotor, Vicente; Ferrero, Miguel

    2012-05-18

    Several novel nucleoside analogues as potential inhibitors of glycosidases and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) have been synthesized via selective coupling of an appropriate nucleobase at different positions of an orthogonally protected imino sugar as a common precursor. This synthetic strategy offers a straightforward protocol for the assembly of imino sugar containing nucleosides, establishing a new repertoire of molecules as potential therapeutics.

  6. O-Nucleoside, S-Nucleoside, and N-Nucleoside Probes of Lumazine Synthase and Riboflavin Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Arindam; Zhao, Yujie; Lv, Wei; Bacher, Adelbert; Illarionov, Boris; Fischer, Markus; Cushman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Lumazine synthase catalyzes the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin, while riboflavin synthase catalyzes the last step. O-Nucleoside, S-nucleoside and N-nucleoside analogues of hypothetical lumazine biosynthetic intermediates have been synthesized in order to obtain structure and mechanism probes of these two enzymes, as well as inhibitors of potential value as antibiotics. Methods were devised for the selective cleavage of benzyl protecting groups in the presence of other easily reduced functionality by controlled hydrogenolysis over Lindlar catalyst. The deprotection reaction was performed in the presence of other reactive functionality including nitro groups, alkenes, and halogens. The target compounds were tested as inhibitors of lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase obtained from a variety of microorganisms. In general, the S-nucleosides and N-nucleosides were more potent than the corresponding O-nucleosides as lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase inhibitors, while the C-nucleosides were the least potent. A series of molecular dynamics simulations followed by free energy calculations using the Poisson-Boltzmann/surface area (MM-PBSA) method were carried out in order to rationalize the results of ligand binding to lumazine synthase, and the results provide insight into the dynamics of ligand binding as well as the molecular forces stabilizing the intermediates in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. PMID:22780198

  7. Studies on mimicry of naturally occurring annonaceous acetogenins: non-THF analogues leading to remarkable selective cytotoxicity against human tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bu-Bing; Wu, Yikang; Jiang, Sheng; Yu, Qian; Yao, Zhu-Jun; Liu, Zhong-Hai; Li, Hong-Yan; Li, Yan; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Wu, Yu-Lin

    2003-01-03

    A class of structurally simplified analogues of the naturally occurring annonaceous acetogenins were developed, amongst which some non-THF analogues showed remarkable cytotoxicities against tumor cell lines, as well as good selectivity between human tumor cells and normal cells. The synthetic routes were significantly shortened because of the removal of the chiral centers bearing the THF rings on the natural templates. This simplification also provides access to the parallel synthesis of these mimics by a combinatorial strategy. The remaining stereogenic centers at the positions alpha to the ethereal links were introduced by the Chiron approach from the easily accessible chiral building blocks 6a and/or 6b, made in turn from L-ascorbic acid or D-mannitol, while the one in the butenolide segment was taken from L-lactate. All four diastereomeric non-THF analogues 2a-2d showed remarkable activity against the HCT-8 cell line, and better differentiation was found when testing against the HT-29 cell line. It was also discovered that both the butenolide and ethylene glycol subunits play essential roles in the cytotoxicities against tumor cell lines, while the 10-substituted hydroxy group and the absolute configuration of methyl group at the butenolide moiety are less important for their activity.

  8. Discovery of Tröger's base analogues as selective inhibitors against human breast cancer cell line: design, synthesis and cytotoxic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Manda, Bhaskar Reddy; Alla, Manjula; Ganji, Roopa Jones; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2014-10-30

    A library of structurally diverse Tröger's base analogues has been constructed via unusual amination of methylene bridge employing Vilsmeier-Haack conditions as well as by the incorporation of five and six membered heterocycles on the aromatic core of Tröger's base framework. The constructed structurally diverse frameworks were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against a panel of three human cancer lines A549 (lung adenocarcinoma), MDAMB-231 (breast) and SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma). From the activity profile obtained, a redesign of Tröger's base analogues led to the construction of more potent molecular entities. The study led to development of a series of compounds with MDAMB-231 cell line specific cytotoxicity. Of the 30 compounds synthesized and evaluated, 7 compounds were found to possess cytotoxicity that is equivalent or better than standard drug doxorubicin against MDAMB-231 cell line while only one compound was found to be active against SK-N-SH cell line.

  9. Inhibition of Siderophore Biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Nucleoside Bisubstrate Analogues: Structure–Activity Relationships of the Nucleobase Domain of 5′-O-[N-(Salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Neres, João; Labello, Nicholas P.; Somu, Ravindranadh V.; Boshoff, Helena I.; Wilson, Daniel J.; Vannada, Jagadeshwar; Chen, Liqiang; Barry, Clifton E.; Bennett, Eric M.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2009-01-01

    5′-O-[N-(salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (Sal-AMS) is a prototype for a new class of antitubercular agents that inhibit the aryl acid adenylating enzyme (AAAE) known as MbtA involved in biosynthesis of the mycobactins. Herein, we report the structure-based design, synthesis, biochemical, and biological evaluation of a comprehensive and systematic series of analogues, exploring the structure–activity relationship of the purine nucleobase domain of Sal-AMS. Significantly, 2-phenyl-Sal-AMS derivative 26 exhibited exceptionally potent antitubercular activity with an MIC99 under iron-deficient conditions of 0.049 µM while the N-6-cyclopropyl-Sal-AMS 16 led to improved potency and to a 64-enhancement in activity under iron-deficient conditions relative to iron-replete conditions, a phenotype concordant with the designed mechanism of action. The most potent MbtA inhibitors disclosed here display in vitro antitubercular activity superior to most current first line TB drugs, and these compounds are also expected to be useful against a wide range of pathogens that require aryl-capped siderphores for virulence. PMID:18690677

  10. 2D, 3D-QSAR and docking studies of 1,2,3-thiadiazole thioacetanilides analogues as potent HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The discovery of clinically relevant inhibitors of HIV-RT for antiviral therapy has proven to be a challenging task. To identify novel and potent HIV-RT inhibitors, the quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) approach became very useful and largely widespread technique forligand-based drug design. Methods We perform the two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) QSAR studies of a series of 1,2,3-thiadiazole thioacetanilides analogues to elucidate the structural properties required for HIV-RT inhibitory activity. Results The 2D-QSAR studies were performed using multiple linear regression method, giving r2 = 0.97 and q2 = 0.94. The 3D-QSAR studies were performed using the stepwise variable selection k-nearest neighbor molecular field analysis approach; a leave-one-out cross-validated correlation coefficient q2 = 0.89 and a non-cross-validated correlation coefficient r2 = 0.97 were obtained. Docking analysis suggests that the new series have comparable binding affinity with the standard compounds. Conclusions This approach showed that hydrophobic and electrostatic effects dominantly determine binding affinities which will further useful for development of new NNRTIs. PMID:22691718

  11. Mechanism of inhibition of adenovirus DNA replication by the acyclic nucleoside triphosphate analogue (S)-HPMPApp: influence of the adenovirus DNA binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Y M; van Miltenburg, R T; De Clercq, E; van der Vliet, P C

    1989-01-01

    The acyclic adenosine analogue (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine [S]-HPMPA) is a potent and selective inhibitor of adenovirus (Ad) replication in cell culture. We studied the mechanism of inhibition using a reconstituted in vitro DNA replication system. The diphosphoryl derivative (S)-HPMPApp, but not (S)-HPMPA, inhibited the DNA replication of origin containing fragments strongly. The inhibitory effect was exerted at the level of elongation, while initiation was resistant to the drug. Remarkably, the elongation of short strands was only slightly impaired, while inhibition was maximal upon synthesis of long DNA fragments. (S)-HPMPApp appeared to be competitive with dATP, suggesting that the Ad DNA polymerase is the prime target for the drug. We purified the Ad DNA polymerase in complex to the precursor terminal protein to homogeneity from cells infected with overproducing recombinant vaccinia viruses. Employing gapped DNA or poly(dT).oligo(dA) templates, only a weak inhibition was observed. However, inhibition was strongly enhanced in the presence of the adenovirus DNA binding protein (DBP). We interpret this to mean that the increased processivity of the polymerization reaction in the presence of DBP leads to increased drug sensitivity. Images PMID:2587248

  12. Diverse combinatorial design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of new HEPT analogues as potential non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcription inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Puig-de-la-Bellacasa, Raimon; Giménez, Laura; Pettersson, Sofia; Pascual, Rosalia; Gonzalo, Encarna; Esté, José A; Clotet, Bonaventura; Borrell, José I; Teixidó, Jordi

    2012-08-01

    New analogues of 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine (HEPT) were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro activities against HIV-1 in MT-4 cell cultures. Chemical diversity was introduced in 4 of the six positions of the core and the influence of each substituent was studied. This library was built on the basis of a rational diversity analysis with the objective of maximizing diversity and thus, the activity range with a minimum number of synthesized compounds. Among them, 2{1,2,3,1} and 2{1,2,3,4} exhibited the most potent anti-HIV-1 activities (EC(50)=0.015 μg/mL; 0.046 μM, SI >1667) and (EC(50)=0.025 μg/mL; 0.086 μM, SI >1000), respectively, which were about 71-fold and 38-fold more active than the reference compound HEPT (EC(50)=1.01 μg/mL; 3.27 μM, SI >25).

  13. cis-Restricted 3-aminopyrazole analogues of combretastatins: synthesis from plant polyalkoxybenzenes and biological evaluation in the cytotoxicity and phenotypic sea urchin embryo assays.

    PubMed

    Tsyganov, Dmitry V; Konyushkin, Leonid D; Karmanova, Irina B; Firgang, Sergei I; Strelenko, Yuri A; Semenova, Marina N; Kiselyov, Alex S; Semenov, Victor V

    2013-08-23

    We have synthesized a series of novel cis-restricted 4,5-polyalkoxydiaryl-3-aminopyrazole analogues of combretastatins via short synthetic sequences using building blocks isolated from dill and parsley seed extracts. The resulting compounds were tested in vivo in the phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay to reveal their antimitotic and antitubulin effects. The most potent aminopyrazole, 14a, altered embryonic cell division at 10 nM concentration, exhibiting microtubule-destabilizing properties. Compounds 12a and 14a displayed pronounced cytotoxicity in the NCI60 anticancer drug screen, with the ability to inhibit growth of multi-drug-resistant cancer cells.

  14. Synthesis and cytotoxicities of 7-aza rebeccamycin analogues bearing various substituents on the sugar moiety, on the imide nitrogen and on the carbazole framework.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Samir; Anizon, Fabrice; Léonce, Stéphane; Pierré, Alain; Pfeiffer, Bruno; Prudhomme, Michelle

    2005-10-01

    The synthesis of a family of rebeccamycin analogues in which one indole unit has been replaced by a 7-azaindole moiety is described. Substitutions have been carried out on the imide nitrogen, on the carbazole framework and on the sugar part. Compounds with a lactam upper heterocycle have also been prepared. The cytotoxicities of the newly synthesized compounds toward four tumor cell lines, one murine leukemia (L1210) and three human tumor cell lines (prostate carcinoma DU145, colon carcinoma HT29, and non-small cell lung carcinoma A549) have been evaluated and compared to those of rebeccamycin and parent non-aza and aza compounds.

  15. Structures of a DNA Polymerase Inserting Therapeutic Nucleotide Analogues.

    PubMed

    Schaich, Matthew A; Smith, Mallory R; Cloud, Ashley S; Holloran, Sean M; Freudenthal, Bret D

    2017-09-01

    Members of the nucleoside analogue class of cancer therapeutics compete with canonical nucleotides to disrupt numerous cellular processes, including nucleotide homeostasis, DNA and RNA synthesis, and nucleotide metabolism. Nucleoside analogues are triphosphorylated and subsequently inserted into genomic DNA, contributing to the efficacy of therapeutic nucleosides in multiple ways. In some cases, the altered base acts as a mutagen, altering the DNA sequence to promote cellular death; in others, insertion of the altered nucleotide triggers DNA repair pathways, which produce lethal levels of cytotoxic intermediates such as single and double stranded DNA breaks. As a prerequisite to many of these biological outcomes, the modified nucleotide must be accommodated in the DNA polymerase active site during nucleotide insertion. Currently, the molecular contacts that mediate DNA polymerase insertion of modified nucleotides remain unknown for multiple therapeutic compounds, despite decades of clinical use. To determine how modified bases are inserted into duplex DNA, we used mammalian DNA polymerase β (pol β) to visualize the structural conformations of four therapeutically relevant modified nucleotides, 6-thio-2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-triphosphate (6-TdGTP), 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-triphosphate (5-FdUTP), 5-formyl-deoxycytosine-5'-triphosphate (5-FodCTP), and 5-formyl-deoxyuridine-5'-triphosphate (5-FodUTP). Together, the structures reveal a pattern in which the modified nucleotides utilize Watson-Crick base pairing interactions similar to that of unmodified nucleotides. The nucleotide modifications were consistently positioned in the major groove of duplex DNA, accommodated by an open cavity in pol β. These results provide novel information for the rational design of new therapeutic nucleoside analogues and a greater understanding of how modified nucleotides are tolerated by polymerases.

  16. B-Ring-Aryl Substituted Luotonin A Analogues with a New Binding Mode to the Topoisomerase 1-DNA Complex Show Enhanced Cytotoxic Activity

    PubMed Central

    González-Ruiz, Víctor; Pascua, Irene; Fernández-Marcelo, Tamara; Ribelles, Pascual; Bianchini, Giulia; Sridharan, Vellaisamy; Iniesta, Pilar; Ramos, M. Teresa; Olives, Ana I.; Martín, M. Antonia; Menéndez, J. Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Topoisomerase 1 inhibition is an important strategy in targeted cancer chemotherapy. The drugs currently in use acting on this enzyme belong to the family of the camptothecins, and suffer severe limitations because of their low stability, which is associated with the hydrolysis of the δ-lactone moiety in their E ring. Luotonin A is a natural camptothecin analogue that lacks this functional group and therefore shows a much-improved stability, but at the cost of a lower activity. Therefore, the development of luotonin A analogues with an increased potency is important for progress in this area. In the present paper, a small library of luotonin A analogues modified at their A and B rings was generated by cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-catalyzed Friedländer reactions. All analogues showed an activity similar or higher than the natural luotonin A in terms of topoisomerase 1 inhibition and some compounds had an activity comparable to that of camptothecin. Furthermore, most compounds showed a better activity than luotonin A in cell cytotoxicity assays. In order to rationalize these results, the first docking studies of luotonin-topoisomerase 1-DNA ternary complexes were undertaken. Most compounds bound in a manner similar to luotonin A and to standard topoisomerase poisons such as topotecan but, interestingly, the two most promising analogues, bearing a 3,5-dimethylphenyl substituent at ring B, docked in a different orientation. This binding mode allows the hydrophobic moiety to be shielded from the aqueous environment by being buried between the deoxyribose belonging to the G(+1) guanine and Arg364 in the scissile strand and the surface of the protein and a hydrogen bond between the D-ring carbonyl and the basic amino acid. The discovery of this new binding mode and its associated higher inhibitory potency is a significant advance in the design of new topoisomerase 1 inhibitors. PMID:24830682

  17. Cytotoxicity of exfoliated transition-metal dichalcogenides (MoS2 , WS2 , and WSe2 ) is lower than that of graphene and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Teo, Wei Zhe; Chng, Elaine Lay Khim; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2014-07-28

    Studies involving transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been around for many decades and in recent years, many were focused on using TMDs to synthesize inorganic analogues of carbon nanotubes, fullerene, as well as graphene and its derivatives with the ultimate aim of employing these materials into consumer products. In view of this rising trend, we investigated the cytotoxicity of three common exfoliated TMDs (exTMDs), namely MoS2 , WS2 , and WSe2 , and compared their toxicological effects with graphene oxides and halogenated graphenes to find out whether these inorganic analogues of graphenes and derivatives would show improved biocompatibility. Based on the cell viability assessments using methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assays on human lung carcinoma epithelial cells (A549) following a 24 h exposure to varying concentrations of the three exTMDs, it was concluded that MoS2 and WS2 nanosheets induced very low cytotoxicity to A549 cells, even at high concentrations. On the other hand, WSe2 exhibited dose-dependent toxicological effects on A549 cells, reducing cell viability to 31.8 % at the maximum concentration of 400 μg mL(-1) ; the higher cytotoxicity displayed by WSe2 might be linked to the identity of the chalcogen. In comparison with graphene oxides and halogenated graphenes, MoS2 and WS2 were much less hazardous, whereas WSe2 showed similar degree of cytotoxicity. Future in-depth studies should be built upon this first work on the in vitro cytotoxicity of MoS2 and WS2 to ensure that they do not pose acute toxicity. Lastly, nanomaterial-induced interference control experiments revealed that exTMDs were capable of reacting with MTT assay viability markers in the absence of cells, but not with WST-8 assay. This suggests that the MTT assay is not suitable for measuring the cytotoxicity of exTMDs because inflated results will be obtained, giving false impressions that the materials are

  18. Osmium(II) polypyridyl polyarginine conjugate as a probe for live cell imaging; a comparison of uptake, localization and cytotoxicity with its ruthenium(II) analogue.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Aisling; Dolan, Ciarán; Moriarty, Roisin D; Martin, Aaron; Neugebauer, Ute; Forster, Robert J; Davies, Anthony; Volkov, Yuri; Keyes, Tia E

    2015-08-28

    A first investigation into the application of a luminescent osmium(ii) bipyridine complex to live cell imaging is presented. Osmium(ii) (bis-2,2-bipyridyl)-2(4-carboxylphenyl) imidazo[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline was prepared and conjugated to octaarginine, a cell penetrating peptide. The photophysics, cell uptake and cytotoxicity of this osmium complex conjugate were performed and compared with its ruthenium analogue. Cell uptake and distribution of both ruthenium and osmium conjugates were very similar with rapid transmembrane transport of the osmium probe (complete within approx. 20 min) and dispersion throughout the cytoplasm and organelles. The near-infrared (NIR) emission of the osmium complex (λmax 726 nm) coincides well with the biological optical window and this facilitated luminescent and luminescence lifetime imaging of the cell which was well resolved from cell autofluorescence. The large Stokes shift of the emission also permitted resonance Raman mapping of the dye within CHO cells. Rather surprisingly, the osmium conjugate exhibited very low cytotoxicity when incubated both in the dark and under visible irradiation. This was attributed to the remarkable stability of this complex which was reflected by the complete absence of photo-bleaching of the complex even under extended continuous irradiation. In addition, when compared to its ruthenium analogue its luminescence was short-lived in water therefore rendering it insensitive to O2.

  19. Evaluation of influence of Ap4A analogues on Fhit-positive HEK293T cells; cytotoxicity and ability to induce apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Pęcherzewska, Róża; Kaczmarek, Renata; Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara; Stec, Wojciech J

    2011-08-15

    Fragile histidine triad (Fhit) protein encoded by tumour suppressor FHIT gene is a proapoptotic protein with diadenosine polyphosphate (Ap(n)A, n=2-6) hydrolase activity. It has been hypothesised that formation of Fhit-substrate complex results in an apoptosis initiation signal while subsequent hydrolysis of Ap(n)A terminates this action. A series of Ap(n)A analogues have been identified in vitro as strong Fhit ligands [Varnum, J. M.; Baraniak, J.; Kaczmarek, R.; Stec, W. J.; Brenner, C. BMC Chem. Biol.2001, 1, 3]. We assumed that in Fhit-positive cells these compounds might preferentially bind to Fhit and inhibit its hydrolytic activity what would prolong the lifetime of apoptosis initiation signalling complex. Therefore, several Fhit inhibitors were tested for their cytotoxicity and ability to induce apoptosis in Fhit-positive HEK293T cells. These experiments have shown that Ap(4)A analogue, containing a glycerol residue instead of the central pyrophosphate and two terminal phosphorothioates [A(PS)-CH(2)CH(OH)CH(2)-(PS)A (1)], is the most cytotoxic among test compounds (IC(50)=17.5±4.2 μM) and triggers caspase-dependent cell apoptosis. The Fhit-negative HEK293T cells (in which Fhit was silenced by RNAi) were not sensitive to compound 1. These results indicate that the Ap(4)A analogue 1 induces Fhit-dependent apoptosis and therefore, it can be considered as a drug candidate for anticancer therapy in Fhit-positive cancer cells and in Fhit-negative cancer cells, in which re-expression of Fhit was accomplished by gene therapy.

  20. Structural, Biochemical, and Computational Studies Reveal the Mechanism of Selective Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A1 Inhibition by Cytotoxic Duocarmycin Analogues.

    PubMed

    Koch, Maximilian F; Harteis, Sabrina; Blank, Iris D; Pestel, Galina; Tietze, Lutz F; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Schneider, Sabine; Sieber, Stephan A

    2015-11-09

    Analogues of the natural product duocarmycin bearing an indole moiety were shown to bind aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) in addition to DNA, while derivatives without the indole solely addressed the ALDH1A1 protein. The molecular mechanism of selective ALDH1A1 inhibition by duocarmycin analogues was unraveled through cocrystallization, mutational studies, and molecular dynamics simulations. The structure of the complex shows the compound embedded in a hydrophobic pocket, where it is stabilized by several crucial π-stacking and van der Waals interactions. This binding mode positions the cyclopropyl electrophile for nucleophilic attack by the noncatalytic residue Cys302, thereby resulting in covalent attachment, steric occlusion of the active site, and inhibition of catalysis. The selectivity of duocarmycin analogues for ALDH1A1 is unique, since only minor alterations in the sequence of closely related protein isoforms restrict compound accessibility. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Structure-activity studies in E. coli strains on ochratoxin A (OTA) and its analogues implicate a genotoxic free radical and a cytotoxic thiol derivative as reactive metabolites.

    PubMed

    Malaveille, C; Brun, G; Bartsch, H

    1994-05-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), its major metabolite in rodents, ochratoxin alpha, and seven structurally related substances were assayed for SOS DNA repair inducing activity in Escherichia coli strain PQ37. At concentrations of 0.1-4 mM, OTA, chloroxine, 5-chloro-8-quinolinol, 4-chloro-meta-cresol and chloroxylenol induced SOS DNA repair in the absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system. Ochratoxin B, ochratoxin alpha, 5-chlorosalicylic acid and citrinin were inactive, but all except ochratoxin alpha were cytotoxic. Thus, the presence of chlorine at C-5 appears to be one determinant of genotoxicity in these substances. Amino oxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of the cysteine conjugate beta-lyase, decreased the cytotoxicity of OTA but did not alter its genotoxic activity, suggesting the formation of a cytotoxic thiol-containing derivative. The mechanisms by which OTA and some of its active analogues induce SOS DNA repair activity was further investigated in E. coli PQ37 and in three derived strains (PQ300, OG100 and OG400), containing deletions within the oxy R regulon. The response in strain PQ37 was measured in the absence and presence of Trolox C, a water-soluble form of vitamin E. Trolox C completely quenched the genotoxicity of OTA, and the effect was similar in the mutant and wild-type strains. These results implicate an OTA-derived free radical rather than reduced oxygen species as genotoxic intermediate(s) in bacteria.

  2. Antitumor Agents 284. New Desmosdumotin B Analogues with Bicyclic B-ring as Cytotoxic and Antitubulin Agents

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa-Goto, Kyoko; Wu, Pei-Chi; Lai, Chin-Yu; Hamel, Ernest; Zhu, Hao; Zhang, Liying; Kozaka, Takashi; Ohkoshi, Emika; Goto, Masuo; Bastow, Kenneth F.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that the biological activity of analogues of desmosdumotin B (1) was dramatically changed depending on the B-ring system. A naphthalene B-ring analogue 3 exerted potent in vitro activity against a diverse panel of human tumor cell lines with GI50 values of 0.8–2.1 μM. In contrast, 1-analogues with a phenyl B-ring showed unique selective activity against P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpressing multidrug resistance cell line. We have now prepared and evaluated 1-analogues with bicyclic or tricyclic aromatic B-ring systems as in vitro inhibitors of human cancer cell line proliferation. Among all synthesized derivatives, 21 with a benzo[b]thiophenyl B-ring was highly active, with GI50 values of 0.06–0.16 μM, and this activity was not influenced by overexpression of P-gp. Furthermore, 21 inhibited tubulin assembly in vitro with an IC 50 value of 2.0 μM and colchicine binding by 78% as well as cellular microtubule polymerization and spindle formation. PMID:21284385

  3. Recombinant purine nucleoside phosphorylases from thermophiles: preparation, properties and activity towards purine and pyrimidine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinrui; Szeker, Kathleen; Janocha, Bernd; Böhme, Thomas; Albrecht, Dirk; Mikhailopulo, Igor A; Neubauer, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Thermostable nucleoside phosphorylases are attractive biocatalysts for the synthesis of modified nucleosides. Hence we report on the recombinant expression of three 'high molecular mass' purine nucleoside phosphorylases (PNPs) derived from the thermophilic bacteria Deinococcus geothermalis, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius and from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix (5'-methythioadenosine phosphorylase; ApMTAP). Thermostability studies, kinetic analysis and substrate specificities are reported. The PNPs were stable at their optimal temperatures (DgPNP, 55 °C; GtPNP, 70 °C; ApMTAP, activity rising to 99 °C). Substrate properties were investigated for natural purine nucleosides [adenosine, inosine and their C2'-deoxy counterparts (activity within 50-500 U·mg(-1))], analogues with 2'-amino modified 2'-deoxy-adenosine and -inosine (within 0.1-3 U·mg(-1)) as well as 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoroadenosine (9) and its C2'-arabino diastereomer (10, within 0.01-0.03 U·mg(-1)). Our results reveal that the structure of the heterocyclic base (e.g. adenine or hypoxanthine) can play a critical role in the phosphorolysis reaction. The implications of this finding may be helpful for reaction mechanism studies or optimization of reaction conditions. Unexpectedly, the diastereomeric 2'-deoxyfluoro adenine ribo- and arabino-nucleosides displayed similar substrate properties. Moreover, cytidine and 2'-deoxycytidine were found to be moderate substrates of the prepared PNPs, with substrate activities in a range similar to those determined for 2'-deoxyfluoro adenine nucleosides 9 and 10. C2'-modified nucleosides are accepted as substrates by all recombinant enzymes studied, making these enzymes promising biocatalysts for the synthesis of modified nucleosides. Indeed, the prepared PNPs performed well in preliminary transglycosylation reactions resulting in the synthesis of 2'-deoxyfluoro adenine ribo- and arabino- nucleosides in moderate yield (24%). © 2013 The Authors Journal

  4. Design and synthesis of pironetin analogue/colchicine hybrids and study of their cytotoxic activity and mechanisms of interaction with tubulin.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Concepción; Díaz-Oltra, Santiago; Murga, Juan; Falomir, Eva; Carda, Miguel; Redondo-Horcajo, Mariano; Díaz, J Fernando; Barasoain, Isabel; Marco, J Alberto

    2014-12-26

    We here report the synthesis of a series of 12 hybrid molecules composed of a colchicine moiety and a pironetin analogue fragment. The two fragments are connected through an ester-amide spacer of variable length. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds and their interactions with tubulin have been investigated. Relations between the structure and activity are discussed. Since the spacer is not long enough to permit a simultaneous binding of the hybrid molecules to the colchicine and pironetin sites on tubulin, a further feature investigated was whether these molecules would interact with the latter through the pironetin end (irreversible covalent binding) or through the colchicine end (reversible noncovalent binding). It has been found that binding to tubulin may take place preferentially at either of these ends depending on the length of the connecting spacer.

  5. Antiviral properties of deazaadenine nucleoside derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vittori, S; Dal Ben, D; Lambertucci, C; Marucci, G; Volpini, R; Cristalli, G

    2006-01-01

    Viral infections have menaced human beings since time immemorial, and even today new viral strains that cause lethal diseases are being discovered with alarming frequency. One major example is HIV, the etiological agent of AIDS, which spread up in the last two decades. Very recently, other virus based diseases such as avian flu have spread fear around the world, and hemorrhagic fevers from central Africa serious threaten human health because of their very deadly effects. New antiviral agents are still greatly needed to counter these menaces. Many scientists are involved in this field of research, and many of the recently discovered effective antiviral compounds are nucleoside analogues. Among those derivatives, deazapurine nucleoside analogues have demonstrated potent inhibitory effect of viral replication. This review reports on recently generated data from preparing and testing deazapurine nucleoside derivatives as inhibitors in virus replication systems. Although most of the reported data have been produced in antiHIV, antiHCMV, and antiHSV biological testing, very recently other new important fields of application have been discovered, all in topical subjects of strong interest. In fact, deazapurine nucleosides have been found to be active as chemotherapeutics for some veterinary systemic viral infections, for which no antiviral drugs are licensed yet. Furthermore, they demonstrated efficacy in the inhibition of Hepatitis C virus replication. Finally, these compounds showed high potency as virucides against Ebola Virus, curing Ebola infected mice with a single dose administration.

  6. Synthesis and Anti-HIV Activity of Novel 4'-Trifluoromethylated 5'-Deoxycarbocyclic Nucleoside Phosphonic Acids.

    PubMed

    Jee, Jun-Pil; Kim, Seyeon; Hong, Joon Hee

    2015-01-01

    Efficient synthetic route to novel 4'-trifluoromethylated 5'-deoxycarbocyclic nucleoside phosphonic acids was described from α-trifluoromethyl-α,β-unsaturated ester. Coupling of purine nucleosidic bases with cyclopentanol using a Mitsunobu reaction gave the nucleoside intermediates which were further phosphonated and hydrolyzed to reach desired nucleoside analogs. Synthesized nucleoside analogs were tested for anti-HIV activity as well as cytotoxicity. Adenine analog 22 shows significant anti-HIV activity (EC50 = 8.3 μM) up to 100 μM.

  7. Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of novel 4'-trifluoromethylated 5'-deoxyapiosyl nucleoside phosphonic acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seyeon; Kim, Eunae; Lee, Wonjae; Hee Hong, Joon

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the discovery that the threosyl nucleoside phosphonate PMDTA is a potent anti-HIV compound, we synthesized several 4'-trifluoromethyl-5'-deoxyapiosyl nucleoside phosphonic acids and evaluated their anti-HIV activity. An efficient synthetic route was optimized, starting from an α-trifluoromethyl-α,β-unsaturated ester. Glycosylation of the purine nucleosidic bases with a glycosyl donor yielded modified nucleoside intermediates, which were then phosphonated and hydrolyzed to provide the targeted nucleoside analogs. Once synthesized, the anti-HIV and cytotoxic activities of each analog were evaluated. None of the analogs showed significant anti-HIV activity at concentrations up to 100 μM.

  8. Flexibility as a Strategy in Nucleoside Antiviral Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Peters, H L; Ku, T C; Seley-Radtke, K L

    2015-01-01

    As far back as Melville Wolfrom's acyclic sugar synthesis in the 1960's, synthesis of flexible nucleoside analogues have been an area of interest. This concept, however, went against years of enzyme-substrate binding theory. Hence, acyclic methodology in antiviral drug design did not take off until the discovery and subsequent FDA approval of such analogues as Acyclovir and Tenofovir. More recently, the observation that flexible nucleosides could overcome drug resistance spawned a renewed interest in the field of nucleoside drug design. The next generation of flexible nucleosides shifted the focus from the sugar moiety to the nucleobase. With analogues such as Seley-Radtke "fleximers", and Herdewijn's C5 substituted 2'-deoxyuridines, the area of base flexibility has seen great expansion. More recently, the marriage of these methodologies with acyclic sugars has resulted in a series of acyclic flex-base nucleosides with a wide range of antiviral properties, including some of the first to exhibit anti-coronavirus activity. Various flexible nucleosides and their corresponding nucleobases will be compared in this review.

  9. Chemistry of Renieramycins. 17. A New Generation of Renieramycins: Hydroquinone 5-O-Monoester Analogues of Renieramycin M as Potential Cytotoxic Agents against Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chamni, Supakarn; Sirimangkalakitti, Natchanun; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Saito, Naoki; Suwanborirux, Khanit

    2017-05-26

    A series of hydroquinone 5-O-monoester analogues of renieramycin M were semisynthesized via bishydroquinonerenieramycin M (5) prepared from renieramycin M (1), a major cytotoxic bistetrahydroisoquinolinequinone alkaloid isolated from the Thai blue sponge Xestospongia sp. All 20 hydroquinone 5-O-monoester analogues possessed cytotoxicity with IC50 values in nanomolar concentrations against the H292 and H460 human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The improved cytotoxicity toward the NSCLC cell lines was observed from the 5-O-monoester analogues such as 5-O-acetyl ester 6a and 5-O-propanoyl ester 7e, which exhibited 8- and 10-fold increased cytotoxicity toward the H292 NSCLC cell line (IC50 3.0 and 2.3 nM, respectively), relative to 1 (IC50 24 nM). Thus, the hydroquinone 5-O-monoester analogues are a new generation of the renieramycins to be further developed as potential marine-derived drug candidates for lung cancer treatment.

  10. Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family of nucleoside and nucleobase transporter proteins.

    PubMed

    Young, J D; Yao, S Y M; Sun, L; Cass, C E; Baldwin, S A

    2008-07-01

    1. The human (h) SLC29 family of integral membrane proteins is represented by four members, designated equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) because of the properties of the first-characterized family member, hENT1. They belong to the widely distributed eukaryotic ENT family of equilibrative and concentrative nucleoside/nucleobase transporter proteins. 2. A predicted topology of eleven transmembrane helices has been experimentally confirmed for hENT1. The best-characterized members of the family, hENT1 and hENT2, possess similar broad permeant selectivities for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, but hENT2 also efficiently transports nucleobases. hENT3 has a similar broad permeant selectivity for nucleosides and nucleobases and appears to function in intracellular membranes, including lysosomes. 3. hENT4 is uniquely selective for adenosine, and also transports a variety of organic cations. hENT3 and hENT4 are pH sensitive, and optimally active under acidic conditions. ENTs, including those in parasitic protozoa, function in nucleoside and nucleobase uptake for salvage pathways of nucleotide synthesis and, in humans, are also responsible for the cellular uptake of nucleoside analogues used in the treatment of cancers and viral diseases. 4. By regulating the concentration of adenosine available to cell surface receptors, mammalian ENTs additionally influence physiological processes ranging from cardiovascular activity to neurotransmission.

  11. Design, synthesis and anti flaviviridae activity of N(6)-, 5',3'-O- and 5',2'-O-substituted adenine nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Angusti, Angela; Manfredini, Stefano; Durini, Elisa; Ciliberti, Nunzia; Vertuani, Silvia; Solaroli, Nicola; Pricl, Sabrina; Ferrone, Marco; Fermeglia, Maurizio; Loddo, Roberta; Secci, Barbara; Visioli, Anna; Sanna, Tiziana; Collu, Gabriella; Pezzullo, Margherita; La Colla, Paolo

    2008-04-01

    During a random screening of representative libraries of nucleoside analogues we discovered that the adenine derivatives FEVB28 and FEG118 were Flaviviridae inhibitors endowed with potency comparable, if not superior, to that of ribavirin. Those studies prompted us to design a new class of protected nucleoside analogs, reported herein, which displays interesting anti-bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) activity and low cytotoxicity in cell-based assays (4, 23, 29 EC(50): 14, 11, 26 microM respectively, CC(50)>100 microM) and appreciable activity in enzyme assays against the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of BVDV (4, 23, 29, RdRp inhibition activity 27, 16, 15 microM respectively). A molecular modeling study was also carried out to highlight the possible interactions between this compounds class and the corresponding hepatitis C virus (HCV) enzyme.

  12. Lead structures for new antibacterials: stereocontrolled synthesis of a bioactive muraymycin analogue.

    PubMed

    Spork, Anatol P; Büschleb, Martin; Ries, Oliver; Wiegmann, Daniel; Boettcher, Stefan; Mihalyi, Agnes; Bugg, Timothy D H; Ducho, Christian

    2014-11-17

    Naturally occurring muraymycin nucleoside antibiotics represent a promising class of novel antibacterial agents. The structural complexity suggests the investigation of simplified analogues as potential lead structures, which can then be further optimized towards highly potent antimicrobials. Herein we report studies on muraymycin-derived potential lead structures lacking an aminoribose motif found in most naturally occurring muraymycins. We have identified a 5'-defunctionalized motif to be ideal in terms of stability and chemical accessibility and have synthesized a full-length muraymycin analogue based on this structure using a novel fully stereocontrolled route. The obtained 5'-deoxy analogue of the natural product muraymycin C4 showed good inhibitory properties towards the bacterial target protein MraY, sufficient pharmacokinetic stability and no cytotoxicity against human cells, thus making it a promising lead for antibacterial drug development. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Aqueous microwaves assisted cross-coupling reactions applied to unprotected nucleosides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Len, Christophe; Hervé, Gwénaelle

    2015-02-01

    Nucleoside analogues have attracted much attention due to their potential biological activities. Amongst all synthetic nucleosides, C5-modified pyrimidines and C7- or C8-modified purines have mostly been prepared using palladium cross-coupling reactions and then studied as antitumoral and antiviral agents. Our objective is to focus this review on the Suzuki-Miyaura and on the Heck cross-couplings of nucleosides using microwave irradiations which are an alternative technology compatible with green chemistry and sustainable development.

  14. Synthesis of analogues of the O-beta-D-ribofuranosyl nucleoside moiety of liposidomycins. Part 1: contribution of the amino group and the uracil moiety upon the inhibition of MraY.

    PubMed

    Dini, C; Drochon, N; Feteanu, S; Guillot, J C; Peixoto, C; Aszodi, J

    2001-02-26

    The O-beta-D-ribofuranosyl nucleoside I is the minimal structural entity of liposidomycins maintaining enzyme inhibitory activity. Modifications performed on both the primary amine and the uracil moieties clearly demonstrate their major contribution to the inhibition of the bacterial translocase (MraY).

  15. The SLC28 (CNT) and SLC29 (ENT) nucleoside transporter families: a 30-year collaborative odyssey.

    PubMed

    Young, James D

    2016-06-15

    Specialized nucleoside transporter (NT) proteins are required for passage of nucleosides and hydrophilic nucleoside analogues across biological membranes. Physiologic nucleosides serve as central salvage metabolites in nucleotide biosynthesis, and nucleoside analogues are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer and antiviral diseases. The nucleoside adenosine modulates numerous cellular events via purino-receptor cell signalling pathways. Human NTs are divided into two structurally unrelated protein families: the SLC28 concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family and the SLC29 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family. Human CNTs are inwardly directed Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporters found predominantly in intestinal and renal epithelial and other specialized cell types. Human ENTs mediate bidirectional fluxes of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides down their concentration gradients and are ubiquitously found in most, possibly all, cell types. Both protein families are evolutionarily old: CNTs are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; ENTs are widely distributed in mammalian, lower vertebrate and other eukaryote species. This mini-review describes a 30-year collaboration with Professor Stephen Baldwin to identify and understand the structures and functions of these physiologically and clinically important transport proteins.

  16. Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging properties of N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA) and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Pastwa, E; Ciesielska, E; Piestrzeniewicz, M K; Denny, W A; Gniazdowski, M; Szmigiero, L

    1998-08-01

    An antitumor drug N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA) and its three close structural analogs N-[2-(hydroxyethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACAH), N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-9-aminoacridine-4-carboxamide (amino-DACA), and N-[2-(hydroxyethylamino)ethyl]-9-aminoacridine-4-carboxamide (amino-DACAH) were studied for their ability to inhibit RNA synthesis in vitro and to form topoisomerase II-mediated DNA lesions in relation to cell-killing activity. All tested compounds induced chromatin lesions characteristic of topoisomerase II-blocking drugs (DNA breaks and DNA-protein cross-links) in treated cells, but were much less active than reference antileukemic acridine m-AMSA (4'-(9-acridinylamino)-methanesulfon-m-anisidide). The ability to form these lesions was dependent on the structure of the 4-carboxamide side-chain, which seems to be an important factor affecting the drug transport rate through cell membrane. A 4-carboxamide chain with an N-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl moiety resulted in more efficient transport through cell membranes, higher cytotoxicity, and DNA-damaging activity. The mode of action of acridine-4-carboxamides was further elucidated by their incubation with cells in the presence of antitopoisomerase II agents of a known mechanism of inhibition. These were: bisdioxopiperazine (ICRF-187), a catalytic inhibitor of topoisomerase II, and etoposide (VP-16), an inducer of a cleavable complex of the enzyme with DNA. The cytotoxicity of DACA and its analogs was not antagonized by preincubating cells with ICRF-187. All tested acridines protected cells against DNA breakage induced by VP-16, but the extent of protection varied significantly. Amino-DACA, which easily penetrates cell membrane, fully inhibited DNA break formation, whereas other analogs exhibited a low degree of protection when used at high concentration. Our results suggest that the acridine-4-carboxamides discussed here are poor topoisomerase II poisons and that this enzyme

  17. Cytotoxicity of 1,4-diamino-2-butanone, a putrescine analogue, to RKO cells: mechanism and redox imbalance.

    PubMed

    Soares, C O; Boiani, M; Marnett, L J; Bechara, E J H

    2013-09-01

    α-Aminocarbonyl metabolites (e.g., 5-aminolevulinic acid and aminoacetone) and the wide spectrum microbicide 1,4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB) have been shown to exhibit pro-oxidant properties. In vitro, these compounds undergo phosphate-catalyzed enolization at physiological pH and subsequent superoxide radical-propagated aerobic oxidation, yielding a reactive α-oxoaldehyde and H2O2. DAB cytotoxicity to pathogenic microorganisms has been attributed to the inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis. However, the role played in cell death by reactive DAB oxidation products is still poorly understood. This work aims to clarify the mechanism of DAB-promoted pro-oxidant action on mammalian cells. DAB (0.05-10 mM) treatment of RKO cells derived from human colon carcinoma led to a decrease in cell viability (IC50 ca. 0.3 mM DAB, 24 h incubation). Pre-addition of either catalase (5 μM) or aminoguanidine (20 mM) was observed to partially inhibit the toxic effects of DAB to the cells, while N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, 5 mM) or reduced glutathione (GSH, 5 mM) provided almost complete protection against DAB. Changes in redox balance and stress response pathways were indicated by the increased expression of HO-1, NQO1 and xCT. Moreover, the observation of caspase 3 and PARP cleavage products is consistent with DAB-triggered apoptosis in RKO cells, which was corroborated by the partial protection afforded by the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK. Finally, DAB treatment disrupted the cell cycle in response to increased p53 and activation of ATM. Altogether, these data support the hypothesis that DAB exerts cytotoxicity via a mechanism involving not only polyamine biosynthesis but also by DAB oxidation products.

  18. Structure-activity relationship of Garcinia xanthones analogues: Potent Hsp90 inhibitors with cytotoxicity and antiangiogenesis activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoli; Wu, Yue; Hu, Mingyang; Li, Xiang; Gu, Congying; You, Qidong; Zhang, Xiaojin

    2016-10-01

    Hsp90 has long been recognized as an attractive and crucial molecular target for cancer therapy. Gambogic acid (GA), the main active compound of Gamboge hanburyi, has been reported as a natural inhibitor of Hsp90. Here, we present the structure-activity relationship of Garcinia xanthones analogues as Hsp90 inhibitors and identify that compound 25, with a simplified skeleton, had an improved inhibitory effect toward Hsp90. Compound 25 inhibited the ATPase activity of Hsp90 with an IC50 value of 3.68±0.18μM. It also exhibited potent antiproliferative activities in some solid tumor cells. In SK-BR-3 cells with high Hsp90 expression, compound 25 induced the degradation of Hsp90 client proteins including Akt and Erk1/2 without causing the heat shock response. Additionally, compound 25 inhibited angiogenesis in HUVEC cells through Hsp90 regulation of the HIF-1α pathway. These results demonstrate that compound 25 as an Hsp90 inhibitor with a new structure could be further studied for the development of tumor therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Isoprenyl-thiourea and urea derivatives as new farnesyl diphosphate analogues: synthesis and in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Vega-Pérez, José M; Periñán, Ignacio; Argandoña, Montserrat; Vega-Holm, Margarita; Palo-Nieto, Carlos; Burgos-Morón, Estefanía; López-Lázaro, Miguel; Vargas, Carmen; Nieto, Joaquín J; Iglesias-Guerra, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    A series of new isoprenyl-thiourea and urea derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of alkyl or aryl isothiocyanate or isocyanate and primary amines. The structures of the compounds were established by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS, HRMS and elemental analysis. The new compounds were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against seven strains representing different types of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. More than a third of the synthesized compounds showed variable inhibition activities against the tested strains. Best antimicrobial activities were found for those thiourea analogues with 3-methyl-2-butenyl, isobutyl or isopentyl groups and aromatic rings possessing electron withdrawing substituents. The new compounds were also subjected to a preliminary screening for antitumoral activity. The presence of a highly lipophilic group and an electron withdrawing group in the aromatic rings enhanced anticancer activity of the synthesized compounds, showing in most cases more activity than that of the controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Multicomponent reactions in nucleoside chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Buchowicz, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review covers sixty original publications dealing with the application of multicomponent reactions (MCRs) in the synthesis of novel nucleoside analogs. The reported approaches were employed for modifications of the parent nucleoside core or for de novo construction of a nucleoside scaffold from non-nucleoside substrates. The cited references are grouped according to the usually recognized types of the MCRs. Biochemical properties of the novel nucleoside analogs are also presented (if provided by the authors). PMID:25161730

  1. Recent advances on the enantioselective synthesis of C-nucleosides inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH).

    PubMed

    Merino, Pedro; Ghirardello, Mattia; Tejero, Tomas; Delso, Ignacio; Matute, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This review will describe the recent advances in the synthesis of C-nucleosides with inhibitory activity of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides. The review will cover synthetic approaches of structural analogues showing modifications in the furanose ring as well as in the heterocyclic base. Heterocyclic sugar nucleoside analogues in which the furanose ring has been replaced by a different heterocyclic ring including aza analogues, thioanalogues as well as dioxolanyl and isoxazolidinyl analogues are also considered.

  2. Retraction RETRACTION of "Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogues in preventing vertical transmission of the hepatitis B virus from father to infant", by L.-H. Cao, P.-L. Zhao, Z.-M. Liu, S.-C. Sun, D.-B. Xu, J.-D. Zhang and Z.-H. Shao - Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (4): 15539-15546 (2015).

    PubMed

    Cao, L-H; Zhao, P-L; Liu, Z-M; Sun, S-C; Xu, D-B; Zhang, J-D; Shao, Z-H

    2016-10-07

    The retracted article is: Cao L-H, Zhao P-L, Liu Z-M, Sun S-C, et al. (2015). Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogues in preventing vertical transmission of the hepatitis B virus from father to infant. Genet. Mol. Res. 14: 15539-15546. The article published in Genetics and Molecular Research 14 (4): 15539-15546 (2015) is a very good paper, but it appears that the authors' group submitted this manuscript to multiple journals, which is ethical misconduct. This manuscript (similar language and identical data) was published in the Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine Journal prior to being submitted to GMR. There are parts copied from "Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogs on blocking father-to-infant vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus", by Li-Hau Cao, Pei-Li Zhao, Zhi-Min Liu, Shao-Chun Sun, et al. Exp. Ther. Med. 9 (6): 2251-2256 (2015) - DOI: 10.3892/etm.2015.2379. The GMR editorial staff was alerted and after a thorough investigation, there is strong reason to believe that the peer review process was failure. Also, after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research decided to retract this article in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The authors and their institutions were advised of this serious breach of ethics.

  3. Novel lavendamycin analogues as antitumor agents: synthesis, in vitro cytotoxicity, structure-metabolism, and computational molecular modeling studies with NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Mary; Cai, Wen; Holley, David C; Lineswala, Jayana P; Maharjan, Babu R; Ebrahimian, G Reza; Seradj, Hassan; Stocksdale, Mark G; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Marvin, Christopher C; Gerdes, John M; Beall, Howard D; Behforouz, Mohammad

    2005-12-01

    Novel lavendamycin analogues with various substituents were synthesized and evaluated as potential NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)-directed antitumor agents. Pictet-Spengler condensation of quinoline- or quninoline-5,8-dione aldehydes with tryptamine or tryptophans yielded the lavendamycins. Metabolism studies with recombinant human NQO1 revealed that addition of NH2 and CH2OH groups at the quinolinedione-7-position and indolopyridine-2'-position had the greatest positive impact on substrate specificity. The best and poorest substrates were 37 (2'-CH2OH-7-NH2 derivative) and 31 (2'-CONH2-7-NHCOC3H7-n derivative) with reduction rates of 263 +/- 30 and 0.1 +/- 0.1 micromol/min/mg NQO1, respectively. Cytotoxicity toward human colon adenocarcinoma cells was determined for the lavendamycins. The best substrates for NQO1 were also the most selectively toxic to the NQO1-rich BE-NQ cells compared to NQO1-deficient BE-WT cells with 37 as the most selective. Molecular docking supported a model in which the best substrates were capable of efficient hydrogen-bonding interactions with key residues of the active site along with hydride ion reception.

  4. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies on Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum L.) Based Flavonoid Orientin and its Analogue for Cytotoxic Activity in Liver Cancer Cell Line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pooja; Prakash, Om; Shukla, Aparna; Rajpurohit, Chetan Singh; Vasudev, Prema G; Luqman, Suaib; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar; Pant, Aditya Bhushan; Khan, Feroz

    2016-01-01

    O. sanctum L. (O. tenuiflorum) is an important sacred medicinal plant of India known as Holy Basil or Tulsi. The chemical composition of volatile oil is highly complex and comprises high ratio of phenylpropanoids and terpenes, and some phenolic compound or flavonoids such as orientin and vicenin. These minor flavonoids are known to be antioxidant and anticancer in nature. Orientin reported as potential anticancer agent due to anti-proliferative activity on human liver cancer cell line HepG2, but its mechanism of action is not fully explored. In the present work an in-silico structure-activity relationship study on orientin was performed and built a pharmacophore mapping and QSAR model to screen out the potential structurally similar analogues from chemical database of Discovery Studio (DSv3.5, Accelrys, USA) as potential anticancer agent. Analogue fenofibryl glucuronide was selected for in vitro cytotoxic/anticancer activity evaluation through MTT assay. Binding affinity and mode of action of orientin and its analogue were explored through molecular docking studies on quinone oxidoreductase, a potential target of flavonoids. Contrary to the assumption, in vitro results showed only 41% cell death at 202.389 μM concentration (at 96 hrs). Therefore, we concluded that the selected orientin analogue fenofibryl glucuronide was non-cytotoxic/non-anti-carcinogenic up to 100 μg/ml (202.389 μM) concentrations for a long term exposure i.e., till 96 hrs in human cancer cells of HepG2. We concluded that orientin and its analogue fenofibryl glucuronide as pure compound showed no activity or less cytotoxicity activity on liver cancer cell line HepG2.

  5. Versatile synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 3’-fluorinated purine nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hang; Hatala, Paul J; Stevens, William C; He, Baicheng

    2015-01-01

    Summary A unified synthetic strategy accessing novel 3'-fluorinated purine nucleoside derivatives and their biological evaluation were achieved. Novel 3’-fluorinated analogues were constructed from a common 3’-deoxy-3’-fluororibofuranose intermediate. Employing Suzuki and Stille cross-coupling reactions, fifteen 3’-fluororibose purine nucleosides 1–15 and eight 3’-fluororibose 2-chloro/2-aminopurine nucleosides 16–23 with various substituents at position 6 of the purine ring were efficiently synthesized. Furthermore, 3’-fluorine analogs of natural products nebularine and 6-methylpurine riboside were constructed via our convergent synthetic strategy. Synthesized nucleosides were tested against HT116 (colon cancer) and 143B (osteosarcoma cancer) tumor cell lines. We have demonstrated 3’-fluorine purine nucleoside analogues display potent tumor cell growth inhibition activity at sub- or low micromolar concentration. PMID:26734098

  6. Induction of Cytotoxicity in Pyridine Analogues of the Anti-metastatic Ru(III) Complex NAMI-A by Ferrocene Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Mu, Changhua; Chang, Stephanie W; Prosser, Kathleen E; Leung, Ada W Y; Santacruz, Stephanie; Jang, Thalia; Thompson, John R; Yapp, Donald T T; Warren, Jeffrey J; Bally, Marcel B; Beischlag, Timothy V; Walsby, Charles J

    2016-01-04

    A series of novel ferrocene (Fc) functionalized Ru(III) complexes was synthesized and characterized. These compounds are derivatives of the anti-metastatic Ru(III) complex imidazolium [trans-RuCl4(1H-imidazole) (DMSO-S)] (NAMI-A) and are derived from its pyridine analogue (NAMI-Pyr), with direct coupling of Fc to pyridine at the 4 or 3 positions, or at the 4 position via a two-carbon linker, which is either unsaturated (vinyl) or saturated (ethyl). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV-vis spectroscopic studies of the ligand exchange processes of the compounds in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) report similar solution behavior to NAMI-Pyr. However, the complex with Fc substitution at the 3 position of the coordinated pyridine shows greater solution stability, through resistance to the formation of oligomeric species. Further EPR studies of the complexes with human serum albumin (hsA) indicate that the Fc groups enhance noncoordinate interactions with the protein and help to inhibit the formation of protein-coordinated species, suggesting the potential for enhanced bioavailability. Cyclic voltammetry measurements demonstrate that the Fc groups modestly reduce the reduction potential of the Ru(III) center as compared to NAMI-Pyr, while the reduction potentials of the Fc moieties of the four compounds vary by 217 mV, with the longer linkers giving significantly lower values of E1/2. EPR spectra of the compounds with 2-carbon linkers show the formation of a high-spin Fe(III) species (S = 5/2) in PBS with a distinctive signal at g = 4.3, demonstrating oxidation of the Fe(II) ferrocene center and likely reflecting degradation products. Density functional theory calculations and paramagnetic (1)H NMR describe delocalization of spin density onto the ligands and indicate that the vinyl linker could be a potential pathway for electron transfer between the Ru and Fe centers. In the case of the ethyl linker, electron transfer is suggested to occur via an indirect

  7. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Antineoplastic Activity of Novel Carbocyclic Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Helguera, Aliuska M; Rodríguez-Borges, J E; Caamaño, Olga; García-Mera, Xerardo; González, Maykel Pérez; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2010-03-15

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among men and women under age 85. Every year, millions of individuals are diagnosed with cancer. But finding new drugs is a complex, expensive, and very time-consuming task. Over the past decade, the cancer research community has begun to address the in silico modeling approaches, such as Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR), as an important alternative tool for targeting potential anticancer drugs. With the compilation of a large dataset of nucleosides synthesized in our laboratories, or elsewhere, and tested in a single cytotoxic assay under the same experimental conditions, we recognized a unique opportunity to attempt to build predictive QSAR models. Early efforts with 2D classification models built from part of this dataset were very encouraging. Here we report a further detailed evaluation of classification models to flag potential anticancer activities derived from a variety of 3D molecular representations. A quantitative 3D-model model that discriminates anticancer compounds from the inactive ones was attained, which allowed the correct classification of 82 % of compounds in such a large and diverse dataset, with only 5 % of false inactives and 11 % of false actives. The model developed here was then used to select and design a new series of nucleosides, by classifying beforehand them as active/inactive anticancer compounds. From the compounds so designed, 22 were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the proliferation of murine leukemia cells (L1210/0), of which 86 % were well-classified as active or inactive, and only two were false actives, corroborating the good predictive ability of the present discriminant model. The results of this study thus provide a valuable tool for the design of novel potent anticancer nucleoside analogues. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A Metal-containing Nucleoside That Possesses Both Therapeutic and Diagnostic Activity against Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Suk; Maity, Ayan; Gray, Thomas; Berdis, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleoside transport is an essential process that helps maintain the hyperproliferative state of most cancer cells. As such, it represents an important target for developing diagnostic and therapeutic agents that can effectively detect and treat cancer, respectively. This report describes the development of a metal-containing nucleoside designated Ir(III)-PPY nucleoside that displays both therapeutic and diagnostic properties against the human epidermal carcinoma cell line KB3-1. The cytotoxic effects of Ir(III)-PPY nucleoside are both time- and dose-dependent. Flow cytometry analyses validate that the nucleoside analog causes apoptosis by blocking cell cycle progression at G2/M. Fluorescent microscopy studies show rapid accumulation in the cytoplasm within 4 h. However, more significant accumulation is observed in the nucleus and mitochondria after 24 h. This localization is consistent with the ability of the metal-containing nucleoside to influence cell cycle progression at G2/M. Mitochondrial depletion is also observed after longer incubations (Δt ∼48 h), and this effect may produce additional cytotoxic effects. siRNA knockdown experiments demonstrate that the nucleoside transporter, hENT1, plays a key role in the cellular entry of Ir(III)-PPY nucleoside. Collectively, these data provide evidence for the development of a metal-containing nucleoside that functions as a combined therapeutic and diagnostic agent against cancer. PMID:25713072

  9. [Purine and pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases - remarkable enzymes still not fully understood].

    PubMed

    Bzowska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Purine and pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the reversible phosphorolytic cleavage of the glycosidic bond of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, and are key enzymes of the nucleoside salvage pathway. This metabolic route is the less costly alternative to the de novo synthesis of nucleosides and nucleotides, supplying cells with these important building blocks. Interest in nucleoside phosphorylases is not only due to their important role in metabolism of nucleosides and nucleotides, but also due to the potential medical use of the enzymes (all phosphorylases in activating prodrugs - nucleoside and nucleic base analogs, high-molecular mass purine nucleoside phosphorylases in gene therapy of some solid tumors) and their inhibitors (as selective immunosuppressive, anticancer and antiparasitic agents, and preventing inactivation of other nucleoside drugs). Phosphorylases are also convenient tools for efficient enzymatic synthesis of otherwise inaccessible nucleoside analogues. In this paper the contribution of Professor David Shugar and some of his colleagues and coworkers in studies of these remarkable enzymes carried out over nearly 40 years is discussed on the background of global research in this field.

  10. Boron-containing nucleosides for neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schinazi, R.F.; Laster, B.H.; Fairchild, R.G.; Popenoe, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    There is widespread and increasing interest in the preparation of organoboron compounds for their potential medical application for neutron capture therapy (NCT). The authors approach was to synthesize a boron-containing pyrimidine nucleoside,5-dihydroxyboryl-2'-deoxyuridine (DBDU), which could act as a sensitizing agent in boron neutron-capture reactions. Irradiation of tumor cells that have incorporated boron nucleoside with neutrons would, therefore, principally destroy only tumor tissue. Since the nucleoside would be localized primarily in the nucleus, the greater biological efficacy would permit utilization of lower boron concentrations. Synthetic procedures to novel boron nucleosides and pyrimidines that could be of potential utility for NCT have been worked out. These include the synthesis of 2-thio-5-dihydroxyboryluracil and 2,4-dithio-5-dihydroxyboryluracil, which may be taken up selectively in melanoma cells as analogues of 2-thiouracil; and 6-dihydroxyborylpurine-2'-deoxyriboside, an analogue of 2'-deoxyadenosine. Studies with these compounds will allow the authors to determine the potential use of these boron nucleosides and pyrimidines for boron NCT, with the aim of reducing mortality and increasing life span of patients with diagnosed gliomas, melanomas and other tumors.

  11. Expedient and generic synthesis of imidazole nucleosides by enzymatic transglycosylation.

    PubMed

    Vichier-Guerre, S; Dugué, L; Bonhomme, F; Pochet, S

    2016-04-14

    A straightforward route to original imidazole-based nucleosides that makes use of an enzymatic N-transglycosylation step is reported in both the ribo- and deoxyribo-series. To illustrate the scope of this approach, a diverse set of 4-aryl and 4-heteroaryl-1H-imidazoles featuring variable sizes and hydrogen-bonding patterns was prepared using a microwave-assisted Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. These imidazole derivatives were examined as possible substrates for the nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase from L. leichmannii and the purine nucleoside phosphorylase from E. coli. The optimum transglycosylation conditions, including the use of co-adjuvants to address solubility issues, were defined. Enzymatic conversion of 4-(hetero)arylimidazoles to 2'-deoxyribo- or ribo-nucleosides proceeded in good to high conversion yields, except bulky hydrophobic imidazole derivatives. Nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase of class II was found to convert the widest range of functionalized imidazoles into 2'-deoxyribonucleosides and was even capable of bis-glycosylating certain heterocyclic substrates. Our findings should enable chemoenzymatic access to a large diversity of flexible nucleoside analogues as molecular probes, drug candidates and original building blocks for synthetic biology.

  12. Non-nucleoside structures retain full anti-HCMV potency of the dideoxy furanopyrimidine family.

    PubMed

    Bidet, Olivier; McGuigan, Christopher; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela; De Clercq, Erik; Balzarini, Jan

    2004-11-01

    We have recently reported that 2',3'dideoxy analogues of our exquisitely potent anti-VZV furanopyrimidine deoxynucleosides are shifted to selective anti-HCMV agents. We now find that the fully deoxygenated 2',3',5'-trideoxy analogue is fully antivirally active. This is taken as proof that these agents act by a novel non-nucleoside mechanism of action.

  13. Prevalence of transmitted nucleoside analogue-resistant HIV-1 strains and pre-existing mutations in pol reverse transcriptase and protease region: outcome after treatment in recently infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Balotta, C; Berlusconi, A; Pan, A; Violin, M; Riva, C; Colombo, M C; Gori, A; Papagno, L; Corvasce, S; Mazzucchelli, R; Facchi, G; Velleca, R; Saporetti, G; Galli, M; Rusconi, S; Moroni, M

    2000-03-01

    We retrospectively studied 38 Italian recently HIV-1-infected subjects who seroconverted from 1994 to 1997 to investigate: (i) the prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI)-related mutations at primary infection; (ii) the proportion of naturally occurring mutations in reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease regions of patients naive for non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs); (iii) the drug-susceptibility to NRTIs and PIs in subjects with NRTI- and/or PI-related mutations; and (iv) the outcome of seroconverters treated with various NRTIs or NRTI/PI regimens. Baseline HIV-1 plasma viraemia and absolute CD4 count at baseline could not be used to distinguish patients with NRTI- and/or PI-related pre-existing mutations from those with wild-type virus (P = 0.693 and P = 0.542, respectively). The frequency of zidovudine-related mutations was 21% in the study period. The response to treatment was not significantly different in subjects with or without genotypic zidovudine-related mutations at primary infection (P = 0.744 for HIV-1 RNA and P = 0.102 for CD4 cells). Some natural variation (2.6%) was present within regions 98-108 and 179-190 of RT involved in NNRTI resistance. The high natural polymorphism in the protease region present in our patients was similar to that reported by others. In our study some PI-associated substitutions, thought to be compensatory in protease enzymatic function, could confer intermediate to high PI-resistance. As discrepancies between genotypic and phenotypic results may exist in recent seroconverters, our data suggest that the role of transmitted NRTI- and PI-resistant variants remain to be fully elucidated in vivo.

  14. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 5'-O-Dicarboxylic Fatty Acyl Monoester Derivatives of Anti-HIV Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pemmaraju, Bhanu; Agarwal, Hitesh K; Oh, Donghoon; Buckheit, Karen W; Buckheit, Robert W; Tiwari, Rakesh; Parang, Keykavous

    2014-03-19

    A number of 5'-O-dicarboxylic fatty acyl monoester derivatives of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (zidovudine, AZT), 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (stavudine, d4T), and 3'-fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine (alovudine, FLT) were synthesized to improve the lipophilicity and potentially the cellular delivery of parent polar 2', 3'-dideoxynucleoside (ddN) analogues. The compounds were evaluated for their anti-HIV activity. Three different fatty acids with varying chain length of suberic acid (octanedioic acid), sebacic acid (decanedioic acid), and dodecanedioic acid were used for the conjugation with the nucleosides. The compounds were evaluated for anti-HIV activity and cytotoxicity. All dicarboxylic ester conjugates of nucleosides exhibited significantly higher anti-HIV activity than that of the corresponding parent nucleoside analogs. Among all the tested conjugates, 5'-O-suberate derivative of AZT (EC50 = 0.10 nM) was found to be the most potent compound and showed 80-fold higher anti-HIV activity than AZT without any significant toxicity (TC50 > 500 nM).

  15. Antimalarial action of nitrobenzylthioinosine in combination with purine nucleoside antimetabolites.

    PubMed

    Gero, A M; Scott, H V; O'Sullivan, W J; Christopherson, R I

    1989-04-01

    The infection of human erythrocytes by two strains of the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum (FCQ-27 or the multi-drug-resistant strain K-1), markedly changed the transport characteristics of the nucleosides, adenosine and tubercidin, compared to uninfected erythrocytes. A component of the transport of these nucleosides was insensitive to the classical mammalian nucleoside transport inhibitor nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR). In vitro studies with tubercidin demonstrated ID50 values of 0.43 and 0.51 microM for FCQ-27 and K-1, respectively. In addition, the nucleoside transport inhibitors NBMPR, nitrobenzylthioguanosine (NBTGR), dilazep and dipyridamole also independently exhibited antimalarial activity in vitro. The combination of tubercidin and NBMPR or NBTGR in vitro demonstrated synergistic activity, whilst tubercidin together with dilazep or dipyridamole showed subadditive activity. Analysis by HPLC indicated that NBMPR could permeate the infected cell membrane and provided evidence for the catabolism of NBMPR in vitro, with subsequent alteration of the purine pool in the infected erythrocyte. These observations further indicated the possibility of the utilization of cytotoxic nucleosides against P. falciparum infection in conjunction with a nucleoside transport inhibitor to protect the host tissue.

  16. Nucleoside uptake in rat liver parenchymal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mercader, J; Gomez-Angelats, M; del Santo, B; Casado, F J; Felipe, A; Pastor-Anglada, M

    1996-01-01

    Rat liver parenchymal cells express Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)- independent nucleoside transport activity. The Na(+)-dependent component shows kinetic properties and substrate specificity similar to those reported for plasma membrane vesicles [Ruiz-Montasell, Casado, Felipe and Pastor-Anglada (1992) J. Membr. Biol. 128, 227-233]. This transport activity shows apparent K(m) values for uridine in the range 8-13 microM and a Vmax of 246 pmol of uridine per 3 min per 10(5) cells. Most nucleosides, including the analogue formycin B, cis-inhibit Na(+)-dependent uridine transport, although thymidine and cytidine are poor inhibitors. Inosine and adenosine inhibit Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake in a dose-dependent manner, reaching total inhibition. Guanosine also inhibits Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake, although there is some residual transport activity (35% of the control values) that is resistant to high concentrations of guanosine but may be inhibited by low concentrations of adenosine. The transport activity that is inhibited by high concentrations of thymidine is similar to the guanosine-resistant fraction. These observations are consistent with the presence of at least two Na(+)-dependent transport systems. Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake is sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide treatment, but Na(+)-independent transport is not. Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI) stimulates Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake. The NBTI effect involves a change in Vmax, it is rapid, dose-dependent, does not need preincubation and can be abolished by depleting the Na+ transmembrane electrochemical gradient. Na(+)-independent uridine transport seems to be insensitive to NBTI. Under the same experimental conditions, NBTI effectively blocks most of the Na(+)-independent uridine uptake in hepatoma cells. Thus the stimulatory effect of NBTI on the concentrative nucleoside transporter of liver parenchymal cells cannot be explained by inhibition of nucleoside efflux. PMID:8760370

  17. Synthesis and characterization of nucleoside peptides: Toward chemical ribonucleases. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkin, J.K.; Gard, J.K.; Modak, A.S. )

    1990-08-17

    Site-selective cleavage of nucleic acids by chemical analogues of nuclease enzymes is an area of major interest. Since imidazole is known to catalyze the hydrolysis of RNA in a sequence specific manner, utilizing complementarity, the natural nucleic acid recognition mechanism. The authors report here the synthesis and complete characterization of a series of uridine-imidazole conjugates which are based on C-5 substituted deoxyuridine. The nucleoside is joined with a variable-length linker arm to histidine or related imidazole-containing moieties, and protecting groups were employed to allow the subsequent conversion of the nucleoside-peptides into phosphoramidites suitable for oligonucleotide synthesis. Extensive multidimensional NMR characterization of the novel nucleoside-peptides is reported.

  18. Chemoenzymatic Syntheses and Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Glucose-Nucleoside Conjugates as Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Tatiana; Fernández, Susana; Sanghvi, Yogesh S.; Detorio, Mervi; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Gotor, Vicente; Ferrero, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Phosphodiester linked conjugates of various nucleosides such as d4U, d4T, IdUrd, ddI, ddA, virazole, ara-A and ara-C containing a glucosyl moiety have been described. These compounds were designed to act as prodrugs, where the corresponding 5′-monophosphates may be generated intracellularly. The synthesis of the glycoconjugates was achieved in good yields by condensation of a glucosyl phosphoramidite 7 with nucleosides in the presence of an activating agent. It was demonstrated that the glucose-conjugates improve water solubility of the nucleoside analogues, for example up to 31-fold for ara-A conjugate compared to ara-A alone. The new conjugates were tested for their anti-HIV-1 activity in human lymphocytes. These derivatives offer a convenient design for potential prodrug candidates with the possibility to improve the physicochemical properties and therapeutic activity of nucleoside analogues. PMID:21077659

  19. NMR studies on 4-thio-5-furan-modified and 4-thio-5-thiophene-modified nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Yao-Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Systematic NMR characterization of 4-thio-5-furan-pyrimidine nucleosides or 4-thio-5-thiophene-pyrimidine nucleosides (ribonucleosides and 2'-deoxynucleosides) was performed. All proton and carbon signals of 4-thio-5-thiophene-ribouridine and related analogues were unambiguously assigned. The orientations of the base (4-thiouridine or its deoxy analogue) relative to the ring (furan or thiophene) are explored by a NMR approach and further supported by X-ray crystallographic studies. The procedures presented here would be applicable to other modified nucleosides and nucleotides. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Nucleosides with Transposed Base or 4'-Hydroxymethyl Moieties and Their Corresponding Oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Toti, Kiran; Renders, Marleen; Groaz, Elisabetta; Herdewijn, Piet; Van Calenbergh, Serge

    2015-12-23

    This review focuses on 4'-hydroxymethyl- or nucleobase-transposed nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleoside phosphonates, their stereoisomers, and their close analogues. The biological activities of all known 4'-hydroxymethyl- or nucleobase-transposed nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleoside phosphonates as potential antiviral or anticancer agents are compiled. The routes that have been taken for the chemical synthesis of such nucleoside derivatives are described, with special attention to the innovative strategies. The enzymatic synthesis, base-pairing properties, structure, and stability of oligonucleotides containing nucleobase- or 4'-hydroxymethyl-transposed nucleotides are discussed. The use of oligonucleotides containing nucleobase- or 4'-hydroxymethyl-transposed nucleotides as small oligonucleotide (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus integrase) inhibitors, in applications such as antisense therapy, silencing RNA (siRNA), or aptamer selections, is detailed.

  1. Analysis of urinary nucleosides as potential cancer markers determined using LC-MS technique.

    PubMed

    Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Kaliszan, Roman; Markuszewski, Michał Jan

    2014-12-01

    Nucleosides, the RNA metabolites, are well known as potential markers in various types of cancer. They are mainly detected in urine wherein their concentrations were found elevated in cancer patients. In order to determine the nucleosides' profile in urine with satisfactory sensitivity and accuracy, advanced analytical techniques should be applied involving mass spectrometry detection. In this work we overviewed actual possibilities in targeted and untargeted metabolomics studies of nucleosides and their analogues (cis-diol metabolites) using high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with mass spectrometry detection. We focused on challenges and drawbacks using different types of ion sources and analyzers. The nucleosides' fragmentation patterns were also compared for the sake of their identification in biological samples. As applied analytical techniques allow for the metabolites' determination, statistical approach essential for evaluation of nucleosides as cancer markers was also reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Flow cytomeric measurement of DNA and incorporated nucleoside analogs

    DOEpatents

    Dolbeare, Frank A.; Gray, Joe W.

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for simultaneously measuring total cellular DNA and incorporated nucleoside analog. The method entails altering the cellular DNA of cells grown in the presence of a nucleoside analog so that single stranded and double stranded portions are present. Separate stains are used against the two portions. An immunochemical stain is used against the single stranded portion to provide a measure of incorporated nucleoside analog, and a double strand DNA-specific stain is used against the double stranded portion to simultaneously provide a measure of total cellular DNA. The method permits rapid flow cytometric analysis of cell populations, rapid identification of cycling and noncycling subpopulations, and determination of the efficacy of S phase cytotoxic anticancer agents.

  3. Identification of Non-nucleoside Human Ribonucleotide Reductase Modulators

    DOE PAGES

    Ahmad, Md. Faiz; Huff, Sarah E.; Pink, John; ...

    2015-10-21

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of dNTP synthesis and is an established cancer target. Drugs targeting RR are mainly nucleoside in nature. In this study, we sought to identify non-nucleoside small-molecule inhibitors of RR. Using virtual screening, binding affinity, inhibition, and cell toxicity, we have discovered a class of small molecules that alter the equilibrium of inactive hexamers of RR, leading to its inhibition. Several unique chemical categories, including a phthalimide derivative, show micromolar IC50s and KDs while demonstrating cytotoxicity. A crystal structure of an active phthalimide binding at the targeted interface supports the noncompetitive mode of inhibitionmore » determined by kinetic studies. Furthermore, the phthalimide shifts the equilibrium from dimer to hexamer. Finally, together, these data identify several novel non-nucleoside inhibitors of human RR which act by stabilizing the inactive form of the enzyme.« less

  4. Identification of Non-nucleoside Human Ribonucleotide Reductase Modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Md. Faiz; Huff, Sarah E.; Pink, John; Alam, Intekhab; Zhang, Andrew; Perry, Kay; Harris, Michael E.; Misko, Tessianna; Porwal, Suheel K.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Miyagi, Masaru; Viswanathan, Rajesh; Dealwis, Chris Godfrey

    2015-10-21

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of dNTP synthesis and is an established cancer target. Drugs targeting RR are mainly nucleoside in nature. In this study, we sought to identify non-nucleoside small-molecule inhibitors of RR. Using virtual screening, binding affinity, inhibition, and cell toxicity, we have discovered a class of small molecules that alter the equilibrium of inactive hexamers of RR, leading to its inhibition. Several unique chemical categories, including a phthalimide derivative, show micromolar IC50s and KDs while demonstrating cytotoxicity. A crystal structure of an active phthalimide binding at the targeted interface supports the noncompetitive mode of inhibition determined by kinetic studies. Furthermore, the phthalimide shifts the equilibrium from dimer to hexamer. Finally, together, these data identify several novel non-nucleoside inhibitors of human RR which act by stabilizing the inactive form of the enzyme.

  5. Nucleosides Accelerate Inflammatory Osteolysis, Acting as Distinct Innate Immune Activators

    PubMed Central

    Pan, George; Zheng, Rui; Yang, Pingar; Li, Yao; Clancy, John P.; Liu, Jianzhong; Feng, Xu; Garber, David A; Spearman, Paul; McDonald, Jay M

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune system and its components play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bone destruction. Blockade of inflammatory cytokines does not completely arrest bone erosion, suggesting that other mediators also may be involved in osteolysis. Previously we showed that nucleosides promote osteoclastogenesis and bone-resorption activity in the presence of receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in vitro. The studies described here further demonstrate that selected nucleosides and nucleoside analogues accelerate bone destruction in mice immunized with collagen II alone (CII) but also further enhance bone erosion in mice immunized by collagen II plus complete Freund's adjuvant (CII + CFA). Abundant osteoclasts are accumulated in destructive joints. These data indicate that nucleosides act as innate immune activators distinct from CFA, synergistically accelerating osteoclast formation and inflammatory osteolysis. The potential roles of the surface triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) and the intracellular inflammasome in nucleoside-enhanced osteoclastogenesis have been studied. These observations provide new insight into the pathogenesis and underlying mechanism of bone destruction in inflammatory autoimmune osteoarthritis. PMID:21472777

  6. Mdm2 inhibition confers protection of p53-proficient cells from the cytotoxic effects of Wee1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yizhu; Saini, Priyanka; Sriraman, Anusha; Dobbelstein, Matthias

    2015-10-20

    Pharmacological inhibition of the cell cycle regulatory kinase Wee1 represents a promising strategy to eliminate cancer cells. Wee1 inhibitors cooperate with chemotherapeutics, e. g. nucleoside analogues, pushing malignant cells from S phase towards premature mitosis and death. However, considerable toxicities are observed in preclinical and clinical trials. A high proportion of tumor cells can be distinguished from all other cells of a patient's body by inactivating mutations in the tumor suppressor p53. Here we set out to develop an approach for the selective protection of p53-proficient cells against the cytotoxic effects of Wee1 inhibitors. We pretreated such cells with Nutlin-3a, a prototype inhibitor of the p53-antagonist Mdm2. The resulting transient cell cycle arrest effectively increased the survival of cells that were subsequently treated with combinations of the Wee1 inhibitor MK-1775 and/or the nucleoside analogue gemcitabine. In this constellation, Nutlin-3a reduced caspase activation and diminished the phosphorylation of Histone 2AX, an indicator of the DNA damage response. Both effects were strictly dependent on the presence of p53. Moreover, Nutlin pre-treatment reduced the fraction of cells that were undergoing premature mitosis in response to Wee1 inhibition. We conclude that the pre-activation of p53 through Mdm2 antagonists serves as a viable option to selectively protect p53-proficient cells against the cytotoxic effects of Wee1 inhibitors, especially when combined with a nucleoside analogue. Thus, Mdm2 antagonists might prove useful to avoid unwanted side effects of Wee1 inhibitors. On the other hand, when a tumor contains wild type p53, care should be taken not to induce its activity before applying Wee1 inhibitors.

  7. Nucleoside phosphorylation in amide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoffstall, A. M.; Kokko, B.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with phosphorylation in possible prebiotic nonaqueous solvents. To this end, phosphorylation of nucleosides using inorganic phosphates in amide solutions is studied at room and elevated temperatures. Reaction proceeds most readily in formamide and N-methylformamide. Products obtained at elevated temperature are nucleotides, nucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphates, and when the phosphate concentration is high, nucleoside diphosphates. At room temperature, adenosine afforded a mixture of nucleotides, but none of the cyclic nucleotide. Conditions leading to the highest relative percentage of cyclic nucleotide involve the use of low concentrations of phosphate and an excess of nucleoside.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... patients with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004 Oct;23(8-9):1411-5. Erratum in: Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2005;24(4):303. Citation on PubMed Nyhan ...

  9. Metabolism of Pyrimidines and Pyrimidine Nucleosides by Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Christoph F.; Ingraham, John L.; Neuhard, Jan; Thomassen, Elisabeth

    1972-01-01

    The pathways by which uracil, cytosine, uridine, cytidine, deoxyuridine, and deoxycytidine are metabolized by Salmonella typhimurium are established. The various 5-fluoropyrimidine analogues are shown to exert their toxic effects only after having been converted to the nucleotide level, and these conversions are shown to be catalyzed by the same enzymes which similarly convert the natural substrates. Methods for isolating mutant strains blocked in various steps of metabolism of pyrimidine bases and nucleosides are described. PMID:4259664

  10. Nucleoside analogs: ready to enter the era of precision medicine?

    PubMed

    Ciccolini, Joseph; Serdjebi, Cindy; Le Thi Thu, Hau; Lacarelle, Bruno; Milano, Gerard; Fanciullino, Raphaelle

    2016-08-01

    The term 'precision medicine' has garnered significant attention in the oncological setting in relation to attempts to optimize anticancer treatment. Precision medicine is mostly associated with oral targeted therapies and biotherapies, however, to date classic cytotoxics still remain the backbone of most regimens for treating solid tumors or in hematology, both in children and in adults. Among the existing cytotoxic therapies, nucleosides are widely used for treating a variety of cancerous diseases, alone or as part of combination therapies. Several markers at the tumor or the germinal levels have been identified as being associated with clinical outcome (e.g. CDA, DPD, EONFS1, hENT1, TYMS, MTHFR), however little effort has been made to implement bioguided therapy with nucleoside analogs. Still, growing clinical evidence has demonstrated how the efficacy-toxicity balance of these drugs could be improved by developing bioguided strategies at the bedside. This review covers the current knowledge regarding putative markers to be used with nucleoside analogs, what is known on their pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships, and provides clues for implementing precision medicine with those old, yet pivotal drugs. Through a variety of strategies ranging from pharmacogenetics, tumor genomics and pharmacokinetically-driven adaptive dosing procedures, nucleoside analogs could enter the era of precision medicine in oncology.

  11. Lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy as a nucleoside analogue-sparing strategy to prevent HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission: the ANRS 135 PRIMEVA phase 2/3 randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Tubiana, Roland; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Le Chenadec, Jérome; Delmas, Sandrine; Rouzioux, Christine; Hirt, Deborah; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Ekoukou, Dieudonné; Bui, Eda; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Blanche, Stéphane; Warszawski, Josiane

    2013-09-01

     Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is usually based on zidovudine-containing regimens, despite potential toxicities. This multicenter trial evaluated whether lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy in HIV type 1-infected women not requiring antiretrovirals for themselves could control maternal viral load (VL).  Overall, 105 pregnant women with baseline VL <30 000 copies/mL and CD4 ≥350 cells/µL were randomized to start open-label LPV/r 400/100 mg twice daily alone (monotherapy group, n = 69) or combined with zidovudine/lamivudine 300/150 mg twice daily (triple therapy group, n = 36) from 26 gestational weeks to delivery. According to a Fleming 2-stage phase 2 design, monotherapy was considered to be efficacious if at least 59 patients achieved VL <200 copies/mL at 8 weeks of treatment (primary endpoint). Secondary endpoints were VL at delivery and tolerance.  Monotherapy was efficacious as defined: 62 women in the monotherapy group achieved VL <200 copies/mL at 34 weeks' gestation (ie, 8 weeks of treatment; 89.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80.2%-95.8%). At delivery, proportions with VL <200 copies/mL were similar in the monotherapy and triple therapy groups (92.8% vs 97.2%; P = .66); however, fewer had VL <50 copies/mL in the monotherapy group (78.3% vs 97.2%; P = .01). Changes for intolerance were less frequent in the monotherapy than in the triple therapy group (1.4% vs 11.1%, respectively; P = .046). Cesarean delivery and preterm delivery rates did not differ. All children were liveborn; 1 case of HIV-1 transmission occurred in the triple therapy group, none in the monotherapy group (95% CI upper limit = 5.2%).  LPV/r monotherapy achieved satisfactory virologic efficacy in women treated solely for PMTCT, providing proof of concept for future nucleoside-sparing strategies.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of a C6 nucleoside analogue for the in vivo imaging of the gene expression of herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1 TK).

    PubMed

    Johayem, Anass; Raić-Malić, Silvana; Lazzati, Katia; Schubiger, Pius A; Scapozza, Leonardo; Ametamey, Simon M

    2006-03-01

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of '6-(1,3-dihydroxyisobutyl)thymine' (DHBT; 1), which corresponds to 6-[3-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)propyl]-5-methylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, is reported. DHBT (1) was designed as a new substrate for herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1 TK). The compound was found to be exclusively phosphorylated by HSV1 TK, and to exhibit good binding affinity (Ki = 35.3+/-1.3 microM). Cell-proliferation assays with HSV1-TK-transduced human osteosarcoma cells (143B-TK+-HSV1-WT) and with both human-thymidine-kinase-1-negative (143B-TK-) and non-transduced parental (MG-63) cells indicate that 1 is less cytotoxic than the standard drug Ganciclovir. Thus, DHBT (1) represents a promising precursor of a nontoxic reporter probe for the monitoring of HSV1 TK gene expression by means of positron-emission tomography (PET).

  13. Microbial transformation of nucleosides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamba, S. S.

    1979-01-01

    A study involving the use of coulter counter in studying the effects of neomycin on E. coli, S. aureus and A. aerogenes was completed. The purpose of this was to establish proper technique for enumeration of cells per ml. It was found that inhibitory effects on growth of E. coli and A. aerogenes, both gram negative organisms, were directly related to the concentration of neomycin used. However, in case S. aureus, a gram positive organism, a decreased inhibition was noted at higher concentrations. A paper entitled, Use of Coulter Counter in Studying Effect of Drugs on Cells in Culture 1 - Effects of Neomycin on E. coli, S. aureus and A. aerogenes, is attached in the appendix. Laboratory procedures were also established to study the effects of nucleoside antibiotic cordycepin on He La cell grown in suspension cultures.

  14. Advances in the enantioselective synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Boutureira, Omar; Matheu, M Isabel; Díaz, Yolanda; Castillón, Sergio

    2013-06-21

    Carbocyclic nucleosides are nucleoside analogues in which the furanosidic moiety has been replaced by a carbocycle. Several members of this family have been isolated from natural sources and include a 5-membered ring carbocycle. The aim of this review is to examine critically the different methodologies for the enantioselective construction of 3- to 6-membered rings, with a particular focus on 5-membered rings and their modifications. The procedures for bonding the heterocyclic moiety and the carbohydrate are treated separately. The methods for synthesising the carbocyclic moiety mainly focus on the construction of the cycle, although precise details about the functionalisation are provided in some cases. The selected methods aim to provide an overview of the synthesis of carbocycles related to the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides. The methods of synthesis of 5-membered rings are classified into two types: methods in which the cyclopentane ring is formed by ring closing reactions (C=C and C-C formation) and methods that start from preformed 5-membered rings, based mainly on cycloaddition reactions. With respect to the methods of synthesis of 3-, 4- and 6-membered ring carbocyclic nucleosides, a selection of the more relevant enantioselective procedures is presented in a systematic manner.

  15. Structural basis of nucleoside and nucleoside drug selectivity by concentrative nucleoside transporters

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Zachary Lee; Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Kiyoun; Lee, Minhee; Kwon, Do-Yeon; Hong, Jiyong; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs) are responsible for cellular entry of nucleosides, which serve as precursors to nucleic acids and act as signaling molecules. CNTs also play a crucial role in the uptake of nucleoside-derived drugs, including anticancer and antiviral agents. Understanding how CNTs recognize and import their substrates could not only lead to a better understanding of nucleoside-related biological processes but also the design of nucleoside-derived drugs that can better reach their targets. Here, we present a combination of X-ray crystallographic and equilibrium-binding studies probing the molecular origins of nucleoside and nucleoside drug selectivity of a CNT from Vibrio cholerae. We then used this information in chemically modifying an anticancer drug so that it is better transported by and selective for a single human CNT subtype. This work provides proof of principle for utilizing transporter structural and functional information for the design of compounds that enter cells more efficiently and selectively. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03604.001 PMID:25082345

  16. The Role of Flexible Loops in Folding, Trafficking and Activity of Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters.

    PubMed

    Aseervatham, Jaya; Tran, Lucky; Machaca, Khaled; Boudker, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) are integral membrane proteins, which reside in plasma membranes of all eukaryotic cells and mediate thermodynamically downhill transport of nucleosides. This process is essential for nucleoside recycling, and also plays a key role in terminating adenosine-mediated cellular signaling. Furthermore, ENTs mediate the uptake of many drugs, including anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogues. The structure and mechanism, by which ENTs catalyze trans-membrane transport of their substrates, remain unknown. To identify the core of the transporter needed for stability, activity, and for its correct trafficking to the plasma membrane, we have expressed human ENT deletion mutants in Xenopus laevis oocytes and determined their localization, transport properties and susceptibility to inhibition. We found that the carboxyl terminal trans-membrane segments are essential for correct protein folding and trafficking. In contrast, the soluble extracellular and intracellular loops appear to be dispensable, and must be involved in the fine-tuning of transport regulation.

  17. Lipophilic prodrugs of nucleoside triphosphates as biochemical probes and potential antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Gollnest, Tristan; de Oliveira, Thiago Dinis; Schols, Dominique; Balzarini, Jan; Meier, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The antiviral activity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is often limited by ineffective phosphorylation. We report on a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) prodrug approach in which the γ-phosphate of NTPs is bioreversibly modified. A series of TriPPPro-compounds bearing two lipophilic masking units at the γ-phosphate and d4T as a nucleoside analogue are synthesized. Successful delivery of d4TTP is demonstrated in human CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell extracts by an enzyme-triggered mechanism with high selectivity. In antiviral assays, the compounds are potent inhibitors of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in CD4+ T-cell (CEM) cultures. Highly lipophilic acyl residues lead to higher membrane permeability that results in intracellular delivery of phosphorylated metabolites in thymidine kinase-deficient CEM/TK− cells with higher antiviral activity than the parent nucleoside. PMID:26503889

  18. N-Branched acyclic nucleoside phosphonates as monomers for the synthesis of modified oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Hocková, Dana; Rosenbergová, Šárka; Ménová, Petra; Páv, Ondřej; Pohl, Radek; Novák, Pavel; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2015-04-21

    Protected N-branched nucleoside phosphonates containing adenine and thymine bases were prepared as the monomers for the introduction of aza-acyclic nucleotide units into modified oligonucleotides. The phosphotriester and phosphoramidite methods were used for the incorporation of modified and natural units, respectively. The solid phase synthesis of a series of nonamers containing one central modified unit was successfully performed in both 3'→5' and 5'→3' directions. Hybridization properties of the prepared oligoribonucleotides and oligodeoxyribonucleotides were evaluated. The measurement of thermal characteristics of the complexes of modified nonamers with the complementary strand revealed a considerable destabilizing effect of the introduced units. We also examined the substrate/inhibitory properties of aza-acyclic nucleoside phosphono-diphosphate derivatives (analogues of nucleoside triphosphates) but neither inhibition of human and bacterial DNA polymerases nor polymerase-mediated incorporation of these triphosphate analogues into short DNA was observed.

  19. Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates

    PubMed Central

    López-Zavala, Alonso A.; Quintero-Reyes, Idania E.; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S.; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weichsel, Andrzej; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 2.7.4.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012 ▶), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325–331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2′-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism. PMID:25195883

  20. Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates.

    PubMed

    López-Zavala, Alonso A; Quintero-Reyes, Idania E; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weichsel, Andrzej; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2014-09-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 2.7.4.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325-331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2'-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism.

  1. Synthesis and Antiviral Activity Evaluation of 2',5',5'-Trifluoro-Apiosyl Nucleoside Phosphonic Acid Analogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunae; Hong, Joon Hee

    2016-01-01

    Racemic synthesis of novel 2',5',5'-trifluoro-apiose nucleoside phosphonic acid analogs were performed as potent antiviral agents. Phosphonation was performed by direct displacement of triflate intermediate with diethyl (lithiodifluoromethyl) phosphonate to give the corresponding (α,α-difluoroalkyl) phosphonate. Condensation successfully proceeded from a glycosyl donor with persilylated bases to yield the nucleoside phosphonate analogs. Deprotection of diethyl phosphonates provided the target nucleoside analogs. An antiviral evaluation of the synthesized compounds against various viruses such as HIV, HSV-1, HSV-2, and HCMV revealed that the pyrimidine analogues have significant anti-HCMV activity.

  2. Functional expression of TcoAT1 reveals it to be a P1-type nucleoside transporter with no capacity for diminazene uptake☆

    PubMed Central

    Munday, Jane C.; Rojas López, Karla E.; Eze, Anthonius A.; Delespaux, Vincent; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Rowan, Tim; Barrett, Michael P.; Morrison, Liam J.; de Koning, Harry P.

    2013-01-01

    It has long been established that the Trypanosoma brucei TbAT1/P2 aminopurine transporter is involved in the uptake of diamidine and arsenical drugs including pentamidine, diminazene aceturate and melarsoprol. Accordingly, it was proposed that the closest Trypanosoma congolense paralogue, TcoAT1, might perform the same function in this parasite, and an apparent correlation between a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in that gene and diminazene tolerance was reported for the strains examined. Here, we report the functional cloning and expression of TcoAT1 and show that in fact it is the syntenic homologue of another T. brucei gene of the same Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter (ENT) family: TbNT10. The T. congolense genome does not seem to contain a syntenic equivalent to TbAT1. Two TcoAT1 alleles, differentiated by three independent SNPs, were expressed in the T. brucei clone B48, a TbAT1-null strain that further lacks the High Affinity Pentamidine Transporter (HAPT1); TbAT1 was also expressed as a control. The TbAT1 and TcoAT1 transporters were functional and increased sensitivity to cytotoxic nucleoside analogues. However, only TbAT1 increased sensitivity to diamidines and to cymelarsan. Uptake of [3H]-diminazene was detectable only in the B48 cells expressing TbAT1 but not TcoAT1, whereas uptake of [3H]-inosine was increased by both TcoAT1 alleles but not by TbAT1. Uptake of [3H]-adenosine was increased by all three ENT genes. We conclude that TcoAT1 is a P1-type purine nucleoside transporter and the syntenic equivalent to the previously characterised TbNT10; it does not mediate diminazene uptake and is therefore unlikely to play a role in diminazene resistance in T. congolense. PMID:24533295

  3. Comparative cytotoxicity of chelidonine and homochelidonine, the dimethoxy analogues isolated from Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae), against human leukemic and lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Havelek, Radim; Seifrtova, Martina; Kralovec, Karel; Krocova, Eliska; Tejkalova, Veronika; Novotny, Ivan; Cahlikova, Lucie; Safratova, Marcela; Opletal, Lubomir; Bilkova, Zuzana; Vavrova, Jirina; Rezacova, Martina

    2016-03-15

    The search for new anticancer compounds is a crucial element of natural products research. In this study the effects of naturally occurring homochelidonine in comparison to chelidonine on cell cycle progression and cell death in leukemic T-cells with different p53 status are described. The mechanism of cytotoxic, antiproliferative, apoptosis-inducing effects and the effect on expressions of cell cycle regulatory proteins was investigated using XTT assay, Trypan blue exclusion assay, flow cytometry, Western blot analysis, xCELLigence, epi-fluorescence and 3D super resolution microscopy. A549 cells were used for xCELLigence, clonogenic assay and for monitoring microtubule stability. We found that homochelidonine and chelidonine displayed significant cytotoxicity in examined blood cancer cells with the exception of HEL 92.1.7 and U-937 exposed to homochelidonine. Unexpectedly, homochelidonine and chelidonine-induced cytotoxicity was more pronounced in Jurkat cells contrary to MOLT-4 cells. Homochelidonine showed an antiproliferative effect on A549 cells but it was less effective compared to chelidonine. Biphasic dose-depended G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrest along with the population of sub-G1 was found after treatment with homochelidonine in MOLT-4 cells. In variance thereto, an increase in G2/M cells was detected after treatment with homochelidonine in Jurkat cells. Treatment with chelidonine induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M cell cycle in both MOLT-4 and Jurkat cells. MOLT-4 and Jurkat cells treated with homochelidonine and chelidonine showed features of apoptosis such as phosphatidylserine exposure, a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in the caspases -3/7, -8 and -9. Western blots indicate that homochelidonine and chelidonine exposure activates Chk1 and Chk2. Studies conducted with fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that chelidonine and homochelidonine inhibit tubulin polymerization in A549 cells. Collectively, the data indicate that

  4. Synthesis and cytostatic activity of purine nucleosides derivatives of allofuranose.

    PubMed

    Besada, Pedro; Costas, Tamara; Teijeira, Marta; Terán, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Several new purine nucleosides derivatives of allofuranose were prepared according to Vorbrüggen method, starting from 1,2,5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-α-D-allofuranose and using 1,2,3,5,6-pentaacetoxy-β-D-allofuranose as key intermediate. The synthesized allofuranosyl nucleosides, as well as some acetyl derivatives, were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in vitro in three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, Hela-229 and HL-60). Among the studied compounds the 9-(2,3,5,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-allofuranosyl)-2,6-dichloropurine (9) was the most potent one on the three cell lines evaluated, being its activity against HL-60 cells similar to cisplatin.

  5. Overcoming nucleoside analog chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer: A therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Sau Wai; Mody, Hardik R.; Govindarajan, Rajgopal

    2013-01-01

    Clinical refractoriness to nucleoside analogs (e.g., gemcitabine, capecitabine) is a major scientific problem and is one of the main reasons underlying the extremely poor prognostic state of pancreatic cancer. The drugs’ effects are suboptimal partly due to cellular mechanisms limiting their transport, activation, and overall efficacy. Nonetheless, novel therapeutic approaches are presently under study to circumvent nucleoside analog resistance in pancreatic cancer. With these new approaches come additional challenges to be addressed. This review describes the determinants of chemoresistance in the gemcitabine cytotoxicity pathways, provides an overview of investigational approaches for overcoming chemoresistance, and discusses new challenges presented. Understanding the future directions of the field may assist in the successful development of novel treatment strategies for enhancing chemotherapeutic efficacy in pancreatic cancer. PMID:22425961

  6. A conformational mimetic approach for the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides as anti-HCV leads.

    PubMed

    Kasula, Mohan; Balaraju, Tuniki; Toyama, Massaki; Thiyagarajan, Anandarajan; Bal, Chandralata; Baba, Masanori; Sharon, Ashoke

    2013-10-01

    Computer-aided approaches coupled with medicinal chemistry were used to explore novel carbocyclic nucleosides as potential anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents. Conformational analyses were carried out on 6-amino-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (6-APP)-based carbocyclic nucleoside analogues, which were considered as nucleoside mimetics to act as HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitors. Structural insight gained from the modeling studies revealed the molecular basis behind these nucleoside mimetics. The rationally chosen 6-APP analogues were prepared and evaluated for anti-HCV activity. RdRp SiteMap analysis revealed the presence of a hydrophobic cavity near C7 of the nucleosides; introduction of bulkier substituents at this position enhanced their activity. Herein we report the identification of an iodinated compound with an EC50 value of 6.6 μM as a preliminary anti-HCV lead. Copyright © 2013 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Template polymerization of nucleotide analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent work on the template-directed reactions of the natural D-nucleotides has made it clear that l-nucleotides and nucleotide-like derivatives of other sugars would strongly inhibit the formation of long oligonucleotides. Consequently, attention is focusing on molecules simpler than nucleotides that might have acted as monomers of an information transfer system. We have begun a general exploration of the template directed reactions of diverse peptide analogues. I will present work by Dr. Taifeng Wu on oxidative oligomerization of phosphorothioates and of Dr. Mary Tohidi on the cyclic polymerization of nucleoside and related cyclic pyrophosphates.

  8. Synthesis, hydrolytic DNA-cleaving activities and cytotoxicities of EDTA analogue-tethered pyrrole-polyamide dimer-based Ce(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Wei; Lin, Yan-Ling; Dong, Cheng; Zhou, Chun-Qiong; Chen, Jin-Xiang; Wang, Bo; Zhou, Zhong-Zhen; Sun, Bin; Chen, Wen-Hua

    2014-11-24

    Two EDTA analogue-tethered C2-symmetrical dimeric monopyrrole-polyamide 5 and dipyrrole-polyamide 6, and their corresponding Ce(IV) complexes Ce-5 and Ce-6 were synthesized and fully characterized. Agarose gel electrophoresis studies on pBR322 DNA cleavage indicate that complexes Ce-5 and Ce-6 exhibited potent DNA-cleaving activities under physiological conditions. The maximal first-order rate constants (kmax's) were (0.42 ± 0.02) h(-1) for Ce-5 and (0.52 ± 0.02) h(-1) for Ce-6, respectively, suggesting that both complexes catalyzed the cleavage of supercoiled DNA by up to approximately 10(8)-fold. Complex Ce-6 exhibited ca 10-fold higher overall catalytic activity (kmax/KM) than Ce-5, which may be ascribed to its higher DNA-binding affinity. Inhibition experiments and a model study convincingly suggest that both complexes Ce-5 and Ce-6 functioned as hydrolytic DNA-cleavers. In addition, both complexes were found to display moderate inhibitory activity toward A549 and HepG-2 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Cytotoxicity of 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPT) and analogues in wild type and CYP3A4 stably transfected HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Douglas M; Jacinto, Erina Y; Patel, Niti N; Rushmore, Thomas H; Tchao, Ruy; Harvison, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    The thiazolidinedione (TZD) ring is a constituent of the glitazones that are used to treat type II diabetes. Liver injury has been reported following chronic glitazone use; however, they do not produce hepatic damage in common laboratory animal species. In contrast, 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPT) causes hepatotoxicity in rats. DCPT toxicity is dependent upon the presence of an intact TZD ring and cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated biotransformation. To further investigate TZD ring-induced toxicity, DCPT and several structural analogues or potential metabolites were tested in vitro using wild type human hepatoma HepG2 and HepG2 cells stably transfected with the CYP3A4 isozyme. CYP3A4 activity was confirmed by measuring testosterone 6β-hydroxylation. Both cell lines were treated with 0-250 μM of the compounds in Hanks' balanced salt solution. Cell viability was measured after 24 h. DCPT and S-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)aminocarbonyl thioglycolic acid (DCTA) were the most toxic compounds of the series. Furthermore, DCPT was significantly more toxic in transfected cells (LC50=160.2±5.9 μM) than in wild type cells (LC50=233.0±19.7 μM). Treatment with a CYP3A4 inhibitor or inducer attenuated or potentiated DCPT cytotoxicity, respectively. These results suggest that DCPT-induced cytotoxicity in the transfected HepG2 cells is partially dependent on CYP3A4.

  10. Cytotoxicity of 3-(3,5-Dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPT) and Analogues in Wild Type and CYP3A4 Stably Transfected HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Douglas M.; Jacinto, Erina Y.; Patel, Niti N.; Rushmore, Thomas H.; Tchao, Ruy; Harvison, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The thiazolidinedione (TZD) ring is a constituent of the glitazones that are used to treat type II diabetes. Liver injury has been reported following chronic glitazone use; however, they do not produce hepatic damage in common laboratory animal species. In contrast, 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPT) causes hepatotoxicity in rats. DCPT toxicity is dependent upon the presence of an intact TZD ring and cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated biotransformation. To further investigate TZD ring-induced toxicity, DCPT and several structural analogues or potential metabolites were tested in vitro using wild type human hepatoma HepG2 and HepG2 cells stably transfected with the CYP3A4 isozyme. CYP3A4 activity was confirmed by measuring testosterone 6β-hydroxylation. Both cell lines were treated with 0-250 μM of the compounds in Hanks' balanced salt solution. Cell viability was measured after 24 hrs. DCPT and S-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)aminocarbonyl thioglycolic acid (DCTA) were the most toxic compounds of the series. Furthermore, DCPT was significantly more toxic in transfected cells (LC50 = 160.2 ± 5.9 μM) than in wild type cells (LC50 = 233.0 ± 19.7 μM). Treatment with a CYP3A4 inhibitor or inducer attenuated or potentiated DCPT cytotoxicity, respectively. These results suggest that DCPT-induced cytotoxicity in the transfected HepG2 cells is partially dependent on CYP3A4. PMID:21964476

  11. Viral fitness: relation to drug resistance mutations and mechanisms involved: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jan; Henry, Kenneth R; Arts, Eric J; Quiñones-Mateu, Miguel E

    2007-03-01

    Nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors constitute the backbone of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. One of the major obstacles in achieving the long-term efficacy of anti-HIV-1 therapy is the development of resistance. The advent of resistance mutations is usually accompanied by a change in viral replicative fitness. This review focuses on the most common nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-associated mutations and their effects on HIV-1 replicative fitness. Recent studies have explained the two main mechanisms of resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and their role in HIV-1 replicative fitness. The first involves mutations directly interfering with binding or incorporation and seems to impact replicative fitness more adversely than the second mechanism, which involves enhanced excision of the newly incorporated analogue. Further studies have helped explain the antagonistic effects between amino acid substitutions, K65R, L74V, M184V, and thymidine analogue mutations, showing how viral replicative fitness influences the evolution of thymidine analogue resistance pathways. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations impact HIV-1 replicative fitness to a lesser extent than protease resistance mutations. The monitoring of viral replicative fitness may help in the management of HIV-1 infection in highly antiretroviral-experienced individuals.

  12. Biotransformation of 2,6-diaminopurine nucleosides by immobilized Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    De Benedetti, Eliana C; Rivero, Cintia W; Britos, Claudia N; Lozano, Mario E; Trelles, Jorge A

    2012-01-01

    An efficient and green bioprocess to obtain 2,6-diaminopurine nucleosides using thermophilic bacteria is herein reported. Geobacillus stearothermophilus CECT 43 showed a conversion rate of 90 and 83% at 2 h to obtain 2,6-diaminopurine-2'-deoxyriboside and 2,6-diaminopurine riboside, respectively. The selected biocatalyst was successfully stabilized in an agarose matrix and used to produce up to 23.4 g of 2,6-diaminopurine-2'-deoxyriboside in 240 h of process. These nucleoside analogues can be used as prodrug precursors or in antisense oligonucleotide synthesis.

  13. Sorafenib analogue SC-60 induces apoptosis through the SHP-1/STAT3 pathway and enhances docetaxel cytotoxicity in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Yu; Su, Jung-Chen; Huang, Tzu-Ting; Chu, Pei-Yi; Huang, Chun-Teng; Wang, Wan-Lun; Lee, Chia-Han; Lau, Ka-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Chun; Yang, Hsiu-Ping; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Chen, Kuen-Feng

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) needs new therapeutic targets. Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) can act as a tumor suppressor by dephosphorylating oncogenic kinases. One major target of SHP-1 is STAT3, which is highly activated in TNBC. In this study, we tested a sorafenib analogue SC-60, which lacks angiokinase inhibition activity, but acts as a SHP-1 agonist, in TNBC cells. SC-60 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis by dephosphorylating STAT3 in both a dose- and time-dependent manner in TNBC cells (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and HCC1937). By contrast, ectopic expression of STAT3 rescued the anticancer effect induced by SC-60. SC-60 also increased the SHP-1 activity, but this effect was inhibited when the N-SH2 domain (DN1) was deleted or with SHP-1 point mutation (D61A), implying that SHP-1 is the major target of SC-60 in TNBC. The use of SC-60 in combination with docetaxel synergized the anticancer effect induced by SC-60 through the SHP-1/STAT3 pathway in TNBC cells. Importantly, SC-60 also displayed a significant antitumor effect in an MDA-MB-468 xenograft model by modulating the SHP-1/STAT3 axis, indicating the anticancer potential of SC-60 in TNBC treatment. Targeting SHP-1/p-STAT3 and the potential combination of SHP-1 agonist with chemotherapeutic docetaxel is a feasible therapeutic strategy for TNBC. © 2017 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Analogue Gravity.

    PubMed

    Barceló, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Visser, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for) gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing) and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity).

  15. Ring-closing metathesis and glycosylation reactions: synthesis and biophysical studies of polyether-linked carbohydrate-based macrocyclic nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Das, Soumendra Nath; Rana, Richa; Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha; Mandal, Sukhendu B

    2014-11-07

    Bis-, tris-, and tetrakisuracil-substituted 12-, 13-, 17-, and 21-membered macrocyclic nucleoside analogues with polyether linkages, including C2-symmetric molecules, have been synthesized through coupling of two appropriately allylated sugar derivatives, derived from D-glucose, followed by a sequential ring-closing metathesis reaction using Grubbs catalysts, double-bond reduction, and nucleoside base insertion under Vorbrüggen reaction conditions. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of these nucleoside analogues with small molecules, such as the alkaloids berberine and palmatine and the DNA intercalator ethidium bromide, revealed a change in the absorbance and fluorescence of the small molecules suggesting the potential use of these nucleoside molecules as a carrier of small molecules in biological systems. Circular dichroism studies indicated that the complexes of the nucleosides with small molecules undergo aggregation/self-organization. This has been further evidenced by a SEM experiment showing the binding of berberine with one of the nucleoside derivatives, which confirms the occurrence of secondary structure reorganization.

  16. A novel synthesis of antiviral nucleoside phosphoramidate and thiophosphoramidate prodrugs via nucleoside H-phosphonamidates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi; Li, Xingjian; Gong, Shanshan; Liu, Gang; Shen, Liang; Peng, Liang

    2013-01-01

    A novel and efficient method for the preparation of antiviral nucleoside 5'-H-phosphonamidates has been developed. The oxidization of the H-phosphonamidate intermediates with iodine and sulfur afforded nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidates and 5'-thiophosphoramidates in high yields.

  17. Aspartic acid based nucleoside phosphoramidate prodrugs as potent inhibitors of hepatitis C virus replication.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Munmun; Maiti, Mohitosh; Rozenski, Jef; De Jonghe, Steven; Herdewijn, Piet

    2015-05-14

    In view of a persistent threat to mankind, the development of nucleotide-based prodrugs against hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered as a constant effort in many medicinal chemistry groups. In an attempt to identify novel nucleoside phosphoramidate analogues for improving the anti-HCV activity, we have explored, for the first time, aspartic acid (Asp) and iminodiacetic acid (IDA) esters as amidate counterparts by considering three 2'-C-methyl containing nucleosides, 2'-C-Me-cytidine, 2'-C-Me-uridine and 2'-C-Me-2'-fluoro-uridine. Synthesis of these analogues required protection for the vicinal diol functionality of the sugar moiety and the amino group of the cytidine nucleoside to regioselectively perform phosphorylation reaction at the 5'-hydroxyl group. Anti-HCV data demonstrate that the Asp-based phosphoramidates are ∼550 fold more potent than the parent nucleosides. The inhibitory activity of the Asp-ProTides was higher than the Ala-ProTides, suggesting that Asp would be a potential amino acid candidate to be considered for developing novel antiviral prodrugs.

  18. Anticancer Conjugates and Cocktails Based on Methotrexate and Nucleoside Synergism

    PubMed Central

    Vortherms, Anthony R.; Dang, Hester N.; Doyle, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Conjugates of methotrexate (MTX) and the nucleoside analogs 3-azidodeoxythymidine (AZT), iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) and dideoxycytidine (ddC) linked using poly(ethyleneglycol) are presented. In vitro cytotoxicity assays of the conjugates against drug resistant ovarian cell line A2780/AD are preformed and comparisons made to such assays performed for unconjugated (cocktail) systems. All systems tested were inactive, or had low activity, at 24 h. After 72 hr incubation however, the cocktails of MTX and AZT, IUdR or ddC showed high cytotoxicity in the low nanomolar range. The conjugates were only very moderately active with IC50 values in the [0.1 to 1.0 mM] range. Conjugation of the antifolate to the nucleoside analogs has it seems reduced the activity significantly when compared to a cocktail of the components, indicating a conjugate approach is unlikely to translate into success in vivo. The positive note comes from the observation that by combining two of the new conjugates, namely those based on MTX with IUdR or AZT, an IC50 at 24 hours of ~ [180 μM] was produced. PMID:20689607

  19. Marine Nucleosides: Structure, Bioactivity, Synthesis and Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ri-Ming; Chen, Yin-Ning; Zeng, Ziyu; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Su, Xiangdong; Peng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Nucleosides are glycosylamines that structurally form part of nucleotide molecules, the building block of DNA and RNA. Both nucleosides and nucleotides are vital components of all living cells and involved in several key biological processes. Some of these nucleosides have been obtained from a variety of marine resources. Because of the biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 68 marine originated nucleosides and their synthetic analogs published up to June 2014. The review will focus on the structures, bioactivities, synthesis and biosynthetic processes of these compounds. PMID:25474189

  20. Base-modified nucleosides: etheno derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnz-Wechmann, Zofia; Framski, Grzegorz; Januszczyk, Piotr; Boryski, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    This review presents synthesis and chemistry of nucleoside analogs, possessing an additional fused, heterocyclic ring of the “etheno” type, such as 1,N6-ethenoadenosine, 1,N4-ethenocytidine, 1,N2-ethenoguanosine, and other related derivatives. Formation of ethenonucleosides, in the presence of α-halocarbonyl reagents and their mechanism, stability and degradation, reactions of substitution and transglycosylation, as well as their application in the nucleoside synthesis, have been described. Some of the discussed compounds may be applied as chemotherapeutic agents in antiviral and anticancer treatment, acting as pro-nucleosides of already known, biologically active nucleoside analogs..

  1. Marine nucleosides: structure, bioactivity, synthesis and biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ri-Ming; Chen, Yin-Ning; Zeng, Ziyu; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Su, Xiangdong; Peng, Yan

    2014-12-02

    Nucleosides are glycosylamines that structurally form part of nucleotide molecules, the building block of DNA and RNA. Both nucleosides and nucleotides are vital components of all living cells and involved in several key biological processes. Some of these nucleosides have been obtained from a variety of marine resources. Because of the biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 68 marine originated nucleosides and their synthetic analogs published up to June 2014. The review will focus on the structures, bioactivities, synthesis and biosynthetic processes of these compounds.

  2. Synthesis, photophysical properties and incorporation of a highly emissive and environment-sensitive uridine analogue based on the Lucifer chromophore.

    PubMed

    Tanpure, Arun A; Srivatsan, Seergazhi G

    2014-06-16

    The majority of fluorescent nucleoside analogues used in nucleic acid studies have excitation maxima in the UV region and show very low fluorescence within oligonucleotides (ONs); hence, they cannot be utilised with certain fluorescence methods and for cell-based analysis. Here, we describe the synthesis, photophysical properties and incorporation of a highly emissive and environment-sensitive uridine analogue, derived by attaching a Lucifer chromophore (1,8-naphthalimide core) at the 5-position of uracil. The emissive nucleoside displays excitation and emission maxima in the visible region and exhibits high quantum yield. Importantly, when incorporated into ON duplexes it retains appreciable fluorescence efficiency and is sensitive to the neighbouring base environment. Notably, the nucleoside signals the presence of purine repeats in ON duplexes with an enhancement in fluorescence intensity, a property rarely displayed by other nucleoside analogues. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Synthesis of novel fluorocarbocyclic nucleosides and nucleotides as potential inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus

    SciTech Connect

    Hilpert, H.

    1989-01-01

    3[prime]-Azido-3[prime]-deoxythymidine (AZT) and 2[prime], 3[prime]-dideoxycytidine (DDC) are potent in vivo inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus. Due to their short half-life in the body and undesired side-effects compounds with improved bioavailability were designed. A feature of these analogues was the replacement of the heterocyclic oxygen atom by an isosteric CHF-group thus stabilizing the labile glycosidic bond against metabolic breakdown. A versatile and short synthesis, starting from ketone, serves to construct the highly functionalized and protected key intermediates. These ([alpha]- and [beta]-fluoro epimeric) intermediates were elaborated to eight fluorocarbocyclic nucleoside analogues linked with a thymine base, an adenine base, and a guanine base. An attempt was made to prepare analogues of the potent HIV inhibitor carbovir c. The unexpected oxidation of the double bond of compound d, instead of the desired Baeyer-Villiger ring-expansion, meant that the synthetic scheme was redundant. A second total synthesis involves the preparation of the three fluorocarbocyclic phosphonates. These analogues possess additionally a P-C linkage which should markedly enhance the stability of the side chain. To perform enzyme inhibition tests, three analogues were chemically activated to the biologically active triphosphates. Inhibition tests on HIV associated reverse transcriptase confirmed the high activity of one of the AZT triphosphates. The fluorocarbocyclic counterpart was two orders of magnitude less active. A fluorocarbocyclic phosphonate was twice as active as the AZT triphosphate. Neither the eight nucleoside analogues nor the three phosphonates displayed significant activity against HIV infected cells. Crystallographic data of two fluorocarbocyclic nucleosides, two potent HIV inhibitors, and some 20 examples of 2[prime]-deoxyribonucleosides have been compared.

  4. L-Aspartic and l-glutamic acid ester-based ProTides of anticancer nucleosides: Synthesis and antitumoral evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ling-Jie; De Jonghe, Steven; Daelemans, Dirk; Herdewijn, Piet

    2016-05-01

    A series of novel aryloxyphosphoramidate nucleoside prodrugs based on l-aspartic acid and l-glutamic acid as amino acid motif has been synthesized and evaluated for antitumoral activity. Depending on the cancer cell line studied and on the nature of the parent nucleoside compound (gemcitabine, 5-iodo-2'-deoxy-uridine, floxuridine or brivudin), the corresponding ProTides are endowed with an improved or decreased cytotoxic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Semisynthesis and cytotoxic activities of andrographolide analogues.

    PubMed

    Jada, Srinivasa Rao; Hamzah, Ahmad Sazali; Lajis, Nordin Haji; Saad, Mohammad Said; Stevens, Malcolm F G; Stanslas, Johnson

    2006-04-01

    Andrographolide 1, a diterpenoid lactone of the plant Andrographis paniculata, known to possess antitumour activity in in vitro and in vivo breast cancer models was subjected to semisynthesis leading to the preparation of a number of novel compounds. These compounds exhibited in vitro antitumour activity with moderate to excellent growth inhibition against MCF-7 (breast) and HCT-116 (colon) cancer cells. Compounds 3,19-(2-chlorobenzylidene)andrographolide(5), 3,19-(3-chlorobenzylidene)andrographolide(6), 3,19-(3-fluorobenzylidene) andrographolide(7), 3,19-(4-fluorobenzylidene)andrographolide(8), 3,19-(2-fluorobenzylidene)andrographolide(10), 3,19-(2-chloro-5-nitrobenzylidene)andrographolide (21), 3,19-(4-chlorobenzylidene)andrographolide(30) and 3,19-(2-chloro-4-fluorobenzylidene) andrographolide(31) were also screened against 60 NCI (National Cancer Institute, USA) human tumour cell lines derived from nine cancer cell types.

  6. Human Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter 3 (hCNT3, SLC28A3) Forms a Cyclic Homotrimer.

    PubMed

    Stecula, Adrian; Schlessinger, Avner; Giacomini, Kathleen M; Sali, Andrej

    2017-07-11

    Many anticancer and antiviral drugs are purine or pyrimidine analogues, which use membrane transporters to cross cellular membranes. Concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs) mediate the salvage of nucleosides and the transport of therapeutic nucleoside analogues across plasma membranes by coupling the transport of ligands to the sodium gradient. Of the three members of the human CNT family, CNT3 has the broadest selectivity and the widest expression profile. However, the molecular mechanisms of the transporter, including how it interacts with and translocates structurally diverse nucleosides and nucleoside analogues, are unclear. Recently, the crystal structure of vcCNT showed that the prokaryotic homologue of CNT3 forms a homotrimer. In this study, we successfully expressed and purified the wild type human homologue, hCNT3, demonstrating the homotrimer by size exclusion profiles and glutaraldehyde cross-linking. Further, by creating a series of cysteine mutants at highly conserved positions guided by comparative structure models, we cross-linked hCNT3 protomers in a cell-based assay, thus showing the existence of hCNT3 homotrimers in human cells. The presence and absence of cross-links at specific locations along TM9 informs us of important structural differences between vcCNT and hCNT3. Comparative modeling of the trimerization domain and sequence coevolution analysis both indicate that oligomerization is critical to the stability and function of hCNT3. In particular, trimerization appears to shorten the translocation path for nucleosides across the plasma membrane and may allow modulation of the transport function via allostery.

  7. Structural Insights into the Inhibition of Cytosolic 5′-Nucleotidase II (cN-II) by Ribonucleoside 5′-Monophosphate Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Meurillon, Maïa; Jordheim, Lars P.; Dumontet, Charles; Périgaud, Christian; Lionne, Corinne; Peyrottes, Suzanne; Chaloin, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase II (cN-II) regulates the intracellular nucleotide pools within the cell by catalyzing the dephosphorylation of 6-hydroxypurine nucleoside 5′-monophosphates. Beside this physiological function, high level of cN-II expression is correlated with abnormal patient outcome when treated with cytotoxic nucleoside analogues. To identify its specific role in the resistance phenomenon observed during cancer therapy, we screened a particular class of chemical compounds, namely ribonucleoside phosphonates to predict them as potential cN-II inhibitors. These compounds incorporate a chemically and enzymatically stable phosphorus-carbon linkage instead of a regular phosphoester bond. Amongst them, six compounds were predicted as better ligands than the natural substrate of cN-II, inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP). The study of purine and pyrimidine containing analogues and the introduction of chemical modifications within the phosphonate chain has allowed us to define general rules governing the theoretical affinity of such ligands. The binding strength of these compounds was scrutinized in silico and explained by an impressive number of van der Waals contacts, highlighting the decisive role of three cN-II residues that are Phe 157, His 209 and Tyr 210. Docking predictions were confirmed by experimental measurements of the nucleotidase activity in the presence of the three best available phosphonate analogues. These compounds were shown to induce a total inhibition of the cN-II activity at 2 mM. Altogether, this study emphasizes the importance of the non-hydrolysable phosphonate bond in the design of new competitive cN-II inhibitors and the crucial hydrophobic stacking promoted by three protein residues. PMID:22174667

  8. Synthesis of 4-aminophthalimide and 2,4-diaminopyrimidine C-nucleosides as isosteric fluorescent DNA base substitutes.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Michael; Berndt, Falko; Mahrwald, Rainer; Ernsting, Nikolaus P; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2013-03-15

    The 4-aminophthalimide C-nucleoside 1 was designed as an isosteric DNA base surrogate, and a synthetic route to nucleoside 1 together with the 2,4-diaminopyrimidine-C-nucleoside 2 as a potential counterbase was worked out. The key steps in both synthetic routes represent a stereoselective Heck-type palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling with 2'-deoxyribofuranoside glycal followed by stereoselective reduction with NaBH(OAc)3. The nucleoside 1 shows a solvatofluorochromic behavior and significantly red-shifted fluorescence in solvents of high polarity and with hydrogen bonding capabilities. Both nucleosides 1 and 2 can be further processed to the corresponding phosphoramidite as DNA building blocks that allow incorporation of these chromophores as artificial DNA bases by automated DNA synthesis. The combination of the poor stacking properties of 1 and the hydrogen bonding interface at the phthalimide functionality that does not fit to any of natural DNA bases in the counterstrand yields destabilization of the duplex by 4-11 °C. The fluorescence of 1 in a representative double stranded DNA is characterized by a large Stokes' shift and a quantum yield of approximately 12%. These are remarkable optical properties considering the very small size of the chromophore and indicate a high potential of these nucleoside analogues for fluorescent DNA analytics and imaging.

  9. New trends in nucleoside biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mikhailopulo, I A; Miroshnikov, A I

    2010-07-01

    This review focuses on new trends in nucleoside biotechnology, which have emerged during the last decade. Continuously growing interest in the study of this class of compounds is fueled by a number of factors: ( i ) a growing need for large-scale production of natural 2 ' -deoxy- β -D-ribonucleosides as well as their analogs with modifications in the carbohydrate and base fragments, which can then be used for the synthesis and study of oligonucleotides, including short-interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA (miRNA), etc.; ( ii ) a necessity for the development of efficient practical technologies for the production of biologically important analogs of natural nucleosides, including a number of anticancer and antiviral drugs; ( iii ) a need for further study of known and novel enzymatic transformations and their use as tools for the efficient synthesis of new nucloside analogs and derivates with biomedical potential. This article will review all of these aspects and also include a brief retrospect of this field of research.

  10. Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of 2-amino-6-carbamoylpurine dioxolane nucleoside derivatives and their phosphoramidates prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jong Hyun; Bondana, Lavanya; Detorio, Mervi A; Montero, Cathy; Bassit, Leda C; Amblard, Franck; Coats, Steven J; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2014-12-01

    The synthesis of 9-(β-d-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)2,6-diaminopurine nucleoside phosphoramidate prodrugs as well as various 2-amino-6-carbamoylpurine dioxolane derivatives and their phosphoramidates prodrugs is reported. Their ability to block HIV and HBV replication along with their cytotoxicity toward HepG2, human lymphocyte, CEM and Vero cells was also assessed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Regio- and Enantioselective Synthesis of Chiral Pyrimidine Acyclic Nucleosides via Rhodium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylation of Pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lei; Xie, Ming-Sheng; Qin, Tao; Zhu, Man; Qu, Gui-Rong; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2017-10-06

    A direct route to branched N-allylpyrimidine analogues is herein reported via the highly regio- and enantioselective asymmetric allylation of pyrimidines with racemic allylic carbonates. With [Rh(COD)Cl]2/chiral diphosphine as the catalyst, a range of chiral pyrimidine acyclic nucleosides could be obtained under neutral conditions in good yields (up to 95% yield) with high levels of regio- and enantioselectivities (15:1 to >40:1 B/L and up to 99% ee). Furthermore, chiral pyrimidine acyclic nucleoside bearing two adjacent chiral centers has been successfully synthesized by asymmetric dihydroxylation.

  12. An azide-modified nucleoside for metabolic labeling of DNA.

    PubMed

    Neef, Anne B; Luedtke, Nathan W

    2014-04-14

    Metabolic incorporation of azido nucleoside analogues into living cells can enable sensitive detection of DNA replication through copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) and strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) "click" reactions. One major limitation to this approach is the poor chemical stability of nucleoside derivatives containing an aryl azide group. For example, 5-azido-2'-deoxyuridine (AdU) exhibits a 4 h half-life in water, and it gives little or no detectable labeling of cellular DNA. In contrast, the benzylic azide 5-(azidomethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (AmdU) is stable in solution at 37 °C, and it gives robust labeling of cellular DNA upon addition of fluorescent alkyne derivatives. In addition to providing the first examples of metabolic incorporation into and imaging of azide groups in cellular DNA, these results highlight the general importance of assessing azide group stability in bioorthogonal chemical reporter strategies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Stereoselective synthesis of D- and L-carbocyclic nucleosides by enzymatically catalyzed kinetic resolution.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Miriam; Reichardt, Bastian; Hartjen, Philip; van Lunzen, Jan; Meier, Chris

    2012-08-27

    An efficient synthesis of (S)- or (R)-3-(benzyloxy-methyl)-cyclopent-3-enol was developed by appling an enzyme-catalyzed kinetic-resolution approach. This procedure allowed the syntheses of the enantiomeric building blocks (S)- and (R)-cyclopentenol with high optical purity (>98 % ee). In contrast to previous approaches, the key advantage of this procedure is that the resolution is done on the level of enantiomers that only contain one stereogenic center. Owing to this feature, it was possible to chemically convert the enantiomers into each other. By using this route, the starting materials for the syntheses of carbocyclic D- and L-nucleoside analogues were readily accessible. 3',4'-Unsaturated D- or L-carbocyclic nucleosides were obtained from the condensation of various nucleobases with (S)- or (R)-cyclopentenol. Functionalization of the double bond in 3'-deoxy-3',4'-didehydro-carba-D-thymidine led to a variety of new nucleoside analogues. By using the cycloSal approach, their corresponding phosphorylated metabolites were readily accessable. Moreover, a new synthetic route to carbocyclic 2'-deoxy-nucleosides was developed, thereby leading to D- and L-carba-dT. D-Carba-dT was tested for antiviral activity against multidrug-resistance HIV-1 strain E2-2 and compared to the known antiviral agent d4T, as well as L-carba-dT. Whilst L-carba-dT was found to be inactive, its D-analogue showed remarkably high activity against the resistant virus and significantly better than that of d4T. However, against the wild-type virus strain NL4/3, d4T was found to be more-active than D-carba-dT. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Nonenantioselectivity Property of Human Deoxycytidine Kinase Explained by Structures of the Enzyme in Complex with [subscript L]- and [subscript D]-Nucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Sabini, Elisabetta; Hazra, Saugata; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2008-07-31

    Biological molecules are predominantly enantioselective. Yet currently two nucleoside analogue prodrugs (3TC and FTC) with opposite chirality compared to physiological nucleosides are clinically approved for the treatment of HIV infections. These prodrugs require conversion to their triphosphorylated forms to achieve pharmacological activity. The first step in the activation of these agents is catalyzed by human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). This enzyme possesses the ability to phosphorylate nucleosides of the unnatural L-chirality. To understand the molecular basis for the nonenantioselectivity of dCK, we solved the crystal structures of the enzyme in complex with the L-enantiomer and of its physiological substrate deoxycytidine and with the L-nucleoside analogue FTC. These were compared to a structure solved with D-dC. Our results highlight structural adjustments imposed on the L-nucleosides and properties of the enzyme endowing it with the ability to phosphorylate substrates with nonphysiological chirality. This work reveals the molecular basis for the activation of L-nucleosides by dCK.

  15. Synthesis of disaccharide nucleosides by the O-glycosylation of natural nucleosides with thioglycoside donors.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Shin; Fukumoto, Taketo; Itoh, Taiki; Kurihara, Masayuki; Saito, Shigeto; Komabiki, Shin-ya

    2015-03-01

    Disaccharide nucleosides constitute an important group of naturally-occurring sugar derivatives. In this study, we report on the synthesis of disaccharide nucleosides by the direct O-glycosylation of nucleoside acceptors, such as adenosine, guanosine, thymidine, and cytidine, with glycosyl donors. Among the glycosyl donors tested, thioglycosides were found to give the corresponding disaccharide nucleosides in moderate to high chemical yields with the above nucleoside acceptors using p-toluenesulfenyl chloride (TolSCl) and silver triflate (AgOTf) as promoters. The interaction of these promoters with nucleoside acceptors was examined by (1)H NMR spectroscopic experiments. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Nucleoside antibiotics: biosynthesis, regulation, and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong

    2015-02-01

    The alarming rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens has coincided with a decline in the supply of new antibiotics. It is therefore of great importance to find and create new antibiotics. Nucleoside antibiotics are a large family of natural products with diverse biological functions. Their biosynthesis is a complex process through multistep enzymatic reactions and is subject to hierarchical regulation. Genetic and biochemical studies of the biosynthetic machinery have provided the basis for pathway engineering and combinatorial biosynthesis to create new or hybrid nucleoside antibiotics. Dissection of regulatory mechanisms is leading to strategies to increase the titer of bioactive nucleoside antibiotics.

  17. Nucleoside phosphorylation by phosphate minerals.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Giovanna; Saladino, Raffaele; Crestini, Claudia; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2007-06-08

    In the presence of formamide, crystal phosphate minerals may act as phosphate donors to nucleosides, yielding both 5'- and, to a lesser extent, 3'-phosphorylated forms. With the mineral Libethenite the formation of 5'-AMP can be as high as 6% of the adenosine input and last for at least 10(3) h. At high concentrations, soluble non-mineral phosphate donors (KH(2)PO(4) or 5'-CMP) afford 2'- and 2':3'-cyclic AMP in addition to 5'-and 3'-AMP. The phosphate minerals analyzed were Herderite Ca[BePO(4)F], Hureaulite Mn(2+)(5)(PO(3)(OH)(2)(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(4), Libethenite Cu(2+)(2)(PO(4))(OH), Pyromorphite Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)Cl, Turquoise Cu(2+)Al(6)(PO(4))(4)(OH)(8)(H(2)O)(4), Fluorapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F, Hydroxylapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)OH, Vivianite Fe(2+)(3)(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(8), Cornetite Cu(2+)(3)(PO(4))(OH)(3), Pseudomalachite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4), Reichenbachite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4), and Ludjibaite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4)). Based on their behavior in the formamide-driven nucleoside phosphorylation reaction, these minerals can be characterized as: 1) inactive, 2) low level phosphorylating agents, or 3) active phosphorylating agents. Instances were detected (Libethenite and Hydroxylapatite) in which phosphorylation occurs on the mineral surface, followed by release of the phosphorylated compounds. Libethenite and Cornetite markedly protect the beta-glycosidic bond. Thus, activated nucleic monomers can form in a liquid non-aqueous environment in conditions compatible with the thermodynamics of polymerization, providing a solution to the standard-state Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG degrees ') problem, the major obstacle for polymerizations in the liquid phase in plausible prebiotic scenarios.

  18. Fluorescence Turn-On Sensing of DNA Duplex Formation by a Tricyclic Cytidine Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Dillon D.; Teppang, Kristine L.; Lee, Raymond W.; Lokensgard, Melissa E.; Purse, Byron W.

    2017-01-01

    Most fluorescent nucleoside analogues are quenched when base stacked and some maintain their brightness, but there has been little progress toward developing nucleoside analogues that markedly increase their fluorescence upon duplex formation. Here, we report on the design and synthesis of a new tricyclic cytidine analogue, 8-diethylamino-tC (8-DEA-tC), that responds to DNA duplex formation with up to a 20-fold increase in fluorescent quantum yield as compared with the free nucleoside, depending on neighboring bases. This turn-on response to duplex formation is the greatest of any reported nucleoside analogue that can participate in Watson–Crick base pairing. Measurements of the quantum yield of 8-DEA-tC mispaired with adenosine and, separately, opposite an abasic site show that there is almost no fluorescence increase without the formation of correct Watson–Crick hydrogen bonds. Kinetic isotope effects from the use of deuterated buffer show that the duplex protects 8-DEA-tC against quenching by excited state proton transfer. These results, supported by DFT calculations, suggest a rationale for the observed photophysical properties that is dependent on duplex integrity and the electronic structure of the analogue. PMID:28080035

  19. Fluorescence Turn-On Sensing of DNA Duplex Formation by a Tricyclic Cytidine Analogue.

    PubMed

    Burns, Dillon D; Teppang, Kristine L; Lee, Raymond W; Lokensgard, Melissa E; Purse, Byron W

    2017-02-01

    Most fluorescent nucleoside analogues are quenched when base stacked and some maintain their brightness, but there has been little progress toward developing nucleoside analogues that markedly increase their fluorescence upon duplex formation. Here, we report on the design and synthesis of a new tricyclic cytidine analogue, 8-diethylamino-tC (8-DEA-tC), that responds to DNA duplex formation with up to a 20-fold increase in fluorescent quantum yield as compared with the free nucleoside, depending on neighboring bases. This turn-on response to duplex formation is the greatest of any reported nucleoside analogue that can participate in Watson-Crick base pairing. Measurements of the quantum yield of 8-DEA-tC mispaired with adenosine and, separately, opposite an abasic site show that there is almost no fluorescence increase without the formation of correct Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds. Kinetic isotope effects from the use of deuterated buffer show that the duplex protects 8-DEA-tC against quenching by excited state proton transfer. These results, supported by DFT calculations, suggest a rationale for the observed photophysical properties that is dependent on duplex integrity and the electronic structure of the analogue.

  20. Sterical recognition by T4 polynucleotide kinase of non-nucleosidic moieties 5'-attached to oligonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Fontanel, M L; Bazin, H; Téoule, R

    1994-01-01

    The ability of T4 polynucleotide kinase (PNK) to phosphorylate non-nucleosidic moieties 5'-attached to oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) has been investigated. Non-nucleosidic phosphoramidite units were prepared from ethane-1,2-diol and propane-1,3-diol backbones. Some of them corresponded to pure enantiomers. They were used to obtain the corresponding 5'-end modified oligothymidylates X(pdT)10. The free primary hydroxyl of the non-nucleosidic moieties (X) of these oligomers was phosphorylated by PNK. We report the stereoselective phosphorylation of the L form of the 5'-end attached non-nucleosidic chiral fragments; the non-chiral moieties were completely phosphorylated. Dimers of glycerol analogue and thymidine 3'-phosphate were not recognized by PNK and the shortest modified ODN able to be phosphorylated was a trinucleotide X(pdT)3. A modified X(pdT)10, bearing a cyclic abasic site (X) at its 5'-end, was prepared by chemical synthesis from 1,2-dideoxyribose phosphoramidite and was phosphorylated with a 90% yield. PMID:8029008

  1. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M.; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. However, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum mechanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3)-N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nucleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic properties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nucleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach.

  2. Synthesis of Novel 4'-Trifluoromethyl-5'-Norcarbocyclic C-Nucleoside Phosphonic Acids as Potent Anti-Leukemic Agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seyeon; Hong, Joon Hee

    2015-01-01

    The syntheses of novel C-nucleoside phosphonic acids as potential antiviral agents are described. The sugar moiety that served as the nucleoside skeleton was produced starting from commercially available 1,3-dihydroxy cyclopentane. The key C-C bond formation from sugar to base precursor was performed using the Knoevenagel-type condensation. The synthesized compounds exhibited anti-HIV activity and cytotoxicity. Also, the synthesized compounds were screened in vitro for tumor growth inhibitory activity against mouse leukemia cell lines (L-1210, P-815).

  3. Design and studies of novel 5-substituted alkynylpyrimidine nucleosides as potent inhibitors of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rai, Dinesh; Johar, Monika; Manning, Tracey; Agrawal, B; Kunimoto, Dennis Y; Kumar, Rakesh

    2005-11-03

    We herein report a new category of 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleosides as potent inhibitors of mycobacteria. A series of 5-alkynyl derivatives of 2'-deoxyuridine (1-8), 2'-deoxycytidine (9-14), uridine (15-17), and 2'-O-methyluridine (18, 19) were synthesized and evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity in vitro. 5-Decynyl, 5-dodecynyl, and 5-tetradecynyl derivatives showed the highest antimycobacterial potency against M. bovis and M. avium, with the 2'-deoxyribose derivatives being more effective than the ribose analogues. Nucleosides bearing short alkynyl side chains 5-ethynyl, 5-propynyl, 5-pentynyl, and 5-heptynyl were mostly not inhibitory. Incorporation of a phenylethynyl function at the 5-position diminished the antimicrobial effect. Furthermore, related bicyclic analogues (20-24) were devoid of antimycobacterial activity, indicating that an acyclic side chain at the C-5 position of the pyrimidine ring is essential for potent activity. Compounds 1-17 were synthesized by the Pd-catalyzed coupling reactions of respective alkynes with 5-iodo derivatives of 2'-deoxyuridine, 2'-deoxycytidine, and uridine. Intramolecular cyclization of 1 and 3-6 in the presence of Cu afforded the corresponding bicyclic compounds 20-24. The investigated nucleosides are recognized here for the first time to be potent inhibitors of mycobacteria. This class of compounds could be of interest for lead optimization as antimycobacterial agents.

  4. Synthesis and anti-cancer activities of new sulfonamides 4-substituted-triazolyl nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Alaoui, Soukaina; Dufies, Maeva; Driowya, Mohsine; Demange, Luc; Bougrin, Khalid; Robert, Guillaume; Auberger, Patrick; Pagès, Gilles; Benhida, Rachid

    2017-05-01

    Nucleoside analogues are among the most known drugs commonly used in antiviral and anticancer chemotherapies. Among them, those featuring a five-membered ring nucleobase are of utmost interest such as the anti-cancer agent AICAR or the anti-viral drug ribavirin. Despite its low activity in vitro in different cell lines, AICAR is under clinical development for several pathologies, thanks to its original mode of action. Indeed, AICAR induced autophagy cell death and is able, following this mechanism, to circumvent resistance to apoptotic drugs including kinase inhibitors currently on the market. To improve the activity of AICAR, we report herein an efficient synthesis of new series of sulfonamide-4-substituted-1,2,3-triazolyl nucleosides using a Cu-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. All these molecules have been fully characterized and evaluated against two aggressive tumor cell lines, RCC4 and MDA-MB-231. Among them, nucleoside analogue 5i belonging to the ribose series was found to be 19 to 66-fold more active than AICAR. Western blot analyses on RCC4 cells showed that 5i displayed an interesting mode of action by inducing both apoptosis and autophagy cell death, making therefore this class of molecules highly promising for further hit-to-lead optimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Carboranyl Nucleosides & Oligonucleotides for Neutron Capture Therapy Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2004-12-01

    This proposal enabled us to synthesize and develop boron-rich nucleosides and oligonucleotide analogues for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the treatment of various malignancies. First, we determined the relationship between structure, cellular accumulation and tissue distribution of 5-o-carboranyl-2'-deoxyuridine (D-CDU) and its derivatives D-ribo-CU and 5-o-carboranyluracil (CU), to potentially target brain and other solid tumors for neutron capture therapy. Synthesized carborane containing nucleoside derivatives of CDU, D- and L-enantiomers of CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU were used. We measured tissue disposition in xenografted mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors xenografts and in rats bearing 9L gliosarcoma isografts in their flanks and intracranially. The accumulation of D-CDU, 1-({beta}-L-arabinosyl)-5-o-carboranyluracil, D-ribo-CU, and CU were also studied in LnCap human prostate tumor cells and their retention was measured in male nude mice bearing LnCap and 9479 human prostate tumor xenografts. D-CDU, D-ribo-CU and CU levels were measured after administration in mice bearing 9479 human prostate tumors in their flanks. D-CDU achieved high cellular concentrations in LnCap cells and up to 2.5% of the total cellular compound was recovered in the 5'-monophosphorylated form. D-CDU cellular concentrations were similar in LnCap and 9479 tumor xenografts. Studies in tumor bearing animals indicated that increasing the number of hydroxyl moieties in the sugar constituent of the carboranyl nucleosides lead to increased rate and extent of renal elimination, a decrease in serum half-lives and an increased tissue specificity. Tumor/brain ratios were greatest for CDU and D-ribo-CU, while tumor/prostate ratios were greatest with CU. CDU and D-ribo-CU have potential for BNCT of brain malignancies, while CU may be further developed for prostate cancer. A method was developed for the solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides containing (ocarboran-1-yl

  6. Exploring synthetic routes to nucleoside alkynylphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Meurillon, M; Peyrottes, S; Périgaud, C

    2008-01-01

    Alkynylphosphonates belong to a very interesting family as they may be viewed as precursors to a wide range of functionalized derivatives. Considering our ongoing research on 5'-mononucleotides of biological interest, we embarked on the synthesis of such compounds. Despite a limited number of steps, the nucleosidic pathway appeared disappointing. Therefore, an osidic pathway was explored and proved to be interesting. The corresponding optimization study and the synthesis of a new series of nucleoside alkynylphosphonates are described herein.

  7. Structural modifications of nucleosides in ionic liquids

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vineet; Parmar, Virinder S.; Malhotra, Sanjay V.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleoside chemistry represents an important research area for drug discovery, as many nucleoside analogs are prominent drugs and have been widely applied for cancer and viral chemotherapy. However, the synthesis of modified nucleosides presents a major challenge, which is further aggravated by poor solubility of these compounds in common organic solvents. Most of the currently available methods for nucleoside modification employ toxic high boiling solvents; require long reaction time and tedious workup methods. As such, there is constant effort to develop process chemistry in alternative medium to limit the use of organic solvents that are hazardous to the environment and can be deleterious to human health. One such approach is to use ionic liquids, which are ‘designer materials’ with unique and tunable physico-chemical properties. Studies have shown that methodologies using ionic liquids are highly efficient and convenient for the synthesis of nucleoside analogs, as demonstrated by the preparation of pharmaceutically important anti-viral drugs. This article summarizes recent efforts on nucleoside modification using ionic liquids. PMID:20178825

  8. Synthesis and antiviral activity of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-2'-C-methyl-7-deazapurine nucleosides, their phosphoramidate prodrugs and 5'-triphosphates.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junxing; Zhou, Longhu; Zhang, Hongwang; McBrayer, Tamara R; Detorio, Mervi A; Johns, Melissa; Bassit, Leda; Powdrill, Megan H; Whitaker, Tony; Coats, Steven J; Götte, Matthias; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2011-12-01

    Thirty novel α- and β-d-2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-2'-C-methyl-7-deazapurine nucleoside analogs were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity. Several α- and β-7-deazapurine nucleoside analogs exhibited modest anti-HCV activity and cytotoxicity. Four synthesized 7-deazapurine nucleoside phosphoramidate prodrugs (18-21) showed no anti-HCV activity, whereas the nucleoside triphosphates (22-24) demonstrated potent inhibitory effects against both wild-type and S282T mutant HCV polymerases. Cellular pharmacology studies in Huh-7 cells revealed that the 5'-triphosphates were not formed at significant levels from either the nucleoside or the phosphoramidate prodrugs, indicating that insufficient phosphorylation was responsible for the lack of anti-HCV activity. Evaluation of anti-HIV-1 activity revealed that an unusual α-form of 7-carbomethoxyvinyl substituted nucleoside (10) had good anti-HIV-1 activity (EC(50)=0.71±0.25 μM; EC(90)=9.5±3.3 μM) with no observed cytotoxicity up to 100 μM in four different cell lines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Inhibition and Structure of Toxoplasma gondii Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Teraya M.; Cassera, María B.; Ho, Meng-Chiao; Zhan, Chenyang; Merino, Emilio F.; Evans, Gary B.; Tyler, Peter C.; Almo, Steven C.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular pathogen Toxoplasma gondii is a purine auxotroph that relies on purine salvage for proliferation. We have optimized T. gondii purine nucleoside phosphorylase (TgPNP) stability and crystallized TgPNP with phosphate and immucillin-H, a transition-state analogue that has high affinity for the enzyme. Immucillin-H bound to TgPNP with a dissociation constant of 370 pM, the highest affinity of 11 immucillins selected to probe the catalytic site. The specificity for transition-state analogues indicated an early dissociative transition state for TgPNP. Compared to Plasmodium falciparum PNP, large substituents surrounding the 5′-hydroxyl group of inhibitors demonstrate reduced capacity for TgPNP inhibition. Catalytic discrimination against large 5′ groups is consistent with the inability of TgPNP to catalyze the phosphorolysis of 5′-methylthioinosine to hypoxanthine. In contrast to mammalian PNP, the 2′-hydroxyl group is crucial for inhibitor binding in the catalytic site of TgPNP. This first crystal structure of TgPNP describes the basis for discrimination against 5′-methylthioinosine and similarly 5′-hydroxy-substituted immucillins; structural differences reflect the unique adaptations of purine salvage pathways of Apicomplexa. PMID:24585883

  10. Enzymatic synthesis of nucleosides by nucleoside phosphorylase co-expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qing-bao; Ou, Ling; Wei, Dong-zhi; Wei, Xiao-kun; Xu, Yan-mei; Zhang, Chun-yan

    2010-11-01

    Nucleoside phosphorylase is an important enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of nucleosides. In this study, purine nucleoside phosphorylase and pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase were co-expressed in Escherichia coli and the intact cells were used as a catalyst for the biosynthesis of nucleosides. For protein induction, lactose was used in place of isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). When the concentration of lactose was above 0.5 mmol/L, the ability to induce protein expression was similar to that of IPTG. We determined that the reaction conditions of four bacterial strains co-expressing these genes (TUD, TAD, DUD, and DAD) were similar for the biosyntheses of 2,6-diaminopurine nucleoside and 2,6-diaminopurine deoxynucleoside. When the substrate concentration was 30 mmol/L and 0.5% of the recombinant bacterial cell volume was used as the catalyst (pH 7.5), a greater than 90% conversion yield was reached after a 2-h incubation at 50 °C. In addition, several other nucleosides and nucleoside derivatives were efficiently synthesized using bacterial strains co-expressing these recombinant enzymes.

  11. Influence of sugar ring conformation on the transportability of nucleosides by human nucleoside transporters.

    PubMed

    Damaraju, Vijaya L; Mowles, Delores; Smith, Kyla M; Yao, Sylvia Y M; Young, James D; Marquez, Victor E; Cass, Carol E

    2011-12-16

    The conformational preference of human nucleoside transporters (hNTs) with respect to sugar ring was examined using conformationally fixed purine and pyrimidine nucleosides built on a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane template. These fixed-conformation nucleosides, methanocarba-deoxyadenosine or methanocarba-deoxycytidine in North (C3'-endo, N-MCdA and N-MCdC) or South (C2'-endo, S-MCdA and S-MCdC) conformations, were used to study inhibition of equilibrative (hENT1-4) and concentrative (hCNT1-3) nucleoside transport by individual recombinant hNTs produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells or Xenopus laevis oocytes. Our results indicated that nucleosides in the North conformation were potent inhibitors of transport mediated by hCNTs whereas South nucleosides were inhibitors of hENTs, thus showing differences in the interaction with the hNTs. In summary, hCNTs exhibited strong preferences for North nucleosides whereas hENTs exhibited slight preferences for South nucleosides, demonstrating for the first time different conformational preferences among members of the two families of hNTs. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Enzymatic synthesis of nucleosides by nucleoside phosphorylase co-expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Qing-bao; Ou, Ling; Wei, Dong-zhi; Wei, Xiao-kun; Xu, Yan-mei; Zhang, Chun-yan

    2010-01-01

    Nucleoside phosphorylase is an important enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of nucleosides. In this study, purine nucleoside phosphorylase and pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase were co-expressed in Escherichia coli and the intact cells were used as a catalyst for the biosynthesis of nucleosides. For protein induction, lactose was used in place of isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). When the concentration of lactose was above 0.5 mmol/L, the ability to induce protein expression was similar to that of IPTG. We determined that the reaction conditions of four bacterial strains co-expressing these genes (TUD, TAD, DUD, and DAD) were similar for the biosyntheses of 2,6-diaminopurine nucleoside and 2,6-diaminopurine deoxynucleoside. When the substrate concentration was 30 mmol/L and 0.5% of the recombinant bacterial cell volume was used as the catalyst (pH 7.5), a greater than 90% conversion yield was reached after a 2-h incubation at 50 °C. In addition, several other nucleosides and nucleoside derivatives were efficiently synthesized using bacterial strains co-expressing these recombinant enzymes. PMID:21043057

  13. Conformational studies of anti-HIV nucleosides: A rationale for the activity of {alpha}-nucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Jalluri, R.K.; Yuh, Y.H.; Taylor, E.W.

    1993-12-31

    In the authors` computational studies of nucleosides, it has been found that the O-C-N anomeric effect is a major factor underlying the eastern barrier to pseudorotation, which has been measured by experimental methods (NMR). By adding torsional parameters for the O-C-N anomeric effect to the Kollman force field (SYBYL 5.5 implementation), the eastern barrier and compute realistic pseudorotational energy profiles for various nucleoside analogs can be reproduced. Although the contribution of the anomeric effect is partially neutralized in {beta}-nucleosides (since it is most favorable in the sterically hindered western conformations), in {alpha}-nucleosides it produces a distinct conformational minimum that is not sterically hindered, in which the 5`-CH{sub 2}OH is equatorial. This permits an {alpha}-nucleoside to mimic a {beta}-nucleoside only if the latter has an ap conformation of the 5`-CH{sub 2}OH, if one considers the relative orientations of O5` and the base, and the distance between O5` and the base nitrogen bonded to C1` (N1 or N9). This could account for the unexpected anti-HIV activity possessed by some {alpha}-nucleoside analogs (dioxolanes and oxathiolanes). The authors have also calculated pseudorotational energy profiles for various anti-HIV {beta}-nucleosides (like AZT, 3`-FDT, DDT, BCH-189, etc.), as well as inactive analogs, in order to quantitatively assess the role of conformational factors in anti-HIV activity.

  14. Human concentrative nucleoside transporter 1-mediated uptake of 5-azacytidine enhances DNA demethylation.

    PubMed

    Rius, Maria; Stresemann, Carlo; Keller, Daniela; Brom, Manuela; Schirrmacher, Esther; Keppler, Dietrich; Lyko, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The DNA methyltransferase inhibitors 5-azacytidine (5-azaCyd) and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine have found increasing use for the treatment of myeloid leukemias and solid tumors. Both nucleoside analogues must be transported into cells and phosphorylated before they can be incorporated into DNA and inactivate DNA methyltransferases. The members of the human equilibrative and concentrative nucleoside transporter families mediate transport of natural nucleosides and some nucleoside analogues into cells. However, the molecular identity of the transport proteins responsible for mediating the uptake of 5-azanucleosides has remained unknown. To this end, we have generated a stably transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney strain II cell line expressing recombinant hCNT1. An antiserum directed against hCNT1 specifically detected the protein in the apical membrane of hCNT1-expressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Using [14C]5-azaCyd, we show here that hCNT1 mediated the Na+-dependent uptake of this drug with a Km value of 63 micromol/L. Na+-dependent transport of radiolabeled cytidine, uridine, and 5-fluoro-5'-deoxyuridine further showed the functionality of the transporter. hCNT1-expressing cells were significantly more sensitive to 5-azaCyd, and drug-dependent covalent trapping of DNA methyltransferase 1 was substantially more pronounced. Importantly, these results correlated with a significant sensitization of hCNT1-expressing cells toward the demethylating effects of 5-azaCyd and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. In conclusion, our study identifies 5-azaCyd as a novel substrate for hCNT1 and provides direct evidence that hCNT1 is involved in the DNA-demethylating effects of this drug.

  15. Aminopropanedinitrile (aminomalononitrile, AMN) in the synthesis of C-nucleosides and exocyclic amino thiazole N-nucleosides. Formation and reactions of 2-substituted-5-amino-4-oxazolecarbonitriles

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuerman, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Aminopropanedinitrile (aminomalononitrile, AMN) reacts with a wide variety of alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl acid chlorides in the presence of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone to give N-(dicyanomethyl)carboxamides which are easily cyclized in situ or after isolation to 2-substituted-5-amino-4-oxazolecarbonitriles in good to excellent yields. Electron attracting or electron releasing groups on the phenyl rings do not appear to greatly influence the yields of oxazoles and steric factors do not appear to be important in the aliphatic series. The reaction of 2, 5-anhydro-3, 4, 6-tri-O-benzoyl-[beta]-D-allonyl chloride with aminopropane-dinitrile gives 2, 5-anhydro-N-(dicyanomethyl)-[beta]-D-allonamide-3, 4, 6-tribenzoate which is converted to 5-amino-2-(2, 3, 5-tri-O-benzoyl-[beta]-D-ribofuranosyl)-4-oxazolecarbonitrile, which is used to prepare other C-nucleosides including 2-([beta]-D-ribofuranosyl)oxazole-4-carboxamide (oxazofurin), an analogue of the antitumor and antiviral C-nucleoside tiazofurin. Attempted deblocking of several benzoyl protected C-nucleosides with sodium methoxide led to double elimination reactions and the formation of furan derivatives. The 2-substituted-5-amino-4-oxazolecarbonitriles react with ortho esters to give imidates which are cyclized to axazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidines. Reactions of 2-substituted-5-amino-4-oxazolecarbonitriles include acylation of the 5-amino group, dediazotization of the 5-amino group, nucleophilic attack and ring opening of the oxazole, and acid catalyzed ring opening of the oxazole. Sugar isothiocyanates are prepared and react with aminopropane-dinitrile (aminomalononitrile, AMN) in the presence of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone to afford exocyclic amino thiazole N-nucleosides.

  16. A general approach toward the synthesis of C-nucleoside pyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazines and their 3',5'-bisphosphate C-nucleotide analogues as the first reported in vivo stable P2Y(1)-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Raboisson, Pierre; Baurand, Anthony; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Gachet, Christian; Schultz, Dominique; Spiess, Bernard; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques

    2002-11-15

    In our effort to identify potent purinergic P2Y(1) receptor antagonists as potent platelet aggregation inhibitors with enhanced metabolic stability, we developed an efficient route for the large-scale preparation of 2'-deoxy-C-nucleosides of pyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine. The key strategic elements of this novel synthetic approach involved the following: (i) the use of a novel activating group, the N-methyl-N-phenylamino group, which was easily generated in high yield by treatment of the pyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazin-4-one (5) with phosphorus oxychloride and dimethylaniline under high pressure, (ii) a regio- and stereospecific palladium-mediated coupling reaction of the readily available unprotected glycal 1,4-anhydro-2-deoxy-D-erythro-pent-1-enitol (4b) and the 8-iodo derivative (16), and (iii) the stereoselective reduction of the ketone group of the furanosyl ring followed by the subsequent displacement of the N-methyl-N-phenylamino group upon treatment with methylamine. The beta configuration at the anomeric C-1' position of the glycal moieties was perfectly retained throughout this conversion. This procedure afforded 8-(2'-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-methyl-4-(N-methylamino)pyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine (21) and 8-(2'-deoxy-beta-D-xylofuranosyl)-2-methyl-4-(N-methylamino)pyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine (24) with an overall yield of 50% and 39%, respectively. Finally, the conversion of nucleosides 21 and 24 to the pyrazolotriazine C-nucleotides 3',5'-bisphosphate 2 and 3',5'-cyclophosphate 26 is also described herein and represents the first reported nucleotide derivatives within the pyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine series. Preliminary biological testing has shown that compound 2 strongly inhibits ADP-induced human platelet aggregation and shape change and possesses significant efficacies 30 min after injection in rat, highlighting a strong P2Y(1)-receptor antagonist activity in vitro combined with a prolonged duration of action in vivo.

  17. Uridine Nucleoside Thiation: Gas-Phase Structures and Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlow, Lucas; Lee, Justin; Rodgers, M. T.; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos

    2016-06-01

    The naturally occurring thiated uridine nucleosides, 4-thiouridine (s4Urd) and 2-thiouridine (s2Urd), play important roles in the function and analysis of a variety of RNAs. 2-Thiouridine and its C5 modified analogues are commonly found in tRNAs and are believed to play an important role in codon recognition possibly due to their different structure, which has been shown by NMR to be predominantly C3'-endo. 2-Thiouridine may also play an important role in facilitating nonenzymatic RNA replication and transcription. 4-Thiouridine is a commonly used photoactivatable crosslinker that is often used to study RNA-RNA and RNA-protein cross-linking behavior. Differences in the base pairing between uracil and 4-thiouracil with adenine and guanine are an important factor in their role as a cross linker. The photoactivity of s4Urd may also aid in preventing near-UV lethality in cells. An understanding of their intrinsic structure in the gas-phase may help further elucidate the roles these modified nucleosides play in the regulation of RNAs. In this work, infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectra of the protonated forms of s2Urd and s4Urd were collected in the IR fingerprint region. Structural information is determined by comparison with theoretical linear IR spectra generated from density functional theory calculations using molecular modeling to generate low-energy candidate structures. Present results are compared with analogous results for the protonated forms of uridine and 2'-deoxyuridine as well as solution phase NMR data and crystal structures.

  18. Epinephrine analogues.

    PubMed

    Sneader, W

    2001-11-01

    Tyramine was the first epinephrine analogue to be introduced into medicine, in the early 1900s. It was followed by ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in the 1920s and by the amfetamines a decade later. The popularity of the amfetamines grew throughout the 1930s and 1940s; after that, there was a slowly dawning realization that they were being widely abused. Isoprenaline, introduced in the 1950s, was soon recognized as superior to epinephrine when used as an inhaler by asthmatics, and it remained the drug of choice for the relief of bronchospasm until around 1970. Orciprenaline, which featured an orcinol system, had a long duration of action and was active by mouth; Boehringer marketed it both as an inhaler and as a syrup for the prophylaxis of bronchospasm. The greatly superior bronchodilators salbutamol and terbutaline, launched in 1968 and 1970, respectively, incorporate further variation on the molecular theme that had led to the development of orciprenaline. (c) 2001 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of CNT3 in the transepithelial flux of nucleosides and nucleoside-derived drugs

    PubMed Central

    Errasti-Murugarren, Ekaitz; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Casado, F Javier

    2007-01-01

    We examined the role of the concentrative nucleoside transporter CNT3 in the establishment of a transepithelial flux of natural nucleosides and their pharmacologically active derivatives in renal epithelial cell lines. Murine PCT cells grown on a transwell dish showed endogenous CNT3 activity at their apical membrane that was responsible for the sodium-dependent transepithelial flux of both purine and pyrimidine nucleosides. hCNT3 was also identified in human kidney and its role in the transport of nucleosides was tested. To this end, MDCK cells, lacking endogenous CNT3 activity, were genetically engineered to express the human orthologue of CNT3 (hCNT3-MDCK cells). In these cells, hCNT3 was inserted into the apical membrane, thus generating, as for PCT cells, a transepithelial flux of both nucleosides and nucleoside-derived drugs. Apical-to-basolateral transepithelial flux was present in all cells expressing a functional CNT3 transporter and was significantly higher than that found either in PCT cells in absence of sodium or in mock-transfected MDCK cells. Nevertheless in all cases a significant amount of the transported nucleoside was retained and transformed inside cells. However release to the opposite compartment was CNT3 dependent, not only in terms of absolute flux (much higher when an apical CNT3 transporter was active) but also regarding metabolic transformations of the apically absorbed nucleosides. These results underline a critical role of CNT3 in the renal reabsorption of nucleosides and their derivatives as well as in their intracellular metabolism. PMID:17412768

  20. Polymeric nanogel formulations of nucleoside analogs

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Serguei V

    2008-01-01

    Nanogels are colloidal microgel carriers that have been introduced recently as a prospective drug delivery system for nucleotide therapeutics. The crosslinked protonated polymer network of nanogels binds oppositely charged drug molecules, encapsulating them into submicron particles with a core-shell structure. The nanogel network also provides a suitable template for chemical engineering, surface modification and vectorisation. This review reveals recent attempts to develop novel drug formulations of nanogels with antiviral and antiproliferative nucleoside analogs in the active form of 5′-triphosphates; discusses structural approaches to the optimisation of nanogel properties, and; discusses the development of targeted nanogel drug formulations for systemic administration. Notably, nanogels can improve the CNS penetration of nucleoside analogs that are otherwise restricted from passing across the blood–brain barrier. The latest findings reviewed here demonstrate an efficient intracellular release of nucleoside analogs, encouraging further applications of nanogel carriers for targeted drug delivery. PMID:17184158

  1. Prebiotic phosphorylation of nucleosides in formamide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoffstall, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study intended to assess phosphorylation under neither aqueous nor dry thermal conditions. Instead, phosphorylations were attempted in possible nonaqueous prebiotic solvents. Formamide appeared to be the most obvious candidate for phosphorylation studies. Three main classes of phosphorylated products were formed in formamide solution: adenosine monophosphates, cyclic adenosine phosphate, and adenosine diphosphates. Experiments were designed to investigate the extent of phosphorylation of nucleosides in formamide, the relative amounts of nucleoside monophosphate, diphosphates and cyclic phosphate formed and the relative effectiveness of different sources of phosphate as phosphorylating agents in formamide. Reaction variables were temperature, nature of the phosphate or condensed phosphate, nucleoside, concentration of reactants and possible effects of additives. Product identification was based on qualitative and quantitative thin layer chromatography.

  2. Synthesis of conformationally locked carbocyclic 1,3-diazepinone nucleosides as inhibitors of cytidine deaminase

    PubMed Central

    Ludek, Olaf R.; Schroeder, Gottfried K.; Wolfenden, Richard; Marquez, Victor E.

    2009-01-01

    We synthesized a series of carbocyclic nucleoside inhibitors of cytidine deaminase (CDA) based on a seven-membered 1,3-diazepin-2-one moiety. In the key step, the seven-membered ring was formed by a ringclosing- metathesis reaction. Therefore, the bis-allylurea moiety had to be protected by benzoylation in order to obtain an orientation suitable for ring closure. To our surprise, the analogue built on a flexible sugar template (4) showed a 100-fold stronger inhibition of CDA than the derivative with the preferred southconformation. PMID:18776552

  3. Synthesis of Nucleoside Triphosphates from 2'-3'-Protected Nucleosides Using Trimetaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Mohamady, Samy; Taylor, Scott D

    2016-02-05

    Chemists have been attempting to triphosphorylate nucleosides and other alcohols using trimetaphosphate (TriMP) since the 1960s. However, this route appears to have been abandoned due to poor yields. The first practical syntheses of nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) are reported using TriMP as the key reagent. This was achieved by reacting the tetrabutylammonium salt of TriMP with mesitylenesulfonyl chloride in the presence of DABCO in pyridine followed by the addition of an appropriately protected nucleoside and phthalimide. Quenching the reaction with aqueous buffer followed by hydrolysis of the OH protecting groups gave the NTPs in good yield.

  4. 1,2,3-Triazolylalkylribitol derivatives as nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Goeminne, A; McNaughton, M; Bal, G; Surpateanu, G; Van der Veken, P; De Prol, S; Versées, W; Steyaert, J; Apers, S; Haemers, A; Augustyns, K

    2007-05-01

    A range of novel 1,2,3-triazolylalkylribitol derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors. The most active compound (11a) has low micromolar potency and is structurally diverse from previously reported nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors, which, along with the simplicity of the chemistry involved in its synthesis, makes it a good lead for the further development of novel nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors.

  5. The synthesis and transformations of uronic acid nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshchuk, V. A.

    1994-08-01

    The results of studies on the synthesis and transformations of uronic acid nucleosides are surveyed. Various pathways leading to the synthesis of uronic acid nucleoside are examined, including methods involving specific and nonspecific oxidation of nucleosides, and the glycosylation and modification of the sugar residue or the heterocyclic base. The bibliography includes 97 references.

  6. Spermine oxidase SMO(PAOh1), Not N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase PAO, is the primary source of cytotoxic H2O2 in polyamine analogue-treated human breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pledgie, Allison; Huang, Yi; Hacker, Amy; Zhang, Zhe; Woster, Patrick M; Davidson, Nancy E; Casero, Robert A

    2005-12-02

    The induction of polyamine catabolism and its production of H2O2 have been implicated in the response to specific antitumor polyamine analogues. The original hypothesis was that analogue induction of the rate-limiting spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) provided substrate for the peroxisomal acetylpolyamine oxidase (PAO), resulting in a decrease in polyamine pools through catabolism, oxidation, and excretion of acetylated polyamines and the production of toxic aldehydes and H2O2. However, the recent discovery of the inducible spermine oxidase SMO(PAOh1) suggested the possibility that the original hypothesis may be incomplete. To examine the role of the catabolic enzymes in the response of breast cancer cells to the polyamine analogue N1,N1-bis(ethyl)norspermine (BENSpm), a stable knockdown small interfering RNA strategy was used. BENSpm differentially induced SSAT and SMO(PAOh1) mRNA and activity in several breast cancer cell lines, whereas no N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase PAO mRNA or activity was detected. BENSpm treatment inhibited cell growth, decreased intracellular polyamine levels, and decreased ornithine decarboxylase activity in all cell lines examined. The stable knockdown of either SSAT or SMO(PAOh1) reduced the sensitivity of MDA-MB-231 cells to BENSpm, whereas double knockdown MDA-MB-231 cells were almost entirely resistant to the growth inhibitory effects of the analogue. Furthermore, the H2O2 produced through BENSpm-induced polyamine catabolism was found to be derived exclusively from SMO(PAOh1) activity and not through PAO activity on acetylated polyamines. These data suggested that SSAT and SMO(PAOh1) activities are the major mediators of the cellular response of breast tumor cells to BENSpm and that PAO plays little or no role in this response.

  7. Adenosine, but not guanosine, protects vaginal epithelial cells from Trichomonas vaginalis cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Camila Braz; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Meirelles, Lucia Collares; Tasca, Tiana

    2017-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. The cytoadherence and cytotoxicity upon the vaginal epithelial cells are crucial for the infection. Extracellular nucleotides are released during cell damage and, along with their nucleosides, can activate purinoceptors. The opposing effects of nucleotides versus nucleosides are regulated by ectonucleotidases. Herein we evaluated the hemolysis and cytolysis induced by T. vaginalis, as well as the extracellular nucleotide hydrolysis along with the effects mediated by nucleotides and nucleosides on cytotoxicity. In addition, the gene expression of purinoceptors in host cells was determined. The hemolysis and cytolysis exerted by all T. vaginalis isolates presented positive Pearson correlation. All T. vaginalis isolates were able to hydrolyze nucleotides, showing higher NTPDase than ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity. The most cytotoxic isolate, TV-LACM6, hydrolyzes ATP, GTP with more efficiency than AMP and GMP. The vaginal epithelial cell line (HMVII) expressed the genes for all subtypes of P1, P2X and P2Y receptors. Finally, when nucleotides and nucleosides were tested, the cytotoxic effect elicited by TV-LACM6 was increased with nucleotides. In contrast, the cytotoxicity was reversed by adenosine in presence of EHNA, but not by guanosine, contributing to the understanding of the purinergic signaling role on T. vaginalis cytotoxicity.

  8. Pharmacological Reversal of Histone Methylation Presensitizes Pancreatic Cancer Cells to Nucleoside Drugs: In Vitro Optimization and Novel Nanoparticle Delivery Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Sau Wai; Bhutia, Yangzom D.; Davis, Franklin; Cho, Jong Hyun; Zastre, Jason; Dhar, Shanta; Chu, Chung K.; Govindarajan, Rajgopal

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of an investigational histone methylation reversal agent, 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), in improving the chemosensitivity of pancreatic cancer to nucleoside analogs (i.e., gemcitabine). DZNep brought delayed but selective cytotoxicity to pancreatic cancer cells without affecting normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial (HPDE) cells. Co-exposure of DZNep and gemcitabine induced cytotoxic additivity or synergism in both well- and poorly-differentiated pancreatic cell lines by increased apoptosis. In contrast, DZNep exerted antagonism with gemcitabine against HPDE cells with significant reduction in cytotoxicity compared with the gemcitabine-alone regimen. DZNep marginally depended on purine nucleoside transporters for its cytotoxicity, but the transport dependence was circumvented by acyl derivatization. Drug exposure studies revealed that a short priming with DZNep followed by gemcitabine treatment rather than co-treatment of both agents to produce a maximal chemosensitization response in both gemcitabine-sensitive and gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. DZNep rapidly and reversibly decreased trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 but increased trimethylation of lysine 9 in an EZH2- and JMJD1A/2C-dependent manner, respectively. However, DZNep potentiation of nucleoside analog chemosensitization was found to be temporally coupled to trimethylation changes in lysine 27 and not lysine 9. Polymeric nanoparticles engineered to chronologically release DZNep followed by gemcitabine produced pronounced chemosensitization and dose-lowering effects. Together, our results identify that an optimized DZNep exposure can presensitize pancreatic cancer cells to anticancer nucleoside analogs through the reversal of histone methylation, emphasizing the promising clinical utilities of epigenetic reversal agents in future pancreatic cancer combination therapies. PMID:23940717

  9. Encapsulation of antiviral nucleotide analogues azidothymidine-triphosphate and cidofovir in poly(iso-butylcyanoacrylate) nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Hillaireau, H; Le Doan, T; Besnard, M; Chacun, H; Janin, J; Couvreur, P

    2006-10-31

    Nucleoside analogues are widely used in the treatment of various viral infections. However, the poor in vivo conversion of the nucleoside analogues like azidothymidine (AZT) into their active triphosphate nucleotide counterpart limits their pharmacological efficacy. This could be overcome by the direct administration of azidothymidine triphosphate (AZT-TP), but it requires an appropriate drug delivery approach. Besides nucleoside analogues, nucleotide analogues like cidofovir (CDV) are also used in the treatment of viral infections. CDV has raised recent interest because of its promising activity against smallpox, but its use is limited by its poor bioavailability and nephrotoxicity. Here again, a proper drug delivery system should address these issues. In this study, we investigated the encapsulation of the nucleotide analogues AZT-TP and CDV into poly(iso-butylcyanoacrylate) aqueous core nanocapsules, known to efficiently entrap oligonucleotides. We show here that the encapsulation of these mono-nucleotides is less efficient than with oligonucleotides and that a rapid release of AZT-TP from the nanocapsules occurred in vitro. This highlights the importance of the molecular weight of the entrapped molecules which, if they are too small, are diffusing through the thin polymer membrane of the nanocapsules. On the other hand, a good protection of the encapsulated AZT-TP was observed.

  10. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. How- ever, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum me- chanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3) N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nu- cleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic prop- erties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nu- cleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach. 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4772182

  11. Basolateral Uptake of Nucleosides by Sertoli Cells Is Mediated Primarily by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Klein, David M.; Evans, Kristen K.; Hardwick, Rhiannon N.; Dantzler, William H.; Wright, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) prevents the entry of many xenobiotic compounds into seminiferous tubules thereby protecting developing germ cells. Understanding drug transport across the BTB may improve drug delivery into the testis. Members of one class of drug, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), do penetrate the BTB, presumably through interaction with physiologic nucleoside transporters. By investigating the mechanism of nucleoside transport, it may be possible to design other drugs to bypass the BTB in a similar manner. We present a novel ex vivo technique to study transport at the BTB that employs isolated, intact seminiferous tubules. Using this system, we found that over 80% of total uptake by seminiferous tubules of the model nucleoside uridine could be inhibited by 100 nM nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR, 6-S-[(4-nitrophenyl)methyl]-6-thioinosine), a concentration that selectively inhibits equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) activity. In primary cultured rat Sertoli cells, 100 nM NBMPR inhibited all transepithelial transport and basolateral uptake of uridine. Immunohistochemical staining showed ENT1 to be located on the basolateral membrane of human and rat Sertoli cells, whereas ENT2 was located on the apical membrane of Sertoli cells. Transepithelial transport of uridine by rat Sertoli cells was partially inhibited by the NRTIs zidovudine, didanosine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, consistent with an interaction between these drugs and ENT transporters. These data indicate that ENT1 is the primary route for basolateral nucleoside uptake into Sertoli cells and a possible mechanism for nucleosides and nucleoside-based drugs to undergo transepithelial transport. PMID:23639800

  12. Basolateral uptake of nucleosides by Sertoli cells is mediated primarily by equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Klein, David M; Evans, Kristen K; Hardwick, Rhiannon N; Dantzler, William H; Wright, Stephen H; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2013-07-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) prevents the entry of many xenobiotic compounds into seminiferous tubules thereby protecting developing germ cells. Understanding drug transport across the BTB may improve drug delivery into the testis. Members of one class of drug, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), do penetrate the BTB, presumably through interaction with physiologic nucleoside transporters. By investigating the mechanism of nucleoside transport, it may be possible to design other drugs to bypass the BTB in a similar manner. We present a novel ex vivo technique to study transport at the BTB that employs isolated, intact seminiferous tubules. Using this system, we found that over 80% of total uptake by seminiferous tubules of the model nucleoside uridine could be inhibited by 100 nM nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR, 6-S-[(4-nitrophenyl)methyl]-6-thioinosine), a concentration that selectively inhibits equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) activity. In primary cultured rat Sertoli cells, 100 nM NBMPR inhibited all transepithelial transport and basolateral uptake of uridine. Immunohistochemical staining showed ENT1 to be located on the basolateral membrane of human and rat Sertoli cells, whereas ENT2 was located on the apical membrane of Sertoli cells. Transepithelial transport of uridine by rat Sertoli cells was partially inhibited by the NRTIs zidovudine, didanosine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, consistent with an interaction between these drugs and ENT transporters. These data indicate that ENT1 is the primary route for basolateral nucleoside uptake into Sertoli cells and a possible mechanism for nucleosides and nucleoside-based drugs to undergo transepithelial transport.

  13. Kipukasins: Nucleoside derivatives from Aspergillus versicolor.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seven new aroyl uridine derivatives (kipukasins A-G; 1-7) were isolated from solid-substrate fermentation cultures of two different Hawaiian isolates of Aspergillus versicolor. The structures of compounds 1-7 were determined by analysis of NMR and MS data. The nucleoside portion of lead compound 1...

  14. Nucleoside phosphorylation by the mineral schreibersite.

    PubMed

    Gull, Maheen; Mojica, Mike A; Fernández, Facundo M; Gaul, David A; Orlando, Thomas M; Liotta, Charles L; Pasek, Matthew A

    2015-11-26

    Phosphorylation of the nucleosides adenosine and uridine by the simple mixing and mild heating of aqueous solutions of the organic compounds with synthetic analogs of the meteoritic mineral schreibersite, (Fe,Ni)3P under slightly basic conditions (pH ~9) is reported. These results suggest a potential role for meteoritic phosphorus in the origin and development of early life.

  15. Nucleoside phosphorylation by the mineral schreibersite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, Maheen; Mojica, Mike A.; Fernández, Facundo M.; Gaul, David A.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Liotta, Charles L.; Pasek, Matthew A.

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorylation of the nucleosides adenosine and uridine by the simple mixing and mild heating of aqueous solutions of the organic compounds with synthetic analogs of the meteoritic mineral schreibersite, (Fe,Ni)3P under slightly basic conditions (pH ~9) is reported. These results suggest a potential role for meteoritic phosphorus in the origin and development of early life.

  16. The stereospecific synthesis of P-chiral biophosphates and their analogues by the Stec reaction.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Lucyna A; Okruszek, Andrzej

    2003-05-01

    This manuscript summarizes the results of studies on the application of the reaction of dialkyl (aryl) phosphoramidate anions with carbonyl electrophiles for stereospecific synthesis of P-chiral biophosphates (Stec reaction). Following the results obtained with organic phosphoramidates which delineated the scope of the reaction and its stereochemical course, the application of the title reaction is presented for the preparation of diastereomerically pure P-chiral cyclic nucleotide analogues (phosphorothioates, phosphoroselenoates, phosphoroselenothioates, isotopomeric 18O-phosphates), and P-chiral nucleoside monophosphate analogues, as well as dinucleoside phosphate analogues (phosphorothioates, methanephosphonates).

  17. Modulators of nucleoside metabolism in the therapy of brain diseases.

    PubMed

    Boison, Detlev

    2011-01-01

    Nucleoside receptors are known to be important targets for a variety of brain diseases. However, the therapeutic modulation of their endogenous agonists by inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism represents an alternative therapeutic strategy that has gained increasing attention in recent years. Deficiency in endogenous nucleosides, in particular of adenosine, may causally be linked to a variety of neurological diseases and neuropsychiatric conditions ranging from epilepsy and chronic pain to schizophrenia. Consequently, augmentation of nucleoside function by inhibiting their metabolism appears to be a rational therapeutic strategy with distinct advantages: (i) in contrast to specific receptor modulation, the increase (or decrease) of the amount of a nucleoside will affect several signal transduction pathways simultaneously and therefore have the unique potential to modify complex neurochemical networks; (ii) by acting on the network level, inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism are highly suited to fine-tune, restore, or amplify physiological functions of nucleosides; (iii) therefore inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism have promise for the "soft and smart" therapy of neurological diseases with the added advantage of reduced systemic side effects. This review will first highlight the role of nucleoside function and dysfunction in physiological and pathophysiological situations with a particular emphasis on the anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, and antinociceptive roles of adenosine. The second part of this review will cover pharmacological approaches to use inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism, with a special emphasis on adenosine kinase, the key regulator of endogenous adenosine. Finally, novel gene-based therapeutic strategies to inhibit nucleoside metabolism and focal treatment approaches will be discussed.

  18. Modulators of Nucleoside Metabolism in the Therapy of Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Boison, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    Nucleoside receptors are known to be important targets for a variety of brain diseases. However, the therapeutic modulation of their endogenous agonists by inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism represents an alternative therapeutic strategy that has gained increasing attention in recent years. Deficiency in endogenous nucleosides, in particular of adenosine, may causally be linked to a variety of neurological diseases and neuropsychiatric conditions ranging from epilepsy and chronic pain to schizophrenia. Consequently, augmentation of nucleoside function by inhibiting their metabolism appears to be a rational therapeutic strategy with distinct advantages: (i) in contrast to specific receptor modulation, the increase (or decrease) of the amount of a nucleoside will affect several signal transduction pathways simultaneously and therefore have the unique potential to modify complex neurochemical networks; (ii) by acting on the network level, inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism are highly suited to fine-tune, restore, or amplify physiological functions of nucleosides; (iii) therefore inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism have promise for the “soft and smart” therapy of neurological diseases with the added advantage of reduced systemic side effects. This review will first highlight the role of nucleoside function and dysfunction in physiological and pathophysiological situations with a particular emphasis on the anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, and antinociceptive roles of adenosine. The second part of this review will cover pharmacological approaches to use inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism, with a special emphasis on adenosine kinase, the key regulator of endogenous adenosine. Finally, novel gene-based therapeutic strategies to inhibit nucleoside metabolism and focal treatment approaches will be discussed. PMID:21401494

  19. Recent progress for the synthesis of selected carbocyclic nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Bessières, Maxime; Chevrier, Florian; Roy, Vincent; Agrofoglio, Luigi A

    2015-01-01

    Nucleoside analogs are extremely useful for the development of therapeutic agents to control viral diseases and cancer. Among the numerous modifications on the nucleoside skeleton, replacement of the oxygen of the furanose ring by a CH2 group resulted in increased flexibility and higher resistance to phosphorylases and led to carbocyclic nucleoside analogs (or carbanucleosides). The broad spectrum of biological activities of carbocyclic nucleosides led to tremendous research interest in their syntheses. The article documents recent strategies for the synthesis of active carbocyclic nucleosides by presenting individual case studies, such as the neplanocins, entecavir and selected fluorinated carbocyclic nucleosides. Furthermore, it provides new insights into new directions for more potent and active carbocyclic nucleoside analogs.

  20. Cationic Nucleoside Lipids Based on a 3-Nitropyrrole Universal Base for siRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Claire; Prata, Carla A.H.; Giorgio, Suzanne; Garzino, Frédéric; Payet, Dominique; Barthélémy, Philippe; Grinstaff, Mark W.; Camplo, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Cationic nucleoside lipids based on a 3-nitropyrrole universal base were prepared from D-ribose using a straightforward chemical synthesis. Several studies including DLS, TEM and ethidium bromide (EthBr) assay demonstrated that these amphiphilic molecules form supramolecular organizations of nanometer size in aqueous solutions and are able to bind nucleic acids. siRNA knockdown experiments were performed with these nucleolipids and we observed protein knockdown activity similar to the siPORT NeoFX positive control. No significant cytotoxicity was found. PMID:19159294

  1. Phospholipid derivatives of nucleoside analogs as prodrugs with enhanced catabolic stability

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, T.; Ryu, E.K.; Hong, C.I.; MacCoss, M.

    1981-07-01

    The nucleoside 5'-diphosphate-L-1,2-dipalmitin derivatives of 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-D), 9-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A), and tubercidin have been synthesized, and their cytotoxicity has been evaluated against a mouse myeloma cell line (MPC-11) in vitro and against L1210 lymphoid leukemia both in vitro and in vivo. Sonication methods were utilized to solubilize these lipophilic derivatives in aqueous solution in order to facilitate such biological evaluation; the ara-A derivative resisted solubilization by several techniques. (JMT)

  2. Significance of the first transcribed nucleoside of capped RNA for ligand-induced folding of the cap-binding complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worch, Remigiusz; Niedzwiecka, Anna; Stepinski, Janusz; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Mazza, Catherine; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Cusack, Stephen; Stolarski, Ryszard

    2005-05-01

    Many proteins, including those that bind RNA, change conformation upon binding a ligand, a phenomenon known as induced fit. CBP20, the small subunit of the nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC), recognizes specifically the 5' cap of eukaryotic mRNA and snRNA. The N- and C-terminal regions of the CBP20 subunit of the human nuclear cap-binding complex only acquire a proper fold in complex with capped RNA. The cap is composed of 7-methylguanosine linked by a 5'-to-5' triphosphate bridge to the first transcribed nucleoside of the RNA. The significance of the latter for the capped RNA-CBC association and local folding of CBC has been characterized by emission spectroscopy. Fluorescence titration of CBC has been performed for three selected, mono- and dinucleotide mRNA 5' cap analogues. The measured values of the equilibrium association constant and the corresponding Gibbs free energy depend on the type of the first transcribed nucleoside (purine or pyrimidine), and decrease ~10-fold in the case of a mononucleotide analogue, 7-methylguanosine triphosphate. However, the total quenching of the intrinsic protein fluorescence is similar for each analogue. Changes of the solvent-accessible CBC hydrophobic surface of CBC on binding of the structurally different cap analogues have been followed using bis-ANS fluorescent probe.

  3. Targeted Delivery of Deoxycytidine Kinase to Her2-Positive Cells Enhances the Efficacy of the Nucleoside Analog Fludarabine

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Brian K.; Lavie, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxic drugs, such as nucleoside analogs and toxins, commonly suffer from off-target effects. One approach to mitigate this problem is to deliver the cytotoxic drug selectively to the intended site. While for toxins this can be achieved by conjugating the cell-killing moiety to a targeting moiety, it is not an option for nucleoside analogs, which rely on intracellular enzymes to convert them to their active triphosphorylated form. To overcome this limitation, and achieve site-targeted activation of nucleoside analogs, we fused the coding region of a prodrug-activating enzyme, deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), to affinity reagents that bind to the Her2 cell surface protein. We evaluated dCK fusions to an anti-Her2 affibody and Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARPin) for their ability to kill cancer cells by promoting the activation of the nucleoside analog fludarabine. Cell staining and flow cytometry experiments with three Her2 positive cancer cell lines (BT-474-JB, JIMT-1 and SK-OV-3) indicate dCK fusions binding and cellular internalization. In contrast, these reagents bind only weakly to the Her2 negative cell line, MCF-7. Cell proliferation assays indicate that SK-OV-3 and BT-474-JB cell lines exhibit significantly reduced proliferation rates when treated with targeting-module fused dCK and fludarabine, compared to fludarabine alone. These findings demonstrate that we have succeeded in delivering active dCK into the Her2-positive cells, thereby increasing the activation of fludarabine, which ultimately reduces the dose of nucleoside analog needed for cell killing. This strategy may help establish the therapeutic index required to differentiate between healthy tissues and cancer cells. PMID:27280468

  4. Nucleoside transport across the plasma membrane mediated by equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 influences metabolism of Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, S; Traub, M; Bernard, C; Salzig, C; Lang, P; Möhlmann, T

    2012-09-01

    The metabolism of nitrogen-rich nucleosides in Arabidopsis seedlings was investigated at the level of import and subsequent salvage or degradation. Uptake and fate of nucleosides imported by equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 (ENT3) was analysed and, furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of the effect of exogenously fed nucleosides at the level of metabolic as well as transcriptomic alterations was performed. Expression of nucleoside transporters ENT1 and ENT3, together with nucleoside import, was increased upon nitrogen limitation. Thereby a role for ENT3, which is expressed mainly in the vasculature of roots and leaves, as a major import route for nucleosides was supported. Exogenously fed nucleosides were able to attenuate nitrogen starvation effects such as chlorophyll breakdown, anthocyanin accumulation, RNA breakdown and reduced levels of amino acids. In response to nucleoside supply, up-regulation of genes involved in nitrogen distribution in plants was observed. In addition, genes involved in nucleoside metabolism were identified as regulated upon nitrogen limitation. In summary, an overall beneficial effect of nucleoside supply to Arabidopsis seedlings, especially under limiting nitrogen conditions, was observed. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Quantitation of endogenous nucleoside triphosphates and nucleosides in human cells by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dominique; Herold, Nikolas; Keppler, Oliver T; Geisslinger, Gerd; Ferreirós, Nerea

    2015-05-01

    Nucleosides and nucleoside triphosphates are the building blocks of nucleic acids and important bioactive metabolites, existing in all living cells. In the present study, two liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed to quantify both groups of compounds from the same sample with a shared extraction procedure. After a simple protein precipitation with methanol, the nucleosides were separated with reversed phase chromatography on an Atlantis T3 column while for the separation of the nucleoside triphosphates, an anion exchange column (BioBasic AX) was used. No addition of ion pair reagent was required. A 5500 QTrap was used as analyzer, operating as triple quadrupole. The analytical method for the nucleoside triphosphates has been validated according to the guidelines of the US Food and Drug Administration. The lower limit of quantification values were determined as 10 pg on column (0.5 ng/mL in the injection solution) for deoxyadenosine triphosphate and deoxyguanosine triphosphate, 20 pg (1 ng/mL) for deoxycytidine triphosphate and thymidine triphosphate, 100 pg (5 ng/mL) for cytidine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate, and 500 pg (25 ng/mL) for adenosine triphosphate und uridine triphosphate respectively. This methodology has been applied to the quantitation of nucleosides and nucleoside triphosphates in primary human CD4 T lymphocytes and macrophages. As expected, the concentrations for ribonucleosides and ribonucleoside triphophates were considerably higher than those obtained for the deoxy derivatives. Upon T cell receptor activation, the levels of all analytes, with the notable exceptions of deoxyadenosine triphosphate and deoxyguanosine triphosphate, were found to be elevated in CD4 T cells.

  6. Azide–Tetrazole Equilibrium of C-6 Azidopurine Nucleosides and Their Ligation Reactions with Alkynes

    PubMed Central

    Lakshman, Mahesh K.; Singh, Manish K.; Parrish, Damon; Balachandran, Raghavan; Day, Billy W.

    2010-01-01

    Facile syntheses of C-6 azidopurine ribonucleosides and 2′-deoxyribonucleosides have been developed. For silyl and acetyl protected as well as unprotected nucleosides, access to the azido derivatives could be readily attained via displacement of BtO− from the O6-(benzotriazol-1-yl)inosine nucleosides by azide anion. Use of diphenylphosphoryl azide/DBU as a simple route to the acetyl-protected azido nucleosides was also evaluated, but this proved to be inferior. Since these azido nucleosides can exist in an azide•tetrazole equilibrium, the effect of solvent polarity on this equilibrium was investigated. Subsequently, a detailed analysis of Cu-mediated azide-alkyne (“click”) ligation was undertaken. Biphasic CH2Cl2/H2O medium proved to be best for the ligation reactions, suppressing the undesired azide reduction that was competing. Interestingly, although the tetrazolyl isomer predominates (ca 80%) in CD2Cl2 and in CD2Cl2/D2O, the Cu-catalyzed click reactions proceed smoothly with the silyl-protected ribo and 2′-deoxyribonucleosides, leading to the C–6 triazolyl products in good to excellent yields. Thus, depletion of azido form from the reaction mixture shifts the azide•tetrazole equilibrium, eventually resulting in complete consumption of azide and tetrazole. In several cases, major and minor azide-alkyne ligation products were observed and characterization data are provided for both. In order to confirm the regiochemistry leading to the major isomer, one product was crystallized and evaluated by X-ray crystallography. The Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne ligation is clearly efficient and significantly superior to thermal reactions, which were slow. Biological evaluation showed low cytotoxicities for the agents, suggesting their usefulness as biological probes. PMID:20297785

  7. Mass spectrometry analysis of nucleosides and nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Ed; Bond, Liz

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely utilised in the study of nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides as components of nucleic acids and as bioactive metabolites in their own right. In this review, the application of mass spectrometry to such analysis is overviewed in relation to various aspects regarding the analytical mass spectrometric and chromatographic techniques applied and also the various applications of such analysis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues.

    PubMed

    Moosa, Basem A; Sagar, Sunil; Li, Song; Esau, Luke; Kaur, Mandeep; Khashab, Niveen M

    2016-03-15

    Spermatinamine was isolated from an Australian marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp. as an inhibitor of isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt), an attractive and novel anticancer target. Herein, we report the synthesis of spermatinamine analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines, that is, cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell lines with the IC50 values in the range of 5-10 μM. The obtained results suggested that longer polyamine linker along with aromatic oxime substitution provided the most potent analogue compounds against cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human cytomegalovirus resistance to deoxyribosylindole nucleosides maps to a transversion mutation in the terminase subunit-encoding gene UL89.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Brian G; Phan, Quang; Hall, Ellie D; Breitenbach, Julie M; Borysko, Katherine Z; Kamil, Jeremy P; Townsend, Leroy B; Drach, John C

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can cause severe illnesses, including encephalopathy and mental retardation, in immunocompromised and immunologically immature patients. Current pharmacotherapies for treating systemic HCMV infections include ganciclovir, cidofovir, and foscarnet. However, long-term administration of these agents can result in serious adverse effects (myelosuppression and/or nephrotoxicity) and the development of viral strains with reduced susceptibility to drugs. The deoxyribosylindole (indole) nucleosides demonstrate a 20-fold greater activity in vitro (the drug concentration at which 50% of the number of plaques was reduced with the presence of drug compared to the number in the absence of drug [EC50] = 0.34 μM) than ganciclovir (EC50 = 7.4 μM) without any observed increase in cytotoxicity. Based on structural similarity to the benzimidazole nucleosides, we hypothesize that the indole nucleosides target the HCMV terminase, an enzyme responsible for packaging viral DNA into capsids and cleaving the DNA into genome-length units. To test this hypothesis, an indole nucleoside-resistant HCMV strain was isolated, the open reading frames of the genes that encode the viral terminase were sequenced, and a G766C mutation in exon 1 of UL89 was identified; this mutation resulted in an E256Q change in the amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein. An HCMV wild-type strain, engineered with this mutation to confirm resistance, demonstrated an 18-fold decrease in susceptibility to the indole nucleosides (EC50 = 3.1 ± 0.7 μM) compared to that of wild-type virus (EC50 = 0.17 ± 0.04 μM). Interestingly, this mutation did not confer resistance to the benzimidazole nucleosides (EC50 for wild-type HCMV = 0.25 ± 0.04 μM, EC50 for HCMV pUL89 E256Q = 0.23 ± 0.04 μM). We conclude, therefore, that the G766C mutation that results in the E256Q substitution is unique for indole nucleoside resistance and distinct from previously discovered substitutions

  10. 2'-modified nucleosides for site-specific labeling of oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, Elizabeth S.; Miller, Jeremiah E.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    We report the synthesis of 2'-modified nucleosides designed specifically for incorporating labels into oligonucleotides. Conversion of these nucleosides to phosphoramidite and solid support-bound derivatives proceeds in good yield. Large-scale synthesis of 11-mer oligonucleotides possessing the 2'-modified nucleosides is achieved using these derivatives. Thermal denaturation studies indicate that the presence of 2'-modified nucleosides in 11-mer duplexes has minimal destabilizing effects on the duplex structure when the nucleosides are placed at the duplex termini. The powerful combination of phosphoramidite and support-bound derivatives of 2'-modified nucleosides affords the large-scale preparation of an entirely new class of oligonucleotides. The ability to synthesize oligonucleotides containing label attachment sites at 3', intervening, and 5' locations of a duplex is a significant advance in the development of oligonucleotide conjugates.

  11. 2'-modified nucleosides for site-specific labeling of oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, Elizabeth S.; Miller, Jeremiah E.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    We report the synthesis of 2'-modified nucleosides designed specifically for incorporating labels into oligonucleotides. Conversion of these nucleosides to phosphoramidite and solid support-bound derivatives proceeds in good yield. Large-scale synthesis of 11-mer oligonucleotides possessing the 2'-modified nucleosides is achieved using these derivatives. Thermal denaturation studies indicate that the presence of 2'-modified nucleosides in 11-mer duplexes has minimal destabilizing effects on the duplex structure when the nucleosides are placed at the duplex termini. The powerful combination of phosphoramidite and support-bound derivatives of 2'-modified nucleosides affords the large-scale preparation of an entirely new class of oligonucleotides. The ability to synthesize oligonucleotides containing label attachment sites at 3', intervening, and 5' locations of a duplex is a significant advance in the development of oligonucleotide conjugates.

  12. Nucleotide binding to nucleoside diphosphate kinases: X-ray structure of human NDPK-A in complex with ADP and comparison to protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuxing; Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Schneider, Benoit; Véron, Michel; Moréra, Solange; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Janin, Joel

    2003-09-26

    NDPK-A, product of the nm23-H1 gene, is one of the two major isoforms of human nucleoside diphosphate kinase. We analyzed the binding of its nucleotide substrates by fluorometric methods. The binding of nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) substrates was detected by following changes of the intrinsic fluorescence of the H118G/F60W variant, a mutant protein engineered for that purpose. Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) substrate binding was measured by competition with a fluorescent derivative of ADP, following the fluorescence anisotropy of the derivative. We also determined an X-ray structure at 2.0A resolution of the variant NDPK-A in complex with ADP, Ca(2+) and inorganic phosphate, products of ATP hydrolysis. We compared the conformation of the bound nucleotide seen in this complex and the interactions it makes with the protein, with those of the nucleotide substrates, substrate analogues or inhibitors present in other NDP kinase structures. We also compared NDP kinase-bound nucleotides to ATP bound to protein kinases, and showed that the nucleoside monophosphate moieties have nearly identical conformations in spite of the very different protein environments. However, the beta and gamma-phosphate groups are differently positioned and oriented in the two types of kinases, and they bind metal ions with opposite chiralities. Thus, it should be possible to design nucleotide analogues that are good substrates of one type of kinase, and poor substrates or inhibitors of the other kind.

  13. An alternative route to the arylvinyltriazole nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Chudinov, Mikhail V; Prutkov, Alexander N; Matveev, Andrey V; Grebenkina, Lyubov E; Konstantinova, Irina D; Berezovskaya, Yulia V

    2016-07-15

    A new pathway to synthesis of arylvinyl ribavirin analogues is developed which makes it possible to obtain not only trans- but also cis-isomers at vinyl bond. By this route eight ribavirin 5-arylvinyl analogues are synthesized and their antiviral activity is evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of Nanogel Drug Carriers and Their Formulations with Nucleoside 5′-Triphosphates

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Serguei V.; Kohli, Ekta; Zeman, Arin D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To synthesize and characterize nanogel carriers composed of amphiphilic polymers and cationic polyethylenimine for encapsulation and delivery of cytotoxic nucleoside analogs 5′-triphosphates (NTP) into cancer cells. Methods Nanogels were synthesized by a novel micellar approach and compared with carriers prepared by the emulsification/evaporation method. Complexes of nanogels with NTP were prepared; particle size and in vitro drug release were characterized. Resistance of the nanogel-encapsulated NTP to enzymatic hydrolysis was analyzed by ion-pair HPLC. Binding to isolated cellular membranes, cellular accumulation and cytotoxicity were compared using breast carcinoma cell lines CL-66, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. In vivo biodistribution of the 3H-labeled NTP encapsulated in different types of nanogels was evaluated in comparison to the injected NTP alone. Results Nanogels with a particle size of 100–300 nm in the unloaded form and less than 140 nm in the NTP-loaded form were prepared. An in vitro release of NTP was ≥50% during the first 24 h. Nanogel formulations ensured increased NTP drug stability against enzymatic hydrolysis as compared to the drug alone. Pluronic®-based nanogels NG(F68), NG(F127), NG(P85) and NGM(P123) demonstrated 2–2.5 times enhanced interaction with cellular membranes and association with various cancer cells compared to NG(PEG). Among them NG(F68) and NG(F127) exhibited the lowest cytotoxicity. Injection of nanogel-formulated NTP significantly modulated the drug accumulation in different mouse organs. Conclusions Nanogels composed of Pluronic® F68 and P123 were shown to display certain advanced properties compared to NG(PEG) as a drug delivery system for NTP analogs. Formulations of nucleoside analogs in active NTP form with these nanogels will improve the delivery of these cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells and the therapeutic potential of this anti-cancer chemotherapy. PMID:16715382

  15. Semisynthesis of salviandulin E analogues and their antitrypanosomal activity.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Koji; Yamazaki, Akira; Sugawara, Naoko; Yano, Reiko; Fukaya, Haruhiko; Hitotsuyanagi, Yukio; Takeya, Koichi; Ishiyama, Aki; Iwatsuki, Masato; Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Haruki; Ōmura, Satoshi

    2014-01-15

    A series of analogues of salviandulin E, a rearranged neoclerodane diterpene originally isolated from Salvia leucantha (Lamiaceae), were prepared and their in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei was evaluated with currently used therapeutic drugs as positive controls. One of the 19 compounds prepared and assayed in the present study, butanoyl 3,4-dihydrosalviandulin E analogue was found to be a possible candidate for an antitrypanosomal drug with fairly strong antitrypanosomal activity and lower cytotoxicity.

  16. Recognition of Artificial Nucleobases by E. coli Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase versus its Ser90Ala Mutant in the Synthesis of Base-Modified Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Fateev, Ilja V; Kharitonova, Maria I; Antonov, Konstantin V; Konstantinova, Irina D; Stepanenko, Vasily N; Esipov, Roman S; Seela, Frank; Temburnikar, Kartik W; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L; Stepchenko, Vladimir A; Sokolov, Yuri A; Miroshnikov, Anatoly I; Mikhailopulo, Igor A

    2015-09-14

    A wide range of natural purine analogues was used as probe to assess the mechanism of recognition by the wild-type (WT) E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) versus its Ser90Ala mutant. The results were analyzed from viewpoint of the role of the Ser90 residue and the structural features of the bases. It was found that the Ser90 residue of the PNP 1) plays an important role in the binding and activation of 8-aza-7-deazapurines in the synthesis of their nucleosides, 2) participates in the binding of α-D-pentofuranose-1-phosphates at the catalytic site of the PNP, and 3) catalyzes the dephosphorylation of intermediary formed 2-deoxy-α-D-ribofuranose-1-phosphate in the trans-2-deoxyribosylation reaction. 5-Aza-7-deazaguanine manifested excellent substrate activity for both enzymes, 8-amino-7-thiaguanine and 2-aminobenzothiazole showed no substrate activity for both enzymes. On the contrary, the 2-amino derivatives of benzimidazole and benzoxazole are substrates and are converted into the N1- and unusual N2-glycosides, respectively. 9-Deaza-5-iodoxanthine showed moderate inhibitory activity of the WT E. coli PNP, whereas 9-deazaxanthine and its 2'-deoxyriboside are weak inhibitors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Nucleoside modification with boron clusters and their metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, Blazej A; Olejniczak, Agnieszka B; Lesnikowski, Zbigniew J

    2009-09-01

    General methods for the synthesis of nucleosides modified with borane clusters and metallacarborane complexes are presented. These include: (1) the click chemistry approach based on Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and (2) tethering of the metallacarborane group to the aglycone of a nucleoside via a dioxane ring opening in oxonium metallacarborane derivatives. The proposed methodologies broaden the availability of nucleoside-borane cluster conjugates and open up new areas for their applications.

  18. Thermal Synthesis of Nucleoside H-Phosphonates Under Mild Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, R. M.; Schwartz, Alan W.

    2005-02-01

    Nucleosides react rapidly with ammonium phosphite ((NH4)2HPO3) at 60 °C to produce good yields of nucleoside-5’-phosphite monoesters within 24 h. Under the same conditions, ammonium phosphate is unreactive, producing low yields of nucleotide only after extended reactions. These results confirm earlier suggestions that nucleoside H-phosphonates and their possible condensation products may have been produced on the primitive earth more easily than nucleotides.

  19. From the Chemistry of Epoxy-Sugar Nucleosides to the Discovery of Anti-HIV Agent 4′-ethynylstavudine-Festinavir

    PubMed Central

    Haraguchi, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Shingo; Kubota, Yutaka; Kumamoto, Hiroki; Tanaka, Hiromichi; Hamasaki, Takayuki; Baba, Masanori; Paintsil, Elijah; Cheng, Yung-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Branched sugar nucleosides have attracted much attention due to their biological activities. We have demonstrated that epoxy-sugar nucleosides serve as versatile precursor for the stereo-defined synthesis of these nucleoside derivatives on the basis of its ring opening with organoaluminum or organosilicon reagents. In this review article, novel methods for the synthesis of nucleoside analogues branched at the 1′ and 4′-position will be described. During this study, we could discover an anti-HIV agent, 4′-ethynylstavudine (Festinavir). Festinavir showed more potent anti-HIV activity than the parent compound stavudine (d4T). Other significant properties of Festinavir are as follows: 1) much less toxic to various cells and also to mitochondorial DNA synthesis than d4T, 2) better substrate for human thymidine kinase than d4T, 3) resistant not only to chemical glycosidic bond cleavage but also to catabolism by thymidine phosphorylase, 4) the activity improves in the presence of a major mutation, K103N, associated with resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Detailed profile of the antiviral activities, biology and pharmacology of Festinavir are also described. PMID:23092278

  20. Role of nucleoside diphosphate kinase in the activation of anti-HIV nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Sarfati, R; Deville-Bonne, D; Véron, M

    2000-06-01

    Nucleoside analogs are currently used in antiretrovirus therapies. The best known example is AZT one of the first drug to be used for the treatment of AIDS. However, only the triphosphate derivatives of these compounds act as substrates of the viral reverse transcriptase. Since they do not enter cells, nucleoside analogs are administered and phosphorylated by cellular kinases. The last step in this phosphorylation pathway is catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase. The incorporation of the nucleoside triphosphates into nascent viral DNA chain results in termination of the elongation process. We have performed kinetics studies of the phosphorylation reaction by NDP kinase of dideoxynucleoside diphosphates such as 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-azidothymidine diphosphate (AZT-DP) and 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydrothymidine diphosphate (d4T-DP). We show that the catalytic efficiency is strongly decreased and, therefore, that the reaction step catalyzed by NDP kinase constitutes a bottleneck in the processing pathway of anti-HIV compounds. In addition, the affinity of the analogs in the absence of catalysis was determined using a catalytically inactive NDP kinase mutant, showing a reduction of affinity by a factor of 2 to 30, depending on the analog. The structure of NDP kinase provides a structural explanation for these results. Indeed, all nucleoside analogs acting as chain terminators must lack a 3'-OH in the nucleotide deoxyribose. Unfortunately, this same substitution is detrimental for their capacity to be phosphorylated by NDP kinase. This defines the framework for the design of new nucleoside analogs with increased efficiency in antiretroviral therapies.

  1. Insights into Phosphate Cooperativity and Influence of Substrate Modifications on Binding and Catalysis of Hexameric Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylases

    PubMed Central

    de Giuseppe, Priscila O.; Martins, Nadia H.; Meza, Andreia N.; dos Santos, Camila R.; Pereira, Humberto D’Muniz; Murakami, Mario T.

    2012-01-01

    The hexameric purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Bacillus subtilis (BsPNP233) displays great potential to produce nucleoside analogues in industry and can be exploited in the development of new anti-tumor gene therapies. In order to provide structural basis for enzyme and substrates rational optimization, aiming at those applications, the present work shows a thorough and detailed structural description of the binding mode of substrates and nucleoside analogues to the active site of the hexameric BsPNP233. Here we report the crystal structure of BsPNP233 in the apo form and in complex with 11 ligands, including clinically relevant compounds. The crystal structure of six ligands (adenine, 2′deoxyguanosine, aciclovir, ganciclovir, 8-bromoguanosine, 6-chloroguanosine) in complex with a hexameric PNP are presented for the first time. Our data showed that free bases adopt alternative conformations in the BsPNP233 active site and indicated that binding of the co-substrate (2′deoxy)ribose 1-phosphate might contribute for stabilizing the bases in a favorable orientation for catalysis. The BsPNP233-adenosine complex revealed that a hydrogen bond between the 5′ hydroxyl group of adenosine and Arg43* side chain contributes for the ribosyl radical to adopt an unusual C3’-endo conformation. The structures with 6-chloroguanosine and 8-bromoguanosine pointed out that the Cl6 and Br8 substrate modifications seem to be detrimental for catalysis and can be explored in the design of inhibitors for hexameric PNPs from pathogens. Our data also corroborated the competitive inhibition mechanism of hexameric PNPs by tubercidin and suggested that the acyclic nucleoside ganciclovir is a better inhibitor for hexameric PNPs than aciclovir. Furthermore, comparative structural analyses indicated that the replacement of Ser90 by a threonine in the B. cereus hexameric adenosine phosphorylase (Thr91) is responsible for the lack of negative cooperativity of phosphate binding in this

  2. Insights into phosphate cooperativity and influence of substrate modifications on binding and catalysis of hexameric purine nucleoside phosphorylases.

    PubMed

    de Giuseppe, Priscila O; Martins, Nadia H; Meza, Andreia N; dos Santos, Camila R; Pereira, Humberto D'Muniz; Murakami, Mario T

    2012-01-01

    The hexameric purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Bacillus subtilis (BsPNP233) displays great potential to produce nucleoside analogues in industry and can be exploited in the development of new anti-tumor gene therapies. In order to provide structural basis for enzyme and substrates rational optimization, aiming at those applications, the present work shows a thorough and detailed structural description of the binding mode of substrates and nucleoside analogues to the active site of the hexameric BsPNP233. Here we report the crystal structure of BsPNP233 in the apo form and in complex with 11 ligands, including clinically relevant compounds. The crystal structure of six ligands (adenine, 2'deoxyguanosine, aciclovir, ganciclovir, 8-bromoguanosine, 6-chloroguanosine) in complex with a hexameric PNP are presented for the first time. Our data showed that free bases adopt alternative conformations in the BsPNP233 active site and indicated that binding of the co-substrate (2'deoxy)ribose 1-phosphate might contribute for stabilizing the bases in a favorable orientation for catalysis. The BsPNP233-adenosine complex revealed that a hydrogen bond between the 5' hydroxyl group of adenosine and Arg(43*) side chain contributes for the ribosyl radical to adopt an unusual C3'-endo conformation. The structures with 6-chloroguanosine and 8-bromoguanosine pointed out that the Cl(6) and Br(8) substrate modifications seem to be detrimental for catalysis and can be explored in the design of inhibitors for hexameric PNPs from pathogens. Our data also corroborated the competitive inhibition mechanism of hexameric PNPs by tubercidin and suggested that the acyclic nucleoside ganciclovir is a better inhibitor for hexameric PNPs than aciclovir. Furthermore, comparative structural analyses indicated that the replacement of Ser(90) by a threonine in the B. cereus hexameric adenosine phosphorylase (Thr(91)) is responsible for the lack of negative cooperativity of phosphate binding in this

  3. Synthesis of Nucleoside N-Phosphoamino Acids and Peptide Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Changxue; Fu, Hua; Zhao, Yufen; Cheng, Changmei

    2005-02-01

    Nucleoside N-phosphoamino acids were synthesized through Atherton-Todd reaction of nucleoside H-phosphonate with amino acids, and their structures were confirmed by NMR and ESI-MS. After nucleoside N-phosphoamino acid was incubated in anhydrous methanol at 40 °C for 72 h, di- to tetra-peptide derivatives were detected by ESI-MS, and their structures were further identified by multistage mass spectrometry. These and previously published studies in aqueous solution suggest that nucleoside N-phosphoamino acids could have been prebiotic precursors of oligopeptides.

  4. Presence of nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase activity in purified virions of reovirus.

    PubMed

    Borsa, J; Grover, J; Chapman, J D

    1970-09-01

    A nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase activity has been discovered in reovirus virions. This activity converts nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates in vitro. Properties of this enzyme are presented, with evidence that this activity is an integral part of the virion core.

  5. Phosphorylation of nucleoside-metallacarborane and carborane conjugates by nucleoside kinases.

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, Blazej A; Olejniczak, Agnieszka B; Wang, Liya; Eriksson, Staffan; Lesnikowski, Zbigniew J

    2013-01-01

    A library of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides modified with carborane or metallacarborane boron clusters at different locations, consisting of new molecules as well as already described compounds, was prepared. The compounds were tested as substrates for human deoxynucleoside kinases. Some conjugates, with modification attached to N3 of thymidine via a linker containing the triazole moiety, were efficiently phosphorylated by cytosolic thymidine kinase 1 and mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2. Higher phosphorylation levels were observed with thymidine kinase 1, the phosphorylation of nucleosides modified with metallacarboranes was observed for the first time.

  6. One-Pot Aqueous Synthesis of Nucleoside-Templated Fluorescent Copper Nanoclusters and Their Application for Discrimination of Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Chen, Tianxia; Zhuang, Qianfen; Ni, Yongnian

    2017-09-05

    A facile, one-pot synthetic method has been proposed to prepare water-soluble fluorescent copper nanoclusters (CuNCs) templated by nucleosides. The nucleoside-templated fluorescent CuNCs were further characterized by using various analytical techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The role of various reactants such as ascorbic acid, nucleoside, and citrate buffer in the synthesis process of fluorescent CuNCs was explored. The results showed that nucleoside and ascorbic acid were very likey to respectively act as a stabilizer and a reductant to form nanoclusters, and citrate buffer acted as both pH regulator solution and a reducing agent. The fluorescence spectra of various nucleoside-templated CuNCs were finally combined with multivariate chemometrics analysis for discrimination of different nucleosides.

  7. Characterization of Imidazo[4,5-d]Pyridazine Nucleosides as Modulators of Unwinding Reaction Mediated by West Nile Virus Nucleoside Triphosphatase/Helicase: Evidence for Activity on the Level of Substrate and/or Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Borowski, Peter; Lang, Melanie; Haag, Annemarie; Schmitz, Herbert; Choe, Joonho; Chen, Huan-Ming; Hosmane, Ramachandra S.

    2002-01-01

    Compounds that interact with DNA or RNA generally act as inhibitors of enzymes that unwind DNA or RNA. In the present study we describe the synthesis and properties of some nucleoside analogues that interact with double-stranded DNA but that, in contrast, facilitate the unwinding reaction mediated by West Nile (WN) virus nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase)/helicase. The nucleoside analogues described, 1-(2′-O-methyl-β-d-ribofuranosyl)imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazine-4,7(5H,6H)-dione (HMC-HO4), 1-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazine-4,7(5H,6H)-dione, and 1-(2′-deoxy-α-d-ribofuranosyl)imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazine-4,7(5H,6H)dione, all contain the imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazine ring system. The extent of the enhancing effect on helicase activity was found to be dependent on the time of exposure of the DNA substrate to the compounds and their concentrations. The nucleoside analogues were nevertheless found to be capable of uncoupling the ATPase and helicase activities of the enzyme by a mechanism operating on the level of the enzyme. Thus, in the case of HMC-HO4, the direct interaction with the enzyme caused inhibition of its helicase activity, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 30 μM. The similar potency of the compound against replication of WN virus in cell culture suggests that inhibition of the helicase activity of the viral enzyme is responsible for the observed antiviral activity of HMC-HO4 and may indeed represent an important mode of action of antiviral drugs in general. Comparative studies performed with the related NTPase/helicase from hepatitis C virus revealed that the extent of the effects mediated by imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazine nucleosides is enzyme specific. The substances described may represent a starting point for the development of a new class of helicase-specific antivirals. PMID:11959550

  8. Purine (N)-Methanocarba Nucleoside Derivatives Lacking an Exocyclic Amine as Selective A3 Adenosine Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purine (N)-methanocarba-5′-N-alkyluronamidoriboside A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) agonists lacking an exocyclic amine resulted from an unexpected reaction during a Sonogashira coupling and subsequent aminolysis. Because the initial C6-Me and C6-styryl derivatives had unexpectedly high A3AR affinity, other rigid nucleoside analogues lacking an exocyclic amine were prepared. Of these, the C6-Me-(2-phenylethynyl) and C2-(5-chlorothienylethynyl) analogues were particularly potent, with human A3AR Ki values of 6 and 42 nM, respectively. Additionally, the C2-(5-chlorothienyl)-6-H analogue was potent and selective at A3AR (MRS7220, Ki 60 nM) and also completely reversed mouse sciatic nerve mechanoallodynia (in vivo, 3 μmol/kg, po). The lack of a C6 H-bond donor while maintaining A3AR affinity and efficacy could be rationalized by homology modeling and docking of these hypermodified nucleosides. The modeling suggests that a suitable combination of stabilizing features can partially compensate for the lack of an exocyclic amine, an otherwise important contributor to recognition in the A3AR binding site. PMID:26890707

  9. Synthesis of Chamaecypanone C Analogues from in situ-Generated Cyclopentadienones and their Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Suwei; Qin, Tian; Hamel, Ernest; Beutler, John A.; Porco, John A.

    2012-01-01

    A rhodium-catalyzed dehydrogenation protocol has been developed for conversion of 3,5-diarylcyclopentenones to the corresponding 2,4-diarylcyclopentadienones. Using this protocol, analogues of the cytotoxic agent chamaecypanone C have been synthesized via Diels-Alder cycloaddition between the cyclopentadienones and in situ-generated ortho-quinols. Biological evaluation of these analogues revealed a compound with higher activity as a microtubule inhibitor and cytotoxic agent in comparison with the parent structure. PMID:23110297

  10. The chemoenzymatic synthesis of clofarabine and related 2'-deoxyfluoroarabinosyl nucleosides: the electronic and stereochemical factors determining substrate recognition by E. coli nucleoside phosphorylases.

    PubMed

    Fateev, Ilja V; Antonov, Konstantin V; Konstantinova, Irina D; Muravyova, Tatyana I; Seela, Frank; Esipov, Roman S; Miroshnikov, Anatoly I; Mikhailopulo, Igor A

    2014-01-01

    Two approaches to the synthesis of 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine (1, clofarabine) were studied. The first approach consists in the chemical synthesis of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-α-D-arabinofuranose-1-phosphate (12a, (2F)Ara-1P) via three step conversion of 1,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-α-D-arabinofuranose (9) into the phosphate 12a without isolation of intermediary products. Condensation of 12a with 2-chloroadenine catalyzed by the recombinant E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) resulted in the formation of clofarabine in 67% yield. The reaction was also studied with a number of purine bases (2-aminoadenine and hypoxanthine), their analogues (5-aza-7-deazaguanine and 8-aza-7-deazahypoxanthine) and thymine. The results were compared with those of a similar reaction with α-D-arabinofuranose-1-phosphate (13a, Ara-1P). Differences of the reactivity of various substrates were analyzed by ab initio calculations in terms of the electronic structure (natural purines vs analogues) and stereochemical features ((2F)Ara-1P vs Ara-1P) of the studied compounds to determine the substrate recognition by E. coli nucleoside phosphorylases. The second approach starts with the cascade one-pot enzymatic transformation of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-arabinose into the phosphate 12a, followed by its condensation with 2-chloroadenine thereby affording clofarabine in ca. 48% yield in 24 h. The following recombinant E. coli enzymes catalyze the sequential conversion of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-arabinose into the phosphate 12a: ribokinase (2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-arabinofuranose-5-phosphate), phosphopentomutase (PPN; no 1,6-diphosphates of D-hexoses as co-factors required) (12a), and finally PNP. The substrate activities of D-arabinose, D-ribose and D-xylose in the similar cascade syntheses of the relevant 2-chloroadenine nucleosides were studied and compared with the activities of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-arabinose. As expected, D-ribose exhibited the best substrate activity

  11. Probing the Binding Site of the A1 Adenosine Receptor Reengineered for Orthogonal Recognition by Tailored Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Palaniappan, Krishnan K.; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Ivanov, Andrei A.; Greaves, Rebecca; Adachi, Hayamitsu; Besada, Pedro; Kim, Hea Ok; Kim, Ae Yil; Choe, Seung Ah; Jeong, Lak Shin; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    His272 (7.43) in the seventh transmembrane domain (TM7) of the human A3 adenosine receptor (AR) interacts with the 3′ position of nucleosides, based on selective affinity enhancement at a H272E mutant A3 AR (neoceptor) of 3′-ureido, but not 3′-OH, adenosine analogues. Here, mutation of the analogous H278 of the human A1 AR to Ala, Asp, Glu, or Leu enhanced the affinity of novel 2′- and 3′-ureido adenosine analogues, such as 10 (N6-cyclopentyl-3′-ureido-3′-deoxyadenosine), by >100-fold, while decreasing the affinity or potency of adenosine and other 3′-OH adenosine analogues. His278 mutant receptors produced a similar enhancement regardless of the charge character of the substituted residue, implicating steric rather than electrostatic factors in the gain of function, a hypothesis supported by rhodopsin-based molecular modeling. It was also demonstrated that this interaction was orientationally specific; i.e., mutations at the neighboring Thr277 did not enhance the affinity for a series of 2′- and 3′-ureido nucleosides. Additionally, H-bonding groups placed on substituents at the N6 or 5′ position demonstrated no enhancement in the mutant receptors. These reengineered human A1 ARs revealed orthogonality similar to that of the A3 but not the A2A AR, in which mutation of the corresponding residue, His278, to Asp did not enhance nucleoside affinity. Functionally, the H278D A1 AR was detectable only in a measure of membrane potential and not in calcium mobilization. This neoceptor approach should be useful for the validation of molecular modeling and the dissection of promiscuous GPCR signaling. PMID:17542617

  12. Hypouricemic effects of novel concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 inhibitors through suppressing intestinal absorption of purine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Hiratochi, Masahiro; Tatani, Kazuya; Shimizu, Kazuo; Kuramochi, Yu; Kikuchi, Norihiko; Kamada, Noboru; Itoh, Fumiaki; Isaji, Masayuki

    2012-09-05

    We have developed concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 (CNT2) inhibitors as a novel pharmacological approach for improving hyperuricemia by inhibiting intestinal absorption of purines. Dietary purine nucleosides are absorbed in the small intestines by CNTs expressed in the apical membrane. In humans, the absorbed purine nucleosides are rapidly degraded to their final end product, uric acid, by xanthine oxidase. Based on the expression profile of human CNTs in digestive tract tissues, we established a working hypothesis that mainly CNT2 contributes to the intestinal absorption of purine nucleosides. In order to confirm this possibility, we developed CNT2 inhibitors and found that (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-amino-8-{[3'-(3-aminopropoxy)-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diol (KGO-2142) and 1-[3-(5-{[1-((2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylamino]-methyl}-2-ethoxyphenoxy)-propyl]-piperidine-4-carboxylic acid amide (KGO-2173) were inhibitory. These CNT2 inhibitors had potent inhibitory activity against inosine uptake via human CNT2, but they did not potently interfere with nucleoside uptake via human CNT1, CNT3 or equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) in vitro. After oral administration of KGO-2173 along with [(14)C]-inosine, KGO-2173 significantly decreased the urinary excretion of radioactivity at 6 and 24h in rats. Since dietary purine nucleosides are not utilized in the body and are excreted into the urine rapidly, this decrease in radioactivity in the urine represented the inhibitory activity of KGO-2173 toward the absorption of [(14)C]-inosine in the small intestines. KGO-2142 almost completely inhibited dietary RNA-induced hyperuricemia and the increase in urinary excretion of uric acid in cebus monkeys. These novel CNT2 inhibitors, KGO-2142 and KGO-2173, could be useful therapeutic options for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Structure of grouper iridovirus purine nucleoside phosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, You-Na; Zhang, Yang; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Ting, Jing-Wen; Chang, Chi-Yao; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-02-01

    The crystal structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from grouper iridovirus was solved at 2.38 Å resolution. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of purine ribonucleosides to the corresponding free bases and ribose 1-phosphate. The crystal structure of grouper iridovirus PNP (givPNP), corresponding to the first PNP gene to be found in a virus, was determined at 2.4 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = 193.0, c = 105.6 Å, and contained four protomers per asymmetric unit. The overall structure of givPNP shows high similarity to mammalian PNPs, having an α/β structure with a nine-stranded mixed β-barrel flanked by a total of nine α-helices. The predicted phosphate-binding and ribose-binding sites are occupied by a phosphate ion and a Tris molecule, respectively. The geometrical arrangement and hydrogen-bonding patterns of the phosphate-binding site are similar to those found in the human and bovine PNP structures. The enzymatic activity assay of givPNP on various substrates revealed that givPNP can only accept 6-oxopurine nucleosides as substrates, which is also suggested by its amino-acid composition and active-site architecture. All these results suggest that givPNP is a homologue of mammalian PNPs in terms of amino-acid sequence, molecular mass, substrate specificity and overall structure, as well as in the composition of the active site.

  14. Theoretical study on absorption and emission spectra of adenine analogues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxia; Song, Qixia; Yang, Yan; Li, Yan; Wang, Haijun

    2014-04-01

    Fluorescent nucleoside analogues have attracted much attention in studying the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids in recent years. In the present work, we use theoretical calculations to investigate the structural and optical properties of four adenine analogues (termed as A1, A2, A3, and A4), and also consider the effects of aqueous solution and base pairing. The results show that the fluorescent adenine analogues can pair with thymine to form stable H-bonded WC base pairs. The excited geometries of both adenine analogues and WC base pairs are similar to the ground geometries. The absorption and emission maxima of adenine analogues are greatly red shifted compared with nature adenine, the oscillator strengths of A1 and A2 are stronger than A3 and A4 in both absorption and emission spectra. The calculated low-energy peaks in the absorption spectra are in good agreement with the experimental data. In general, the aqueous solution and base pairing can slightly red-shift both the absorption and emission maxima, and can increase the oscillator strengths of absorption spectra, but significantly decrease the oscillator strengths of A3 in emission spectra.

  15. C5-Modified nucleosides exhibiting anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Suk; Park, Sun Min; Kim, Hwan Mook; Park, Song-Kyu; Lee, Kiho; Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Byeang Hyean

    2009-08-15

    We describe (i) a simple method for the synthesis of C5-modified nucleosides from 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and (ii) their activity against six types of human cancer cell lines (HCT15, MM231, NCI-H23, NUGC-3, PC-3, ACHN). We generated nitrile oxides in situ from oximes using a commercial bleaching agent; their cycloadditions with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine yielded isoxazole derivatives possessing activity against the cancer cell lines. We synthesized several azides from benzylic bromides and their click reactions with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine provided triazole derivatives.

  16. Low frequency Raman study of the nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, Craig; Lee, Scott

    2011-03-01

    In both transcription and replication, the two helices of the DNA molecule move apart. Consequently, vibrations involving the relative motions of large portions of the molecule with respect to one another are of intrinsic interest. Such vibrations have relatively low frequencies because they involve weak bonds and large masses. Low frequency modes are difficult to observe in Raman spectroscopy because they are very close to the signal from the Rayleigh scattered light (which is very intense). In this poster, we will describe our results for the eight nucleosides: adenosine, deoxyadenosine, guanosine, deoxyguanosine, cytidine, deoxycytidine, uracil and deoxythymidine.

  17. Low frequency Raman study of the nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, Craig; Lee, Scott

    2010-10-01

    In both transcription and replication, the two helices of the DNA molecule move apart. Consequently, vibrations involving the relative motions of large portions of the molecule with respect to one another are of intrinsic interest. Such vibrations have relatively low frequencies because they involve weak bonds and large masses. Low frequency modes are difficult to observe in Raman spectroscopy because they are very close to the signal from the Rayleigh scattered light (which is very intense). In this poster, we will describe our results for the eight nucleosides: adenosine, deoxyadenosine, guanosine, deoxyguanosine, cytidine, deoxycytidine, uracil and deoxythymidine.

  18. Low frequency Raman study of the nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, Craig; Lee, Scott

    2011-04-01

    In both transcription and replication, the two helices of the DNA molecule move apart. Consequently, vibrations involving the relative motions of large portions of the molecule with respect to one another are of intrinsic interest. Such vibrations have relatively low frequencies because they involve weak bonds and large masses. Low frequency modes are difficult to observe in Raman spectroscopy because they are very close to the signal from the Rayleigh scattered light (which is very intense). In this poster, we will describe our results for the eight nucleosides: adenosine, deoxyadenosine, guanosine, deoxyguanosine, cytidine, deoxycytidine, uracil and deoxythymidine.

  19. Hybridization accompanying FRET event in labeled natural nucleoside-unnatural nucleoside containing chimeric DNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Bag, Subhendu Sekhar; Das, Suman K; Pradhan, Manoj Kumar; Jana, Subhashis

    2016-09-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a highly efficient strategy in illuminating the structures, structural changes and dynamics of DNA, proteins and other biomolecules and thus is being widely utilized in studying such phenomena, in designing molecular/biomolecular probes for monitoring the hybridization event of two single stranded DNA to form duplex, in gene detection and in many other sensory applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. Moreover, FRET can give information about the positional status of chromophores within the associated biomolecules with much more accuracy than other methods can yield. Toward this end, we want to report here the ability of fluorescent unnatural nucleoside, triazolylphenanthrene ((TPhen)BDo) to show FRET interaction upon hybridization with fluorescently labeled natural nucleosides, (Per)U or (OxoPy)U or (Per)U, forming two stable chimeric DNA duplexes. The pairing selectivity and the thermal duplex stability of the chimeric duplexes are higher than any of the duplexes with natural nucleoside formed. The hybridization results in a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from donor triazolylphenanthrene of (TPhen)BDo to acceptor oxopyrene of (OxoPy)U and/or to perylene chromophore of (Per)U, respectively, in two chimeric DNA duplexes. Therefore, we have established the FRET process in two chimeric DNA duplexes wherein a fluorescently labeled natural nucleoside ((OxoPy)U or (Per)U) paired against an unnatural nucleoside ((TPhen)BDo) without sacrificing the duplex stability and B-DNA conformation. The hybridization accompanying FRET event in these classes of interacting fluorophores is new. Moreover, there is no report of such designed system of chimeric DNA duplex. Our observed phenomenon and the design can potentially be exploited in designing more of such efficient FRET pairs for useful application in the detection and analysis of biomolecular interactions and in material science application. Copyright

  20. Muraymycin nucleoside-peptide antibiotics: uridine-derived natural products as lead structures for the development of novel antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, Daniel; Koppermann, Stefan; Wirth, Marius; Niro, Giuliana; Leyerer, Kristin; Ducho, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Muraymycins are a promising class of antimicrobial natural products. These uridine-derived nucleoside-peptide antibiotics inhibit the bacterial membrane protein translocase I (MraY), a key enzyme in the intracellular part of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. This review describes the structures of naturally occurring muraymycins, their mode of action, synthetic access to muraymycins and their analogues, some structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies and first insights into muraymycin biosynthesis. It therefore provides an overview on the current state of research, as well as an outlook on possible future developments in this field.

  1. Muraymycin nucleoside-peptide antibiotics: uridine-derived natural products as lead structures for the development of novel antibacterial agents

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Marius; Niro, Giuliana; Leyerer, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Muraymycins are a promising class of antimicrobial natural products. These uridine-derived nucleoside-peptide antibiotics inhibit the bacterial membrane protein translocase I (MraY), a key enzyme in the intracellular part of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. This review describes the structures of naturally occurring muraymycins, their mode of action, synthetic access to muraymycins and their analogues, some structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies and first insights into muraymycin biosynthesis. It therefore provides an overview on the current state of research, as well as an outlook on possible future developments in this field. PMID:27340469

  2. Cholesterol modified nucleosides as precursors for microtube self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petran, A.; Losensky, L.; Arbuzova, A.; Liebscher, J.

    2013-11-01

    Cholesterol-modified nucleotides are interesting components for the preparation of microtubes when mixed with phospholipids. This ability is strongly influenced by the structure of such nucleoside derivatives. In the present publication the synthesis and analytical characterization of new members of cholesterol-modified nucleosides and nucleobases are reported.

  3. Bone marrow CFU-GM and human tumor xenograft efficacy of three antitumor nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Rebecca G; Roth, Stephanie; Kurtzberg, Leslie S; Rouleau, Cecile; Yao, Min; Crawford, Jennifer; Krumbholz, Roy; Lovett, Dennis; Schmid, Steven; Teicher, Beverly A

    2009-05-01

    Nucleoside analogs are rationally designed anticancer agents that disrupt DNA and RNA synthesis. Fludarabine and cladribine have important roles in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Clofarabine is a next generation nucleoside analog which is under clinical investigation. The bone marrow toxicity, tumor cell cytotoxicity and human tumor xenograft activity of fludarabine, cladribine and clofarabine were compared. Mouse and human bone marrow were subjected to colony forming (CFU-GM) assays over a 5-log concentration range in culture. NCI-60 cell line screening data were compared. In vivo, a range of clofarabine doses was compared with fludarabine for efficacy in several human tumor xenografts. The IC90 concentrations for fludarabine and cladribine for mouse CFU-GM were >30 and 0.93 microM, and for human CFU-GM were 8 and 0.11 microM, giving mouse to human differentials of >3.8- and 8.5-fold. Clofarabine produced IC90s of 1.7 microM in mouse and 0.51 microM in human CFU-GM, thus a 3.3-fold differential between species. In the NCI-60 cell line screen, fludarabine and cladribine showed selective cytotoxicity toward leukemia cell lines while for clofarabine there was no apparent selectivity based upon origin of the tumor cells. In vivo, clofarabine produced a dose-dependent increase in tumor growth delay in the RL lymphoma, the RPMI-8226 multiple myeloma, and HT-29 colon carcinoma models. The PC3 prostate carcinoma was equally responsive to clofarabine and fludarabine. Bringing together bone marrow toxicity data, tumor cell line cytotoxicity data, and human tumor xenograft efficacy provides valuable information for the translation of preclinical findings to the clinic.

  4. Nonenzymatic template-directed reactions on altritol oligomers, preorganized analogues of oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlov, I. A.; Zielinski, M.; Allart, B.; Kerremans, L.; Van Aerschot, A.; Busson, R.; Herdewijn, P.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Altritol nucleic acids (ANAs) are RNA analogues with a phosphorylated D-altritol backbone. The nucleobase is attached at the 2-(S)-position of the carbohydrate moiety. We report that ANA oligomers are superior to the corresponding DNA, RNA, and HNA (hexitol nucleic acid) in supporting efficient nonenzymatic template-directed synthesis of complementary RNAs from nucleoside-5'-phosphoro-2-methyl imidazolides. Activated ANA and HNA monomers do not oligomerize efficiently on DNA, RNA, HNA, or ANA templates.

  5. Amphiphilic Tobramycin Analogues as Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sanjib K.; Fosso, Marina Y.; Green, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vitro antifungal activities, cytotoxicities, and membrane-disruptive actions of amphiphilic tobramycin (TOB) analogues. The antifungal activities were established by determination of MIC values and in time-kill studies. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in mammalian cell lines. The fungal membrane-disruptive action of these analogues was studied by using the membrane-impermeable dye propidium iodide. TOB analogues bearing a linear alkyl chain at their 6″-position in a thioether linkage exhibited chain length-dependent antifungal activities. Analogues with C12 and C14 chains showed promising antifungal activities against tested fungal strains, with MIC values ranging from 1.95 to 62.5 mg/liter and 1.95 to 7.8 mg/liter, respectively. However, C4, C6, and C8 TOB analogues and TOB itself exhibited little to no antifungal activity. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) for the most potent TOB analogues (C12 and C14) against A549 and Beas 2B cells were 4- to 64-fold and 32- to 64-fold higher, respectively, than their antifungal MIC values against various fungi. Unlike conventional aminoglycoside antibiotics, TOB analogues with alkyl chain lengths of C12 and C14 appear to inhibit fungi by inducing apoptosis and disrupting the fungal membrane as a novel mechanism of action. Amphiphilic TOB analogues showed broad-spectrum antifungal activities with minimal mammalian cell cytotoxicity. This study provides novel lead compounds for the development of antifungal drugs. PMID:26033722

  6. Solution-phase parallel synthesis of acyclic nucleoside libraries of purine, pyrimidine, and triazole acetamides.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ashish K; Pathak, Vibha; Reynolds, Robert C

    2014-09-08

    Molecular diversity plays a pivotal role in modern drug discovery against phenotypic or enzyme-based targets using high throughput screening technology. Under the auspices of the Pilot Scale Library Program of the NIH Roadmap Initiative, we produced and report herein a diverse library of 181 purine, pyrimidine, and 1,2,4-triazole-N-acetamide analogues which were prepared in a parallel high throughput solution-phase reaction format. A set of assorted amines were reacted with several nucleic acid N-acetic acids utilizing HATU as the coupling reagent to produce diverse acyclic nucleoside N-acetamide analogues. These reactions were performed using 24 well reaction blocks and an automatic reagent-dispensing platform under inert atmosphere. The targeted compounds were purified on an automated purification system using solid sample loading prepacked cartridges and prepacked silica gel columns. All compounds were characterized by NMR and HRMS, and were analyzed for purity by HPLC before submission to the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR) at NIH. Initial screening through the Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network (MLPCN) program, indicates that several analogues showed diverse and interesting biological activities.

  7. Cellular Uptake of Decitabine by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters in HCT116 Cells.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kumiko; Hosokawa, Mika; Iwakawa, Seigo

    2015-01-01

    DNA hypermethylation, an epigenetic change that silences gene expression without altering nucleotide sequences, plays a critical role in the formation and progression of colorectal cancers as well as in the acquisition of drug resistance. Decitabine (DAC), a DNA methyltransferase 1 inhibitor of nucleoside analogues, has been shown to restore gene expression silenced by hypermethylation. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying both uridine and DAC uptake were examined in the human colon cancer cell line HCT116. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that ENT1 mRNA was the most abundant among the nucleoside transporters examined in HCT116 cells. The ENT1 protein was detected in the membrane fraction, as determined by Western blotting. The uptake of uridine or DAC was time- and concentration-dependent, but also Na(+)-independent. The uptake of these agents was inhibited by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBMPR), an inhibitor of equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs), and was also decreased in cells treated with ENT1 small interfering RNA. The uptake of both uridine and DAC was inhibited by uridine, cytidine, adenosine, or inosine, while that of DAC was also inhibited by thymidine. The expression of MAGEA1 mRNA, the DNA of which was methylated in HCT116 cells, was increased by DAC treatment, and this increment was attenuated by concomitant treatment with NBMPR. The IC50 value of DAC was also increased in the presence of NBMPR. These results suggest that DAC is mainly taken up by ENT1 and that this uptake is one of the key determinants of the activity of DAC in HCT116 cells.

  8. Enantioselective Supramolecular Carriers for Nucleoside Drugs. A Thermodynamic and Kinetic Gas Phase Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraschetti, Caterina; Filippi, Antonello; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Villani, Claudio; Roselli, Graziella; Mortera, Stefano Levi; Speranza, Maurizio

    2012-10-01

    The enantioselective interactions between chiral tetra-amidic receptors and nucleosides have been investigated by the ESI-IT-MS and ESI-FT-ICR-MS methodologies. Configurational effects on the CID fragmentation of diastereomeric [ M H 2 •H•A] + aggregates (A = 2'-deoxycytidine dC, citarabine ( ara-C) were found to be mostly offset by isotope effect in [ S X 2 •H•A] + (X = H, D) differently from the results obtained on the analogues (A = cytidine C and gemcitabine G). This result points the involvement of two different nucleoside/tetraamide isoforms. The structural differences of the [ M H 2 •H•A] + (A = C and G) complexes vs. the [ M H 2 •H•A] + ( dC and ara-C) ones is fully confirmed by the kinetics of their uptake of the 2-aminobutane enantiomers, measured by FT-ICR mass spectrometry. Indeed, uptake of the 2-aminobutane enantiomers by [ M H n •H•A] + (n = 1,2; A = dC and ara-C) complexes is reversible, while that by [ M H n •H•A] + (n = 1,2; A = C and G) is not. The most encouraging result concerning the measured fragmentation and kinetic differences between C and ara-C, that are just epimers, indicates the possibility to subtly modulate the non-covalent drug/receptor interactions, through the electronic properties of the 2'-substituent on the nucleoside furanose ring, and furthermore on its three-dimensional position.

  9. New insights on nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferases: a versatile biocatalyst for one-pot one-step synthesis of nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Fresco-Taboada, A; de la Mata, I; Arroyo, M; Fernández-Lucas, J

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, glycosiltransferases have arisen as standard biocatalysts for the enzymatic synthesis of a wide variety of natural and non-natural nucleosides. Such enzymatic synthesis of nucleoside analogs catalyzed by nucleoside phosphorylases and 2'-deoxyribosyltransferases (NDTs) has demonstrated to be an efficient alternative to the traditional multistep chemical methods, since chemical glycosylation reactions include several protection-deprotection steps. This minireview exhaustively covers literature reports on this topic with the final aim of presenting NDTs as an efficient option to nucleoside phosphorylases for the synthesis of natural and non-natural nucleosides. Detailed comments about structure and catalytic mechanism of described NDTs, as well as their possible biological role, substrate specificity, and advances in detection of new enzyme specificities towards different non-natural nucleoside synthesis are included. In addition, optimization of enzymatic transglycosylation reactions and their application in the synthesis of natural and non-natural nucleosides have been described. Finally, immobilization of NDTs is shown as a practical procedure which leads to the preparation of very interesting biocatalysts applicable to industrial nucleoside synthesis.

  10. Synthesis and properties of carbohydrate-phosphate backbone-modified oligonucleotide analogues and nucleic acid mimetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramova, Tatyana V.; Silnikov, Vladimir N.

    2011-05-01

    Advances in the synthesis of oligo(deoxy)ribonucleotide analogues and nucleic acid mimetics made in the last decade are summarized. Attention is focused on new methods for the synthesis of derivatives with a modified ribose-phosphate backbone (phosphorothioate, boranophosphate, and nucleoside phosphonate derivatives) and derivatives devoid of the phosphate group. Among nucleic acid mimetics, conformationally restricted modified peptide nucleic acids, including those bearing a negative or positive charge, and morpholino oligomers are considered. Advantages and drawbacks of the main types of analogues as regards the complexity of the synthesis and the possibility of their application as antisense agents or reagents for hybridization analysis are compared.

  11. Dual inhibition of HCV and HIV by ring-expanded nucleosides containing the 5:7-fused imidazo[4,5-e][1,3]diazepine ring System. In vitro results and implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Peng; Baier, Andrea; Cova, Lucyna; Hosmane, Ramachandra S.

    2014-01-01

    Examples of ring-expanded nucleosides (RENs), represented by general structures 1 and 2, exhibited dual anti-HCV and anti-HIV activities in both cell culture systems and the respective target enzyme assays, including HCV NTPase/helicase and human RNA helicase DDX3. Since HCV is a leading co-infection in late stage HIV AIDS patients, often leading to liver cirrhosis and death, the observed dual inhibition of HCV and HIV by the target nucleoside analogues has potentially beneficial implications in treating HIV patients infected with HCV. PMID:24461293

  12. Alkylsulfanylphenyl derivatives of cytosine and 7-deazaadenine nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleoside triphosphates: synthesis, polymerase incorporation to DNA and electrochemical study.

    PubMed

    Macíčková-Cahová, Hana; Pohl, Radek; Horáková, Petra; Havran, Luděk; Špaček, Jan; Fojta, Miroslav; Hocek, Michal

    2011-05-16

    Aqueous Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of halogenated nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleoside triphosphates derived from 5-iodocytosine and 7-iodo-7-deazaadenine with methyl-, benzyl- and tritylsufanylphenylboronic acids gave the corresponding alkylsulfanylphenyl derivatives of nucleosides and nucleotides. The modified nucleoside triphosphates were incorporated into DNA by primer extension by using Vent(exo-) polymerase. The electrochemical behaviour of the alkylsulfanylphenyl nucleosides indicated formation of compact layers on the electrode. Modified nucleotides and DNA with incorporated benzyl- or tritylsulfanylphenyl moieties produced signals in [Co(NH(3))(6)](3+) ammonium buffer, attributed to the Brdička catalytic response, depending on the negative potential applied. Repeated constant current chronopotentiometric scans in this medium showed increased Brdička catalytic response, which suggests the deprotection of the alkylsulfanyl derivatives to free thiols under the conditions. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Parameterization of AZT-A widely used nucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Alexandra T. P.; Fernandes, Pedro A.; Ramos, Maria J.

    Seven nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors are currently used in the clinical treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These substrate analogues block DNA synthesis by the viral enzyme RT. However, the emergence of resistant variants of RT allied to their long-term toxicity requires the design of new and better RT inhibitors, with long-term in vivo efficacy. In this work we used density functional theory (DFT) calculations to develop a set of molecular mechanics (MM) parameters committed to the AMBER force field for one of the most used in the clinic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): zidovudine (AZT). These parameters were tested by comparing the optimized geometries of AZT at both the DFT and MM levels of theory. The ability of the new parameters to reproduce the torsional energy of the azide group was also verified by scanning the surface in MM with the new parameters and comparing the results with the same potential energy surface (PES) at the DFT level. Finally, the parameters were validated through classical MD simulations of AZT in aqueous environment.

  14. Survey of Analogue Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    Analogue spacetimes (and more boldly, analogue models both of and for gravity), have attracted significant and increasing attention over the last decade and a half. Perhaps the most straightforward physical example, which serves as a template for most of the others, is Bill Unruh's model for a dumb hole,(mute black hole, acoustic black hole), wherein sound is dragged along by a moving fluid—and can even be trapped behind an acoustic horizon. This and related analogue models for curved spacetimes are useful in many ways: analogue spacetimes provide general relativists with extremely concrete physical models to help focus their thinking, and conversely the techniques of curved spacetime can sometimes help improve our understanding of condensed matter and/or optical systems by providing an unexpected and countervailing viewpoint. In this chapter, I shall provide a few simple examples of analogue spacetimes as general background for the rest of the contributions.

  15. Ether lipid-ester prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: activity against adenovirus replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hartline, Caroll B; Gustin, Kortney M; Wan, William B; Ciesla, Stephanie L; Beadle, James R; Hostetler, Karl Y; Kern, Earl R

    2005-02-01

    The acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir (CDV) and its closely related analogue (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-adenine ([S]-HPMPA) have been reported to have activity against many adenovirus (AdV) serotypes. A new series of orally active ether lipid-ester prodrugs of CDV and of (S)-HPMPA that have slight differences in the structure of their lipid esters were evaluated, in tissue-culture cells, for activity against 5 AdV serotypes. The results indicated that, against several AdV serotypes, the most active compounds were 15-2500-fold more active than the unmodified parent compounds and should be evaluated further for their potential to treat AdV infections in humans.

  16. Probing Human Telomeric DNA and RNA Topology and Ligand Binding in a Cellular Model by Using Responsive Fluorescent Nucleoside Probes.

    PubMed

    Manna, Sudeshna; Panse, Cornelia H; Sontakke, Vyankat A; Sangamesh, Sarangamath; Srivatsan, Seergazhi G

    2017-08-17

    The development of biophysical systems that enable an understanding of the structure and ligand-binding properties of G-quadruplex (GQ)-forming nucleic acid sequences in cells or models that mimic the cellular environment would be highly beneficial in advancing GQ-directed therapeutic strategies. Herein, the establishment of a biophysical platform to investigate the structure and recognition properties of human telomeric (H-Telo) DNA and RNA repeats in a cell-like confined environment by using conformation-sensitive fluorescent nucleoside probes and a widely used cellular model, bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate reverse micelles (RMs), is described. The 2'-deoxy and ribonucleoside probes, composed of a 5-benzofuran uracil base analogue, faithfully report the aqueous micellar core through changes in their fluorescence properties. The nucleoside probes incorporated into different loops of H-Telo DNA and RNA oligonucleotide repeats are minimally perturbing and photophysically signal the formation of respective GQ structures in both aqueous buffer and RMs. Furthermore, these sensors enable a direct comparison of the binding affinity of a ligand to H-Telo DNA and RNA GQ structures in the bulk and confined environment of RMs. These results demonstrate that this combination of a GQ nucleoside probe and easy-to-handle RMs could provide new opportunities to study and devise screening-compatible assays in a cell-like environment to discover GQ binders of clinical potential. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a nucleoside kinase from the hyperthermophile Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

    SciTech Connect

    Arnfors, Linda; Hansen, Thomas; Meining, Winfried; Schönheit, Peter; Ladenstein, Rudolf

    2005-06-01

    Nucleoside kinase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon M. jannaschii is a member of the PFK-B family which belongs to the ribokinase superfamily. Here, its expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis are described. Methanocaldococcus jannaschii nucleoside kinase (MjNK) is an ATP-dependent non-allosteric phosphotransferase that shows high catalytic activity for guanosine, inosine and cytidine. MjNK is a member of the phosphofructokinase B family, but participates in the biosynthesis of nucleoside monophosphates rather than in glycolysis. MjNK was crystallized as the apoenzyme as well as in complex with an ATP analogue and Mg{sup 2+}. The latter crystal form was also soaked with fructose-6-phosphate. Synchrotron-radiation data were collected to 1.70 Å for the apoenzyme crystals and 1.93 Å for the complex crystals. All crystals exhibit orthorhombic symmetry; however, the apoenzyme crystals contain one monomer per asymmetric unit whereas the complex crystals contain a dimer.

  18. 6-Methylpurine derived sugar modified nucleosides: Synthesis and evaluation of their substrate activity with purine nucleoside phosphorylases.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Abdalla E A; Abou-Elkhair, Reham A I; Parker, William B; Allan, Paula W; Secrist, John A

    2016-04-01

    6-Methylpurine (MeP) is cytotoxic adenine analog that does not exhibit selectivity when administered systemically, and could be very useful in a gene therapy approach to cancer treatment involving Escherichia coli PNP. The prototype MeP releasing prodrug, 9-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine, MeP-dR has demonstrated good activity against tumors expressing E. coli PNP, but its antitumor activity is limited due to toxicity resulting from the generation of MeP from gut bacteria. Therefore, we have embarked on a medicinal chemistry program to identify non-toxic MeP prodrugs that could be used in conjunction with E. coli PNP. In this work, we report on the synthesis of 9-(6-deoxy-β-d-allofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (3) and 9-(6-deoxy-5-C-methyl-β-d-ribo-hexofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (4), and the evaluation of their substrate activity with several phosphorylases. The glycosyl donors; 1,2-di-O-acetyl-3,5-di-O-benzyl-α-d-allofuranose (10) and 1-O-acetyl-3-O-benzyl-2,5-di-O-benzoyl-6-deoxy-5-C-methyl-β-d-ribohexofuran-ose (15) were prepared from 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidine-α-d-glucofuranose in 9 and 11 steps, respectively. Coupling of 10 and 15 with silylated 6-methylpurine under Vorbrüggen glycosylation conditions followed conventional deprotection of the hydroxyl groups furnished 5'-C-methylated-6-methylpurine nucleosides 3 and 4, respectively. Unlike 9-(6-deoxy-α-l-talo-furanosyl)-6-methylpurine, which showed good substrate activity with E. coli PNP mutant (M64V), the β-d-allo-furanosyl derivative 3 and the 5'-di-C-methyl derivative 4 were poor substrates for all tested glycosidic bond cleavage enzymes.

  19. Phosphorylation of anti-HIV nucleoside analogs by nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Xu, Y; Sellam, O; Sarfati, R; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    1999-01-01

    The reaction of NDP kinase with antiviral nucleoside triphosphates used in antiviral therapies was studied at the presteady state by fluorescence stopped-flow and compared with the steady-state parameters. The affinity of the analogs was determined by fluorescence titration of a mutated enzyme with an inserted Trp in the binding site. The lack of the 3' hydroxyl in analogs is shown to decrease the kcat more than the KD.

  20. [Abiogenic nucleoside synthesis in the presence of phosphorus salts].

    PubMed

    Kuzicheva, E A; Tsupkina, N V

    1978-01-01

    By means of UV-spectroscopy, gel-filtration, ion-exchange and thin layer chromatography it has been shown that the action of ionizing radiation on the mixture of dry preparations of adenine and deoxyribose in the presence of the K, Na and Ca phosphates results in the formation of nucleoside-like substances. The phosphates catalyze or inhibit the nucleoside synthesis but they are not phosphorylating agents. The data obtained indicate the reality of abiogenic synthesis of nucleoside-like substances from the mixture of dry preparations of adenine and deoxyribose in the lithosphere during chemical evolution.

  1. Formation of nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates under potentially prebiological conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohrmann, R.

    1976-01-01

    The characteristics and efficiencies of biochemical reactions involving nucleoside 5'-diphosphates and -triphosphates (important substrates of RNA and DNA synthesis) under conditions corresponding to the primitive prebiotic earth are investigated. Urea catalysis of the formation of linear inorganic polyphosphates and metal ions promoting the reactions are discussed. Linear polyphosphate was incubated with Mg(++) in the presence of a nucleoside 5'-phosphate, to yield nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates when products are dried, while Mg(++) prompts depolymerization to trimetaphosphate in aqueous solutions. Plausible biogenetic pathways are examined.

  2. Natural and engineered biosynthesis of nucleoside antibiotics in Actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenqing; Qi, Jianzhao; Wu, Pan; Wan, Dan; Liu, Jin; Feng, Xuan; Deng, Zixin

    2016-03-01

    Nucleoside antibiotics constitute an important family of microbial natural products bearing diverse bioactivities and unusual structural features. Their biosynthetic logics are unique with involvement of complex multi-enzymatic reactions leading to the intricate molecules from simple building blocks. Understanding how nature builds this family of antibiotics in post-genomic era sets the stage for rational enhancement of their production, and also paves the way for targeted persuasion of the cell factories to make artificial designer nucleoside drugs and leads via synthetic biology approaches. In this review, we discuss the recent progress and perspectives on the natural and engineered biosynthesis of nucleoside antibiotics.

  3. Synthesis and antiviral activity of the carbocyclic analogues of 5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine and of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine.

    PubMed

    Shealy, Y F; O'Dell, C A; Arnett, G; Shannon, W M

    1986-01-01

    The carbocyclic analogue of the antiviral agent 5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EDU) was synthesized by two routes. The pivotal step in the first route is the reaction of lithium dimethylcuprate with the carbocyclic analogue of 5-(bromomethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine dibenzoate (6). The second route is based on the synthesis of the carbocyclic analogue of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (12) by a coupling reaction catalyzed by bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) chloride and copper(I) iodide, a method reported recently (Robins and Barr) for the synthesis of the true nucleoside 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (1b). The carbocyclic analogue of EDU inhibits the replication of type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex viruses in Vero cells. The carbocyclic analogue of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine has modest activity against herpes simplex virus, types 1 and 2.

  4. A new class of pyrimidine nucleosides: inhibitors of hepatitis B and C viruses.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Neeraj; Vedi, Satish; Liang, Chao; Agrawal, Babita; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-10-15

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are major health threats worldwide leading to liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and mortality. Herein, we report a new category of dideoxy pyrimidine nucleosides possessing a 4'-carboxyl (or carboxymethyl) function (7-9, 13, 16, 17), which are discovered as potential antiviral agents. For the first time, these nucleosides are recognized to be inhibitors of HBV and/or HCV replication. Among 4'-carboxy compounds, 3',4'-didehydrothymidine (16) was most effective against DHBV, HBV and HCV. Modification of the 4'-position in compound 7 from a carboxyl to carboxymethyl group (17) did not affect the anti-HBV activity but greatly increased the anti-HCV activity. Importantly, 17 yielded synergistic antiviral effect when combined with ribavirin without toxicity. The activity exhibited by a single agent towards both hepatitis viruses and no detectable in vitro cytotoxicity make this new class of compounds of interest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hepatotoxicity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Montessori, Valentina; Harris, Marianne; Montaner, Julio S G

    2003-05-01

    Hepatotoxicity is an adverse effect of all available classes of antiretrovirals, including nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). A syndrome of hepatic steatosis and lactic acidosis has been recognized as a rare, potentially fatal complication since the advent of NRTI monotherapy in the early 1990s. Today, NRTI remain the backbone of antiretroviral combination regimens, and, with the success of current treatment strategies, exposure to two or more of these agents may occur over a number of years. Hepatic steatosis and lactic acidosis are accordingly being observed more frequently, along with a more recently recognized syndrome of chronic hyperlactatemia. These as well as other adverse effects of NRTI are mediated by inhibition of human DNA polymerase gamma, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver and other tissues. Early recognition and intervention are essential to avert serious outcomes.

  6. Design and synthesis of triazolyl-donor/acceptor unnatural nucleosides and oligonucleotide probes containing triazolyl-phenanthrene nucleoside.

    PubMed

    Bag, Subhendu Sekhar; Talukdar, Sangita; Das, Suman Kalyan

    2014-09-08

    In the context of abasic DNA or DNA duplex stabilization, several unnatural nucleosidic/non-nucleosidic base surrogates have been reported. Toward this end, we have designed and synthesized triazolyl-aromatic donor chomophores as unnatural nucleoside analogs. These modifications display markedly higher thermal stabilization of abasic DNA duplex in comparison to the stabilization offered by other nucleoside/non-nucleoside base surrogates reported in the literature. The same oligonucleotide probe containing triazolylphenanthrene nucleotide also offers very good stability of the self-pair duplex via π-π stacking interaction and hetero-pair duplex via charge transfer interaction when paired against triazolyl acceptor aromatic nucleoside. Moreover, the probe in the reverse sequence containing triazolylphenanthrene nucleotide has shown FRET efficiency in a chimeric DNA duplex. The triazolyl nucleotides would expectedly show stability toward exonuclease activity. This unit describes protocols for chemical synthesis of unnatural triazolyl nucleosides and one oligonucleotide probe. The unit also provides a summary of various thermal and photophysical applications of triazolylphenantherene-containing oligonucleotides. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. [Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Joly, V; Yeni, P

    2000-06-01

    The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) directly inhibit the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) by binding in a reversible and non-competitive manner to the enzyme. The currently available NNRTIs are nevirapine, delavirdine, and efavirenz; other compounds are under evaluation. NNRTIs are extensively metabolized in the liver through cytochrome P450, leading to pharmacokinetic interactions with compounds utilizing the same metabolic pathway, particularly PIs, whose plasma levels are altered in the presence of NNRTIs. NNRTIs are drugs with a low genetic barrier, i.e. a single mutation in RT genoma induces a high-level of phenotypic resistance, preventing the use of NNRTIs as monotherapy. In naive patients, several trials have shown the value of NNRTIs in combination with nucleosides and/or protease inhibitors. Small pilot studies have shown that NNRTIs may be useful as second-line therapy. However, due to the rapid emergence of resistant virus to these compounds in case of incomplete viral suppression, NNRTIs should not be added to current failing antiretroviral regimen. The most common side-effect reported with nevirapine and delavirdine is rash. The incidence of rash is rather similar under these two compounds, but severe rash is less frequent with delavirdine. The most common adverse reactions reported with efavirenz are central nervous system complaints such as dizziness. Rash is reported less frequently than with nevirapine or delavirdine, and is usually mild. NNRTIs resistance mutations are located in the amino acid residues aligning the NNRTI-binding "pocket" site. High-level resistance is often associated with a single point mutation which develops within this site (especially codon groups 100 - 108 and 181 - 190). Patients failing on one NNRTI are very likely to possess multiple NNRTI resistance mutations. NNRTIs should always be used as part of a potent antiretroviral therapy to insure suppression of viral replication, thus circumventing

  8. A Single Deoxynucleoside Kinase Variant from Drosophila melanogaster Synthesizes Monophosphates of Nucleosides That Are Components of an Expanded Genetic System.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Mariko F; Winiger, Christian B; Shaw, Ryan W; Kim, Myong-Jung; Kim, Myong-Sang; Daugherty, Ashley B; Chen, Fei; Moussatche, Patricia; Moses, Jennifer D; Lutz, Stefan; Benner, Steven A

    2017-03-17

    Deoxynucleoside kinase from D. melanogaster (DmdNK) has broad specificity; although it catalyzes the phosphorylation of natural pyrimidine more efficiently than natural purine nucleosides, it accepts all four 2'-deoxynucleosides and many analogues, using ATP as a phosphate donor to give the corresponding deoxynucleoside monophosphates. Here, we show that replacing a single amino acid (glutamine 81 by glutamate) in DmdNK creates a variant that also catalyzes the phosphorylation of nucleosides that form part of an artificially expanded genetic information system (AEGIS). By shuffling hydrogen bonding groups on the nucleobases, AEGIS adds potentially as many as four additional nucleobase pairs to the genetic "alphabet". Specifically, we show that DmdNK Q81E creates the monophosphates from the AEGIS nucleosides dP, dZ, dX, and dK (respectively 2-amino-8-(1'-β-d-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl)-imidazo[1,2-a]-1,3,5-triazin-4(8H)-one, dP; 6-amino-3-(1'-β-d-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl)-5-nitro-1H-pyridin-2-one, dZ; 8-(1'β-d-2'-deoxy-ribofuranosyl)imidazo[1,2-a]-1,3,5-triazine-2(8H)-4(3H)-dione, dX; and 2,4-diamino-5-(1'-β-d-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl)-pyrimidine, dK). Using a coupled enzyme assay, in vitro kinetic parameters were obtained for three of these nucleosides (dP, dX, and dK; the UV absorbance of dZ made it impossible to get its precise kinetic parameters). Thus, DmdNK Q81E appears to be a suitable enzyme to catalyze the first step in the biosynthesis of AEGIS 2'-deoxynucleoside triphosphates in vitro and, perhaps, in vivo, in a cell able to manage plasmids containing AEGIS DNA.

  9. Photochemistry of 4'-benzophenone-substituted nucleoside derivatives as models for ribonucleotide reductases: competing generation of 3'-radicals and photoenols.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, T E; Müller, G; Berkessel, A

    2000-04-21

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the 2'-reduction of ribonucleotides, thus providing 2'-deoxyribonucleotides, the monomers for DNA-biosynthesis. The current mechanistic hypothesis for the catalysis effected by this class of enzymes involves a sequence of radical reactions. A 3'-hydrogen abstraction, effected by a radical at the enzyme's active site, is believed to initiate the catalytic cycle. As models for this substrate-enzyme interaction, the photochemically induced intramolecular hydrogen abstraction in a series of 4'-benzophenone-substituted nucleoside analogues was studied. Model compounds with hydroxy-, methoxy-, mesyloxy-groups or a cyclic carbonate in 2'- and 3'-positions were investigated. Depending on the substitution pattern, two different types of photoproducts were observed: Those which result from photoenol formation (gamma-H-abstraction) and those which result from abstraction of the 3'-H-atom (delta-H-abstraction). Photoenol formation was further supported by H/D-exchange experiments. Thus, the 3'-H-abstraction postulated as the initial step in RNR action was successfully modeled by photolysis of 4'-benzophenone-substituted nucleoside analogues. The regioselectivity of the photochemical H-abstraction and thus of the product distribution as a function of the 2'- and 3'-substituents was rationalized on the basis of a conformational analysis of the four model systems, utilizing molecular mechanics simulations.

  10. Insecticidal and cytotoxic effects of natural and hemisynthetic destruxins.

    PubMed

    Dumas, C; Robert, P; Pais, M; Vey, A; Quiot, J M

    1994-07-01

    The insecticidal and cytotoxic effects of 13 natural and hemisynthetic destruxins have been studied. DE shows insecticidal effects similar to those of DA, while DE and DA are more active than all the other natural compounds and analogues tested. Brominated destruxin is a relatively active analogue displaying particular modalities of cytotoxic effects which reflect a certain originality of its mode of action. The linear molecule resulting from the opening of the DA cycle is not toxic. The most hydrophilic destruxins showing e.g. charged radicals (COO-) appear the least toxic probably because they do not penetrate easily the cellular membranes.

  11. Four new cytotoxic xanthones from Garcinia nujiangensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhong-Yan; Xia, Zheng-Xiang; Qiao, Shi-Ping; Jiang, Chao; Shen, Guo-Rong; Cai, Mei-Xiang; Tang, Xiao-Yan

    2015-04-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetone extract of the twigs of Garcinia nujiangensis resulted in the isolation of four new prenylated xanthones, nujiangexanthones C-F (1-4), and ten known related analogues. The structures of compounds 1-4 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against three cancer cell lines, the test substances demonstrated selectivity toward the cancer cells.

  12. Synthesis of a dA-dT base pair analogue and its effects on DNA-ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Lan, T; McLaughlin, L W

    2001-08-01

    Two nucleoside derivatives containing the base analogues 3-deazaadenine and 3-methyl-2-pyridone have been prepared as analogues of dA and dT, respectively. After conversion into the appropriately protected phosphoramidites, DNA sequences were prepared with site-specifically placed analogues. When present in a duplex DNA sequence, the analogues result in the deletion of one or both of the hydrogen bonding functional groups (the N3-nitrogen of dA and the O2-carbonyl of dT) present in the minor groove. Binding by two ligands, 4',6-diamidine-2-phenyl indole (DAPI) and Hoechst 33258 in the minor groove has been probed using a variety of DNA sequences. These sequences contain a d(GAATTC)2 core with analogue nucleosides substituted for one or more of the dA and dT residues. DAPI bound strongly to any sequence that contained both O2-carbonyls of the central two dT residues. The presence of a dc3A residue did in some cases enhance binding. With one of the central O2-carbonyls deleted, the binding was noticeably reduced, and with both absent, no significant binding could be detected. Similar although less dramatic results were observed with Hoechst 33258 binding to analogue sequences.

  13. Palladium-catalyzed modification of unprotected nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Kevin H

    2015-05-22

    Synthetic modification of nucleoside structures provides access to molecules of interest as pharmaceuticals, biochemical probes, and models to study diseases. Covalent modification of the purine and pyrimidine bases is an important strategy for the synthesis of these adducts. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling is a powerful method to attach groups to the base heterocycles through the formation of new carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. In this review, approaches to palladium-catalyzed modification of unprotected nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides are reviewed. Polar reaction media, such as water or polar aprotic solvents, allow reactions to be performed directly on the hydrophilic nucleosides and nucleotides without the need to use protecting groups. Homogeneous aqueous-phase coupling reactions catalyzed by palladium complexes of water-soluble ligands provide a general approach to the synthesis of modified nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides.

  14. Improving nucleoside analogs via lipid conjugation: Is fatter any better?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Peter; Kucera, Gregory; Pardee, Timothy S

    2016-04-01

    In the past few decades, nucleoside analog drugs have been used to treat a large variety of cancers. These anti-metabolite drugs mimic nucleosides and interfere with chain lengthening upon incorporation into the DNA or RNA of actively replicating cells. However, efficient delivery of these drugs is limited due to their pharmacokinetic properties, and tumors often develop drug resistance. In addition, nucleoside analogs are generally hydrophilic, resulting in poor bioavailability and impaired blood-brain barrier penetration. Conjugating these drugs to lipids modifies their pharmacokinetic properties and may improve in vivo efficacy. This review will cover recent advances in the field of conjugation of phospholipids to nucleoside analogs. This includes conjugation of myristic acid, 12-thioethyldodecanoic acid, 5-elaidic acid esters, phosphoramidate, and self-emulsifying formulations. Relevant in vitro and in vivo data will be discussed for each drug, as well as any available data from clinical trials.

  15. Synthesis of Nucleoside Analogues with Potential Antiviral Activity against Negative Strand RNA Virus Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    standing overnight. Washing the filtered crystals with ether removed triethylamine hydrochloride and triphenyl phosphine, then recrystallisation from...pyridine to from an ester, DMF and pyridinium hydrochloride . The reaction of the Vilsmeier reagent with (E)-5-(2-carboxyvinyl)uridine and quenching...include 2-deoxy-2-glucose (28), D- glucosamine (29) and tunicamycin (30). Deoxyglucose is utilized instead of glucose in the formation of guanosine

  16. Prophylactic treatment with the nucleoside analogue 2'-C-methylcytidine completely prevents transmission of norovirus.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Pereira, J; Jochmans, D; Neyts, J

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis are highly prevalent, extensive and can disturb the functioning of health institutions, leading to the closure of hospital wards and causing life-threatening infections in long-term care facilities. There is no vaccine available; hence there is a pressing need for antivirals for the treatment (in immunodeficient patients) and prophylaxis of norovirus infections. We explored in a mouse model whether an inhibitor of norovirus replication can prevent/reduce transmission of the virus. We reported recently that the viral polymerase inhibitor 2'-C-methylcytidine (2CMC) efficiently protects against murine norovirus (MNV)-induced diarrhoea and mortality in mice. Here, we established an MNV-transmission model, determined the 50% infectious dose and assessed the ability of an antiviral molecule to prevent or reduce transmission of (murine) norovirus when given either to the infected (seeder) mice or to the uninfected (sentinel) mice. A robust norovirus transmission model was established using genogroup V (murine) norovirus in AG129 mice. The 50% infectious dose was determined to be ∼ 270 CCID50 (50% cell culture infectious dose). Treatment of infected mice with 2CMC reduced viral shedding and markedly reduced transmission to uninfected sentinels. Also, prophylactic treatment of sentinels with 2CMC resulted in protection against infection with MNV. These findings constitute an important first step towards developing an efficient prophylaxis for the control of norovirus outbreaks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Vibrational study of a nucleoside analogue with antiviral activity, 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine, CDU.

    PubMed

    Bailey, L; Navarro, R; Hernanz, A

    1999-01-01

    The experimental FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine have been assigned on the basis of normal coordinate analyses, in the light of observed and calculated wavenumbers and isotopic shifts. The results indicate that virtually all normal modes of IDU involve some degree of vibrational coupling between the chlorouracil base and the deoxyribose moiety.

  18. Crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae at 2.4;#8201;Å

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Zachary Lee; Cheong, Cheom-Gil; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2012-07-11

    Nucleosides are required for DNA and RNA synthesis, and the nucleoside adenosine has a function in a variety of signalling processes. Transport of nucleosides across cell membranes provides the major source of nucleosides in many cell types and is also responsible for the termination of adenosine signalling. As a result of their hydrophilic nature, nucleosides require a specialized class of integral membrane proteins, known as nucleoside transporters (NTs), for specific transport across cell membranes. In addition to nucleosides, NTs are important determinants for the transport of nucleoside-derived drugs across cell membranes. A wide range of nucleoside-derived drugs, including anticancer drugs (such as Ara-C and gemcitabine) and antiviral drugs (such as zidovudine and ribavirin), have been shown to depend, at least in part, on NTs for transport across cell membranes. Concentrative nucleoside transporters, members of the solute carrier transporter superfamily SLC28, use an ion gradient in the active transport of both nucleosides and nucleoside-derived drugs against their chemical gradients. The structural basis for selective ion-coupled nucleoside transport by concentrative nucleoside transporters is unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae in complex with uridine at 2.4 {angstrom}. Our functional data show that, like its human orthologues, the transporter uses a sodium-ion gradient for nucleoside transport. The structure reveals the overall architecture of this class of transporter, unravels the molecular determinants for nucleoside and sodium binding, and provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of nucleoside and nucleoside drug transport across cell membranes.

  19. The nucleoside uridine isolated in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Peña, Isabel; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2015-03-02

    Herein we present the first experimental observation of the isolated nucleoside uridine, placed in the gas phase by laser ablation and characterized by Fourier transform (FT) microwave techniques. Free from the bulk effects of their native environments, anti/C2'-endo-g+ conformation has been revealed as the most stable form of uridine. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving uracil and ribose moieties have been found to play an important role in the stabilization of the nucleoside.

  20. The Nucleoside Uridine Isolated in the Gas Phase**

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Isabel; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Herein we present the first experimental observation of the isolated nucleoside uridine, placed in the gas phase by laser ablation and characterized by Fourier transform microwave techniques. Free from the bulk effects of their native environments, anti/C2’-endo-g+ conformation has been revealed as the most stable form of uridine. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving uracil and ribose moieties have been found to play an important role in the stabilization of the nucleoside. PMID:25683559

  1. Synthesis and Evaluation of 2'-Deoxy-2'-Spirodiflurocyclopropyl Nucleoside Analogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Xia, Xueliang; Sun, Chenghai; Lin, Cai; Zhou, Yiqian; Hussain, Muzammal; Tang, Fei; Liu, Lu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Jiancun

    2016-09-01

    The preparation of 2'-deoxy-2'-siprodifluorocyclopropany-lnucleoside analogs has been achieved from α-d-glucose in several steps. The key step in the synthesis was the introduction of the difluorocyclopropane through a difluorocarbene type reaction at the 2'-position. Then, a series of novel 2'-deoxy-2'-spirodifluorocyclopropanyl nucleoside analogs were synthesized using the Vorbrüggen method. All the synthesized nucleosides were characterized and subsequently evaluated against hepatitis C and influenza A virus strains in vitro.

  2. Distribution of nucleosides in populations of Cordyceps cicadae.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wen-Bo; Yu, Hong; Ge, Feng; Yang, Jun-Yuan; Chen, Zi-Hong; Wang, Yuan-Bing; Dai, Yong-Dong; Adams, Alison

    2014-05-14

    A rapid HPLC method had been developed and used for the simultaneous determination of 10 nucleosides (uracil, uridine, 2'-deoxyuridine, inosine, guanosine, thymidine, adenine, adenosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine and cordycepin) in 10 populations of Cordyceps cicadae, in order to compare four populations of Ophicordyceps sinensis and one population of Cordyceps militaris. Statistical analysis system (SAS) 8.1 was used to analyze the nucleoside data. The pattern of nucleoside distribution was analyzed in the sampled populations of C. cicadae, O. sinensis and C. militaris, using descriptive statistical analysis, nested analysis and Q cluster analysis. The total amount of the 10 nucleosides in coremium was 1,463.89-5,678.21 µg/g in 10 populations of C. cicadae, 1,369.80-3,941.64 µg/g in sclerotium. The average contents of the 10 analytes were 4,392.37 µg/g and 3,016.06 µg/g in coremium and sclerotium, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) of nucleosides ranged from 8.36% to 112.36% in coremium of C. cicadae, and from 10.77% to 155.87% in sclerotium of C. cicadae. The CV of the nucleosides was wide within C. cicadae populations. The nested variation analysis by the nine nucleosides' distribution indicated that about 42.29% of the nucleoside variability in coremium was attributable to the differentiation among populations, and the remaining 57.71% resided in the populations. It was also shown that about 28.94% of the variation in sclerotium was expressed between populations, while most of the variation (71.06%) corresponded to the populations.

  3. Urinary nucleosides as biological markers for patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yu-Fang; Yang, Jun; Zhao, Xin-Jie; Feng, Bo; Kong, Hong-Wei; Chen, Ying-Jie; Lv, Shen; Zheng, Min-Hua; Xu, Guo-Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Fourteen urinary nucleosides, primary degradation products of tRNA, were evaluated to know the potential as biological markers for patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: The concentrations of 14 kinds of urinary nucleosides from 52 patients with colorectal cancer, 10 patients with intestinal villous adenoma and 60 healthy adults were determined by column switching high performance liquid chromatography method. RESULTS: The mean levels of 12 kinds of urinary nucleosides (except uridine and guanosine) in the patients with colorectal cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with intestinal villous adenoma or the healthy adults. Using the levels of 14 kinds of urinary nucleosides as the data vectors for principal component analysis, 71% (37/52) patients with colorectal cancer were correctly classified from healthy adults, in which the identification rate was much higher than that of CEA method (29%). Only 10% (1/10) of patients with intestinal villous adenoma were indistinguishable from patients with colorectal cancer. The levels of m1G, Pseu and m1A were positively related with tumor size and Duke’s stages of colorectal cancer. When monitoring the changes in urinary nucleoside concentrations of patients with colorectal cancer associated with surgery, it was found that the overall correlations with clinical assessment were 84% (27/32) and 91% (10/11) in response group and progressive group, respectively. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that urinary nucleosides determined by column switching high performance liquid chromatography method may be useful as biological markers for colorectal cancer. PMID:15991285

  4. Anopheles gambiae Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase: Catalysis, Structure, and Inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor,E.; Rinaldo-Matthis, A.; Li, L.; Ghanem, M.; Hazleton, K.; Cassera, M.; Almo, S.; Schramm, V.

    2007-01-01

    The purine salvage pathway of Anopheles gambiae, a mosquito that transmits malaria, has been identified in genome searches on the basis of sequence homology with characterized enzymes. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a target for the development of therapeutic agents in humans and purine auxotrophs, including malarial parasites. The PNP from Anopheles gambiae (AgPNP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and compared to the PNPs from Homo sapiens (HsPNP) and Plasmodium falciparum (PfPNP). AgPNP has kcat values of 54 and 41 s-1 for 2'-deoxyinosine and inosine, its preferred substrates, and 1.0 s-1 for guanosine. However, the chemical step is fast for AgPNP at 226 s-1 for guanosine in pre-steady-state studies. 5'-Deaza-1'-aza-2'-deoxy-1'-(9-methylene)-Immucillin-H (DADMe-ImmH) is a transition-state mimic for a 2'-deoxyinosine ribocation with a fully dissociated N-ribosidic bond and is a slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitor with a dissociation constant of 3.5 pM. This is the tightest-binding inhibitor known for any PNP, with a remarkable Km/Ki* of 5.4 x 107, and is consistent with enzymatic transition state predictions of enhanced transition-state analogue binding in enzymes with enhanced catalytic efficiency. Deoxyguanosine is a weaker substrate than deoxyinosine, and DADMe-Immucillin-G is less tightly bound than DADMe-ImmH, with a dissociation constant of 23 pM for AgPNP as compared to 7 pM for HsPNP. The crystal structure of AgPNP was determined in complex with DADMe-ImmH and phosphate to a resolution of 2.2 Angstroms to reveal the differences in substrate and inhibitor specificity. The distance from the N1' cation to the phosphate O4 anion is shorter in the AgPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}PO4 complex than in HsPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}SO4, offering one explanation for the stronger inhibitory effect of DADMe-ImmH for AgPNP.

  5. Elucidation of Different Binding Modes of Purine Nucleosides to Human Deoxycytidine Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Sabini, Elisabetta; Hazra, Saugata; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2008-07-30

    Purine nucleoside analogues of medicinal importance, such as cladribine, require phosphorylation by deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) for pharmacological activity. Structural studies of ternary complexes of human dCK show that the enzyme conformation adjusts to the different hydrogen-bonding properties between dA and dG and to the presence of substituent at the 2-position present in dG and cladribine. Specifically, the carbonyl group in dG elicits a previously unseen conformational adjustment of the active site residues Arg104 and Asp133. In addition, dG and cladribine adopt the anti conformation, in contrast to the syn conformation observed with dA. Kinetic analysis reveals that cladribine is phosphorylated at the highest efficiency with UTP as donor. We attribute this to the ability of cladribine to combine advantageous properties from dA (favorable hydrogen-bonding pattern) and dG (propensity to bind to the enzyme in its anti conformation), suggesting that dA analogues with a substituent at the 2-position are likely to be better activated by human dCK.

  6. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of boronated nucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    Modified nucleosides are an emerging class of potentially therapeutic agents. Recently, a number of 2[prime]-deoxynucleosides with boronated bases have been synthesized in this laboratory, including: 2[prime]-deoxy-N7-cyanoborano guanosine (bGua), 2[prime]-deoxy-N3-cyanoborano cytidine (bCyt), and 2[prime]-deoxy-N1-cyanoborano adenosine (bAde). The author has utilized proton NMR spectroscopy to determine the molecular recognition of these boronated nucleosides with their complementary base pairing partners. The self-association as well as heteroassociation were studied by varying the temperature, concentration, and mole fraction of each component. Proton NMR techniques include normal proton studies to measure the chemical shifts and homonuclear 1-D NOE difference to measure through space interactions, all of which help to determine the exact pairing behaviour of these nucleosides. Similar studies have been performed on unboronated nucleosides in order to determine if the boronated nucleosides can form stable Watson-Crick type base pairs; similar to unboronated nucleosides. From the results, the author concludes that bGua forms a stable Watson-Crick type base pair with Cyt. Both bGua and Cyt are able to self associate although the homodimers are less stable than the bGua:Cyt heterodimers. The other two boronated nucleosides because the cyanoborane group blocks the normal base pairing sites. The results are consistent with Hoogsteen pairing. Continuous variation studies suggest the existence of trimers of bCyt with Gua[sub 2] as well as other possible pairing schemes. The ability of bGua to complex with Cyt in a Watson-Crick type base pair suggests that it might be able to be incorporated like normal Gua into DNA.

  7. The effect of purine and pyrimidine analogues and virazole on adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, P; Haghchenas, D; Wigand, R

    1975-04-01

    The multiplication of adenovirus 19 in HeLa cells was inhibited by various purine and pyrimidine analogues and by virazole. The formation of infectious virus and of capsid proteins (haemagglutin, group-specific complement-fixing antigen) was inhibited to the same degree, while the viral cytopathic effect (CPE) was not inhibited. The reversibility of the inhibition after removal of the substances was more complete for purine than for pyrimidine analogues. The inhibition was counteracted by simulataneous addition of the corresponding nucleosides. Adenosine was more effected than guanosine against purine analogues; both were partially effective against virazole, but none of them against arabinofuranosyladenine. The time-dependence of inhibition, the ensuing eclipse period after removal of the inhibitors, and the successive application of two inhibitors led to the conclusion that most of them affect the viral multiplication mainly by inhibition of DNA synthesis. Azacytidine inhibits the synthesis of structural proteins as well.

  8. Design, synthesis and structure--activity relationship (SAR) studies of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine derived purine isosteres and their potential as cytotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Sajith, Ayyiliath M; Abdul Khader, K K; Joshi, Nithin; Reddy, Manchala Nageswar; Syed Ali Padusha, M; Nagaswarupa, H P; Nibin Joy, M; Bodke, Yadav D; Karuvalam, Ranjith P; Banerjee, Rinti; Muralidharan, A; Rajendra, P

    2015-01-07

    Drug resistance to chemotherapeutic agents paved the way to develop novel synthetic molecules which are active on MDR cancer cell lines. Regio-isomeric imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against a range of cancer cell lines. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of the imidazopyridine analogues are also described. Analogue 6b displayed strong cytotoxicity and good microsomal stability.

  9. A new antiproliferative noscapine analogue: chemical synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, Peter E; Abou El-Magd, Rabab M; Churchill, Cassandra D M; Tuszynski, Jack A; West, F G

    2016-06-28

    Noscapine, a naturally occurring opium alkaloid, is a widely used antitussive medication. Noscapine has low toxicity and recently it was also found to possess cytotoxic activity which led to the development of many noscapine analogues. In this paper we report on the synthesis and testing of a novel noscapine analogue. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay using SKBR-3 and paclitaxel-resistant SKBR-3 breast cancer cell lines using different concentrations for both noscapine and the novel compound. Microtubule polymerization assay was used to determine the effect of the new compound on microtubules. To compare the binding affinity of noscapine and the novel compound to tubulin, we have done a fluorescence quenching assay. Finally, in silico methods using docking calculations were used to illustrate the binding mode of the new compound to α,β-tubulin. Our cytotoxicity results show that the new compound is more cytotoxic than noscapine on both SKBR-3 cell lines. This was confirmed by the stronger binding affinity of the new compound, compared to noscapine, to tubulin. Surprisingly, our new compound was found to have strong microtubule-destabilizing properties, while noscapine is shown to slightly stabilize microtubules. Our calculation indicated that the new compound has more binding affinity to the colchicine-binding site than to the noscapine site. This novel compound has a more potent cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines than its parent, noscapine, and hence should be of interest as a potential anti-cancer drug.

  10. A new antiproliferative noscapine analogue: chemical synthesis and biological evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ghaly, Peter E.; Abou El-Magd, Rabab M.; Churchill, Cassandra D. M.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; West, F. G.

    2016-01-01

    Noscapine, a naturally occurring opium alkaloid, is a widely used antitussive medication. Noscapine has low toxicity and recently it was also found to possess cytotoxic activity which led to the development of many noscapine analogues. In this paper we report on the synthesis and testing of a novel noscapine analogue. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay using SKBR-3 and paclitaxel-resistant SKBR-3 breast cancer cell lines using different concentrations for both noscapine and the novel compound. Microtubule polymerization assay was used to determine the effect of the new compound on microtubules. To compare the binding affinity of noscapine and the novel compound to tubulin, we have done a fluorescence quenching assay. Finally, in silico methods using docking calculations were used to illustrate the binding mode of the new compound to α,β-tubulin. Our cytotoxicity results show that the new compound is more cytotoxic than noscapine on both SKBR-3 cell lines. This was confirmed by the stronger binding affinity of the new compound, compared to noscapine, to tubulin. Surprisingly, our new compound was found to have strong microtubule-destabilizing properties, while noscapine is shown to slightly stabilize microtubules. Our calculation indicated that the new compound has more binding affinity to the colchicine-binding site than to the noscapine site. This novel compound has a more potent cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines than its parent, noscapine, and hence should be of interest as a potential anti-cancer drug. PMID:27777381

  11. A new antiproliferative noscapine analogue: chemical synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, Peter E; El-Magd, Rabab M Abou; Churchill, Cassandra D M; Tuszynski, Jack A; West, F G

    2016-05-26

    Noscapine, a naturally occurring opium alkaloid, is a widely used antitussive medication. Noscapine has low toxicity and recently it was also found to possess cytotoxic activity which led to the development of many noscapine analogues. In this paper we report on the synthesis and testing of a novel noscapine analogue. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay using SKBR-3 and paclitaxel-resistant SKBR-3 breast cancer cell lines using different concentrations for both noscapine and the novel compound. Microtubule polymerization assay was used to determine the effect of the new compound on microtubules. To compare the binding affinity of noscapine and the novel compound to tubulin, we have done a fluorescence quenching assay. Finally, in silico methods using docking calculations were used to illustrate the binding mode of the new compound to α,β-tubulin. Our cytotoxicity results show that the new compound is more cytotoxic than noscapine on both SKBR-3 cell lines. This was confirmed by the stronger binding affinity of the new compound, compared to noscapine, to tubulin. Surprisingly, our new compound was found to have strong microtubule-destabilizing properties, while noscapine is shown to slightly stabilize microtubules. Our calculation indicated that the new compound has more binding affinity to the colchicine-binding site than to the noscapine site. This novel compound has a more potent cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines than its parent, noscapine, and hence should be of interest as a potential anti-cancer drug.

  12. Characterization of the Escherichia coli Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter NupC Using Computational, Biochemical, and Biophysical Methods.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijie; Xie, Hao; Ingram, Jean C; Hope, Ryan J; Baldwin, Stephen A; Patching, Simon G

    2017-07-20

    Members of the concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family of proteins mediate uptake of nucleosides into cells driven by a cation gradient, which then enter salvage pathways for nucleic acid synthesis. In humans, they also transport hydrophilic anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogue drugs into cells and tissues where they exert their pharmacological effects. Escherichia coli CNT NupC (400 residues) is pyrimidine-specific and driven by a proton gradient. We have used computational, biochemical, and biophysical methods to characterize evolutionary relationships, conservation of residues, structural domains, transmembrane helices, and residues involved in nucleoside binding and/or transport activity in NupC compared with those of sodium-driven Vibrio cholerae CNT (vcCNT) and human CNTs (hCNT1-3). As in the crystal structure of vcCNT, NupC appears to contain eight transmembrane-spanning α-helices. Wild-type NupC and single-cysteine-containing mutants were tested for transport activity in energized E. coli whole cells and for binding of nucleosides in non-energized native inner membranes using novel cross-polarization magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance methods. Wild-type NupC had an apparent affinity of initial rate transport (Km(app)) for [(14)C]uridine of 22.2 ± 3.7 μM and an apparent binding affinity (Kd(app)) for [1'-(13)C]uridine of 1.8-2.6 mM. Mutant S142C retained transport and binding affinities similar to those of the wild type. Mutants G146C and E149C had no transport activity but retained varying degrees of partial binding activity with affinities decreasing in the following order: wild type > S142C > G146C > E149C. Results were explained with respect to a homology model of NupC based on the structure of vcCNT and a hypothetical elevator-type mechanism of alternating access membrane transport in NupC.

  13. Substrate selectivity of Dengue and Zika virus NS5 polymerase towards 2'-modified nucleotide analogues.

    PubMed

    Potisopon, Supanee; Ferron, François; Fattorini, Véronique; Selisko, Barbara; Canard, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    In targeting the essential viral RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp), nucleotide analogues play a major role in antiviral therapies. In the Flaviviridae family, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be eradicated from chronically infected patients using a combination of drugs which generally include the 2'-modified uridine analogue Sofosbuvir, delivered as nucleotide prodrug. Dengue and Zika viruses are emerging flaviviruses whose RdRp is closely related to that of HCV, yet no nucleoside drug has been clinically approved for these acute infections. We have purified dengue and Zika virus full-length NS5, the viral RdRps, and used them to assemble a stable binary complex made of NS5 and virus-specific RNA primer/templates. The complex was used to assess the selectivity of NS5 towards nucleotide analogues bearing modifications at the 2'-position. We show that dengue and Zika virus RdRps exhibit the same discrimination pattern: 2'-O-Me > 2'-C-Me-2'-F > 2'-C-Me nucleoside analogues, unlike HCV RdRp for which the presence of the 2'-F is beneficial rendering the discrimination pattern 2'-O-Me > 2'-C-Me ≥ 2'-C-Me-2'-F. Both 2'-C-Me and 2'-C-Me-2'-F analogues act as non-obligate RNA chain terminators. The dengue and Zika NS5 nucleotide selectivity towards 2'-modified NTPs mirrors potency of the corresponding analogues in infected cell cultures.

  14. New insights into the synergism of nucleoside analogs with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael W; Parker, William B; Xu, Bo

    2013-09-26

    Nucleoside analogs have been frequently used in combination with radiotherapy in the clinical setting, as it has long been understood that inhibition of DNA repair pathways is an important means by which many nucleoside analogs synergize. Recent advances in our understanding of the structure and function of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), a critical enzyme required for the anti-tumor activity for many nucleoside analogs, have clarified the mechanistic role this kinase plays in chemo- and radio-sensitization. A heretofore unrecognized role of dCK in the DNA damage response and cell cycle machinery has helped explain the synergistic effect of these agents with radiotherapy. Since most currently employed nucleoside analogs are primarily activated by dCK, these findings lend fresh impetus to efforts focused on profiling and modulating dCK expression and activity in tumors. In this review we will briefly review the pharmacology and biochemistry of the major nucleoside analogs in clinical use that are activated by dCK. This will be followed by discussions of recent advances in our understanding of dCK activation via post-translational modifications in response to radiation and current strategies aimed at enhancing this activity in cancer cells.

  15. Design, synthesis and cytotoxic activity evaluation of new aminosubstituted benzofurans.

    PubMed

    Daniilides, Konstantinos; Lougiakis, Nikolaos; Pouli, Nicole; Marakos, Panagiotis; Samara, Pinelopi; Tsitsilonis, Ourania

    2014-01-01

    A number of new aminosubstituted benzofuran analogues have been prepared and their cytotoxic/cytostatic activity was investigated against five human tumor cell lines (MCF-7, SKBR3, SKOV3, HCT-116 and HeLa). Certain compounds showed noticeable tumor cell growth inhibition, indicative of possible structure-activity relationships.

  16. Antimalarial activity of abietane ferruginol analogues possessing a phthalimide group.

    PubMed

    González, Miguel A; Clark, Julie; Connelly, Michele; Rivas, Fatima

    2014-11-15

    The abietane-type diterpenoid (+)-ferruginol, a bioactive compound isolated from New Zealand's Miro tree (Podocarpus ferruginea), displays relevant pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial, cardioprotective, anti-oxidative, anti-plasmodial, leishmanicidal, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Herein, we demonstrate that ferruginol (1) and some phthalimide containing analogues 2-12 have potential antimalarial activity. The compounds were evaluated against malaria strains 3D7 and K1, and cytotoxicity was measured against a mammalian cell line panel. A promising lead, compound 3, showed potent activity with an EC50 = 86 nM (3D7 strain), 201 nM (K1 strain) and low cytotoxicity in mammalian cells (SI>290). Some structure-activity relationships have been identified for the antimalarial activity in these abietane analogues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. General approach to the synthesis of specifically deuterium-labeled nucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    DeVoss, J.J.; Hangeland, J.J.; Townsend, C.A.

    1994-05-20

    Synthesis routes for labelled nucleosides starting with ribose have been studied. The method is viable for producing sufficient quantities of D/T labelled nucleosides for oligonucleotide synthesis. 1 tab.

  18. Natural Analogue Synthesis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Simmons

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide

  19. A review on the chemical synthesis of pyrophosphate bonds in bioactive nucleoside diphosphate analogs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhihong

    2015-09-15

    Currently, there is an ongoing interest in the synthesis of nucleoside diphosphate analogs as important regulators in catabolism/anabolism, and their potential applications as mechanistic probes and chemical tools for bioassays. However, the pyrophosphate bond formation step remains as the bottleneck. In this Digest, the chemical synthesis of the pyrophosphate bonds of representative bioactive nucleoside diphosphate analogs, i.e. phosphorus-modified analogs, nucleoside cyclic diphosphates, and nucleoside diphosphate conjugates, will be described.

  20. RNA nucleosides as chiral sensing agents in NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lokesh, N; Sachin, S L; Narendra, L V; Arun, K; Suryaprakash, N

    2015-07-14

    The study reports chiral sensing properties of RNA nucleosides. Adenosine, guanosine, uridine and cytidine are used as chiral derivatizing agents to differentiate chiral 1°-amines. A three component protocol has been adopted for complexation of nucleosides and amines. The chiral differentiating ability of nucleosides is examined for different amines based on the (1)H NMR chemical shift differences of diastereomers (Δδ(R,S)). Enantiomeric differentiation has been observed at multiple chemically distinct proton sites. Adenosine and guanosine exhibit large chiral differentiation (Δδ(R,S)) due to the presence of a purine ring. The diastereomeric excess (de) measured by using adenosine is in good agreement with the gravimetric values.

  1. Chemoselective N-Deacetylation of Protected Nucleosides and Nucleotides Promoted by Schwartz's Reagent

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Valentina; Serpi, Michaela; McGuigan, Christopher; Pertusati, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Protection and deprotection strategies involving the N-acetyl group are widely utilized in nucleoside and nucleotide chemistry. Herein, we present a mild and selective N-deacetylation methodology, applicable to purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, by means of Schwartz's reagent, compatible with most of the common protecting groups used in nucleoside chemistry. PMID:26492555

  2. Nucleoside H-boranophosphonates: synthesis and properties of a new class of nucleotide analogs.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Renpei; Kawanaka, Toshihide; Oka, Natsuhisa; Wada, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    Nucleoside H-boranophosphonates were synthesized via the condensation reactions of appropriately protected nucleosides with monopyridinium H-boranophosphonate. The condensation reactions gave only the mono-esterified products under the optimized conditions without formation of di-esterified byproducts. Deprotection of the condensation products was achieved under basic conditions to afford the fully-deprotected nucleoside H-boranophosphonates in excellent yields.

  3. Synthesis, antiarrhythmic activity, and toxicological evaluation of mexiletine analogues.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Mariagrazia; Carocci, Alessia; Budriesi, Roberta; Micucci, Matteo; Toma, Maddalena; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Lovece, Angelo; Catalano, Alessia; Cavalluzzi, Maria Maddalena; Bruno, Claudio; De Palma, Annalisa; Contino, Marialessandra; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio; Chiarini, Alberto; Franchini, Carlo; Ghelardini, Carla; Habtemariam, Solomon; Lentini, Giovanni

    2016-10-04

    Four mexiletine analogues have been tested for their antiarrhythmic, inotropic, and chronotropic effects on isolated guinea pig heart tissues and to assess calcium antagonist activity, in comparison with the parent compound mexiletine. All analogues showed from moderate to high antiarrhythmic activity. In particular, three of them (1b,c,e) were more active and potent than the reference drug, while exhibiting only modest or no negative inotropic and chronotropic effects and vasorelaxant activity, thus showing high selectivity of action. All compounds showed no cytotoxicity and 1b,c,d did not impair motor coordination. All in, these new analogues exhibit an interesting cardiovascular profile and deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of L-enantiomers of 4'-thioarabinofuranosyl pyrimidine nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Satoh, H; Yoshimura, Y; Sakata, S; Miura, S; Machida, H; Matsuda, A

    1998-05-05

    L-Enantiomers of 4'-thioarabinofuranosyl pyrimidine nucleosides were synthesized from D-xylose. Methyl 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl-D-xylofuranoside 6 was converted to the corresponding xylitol 7, which was treated with MsCl and then Na2S to give 1,4-anhydro-L-4-thioarabitol 8. As previously reported, Pummerer rearrangement of 8 followed by glycosylation with a silylated thymine and N4-acetylcytosine derivative and deprotection gave the corresponding alpha- and beta-L-4'-thioarabinofuranosyl pyrimidine nucleosides.

  5. New prodrugs based on phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    MacCoss, M.

    1982-02-03

    A method is described for the preparation of defined, isomerically pure phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates as a prodrug in which the drug (araC) is attached to the phospholipid by a monophosphate linkage. Key intermediates in the process involve selective blocking and deblocking of the nucleoside derivative. These particular monophosphate-linked derivatives represent a new class of prodrug, which are useful by themselves or in combination with diphosphate linked derivatives. Several new compositions involving diphosphate linked derivatives are described in which the products are isomerically pure and having defined fatty acid chain lengths.

  6. Structural basis for activation of α-boranophosphate nucleotide analogues targeting drug-resistant reverse transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Philippe; Schneider, Benoît; Sarfati, Simon; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Guerreiro, Catherine; Boretto, Joëlle; Janin, Joël; Véron, Michel; Canard, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    AIDS chemotherapy is limited by inadequate intracellular concentrations of the active triphosphate form of nucleoside analogues, leading to incomplete inhibition of viral replication and the appearance of drug-resistant virus. Drug activation by nucleoside diphosphate kinase and inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase were studied comparatively. We synthesized analogues with a borano (BH3–) group on the α-phosphate, and found that they are substrates for both enzymes. X-ray structures of complexes with nucleotide diphosphate kinase provided a structural basis for their activation. The complex with d4T triphosphate displayed an intramolecular CH…O bond contributing to catalysis, and the Rp diastereoisomer of thymidine α-boranotriphosphate bound like a normal substrate. Using α-(Rp)-boranophosphate derivatives of the clinically relevant compounds AZT and d4T, the presence of the α-borano group improved both phosphorylation by nucleotide diphosphate kinase and inhibition of reverse transcription. Moreover, repair of blocked DNA chains by pyrophosphorolysis was reduced significantly in variant reverse transcriptases bearing substitutions found in drug-resistant viruses. Thus, the α-borano modification of analogues targeting reverse transcriptase may be of generic value in fighting viral drug resistance. PMID:10899107

  7. Structural basis for activation of alpha-boranophosphate nucleotide analogues targeting drug-resistant reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Meyer, P; Schneider, B; Sarfati, S; Deville-Bonne, D; Guerreiro, C; Boretto, J; Janin, J; Véron, M; Canard, B

    2000-07-17

    AIDS chemotherapy is limited by inadequate intracellular concentrations of the active triphosphate form of nucleoside analogues, leading to incomplete inhibition of viral replication and the appearance of drug-resistant virus. Drug activation by nucleoside diphosphate kinase and inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase were studied comparatively. We synthesized analogues with a borano (BH(3)(-)) group on the alpha-phosphate, and found that they are substrates for both enzymes. X-ray structures of complexes with nucleotide diphosphate kinase provided a structural basis for their activation. The complex with d4T triphosphate displayed an intramolecular CH.O bond contributing to catalysis, and the R(p) diastereoisomer of thymidine alpha-boranotriphosphate bound like a normal substrate. Using alpha-(R(p))-boranophosphate derivatives of the clinically relevant compounds AZT and d4T, the presence of the alpha-borano group improved both phosphorylation by nucleotide diphosphate kinase and inhibition of reverse transcription. Moreover, repair of blocked DNA chains by pyrophosphorolysis was reduced significantly in variant reverse transcriptases bearing substitutions found in drug-resistant viruses. Thus, the alpha-borano modification of analogues targeting reverse transcriptase may be of generic value in fighting viral drug resistance.

  8. Self-assembling of cytosine nucleoside into triply-bound dimers in acid media. A comprehensive evaluation of proton-bound pyrimidine nucleosides by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, X-rays diffractometry, and theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Armentano, Donatella; De Munno, Giovanni; Di Donna, Leonardo; Sindona, Giovanni; Giorgi, Gianluca; Salvini, Laura; Napoli, Anna

    2004-02-01

    Electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) is used to evaluate the assembling of cytosine and thymine nucleosides in the gas phase, through the formation of hydrogen bonded supermolecules. Mixtures of cytidine analogues and homologues deliver in the gas phase proton-bound heterodimers stabilized by multiple interactions, as proven by the kinetics of their dissociation into the corresponding protonated monomers. Theoretical calculations, performed on initial structures of methylcytosine homodimers available in the literature, converged to a minimized structure whereby the two pyrimidine rings interact through the formation of three hydrogen bonds of similar energy. The crystallographic data here reported show the equivalency of the two interacting pyrimidines which is attributable to the presence of an inversion center. Thymine and uracil pyrimidyl nucleosides form, by ESI, gaseous proton-bound dimers. The kinetic of their dissociation into the related protonated monomers shows that the nucleobases are weekly interacting through a single hydrogen bond. The minimized structure of the protonated heterodimer formed by thymine and N-1-methylthymine confirmed the existence of mainly one hydrogen bond which links the two nucleobases through the O4 oxygens. No crystallographic data exists on thymine proton-bound species, nor have we been able to obtain these aggregates in the solid phase. The gaseous phase, under high vacuum conditions, seems therefore a suitable environment where vanishing structures produced by ESI can be studied with a good degree of approximation.

  9. Two Nucleoside Uptake Systems in Lactococcus lactis: Competition between Purine Nucleosides and Cytidine Allows for Modulation of Intracellular Nucleotide Pools

    PubMed Central

    Martinussen, Jan; Wadskov-Hansen, Steen L. L.; Hammer, Karin

    2003-01-01

    A method for measuring internal nucleoside triphosphate pools of lactococci was optimized and validated. This method is based on extraction of 33P-labeled nucleotides with formic acid and evaluation by two-dimensional chromatography with a phosphate buffer system for the first dimension and with an H3BO3-LiOH buffer for separation in the second dimension. We report here the sizes of the ribo- and deoxyribonucleotide pools in laboratory strain MG1363 during growth in a defined medium. We found that purine- and pyrimidine-requiring strains may be used to establish physiological conditions in batch fermentations with altered nucleotide pools and growth rates by addition of nucleosides in different combinations. Addition of cytidine together with inosine to a purine-requiring strain leads to a reduction in the internal purine nucleotide pools and a decreased growth rate. This effect was not seen if cytidine was replaced by uridine. A similar effect was observed if cytidine and inosine were added to a pyrimidine-requiring strain; the UTP pool size was significantly decreased, and the growth rate was reduced. To explain the observed inhibition, the nucleoside transport systems in Lactococcus lactis were investigated by measuring the uptake of radioactively labeled nucleosides. The Km for for inosine, cytidine, and uridine was determined to be in the micromolar range. Furthermore, it was found that cytidine and inosine are competitive inhibitors of each other, whereas no competition was found between uridine and either cytidine or inosine. These findings suggest that there are two different high-affinity nucleoside transporters, one system responsible for uridine uptake and another system responsible for the uptake of all purine nucleosides and cytidine. PMID:12591866

  10. Homo- and heteroexchange of adenine nucleotides and nucleosides in rat hippocampal slices by the nucleoside transport system

    PubMed Central

    Sperlágh, Beáta; Szabó, Gábor; Erdélyi, Ferenc; Baranyi, Mária; Sylvester Vizi, E

    2003-01-01

    Here, we investigated how nucleotides and nucleosides affect the release of tritiated purines and endogenous adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) from superfused rat hippocampal slices. ATP elicited concentration-dependent [3H]purine efflux from slices preloaded with [3H]adenosine. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the effluent showed that the tritium label represented the whole set of adenine nucleotides and nucleosides, and ATP significantly increased the outflow of [3H]ATP. Adenosine 5′-diphosphate, adenosine, uridine, uridine 5′-triphosphate, α,β-methylene-ATP and 3′-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP were also active in eliciting [3H]purine release. Adenosine (300 μM) also evoked endogenous ATP efflux from the hippocampal slices. Reverse transcription-coupled-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNAs encoding a variety of P2X and P2Y receptor proteins are expressed in the rat hippocampus. Nevertheless, neither P2 receptor (i.e. pyridoxal-5-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulphonic acid, 30 μM, suramin, 300 μM and reactive blue 2, 10 μM), nor adenosine receptor (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, 250 nM and dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, 250 nM) antagonists modified the effect of ATP (300 μM) to evoke [3H]purine release. The nucleoside transport inhibitors, dipyridamole (10 μM), nitrobenzylthioinosine (10 μM) and adenosine deaminase (2–10 U ml−1), but not the ecto-adenylate kinase inhibitor diadenosine pentaphosphate (200 μM) significantly reduced ATP-evoked [3H]purine efflux. In summary, we found that ATP and other nucleotides and nucleosides promote the release of one another and themselves by the nucleoside transport system. This action could have relevance during physiological and pathological elevation of extracellular purine levels high enough to reverse the nucleoside transporter. PMID:12788822

  11. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  12. Antibacterial Nucleoside Natural Products Inhibiting Phospho-MurNAc-Pentapeptide Translocase; Chemistry and Structure-Activity Relationship.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, S; Yamaguchi, M; Matsuda, A

    2015-01-01

    The continued emergence of drug-resistance to existing antibacterial agents represents a severe and ongoing public health concern, which demands the discovery of new antibiotics. However the number of novel classes of antibacterial drugs launched in the clinic has been remarkably slow since the 1960s, and it is urgent to develop novel antibacterial agents to fight against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. Peptidoglycan is a component of the bacterial cell wall, which consists of a repeated N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) and Nacetylglucosamine (GluNAc) polymer cross-linked with polypeptides, and is a good target for antibacterial drug discovery. Among enzymes responsible for its biosynthesis, phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide translocase (MraY) is a novel and promising target. Many nucleoside natural products, which strongly inhibit MraY, have been found in nature. This review will summarize the synthesis and biological properties of selected MraY inhibitory nucleoside natural products and their analogues synthesized in our laboratory and by others.

  13. Separation of anti-angiogenic and cytotoxic activities of borrelidin by modification at the C17 side chain.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Barrie; Gregory, Matthew A; Moss, Steven J; Carletti, Isabelle; Sheridan, Rose M; Kaja, Andrew; Ward, Michael; Olano, Carlos; Mendez, Carmen; Salas, José A; Leadlay, Peter F; vanGinckel, Rob; Zhang, Ming-Qiang

    2006-11-15

    A set of novel borrelidin analogues have been prepared by precursor-directed biosynthesis. Structure-activity relationship analysis suggests that steric structural arrangement within the C17 side chain is important for differentiating cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic activities. A C17-cyclobutyl analogue 3 was found to have markedly increased selectivity for in vitro angiogenesis inhibition over cytotoxicity and is therefore potentially useful as an anticancer agent.

  14. Germananes: Germanium Graphane Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberger, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    Graphene's success has shown that it is not only possible to create stable, single-atom thick sheets from a crystalline solid, but that these materials have fundamentally different properties than the parent material. Our interest focuses on the synthesis and properties of Group IV graphane analogues. We have synthesized for the first time, mm-scale crystals of a hydrogen-terminated germanium multilayered graphane analogue (germanane, GeH) from the topochemical deintercalation of CaGe2. This layered van der Waals solid is analogous to multilayered graphane. The surface layer of GeH only slowly oxidizes in air over the span of five months, while the underlying layers are resilient to oxidation. We demonstrate that it is possible to covalently terminate the external surface with organic substituents to tune the electronic structure, and enhance the stability. These materials represent a new class of covalently terminated graphane analogues having great potential for a wide range of optoelectronic and sensing applications, especially since theory predicts a direct band gap of 1.53 eV and an electron mobility of 18,000 cm2/Vs which is five times higher than that of bulk Ge.

  15. Quantum analogue computing.

    PubMed

    Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2010-08-13

    We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is the quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data are encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data are encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error-correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous-variable quantum computers, becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future.

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of alkenyldiarylmethane HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that possess increased hydrolytic stability.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Matthew D; Deng, Bo-Liang; Hartman, Tracy L; Watson, Karen M; Buckheit, Robert W; Pannecouque, Christophe; Clercq, Erik De; Cushman, Mark

    2007-10-04

    Non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase (NNRTIs), albeit not the mainstays of HIV/AIDS treatment, have become increasingly important in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) due to their unique mechanism of action. Several years ago our group identified the alkenyldiarylmethanes (ADAMs) as a potent and novel class of NNRTIs; however, the most active compounds were found to be metabolically unstable. Subsequent work has led to the synthesis of 33 analogues, with improved metabolic profiles, through the replacement of labile esters with various heterocycles, nitriles, and thioesters. As a result, a number of hydrolytically stable NNRTIs were identified with anti-HIV activity in the nanomolar concentration range. Furthermore, an improved pharmacophore model has been developed based on the new ADAM series, in which a salicylic acid-derived aryl ring is oriented cis to the side chain and the aryl ring that is trans to the side chain contains a hydrogen bond acceptor site within the plane of the ring.

  17. Investigation of the alkenyldiarylmethane non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors as potential cAMP phosphodiesterase-4B2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Matthew D; Cheung, York-Fong; Houslay, Miles D; Hartman, Tracy L; Watson, Karen M; Buckheit, Robert W; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik; Cushman, Mark

    2008-02-15

    The alkenyldiarylmethanes (ADAMs) are currently being investigated as non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) of potential value in the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS. During the course of these studies, a number of ADAM analogues have been identified that protect HIV-infected cells from the cytopathic effects of the virus by an unknown, HIV-1 RT-independent mechanism. Since the phosphodiesterase 4 family is required for HIV infection, the effect of various ADAMs on the activity of PDE4B2 was investigated in an effort to determine if the ADAMs could possibly be targeting phosphodiesterases. Six compounds representative of the ADAM class were tested for inhibition of cAMP hydrolysis by PDE4B2 enzymatic activity. Four ADAMs were found to be weak inhibitors of PDE4B2 and two of them were inactive. The experimental results are consistent with an antiviral mechanism that does not include inhibition of PDE4 isoforms.

  18. The effects of chain number and state of lipid derivatives of nucleosides on hydrogen bonding and self-assembly through the investigation of Langmuir Blodgett films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yiguang; Qiao, Yingxin; Hou, Xinpu

    2006-09-01

    The long-chain lipid derivatives of acyclovir—a nucleoside analogue were used to prepare Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, including the single-chained derivative (SGSA) and the double-chained derivative (DASA). The bilayer LB film of DASA or the SGSA/cholesterol (SGSA/Chol) mixture (1:1, mol/mol) on quartz plates was investigated with ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, and the blue-shifted absorption with 4 nm (DASA) or 18 nm (SGSA/Chol) wavelength changes was observed in comparison with their solutions in chloroform. The rigid double chains of DASA prevented adjacent molecules from approach, while the flexible single chains of SGSA did not. Then the strength of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the nucleoside moieties of DASA was much more weaker than one of SGSA, and their blue-shifted wavelength in LB films was different. DASA and SGSA/Chol also showed the different bilayer LB films on mica according to the atomic force microscopic observation. The former was prone to tilting on solid supports while the latter would like to stand vertically with the help of cholesterol that could insert into the flexible single chains of SGSA. The chain number (one or two) and state (flexible or rigid) of lipid derivatives of nucleosides strongly impact intermolecular hydrogen bonding and self-assembly behavior.

  19. Antineoplastic activity of didemnin congeners: nordidemnin and modified chain analogues.

    PubMed

    Jouin, P; Poncet, J; Dufour, M N; Aumelas, A; Pantaloni, A; Cros, S; François, G

    1991-02-01

    Nordidemnin (2), a natural analogue of the marine cyclodepsipeptide didemnin B (1b), showed cytotoxic activity against L1210 leukemia and antineoplastic activity against P388 leukemia as well as B16 melanoma; nordidemnin (2) was as active as didemnin B (1b). The influence of synthetic modifications in the linear peptidic chain on in vitro and in vivo activity was also studied. Replacement of the terminal lactyl residue by mandelyl and 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionyl residues in compounds 3 and 4, respectively, did not affect the cytotoxic activity against L1210 leukemia (ID50 of 1.1 nM and 1.2 nM, respectively) or the in vivo activity against P388 leukemia. Unlike these aromatic substituants, the lipophilic palmityl residue induced a dramatic loss in cytotoxic activity. The inverted chirality of the MeLeu joining residue in compound 6 caused a marked reduction in the in vitro activity.

  20. The GABA transaminase, ABAT, is essential for mitochondrial nucleoside metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Arnaud; Wu, Ping; Bruni, Francesco; Donti, Taraka; Graham, Brett H.; Craigen, William J.; McFarland, Robert; Moretti, Paolo; Lalani, Seema; Scott, Kenneth L.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bonnen, Penelope E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary ABAT is a key enzyme responsible for catabolism of principal inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We report an essential role for ABAT in a seemingly unrelated pathway, mitochondrial nucleoside salvage, and demonstrate that mutations in this enzyme cause an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder and mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS). We describe a family with encephalomyopathic MDS caused by a homozygous missense mutation in ABAT that results in elevated GABA in subjects’ brains as well as decreased mtDNA levels in subjects’ fibroblasts. Nucleoside rescue and co-IP experiments pinpoint that ABAT functions in the mitochondrial nucleoside salvage pathway to facilitate conversion of dNDPs to dNTPs. Pharmacological inhibition of ABAT through the irreversible inhibitor Vigabatrin caused depletion of mtDNA in photoreceptor cells that was prevented through addition of dNTPs in cell culture media. This work reveals ABAT as a connection between GABA metabolism and nucleoside metabolism and defines a neurometabolic disorder that includes MDS. PMID:25738457

  1. Nucleoside-Based Diarylethene Photoswitches: Synthesis and Photochromic Properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Xia; Xi, Dan-Dan; Xie, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Hui-Xuan; Qu, Gui-Rong; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Diarylethene photoswitches based on the natural nucleoside deoxyadenosine were designed and synthesized. In aqueous solution, some of them exhibited good photochromic properties, including clear changes in color upon irradiation at 365 nm, red-shifts of the absorption wavelength, with good fatigue resistance, thermal stability, conversion efficiency, and base-pairing properties.

  2. Intranuclear protein transduction through a nucleoside salvage pathway.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James E; Tse, Chung-Ming; Chan, Grace; Heinze, Emil R; Nishimura, Robert N; Weisbart, Richard H

    2007-07-20

    Regulation of gene expression by intranuclear transduction of macromolecules such as transcription factors is an alternative to gene therapy for the treatment of numerous diseases. The identification of an effective intranuclear delivery vehicle and pathway for the transport of therapeutic macromolecules across plasma and nuclear membranes, however, has posed a significant challenge. The anti-DNA antibody fragment 3E10 Fv has received attention as a novel molecular delivery vehicle due to its penetration into living cells with specific nuclear localization, absence of toxicity, and successful delivery of therapeutic cargo proteins in vitro and in vivo. Elucidation of the pathway that allows 3E10 Fv to cross cell membranes is critical to the development of new molecular therapies. Here we show that 3E10 Fv penetrates cells through a nucleoside salvage transporter. 3E10 Fv is unable to penetrate into cells deficient in the equilibrative nucleoside transporter ENT2, and reconstitution of ENT2 into ENT2-deficient cells restores 3E10 Fv transport into cell nuclei. Our results represent the first demonstration of protein transport through a nucleoside salvage pathway. We expect that our finding will facilitate a variety of methods of gene regulation in the treatment of human diseases, open up new avenues of research in nucleoside salvage pathways, and enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases.

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana nucleosidase mutants provide new insights into nucleoside degradation

    PubMed Central

    Riegler, Heike; Geserick, Claudia; Zrenner, Rita

    2011-01-01

    A central step in nucleoside and nucleobase salvage pathways is the hydrolysis of nucleosides to their respective nucleobases. In plants this is solely accomplished by nucleosidases (EC 3.2.2.x). To elucidate the importance of nucleosidases for nucleoside degradation, general metabolism, and plant growth, thorough phenotypic and biochemical analyses were performed using Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion mutants lacking expression of the previously identified genes annotated as uridine ribohydrolases (URH1 and URH2). Comprehensive functional analyses of single and double mutants demonstrated that both isoforms are unimportant for seedling establishment and plant growth, while one participates in uridine degradation. Rather unexpectedly, nucleoside and nucleotide profiling and nucleosidase activity screening of soluble crude extracts revealed a deficiency of xanthosine and inosine hydrolysis in the single mutants, with substantial accumulation of xanthosine in one of them. Mixing of the two mutant extracts, and by in vitro activity reconstitution using a mixture of recombinant URH1 and URH2 proteins, both restored activity, thus providing biochemical evidence that at least these two isoforms are needed for inosine and xanthosine hydrolysis. This mutant study demonstrates the utility of in vivo systems for the examination of metabolic activities, with the discovery of the new substrate xanthosine and elucidation of a mechanism for expanding the nucleosidase substrate spectrum. PMID:21599668

  4. [Quantitative analysis of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Qing; Wang, Chuan-Xi; Zhou, Miao-Xia; Sun, Min-Tian; Gao, Hao; Li, Wen-Jia

    2016-07-01

    To compare the main nucleosides in Cordyceps genus herbs (C. sinensis, C. millitaris, Hirsutella sinensis and C. sobolifera), an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of uridine, inosine, guanosine, adenosine and cordycepine in Cordyceps genus herbs was developed. The sample was extracted with 0.5% phosphoric acid solution to prepare test solution. The separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-Aq (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) column with gradient elution by 0.04 mol•L⁻¹ potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution and acetonitrile, column temperature 30 ℃,flow rate 0.8 mL•min⁻¹,and detection wavelength 260 nm. The content of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus herbs was evaluated by fingerprint analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The calibration curves of five nucleosides showed good linear regression (r>0.99) and the average recoveries were between 95.0% and 105.0%. The contents of the five nucleosides in the four Cordyceps genus herbs were different and could be obviously distinguished by HCA. The fingerprint analysis result showed that the similarity between C. sinensis and the others was less than 0.9. The method was accurate and reliable, which can be used for quality control of Cordyceps genus herbs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Sensing metal ions with DNA building blocks: fluorescent pyridobenzimidazole nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jeong; Kool, Eric T

    2006-05-10

    We describe novel fluorescent N-deoxyribosides (1 and 2) having 2-pyrido-2-benzimidazole and 2-quino-2-benzimidazole as aglycones. The compounds were prepared from the previously unknown heterocyclic precursors and Hoffer's chlorosugar, yielding alpha anomers as the chief products. X-ray crystal structures confirmed the geometry and showed that the pyridine and benzimidazole ring systems deviated from coplanarity in the solid state by 154 degrees and 140 degrees , respectively. In methanol compounds 1 and 2 had absorption maxima at 360 and 370 nm, respectively, and emission maxima at 494 and 539 nm. Experiments revealed varied fluorescence responses of the nucleosides to a panel of 17 monovalent, divalent, and trivalent metal ions in methanol. One or both of the nucleosides showed significant changes with 10 of the metal ions. The most pronounced spectral changes for ligand-nucleoside 1 included red shifts in fluorescence (Au(+), Au(3+)), strong quenching (Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Pt(2+)), and substantial enhancements in emission intensity coupled with red shifts (Ag(+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+)). The greatest spectral changes for ligand-nucleoside 2 included a red shift in fluorescence (Ag(+)), a blue shift (Cd(2+)), strong quenching (Pd(2+), Pt(2+)), and substantial enhancements in emission intensity coupled with a blue shift (Zn(2+)). The compounds could be readily incorporated into oligodeoxynucleotides, where an initial study revealed that they retained sensitivity to metal ions in aqueous solution and demonstrated possible cooperative sensing behavior with several ions. The two free nucleosides alone can act as differential sensors for multiple metal ions, and they are potentially useful monomers for contributing metal ion sensing capability to DNAs.

  6. Sensing Metal Ions with DNA Building Blocks: Fluorescent Pyridobenzimidazole Nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jeong; Kool, Eric T.

    2008-01-01

    We describe novel fluorescent N-deoxyribosides (1 and 2) having 2-pyrido-2-benzimidazole and 2-quino-2-benzimidazole as aglycones. The compounds were prepared from the previously unknown heterocyclic precursors and Hoffer’s chlorosugar, yielding alpha anomers as the chief products. X-ray crystal structures confirmed the geometry, and showed that the pyridine and benzimidazole ring systems deviated from coplanarity in the solid state by 154° and 140°, respectively. In methanol the compounds 1 and 2 had absorption maxima at 360 and 370 nm respectively, and emission maxima at 494 and 539 nm. Experiments revealed varied fluorescence responses of the nucleosides to a panel of seventeen monovalent, divalent and trivalent metal ions in methanol. One or both of the nucleosides showed significant changes with ten of the metal ions. The most pronounced spectral changes for ligand-nucleoside 1 included red shifts in fluorescence (Au+, Au3+), strong quenching (Cu2+, Ni2+, Pt2+), and in substantial enhancements in emission intensity coupled with redshifts (Ag+, Cd2+, Zn2+). The greatest spectral changes for ligand-nucleoside 2 included a redshift in fluorescence (Ag+), a blueshift (Cd2+), strong quenching (Pd2+, Pt2+), and in substantial enhancements in emission intensity coupled with a blueshift (Zn2+). The compounds could be readily incorporated into oligodeoxynucleotides, where an initial study revealed that they retained sensitivity to metal ions in aqueous solution, and demonstrated possible cooperative sensing behavior with several ions. The two free nucleosides alone can act as differential sensors for at multiple metal ions, and they are potentially useful monomers for contributing metal ion sensing capability to DNAs. PMID:16669686

  7. A Broad Specificity Nucleoside Kinase from Thermoplasma acidophilum

    PubMed Central

    Elkin, Sarah R.; Kumar, Abhinav; Price, Carol W.; Columbus, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of Ta0880, determined at 1.91 A resolution, from Thermoplasma acidophilum revealed a dimer with each monomer composed of an α/β /α sandwich domain and a smaller lid domain. The overall fold belongs to the PfkB family of carbohydrate kinases (a family member of the Ribokinase clan) which include ribokinases, 1-phosphofructokinases, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, inosine/guanosine kinases, frutokinases, adenosine kinases, and many more. Based on its general fold, Ta0880 had been annotated as a ribokinase-like protein. Using a coupled pyruvate kinase/lactate dehydrogenase assay, the activity of Ta0880 was assessed against a variety of ribokinase/pfkB-like family substrates; activity was not observed for ribose, fructose-1-phosphate, or fructose-6-phosphate. Based on structural similarity with nucleoside kinases (NK) from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MjNK, PDB 2C49 and 2C4E) and Burkholderia thailandensis (BtNK, PDB 3B1O), nucleoside kinase activity was investigated. Ta0880 (TaNK) was confirmed to have nucleoside kinase activity with an apparent KM for guanosine of 0.21 μM and catalytic efficiency of 345,000 M−1 s−1. These three NKs have significantly different substrate, phosphate donor, and cation specificities and comparisons of specificity and structure identified residues likely responsible for the nucleoside substrate selectivity. Phylogenetic analysis identified three clusters within the PfkB family and indicates that TaNK represents a new sub-family with broad nucleoside specificities. PMID:23161756

  8. A broad specificity nucleoside kinase from Thermoplasma acidophilum.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Sarah R; Kumar, Abhinav; Price, Carol W; Columbus, Linda

    2013-04-01

    The crystal structure of Ta0880, determined at 1.91 Å resolution, from Thermoplasma acidophilum revealed a dimer with each monomer composed of an α/β/α sandwich domain and a smaller lid domain. The overall fold belongs to the PfkB family of carbohydrate kinases (a family member of the Ribokinase clan) which include ribokinases, 1-phosphofructokinases, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, inosine/guanosine kinases, fructokinases, adenosine kinases, and many more. Based on its general fold, Ta0880 had been annotated as a ribokinase-like protein. Using a coupled pyruvate kinase/lactate dehydrogenase assay, the activity of Ta0880 was assessed against a variety of ribokinase/pfkB-like family substrates; activity was not observed for ribose, fructose-1-phosphate, or fructose-6-phosphate. Based on structural similarity with nucleoside kinases (NK) from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MjNK, PDB 2C49, and 2C4E) and Burkholderia thailandensis (BtNK, PDB 3B1O), nucleoside kinase activity was investigated. Ta0880 (TaNK) was confirmed to have nucleoside kinase activity with an apparent KM for guanosine of 0.21 μM and catalytic efficiency of 345,000 M(-1) s(-1) . These three NKs have significantly different substrate, phosphate donor, and cation specificities and comparisons of specificity and structure identified residues likely responsible for the nucleoside substrate selectivity. Phylogenetic analysis identified three clusters within the PfkB family and indicates that TaNK is a member of a new sub-family with broad nucleoside specificities. Proteins 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 3'-Phosphorylated nucleotides are tight binding inhibitors of nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Xu, Y W; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    1998-10-30

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of ribo- and deoxyribonucleosides diphosphates into triphosphates. NDP kinase is also involved in malignant tumors and was shown to activate in vitro transcription of the c-myc oncogene by binding to its NHE sequence. The structure of the complex of NDP kinase with bound ADP shows that the nucleotide adopts a different conformation from that observed in other phosphokinases with an internal H bond between the 3'-OH and the beta-O made free by the phosphate transfer. We use intrinsic protein fluorescence to investigate the inhibitory and binding potential of nucleotide analogues phosphorylated in 3'-OH position of the ribose to both wild type and F64W mutant NDP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum. Due to their 3'-phosphate, 5'-phosphoadenosine 3'-phosphate (PAP) and adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) can be regarded as structural analogues of enzyme-bound ADP. The KD of PAPS (10 microM) is three times lower than the KD of ADP. PAPS also acts as a competitive inhibitor toward natural substrates during catalysis, with a KI in agreement with binding data. The crystal structure of the binary complex between Dictyostelium NDP kinase and PAPS was solved at 2.8-A resolution. It shows a new mode of nucleotide binding at the active site with the 3'-phosphate of PAPS located near the catalytic histidine, at the same position as the gamma-phosphate in the transition state. The sulfate group is directed toward the protein surface. PAPS will be useful for the design of high affinity drugs targeted to NDP kinases.

  10. Design and Synthesis of Fluorescent Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates as Potent Inhibitors of Bacterial Adenylate Cyclases.

    PubMed

    Břehová, Petra; Šmídková, Markéta; Skácel, Jan; Dračínský, Martin; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena; Velasquez, Monica P Soto; Watts, Val J; Janeba, Zlatko

    2016-11-21

    Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) and Bacillus anthracis edema factor (EF) are key virulence factors with adenylate cyclase (AC) activity that substantially contribute to the pathogenesis of whooping cough and anthrax, respectively. There is an urgent need to develop potent and selective inhibitors of bacterial ACs with prospects for the development of potential antibacterial therapeutics and to study their molecular interactions with the target enzymes. Novel fluorescent 5-chloroanthraniloyl-substituted acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (Cl-ANT-ANPs) were designed and synthesized in the form of their diphosphates (Cl-ANT-ANPpp) as competitive ACT and EF inhibitors with sub-micromolar potency (IC50 values: 11-622 nm). Fluorescence experiments indicated that Cl-ANT-ANPpp analogues bind to the ACT active site, and docking studies suggested that the Cl-ANT group interacts with Phe306 and Leu60. Interestingly, the increase in direct fluorescence with Cl-ANT-ANPpp having an ester linker was strictly calmodulin (CaM)-dependent, whereas Cl-ANT-ANPpp analogues with an amide linker, upon binding to ACT, increased the fluorescence even in the absence of CaM. Such a dependence of binding on structural modification could be exploited in the future design of potent inhibitors of bacterial ACs. Furthermore, one Cl-ANT-ANP in the form of a bisamidate prodrug was able to inhibit B. pertussis ACT activity in macrophage cells with IC50 =12 μm. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. L-arginine independent macrophage tumor cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Klostergaard, J.; Leroux, M.E. )

    1989-12-29

    We have investigated the role of L-arginine in macrophage tumor cytotoxicity in coculture. L929, EMT-6, MCA-26, and P815 targets were all susceptible to cytolysis by activated macrophages when cocultured in medium containing L-arginine. When cocultured in arginine-free medium, these targets displayed comparable or even higher levels of lysis. L1210 targets were lytically resistant under either condition. However, 59Fe release from this target did reflect strong dependence on the presence of arginine. The structural analogue, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, was an effective inhibitor of iron-release from L1210 targets cocultured with activated macrophages, whereas it had minimal inhibitory effects on release of 51Cr from cocultured L929 cells. These results suggest that the L-arginine requiring cytotoxic pathway of activated macrophage is independent of major effector mechanisms involved in tumor cell lysis.

  12. Kinetic analysis of ligand binding to the Ehrlich cell nucleoside transporter: Pharmacological characterization of allosteric interactions with the sup 3 Hnitrobenzylthioinosine binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, J.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Kinetic analysis of the binding of {sup 3}Hnitrobenzylthioinosine ({sup 3}H NBMPR) to Ehrlich ascites tumor cell plasma membranes was conducted in the presence and absence of a variety of nucleoside transport inhibitors and substrates. The association of {sup 3}H NBMPR with Ehrlich cell membranes occurred in two distinct phases, possibly reflecting functional conformation changes in the {sup 3}HNBMPR binding site/nucleoside transporter complex. Inhibitors of the equilibrium binding of {sup 3}HNBMPR, tested at submaximal inhibitory concentrations, generally decreased the rate of association of {sup 3}HNBMPR, but the magnitude of this effect varied significantly with the agent tested. Adenosine and diazepam had relatively minor effects on the association rate, whereas dipyridamole and mioflazine slowed the rate dramatically. Inhibitors of nucleoside transport also decreased the rate of dissociation of {sup 3}HNBMPR, with an order of potency significantly different from their relative potencies as inhibitors of the equilibrium binding of {sup 3}HNBMPR. Dilazep, dipyridamole, and mioflazine were effective inhibitors of both {sup 3}HNBMPR dissociation and equilibrium binding. The lidoflazine analogue R75231, on the other hand, had no effect on the rate of dissociation of {sup 3}HNBMPR at concentrations below 300 microM, even though it was one of the most potent inhibitors of {sup 3}HNBMPR binding tested (Ki less than 100 nM). In contrast, a series of natural substrates for the nucleoside transport system enhanced the rate of dissociation of {sup 3}HNBMPR with an order of effectiveness that paralleled their relative affinities for the permeant site of the transporter. The most effective enhancers of {sup 3}HNBMPR dissociation, however, were the benzodiazepines diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and triazolam.

  13. FLT3 is implicated in cytarabine transport by human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 in pediatric acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Català, Albert; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Caviedes-Cárdenas, Liska; Malatesta, Roberta; Rives, Susana; Vega-García, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    FLT3 abnormalities are negative prognostic markers in acute leukemia. Infant leukemias are a subgroup with frequent MLL (KMT2A) rearrangements, FLT3 overexpression and high sensitivity to cytarabine, but dismal prognosis. Cytarabine is transported into cells by Human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter-1 (hENT1, SLC29A1), but the mechanisms that regulate hENT1 in acute leukemia have been scarcely studied. We explored the expression and functional link between FLT3 and main cytarabine transporters in 50 pediatric patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and MLL rearrangement (ALL-MLL+) and other subtypes of leukemia, and in leukemia cell lines. A significant positive correlation was found between FLT3 and hENT1 expression in patients. Cytarabine uptake into cells was mediated mainly by hENT1, hENT2 and hCNT1. hENT1-mediated uptake of cytarabine was transiently abolished by the FLT3 inhibitor PKC412, and this effect was associated with decreased hENT1 mRNA and protein levels. Noticeably, the cytotoxicity of cytarabine was lower when cells were first exposed to FLT3 inhibitors (PKC412 or AC220), probably due to decreased hENT1 activity, but we observed a higher cytotoxic effect if FLT3 inhibitors were administered after cytarabine. FLT3 regulates hENT1 activity and thereby affects cytarabine cytotoxicity. The sequence of administration of cytarabine and FLT3 inhibitors is important to maintain their efficacy. PMID:27391351

  14. Largazole Analogues Embodying Radical Changes in the Depsipeptide Ring: Development of a More Selective and Highly Potent Analogue.

    PubMed

    Almaliti, Jehad; Al-Hamashi, Ayad A; Negmeldin, Ahmed T; Hanigan, Christin L; Perera, Lalith; Pflum, Mary Kay H; Casero, Robert A; Tillekeratne, L M Viranga

    2016-12-08

    A number of analogues of the marine-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor largazole incorporating major structural changes in the depsipeptide ring were synthesized. Replacing the thiazole-thiazoline fragment of largazole with a bipyridine group gave analogue 7 with potent cell growth inhibitory activity and an activity profile similar to that of largazole, suggesting that conformational change accompanying switching hybridization from sp(3) to sp(2) at C-7 is well tolerated. Analogue 7 was more class I selective compared to largazole, with at least 464-fold selectivity for class I HDAC proteins over class II HDAC6 compared to a 22-fold selectivity observed with largazole. To our knowledge 7 represents the first example of a potent and highly cytotoxic largazole analogue not containing a thiazoline ring. The elimination of a chiral center derived from the unnatural amino acid R-α-methylcysteine makes the molecule more amenable to chemical synthesis, and coupled with its increased class I selectivity, 7 could serve as a new lead compound for developing selective largazole analogues.

  15. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of 5-[18F]Fluoroalkyl Pyrimidine Nucleosides for Molecular Imaging of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Thymidine Kinase Reporter Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Ann-Marie; Qu, Wenchao; Kung, Hank F.

    2014-01-01

    Two novel series of 5-fluoroalkyl-2′-deoxyuridines (FPrDU, FBuDU, FPeDU) and 2′-fluoro-2′-deoxy-5-fluoroalkylarabinouridines (FFPrAU, FFBuAU, FFPeAU), having three, four or five methylene units (propyl, butyl, or pentyl) at C-5, were prepared and tested as reporter probes for imaging HSV1-tk gene expression. The Negishi coupling methodology was employed to efficiently synthesize the radiolabeling precursors. All six 5-[18F]fluoroalkyl pyrimidines were prepared readily from 3-N-benzoyl-3′,5′-di-O-benzoyl-protected 5-O-mesylate precursors in 17–35% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected). In vitro studies highlighted that all six [18F]labeled nucleosides selectively accumulated in cells expressing the HSV1-TK protein, with negligible uptake in control cells. [18F]FPrDU, [18F]FBuDU, [18F]FPeDU, and [18F]FFBuAU had the best uptake profiles. Despite selective accumulation in HSV1-tk expressing cells, all 5-fluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides had low to negligible cytotoxic activity (CC50>1000–209 μM). Ultimately, results demonstrated that 5-[18F]fluoropropyl, [18F]fluorobutyl, and [18F]fluoropentyl pyrimidine nucleosides have potential as in vivo HSV1-TK PET reporter probes over a dynamic range of reporter gene expression levels. PMID:18800764

  16. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 5-[(18)f]fluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides for molecular imaging of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase reporter gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Ann-Marie; Qu, Wenchao; Kung, Hank F

    2008-09-25

    Two novel series of 5-fluoroalkyl-2'-deoxyuridines (FPrDU, FBuDU, FPeDU) and 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-fluoroalkylarabinouridines (FFPrAU, FFBuAU, FFPeAU) that have three, four, or five methylene units (propyl, butyl, or pentyl) at C-5 were prepared and tested as reporter probes for imaging herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1- tk) gene expression. The Negishi coupling methodology was employed in efficiently synthesizing the radiolabeling precursors. All six 5-[(18)F]fluoroalkyl pyrimidines were readily prepared from 3-N-benzoyl-3',5'-di-O-benzoyl-protected 5-O-mesylate precursors in 17-35% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected). In vitro studies highlighted that all six [(18)F]-labeled nucleosides selectively accumulated in cells expressing the HSV1-TK protein and there was negligible uptake in control cells. [(18)F]FPrDU, [(18)F]FBuDU, [(18)F]FPeDU, and [(18)F]FFBuAU had the best uptake profiles. Despite their selective accumulation in HSV1- tk-expressing cells, all 5-fluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides had low-to-negligible cytotoxic activity (CC50 > 1000-1209 microM). Ultimately, the results demonstrated that 5-[(18)F]fluoropropyl, [(18)F]fluorobutyl, and [(18)F]fluoropentyl pyrimidine nucleosides have the potential to be in vivo HSV1-TK PET reporter probes over a dynamic range of reporter gene expression levels.

  17. Polyamine analogues bind human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, R; N'soukpoé-Kossi, C N; Thomas, T J; Thomas, T; Carpentier, R; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2007-10-01

    Polyamine analogues show antitumor activity in experimental models, and their ability to alter activity of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer is well documented. Association of polyamines with nucleic acids and protein is included in their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with several polyamine analogues, such as 1,11-diamino-4,8-diazaundecane (333), 3,7,11,15-tetrazaheptadecane.4HCl (BE-333), and 3,7,11,15,19-pentazahenicosane.5HCl (BE-3333), in aqueous solution at physiological conditions using a constant protein concentration and various polyamine contents (microM to mM). FTIR, UV-visible, and CD spectroscopic methods were used to determine the polyamine binding mode and the effects of polyamine complexation on protein stability and secondary structure. Structural analysis showed that polyamines bind nonspecifically (H-bonding) via polypeptide polar groups with binding constants of K333 = 9.30 x 10(3) M(-1), KBE-333 = 5.63 x 10(2) M(-1), and KBE-3333 = 3.66 x 10(2) M(-1). The protein secondary structure showed major alterations with a reduction of alpha-helix from 55% (free protein) to 43-50% and an increase of beta-sheet from 17% (free protein) to 29-36% in the 333, BE-333, and BE-3333 complexes, indicating partial protein unfolding upon polyamine interaction. HSA structure was less perturbed by polyamine analogues compared to those of the biogenic polyamines.

  18. Purine nucleoside transport and metabolism in isolated rat jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Stow, R A; Bronk, J R

    1993-01-01

    1. The absorption and metabolism of purine nucleosides and their constituent bases has been investigated by perfusion through the lumen of isolated loops of rat jejunum. In control perfusions and those with luminal purines or purine nucleosides, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed uric acid as the only detectable purine in the mucosal epithelial layer and the serosal secretions unless the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol was present. 2. Adenosine (0.5 mM) was quantitatively deaminated to inosine in the lumen after perfusion for 30 min. 3. Luminal inosine and hypoxanthine (0.15-1.0 mM) increased the serosal uric acid concentration significantly (P < 0.001); at 0.5 and 1.0 mM the nucleoside gave a significantly greater (P < 0.01) rate of serosal uric acid appearance than the base. 4. Luminal guanosine (0.05-0.50 mM) and guanine (0.05-0.15 mM) increased the serosal uric acid concentration significantly (P < 0.001); with 0.15 mM nucleoside the serosal uric acid appeared significantly faster (P < 0.01) than it did from the base. 5. Luminal allopurinol (0.3 mM) inhibited xanthine oxidase by 80% and reduced serosal purine appearance significantly (P < 0.01) from luminal guanine, hypoxanthine and inosine. With allopurinol, guanosine (0.1 and 0.15 mM) and inosine (0.1-1.0 mM) gave significantly higher (P < 0.01) total serosal purine concentrations than their respective bases. 6. Inosine and guanosine were cleaved to their respective bases plus ribose phosphate by the action of a cytoplasmic nucleoside phosphorylase, which was found to have widely different Michaelis constants (Km; 318 +/- 45 and 41.4 +/- 3.6 microM for inosine and guanosine, respectively) and maximum velocities (Vmax; 79.3 +/- 4.0 and 20.5 +/- 0.05 mumol min-1 (mg protein)-1 for inosine and guanosine, respectively). 7. We conclude that hypoxanthine and guanine absorbed by rat small intestine are oxidized to uric acid which is released in the serosa. The corresponding nucleosides are

  19. Molecular biology of nucleoside transporters and their distributions and functions in the brain.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Fiona E; Damaraju, Vijaya L; Graham, Kathryn; Yao, Sylvia Y M; Baldwin, Stephen A; Cass, Carol E; Young, James D

    2011-01-01

    Pyrimidine and purine nucleosides and their derivatives have critical functions and pharmacological applications in the brain. Nucleosides and nucleobases are precursors of nucleotides, which serve as the energy-rich currency of intermediary metabolism and as precursors of nucleic acids. Nucleosides (e.g., adenosine) and nucleotides are key signaling molecules that modulate brain function through interaction with cell surface receptors. Brain pathologies involving nucleosides and their metabolites range from epilepsy to neurodegenerative disorders and psychiatric conditions to cerebrovascular ischemia. Nucleoside analogs are used clinically in the treatment of brain cancer and viral infections. Nucleosides are hydrophilic molecules, and transportability across cell membranes via specialized nucleoside transporter (NT) proteins is a critical determinant of their metabolism and, for nucleoside drugs, their pharmacologic actions. In mammals, there are two types of nucleoside transport process: bidirectional equilibrative processes driven by chemical gradients, and unidirectional concentrative processes driven by sodium (and proton) electrochemical gradients. In mammals, these processes, both of which are present in brain, are mediated by members of two structurally unrelated membrane protein families (ENT and CNT, respectively). In this Chapter, we review current knowledge of cellular, physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of ENT and CNT distribution and function in the mammalian brain, including studies with NT inhibitors and new research involving NT knockout and transgenic mice. We also describe recent progress in functional and molecular studies of ENT and CNT proteins, and summarize emerging evidence of other transporter families with demonstrated or potential roles in the transport of nucleosides and their derivatives in the brain.

  20. ABC Transporters and their Role in Nucleoside and Nucleotide Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Yu; Schuetz, John D.

    2012-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters confer drug resistance against a wide range of chemotherapeutic agents, including nucleoside and nucleotide based drugs. While nucleoside based drugs have been used for many years in the treatment of solid and hematological malignancies as well as viral and autoimmune diseases, the potential contribution of ABC transporters has only recently been recognized. This neglect is likely because activation of nucleoside derivatives require an initial carrier-mediated uptake step followed by phosphorylation by nucleoside kinases, and defects in uptake or kinase activation were considered the primary mechanisms of nucleoside drug resistance. However, recent studies demonstrate that members of the ABCC transporter subfamily reduce the intracellular concentration of monophosphorylated nucleoside drugs. In addition to the ABCC subfamily members, ABCG2 has been shown to transport nucleoside drugs and nucleoside-monophosphate derivatives of clinically relevant nucleoside drugs such as cytarabine, cladribine, and clofarabine to name a few. This review will discuss ABC transporters and how they interact with other processes affecting the efficacy of nucleoside based drugs. PMID:22285911

  1. Analogue-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analogue Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses circuits for three-bit and four-bit analogue digital converters and digital analogue converters. These circuits feature slow operating speeds that enable the circuitry to be used to demonstrate the mode of operation using oscilloscopes and signal generators. (DDR)

  2. Handling Cytotoxic Drugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Regulations Governing Cytotoxic Drugs-------------------------------- 7 National Institute for Occupational Safety and ke•alth Agency ( NIOSH ) 7...Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( NIOSH ). Cytotoxic drugs, which are used extensively troughout the health care system to treat cancer, have...foodstufTs, inhalation of drug dusts or droplets, or direct skin contact (1:31). 2 An antineoplastic drug is a cytotoxic chemical substance that is

  3. Nucleosides, nucleotides and their biological applications--XIV International Roundtable. Recent Advances in Nucleosides Chemistry and Chemotherapy. 10-14 September 2000, San Francisco, CA, USA.

    PubMed

    Zemlicka, J

    2000-12-01

    This satellite symposium honoring Dr Jack J Fox, provided a forum for reviewing recent advances in nucleoside research. The topics covered were: novel chemistries, applications to current problems in biology, antiviral and antitumor agents, and aspects of enzymology and mechanism of action of important nucleoside analogs.

  4. Mouse equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2 (mENT2) transports nucleosides and purine nucleobases differing from human and rat ENT2.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Katsuhito; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Kyotani, Yoji; Hifumi, Natsuko; Fujimoto, Sadaki

    2007-05-01

    Several mammalian nucleoside transporters have been identified at the molecular level. Human and rat equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2 (hENT2 and rENT2, respectively) was previously reported to have the dual ability of transporting both nucleosides and nucleobases. In the present study, we characterized the transport of a variety of nucleosides and nucleobases via recombinant mouse ENT2 (mENT2). Cloned mENT2 mediated the uptake of nucleosides and purine nucleobases, but not pyrimidine nucleobases. The mENT2-mediated uptake of adenosine was significantly inhibited by nucleosides and nucleobases, irrespective of purine and pyrimidine. The K(m) values for the uptake of nucleosides and purine nucleobases mediated by mENT2 varied between 1.24 and 16.3 microM, and the transport clearances of adenosine and hypoxanthine via the transporter were greater than those of other substrates. Therefore, we concluded that mENT2 is nucleoside and purine nucleobase transporter, and pyrimidine nucleobases are blockers for the transporter, differing from hENT2 and rENT2 that were reported to also transport pyrimidine nucleobases.

  5. [Clinical data I. Clinical experience with tenofovir in combination with nonnucleoside analogue transcriptase inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Bernardino de la Serna, J I; Mora Rillo, M; Arribas López, J R

    2008-06-01

    Highly active antirretroviral therapy has transformed the prognosis of patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus. The efficacy of these drugs has shifted the clinicians; attention to other therapeutic aspects like QD regimens, fixed dose combinations and clinical safety. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate(TDF) is a nucleoside monophosphate (nucleotide) analogue that inhibits reverse trascriptase enzyme. It's administered in a q.d. regimen and it's recommended by most of the clinical guidelines as a start regimen in combination with two other drugs. Currently more than 5 years of clinical experience is accumulated and confirmed that a combination of tenofovir and a nonnucleoside analogue transcriptase inhibitor is a comfortable, safe, highly effective and low pill burden regimen.

  6. Synthesis of cis- and trans-α-l-[4.3.0]bicyclo-DNA monomers for antisense technology: methods for the diastereoselective formation of bicyclic nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Hanessian, Stephen; Schroeder, Benjamin R; Merner, Bradley L; Chen, Bin; Swayze, Eric E; Seth, Punit P

    2013-09-20

    Two α-L-ribo-configured bicyclic nucleic acid modifications, represented by analogues 12 and 13, which are epimeric at C3' and C5' have been synthesized using a carbohydrate-based approach to build the bicyclic core structure. An intramolecular L-proline-mediated aldol reaction was employed to generate the cis-configured ring junction of analogue 12 and represents a rare application of this venerable organocatalytic reaction to a carbohydrate system. In the case of analogue 13, where a trans-ring junction was desired, an intermolecular diastereoselective Grignard reaction followed by ring-closing metathesis was used. In order to set the desired stereochemistry at the C5' positions of both nucleoside targets, a study of diastereoselective Lewis acid mediated allylation reactions on a common bicyclic aldehyde precursor was carried out. Analogue 12 was incorporated in oligonucleotide sequences, and thermal denaturation experiments indicate that it is destabilizing when paired with complementary DNA and RNA. However, this construct shows a significant improvement in nuclease stability relative to a DNA oligonucleotide.

  7. Preformulation studies of EFdA, a novel nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Parniak, Michael A.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Sarafianos, Stefan G.; Graebing, Phillip W.; Rohan, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    4′-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2′-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is a novel nucleoside analog of great interest because of its superior activity against wild-type and multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains, and favorable safety profiles in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this work was to provide preformulation information of EFdA important for delivery system development. A simple, accurate and specific reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method with UV detection was developed for quantification of EFdA. In addition, physicochemical characterizations including pH solubility profile, octanol/water partition coefficient (Log Po/w), DSC analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and stability studies under various conditions were conducted. EFdA existed in planar or flake shape, with a melting point of ~130 °C, and had a pH dependent solubility. The log Po/w value of EFdA was −1.19. The compound was stable upon exposure to pH levels from 3 to 9 and showed good stability at elevated temperature (65 °C). In vitro cytotoxicity assessments were performed in two different epithelial cell lines. In cell-based studies, the EFdA selectivity index (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50] values/50% effective concentration [EC50]) was found to be greater than 1 × 103. Permeability studies using cell- and tissue-based models showed that EFdA had an apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) <1 × 10−6cm/s and that the paracelluar pathway was the dominant transport route for EFdA. Overall, EFdA possesses favorable characteristics for further formulation development. PMID:23841536

  8. Purification and characterization of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed Central

    Surette, M; Gill, T; MacLean, S

    1990-01-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase was isolated and purified from cell extracts of Proteus vulgaris recovered from spoiling cod fish (Gadus morhua). The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the enzyme were 120,000 +/- 2,000 and pH 6.8. The Michaelis constant for inosine as substrate was 3.9 x 10(-5). Guanosine also served as a substrate (Km = 2.9 x 10(-5). However, the enzyme was incapable of phosphorylizing adenosine. Adenosine proved to be useful as a competitive inhibitor and was used as a ligand for affinity chromatography of purine nucleoside phosphorylase following initial purification steps of gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. PMID:2111121

  9. Compositions containing nucleosides and manganese and their uses

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.; Matrosova, Vera Y.; Levine, Rodney L.; Wehr, Nancy B.

    2015-11-17

    This invention encompasses methods of preserving protein function by contacting a protein with a composition comprising one or more purine or pyrimidine nucleosides (such as e.g., adenosine or uridine) and an antioxidant (such as e.g., manganese). In addition, the invention encompasses methods of treating and/or preventing a side effect of radiation exposure and methods of preventing a side effect of radiotherapy comprising administration of a pharmaceutically effective amount of a composition comprising one or more purine or pyrimidine nucleosides (such as e.g., adenosine or uridine) and an antioxidant (such as e.g., manganese) to a subject in need thereof. The compositions may comprise D. radiodurans extracts.

  10. Mildiomycin: a nucleoside antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Feduchi, E; Cosín, M; Carrasco, L

    1985-03-01

    Mildiomycin, a new nucleoside antibiotic, selectively inhibits protein synthesis in HeLa cells, and is less active in the inhibition of RNA or DNA synthesis. An increased inhibition of translation by mildiomycin is observed in cultured HeLa cells when they are permeabilized by encephalomyocarditis virus. This observation suggests that this antibiotic does not easily pass through the cell membrane, as occurs with other nucleoside and aminoglycoside antibiotics. The inhibition of translation is also observed in cell-free systems, such as endogenous protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate or the synthesis of polyphenylalanine directed by poly (U). Finally the mode of action of mildiomycin was investigated and the results suggest that the compound blocks the peptidyl-transferase center.

  11. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for In-vitro Selection Techniques.

    PubMed

    Dellafiore, María A; Montserrat, Javier M; Iribarren, Adolfo M

    2016-01-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed.

  12. Silica - Boronate affinity material for quick enrichment of intracellular nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxia; Li, Huihui; Guan, Xiujuan; Cheng, Ting; Zhang, Haixia

    2017-05-01

    Boronic acid modified materials have been widely used to adsorb nucleosides, but their adsorption capacities require further improvement. Most cis-diol containing biomolecules are in very low abundance along with interfering components in real samples, and need to be enriched specially. In this study, we synthesize a kind of silica absorbent modified with boronic acid derivative, using amorphous silica as raw material and obtaining high adsorption capacity for adenosine. In addition, the adsorption equilibrium can be completed within 10s and 1min for the desorption. Finally, the material was successfully applied to enrich nucleosides from cells and the spiked recoveries were found between 82.21% and 118.9%. The results showed that the prepared adsorbent has potential to effectively enrich cis-diol substances from cell samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Coupling between catalysis and oligomeric structure in nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Mesnildrey, S; Agou, F; Karlsson, A; Bonne, D D; Véron, M

    1998-02-20

    A dimeric Dictyostelium nucleoside diphosphate kinase has been stabilized by the double mutation P100S-N150stop which targets residues involved in the trimer interface (Karlsson, A., Mesnildrey, S., Xu, Y., Moréra, S., Janin, J., and Veron, M. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 19928-19934). The reassociation of this dimeric form into a hexamer similar to the wild-type enzyme is induced by the presence of a nucleotide substrate. Equilibrium sedimentation and gel filtration experiments, as well as enzymatic activity measurements, show that reactivation of the enzyme closely parallels its reassociation. A phosphorylatable intermediate with low activity participates in the association pathway while the dimeric form is shown totally devoid of enzymatic activity. Our results support the hypothesis that different oligomeric species of nucleoside diphosphate kinase are involved in different cellular processes where the enzymatic activity is not required.

  14. Formation of nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates from nucleotides and trimetaphosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohrmann, R.

    1975-01-01

    Nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates (N5PP) formed when solutions of nucleoside 5'-phosphates (N5P) and trimetaphosphate (TMP) are dessicated at room temperature are studied by paper chromatography, electrophoresis, and metal catalytic reactions. Divalent Mg ion exhibited superior catalytic function to other divalent metal ions in the reaction. Major reaction products are indicated. The importance of the N5PP series, TMP, and N5-triphosphate as substrates of RNA and DNA synthesis, and under postulated prebiotic conditions likely to obtain during prebiological ages of the earth, is emphasized and discussed. Alternate drying and wetting, evaporation from a prebiotic puddle, concentration of solubles in the remaining liquid phase, metal catalysis, and the role of these substances in the formation of amino acids and long-chain polyphosphates are considered.

  15. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for in-vitro Selection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren, Adolfo; Dellafiore, María; Montserrat, Javier

    2016-05-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed.

  16. Formation of nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates from nucleotides and trimetaphosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohrmann, R.

    1975-01-01

    Nucleoside 5'-polyphosphates (N5PP) formed when solutions of nucleoside 5'-phosphates (N5P) and trimetaphosphate (TMP) are dessicated at room temperature are studied by paper chromatography, electrophoresis, and metal catalytic reactions. Divalent Mg ion exhibited superior catalytic function to other divalent metal ions in the reaction. Major reaction products are indicated. The importance of the N5PP series, TMP, and N5-triphosphate as substrates of RNA and DNA synthesis, and under postulated prebiotic conditions likely to obtain during prebiological ages of the earth, is emphasized and discussed. Alternate drying and wetting, evaporation from a prebiotic puddle, concentration of solubles in the remaining liquid phase, metal catalysis, and the role of these substances in the formation of amino acids and long-chain polyphosphates are considered.

  17. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for In-vitro Selection Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Dellafiore, María A.; Montserrat, Javier M.; Iribarren, Adolfo M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed. PMID:27200340

  18. Gemcitabine-based therapy for pancreatic cancer using the squalenoyl nucleoside monophosphate nanoassemblies.

    PubMed

    Maksimenko, Andrei; Caron, Joachim; Mougin, Julie; Desmaële, Didier; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-03-30

    Gemcitabine is currently the most effective agent against advanced pancreatic cancer. However, the major therapeutic hurdles using gemcitabine include rapid inactivation by blood deaminases and fast development of cell chemoresistance, induced by down-regulation of deoxycytidine kinase or nucleoside transporters. To overcome the above drawbacks we designed recently a novel nanomedicine strategy based on squalenoyl prodrug of 5'-monophosphate gemcitabine (SQdFdC-MP). This amphiphilic conjugate self-organized in water into unilamellar vesicles with a mean diameter of 100 nm. In this study the antitumor efficacy of SQdFdC-MP nanoassemblies (NAs) on chemoresistant and chemosensitive pancreatic adenocarcinoma models have been investigated. Cell viability assays showed that SQdFdC-MP NAs displayed higher antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects, particularly in chemoresistant pancreatic tumor cells. In in vivo studies, SQdFdC-MP NAs decreased significantly the growth (∼70%) of human MiaPaCa2 xenografts, also preventing tumor cell invasion, whereas native dFdC did not display any anticancer activity when tumor growth inhibition was only 35% with SQdFdC NAs. These results correlated with a reduction of Ki-67 antigen and the induction of apoptosis mediated by caspase-3 activation in tumor cells. These findings demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing SQdFdC-MP NAs to make tumor cells more sensitive to gemcitabine and thus providing an efficient new therapeutic alternative for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  19. New Cytotoxic 24-Homoscalarane Sesterterpenoids from the Sponge Ircinia felix

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ya-Yuan; Chen, Li-Chai; Wu, Chug-Fung; Lu, Mei-Chin; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wu, Tung-Ying; Fang, Lee-Shing; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Wu, Yang-Chang; Sung, Ping-Jyun

    2015-01-01

    Two new 24-homoscalarane sesterterpenoids, felixins F (1) and G (2), were isolated from the sponge Ircinia felix. The structures of new homoscalaranes 1 and 2 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, particularly with one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR, and, by comparison, the spectral data with those of known analogues. The cytotoxicity of 1 and 2 against the proliferation of a limited panel of tumor cell lines was evaluated and 1 was found to show cytotoxicity toward the leukemia K562, MOLT-4, and SUP-T1 cells (IC50 ≤ 5.0 μM). PMID:26378524

  20. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Todd M; Parekh, Vishwas

    2016-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that shares the same histologic appearance and ETV6 gene (12p13) rearrangement as secretory carcinoma of the breast. Prior to its recognition, MASC cases were commonly labeled acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Despite distinctive histologic features, MASC may be difficult to distinguish from other salivary gland tumors, in particular zymogen-poor acinic cell carcinoma and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Although characteristic morphologic and immunohistochemical features form the basis of a diagnosis of MASC, the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion is confirmatory. Given its recent recognition the true prognostic import of MASC is not yet clearly defined.

  1. Nucleoside analog labeling of neural stem cells and their progeny.

    PubMed

    DeBoer, Erik Michael; Rasin, Mladen-Roko

    2013-01-01

    Nucleoside analog pulse labeling is an important technique which can assess the birthdate, cell cycle maintenance, or cycling rates of cells during development. This method has evolved over several decades of use and is now applied to a multitude of tissue subtypes and systems. The methodology in this chapter covers the classic uses for analog pulse labeling as well as their use in conjunction with the newly characterized technique of in utero electroporation (IUE).

  2. The interaction of aflatoxins with purines and purine nucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Janet I.; Rees, K. R.

    1967-01-01

    From measurements of thermal hyperchromicity and the behaviour of an aflatoxin–DNA mixture on a Sephadex column it was concluded that aflatoxin B1 is capable of weak binding to single-stranded DNA. The interactions of the aflatoxins (B1, G1 and G2) with nucleosides result in difference spectra and suggest that the purine bases and the amino group play a role in the binding of all the aflatoxins to DNA. PMID:6032981

  3. Nucleobase and nucleoside transport and integration into plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Girke, Christopher; Daumann, Manuel; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism is an essential process in all living organisms. Besides newly synthesized nucleotides, the recycling (salvage) of partially degraded nucleotides, i.e., nucleosides and nucleobases serves to keep the homeostasis of the nucleotide pool. Both types of metabolites are substrates of at least six families of transport proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with a total of 49 members. In the last years several members of such transport proteins have been analyzed allowing to present a more detailed picture of nucleoside and nucleobase transport and the physiological function of these processes. Besides functioning in nucleotide metabolism it turned out that individual members of the before named transporters exhibit the capacity to transport a wide range of different substrates including vitamins and phytohormones. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on nucleobase and nucleoside transport processes in plants and integrate this into nucleotide metabolism in general. Thereby, we will focus on those proteins which have been characterized at the biochemical level.

  4. Nucleobase and nucleoside transport and integration into plant metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Girke, Christopher; Daumann, Manuel; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism is an essential process in all living organisms. Besides newly synthesized nucleotides, the recycling (salvage) of partially degraded nucleotides, i.e., nucleosides and nucleobases serves to keep the homeostasis of the nucleotide pool. Both types of metabolites are substrates of at least six families of transport proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with a total of 49 members. In the last years several members of such transport proteins have been analyzed allowing to present a more detailed picture of nucleoside and nucleobase transport and the physiological function of these processes. Besides functioning in nucleotide metabolism it turned out that individual members of the before named transporters exhibit the capacity to transport a wide range of different substrates including vitamins and phytohormones. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on nucleobase and nucleoside transport processes in plants and integrate this into nucleotide metabolism in general. Thereby, we will focus on those proteins which have been characterized at the biochemical level. PMID:25250038

  5. [Determination of Nucleosides and HPLC Fingerprints of Cordyceps].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Li, Ning; Dong, Ting-xia; Zhan, Hua-qiang

    2015-05-01

    To establish the HPLC fingerprints method of Cordyceps and to determine the contents of uridine, inosine, guanosine and adenosine. The HPLC separation was performed on a Grace Prevail C18 column( 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) in a gradient elution mode with a mixture consisting of water and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, the detection wavelength was set at 260 nm, the column temperature was 25 degrees C. The contents of four nucleosides were determined in Cordyceps from different habitats, and the HPLC fingerprint of Cordyceps was set up with 13 common peaks. Among of them, uridine, inosine, guanosine and adenosine were identified. The similarities of ten fingerprints were greater than 0.95 with good separation of each chromatographic peak, and met the requirement of the fingerprints. There were similar results in cluster analysis and principal component analysis of the major nucleosides and the fingerprints of 10 batches of Cordyceps. The results of sample classification in principal component analysis showed a good similarity with cluster analysis. This method showed the information of chemical composition in Cordyceps, with good repeatability and similarity between samples, indicating that the stable chemical distribution and proportion of the major nucleosides in the medical materials. Fingerprints, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, which are applied to identify the different sources of Cordyceps, provide an experimental basis for establishing the characteristics evaluation methodology of medicinal materials.

  6. Improving nucleoside diphosphate kinase for antiviral nucleotide analogs activation.

    PubMed

    Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Schneider, Benoit; Chen, Yuxing; Giacomoni-Fernandes, Veronique; Mulard, Laurence; Morera, Solange; Janin, Joel; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Veron, Michel

    2002-10-18

    Antiviral nucleoside analog therapies rely on their incorporation by viral DNA polymerases/reverse transcriptase leading to chain termination. The analogs (3'-deoxy-3'-azidothymidine (AZT), 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (d4T), and other dideoxynucleosides) are sequentially converted into triphosphate by cellular kinases of the nucleoside salvage pathway and are often poor substrates of these enzymes. Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase phosphorylates the diphosphate derivatives of the analogs with an efficiency some 10(4) lower than for its natural substrates. Kinetic and structural studies of Dictyostelium and human NDP kinases show that the sugar 3'-OH, absent from all antiviral analogs, is required for catalysis. To improve the catalytic efficiency of NDP kinase on the analogs, we engineered several mutants with a protein OH group replacing the sugar 3'-OH. The substitution of Asn-115 in Ser and Leu-55 in His results in an NDP kinase mutant with an enhanced ability to phosphorylate antiviral derivatives. Transfection of the mutant enzyme in Escherichia coli results in an increased sensitivity to AZT. An x-ray structure at 2.15-A resolution of the Dictyostelium enzyme bearing the serine substitution in complex with the R(p)-alpha-borano-triphosphate derivative of AZT shows that the enhanced activity reflects an improved geometry of binding and a favorable interaction of the 3'-azido group with the engineered serine.

  7. Broad specificity of human phosphoglycerate kinase for antiviral nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Faraj, Abdesslem; Seclaman, Edward; Sommadossi, Jean-Pierre; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Véron, Michel

    2004-11-01

    Nucleoside analogs used in antiviral therapies need to be phosphorylated to their tri-phospho counterparts in order to be active on their cellular target. Human phosphoglycerate kinase (hPGK) was recently reported to participate in the last step of phosphorylation of cytidine L-nucleotide derivatives [Krishnan PGE, Lam W, Dutschman GE, Grill SP, Cheng YC. Novel role of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, a glycolytic enzyme, in the activation of L-nucleoside analogs, a new class of anticancer and antiviral agents. J Biol Chem 2003;278:36726-32]. In the present work, we extended the enzymatic study of human PGK specificity to purine and pyrimidine nucleotide derivatives in both D- and L-configuration. Human PGK demonstrated catalytic efficiencies in the 10(4)-10(5)M(-1)s(-1) range for purine ribo-, deoxyribo- and dideoxyribonucleotide derivatives, either in D- or L-configuration. In contrast, it was poorly active with natural pyrimidine D-nucleotides (less than 10(3)M(-1)s(-1)). Pyrimidine L-enantiomers, which are promising therapeutic analogs against B hepatitis, were 2-25 times better substrates than their D-counterparts. The broad specificity of substrate of human PGK suggests that this enzyme may be involved in the cellular activation of several antiviral nucleoside analogs including dideoxyinosine, acyclovir, L-2'-deoxycytosine and L-2'-deoxythymidine.

  8. An RNA cap (nucleoside-2'-O-)-methyltransferase in the flavivirus RNA polymerase NS5: crystal structure and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Benarroch, Delphine; Selisko, Barbara; Romette, Jean-Louis; Canard, Bruno

    2002-06-03

    Viruses represent an attractive system with which to study the molecular basis of mRNA capping and its relation to the RNA transcription machinery. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5 of flaviviruses presents a characteristic motif of S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferases at its N-terminus, and polymerase motifs at its C-terminus. The crystal structure of an N-terminal fragment of Dengue virus type 2 NS5 is reported at 2.4 A resolution. We show that this NS5 domain includes a typical methyltransferase core and exhibits a (nucleoside-2'-O-)-methyltransferase activity on capped RNA. The structure of a ternary complex comprising S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and a guanosine triphosphate (GTP) analogue shows that 54 amino acids N-terminal to the core provide a novel GTP-binding site that selects guanine using a previously unreported mechanism. Binding studies using GTP- and RNA cap-analogues, as well as the spatial arrangement of the methyltransferase active site relative to the GTP-binding site, suggest that the latter is a specific cap-binding site. As RNA capping is an essential viral function, these results provide a structural basis for the rational design of drugs against the emerging flaviviruses.

  9. Structure-Based Evaluation of Non-nucleoside Inhibitors with Improved Potency and Solubility That Target HIV Reverse Transcriptase Variants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The development of novel non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNRTIs) with activity against variants of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) is crucial for overcoming treatment failure. The NNRTIs bind in an allosteric pocket in RT ∼10 Å away from the active site. Earlier analogues of the catechol diether compound series have picomolar activity against HIV strains with wild-type RT but lose potency against variants with single Y181C and double K103N/Y181C mutations. As guided by structure-based and computational studies, removal of the 5-Cl substitution of compound 1 on the catechol aryl ring system led to a new analogue compound 2 that maintains greater potency against Y181C and K103N/Y181C variants and better solubility (510 μg/mL). Crystal structures were determined for wild-type, Y181C, and K103N/Y181C RT in complex with both compounds 1 and 2 to understand the structural basis for these findings. Comparison of the structures reveals that the Y181C mutation destabilizes the binding mode of compound 1 and disrupts the interactions with residues in the pocket. Compound 2 maintains the same conformation in wild-type and mutant structures, in addition to several interactions with the NNRTI binding pocket. Comparison of the six crystal structures will assist in the understanding of compound binding modes and future optimization of the catechol diether series. PMID:25700160

  10. Structure-based evaluation of non-nucleoside inhibitors with improved potency and solubility that target HIV reverse transcriptase variants.

    PubMed

    Frey, Kathleen M; Puleo, David E; Spasov, Krasimir A; Bollini, Mariella; Jorgensen, William L; Anderson, Karen S

    2015-03-26

    The development of novel non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNRTIs) with activity against variants of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) is crucial for overcoming treatment failure. The NNRTIs bind in an allosteric pocket in RT ∼10 Å away from the active site. Earlier analogues of the catechol diether compound series have picomolar activity against HIV strains with wild-type RT but lose potency against variants with single Y181C and double K103N/Y181C mutations. As guided by structure-based and computational studies, removal of the 5-Cl substitution of compound 1 on the catechol aryl ring system led to a new analogue compound 2 that maintains greater potency against Y181C and K103N/Y181C variants and better solubility (510 μg/mL). Crystal structures were determined for wild-type, Y181C, and K103N/Y181C RT in complex with both compounds 1 and 2 to understand the structural basis for these findings. Comparison of the structures reveals that the Y181C mutation destabilizes the binding mode of compound 1 and disrupts the interactions with residues in the pocket. Compound 2 maintains the same conformation in wild-type and mutant structures, in addition to several interactions with the NNRTI binding pocket. Comparison of the six crystal structures will assist in the understanding of compound binding modes and future optimization of the catechol diether series.

  11. Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates as Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum and Human 6-Oxopurine Phosphoribosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Martin M; Hocková, Dana; Wang, Tzu-Hsuan; Dračínský, Martin; Poštová-Slavětínská, Lenka; Procházková, Eliška; Edstein, Michael D; Chavchich, Marina; Keough, Dianne T; Guddat, Luke W; Janeba, Zlatko

    2015-10-01

    Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) are a promising class of antimalarial therapeutic drug leads that exhibit a wide variety of Ki values for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and human hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferases [HG(X)PRTs]. A novel series of ANPs, analogues of previously reported 2-(phosphonoethoxy)ethyl (PEE) and (R,S)-3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl (HPMP) derivatives, were designed and synthesized to evaluate their ability to act as inhibitors of these enzymes and to extend our ongoing antimalarial structure-activity relationship studies. In this series, (S)-3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonoethoxy)propyl (HPEP), (S)-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propanoic acid (CPME), or (S)-2-(phosphonoethoxy)propanoic acid (CPEE) are the acyclic moieties. Of this group, (S)-3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonoethoxy)propylguanine (HPEPG) exhibits the highest potency for PfHGXPRT, with a Ki value of 0.1 μM and a Ki value for human HGPRT of 0.6 μM. The crystal structures of HPEPG and HPEPHx (where Hx=hypoxanthine) in complex with human HGPRT were obtained, showing specific interactions with active site residues. Prodrugs for the HPEP and CPEE analogues were synthesized and tested for in vitro antimalarial activity. The lowest IC50 value (22 μM) in a chloroquine-resistant strain was observed for the bis-amidate prodrug of HPEPG. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Expanding Radical SAM Chemistry by Using Radical Addition Reactions and SAM Analogues.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xinjian; Li, Yongzhen; Xie, Liqi; Lu, Haojie; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Qi

    2016-09-19

    Radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes utilize a [4Fe-4S] cluster to bind SAM and reductively cleave its carbon-sulfur bond to produce a highly reactive 5'-deoxyadenosyl (dAdo) radical. In almost all cases, the dAdo radical abstracts a hydrogen atom from the substrates or from enzymes, thereby initiating a highly diverse array of reactions. Herein, we report a change of the dAdo radical-based chemistry from hydrogen abstraction to radical addition in the reaction of the radical SAM enzyme NosL. This change was achieved by using a substrate analogue containing an olefin moiety. We also showed that two SAM analogues containing different nucleoside functionalities initiate the radical-based reactions with high efficiencies. The radical adduct with the olefin produced in the reaction was found to undergo two divergent reactions, and the mechanistic insights into this process were investigated in detail. Our study demonstrates a promising strategy in expanding radical SAM chemistry, providing an effective way to access nucleoside-containing compounds by using radical SAM-dependent reactions.

  13. Halogenated pyrrolopyrimidine analogues of adenosine from marine organisms: pharmacological activities and potent inhibition of adenosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Davies, L P; Jamieson, D D; Baird-Lambert, J A; Kazlauskas, R

    1984-02-01

    Two novel halogenated pyrrolopyrimidine analogues of adenosine, isolated from marine sources, have been examined for pharmacological and biochemical activities. 4-Amino-5-bromo-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine, from a sponge of the genus Echinodictyum, had bronchodilator activity at least as potent as theophylline but with a different biochemical profile; unlike theophylline it had no antagonist activity at CNS adenosine receptors and it was quite a potent inhibitor of adenosine uptake and adenosine kinase in brain tissue. 5'-Deoxy-5-iodotubercidin, isolated from the red alga Hypnea valentiae, caused potent muscle relaxation and hypothermia when injected into mice. This compound was a very potent inhibitor of adenosine uptake into rat and guinea-pig brain slices and an extremely potent inhibitor of adenosine kinase from guinea-pig brain and rat brain and liver. Neither of these two pyrrolopyrimidine analogues was a substrate for, or an inhibitor of, adenosine deaminase. Neither compound appeared to have any direct agonist activity on guinea-pig brain adenosine-stimulated adenylate cyclase (A2 adenosine receptors). 5'-Deoxy-5-iodotubercidin is unique in two respects: it appears to be the first naturally-occurring example of a 5'-deoxyribosyl nucleoside and is the first example of a specifically iodinated nucleoside from natural sources. It may be the most potent adenosine kinase inhibitor yet described and, by virtue of its structure, may prove to be the most specific.

  14. Cytotoxic Drug Dispersal, Cytotoxic Safety, and Cytotoxic Waste Management: Practices and Proposed India-specific Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Capoor, Malini R; Bhowmik, Kumar Tapas

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with practices related to cytotoxic drug dispersal, cytotoxic safety, and cytotoxic waste management and attempts at India-specific guidelines for their dispersal and disposal. The articles related to cytotoxic drug dispersal, cytotoxic safety, and cytotoxic waste management were reviewed from PubMed and their applicability in Indian health-care facilities (HCFs) was also reviewed. All HCFs dealing with cytotoxic drugs should consider cytotoxic policy, patient safety and health-care worker safety, and environmental monitoring program as per the available international guidelines customized as per Indian conditions. Utmost care in handling cytotoxic waste is quintessential. The formation of India-specific cytotoxic guidelines requires the inputs from all stakeholders. Cytotoxic waste, cytotoxic safety, and cytotoxic waste management should be the subject of a national strategy with an infrastructure, cradle-to-grave legislation, competent regulatory authority, and trained personnel.

  15. Cytotoxic Drug Dispersal, Cytotoxic Safety, and Cytotoxic Waste Management: Practices and Proposed India-specific Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Capoor, Malini R; Bhowmik, Kumar Tapas

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with practices related to cytotoxic drug dispersal, cytotoxic safety, and cytotoxic waste management and attempts at India-specific guidelines for their dispersal and disposal. The articles related to cytotoxic drug dispersal, cytotoxic safety, and cytotoxic waste management were reviewed from PubMed and their applicability in Indian health-care facilities (HCFs) was also reviewed. All HCFs dealing with cytotoxic drugs should consider cytotoxic policy, patient safety and health-care worker safety, and environmental monitoring program as per the available international guidelines customized as per Indian conditions. Utmost care in handling cytotoxic waste is quintessential. The formation of India-specific cytotoxic guidelines requires the inputs from all stakeholders. Cytotoxic waste, cytotoxic safety, and cytotoxic waste management should be the subject of a national strategy with an infrastructure, cradle-to-grave legislation, competent regulatory authority, and trained personnel. PMID:28900329

  16. Involvement of Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase Mutations in the Regulation of Resistance to Nucleoside Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Svicher, Valentina; Sing, Tobias; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Forbici, Federica; Rodríguez-Barrios, Fátima; Bertoli, Ada; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Bellocchi, Maria Concetta; Gago, Federigo; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Antinori, Andrea; Lengauer, Thomas; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Perno, Carlo Federico

    2006-01-01

    We characterized 16 additional mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) whose role in drug resistance is still unknown by analyzing 1,906 plasma-derived HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences from 551 drug-naïve patients and 1,355 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI)-treated patients. Twelve mutations positively associated with NRTI treatment strongly correlated both in pairs and in clusters with known NRTI resistance mutations on divergent evolutionary pathways. In particular, T39A, K43E/Q, K122E, E203K, and H208Y clustered with the nucleoside analogue mutation 1 cluster (NAM1; M41L+L210W+T215Y). Their copresence in this cluster was associated with an increase in thymidine analogue resistance. Moreover, treatment failure in the presence of K43E, K122E, or H208Y was significantly associated with higher viremia and lower CD4 cell count. Differently, D218E clustered with the NAM2 pathway (D67N+K70R+K219Q+T215F), and its presence in this cluster determined an increase in zidovudine resistance. In contrast, three mutations (V35I, I50V, and R83K) negatively associated with NRTI treatment showed negative correlations with NRTI resistance mutations and were associated with increased susceptibility to specific NRTIs. In particular, I50V negatively correlated with the lamivudine-selected mutation M184V and was associated with a decrease in M184V/lamivudine resistance, whereas R83K negatively correlated with both NAM1 and NAM2 clusters and was associated with a decrease in thymidine analogue resistance. Finally, the association pattern of the F214L polymorphism revealed its propensity for the NAM2 pathway and its strong negative association with the NAM1 pathway. Our study provides evidence of novel RT mutational patterns that regulate positively and/or negatively NRTI resistance and strongly suggests that other mutations beyond those currently known to confer resistance should be considered for improved prediction of clinical response to

  17. Anti-HIV efficacy and biodistribution of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors delivered as squalenoylated prodrug nanoassemblies.

    PubMed

    Hillaireau, Hervé; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Skanji, Rym; Bekkara-Aounallah, Fawzia; Caron, Joachim; Lepêtre, Sinda; Argote, Sébastien; Bauduin, Laurent; Yousfi, Rahima; Rogez-Kreuz, Christine; Desmaële, Didier; Rousseau, Bernard; Gref, Ruxandra; Andrieux, Karine; Clayette, Pascal; Couvreur, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    Due to their hydrophilic nature, most nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) display a variable bioavailability after oral administration and a poor control over their biodistribution, thus hampering their access to HIV sanctuaries. The limited cellular uptake and activation in the triphosphate form of NRTIs further restrict their efficacy and favour the emergence of viral resistance. We have shown that the conjugation of squalene (sq) to the nucleoside analogues dideoxycytidine (ddC) and didanosine (ddI) leads to amphiphilic prodrugs (ddC-sq and ddI-sq) that spontaneously self-organize in water as stable nanoassemblies of 100-300 nm. These nanoassemblies can also be formulated with polyethylene glycol coupled to either cholesterol (Chol-PEG) or squalene (sq-PEG). When incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro infected with HIV, the NRTI-sq prodrugs enhanced the antiviral efficacy of the parent NRTIs, with a 2- to 3-fold decrease of the 50% effective doses and a nearly 2-fold increase of the selectivity index. This was also the case with HIV-1 strains resistant to ddC and/or ddI. The enhanced antiviral activity of ddI-sq was correlated with an up to 5-fold increase in the intracellular concentration of the corresponding pharmacologically active metabolite ddA-TP. The ddI-sq prodrug was further investigated in vivo by the oral route, the preferred route of administration of NRTIs. Pharmacokinetics studies performed on rats showed that the prodrug maintained low amounts of free ddI in the plasma. Administration of (3)H-ddI-sq led to radioactivity levels higher in the plasma and relevant organs in HIV infection as compared to administration of free (3)H-ddI. Taken together, these results show the potential of the squalenoylated prodrugs of NRTIs to enhance their absorption and improve their biodistribution, but also to enhance their intracellular delivery and antiviral efficacy towards HIV-infected cells.

  18. 6-Methylpurine derived sugar modified nucleosides: Synthesis and in vivo antitumor activity in D54 tumor expressing M64V-Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Abdalla E A; Abou-Elkhair, Reham A I; Parker, William B; Allan, Paula W; Secrist, John A

    2016-01-27

    Impressive antitumor activity has been observed with fludarabine phosphate against tumors that express Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) due to the liberation of 2-fluoroadenine in the tumor tissue. 6-Methylpurine (MeP) is another cytotoxic adenine analog that does not exhibit selectivity when administered systemically, and could be very useful in a gene therapy approach to cancer treatment involving E. coli PNP. The prototype MeP releasing prodrug 9-(2-deoxy-β-d-ribofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (1) [MeP-dR] has demonstrated good activity against tumors expressing E. coli PNP, but its antitumor activity is limited due to toxicity resulting from the generation of MeP from gut bacteria. Therefore, we have embarked on a medicinal chemistry program to identify a combination of non-toxic MeP prodrugs and non-human adenosine glycosidic bond cleaving enzymes. The two best MeP-based substrates with M64V-E coli PNP, a mutant which was engineered to tolerate modification at the 5'-position of adenosine and its analogs, were 9-(6-deoxy-α-l-talofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (3) [methyl(talo)-MeP-R] and 9-(α-l-lyxofuranosyl)6-methylpurine (4) [lyxo-MeP-R]. The detailed synthesis methyl(talo)-MeP-R and lyxo-MeP-R, and the evaluation of their substrate activity with 4 enzymes not normally associated with cancer patients is described. In addition, we have determined the intraperitoneal pharmacokinetic (ip-PK) properties of methyl(talo)-MeP-R and have determined its in vivo bystander activity in mice bearing D54 tumors that express M64V PNP. The observed good in vivo bystander activity of [methyl(talo)-MeP-R/M64V-E coli PNP combination suggests that these agents could be useful for the treatment of cancer.

  19. Genetic and epigenetic variants contributing to clofarabine cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Eadon, Michael T; Wheeler, Heather E; Stark, Amy L; Zhang, Xu; Moen, Erika L; Delaney, Shannon M; Im, Hae Kyung; Cunningham, Patrick N; Zhang, Wei; Dolan, M Eileen

    2013-10-01

    2-chloro-2-fluoro-deoxy-9-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (Clofarabine), a purine nucleoside analog, is used in the treatment of hematologic malignancies and as induction therapy for stem cell transplantation. The discovery of pharmacogenomic markers associated with chemotherapeutic efficacy and toxicity would greatly benefit the utility of this drug. Our objective was to identify genetic and epigenetic variants associated with clofarabine toxicity using an unbiased, whole genome approach. To this end, we employed International HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines (190 LCLs) of European (CEU) or African (YRI) ancestry with known genetic information to evaluate cellular sensitivity to clofarabine. We measured modified cytosine levels to ascertain the contribution of genetic and epigenetic factors influencing clofarabine-mediated cytotoxicity. Association studies revealed 182 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 143 modified cytosines associated with cytotoxicity in both populations at the threshold P ≤ 0.0001. Correlation between cytotoxicity and baseline gene expression revealed 234 genes at P ≤ 3.98 × 10(-6). Six genes were implicated as: (i) their expression was directly correlated to cytotoxicity, (ii) they had a targeting SNP associated with cytotoxicity, and (iii) they had local modified cytosines associated with gene expression and cytotoxicity. We identified a set of three SNPs and three CpG sites targeting these six genes explaining 43.1% of the observed variation in phenotype. siRNA knockdown of the top three genes (SETBP1, BAG3, KLHL6) in LCLs revealed altered susceptibility to clofarabine, confirming relevance. As clofarabine's toxicity profile includes acute kidney injury, we examined the effect of siRNA knockdown in HEK293 cells. siSETBP1 led to a significant change in HEK293 cell susceptibility to clofarabine.

  20. T helper cell cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Penna, A.; Glasebrook, A.

    1986-03-01

    It has recently been shown that helper T cells (Lyt2/sup -/, L3T4/sup +/) can express cytolytic activity when activated by antigen (Ag). The authors have studied the phenomenon of T helper cell cytotoxicity using cloned lines of Ag-reactive T cells and T hybrids. Cytotoxicity was determined by coculture of T cells with /sup 51/Cr-labelled Ag presenting cells (APC) and/or non-APC (bystander cells). A high frequency of Ag-specific L3T4/sup +/ T cell clones (> 90%) and hybrids (> 50%) were found to be cytotoxic. Cytotoxicity as determined by /sup 51/Cr release was maximal at 20 hr with little or no cytotoxicity detectable at 6 hr. Target cells, either APC or bystander cells, were killed provided the T cells were stimulated by Ag. Not all of the B cells used as APC were susceptible targets even if able to promote bystander killing. Monoclonal antibodies directed against L3T4, LFA-1 and T cell receptor molecules were able to block the cytotoxicity indicating a requirement for specific activation of the T cells. Cyclosporin A (CsA) reduced the cytotoxic activity of helper T hybrids and clones, while it did not affect the cytotoxic activity of Lyt2/sup +/, L3T4/sup -/ cytolytic T cell (CTL) clones. The delayed expression of cytotoxic activity, the lysis of bystander cells and inhibition by CsA suggest that the cytolytic mechanism is mediated by a soluble factor and different from the cytolytic mechanism of CTL. The phenomenon of cytotoxic T helper cells may be relevant to suppression of B cell immune responses in vivo.